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Sample records for caregiving metabolic syndrome

  1. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone your body produces to help ... into energy for your body. If you are insulin resistant, too much sugar builds up in your ...

  2. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you already have metabolic syndrome, making these healthy lifestyle choices can help reduce your risk of heart disease and other health problems. If lifestyle changes alone can’t control your ... to help. Maintain a healthy weight Your doctor can measure your body mass ...

  3. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot ... > Metabolic Syndrome Print A A A Text Size ...

  4. Why Metabolic Syndrome Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Why Metabolic Syndrome Matters Updated:Jul 24,2014 Metabolic syndrome may be ... Syndrome • Home • About Metabolic Syndrome • Why Metabolic Syndrome Matters • Your Risk for Metabolic Syndrome • Symptoms & Diagnosis • Prevention & ...

  5. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... is not known but genetic factors, too much body fat (especially in the waist area, the most dangerous ... Metabolic Risk Factors Measurement Large amount of abdominal body fat Waist measurement of more than 40 inches (101 ...

  6. Blueberries and Metabolic Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Type 2 diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia are among the metabolic alterations that predispose the individual to several adverse cardiovascular complications. The hea...

  7. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3) criteria to classify subjects as having metabolic syndrome. Results Total prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our subjects was 30.1%. Waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure ,Systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride were significantly higher among women with metabolic syndrome (P-value<0.05). Our study shows high abdominal obesity and hypertension are the most prevalent components of metabolic syndrome. 15%, 13.3% and 1.8% of subjects had three, four and five criteria for metabolic syndrome, respectively. There was a significant relationship between number of components of metabolic syndrome and waist circumference. Conclusions Our study shows that postmenopausal status is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need to evaluate metabolic syndrome and its components from the time of the menopause. PMID:23497470

  8. Metabolic Syndrome and Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Amit; Marmura, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Migraine and metabolic syndrome are highly prevalent and costly conditions. The two conditions coexist, but it is unclear what relationship may exist between the two processes. Metabolic syndrome involves a number of findings, including insulin resistance, systemic hypertension, obesity, a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Only one study addresses migraine in metabolic syndrome, finding significant differences in the presentation of metabolic syndrome in migraineurs. However, controversy exists regarding the contribution of each individual risk factor to migraine pathogenesis and prevalence. It is unclear what treatment implications, if any, exist as a result of the concomitant diagnosis of migraine and metabolic syndrome. The cornerstone of migraine and metabolic syndrome treatments is prevention, relying heavily on diet modification, sleep hygiene, medication use, and exercise. PMID:23181051

  9. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... becoming more common due to a rise in obesity rates among adults. In the future, metabolic syndrome may overtake smoking as the leading risk factor for heart disease. It is possible to prevent or delay ...

  10. Caregiver Burden in Frontotemporal Degeneration and Corticobasal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Nicole; Schupf, Nicole; Grafman, Jordan; Huey, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Caregiver stress is often a serious problem when caring for a patient with frontal lobe dysfunction. Methods A total of 102 caregivers of both patients with frontotemporal degeneration and corticobasal syndrome completed the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe) and the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). To analyze the association between apathy or disinhibition (or both) and caregiver burden, the effects of the total FrSBe and the apathy and disinhibition subscales of the FrSBE on the total ZBI score were assessed with logistic regressions and t tests. Results Total FrSBE score and the apathy FrSBE subscore predicted caregiver burden. Apathy occurred without disinhibition, and the two occurred together, but disinhibition without apathy was very rare. Conclusions Disinhibition without apathy occurred very rarely. Apathy was more associated with caregiver burden than disinhibition. PMID:24022248

  11. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy. PMID:26280343

  12. Eicosanoids in Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, James P.; Eckman, Katie; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Esterle, Andrew; Chilian, William M.; Chiang, John Y.; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Chronic persistent inflammation plays a significant role in disease pathology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS is a constellation of diseases that include obesity, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with many of the MetS diseases. These metabolic derangements trigger a persistent inflammatory cascade, which includes production of lipid autacoids (eicosanoids) that recruit immune cells to the site of injury and subsequent expression of cytokines and chemokines that amplify the inflammatory response. In acute inflammation, the transcellular synthesis of antiinflammatory eicosanoids resolve inflammation, while persistent activation of the autacoid-cytokine-chemokine cascade in metabolic disease leads to chronic inflammation and accompanying tissue pathology. Many drugs targeting the eicosanoid pathways have been shown to be effective in the treatment of MetS, suggesting a common linkage between inflammation, MetS and drug metabolism.The cross-talk between inflammation and MetS seems apparent because of the growing evidence linking immune cell activation and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Thus modulation of lipid metabolism through either dietary adjustment or selective drugs may become a new paradigm in the treatment of metabolic disorders. This review focuses on the mechanisms linking eicosanoid metabolism to persistent inflammation and altered lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in MetS. PMID:23433458

  13. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Facts for Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents risk factors and prevention measures related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Offers infant sleep recommendations and five discussion questions to test knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (DLH)

  14. Metabolic Syndrome: Hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Dee Ann Stults; Walling, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. When metabolic syndrome includes lipid abnormalities, management goals are weight loss and cardiovascular risk management through lifestyle modifications (eg, diet, exercise), and, when appropriate, lowering of lipid levels with pharmacotherapy. Healthy diets are recommended, particularly the Mediterranean diet. Patients also should set a goal of at least 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise on most, preferably all, days of the week. Guidelines provide criteria for statin treatment based on overall cardiovascular risk. High-intensity statin treatment (eg, rosuvastatin 20 to 40 mg, atorvastatin 40 to 80 mg) typically is recommended unless the patient cannot tolerate therapy. Approximately 5% of patients experience statin-induced myalgia, in which case moderate-intensity treatment can be tried. Lipid levels should be reevaluated 4 to 12 weeks after initiating therapy; lipid levels can be measured without fasting. A lack of improvement often indicates nonadherence. Bile acid sequestrants, fibric acids, and niacin can be used if other drugs are not tolerated. The evidence to support use of integrative medicine is limited, but the strongest evidence of benefit is for garlic (Allium sativum). PMID:26280341

  15. Fetal Programming and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rinaudo, Paolo; Wang, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is reaching epidemic proportions, particularly in developing countries. In this review, we explore the concept—based on the developmental-origin-of-health-and-disease hypothesis—that reprogramming during critical times of fetal life can lead to metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Specifically, we summarize the epidemiological evidence linking prenatal stress, manifested by low birth weight, to metabolic syndrome and its individual components. We also review animal studies that suggest potential mechanisms for the long-term effects of fetal reprogramming, including the cellular response to stress and both organ- and hormone-specific alterations induced by stress. Although metabolic syndrome in adulthood is undoubtedly caused by multiple factors, including modifiable behavior, fetal life may provide a critical window in which individuals are predisposed to metabolic syndrome later in life. PMID:21910625

  16. [Metabolic syndrome--psychosomatic associations].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikov, D B; Rapoport, S I

    2008-01-01

    According to epidemiological investigations data, 10 to 35% of all population suffers from metabolic syndrome. However, until now, in spite of researches, metabolic syndrome remains little-studied complex problem. The aim of the review is summarized analysis of the researches results, going out the limits of internal diseases clinics and reflecting more complicated, psychosomatic mechanisms of the syndrome development. The data of literature indicate the row of patterns in development of psyche and metabolic processes disturbances. Analysis of various directions in study of metabolic syndrome with concomitant mental disturbances is represented in the article. The authors propose to perform further investigation subject to "multisectorality" of the disease, marking out prevailing mechanisms of development of metabolic syndrome subject to somatic and mental factors. PMID:18368784

  17. [Hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Miñambres, Inka; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2014-12-23

    Metabolic syndrome and hypovitaminosis D are 2 diseases with high prevalence that share several risk factors, while epidemiological evidence shows they are associated. Although the mechanisms involved in this association are not well established, hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. However, the apparent ineffectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, as well as the limited information about the effect of improving metabolic syndrome components on vitamin D concentrations, does not clarify the direction and the mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between these 2 pathologies. Overall, because of the high prevalence and the epidemiological association between both diseases, hypovitaminosis D could be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24529881

  18. Equine metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, R.; Keen, J.; McGowan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009

  19. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and adipocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are examples whereby excess energy consumption and energy flux disruptions are causative agents of increased fatness. Because other, as yet elucidated, cellular factors may be involved and because potential treatments of these metabolic problems involve systemic agents...

  20. [Metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is based on visceral fat accumulation and brings about various metabolic abnormality such as hypertention, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance with the insulin resistance. Dyslipidemia in metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus features hypertriglycemia and low HDL cholesterolemia. The lipoprotein of triglycerides is consisted of mainly high remnant and VLDL lipoprotein. In addition, small dense LDL appears in these state. Small dense LDL is a high risk for atherosclerosis. For a treatment strategy, not only drug treatment such as fibrates, anti-diabetic drug, but we pay attention to visceral fat accumulation, and stratificate pathologically to appropriate treatment orientation. Early lifestyle intervention for example health instruction should be needed. PMID:24205723

  1. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels. PMID:25652634

  2. CHROMIUM, METABOLIC SYNDROME AND DIABESITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suboptimal intakes of the essential nutrient, chromium, are characterized by elevated blood glucose, insulin resistance, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL. These are also signs and symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. Improvements due to increased intake of chromium are related to the degr...

  3. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal “superorganism” seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host’s immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of “metabolic endotoxemia”, leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use. PMID:25473159

  4. Metabolic Syndrome and the Lung.

    PubMed

    Baffi, Cynthia W; Wood, Lisa; Winnica, Daniel; Strollo, Patrick J; Gladwin, Mark T; Que, Loretta G; Holguin, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    A link between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and lung diseases has been observed in several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. This syndrome has been identified as an independent risk factor for worsening respiratory symptoms, greater lung function impairment, pulmonary hypertension, and asthma. This review will discuss several potential mechanisms to explain these associations, including dietary factors and the effect of adiposity and fat-induced inflammation on the lungs, and the role of other comorbidities that frequently coexist with MetS, such as OSA and obesity. In contrast to the well-known association between asthma and obesity, the recognition that MetS affects the lung is relatively new. Although some controversy remains as to whether MetS is a unique disease entity, its individual components have independently been associated with changes in pulmonary function or lung disease. There is, however, uncertainty as to the relative contribution that each metabolic factor has in adversely affecting the respiratory system; also, it is unclear how much of the MetS-related lung effects occur independently of obesity. In spite of these epidemiological limitations, the proposed mechanistic pathways strongly suggest that this association is likely to be causal. Given the wide prevalence of MetS in the general population, it is imperative that we continue to further understand how this metabolic disorder impacts the lung and how to prevent its complications. PMID:26836925

  5. Dyslipidemic drugs in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Sheelu S.; Misbahuddin; Ahmad, Farida; Rahman, Syed Z.; Khan, Asad U.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome predisposes to diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Statins reduce cardiovascular events, so all metabolic syndrome patients should be evaluated for dyslipidemia. Many patients fail to achieve lipid goals with statin monotherapy. Co-administration of ezetimibe (EZE) and atorvastatin (ATV) may enable more patients to achievelow-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C) goal while avoiding risks of high-dose statin monotherapy. Materials and Methods: The present study compares rosuvastatin (Rsv) with a combination of (Atv) and (Eze). Metabolic syndrome patients, 30-70 years with LDL-C ≥130 mg/dl and a 10-year CHD risk score of 10% were randomized to double-blind treatment with (Rsv) 5 mg (n = 67) or (Atv) 10 mg+(Eze) 10 mg (n = 68) for 12 weeks. Results: LDL-C reduced significantly; (32.3% and 30.3%, P < 0.001) in (Atv)+(Eze) and (Rsv), respectively, but there was no significant difference between two arms. More patients achieved LDL-C goal of ≤100 mg/dl with (Atv)+(Eze) compared to (Rsv) (65% vs. 58%, P < 0.05). Triglycerides (TG) were reduced more with (Atv)+(Eze) compared to (Rsv) (28.1% and 21.4%, P < 0.001). Greater increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was observed with (Atv)+(Eze). Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion: This study shows that the combination of (Atv)+(Eze) has more efficacy and comparable safety to that of (Rsv). PMID:23869305

  6. Metabolic Syndrome and Urologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gorbachinsky, Ilya; Akpinar, Haluk; Assimos, Dean G

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex entity consisting of multiple interrelated factors including insulin resistance, central adiposity, dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic disease, low-grade inflammation, and in males, low testosterone levels. MetS has been linked to a number of urologic diseases including nephrolithiasis, benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms, erectile dysfunction, male infertility, female incontinence, and prostate cancer. This article reviews the relationships between MetS and these entities. Urologists need to be cognizant of the impact that MetS has on urologic diseases as well as on overall patient health. PMID:21234260

  7. [Prostate cancer and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nagamatsu, Hirotaka; Teishima, Jun; Inoue, Shogo; Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Matsubara, Akio

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) is increasing in Japan because of westernization of diet and lifestyle. Previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated MS to relate with the malignant potential of prostate cancer (PCa) while its relationship to the risk of PCa has been still controversial. Several pathologies involved in MS, such as insulin resistance, abnormality of secreted adipokines, chronic inflammation, alteration of sex hormones, have been reported to affect the progression of PCa. Based on these evidences, clinical studies for PCa patients have been tried for suppressing the progression of PCa through the management of MS. PMID:26793896

  8. Epinephrine and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Michael G; Elayan, Hamzeh; Milic, Milos; Sun, Ping; Gharaibeh, Munir

    2012-02-01

    Epinephrine is the prototypical stress hormone. Its stimulation of all α and β adrenergic receptors elicits short-term systolic hypertension, hyperglycemia, and other aspects of the metabolic syndrome. Acute epinephrine infusion increases cardiac output and induces insulin resistance, but removal of the adrenal medulla has no consistent effect on blood pressure. Epinephrine is the most effective endogenous agonist at the β2 receptor. Transgenic mice that cannot make epinephrine and mice that lack the β2 receptor become hypertensive during exercise, presumably owing to the absence of β2-mediated vasodilatation. Epinephrine-deficient mice also have cardiac remodeling and poor cardiac responses to stress, but do not develop resting hypertension. Mice that cannot make epinephrine have a normal metabolism on a regular 14% fat diet but become hyperglycemic and insulin resistant when they eat a high fat diet. Vigorous exercise prevents diabetes in young mice and humans that overeat. However, exercise is a less effective treatment in older type 2 human diabetics and had no effect on glucose or insulin responses in older, diabetic mice. Sensitivity of the β2 receptor falls sharply with advancing age, and adrenal epinephrine release also decreases. However, treatment of older diabetic mice with a β2 adrenergic agonist improved insulin sensitivity, indicating that β2 subsensitivity can be overcome pharmacologically. Recent studies show that over the long term, epinephrine prevents hypertension during stress and improves glucose tolerance. The hyperglycemic influence of epinephrine is short-lived. Chronic administration of epinephrine and other β2 agonists improves cellular glucose uptake and metabolism. Overall, epinephrine counteracts the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22124970

  9. Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Li, Defa; Li, Ning; Dindot, Scott V.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Bazer, Fuller W.

    2012-01-01

    Significance: Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated a close link between maternal nutrition and chronic metabolic disease in children and adults. Compelling experimental results also indicate that adverse effects of intrauterine growth restriction on offspring can be carried forward to subsequent generations through covalent modifications of DNA and core histones. Recent Advances: DNA methylation is catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine-dependent DNA methyltransferases. Methylation, demethylation, acetylation, and deacetylation of histone proteins are performed by histone methyltransferase, histone demethylase, histone acetyltransferase, and histone deacetyltransferase, respectively. Histone activities are also influenced by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, ADP-ribosylation, sumoylation, and glycosylation. Metabolism of amino acids (glycine, histidine, methionine, and serine) and vitamins (B6, B12, and folate) plays a key role in provision of methyl donors for DNA and protein methylation. Critical Issues: Disruption of epigenetic mechanisms can result in oxidative stress, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and vascular dysfunction in animals and humans. Despite a recognized role for epigenetics in fetal programming of metabolic syndrome, research on therapies is still in its infancy. Possible interventions include: 1) inhibition of DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, and microRNA expression; 2) targeting epigenetically disturbed metabolic pathways; and 3) dietary supplementation with functional amino acids, vitamins, and phytochemicals. Future Directions: Much work is needed with animal models to understand the basic mechanisms responsible for the roles of specific nutrients in fetal and neonatal programming. Such new knowledge is crucial to design effective therapeutic strategies for preventing and treating metabolic abnormalities in offspring born to mothers with a previous experience of malnutrition. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 282–301. PMID

  10. Metabolic Syndrome in Preeclampsia Women in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to assess the metabolic syndrome in preeclampsia women. The study was performed on 50 women. The metabolic syndrome prevalence was 66%. Serum glucose, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly were increased and HDL- cholesterol level significantly was decreased in metabolic syndrome patients. These patients showed high prevalence of components of the syndrome. Our results show the importance of dyslipidemia in preeclampsia in overweight and obese women. Preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease are important problems for the health of women. It may be useful to give a treat to people with a high-normal blood pressure in early pregnancy. PMID:25553139

  11. Caregiver Reports of Sleep Problems on a Convenience Sample of Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronk, Rebecca; Dahl, Ronald; Noll, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Caregivers reported on sleep in a convenience sample of 90 children with fragile X syndrome utilizing a standardized assessment tool, the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and a 14-day sleep diary. CSHQ data indicated that 47% of participants had sleep problems at a level that suggested referral and further evaluation. Sleep diary data…

  12. Use of Equipment and Respite Services and Caregiver Health among Australian Families Living with Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbanowicz, Anna; Downs, Jenny; Bebbington, Ami; Jacoby, Peter; Girdler, Sonya; Leonard, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed factors that could influence equipment and respite services use among Australian families caring for a girl/woman with Rett syndrome and examined relationships between use of these resources and the health of female caregivers. Data was sourced from questionnaires completed by families (n=170) contributing to the Australian…

  13. Male hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naifar, M; Rekik, N; Messedi, M; Chaabouni, K; Lahiani, A; Turki, M; Abid, M; Ayedi, F; Jamoussi, K

    2015-06-01

    The role of androgens in cardiovascular disease is still controversial in men. In this study, we investigated metabolic disorders in Tunisian hypogonadal men compared with healthy controls. Forty hypogonadal men and 80 control subjects were enrolled. Patients with a history of pre-existing panhypopituitarism, thyroid dysfunction or inflammatory disease were excluded. Glycaemia, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), lipid profile, insulin, testosterone and gonadotrophins were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed by homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (Homa IR). Waist circumference, body mass index and blood pressure were significantly higher in patients compared with controls. Glycemia, HbA1c, fasting serum insulin and Homa IR were significantly increased among hypogonadal men. In univariate analysis, testosterone levels were inversely correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, glycaemia, HbA1C, insulin, Homa IR and hsCRP. In multivariate analysis including all significant variables, initial testosterone level was the only independent risk factor for developing dyslipidaemia. With logistic regression, male hypogonadism was an independent risk factor for MS (P < 0.001). We conclude that low testosterone level plays a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome. Further prospective data are required to establish the causative link. PMID:25040289

  14. [Involvement of eating disorders in metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mari Hotta

    2015-04-01

    This article gives an outline about involvement of eating disorders in metabolic syndrome. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa become common diseases in woman in Japan. Binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome are observed in men as well as women. Binge eating is characteristic of bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome. It should be noted that high energy availability observed in these diseases results in obesity and exacerbate metabolic syndrome. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs) can make patients to control symptoms and improve their QOL. Osteoporosis is one of chief complications and sequelae of anorexia nervosa. Low-birth weight babies born from emaciated patients with eating disorders are subject to metabolic syndrome in the future. PMID:25936153

  15. Shaken Baby Syndrome: What Caregivers Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Paula

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the causes of shaken baby syndrome and how to recognize, respond to, and prevent it. Identifies horseplay to avoid and recommends never shaking baby even for apnea. Offers 12 tips for working with crying babies and includes ten discussion questions to test knowledge of the syndrome. (DLH)

  16. High Blood Pressure and Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More High Blood Pressure and Metabolic Syndrome Updated:Aug 12,2014 Metabolic ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  17. VITAMIN D AND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in different tissues suggests a widespread role for vitamin D action beyond its classical function in bone and mineral metabolism. Recently, the importance of vitamin D status as a risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome has been...

  18. Overnutrition, ectopic lipid and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Scott M

    2016-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic risk factors including atherogenic dyslipidemia (elevated serum triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol), elevated blood pressure, dysglycemia (insulin resistance and elevated serum glucose), a pro-inflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Most persons with metabolic syndrome are obese, and usually have abdominal obesity. Generally, obesity is a reflection of overnutrition. A current view is that when adipose tissue fails to store all excess nutrients as triglyceride, lipid begins to accumulate in various tissues (eg, muscle, liver, pancreas, and heart). This accumulation is called ectopic lipid. Various mechanisms have been proposed whereby ectopic lipid is detrimental in different tissues; these derangements induce metabolic risk factors. The foundation of the metabolic syndrome thus appears to be overnutrition, that is, more nutrient intake than can be safely disposed by lipid oxidation. Excess dietary carbohydrate also induces ectopic lipid. Of interest, less than half of obese individuals develop metabolic syndrome. Through various mechanisms they adapt to overnutrition so as to minimize lipid overload in tissues, and consequently, prevent the syndrome. PMID:27194746

  19. Holter registers and metabolic syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, L.; Aguilar-Molina, A. M.; Zamora-Justo, J. A.; Gutiérrez-Calleja, R. A.; Virgilio-González, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    There is a relationship between the state of the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndrome (MS). A way to diagnose the heart state of a person is to monitor the electrical activity of the heart using a 24 hours Holter monitor. Scanned ECG signal can be analyzed beat-by-beat by algorithms that separate normal of abnormal heartbeats. If the percentage of abnormal heartbeats is too high it could be argued that the patient has heart problems. We have algorithms that can not only identify the abnormal heartbeats, but they can also classify them, so we classified and counted abnormal heartbeats in patients with MS and subjects without MS. Most of our patients have large waist circumference, high triglycerides and high levels of LDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol although some of them have high blood pressure. We enrolled adult patients with MS free of diabetes in a four month lifestyle intervention program including diet and physical aerobic exercise, and compared with healthy controls. We made an initial registration with a Holter, and 24 hours ECG signal is analyzed to identify and classify the different types of heartbeats. The patients then begin with diet or exercise (at least half an hour daily). Periodically Holter records were taken up and we describe the evolution in time of the number and type of abnormal heartbeats. Results show that the percentage of abnormal heartbeats decreases over time, in some cases the decline is very significant, and almost a reduction to half or less of abnormal heartbeats after several months since the patients changed their eating or physical activity habits.

  20. [Metabolic syndrome and small dense LDL].

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Gen

    2006-12-01

    Due to the recent westernization of our lifestyle, it is speculated that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the young generation will increase in Japan. Different from Western populations, because of our lifestyle as "farmers" from ancient times, excess energy has been stored outside of the body, and the accumulation of visceral fat might have serious adverse effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Therefore, we must carefully diagnose and treat patients with metabolic syndrome, which is diagnosed based on the existence of visceral obesity. On the other hand, much attention has been paid recently to the atherogenicity of small dense LDL. In this chapter I will introduce a newly established method for estimating the plasma concentration of small dense LDL-cholesterol. Furthermore, the relationship between subclinical atherosclerosis and small dense LDL in metabolic syndrome will be discussed. PMID:17265899

  1. [Metabolic syndrome in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Barkai, László; Paragh, György

    2006-02-12

    Metabolic syndrome has an outstanding impact on public health due to its increasing prevalence and poor prognosis. The development of insulin resistance, as a consequence of obesity, can be demonstrated even in childhood which has a pivotal role in the pathomechanism of the syndrome. Besides obesity, low birth weight, increased gain in body mass in early childhood, decreased pubertal insulin sensitivity and clinical markers of insulin resistance (acanthosis nigricans, polycystic ovarian syndrome, premature adrenarche) confer risk of metabolic syndrome. Currently, there are no consistent and consensus based diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. The most recent definition of the International Diabetes Federation [central obesity plus any two of four factors (raised triglyceride, reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting plasma glucose)] is not approved for children and epidemiology data are not yet available. Applying the modified version of the most commonly used Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic system for children and adolescents, the prevalence is given as 4.2% in the literature. As the components of the syndrome, frequency were as follows: 9.8-17.9% for abdominal obesity, 21.0-23.4% for elevated triglyceride, 18.3-23.3% for reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 4.9-7.1% for elevated blood pressure and 0.8-1.7% for impaired fasting glucose. High frequency of morphological and functional disturbances of the vascular and endothelial systems seen frequently among children with signs of metabolic syndrome suggests early cardiovascular events and underlines the clinical significance of this entity. The most effective tool for prevention of metabolic syndrome is to avoid the development of childhood obesity. In case of established disease, the effective treatment should address the different components of the syndrome. The authors emphasize the need of elaboration of consensus

  2. Circulatory Syndrome: An Evolution of the Metabolic Syndrome Concept!

    PubMed Central

    Khoshdel, Ali Reza; Carney, Shane L; Gillies, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome has been a useful, though controversial construct in clinical practice as well as a valuable model in order to understand the interactions of diverse cardiovascular risk factors. However the increasing importance of the circulatory system in particular the endothelium, in both connecting and controlling organ function has underlined the limitations of the metabolic syndrome definition. The proposed “Circulatory Syndrome” is an attempt to refine the metabolic syndrome concept by the addition of recently documented markers of cardiovascular disease including renal impairment, microalbuminuria, arterial stiffness, ventricular dysfunction and anaemia to more classic factors including hypertension, dyslipidemia and abnormal glucose metabolism; all of which easily measured in clinical practice. These markers interact with each other as well as with other factors such as aging, obesity, physical inactivity, diet and smoking. The final common pathways of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypercoagulability thereby lead to endothelial damage and eventually cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, the Circulatory (MARC) Syndrome, like its predecessor the metabolic syndrome, is only a small step toward an understanding of these complex and as yet poorly understood markers of disease. PMID:22845817

  3. Mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and asthma.

    PubMed

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma. PMID:23840225

  4. Thyroid Hormones and the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Iwen, K. Alexander; Schröder, Erich; Brabant, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Background Clustering of various metabolic parameters including abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and hypertension have been used worldwide as metabolic syndrome to predict cardiometabolic risk. Thyroid dysfunction impacts on various levels of these components. Objectives The purpose of the present review is to summarize available data on thyroid hormone-dependent action on components of the metabolic syndrome. Methods A PubMed search for any combination of hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome, blood pressure, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, diabetes mellitus, body weight or visceral fat was performed. We included papers and reviews published between 2000 and today but accepted also frequently cited papers before 2000. Results There is convincing evidence for a major impact of thyroid function on all components of the metabolic syndrome, reflecting profound alterations of energy homeostasis at many levels. Conclusion Even though the interactions shown in animal models and man are complex, it is evident that insulin sensitivity is highest and adverse thyroid effects on the metabolic system are lowest in euthyroid conditions. PMID:24783045

  5. Caregiver Report of Executive Functioning in a Population-Based Sample of Young Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Fidler, Deborah J.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Daunhauer, Lisa; Robinson, Cordelia; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study describes everyday executive function (EF) profiles in young children with Down syndrome. Caregivers of children with Down syndrome (n = 26; chronological ages = 4-10 years; mental ages = 2-4 years) completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool (BRIEF-P; G. A. Gioia, K. A. Espy, & P. K. Isquith, 2003), a…

  6. Factors affecting metabolic syndrome by lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Nam-Kyun; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Seon-Chil; Kim, Nak-Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore lifestyle factors in relation to metabolic syndrome so as to be able to utilize the results as baseline data for the furtherance of health-care and medical treatment. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with patients who visited a health care center located in Seoul and had abdominal ultrasonography between 2 March 2013 and 28 February, 2014. Heights, weights, and blood pressures were measured by automatic devices. Three radiologists examined the patients using abdominal ultrasonography for gallstone diagnosis. The statuses of patients with regard to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and physical activities were explored for the lifestyle investigation. For investigating baseline demographics, we first used descriptive statistics. We then used the χ2 test to analyze lifestyles and gallstone prevalence with regard to the presence of metabolic syndrome. Lastly, logistic regression analysis was conducted to discover the risk factors of metabolic syndrome. [Results] For men, body mass index, maximum gallstone size, and waist circumference were revealed as risk factors for metabolic syndrome, in descending order of the degree of risk. For females, gallstone presence was the most significant risk factor, followed by waist circumference. [Conclusion] Metabolic disease mainly presents itself along with obesity, and we should become more focused on preventing and treating this disease. A large-scale prospective study is needed in the future, as the cause of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remained unclear in this study. PMID:26957725

  7. A Comprehensive Review on Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of interconnected physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors that directly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all cause mortality. Insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, genetic susceptibility, elevated blood pressure, hypercoagulable state, and chronic stress are the several factors which constitute the syndrome. Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which is characterized by production of abnormal adipocytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin. The interaction between components of the clinical phenotype of the syndrome with its biological phenotype (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc.) contributes to the development of a proinflammatory state and further a chronic, subclinical vascular inflammation which modulates and results in atherosclerotic processes. Lifestyle modification remains the initial intervention of choice for such population. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioural strategies. Pharmacological treatment should be considered for those whose risk factors are not adequately reduced with lifestyle changes. This review provides summary of literature related to the syndrome's definition, epidemiology, underlying pathogenesis, and treatment approaches of each of the risk factors comprising metabolic syndrome. PMID:24711954

  8. METABOLIC SYNDROME – THEORY AND PRACTICE

    PubMed Central

    Ramic, Enisa; Prasko, Subhija; Mujanovic, Olivera Batic; Gavran, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Due to sedentary lifestyles and excessive calorie intake, metabolic syndrome is becoming increasingly common health problem in the world, as well as in our country, and it is estimated to occur in 30% of the population of middle and older age. The metabolic syndrome is a combination of disorders that include: obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, impaired regulation of body fat and high blood pressure. Complications resulting from metabolic syndrome significantly reduces quality of patient’s life and represents a huge socio-economic burden. Metabolic syndrome therapy is directed to reduce all risk factors, and that means the change of lifestyle, which includes a reduction of body weight, physical activity, antiatherogenic diet and smoking cessation. Medical therapy is aimed to the individual risk factors. Case report: In case of our patient, despite the optimal standard therapy, including drugs for the regulation of LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, an intensive control of blood pressure and glucose, failure to implement the recommended treatment led to a myocardial infarction. Conclusion: The fundamental problem is not the lack of efficacy of available therapeutic measures, medications and procedures, but in insufficient implementation. PMID:27047273

  9. [Atypical antipsychotics and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Andreas; Yazdani, Renè; Haas-Krammer, Alexandra; Stepan, Alexandra; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of atypical antipsychotics in psychopharmacology represented a major advance in the treatment of psychotic disorders. However, there have been numerous studies that certain atypical antipsychotics may be associated with a greater risk of metabolic abnormalities than others, including weight gain, hyperlipidemia and new-onset typ 2 diabetes mellitus. A G-Protein beta3 subunit Gen (C825T) polymorphism, an increased carbohydrate metabolism and dyshormonism are discussed as pathogenetic mechanisms. High risk patients (adiposity, hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, preexisting diabetes) should maintain an antipsychotic agent with a favourable side effect profile. In these cases a periodical diabetes screening and blood lipid controls are required. Clinicans must balance the significant benefits of atypical antipsychotics against the risk of metabolic disturbances. In this article recent findings are reviewed. PMID:17915438

  10. Mast cells and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Mast cells are critical effectors in the development of allergic diseases and in many immunoglobulin E–mediated immune responses. These cells exert their physiological and pathological activities by releasing granules containing histamine, cytokines, chemokines, and proteases, including mast cell-specific chymase and tryptase. Like macrophages and T lymphocytes, mast cells are inflammatory cells, and they participate in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as cardiovascular complications and metabolic disorders. Recent observations suggested that mast cells are involved in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Data from animal models proved the direct participation of mast cells in diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Although the mechanisms by which mast cells participate in these metabolic diseases are not fully understood, established mast cell pathobiology in cardiovascular diseases and effective mast cell inhibitor medications used in pre-formed obesity and diabetes in experimental models offer hope to patients with these common chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:21185370

  11. Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283

  12. Metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Kamkar, Mohammad Zaman; Sanagoo, Akram; Zargarani, Fatemeh; Jouybari, Leila; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is commonly associated with cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric mental illness. Hence, we aimed to assess the metabolic syndrome among severe mental illness (SMI). Materials and Methods: The study included 267 patients who were referred to the psychiatric unit at 5th Azar Education Hospital of Golestan University of Medical Sciences in Gorgan, Iran. Results: The mean waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the SMI with metabolic syndrome, but the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly lower. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI patients was 20.60%. There were significant differences in the mean of waist circumference, systolic (except for women) and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and fasting blood glucose in men and women with metabolic syndrome when compared with subjects without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI women was higher than men. The most age distribution was in range of 30-39 years old. The most prevalence of metabolic syndrome was in age groups 50-59 years old. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was increased from 30 to 59 years old. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI in Gorgan is almost similar to those observed in Asian countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was lower than western countries. These observations may be due to cultural differences in the region. It should be mention that the families of mental illness subjects in our country believe that their patients must be cared better than people without mental illness. These findings of this study suggest that mental illness patients are at risk of metabolic syndrome. According to our results, risk factors such as age and gender differences may play an important role in the presence of metabolic syndrome. In our country, women do less

  13. Metabolic syndrome: from epidemiology to systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Lusis, Aldons J.; Attie, Alan D.; Reue, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is a group of metabolic conditions that occur together and promote the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several novel susceptibility genes for MetSyn traits, and studies in rodent models have provided important molecular insights. However, as yet, only a small fraction of the genetic component is known. Systems-based approaches that integrate genomic, molecular and physiological data are complementing traditional genetic and biochemical approaches to more fully address the complexity of MetSyn. PMID:18852695

  14. Cardiac NO signalling in the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pechánová, O; Varga, Z V; Cebová, M; Giricz, Z; Pacher, P; Ferdinandy, P

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that metabolic syndrome (i.e. a group of risk factors, such as abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides and low cholesterol level in high-density lipoprotein), which raises the risk for heart disease and diabetes, is associated with increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generation. ROS/RNS can modulate cardiac NO signalling and trigger various adaptive changes in NOS and antioxidant enzyme expressions/activities. While initially these changes may represent protective mechanisms in metabolic syndrome, later with more prolonged oxidative, nitrosative and nitrative stress, these are often exhausted, eventually favouring myocardial RNS generation and decreased NO bioavailability. The increased oxidative and nitrative stress also impairs the NO-soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) signalling pathway, limiting the ability of NO to exert its fundamental signalling roles in the heart. Enhanced ROS/RNS generation in the presence of risk factors also facilitates activation of redox-dependent transcriptional factors such as NF-κB, promoting myocardial expression of various pro-inflammatory mediators, and eventually the development of cardiac dysfunction and remodelling. While the dysregulation of NO signalling may interfere with the therapeutic efficacy of conventional drugs used in the management of metabolic syndrome, the modulation of NO signalling may also be responsible for the therapeutic benefits of already proven or recently developed treatment approaches, such as ACE inhibitors, certain β-blockers, and sGC activators. Better understanding of the above-mentioned pathological processes may ultimately lead to more successful therapeutic approaches to overcome metabolic syndrome and its pathological consequences in cardiac NO signalling. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this

  15. Epidemiology of paediatric metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    De Ferranti, Sarah D; Osganian, Stavroula K

    2007-12-01

    The epidemic in childhood obesity is a driving force behind the increase in paediatric metabolic syndrome, a collection of abnormalities that is associated in adults with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although there is no clear consensus about the paediatric definition for metabolic syndrome, the prevalence of this syndrome is clearly rising. Children with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk for metabolic syndrome in adulthood. A late consequence of metabolic syndrome is type 2 diabetes, which increasingly affects adolescents. The rise in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in children is almost sure to lead to an increase in associated complications in young adulthood, including early cardiovascular disease. This epidemic will bear fruit in forthcoming decades, putting further stress on the healthcare system and probably leading to increased morbidity and a shorter lifespan for future generations. PMID:18158698

  16. Lymphatic system: a vital link between metabolic syndrome and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sanjukta; Zawieja, Scott; Wang, Wei; Zawieja, David C; Muthuchamy, Mariappan

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined by a cluster of different metabolic risk factors that include overall and central obesity, elevated fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and intimal atherogenesis. Metabolic syndrome leads to increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (e.g., heart disease and stroke). The exacerbated progression of metabolic syndrome to cardiovascular disease has lead to intense study of the physiological ramifications of metabolic syndrome on the blood vasculature. These studies have particularly focused on the signaling and architectural alterations that manifest in hypertension and atherosclerosis. However, despite the overlap of metabolic syndrome pathology with lymphatic function, tangent effects on the lymphatic system have not been extensively documented. In this review, we discuss the current status of metabolic syndrome and provide evidence for, and the remaining challenges in studying, the connections among the lymphatic system, lipid transport, obesity, insulin resistance, and general inflammation. PMID:20961312

  17. Lennox–Gastaut syndrome: impact on the caregivers and families of patients

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS) has a major impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of the affected children as well as their caregivers. The primary caregiver in the family is generally the mother, with support from the father and siblings. The burden of care and the effects of the disease on the child necessitate adjustments in virtually all aspects of the lives of their family. These adjustments inevitably affect the physical, emotional, social, and financial health of the whole family. Numerous sources of support for families can help to ease the burden of care. Improvements in the treatment of LGS, in addition to helping the child with LGS, would likely help improve the HRQL of the family members. This pilot parent survey was designed to explore the impact of epilepsy on caregiver HRQL. Parents of children with epilepsy who had contacted the Epilepsy Information Service at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA, were sent questionnaires comprising open- and closed-ended questions. A total of 200 surveys were distributed, with a return rate of 48%. The results revealed that 74% of the parents believed that having a child with epilepsy brought them and their partner closer together. However, when the parents were asked to explain the manner in which epilepsy affected their families, answers included continuous stress, major financial distress, and lack of time to spend with other children. Information and resources for the families of children with LGS could help improve the HRQL of both the patients and their relatives. PMID:25336963

  18. Surviving Critical Illness: The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome as Experienced by Patients and Their Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Christopher E.; Docherty, Sharron L.; Brandon, Debra H.; Whaley, Christie; Attix, Deborah K.; Clay, Alison S.; Dore, Daniel V.; Hough, Catherine L.; White, Douglas B.; Tulsky, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a systemic critical illness, often report poor quality of life based on responses to standardized questionnaires. However, the experiences of ARDS survivors have not been reported. Our objective was to characterize the effects of critical illness in the daily lives and functioning of ARDS survivors. Design, Setting, and Patients We recruited consecutively 31 ARDS survivors and their informal caregivers from medical and surgical intensive care units of an academic medical center and a community hospital. Eight patients died before completing interviews. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 23 ARDS survivors and 24 caregivers three to nine months after ICU admission, stopping enrollment after thematic saturation was reached. Transcripts were analyzed using Colaizzi’s qualitative methodology to identify significant ways in which survivors’ critical illness experience impacted their lives. Measurements and Main Results Participants related five key elements of experience as survivors of ARDS: pervasive memories of critical care, day to day impact of new disability, critical illness defining the sense of self, relationship strain and change, and ability to cope with disability. Survivors described remarkable disability that persisted for months. Caregivers’ interviews revealed substantial strain from caregiving responsibilities, as well as frequent symptom minimization by patients. Conclusions The diverse and unique experiences of ARDS survivors reflect the global impact of severe critical illness. We have identified symptom domains important to ARDS patients that are not well represented in existing health outcomes measures. These insights may aid the development of targeted interventions to enhance recovery and return of function after ARDS. PMID:19865004

  19. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: impact on the caregivers and families of patients.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) has a major impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of the affected children as well as their caregivers. The primary caregiver in the family is generally the mother, with support from the father and siblings. The burden of care and the effects of the disease on the child necessitate adjustments in virtually all aspects of the lives of their family. These adjustments inevitably affect the physical, emotional, social, and financial health of the whole family. Numerous sources of support for families can help to ease the burden of care. Improvements in the treatment of LGS, in addition to helping the child with LGS, would likely help improve the HRQL of the family members. This pilot parent survey was designed to explore the impact of epilepsy on caregiver HRQL. Parents of children with epilepsy who had contacted the Epilepsy Information Service at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA, were sent questionnaires comprising open- and closed-ended questions. A total of 200 surveys were distributed, with a return rate of 48%. The results revealed that 74% of the parents believed that having a child with epilepsy brought them and their partner closer together. However, when the parents were asked to explain the manner in which epilepsy affected their families, answers included continuous stress, major financial distress, and lack of time to spend with other children. Information and resources for the families of children with LGS could help improve the HRQL of both the patients and their relatives. PMID:25336963

  20. Glucose metabolism in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bowes, S B; Benn, J J; Scobie, I N; Umpleby, A M; Lowy, C; Sönksen, P H

    1991-04-01

    Glucose intolerance, sometimes severe enough to cause frank diabetes mellitus, is a frequent feature of Cushing's syndrome. The primary cause of the hyperglycaemia, whether due to glucose over-production or under-utilization, remains unresolved. We therefore measured glucose turnover using an intravenous bolus of 3-3H glucose in 14 normoglycaemic patients with Cushing's syndrome and 14 control subjects. Seven of the patients with Cushing's syndrome were also restudied post-operatively. Plasma glucose concentrations were similar in all three groups whereas glucose metabolic clearance rate (MCR) (1.80 +/- 0.06 ml/min/kg) and glucose turnover rate (9.09 +/- 0.36 mumol/min/kg) were significantly reduced in patients with Cushing's syndrome compared to normal subjects (2.21 +/- 0.1; P less than 0.001; 10.90 +/- 0.50; P less than 0.01) and rose post-operatively to normal values (2.35 +/- 0.14 ml/min/kg; 11.07 +/- 0.48 mumol/min/kg). We conclude from these results that the hyperglycaemia sometimes found in Cushing's syndrome may be primarily due to decreased utilization rather than increased glucose production. PMID:1879061

  1. The role of hope in adaptation to uncertainty: The experience of caregivers of children with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Truitt, Megan; Biesecker, Barbara; Capone, George; Bailey, Thomas; Erby, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between perceived uncertainty, hope, and adaptation in caregivers of children with Down syndrome (DS). Methods A total of 546 caregivers were recruited from local and national DS groups and from a DS clinic list. A cross-sectional survey examined caregivers’ levels of perceived uncertainty, hope, and adaptation. The hope that caregivers had for their child was also measured. Results Uncertainty, hope and adaptation were all significantly correlated, with uncertainty and hope independently predicting caregiver adaptation. Caregivers’ motivation to reach goals for their child was higher than their ability to think of ways to meet those goals, and their lessened ability to think of ways to reach goals was significantly related to decreased adaptation levels. Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that having hope in the face of uncertainty is important in adaptation but that caregivers struggle with having hope related to thinking of ways to reach goals for their child. Practice implications The results of this study indicate that perceived uncertainty and hope may be important targets for improving psychological well-being. Interventions that assist caregivers in setting and attaining appropriate goals may be of particular interest. PMID:21937189

  2. Metabolic Syndrome: Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Mayans, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that synergistically increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and premature mortality. The components are abdominal obesity, impaired glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Prediabetes, which is a combination of excess body fat and insulin resistance, is considered an underlying etiology of metabolic syndrome. Prediabetes manifests as impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Impaired fasting glucose is defined as a fasting blood glucose level of 100 to 125 mg/dL; impaired glucose tolerance requires a blood glucose level of 140 to 199 mg/dL 2 hours after a 75-g oral intake of glucose. In patients with prediabetes, the rate of progression to diabetes within 3 years can be decreased by approximately 58% with lifestyle modifications. These include weight loss through exercise (30 minutes or more of moderate physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week) and dietary modifications. Recommended diets are high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fish. Consumption of sweetened beverages, including diet soda, should be avoided. For patients who do not achieve goals with lifestyle modifications, metformin can be considered. Weight loss drugs and bariatric surgery are appropriate for select patients. Hypertension and dyslipidemia should be managed according to current guidelines. PMID:26280340

  3. Association of adiponectin and metabolic syndrome in women

    PubMed Central

    Sanjari, Mojgan; Khodashahi, Mandana; Gholamhoseinian, Ahmad; Shokoohi, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An inverse association between serum adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome was seen in few studies. The aim of this study was to assess the association between serum adiponectin levels and metabolic syndrome in a sample of Iranian women from Kerman. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study 946 subjects were studied to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and in a case control study (170 subjects for each group) the association between serum adiponectin levels and metabolic syndrome were investigated. Metabolic syndrome was defined using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Socio-demographics factors and measures of waist circumference, blood pressure and lipid profiles were collected. Serum adiponectin level was measured by ELISA method. RESULTS: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 36.7%. Mean of serum adiponectin level in individuals with metabolic syndrome was lower than individuals without it (10.5 ± 4.1 and 13.45 ± 5.6 μg/ml, respectively, p < 0.001). Low level of adiponectin was a good predictor for metabolic syndrome (a range of β coefficients out of -2.03 to -2.85 according to five models). Systolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure were independent predictors of serum adiponectin (p values were 0.001, 0.009 and 0.034, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We found that adiponectin is negatively associated with metabolic syndrome. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and BMI were identified as independent predictors. PMID:22973360

  4. Quantitative genetic analysis of the metabolic syndrome in Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Cole, Shelley A; Mehta, Nitesh R; Cai, Guowen; Tejero, Maria; Bastarrachea, Raul; Smith, E O'Brian

    2005-12-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a constellation of metabolic derangements including glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, referred to as metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate genetic and environmental factors contributing to the metabolic syndrome in Hispanic children. Metabolic syndrome, defined as having three or more metabolic risk components, was determined in 1030 Hispanic children, ages 4-19 y, from 319 families enrolled in the VIVA LA FAMILIA study. Anthropometry, body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, clinical signs, and serum biochemistries were measured using standard techniques. Risk factor analysis and quantitative genetic analysis were performed. Of the overweight children, 20%, or 28% if abnormal liver function is included in the definition, presented with the metabolic syndrome. Odds ratios for the metabolic syndrome were significantly increased by body mass index z-score and fasting serum insulin; independent effects of sex, age, puberty, and body composition were not seen. Heritabilities +/- SE for waist circumference, triglycerides (TG), HDL, systolic blood pressure (SBP), glucose, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were highly significant. Pleiotropy (a common set of genes affecting two traits) detected between SBP and waist circumference, SBP and glucose, HDL and waist circumference, ALT and waist circumference, and TG and ALT may underlie the clustering of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Significant heritabilities and pleiotropy seen for the components of the metabolic syndrome indicate a strong genetic contribution to the metabolic syndrome in overweight Hispanic children. PMID:16306201

  5. Does breastfeeding prevent the metabolic syndrome, or does the metabolic syndrome prevent breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Stuebe, Alison M

    2015-06-01

    In mammalian physiology, lactation follows pregnancy. Disruption of this physiology is associated with long-term adverse maternal health outcomes, including higher risks of later-life obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Multiple mechanisms likely contribute to these associations, including the metabolic demands of breastfeeding, modulation of stress reactivity, and confounding by other health behaviors. At the same time, evidence suggests that maternal metabolic health entering pregnancy affects lactation performance. In this paradigm, adverse lactation outcomes may be a marker for underlying maternal disease risk. Understanding these relationships has important clinical and policy implications for women's health. PMID:26187772

  6. Aging, Metabolic Syndrome and the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Veronica, Guarner; Esther, Rubio-Ruiz Maria

    2012-01-01

    Aging is accelerated when metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are present and the risk of these diseases increases with age. Many predisposing conditions which increase in prevalence during aging, such as obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, changes in the activity of the hypothalamus-hypophysis suprarenal axis, stress and hypertension also contribute to increase prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and CVD and will be discussed in this paper. Aging and MS are frequently accompanied by several pathological conditions and some associated phenomena such as increased lipoperoxidation, generation of free radicals, increased peroxidation of nitric oxide (NO) to its toxic species, and others, resulting from oxidative stress which significantly alter the incidence of CVD. The better knowledge of mechanisms linking MS to increased CVD prevalence has led to new predictive measures and to the study of different possible new therapeutic strategies in elderly patients and patients with MS. Preventing and treating MS and CVD would be useful in promoting normal aging. PMID:22724085

  7. Menstrual Health and the Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tfayli, Hala; Arslanian, Silva

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome, a constellation of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, has become a major public health concern against the backdrop of increasing rates of obesity. Insulin resistance plays a pivotal role as the underlying pathophysiological linchpin of the various components of the syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is well recognized in adults, and there is convincing evidence that it starts in childhood, with progressive clustering of the various components over time and tracking through adulthood. Adult women and adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome compared with the general population. Several anthropometric (obesity, particularly abdominal obesity), metabolic (insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia) and hormonal (low IGFBP1, IGFBP2 and low sex hormone binding globulin) features of adolescents with PCOS are also features of the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance, believed to be a key pathogenic factor in both PCOS and the metabolic syndrome, may be the thread that links the two conditions. Menstrual health in adolescents could be viewed as yet another component in the evaluation of the metabolic syndrome. Careful assessment of menstrual history and appropriate laboratory work-up could reveal the presence of PCOS in obese at-risk adolescent girls with a family history of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:18574212

  8. Metabolic syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis: case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of classical cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) in RA patients, and to evaluate the relationships between metabolic syndrome and RA. Methods The study was conducted on 120 RA patients according to the 1987 revised American College of Rheumatology classification criteria, and 100 age and sex matched apparently healthy controls. The frequency of metabolic syndrome was assessed using six Metabolic Syndrome definitions (Joint Consensus 2009, National Cholesterol Education Programme 2004 and 2001, International Diabetes Federation, World Health Organisation and European Group for Study of Insulin Resistance). Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of metabolic Syndrome. Results The frequency of metabolic syndrome varied from 18 to 48.6% in RA according to the definition used and was significantly higher than controls (for all definitions p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, higher ESR was independently associated with the presence of Met S (OR =1.36; CI: 1.18–2.12; p = 0.03). Glucocorticoid use, but not other disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), values remained significant independent predictors of the presence of metabolic syndrome in RA patients (OR = 1.45; CI: 1.12–2.14; p = 0.04). Conclusions In summary, the frequency of metabolic syndrome in RA varies according to the definition used and was significantly higher compared to controls (for all definitions p<0.05). Higher systemic inflammatory marker, and glucocorticoids use were independent predictors associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with RA. These findings suggest that physicians should screen for metabolic syndrome in patients with RA to control its components and therefore reduce the risk of

  9. Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers Predict Lung Function Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Naveed, Bushra; Weiden, Michael D.; Kwon, Sophia; Gracely, Edward J.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Ferrier, Natalia; Kasturiarachchi, Kusali J.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Rom, William N.; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Cross-sectional studies demonstrate an association between metabolic syndrome and impaired lung function. Objectives: To define if metabolic syndrome biomarkers are risk factors for loss of lung function after irritant exposure. Methods: A nested case-control study of Fire Department of New York personnel with normal pre–September 11th FEV1 and who presented for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation before March 10, 2008. We correlated metabolic syndrome biomarkers obtained within 6 months of World Trade Center dust exposure with subsequent FEV1. FEV1 at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation within 6.5 years defined disease status; cases had FEV1 less than lower limit of normal, whereas control subjects had FEV1 greater than or equal to lower limit of normal. Measurements and Main Results: Clinical data and serum sampled at the first monitoring examination within 6 months of September 11, 2001, assessed body mass index, heart rate, serum glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), leptin, pancreatic polypeptide, and amylin. Cases and control subjects had significant differences in HDL less than 40 mg/dl with triglycerides greater than or equal to 150 mg/dl, heart rate greater than or equal to 66 bpm, and leptin greater than or equal to 10,300 pg/ml. Each increased the odds of abnormal FEV1 at pulmonary evaluation by more than twofold, whereas amylin greater than or equal to 116 pg/ml decreased the odds by 84%, in a multibiomarker model adjusting for age, race, body mass index, and World Trade Center arrival time. This model had a sensitivity of 41%, a specificity of 86%, and a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.77. Conclusions: Abnormal triglycerides and HDL and elevated heart rate and leptin are independent risk factors of greater susceptibility to lung function impairment after September 11, 2001, whereas elevated amylin is protective. Metabolic biomarkers are predictors of lung disease, and may be useful for assessing

  10. Arginase inhibition alleviates hypertension in the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassossy, Hany M; El-Fawal, Rania; Fahmy, Ahmed; Watson, Malcolm L

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose We have previously shown that arginase inhibition alleviates hypertension associated with in a diabetic animal model. Here, we investigated the protective effect of arginase inhibition on hypertension in metabolic syndrome. Experimental Approach Metabolic syndrome was induced in rats by administration of fructose (10% in drinking water) for 12 weeks to induce vascular dysfunction. Three arginase inhibitors (citrulline, norvaline and ornithine) were administered daily in the last 6 weeks of study before and tail BP was recorded in conscious animals. Concentration response curves for phenylephrine (PE), KCl and ACh in addition to ACh-induced NO generation were obtained in thoracic aorta rings. Serum glucose, insulin, uric acid and lipid profile were determined as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and arginase activity. Key Results Arginase activity was elevated in metabolic syndrome while significantly inhibited by citrulline, norvaline or ornithine treatment. Metabolic syndrome was associated with elevations in systolic and diastolic BP, while arginase inhibition significantly reduced elevations in diastolic and systolic BP. Metabolic syndrome increased vasoconstriction responses of aorta to PE and KCl and decreased vasorelaxation to ACh, while arginase inhibition completely prevented impaired responses to ACh. In addition, arginase inhibition prevented impaired NO generation and exaggerated ROS formation in metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, arginase inhibition significantly reduced hyperinsulinaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia without affecting hyperuricaemia or hypercholesterolaemia associated with metabolic syndrome. Conclusions and Implications Arginase inhibition alleviates hypertension in metabolic syndrome directly through endothelial-dependent relaxation/NO signalling protection and indirectly through inhibition of insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridaemia. PMID:23441715

  11. Tea and cinnamon polyphenols improve the metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metabolic syndrome is often a precursor of chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. Since the metabolic syndrome is multi-factorial, strategies for reducing its incidence and consequences must also be mult...

  12. Metabolic features of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naviaux, Robert K; Naviaux, Jane C; Li, Kefeng; Bright, A Taylor; Alaynick, William A; Wang, Lin; Baxter, Asha; Nathan, Neil; Anderson, Wayne; Gordon, Eric

    2016-09-13

    More than 2 million people in the United States have myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We performed targeted, broad-spectrum metabolomics to gain insights into the biology of CFS. We studied a total of 84 subjects using these methods. Forty-five subjects (n = 22 men and 23 women) met diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS by Institute of Medicine, Canadian, and Fukuda criteria. Thirty-nine subjects (n = 18 men and 21 women) were age- and sex-matched normal controls. Males with CFS were 53 (±2.8) y old (mean ± SEM; range, 21-67 y). Females were 52 (±2.5) y old (range, 20-67 y). The Karnofsky performance scores were 62 (±3.2) for males and 54 (±3.3) for females. We targeted 612 metabolites in plasma from 63 biochemical pathways by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, and tandem mass spectrometry in a single-injection method. Patients with CFS showed abnormalities in 20 metabolic pathways. Eighty percent of the diagnostic metabolites were decreased, consistent with a hypometabolic syndrome. Pathway abnormalities included sphingolipid, phospholipid, purine, cholesterol, microbiome, pyrroline-5-carboxylate, riboflavin, branch chain amino acid, peroxisomal, and mitochondrial metabolism. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed diagnostic accuracies of 94% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84-100%] in males using eight metabolites and 96% (95% CI, 86-100%) in females using 13 metabolites. Our data show that despite the heterogeneity of factors leading to CFS, the cellular metabolic response in patients was homogeneous, statistically robust, and chemically similar to the evolutionarily conserved persistence response to environmental stress known as dauer. PMID:27573827

  13. Atypical work hours and metabolic syndrome among police officers.

    PubMed

    Violanti, John M; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Vila, Bryan J

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether atypical work hours are associated with metabolic syndrome among a random sample of 98 police officers. Shift work and overtime data from daily payroll records and reported sleep duration were obtained. Metabolic syndrome was defined as elevated waist circumference and triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, and glucose intolerance. Multivariate analysis of variance and analysis of covariance models were used for analyses. Officers working midnight shifts were on average younger and had a slightly higher mean number of metabolic syndrome components. Stratification on sleep duration and overtime revealed significant associations between midnight shifts and the mean number of metabolic syndrome components among officers with less sleep (p = .013) and more overtime (p = .007). Results suggest shorter sleep duration and more overtime combined with midnight shift work may be important contributors to the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19864222

  14. Targeted estrogen delivery reverses the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Brian; Yang, Bin; Ottaway, Nickki; Stemmer, Kerstin; Müller, Timo D; Yi, Chun-Xia; Habegger, Kirk; Schriever, Sonja C; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Kabra, Dhiraj G; Hembree, Jazzminn; Holland, Jenna; Raver, Christine; Seeley, Randy J; Hans, Wolfgang; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Tiano, Joseph P; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Pfluger, Paul; Zhang, Lianshan; Gelfanov, Vasily; DiMarchi, Richard D; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a new combinatorial approach that allows for peptide-mediated selective tissue targeting of nuclear hormone pharmacology while eliminating adverse effects in other tissues. Specifically, we report the development of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-estrogen conjugate that has superior sex-independent efficacy over either of the individual hormones alone to correct obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in mice. The therapeutic benefits are driven by pleiotropic dual hormone action to improve energy, glucose and lipid metabolism, as shown by loss-of-function models and genetic action profiling. Notably, the peptide-based targeting strategy also prevents hallmark side effects of estrogen in male and female mice, such as reproductive endocrine toxicity and oncogenicity. Collectively, selective activation of estrogen receptors in GLP-1–targeted tissues produces unprecedented efficacy to enhance the metabolic benefits of GLP-1 agonism. This example of targeting the metabolic syndrome represents the discovery of a new class of therapeutics that enables synergistic co-agonism through peptide-based selective delivery of small molecules. Although our observations with the GLP-1–estrogen conjugate justify translational studies for diabetes and obesity, the multitude of other possible combinations of peptides and small molecules may offer equal promise for other diseases. PMID:23142820

  15. Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetic Cognopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, M.R.; Banks, W.A.; Shah, G.N.; Gu, Z.; Sowers, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) is increasing in parallel with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, and other forms of dementia. Along with metabolic, inflammatory, and immunological abnormalities, there is maladaptive structural remodeling of the heart, kidney, and brain. The term ‘diabetic cognopathy’ (DC) may be used when discussing functional and structural changes in the brain of the diabetic patient. DC likely represents an advanced form of these changes in the brain that evolve with increasing duration of the CRS and subsequent clinical diabetes. We posit that DC develops due to a convergence of aging, genetic and lifestyle abnormalities (overnutrition and lack of exercise), which result in multiple injurious metabolic and immunologic toxicities such as dysfunctional immune responses, oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and dysglycemia (systemically and in the brain). These converging abnormalities may lead to endothelial blood-brain barrier tight junction/adherens junction (TJ/AJ) complex remodeling and microglia activation, which may result in neurodegeneration, impaired cognition, and dementia. Herein, we describe the brain ultrastructural changes evolving from a normal state to maladaptive remodeling in rodent models of CRS including microglia activation/polarization and attenuation and/or loss of the TJ/AJ complexes, pericytes and astrocytes of the neurovascular unit. Further, we discuss the potential relationship between these structural changes and the development of DC, potential therapeutic strategies, and future directions. PMID:24474955

  16. [Metabolic syndrome: what, why, how and who?].

    PubMed

    Pavlić-Renar, Ivana; Poljicanin, Tamara; Metelko, Zeljko

    2007-06-01

    Although first knowledge on the joint onset of cardiovascular risk factors had been gained earlier, the first systematic review of this condition was made by G. Reaven in 1988 with his thesis on syndrome X, today known as the metabolic syndrome, with insulin resistance as the common denominator. Four elements have been identified: central obesity, dyslipoproteinemia (increased triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol), hypertension and glucose intolerance. There are two most influential definitions: one by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the other by the International Diabetes Federation (/IDF). NCEP requires the presence of at least three of the following factors: abdominal obesity as assessed by waist circumference >102 cm (m) or >88 cm (f), dyslipoproteinemia defined as triglyceridemia > or =1.7 mmol/L and/or HDL cholesterol <1.03 mmol/L (m); <1.29 mmol/L (f), hypertension (blood pressure > or =30/85 mmHg) and fasting glycemia > or =5.6 mmol/L (previously 6.1). IDF focuses on central obesity defined as waist circumference, taking into consideration sex and ethnic group specificities, with the presence of at least two additional factors (dyslipoproteinemia, hypertension, or increased fasting glycemia - all criteria virtually the same as in NCEP definition). Both IDF and NCEP define abdominal obesity by waist circumference, taking account of sex differences, and, in case of IDF, ethnic ones as well. The idea is to identify the simplest measure to indirectly determine the accumulation of visceral fat, which is, contrary to subcutaneous fat, a significant cardiovascular risk factor. However, waist circumference as the only criterion seems to be less specific than the waist-to-hip circumference ratio, which defines the risk more specifically and also better reflects insulin resistance. There is broad discussion as to whether the term metabolic syndrome contributes to the identification of persons at risk of cardiovascular disease better than its

  17. Plant-derived therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Brittany L; Raskin, Ilya; Cefalu, William T; Ribnicky, David M

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a set of coexisting metabolic disorders that increase an individual’s likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Medicinal plants, some of which have been used for thousands of years, serve as an excellent source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome because they contain a wide range of phytochemicals with diverse metabolic effects. In order for botanicals to be effectively used against metabolic syndrome, however, botanical preparations must be characterized and standardized through the identification of their active compounds and respective modes of action, followed by validation in controlled clinical trials with clearly defined endpoints. This review assesses examples of commonly known and partially characterized botanicals to describe specific considerations for the phytochemical, preclinical and clinical characterization of botanicals associated with metabolic syndrome. PMID:20872313

  18. Role of autophagy in metabolic syndrome-associated heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ren, Sidney Y; Xu, Xihui

    2015-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of multiple metabolic risk factors including abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Over the past decades, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased dramatically, imposing a devastating, pandemic health threat. More importantly, individuals with metabolic syndrome are at an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and overall cardiovascular diseases. One of the common comorbidities of metabolic syndrome is heart anomalies leading to the loss of cardiomyocytes, cardiac dysfunction and ultimately heart failure. Up-to-date, a plethora of cell signaling pathways have been postulated for the pathogenesis of cardiac complications in obesity including lipotoxicity, inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and sympathetic overactivation although the precise mechanism of action underscoring obesity-associated heart dysfunction remains elusive. Recent evidence has indicated a potential role of protein quality control in components of metabolic syndrome. Within the protein quality control system, the autophagy-lysosome pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway responsible for bulk degradation of large intracellular organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy has been demonstrated to play an indispensible role in the maintenance of cardiac geometry and function under both physiological and pathological conditions. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that autophagy plays a pivotal role in the etiology of cardiac anomalies under obesity and metabolic syndrome. In this minireview, we will discuss on how autophagy is involved in the regulation of cardiac function in obesity and metabolic syndrome. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Autophagy and protein quality control in cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:24810277

  19. Understanding cachexia as a cancer metabolism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Porporato, P E

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming occurs in tumors to foster cancer cell proliferation, survival and metastasis, but as well at a systemic level affecting the whole organism, eventually leading to cancer cachexia. Indeed, as cancer cells rely on external sources of nitrogen and carbon skeleton to grow, systemic metabolic deregulation promoting tissue wasting and metabolites mobilization ultimately supports tumor growth. Cachectic patients experience a wide range of symptoms affecting several organ functions such as muscle, liver, brain, immune system and heart, collectively decreasing patients' quality of life and worsening their prognosis. Moreover, cachexia is estimated to be the direct cause of at least 20% of cancer deaths. The main aspect of cachexia syndrome is the unstoppable skeletal muscle and fat storage wasting, even with an adequate caloric intake, resulting in nutrient mobilization - both directly as lipid and amino acids and indirectly as glucose derived from the exploitation of liver gluconeogenesis - that reaches the tumor through the bloodstream. From a metabolic standpoint, cachectic host develops a wide range of dysfunctions, from increased insulin and IGF-1 resistance to induction of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and fat tissue browning resulting in an increased energy expenditure and heat generation, even at rest. For a long time, cachexia has been merely considered an epiphenomenon of end-stage tumors. However, in specific tumor types, such as pancreatic cancers, it is now clear that patients present markers of tissue wasting at a stage in which tumor is not yet clinically detectable, and that host amino acid supply is required for tumor growth. Indeed, tumor cells actively promote tissue wasting by secreting specific factors such as parathyroid hormone-related protein and micro RNAs. Understanding the molecular and metabolic mediators of cachexia will not only advance therapeutic approaches against cancer, but also improve patients' quality of life

  20. Toward a Unifying Hypothesis of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bremer, Andrew A.; Mietus-Snyder, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Despite a lack of consistent diagnostic criteria, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasingly evident in children and adolescents, portending a tsunami of chronic disease and mortality as this generation ages. The diagnostic criteria for MetS apply absolute cutoffs to continuous variables and fail to take into account aging, pubertal changes, and race/ethnicity. We attempt to define MetS mechanistically to determine its specific etiologies and to identify targets for therapy. Whereas the majority of studies document a relationship of visceral fat to insulin resistance, ectopic liver fat correlates better with dysfunctional insulin dynamics from which the rest of MetS derives. In contrast to the systemic metabolism of glucose, the liver is the primary metabolic clearinghouse for 4 specific foodstuffs that have been associated with the development of MetS: trans-fats, branched-chain amino acids, ethanol, and fructose. These 4 substrates (1) are not insulin regulated and (2) deliver metabolic intermediates to hepatic mitochondria without an appropriate “pop-off” mechanism for excess substrate, enhancing lipogenesis and ectopic adipose storage. Excessive fatty acid derivatives interfere with hepatic insulin signal transduction. Reactive oxygen species accumulate, which cannot be quenched by adjacent peroxisomes; these reactive oxygen species reach the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to a compensatory process termed the “unfolded protein response,” driving further insulin resistance and eventually insulin deficiency. No obvious drug target exists in this pathway; thus, the only rational therapeutic approaches remain (1) altering hepatic substrate availability (dietary modification), (2) reducing hepatic substrate flux (high fiber), or (3) increasing mitochondrial efficiency (exercise). PMID:22351884

  1. Pleiotropic genes for metabolic syndrome and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kraja, Aldi T.; Chasman, Daniel I.; North, Kari E.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Dehghan, Abbas; Dupuis, Josée; Johnson, Andrew D.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Chu, Audrey Y.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Dastani, Zari; Morris, Andrew; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Sun, Yan V.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Vaez, Ahmad; Lin, Honghuang; Ligthart, Symen; Marullo, Letizia; Rohde, Rebecca; Shao, Yaming; Ziegler, Mark A.; Im, Hae Kyung; Schnabel, Renate B.; Jørgensen, Torben; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Stolk, Ronald P.; Snieder, Harold; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Franco, Oscar H.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Richards, J. Brent; Rotimi, Charles; Wilson, James G.; Lange, Leslie; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Nalls, Mike; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Pankow, James S.; Coresh, Josef; Tang, Weihong; Kao, W.H. Linda; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Becker, Diane M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Larson, Martin G.; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Province, Michael A.; Tracy, Russell; Voight, Benjamin F.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; O’Donnell, Christopher; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Prokopenko, Inga; Meigs, James B.; Borecki, Ingrid B.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a health and financial burden worldwide. The MetS definition captures clustering of risk factors that predict higher risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Our study hypothesis is that additional to genes influencing individual MetS risk factors, genetic variants exist that influence MetS and inflammatory markers forming a predisposing MetS genetic network. To test this hypothesis a staged approach was undertaken. (a) We analyzed 17 metabolic and inflammatory traits in more than 85,500 participants from 14 large epidemiological studies within the Cross Consortia Pleiotropy Group. Individuals classified with MetS (NCEP definition), versus those without, showed on average significantly different levels for most inflammatory markers studied. (b) Paired average correlations between 8 metabolic traits and 9 inflammatory markers from the same studies as above, estimated with two methods, and factor analyses on large simulated data, helped in identifying 8 combinations of traits for follow-up in meta-analyses, out of 130,305 possible combinations between metabolic traits and inflammatory markers studied. (c) We performed correlated meta-analyses for 8 metabolic traits and 6 inflammatory markers by using existing GWAS published genetic summary results, with about 2.5 million SNPs from twelve predominantly largest GWAS consortia. These analyses yielded 130 unique SNPs/genes with pleiotropic associations (a SNP/gene associating at least one metabolic trait and one inflammatory marker). Of them twenty-five variants (seven loci newly reported) are proposed as MetS candidates. They map to genes MACF1, KIAA0754, GCKR, GRB14, COBLL1, LOC646736-IRS1, SLC39A8, NELFE, SKIV2L, STK19, TFAP2B, BAZ1B, BCL7B, TBL2, MLXIPL, LPL, TRIB1, ATXN2, HECTD4, PTPN11, ZNF664, PDXDC1, FTO, MC4R and TOMM40. Based on large data evidence, we conclude that inflammation is a feature of MetS and several gene variants show pleiotropic genetic

  2. The metabolic syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Parker, Ben; Bruce, Ian N

    2010-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a recently defined clustering of cardiovascular risk factors associated with increased insulin resistance and a high risk of developing type II diabetes mellitus. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with an increased prevalence of the MetS and patients also show evidence of increased insulin resistance. Controversy remains, however, regarding the precise definition of the MetS and its exact role in predicting long-term coronary heart disease risk both in SLE and in the general population. The major benefit of identifying the MetS in patients with SLE is likely to be from highlighting patients for focused lifestyle interventions and helping to guide individualized therapeutic regimes that take into account cardiovascular risk. PMID:20202592

  3. Blood-Based Biomarkers for Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Sadhbh; Bohl, Mette; Gregersen, Soren; Hermansen, Kjeld; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of factors increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. MetS diagnosis is cumbersome and the precise diagnosis differs throughout the world. Efforts are underway to find MetS biomarkers that could all be analysed in a single blood sample. Here we review recent advances, including progress on circulating exosomes and microvesicles and their molecular contents, as well as DNA, RNAs, and proteins taken directly from blood samples. While additional research is now warranted to advance upon these findings, there is reason for optimising that such blood-based entities will be beneficial for MetS diagnosis and will help reduce risk of T2DM, CVD, and cancers, contributing both societal and economic benefit. PMID:27150849

  4. Nutritional Strategies in the Prevention and Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The exact etiology remains unclear, but it is known to be a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. Amo...

  5. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a precursor of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lonardo, Amedeo; Ballestri, Stefano; Marchesini, Giulio; Angulo, Paul; Loria, Paola

    2015-03-01

    The conventional paradigm of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease representing the "hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome" is outdated. We identified and summarized longitudinal studies that, supporting the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with either type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome, suggest that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease precedes the development of both conditions. Online Medical databases were searched, relevant articles were identified, their references were further assessed and tabulated data were checked. Although several cross-sectional studies linked nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to either diabetes and other components of the metabolic syndrome, we focused on 28 longitudinal studies which provided evidence for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a risk factor for the future development of diabetes. Moreover, additional 19 longitudinal reported that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease precedes and is a risk factor for the future development of the metabolic syndrome. Finally, molecular and genetic studies are discussed supporting the view that aetiology of steatosis and lipid intra-hepatocytic compartmentation are a major determinant of whether fatty liver is/is not associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Data support the novel paradigm of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a strong determinant for the development of the metabolic syndrome, which has potentially relevant clinical implications for diagnosing, preventing and treating metabolic syndrome. PMID:25739820

  6. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma and metabolic syndrome: An update

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Rubayat; Hammoud, Ghassan M; Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Ahmed, Khulood T; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma has increased dramatically by 80% over the past two decades in the United States. Numerous basic science and clinical studies have documented a strong association between hepatocellular carcinoma and the metabolic syndrome. These studies have documented that, in most patients, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, which may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma through the cirrhotic process. However, minority of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis. This review summarizes the current literature of the link between hepatocellular carcinoma and metabolic syndrome with special emphasis on various components of the metabolic syndrome including risk of association with obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Current understanding of pathophysiology, clinical features, treatments, outcomes, and surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma in the background of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is reviewed. With the current epidemic of metabolic syndrome, the number of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing. Subsequently, it is expected that the incidence and prevalence of HCC will also increase. It is very important for the scientific community to shed more light on the pathogenesis of HCC with metabolic syndrome, both with and without cirrhosis. At the same time it is also important to quantify the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with the metabolic syndrome in a prospective setting and develop surveillance recommendations for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:24069511

  7. Metabolic syndrome and mammographic density in Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Megan; Biessy, Carine; Lajous, Martin; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Romieu, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer; however little is known about the association between metabolic syndrome and percent mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 789 premenopausal and 322 postmenopausal women in the Mexican Teacher's Cohort (ESMaestras). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition. We measured percent density on mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between density and metabolic syndrome, as well as its components by state (Jalisco, Veracruz) and menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal). Results Among premenopausal women in Jalisco, women with metabolic syndrome had higher percent density compared to those without after adjusting for potential confounders including BMI (difference = 4.76, 95%CI: 1.72, 7.81). Among the metabolic syndrome components, only low high-density lipoprotein levels (<50mg/dl) were associated with significantly higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco (difference=4.62, 95%CI: 1.73, 7.52). Metabolic syndrome was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz (difference=-2.91, 95% CI: -7.19, 1.38), nor among postmenopausal women in either state. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome was associated with higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco, Mexico, but was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz, Mexico or among postmenopausal women in either Jalisco or Veracruz. These findings provide some support for a possible role of metabolic syndrome in mammographic density among premenopausal women; however results were inconsistent across states and require further confirmation in larger studies. PMID:23682074

  8. Atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia, a component of metabolic syndrome, is characterized by high levels of apolipoprotein B (apo B)-containing lipoproteins, including very-low-density lipoprotein remnants and small low-density lipoprotein particles, and reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Although the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III includes elevations in blood pressure and plasma glucose in the definition of metabolic syndrome, the broader scope of metabolic syndrome includes proinflammatory and prothrombotic states, which derive from the secretory activity of adipose tissue. Abdominal fat can adversely affect insulin action and the disposal of glucose through an increase in the release of free fatty acid, resulting in accumulation of triglyceride in muscle and liver, thereby depressing insulin action and increasing output of apo B-containing lipoproteins. Impaired regulation of adipokines, bioactive substances secreted from adipose tissue, likely produces systemic inflammation, which can promote atherogenesis. Insulin resistance is recognized as an important metabolic defect linking the components of metabolic syndrome. One molecule that may play an important role in metabolic syndrome to regulate metabolic and vascular pathways is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma). Studies have established PPAR-gamma deficiency as a cause of lipodystrophy and confirmed its adipogenic role. Patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome should undergo global risk assessment for cardiovascular disease and future cardiovascular events to determine an overall treatment strategy. PMID:16903166

  9. Radiology of syndromes and metabolic disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Taybi, H.; Lachman, R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe both the clinical and radiologic manifestations of 700 syndromes. They provide illustrations describing each syndrome and descriptions of those syndromes discovered since publication of a previous edition.

  10. Genetics of Insulin Resistance and the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brown, Audrey E; Walker, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome are complex metabolic traits and key risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. They result from the interplay of environmental and genetic factors but the full extent of the genetic background to these conditions remains incomplete. Large-scale genome-wide association studies have helped advance the identification of common genetic variation associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, and more recently, exome sequencing has allowed the identification of rare variants associated with the pathogenesis of these conditions. Many variants associated with insulin resistance are directly involved in glucose metabolism; however, functional studies are required to assess the contribution of other variants to the development of insulin resistance. Many genetic variants involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome are associated with lipid metabolism. PMID:27312935

  11. Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in a Japanese working population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome has become a major public health concern, but the role of diet in the etiology of this syndrome is not well understood. This study investigated the association between major dietary patterns and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a Japanese working population. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 460 municipal employees (284 men and 176 women), aged 21–67 years, who participated in a health survey at the time of periodic checkup. Dietary patterns were derived by using the principal component analysis of the consumption of 52 food and beverage items, which were assessed by a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Results Three dietary patterns were identified. Westernized breakfast pattern characterized by high intakes of bread, confectionaries, and milk and yogurt but low intakes of rice and alcoholic beverages was inversely associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure (P for trend = 0.02 and 0.049, respectively). Animal food pattern characterized by high intakes of fish and shellfish, meat, processed meat, mayonnaise, and egg was not associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but was positively associated with high blood glucose (P for trend = 0.03). Healthy Japanese dietary pattern characterized by vegetables and fruits, soy products, mushrooms, and green tea was not appreciably associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome or its components. Conclusions The results suggest that westernized breakfast pattern may confer some protection against metabolic syndrome in Japanese. The causality of these associations needs to be confirmed. PMID:23537319

  12. The metabolic syndrome as a concept of adipose tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji

    2008-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of interrelated metabolic risk factors that appear to directly promote the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, in 2005, the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes jointly stated that no existing definition of the metabolic syndrome meets the criteria of a syndrome, and there have been endless debates on the pros and cons of using the concept of this syndrome. The controversy may stem from confusion between the syndrome and obesity. Obesity is an epidemic, essentially contagious disease caused by an environment of excess nutritional energy and reinforced by deeply rooted social norms. The epidemic of obesity should be prevented or controlled by social and political means, similar to the approaches now being taken to combat global warming. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome is useless for this public purpose. The purpose of establishing criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome is to find individuals who are at increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and who require specific therapy including diet and exercise. The syndrome may be an adipose tissue disease different from obesity; in that case, it would be characterized by inflammation clinically detected through systemic inflammatory markers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and insulin resistance reflecting histological changes in adipose tissue. However, many problems in defining the optimal diagnostic criteria remain unresolved. PMID:18957797

  13. Metabolic syndrome in a screened worksite sample: prevalence and predictors.

    PubMed

    Godefroi, Robert; Klementowicz, Peter; Pepler, Catherine; Lewis, Barbara; McDonough, Kenneth; Goldberg, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Relatively limited contemporary information is available about the magnitude of, and factors associated with, the metabolic syndrome in adult men and women. The purpose of our observational study was to describe the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic syndrome in a sample of employed adults attending a worksite cardiovascular screening program. The study sample consisted of 871 men and women between the ages of 21 and 77 years from 6 locations of the parent company. These individuals attended an employer-sponsored cardiovascular screening and wellness program during 2003. A standardized questionnaire was administered to all study participants and a number of different coronary risk factors were measured. Approximately 27% of the study sample was classified as having the metabolic syndrome. Men, persons with a history of hypertension, heart disease, or stroke, sedentary individuals, and those with an increased heart rate and higher levels of C-reactive protein were associated with presence of the metabolic syndrome. A relatively similar risk factor profile was noted in persons without a self-reported history of prior cardiovascular disease. The results of our cross-sectional observational study suggest that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is considerable. A number of demographic, comorbid, and other factors are associated with this syndrome. Increased attention to the metabolic syndrome, and modification of predisposing factors, remains of considerable public health and clinical importance. PMID:15665535

  14. Medicinal agents in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baños, G; Pérez-Torres, I; El Hafidi, M

    2008-10-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) has become a worldwide health problem. It is difficult for patients to follow a diet/exercise regime that would improve their symptoms, therefore the investigation of agents that may deal with its more serious aspects is an important medical field for research. The cardiovascular consequences associated with the syndrome and some of the therapeutic approaches are discussed. The different agents can be divided into several groups: Inorganic/ organic: Zinc complexes with garlic components as insulino-mimetics; Selenium as antioxidant; Copper, Zinc and Manganese as microcomponents of antioxidant enzymes. Organic: Natural or Synthetic: Glycine is effective in lowering blood pressure, TBARS, intra-abdominal fat tissue and triglycerides in sucrose-fed rats. Pharmaceutical products: Fibrates, Lipid-lowering drugs. Antidiabetics. Anti-gout agents. On the other hand there are natural products such as those of animal origin: Sex hormones (also synthetic) used in the problems of menopause and hypoandrogenism frequently found in the MS, antioxidant Omega-3-oils (fish oils) or Vegetal: for example Digitalis pupurea, century-old cardiovascular medication as well as Magnolia officinalis; Spirulina maxima with beneficial effects as antioxidant and lipid-lowering agent, among others. Prickly Pear Cacti. (Opuntia Ficus- Indica Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng) whose many properties against diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have been empirically known for many years. Perezone (from Perezia plants, a.k.a. Peonia) described as an antiplatelet aggregating agent. The mixed elements in the Mediterranean diet: Fish, salads (peppers, tomatoes), olive oil, garlic, red wine which combines fish oils, garlic and avocado as well as antioxidants from the rest of its components. PMID:18855636

  15. Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zahiri, Ziba; Sharami, Seyedeh Hajar; Milani, Forozan; Mohammadi, Fereshteh; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Hannan; Dalil Heirati, Seyedeh Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been studied in different populations, but their results were so controversial regarding Iranian women. These controversial data indicated the need for more investigation of MetS characteristics in PCOS patients in our population. So this study aimed to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics and metabolic features of patients with PCOS in Rasht. Materials and Methods This prospective cross sectional study was conducted on 215 PCOS women who lived in Rasht, north of Iran, from March 2010 to July 2012. The participants were then divided into two groups of women with MetS (n=62) and women without MetS (n=153). The diagnosis of PCOS and MetS were based on the Rotterdam 2003 criteria and the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria, respectively. Demographic characteristics, fertility characteristics, family history and laboratory findings were assessed. Results The prevalence of MetS in women with PCOS was 28.8%. In PCOS women of both groups, the waist circumference (WC) exceeded 88cm in 72.6%, hypertension [systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥130/85mm Hg] was prevalent in 9.3%, fasting blood sugar (FBS) level was ≥110 mg/dl in 6%, triglycerides (Tg) level were ≥150 mg/dl in 47%, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was <50 mg/dl in 86%. The values of WC, SBP, DBP, body mass index (BMI), ovarian size, Tg, cholesterol, FBS, 2-hour blood sugar, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly greater in PCOS women with MetS than women without MetS. Also HDL and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in women with MetS were significantly lower than women without MetS. Conclusion Prevalence of MetS in PCOS women was 28.8%, indicating that this value is higher than other studies conducted on PCOS women in Iran and other studies conducted on general population in Iran. PCOS women are

  16. OXIDATIVE STRESS STATUS IN HUMANS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each component of the constellation of Metabolic Syndrome signs - dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and obesity - has been associated, though not unequivocally, with an elevation of oxidative stress. Moreover, reductions in these conditions appear generally associated with attenuation of b...

  17. The Metabolic Syndrome and Biochemical Recurrence following Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Post, Jennifer M.; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L.; Morgenstern, Hal; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Bock, Cathryn H.; Nock, Nora; Rundle, Andrew; Jankowski, Michelle; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome refers to a set of conditions that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and has been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, particularly among African American men. This study aimed to estimate the association of metabolic syndrome with biochemical recurrence (BCR) in a racially diverse population. Among 383 radical prostatectomy patients, 67 patients had documented biochemical recurrence. Hypertension was significantly, positively associated with the rate of BCR (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.1; 95%  CI = 1.1, 3.8). There were distinct racial differences in the prevalence of individual metabolic syndrome components; however, the observed associations with BCR did not differ appreciably by race. We conclude that hypertension may contribute to a poorer prognosis in surgically treated prostate cancer patients. Our findings suggest that targeting components of the metabolic syndrome which are potentially modifiable through lifestyle interventions may be a viable strategy to reduce risk of BCR in prostate cancer. PMID:22096652

  18. Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology: the role of adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several physiopathological explanations for the metabolic syndrome have been proposed involving insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and ectopic fat accumulation following adipose tissue saturation. However, current concepts create several paradoxes, including limited cardiovascular risk reducti...

  19. [Metabolic syndrome and prevention of migraine headache].

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Takao

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) are consist of central obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Previous studies have reported possible association of migraine and MetS were reviewed. Migraine is a prevalent disabling disorder and have been regarded as an episodic and functional disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that in some cases, the disease may follow a chronic and progressive course. On the basis of available evidence, obesity is considered to be associated with migraine frequency and progression. The association between diabetes and migraine is unclear. Similarly, association of migraine with hypertension is also unclear. Female migraineurs commonly have an unfavorable cholesterol profile, i.e. one with high total cholesterol and low HDL levels. Obesity can be considered as a proinflammatory state in which increased inflammatory mediators, vascular hyperreactivity, plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentrations and decreased adiponectin concentrations are observed. These alterations can cause an increase in the frequency of migraine attacks developed of central sensitization, and thereafter, chronic migraine. Migraine and obesity may share some neurobiological abnormalities. Orexins modulate both pain and metabolism. Dysfunction in the orexin pathways seems to be a risk factor for both conditions. The methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene exhibit polymorphism. C677Tmutation in the MTHFR gene and the D-allele of the ACE gene are the shared risk factors for the development of migraine and cardiovascular disease. Certain beta-blockers, Ca blockers, ACE inhibitors, and angionten II receptor blocker (ARB) have excellent efficacy in migraine prophylaxis. The pharmacological mechanism of these agents do not seem to stand on their antihypertensive effect, but the other mechanism of action. Appropriate meal, sleep, and exercise are important for the management of MetS and migraine

  20. Periodontal disease: the influence of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that include obesity, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, more attention has been reserved to the correlation between periodontitis and systemic health. MetS is characterized by oxidative stress, a condition in which the equilibrium between the production and the inactivation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) becomes disrupted. ROS have an essential role in a variety of physiological systems, but under a condition of oxidative stress, they contribute to cellular dysfunction and damage. Oxidative stress may act as a common link to explain the relationship between each component of MetS and periodontitis. All those conditions show increased serum levels of products derived from oxidative damage, promoting a proinflammatory state. Moreover, adipocytokines, produced by the fat cells of fat tissue, might modulate the balance between oxidant and antioxidant activities. An increased caloric intake involves a higher metabolic activity, which results in an increased production of ROS, inducing insulin resistance. At the same time, obese patients require more insulin to maintain blood glucose homeostasis – a state known as hyperinsulinemia, a condition that can evolve into type 2 diabetes. Oxidation products can increase neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis, thus favoring oxidative damage. Hyperglycemia and an oxidizing state promote the genesis of advanced glycation end-products, which could also be implicated in the degeneration and damage of periodontal tissue. Thus, MetS, the whole of interconnected factors, presents systemic and local manifestations, such as cardiovascular disease and periodontitis, related by a common factor known as oxidative stress. PMID:23009606

  1. [Metabolic and Reproductive Consequences of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)].

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Michael; Stopp, Tina; Göbl, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome represents the most common endocrine disease of women of reproductive age. Symptoms include metabolic, gynecologic and cosmetic features. Genetic factors seem to contribute to the disease, affecting not only women but also male relatives of patients with similar symptoms. Besides, lifestyle factors play a central role impacting clinical PCOS appearance. Following we present an overview of the syndrome, its epidemiology, metabolic and gynecological aspects, gender and genetic factors and its therapy. PMID:26819214

  2. Metabolic Syndrome in a Metapopulation of Croatian Island Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kolčić, Ivana; Vorko-Jović, Ariana; Salzer, Branka; Smoljanović, Mladen; Kern, Josipa; Vuletić, Silvije

    2006-01-01

    Aim To investigate the prevalence and factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in 9 isolated populations on Adriatic islands, Croatia, and in the group of immigrants to these islands. Methods Random samples of 100 inhabitants from each village and 101 immigrants were collected during 2002 and 2003. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used in data analysis. Age, gender, village, diet, smoking habits, physical activity, education, occupational class, and personal genetic history (a pedigree-based estimate of the individual genome-wide heterozygosity level) were used as independent variables in logistic regression. Results A total of 343 (34%) examinees met criteria of the metabolic syndrome diagnosis, with significant differences in the prevalence among villages (P = 0.002). Metabolic syndrome was most frequently detected on Mljet island (53%), where all examinees exhibited fasting plasma glucose over 6.1 mmol/L. Examinees with metabolic syndrome were significantly older than those without it (median age 60.0 vs 53.0; P<0.001). Women were more frequently diagnosed than men (39% vs 28%; P<0.001). The highest prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was found in the autochthonous group, whereas the lowest proportion was recorded in the admixed group (39% vs 21%, respectively, P = 0.017). However, only age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.03-1.08) and having a university degree (OR, 0.18; 95% CI 0.04-0.92) were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in the regression model. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome was not associated with pedigree-based individual genome-wide heterozygosity estimate, after controlling for a number of confounding factors. More precise marker based genomic measures are needed to provide a clear answer whether metabolic syndrome development is influenced by the population genetic structure. PMID:16909456

  3. The beneficial effects of taurine in preventing metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Guo, Junxia; Zhang, Yanzhen; Zhang, Jing

    2016-04-20

    Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, has become a very serious public health concern. A number of studies have provided evidence that taurine has an efficient action against metabolic syndrome, which includes reducing triglycerides to prevent obesity, improving insulin resistance to regulate glucose metabolism, lowering cholesterol (especially decreasing VLDL + LDL cholesterol and increasing HDL cholesterol) to prevent diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, and regulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the kallikrein-kinin system etc. to reduce blood pressure. This review summarizes the data from in vitro, animal and limited human studies of beneficial effects of taurine on obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and addresses the possible metabolic and molecular mechanisms of the prevention of metabolic syndrome by taurine. PMID:26918249

  4. The metabolic syndrome in South Asians: continuing escalation & possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Misra, Anoop; Misra, Ranjita; Wijesuriya, Mahen; Banerjee, Dipanjan

    2007-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a crucial factor in causation of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in South Asians. Approximately 20-25 per cent of urban South Asians have evidence of the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, insulin resistance was reported to be present in nearly 30 per cent of children and adolescents in India, more so in girls. At the same time many young individuals have clustering of other risk factors/conditions related to insulin resistance (e.g., non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnoea, etc.). Rapid nutritional and lifestyle transition in urbanized areas in various countries in South Asia are prime reasons for increasing prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. It is particularly important to effectively implement and strengthen population-based primary prevention strategies for the prevention of 'epidemic' of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The lifestyle factor modification to prevent the metabolic syndrome and T2DM in South Asians should start in early childhood. Finally, there is an urgent need to conduct research studies regarding the correct definitions of the metabolic syndrome and genetic and perinatal factors related to insulin resistance in South Asians. PMID:17496360

  5. The molecular mechanisms between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Ya-Yuan; Li, Zhi-Rong; Luo, Dong-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-03-18

    Metabolic syndrome, which is extremely common in developed and some developing countries, is a clustering of at least three of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein levels. It has been proved that there is a strong association between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer. Metabolic syndrome could increase the risk of breast cancer and influence the prognosis of the breast cancer patients. Some characteristic of metabolic syndrome such as obesity and lack of physical exercise are all risk factors for developing breast cancer. The metabolic syndrome mainly include obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and each of them impacts the risk of breast cancer and the prognosis of the breast cancer patients in different ways. In this Review, we focus on recently uncovered aspects of the immunological and molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the development of this highly prevalent and serious disease. These studies bring new insight into the complex associations between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer and have led to the development of novel therapeutic strategies that might enable a personalized approach in the management of this disease. PMID:26891869

  6. Occupation-Related Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel-Angel; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; González-Quintela, Arturo; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Cabrera, Martha; Sáinz, Juan-Carlos; Fernández-Meseguer, Ana; Banegas, José R.; Ruilope, Luis-Miguel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Román-García, Javier

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Spanish working population and determine how the prevalence varies according to occupation and sex. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional study of 259,014 workers (mean age 36.4 years, range [16–74]; 72.9% male) who underwent a routine medical checkup. The Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) definition for metabolic syndrome was used. RESULTS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 11.6% (95% CI 11.5–11.7) in male subjects and 4.1% (4.0–4.2) in female subjects and increased with age. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied in the different categories of occupational activity depending on the sex considered. Among female subjects, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in blue-collar than in white-collar workers, but this difference was not evident among male workers. CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies in the different categories of occupational activity in the Spanish working population. This variation also depends on sex. PMID:18753667

  7. Is Socioeconomic Position Related to the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Sheena E.; Whincup, Peter H.; Morris, Richard; Lennon, Lucy; Wannamethee, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine whether adult social class and childhood social class are related to metabolic syndrome in later life, independent of adult behavioral factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a population-based cross-sectional study comprising 2,968 men aged 60–79 years. RESULTS—Adult social class and childhood social class were both inversely related to metabolic syndrome. Mutual adjustment attenuated the relation of metabolic syndrome with childhood social class; that with adult social class was little affected. However, the relation with adult social class was markedly attenuated by adjustment for smoking status, physical activity, and alcohol consumption. High waist circumference was independently associated with adult social class. CONCLUSIONS—The association between adult social class and metabolic syndrome was largely explained by behavioral factors. In addition, central adiposity, a component of metabolic syndrome, was associated with adult social class. Focusing on healthier behaviors and obesity, rather than specific efforts to reduce social inequalities surrounding metabolic syndrome, is likely to be particularly important in reducing social inequalities that affect people with coronary disease. PMID:18809625

  8. What is metabolic syndrome, and why are children getting it?

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Ram; Bremer, Andrew A; Lustig, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity) that occur in obese children. However, metabolic syndrome can also occur in lean individuals, suggesting that obesity is a marker for the syndrome, not a cause. Metabolic syndrome is difficult to define, due to its nonuniform classification and reliance on hard cutoffs in the evaluation of disorders with non-Gaussian distributions. Defining the syndrome is even more difficult in children, owing to racial and pubertal differences and lack of cardiovascular events. Lipid partitioning among specific fat depots is associated with insulin resistance, which can lead to mitochondrial overload and dysfunctional subcellular energy use and drive the various elements of metabolic syndrome. Multiple environmental factors, in particular a typical Western diet, drive mitochondrial overload, while other changes in Western society, such as stress and sleep deprivation, increase insulin resistance and the propensity for food intake. These culminate in an adverse biochemical phenotype, including development of altered glucose metabolism and early atherogenesis during childhood and early adulthood. PMID:23356701

  9. What is metabolic syndrome, and why are children getting it?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Ram; Bremer, Andrew A; Lustig, Robert H

    2013-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity) that occur in obese children. However, metabolic syndrome can also occur in lean individuals, suggesting that obesity is a marker for the syndrome, not a cause. Metabolic syndrome is difficult to define, due to its nonuniform classification and reliance on hard cutoffs in the evaluation of disorders with non-Gaussian distributions. Defining the syndrome is even more difficult in children, owing to racial and pubertal differences and lack of cardiovascular events. Lipid partitioning among specific fat depots is associated with insulin resistance, which can lead to mitochondrial overload and dysfunctional subcellular energy use and drive the various elements of metabolic syndrome. Multiple environmental factors, in particular a typical Western diet, drive mitochondrial overload, while other changes in Western society, such as stress and sleep deprivation, increase insulin resistance and the propensity for food intake. These culminate in an adverse biochemical phenotype, including development of altered glucose metabolism and early atherogenesis during childhood and early adulthood. PMID:23356701

  10. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Uzunlulu, Mehmet; Telci Caklili, Ozge; Oguz, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Growing data show the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or its components with cancer development and cancer-related mortality. It is suggested that in MetS and cancer association, insulin resistance and insulin-like growth factor 1 system play a key role, especially adipokines secreted from visceral adipocytes, free fatty acids and aromatase activity contribute to this process. It is also reported that MetS has a link with colorectal, breast, endometrial, pancreas, primary liver and, although controversial, prostate cancer. Although every component of MetS is known to have an association with cancer development, it is still debated whether the effects of these components are additive or synergistic. On the other hand, in the association between MetS and cancer, the role of antidiabetic and antihypertensive treatments including thiazolidinedione, insulin, angiotensin receptor blockers is also suggested. The primary approach in MetS-cancer relation is to prevent risk factors. Life style changes including weight loss and a healthy diet are known to decrease cancer risk in normal population. It is postulated that an insulin-sensitizing agent, metformin, has cancer-preventing effects on diabetic patients. This review discusses the relationship between MetS and cancer from different aspects and examines this relationship in some of the cancers suggested to be linked with MetS. PMID:26895247

  11. Relevance of postprandial lipemia in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder defined by the aggregation of interconnected cardiometabolic risk factors which increase the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disease (CVD). MetS is currently a matter of concern and it will continue to be in the future, since there is likely to be a dramatic increase in its prevalence, and subjects with MetS will have an increased risk of mortality, mainly through CVD. Moreover, the implications on the global health burden and the worldwide epidemic of this complex disorder will impact greatly on socioeconomic cost. MetS is therefore a matter of serious concern and we need to understand its etiology in order to improve strategies of treatment and prevention. In this regard, postprandial lipemia has increased in importance over the last few years as it has been demonstrated to influence the development of atherosclerosis. In addition, in modern times, fasting is not the typical physiological state of humans; in fact, they spend most of the time in the postprandial state. However, although it is obvious that postprandial lipemia is present in conditions of obesity, little is known about the relevance of postprandial lipemia in MetS. In the current review, we will explore some aspects of postprandial lipemia which could be of interest for understanding the pathogenesis of this complex disorder and which may help us advance towards more personalized nutrition. PMID:24168444

  12. Metabolic Syndrome in IgA Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Kaartinen, Kati; Syrjänen, Jaana; Pörsti, Ilkka; Harmoinen, Aimo; Huhtala, Heini; Mustonen, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Metabolic syndrome (MetS) may have an independent impact on the development of chronic kidney disease. This study examines the prevalence of MetS in subjects with IgA glomerulonephritis (IgAGN) and its impact on disease progression in a retrospective fashion. Patients and Methods Altogether, 174 subjects (104 males) were examined 11 years (first visit) after IgAGN diagnosis and again after 16 years (second visit; 144 subjects responded). Different glomerular filtration markers were utilized. The MetS criteria by Alberti et al. [Circulation 2009;120:1640-1645] were applied, in which the presence of any three of five risk factors (elevated waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose, existence of hypertension, or reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) constitutes the diagnosis. Results The prevalence of MetS at the first visit was 39%, corresponding to that of the general Finnish population. In univariate analyses, MetS was significantly associated with the progression of IgAGN at the second visit. However, in multivariate analyses, the existence of MetS was not a significant prognostic determinant. Conclusion The number of subjects with MetS among IgAGN patients and the general population is equal in Finland. MetS does not seem to be an independent prognostic variable. PMID:25337083

  13. Turner's syndrome presenting as metabolic bone disease.

    PubMed

    Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Balachandran, Karthik; Ananthakrishnan, Ramesh; Hamide, Abdoul

    2012-07-01

    Turner's syndrome is a genetic disorder with a complete or partial absence of one X chromosome with characteristic phenotypic features. The prevalence of renal anomalies in turner syndrome is 30-40%. However, the renal function is usually normal. We report a case of Turner's syndrome presenting with chronic kidney disease and renal osteodystrophy. PMID:22837932

  14. [The nutrition of acute phase in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Rie; Sebe, Mayu

    2016-03-01

    In this session, we describe the acute phase in patients with metabolic syndrome from two sides; acute disease that occurs higher in patients with metabolic syndrome such as colonary heart disease and stroke, and acute aggravation of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome. The electrolyte imbalance is frequently detected in critical ill patients. It is reported that the extreme abnormalities of ionized calcium concentrations are independent predictors of mortality. In addition, from clinical database MIMIC-Ⅱ,calcium supplementation improves clinical outcome in intensive care unit patients. Although metabolic syndrome; lifestyle-related disease, is a chronic disease, the possibility of falling into acute disease by having it becomes very high and improvement of electrolyte imbalance, especially hypocalcaemia is expected to effective on clinical outcome. PMID:26923986

  15. Metabolic syndrome in the survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ouf, Noran M; Jan, Mohammed M

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a common complication encountered in children surviving acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Affected patients develop obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Metabolic syndrome is a consequence of multiple factors, particularly hormonal imbalance induced by various ALL treatments. This review aims to evaluate the risk factors and mechanisms leading to the development of metabolic syndrome. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the mechanisms leading to insulin resistance and the associated endothelial and adipose tissue dysfunction. Future studies should also examine other possible contributing factors, such as environmental and genetic factors. Understanding these factors will help in guiding modifications of the current ALL treatment protocols in order to prevent the development of this syndrome and hence improve the quality of life of ALL survivors. Until this is achieved, clinicians should continue to identify patients at risk early and use a therapeutic approach that combines dietary restrictions and enhanced physical activity. PMID:25081809

  16. Hemostasis alterations in metabolic syndrome (review).

    PubMed

    Palomo, Iván; Alarcón, Marcelo; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Argilés, Josep M

    2006-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by the presence of at least three of the following alterations: enlargement of the waist diameter, higher levels of arterial pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and glycemia, and reduction of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The prevalence of MS reaches 23% in young adults, a percentage that increases with age. People with MS have a greater risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD). The physiopathologic alterations now found to exist in MS are diverse; among them is endothelial dysfunction, which triggers atherogenic lesions and hypercoagulability characterized by alterations of the coagulation factors and the regulatory proteins of fibrinolysis such as the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1). The increase in oxidative stress and/or the reactive oxygen species in patients with MS is partially related to the oxidation state of the lipoproteins, especially of the low density lipoproteins. This fact favors atherogenesis. Moreover, the oxidative stress produces alterations in the production of adipokines, cytokines secreted by the adipose tissues. The abnormality in the transport of lipoprotein diminishes the catabolism of the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and increases the catabolism of the high density lipoprotein (HDL), which creates insulin resistance. This process is associated with a lower concentration of adiponectin that in turn regulates the catabolism of VLDL and HDL; consequently increasing the flow of fatty acids from the adipose tissue to the liver and muscles. The proinflammatory cytokines, among them tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), are of great importance in MS regulating different processes and molecules such as PAI-1. PAI-1 is controlled by the group of transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), especially by PPAR gamma and alpha ligands. In summary, MS includes multiple alterations related to insulin resistance at several levels: hepatic

  17. Metabolic syndrome in prostate cancer: impact on risk and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Karzai, Fatima H; Madan, Ravi A; Dahut, William L

    2016-08-01

    Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is a fundamental element of treatment for nonlocalized prostate cancer and for patients with high-risk disease who are not candidates for radical treatment. ADT has been linked to metabolic syndrome, which involves changes in metabolic factors. While distinct from classic metabolic syndrome, this type does include changes in body composition, lipid profiles and insulin resistance. The constellation of risk factors may be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and the onset of diabetes mellitus. Physicians should discuss in detail the risk and benefits of ADT, as well as any needed lifestyle modifications with patients before beginning therapy. PMID:27067408

  18. Positive Attributes Protect Adolescents from Risk for the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Midei, Aimee J.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Risk for cardiovascular disease develops as early as adolescence. The primary objective of the present study is to identify whether low levels of positive and high levels of negative emotions and attitudes are associated with the combination of cardiovascular risk factors known as the metabolic syndrome. Methods Participants were 239 healthy adolescents (57% black, 53% female, mean age = 15.7) from a low to middle class community. They completed measures of negative and positive emotions and attitudes, which were factor-analyzed and yielded two factors. Positive Attributes included general positive affect, optimistic attitudes, subjective social status, and self-esteem. Negative Emotions included cynical attitudes, depressive symptoms, trait anger, and general negative affect. Components of the metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, glucose, blood pressure, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were standardized and averaged to create a metabolic syndrome composite risk score. Results Linear regression analyses showed that the Positive Attributes factor was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome composite risk score, p < .01. The relationship remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, physical activity, smoking, and body mass index percentile. The Negative Emotion factor was unrelated to metabolic risk score. Conclusion Adolescents with more positive attributes had lower metabolic syndrome risk scores. This study emphasizes the importance of the development of psychosocial resources during the adolescent transition for potentially reducing future cardiovascular risk. PMID:25060290

  19. Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Be-Long; An, Ah-Reum; Seo, Young-Gyun; Jin, Ho-Seong; Oh, Seung-Min; Jang, Soo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and metabolic syndrome (Mets) are considered to be diseases with common traits that can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease incidence; studies in other countries examined the relationship between these diseases. However, existing studies did not show consistent results. In the present study, the relationship between RA and Mets in Koreans was examined using the data of the 4th and 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods The present study used the data of the 4th and 5th KNHANES, conducted between 2007 and 2012. Among 25,812 adults aged over 40, 19,893 were selected as study subjects, excluding 5,919 who did not have variable information needed for the analysis. T-test and chi-square test were used for the analysis of related variables. To determine the relationship between diagnostic status of RA and Mets, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed by controlling confounding variables, which were selected through literature review and statistical analysis. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between diagnostic status of RA and Mets. When age, education level, average monthly household income, smoking, alcohol consumption, and level of physical activity were adjusted, the prevalence of Mets was lower in RA patients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.96). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between treatment status of RA and Mets. When age, education level, average monthly household income, smoking, alcohol consumption, and level of physical activity were adjusted, there was a significant negative correlation in women (aOR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.96). Conclusion The relationship between RA and Mets showed a significantly negative correlation in Korean women. The group that received RA treatment showed significantly lower prevalence

  20. Metabolic Syndrome, Aging and Involvement of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bonomini, Francesca; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity and insulin resistance, is dramatically increasing in Western and developing countries. This disorder consists of a cluster of metabolic conditions, such as hypertriglyceridemia, hyper-low-density lipoproteins, hypo-high-density lipoproteins, insulin resistance, abnormal glucose tolerance and hypertension, that-in combination with genetic susceptibility and abdominal obesity-are risk factors for type 2 diabetes, vascular inflammation, atherosclerosis, and renal, liver and heart diseases. One of the defects in metabolic syndrome and its associated diseases is excess of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species generated by mitochondria, or from other sites within or outside the cell, cause damage to mitochondrial components and initiate degradative processes. Such toxic reactions contribute significantly to the aging process. In this article we review current understandings of oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome related disease and its possible contribution to accelerated senescence. PMID:25821639

  1. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity. Results: The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032) and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006). All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01). In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%. Conclusions: All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance. PMID:24676191

  2. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Mike EJ

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30–40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5–10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35–40 kg/m2 with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists. PMID:26998259

  3. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Han, Thang S; Lean, Mike Ej

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30-40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5-10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35-40 kg/m(2) with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists. PMID:26998259

  4. Obesity-Driven Gut Microbiota Inflammatory Pathways to Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz H. A.; Galvão, José G. F. M.; da Silva, Juliane Santos de França; de Sales-Neto, José M.; Rodrigues-Mascarenhas, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The intimate interplay between immune system, metabolism, and gut microbiota plays an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis and possible obesity development. Obesity involves impairment of immune response affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with inflammation have not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, gut microbiota, via innate immune receptors, has emerged as one of the key factors regulating events triggering acute inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inflammatory disorders lead to several signaling transduction pathways activation, inflammatory cytokine, chemokine production and cell migration, which in turn cause metabolic dysfunction. Inflamed adipose tissue, with increased macrophages infiltration, is associated with impaired preadipocyte development and differentiation to mature adipose cells, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and inflammation, which is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms governing metabolic syndrome. PMID:26635627

  5. Metabolic Syndrome Sinkholes: What to Do When Occam's Razor Gets Blunted.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ross D; Anderson, Todd J; Touyz, Rhian M

    2015-05-01

    The real promise of the metabolic syndrome concept was the opportunity to elucidate a singular common mechanism for its component abnormalities and consequently a singular therapy. That promise has not produced. This relates to the following considerations: (1) metabolic syndrome remains a syndrome not a disease, (2) its diagnosis offers little more than what can be determined by measuring waist circumference, (3) risk assessment is not improved by the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, (4) the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome does not impact the treatment of each component of the syndrome, and (5) there is no effective therapy for metabolic syndrome in its entirety. PMID:25936488

  6. Pycnogenol® in Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Om P

    2015-07-01

    The present review provides an update of the biological actions of Pycnogenol® in the treatment of metabolic syndrome and related disorders such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and hypertension. Pycnogenol® is a French maritime pine bark extract produced from the outer bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. Subsp. atlantica. Its strong antioxidant, antiinflammatory, endothelium-dependent vasodilator activity, and also its anti-thrombotic effects make it appropriate for targeting the multifaceted pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. Clinical studies have shown that it can reduce blood glucose levels in people with diabetes, blood pressure in mild to moderate hypertensive patients, and waist circumference, and improve lipid profile, renal and endothelial functions in metabolic syndrome. This review highlights the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and related clinical research findings on the safety and efficacy of Pycnogenol®. The results of clinical research studies performed with Pycnogenol® are discussed using an evidence-based, target-oriented approach following the pathophysiology of individual components as well as in metabolic syndrome overall. PMID:25931421

  7. [The use of various diet supplements in metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sicińska, Paulina; Pytel, Edyta; Maćczak, Aneta; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Civilization development is associated with immense progress in science and significant improvement of human living conditions but simultaneously it contributes to many health problems including metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a set of mutually associated factors including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, lipids disorders and hypertension, which is the main cause of development of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. The first line of defense against metabolic syndrome is a change of life style including body mass reduction, application of a low-calorie diet and performance of physical activity. In spite of the simplicity of therapy, long-term success of the above treatment among patients is observed seldom because it is very difficult to obey rigorous rules. Nowadays, it is considered that diet supplements including antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids and mineral elements are helpful in metabolic syndrome treatment due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is considered that a health balanced diet enriched with various diet supplements may be the best strategy in metabolic syndrome treatment. PMID:25589711

  8. The metabolic vascular syndrome - guide to an individualized treatment.

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, Markolf; Pistrosch, Frank; Bornstein, Stefan R; Birkenfeld, Andreas L

    2016-03-01

    In ancient Greek medicine the concept of a distinct syndrome (going together) was used to label 'a group of signs and symptoms' that occur together and 'characterize a particular abnormality and condition'. The (dys)metabolic syndrome is a common cluster of five pre-morbid metabolic-vascular risk factors or diseases associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, fatty liver disease and risk of cancer. The risk for major complications such as cardiovascular diseases, NASH and some cancers develops along a continuum of risk factors into clinical diseases. Therefore we still include hyperglycemia, visceral obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension as diagnostic traits in the definition according to the term 'deadly quartet'. From the beginning elevated blood pressure and hyperglycemia were core traits of the metabolic syndrome associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus metabolic and vascular abnormalities are in extricable linked. Therefore it seems reasonable to extend the term to metabolic-vascular syndrome (MVS) to signal the clinical relevance and related risk of multimorbidity. This has important implications for integrated diagnostics and therapeutic approach. According to the definition of a syndrome the rapid global rise in the prevalence of all traits and comorbidities of the MVS is mainly caused by rapid changes in life-style and sociocultural transition resp. with over- and malnutrition, low physical activity and social stress as a common soil. PMID:26956847

  9. ERICA: prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício T L

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some

  10. ERICA: prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; Veiga, Gloria Valeria da; Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira da; Vasconcellos, Maurício T L de

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some components

  11. Adiponectin: an adipokine with protective features against metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Maryam; Movahedian, Ahmad; Baranchi, Mostafa; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a collection of obesity-associated disorders is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, pro-thrombotic state, elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin is one of the most abundant peptide hormones derived from adipose tissue. This protein plays a major role in glucose and lipid metabolism and prevents development of vascular changes. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects are the other features of adiponectin. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with hypertension and pro-thrombotic state. In this review, we discuss the crucial role of adiponectin in prevention of metabolic syndrome considering its effects on the components of this syndrome. Pharmacological interventions and lifestyle modification may increase plasma adiponectin level or tissue sensitivity which seems to be a promising target for prevention and therapeutic approaches of MetS and related diseases. PMID:26124928

  12. Reduced Apolipoprotein Glycosylation in Patients with the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Savinova, Olga V.; Fillaus, Kristi; Jing, Linhong; Harris, William S.; Shearer, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the apolipoprotein composition of the three major lipoprotein classes in patients with metabolic syndrome to healthy controls. Methods Very low density (VLDL), intermediate/low density (IDL/LDL, hereafter LDL), and high density lipoproteins (HDL) fractions were isolated from plasma of 56 metabolic syndrome subjects and from 14 age-sex matched healthy volunteers. The apolipoprotein content of fractions was analyzed by one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoresis with confirmation by a combination of mass spectrometry and biochemical assays. Results Metabolic syndrome patients differed from healthy controls in the following ways: (1) total plasma - apoA1 was lower, whereas apoB, apoC2, apoC3, and apoE were higher; (2) VLDL - apoB, apoC3, and apoE were increased; (3) LDL - apoC3 was increased, (4) HDL -associated constitutive serum amyloid A protein (SAA4) was reduced (p<0.05 vs. controls for all). In patients with metabolic syndrome, the most extensively glycosylated (di-sialylated) isoform of apoC3 was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 17%, 30%, and 25%, respectively (p<0.01 vs. controls for all). Similarly, the glycosylated isoform of apoE was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 15%, 26%, and 37% (p<0.01 vs. controls for all). Finally, glycosylated isoform of SAA4 in HDL fraction was 42% lower in patients with metabolic syndrome compared with controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Patients with metabolic syndrome displayed several changes in plasma apolipoprotein composition consistent with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol levels. Reduced glycosylation of apoC3, apoE and SAA4 are novel findings, the pathophysiological consequences of which remain to be determined. PMID:25118169

  13. Caregiver and adult patient perspectives on the importance of a diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Costain, G.; Chow, E. W. C.; Ray, P. N.; Bassett, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent advances in genetics are particularly relevant in the field of intellectual disability (ID), where sub-microscopic deletions or duplications of genetic material are increasingly implicated as known or suspected causal factors. Data-driven reports on the impact of providing an aetiological explanation in ID are needed to help justify widespread use of new and expensive genetic technologies. Methods We conducted a survey of caregivers on the value of a genetic/aetiologic diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common microdeletion syndrome in ID. We also surveyed the opinion of a high-functioning subset of adults with 22q11.2DS themselves. We used standard quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the responses. Results In total, 73 of 118 surveys were returned (61.9%). There was convergence of quantitative and qualitative results, and consistency between adult patient and caregiver responses. A definitive molecular diagnosis of 22q11.2DS was a critical event with diverse positive repercussions, even if occurring later in life. Frequently cited benefits included greater understanding and certainty, newfound sense of purpose and a platform for advocacy, and increased opportunities to optimise medical, social and educational needs. Conclusions This is the first study to characterise the impact of a diagnosis of this representative microdeletion syndrome on adult patients and their families. The results both validate and expand on the theoretical benefits proposed by clinicians and researchers. The use of genome-wide microarray technologies will provide an increasing number of molecular diagnoses. The importance of a diagnosis of 22q11.2DS demonstrated here therefore has implications for changing attitudes about molecular genetic diagnosis that could benefit individuals with ID of currently unknown cause and their families. PMID:22142442

  14. Lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vignozzi, Linda; Gacci, Mauro; Maggi, Mario

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that age is the principal unmodifiable risk factor of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Until the past decade, the process of lower urinary tract ageing was, therefore, considered unmodifiable - as ageing per se. However, the traditional dogma that BPH-related LUTS (BPH-LUTS) is an immutable consequence of old age is no longer acceptable. Results from multiple preclinical and clinical studies indicate that several modifiable, age-related metabolic aberrations (metabolic syndrome, obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes) are important determinants in both the development and the progression of BPH-LUTS. Metabolic syndrome and its related comorbidities, such as sex steroid alterations and low-grade inflammation, have been related to BPH-LUTS development and progression. With the correct treatment and recommended lifestyle changes, many individuals with metabolic syndrome might be able to prevent or delay the onset of metabolic-syndrome-related complications; however, whether promoting healthier lifestyles can really alter a man's propensity to develop BPH-LUTS remains to be clarified. PMID:26754190

  15. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in South Asians.

    PubMed

    Eapen, Danny; Kalra, Girish L; Merchant, Nadya; Arora, Anjali; Khan, Bobby V

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in the South Asian population, evaluates conventional and emerging risk factors, and reinforces the need for ethnic-specific redefinition of guidelines used to diagnose metabolic syndrome. We reviewed recent and past literature using Ovid Medline and PubMed databases. South Asians represent one of the largest and fastest growing ethnic groups in the world. With this growth, a dramatic rise in the rates of acute myocardial infarction and diabetes is being seen in this population. Potential etiologies for this phenomenon include dietary westernization, poor lifestyle measures, adverse body fat patterning, and genetics. While traditional risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease should not be overlooked, early metabolic syndrome has now been shown in the South Asian pediatric population, suggesting that "metabolic programming" and perinatal influences may likely play a substantial role. Health care practitioners must be aware that current guidelines used to identify individuals with metabolic syndrome are underestimating South Asian individuals at risk. New ethnic-specific guidelines and prevention strategies are discussed in this review and should be applied by clinicians to their South Asian patients. PMID:19756165

  16. The metabolic syndrome and body composition in childhood cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Young Bae; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sung Won; Kim, Se-Hwa; Cho, Sung-Yoon; Lee, Soo Hyun; Yoo, Keon Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Chung, Jae Hoon; Koo, Hong Hoe

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Long-term survivors of childhood cancer appear to have an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, subsequent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood compared to healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in childhood cancer survivors at a single center in Korea. Methods We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 98 childhood cancer survivors who were diagnosed and completed anticancer treatment at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between Jan. 1996 and Dec. 2007. Parameters of metabolic syndrome were evaluated between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009. Clinical and biochemical findings including body fat percentage were analyzed. Results A total of 19 (19.4%) patients had the metabolic syndrome. The median body fat percentage was 31.5%. The body mass index and waist circumference were positively correlated with the cranial irradiation dose (r=0.38, P<0.001 and r=0.44, P<0.00, respectively). Sixty-one (62.2%) patients had at least one abnormal lipid value. The triglyceride showed significant positive correlation with the body fat percentage (r=0.26, P=0.03). The high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed significant negative correlation with the percent body fat (r=-0.26, P=0.03). Conclusion Childhood cancer survivors should have thorough metabolic evaluation including measurement of body fat percentage even if they are not obese. A better understanding of the determinants of the metabolic syndrome during adolescence might provide preventive interventions for improving health outcomes in adulthood. PMID:21949520

  17. Effect of Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with and without weight loss (WL) on apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome. The diet of 19 men with metabolic syndrome (age, 24–62 years) was first standardized to a North America...

  18. A Clinical Pharmacist's Role in Screening for Metabolic Syndrome in a Rural Pediatric Ambulatory Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides, Sandra; Kohler, Lisa A.; Souffrant, Garry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population is increasing. Barriers, including the lack of consensus of a definition for metabolic syndrome and time constraints for the pediatrician, may limit the identification and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the role…

  19. Effect of metabolic syndrome on mitsugumin 53 expression and function.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hanley; Liu, Jason; Bian, Zehua; Cui, Yuqi; Zhou, Xinyu; Zhou, Xuefeng; Zhang, Bo; Adesanya, T M Ayodele; Yi, Frank; Park, Ki Ho; Tan, Tao; Chen, Zhishui; Zhu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia that increases the individual's likelihood of developing cardiovascular diseases. Patients inflicted with metabolic disorders also suffer from tissue repair defect. Mitsugumin 53 (MG53) is a protein essential to cellular membrane repair. It facilitates the nucleation of intracellular vesicles to sites of membrane disruption to create repair patches, contributing to the regenerative capacity of skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues upon injury. Since individuals suffering from metabolic syndrome possess tissue regeneration deficiency and MG53 plays a crucial role in restoring membrane integrity, we studied MG53 activity in mice models exhibiting metabolic disorders induced by a 6 month high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Western blotting showed that MG53 expression is not altered within the skeletal and cardiac muscles of mice with metabolic syndrome. Rather, we found that MG53 levels in blood circulation were actually reduced. This data directly contradicts findings presented by Song et. al that indict MG53 as a causative factor for metabolic syndrome (Nature 494, 375-379). The diminished MG53 serum level observed may contribute to the inadequate tissue repair aptitude exhibited by diabetic patients. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analyses reveal that skeletal muscle fibers of mice with metabolic disorders experience localization of subcellular MG53 around mitochondria. This clustering may represent an adaptive response to oxidative stress resulting from HFD feeding and may implicate MG53 as a guardian to protect damaged mitochondria. Therapeutic approaches that elevate MG53 expression in serum circulation may be a novel method to treat the degenerative tissue repair function of diabetic patients. PMID:25950605

  20. A clustering analysis of lipoprotein diameters in the metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of smaller low-density lipoproteins (LDL) has been associated with atherosclerosis risk, and the insulin resistance (IR) underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition, some research has supported the association of very low-, low- and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL HDL) particle...

  1. Chromium supplementation alleviates risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic syndrome has been applied to a clustering of risk factors of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases including elevated blood lipids, elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, proinflammatory state including increased C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha, and prothrombotic state including anomal...

  2. The role of transient receptor potential channels in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming; Tepel, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is correlated with increased cardiovascular risk and characterized by several factors, including visceral obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Several members of a large family of nonselective cation entry channels, e.g., transient receptor potential (TRP) canonical (TRPC), vanilloid (TRPV), and melastatin (TRPM) channels, have been associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, disruption of TRP channel expression or function may account for the observed increased cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome patients. TRPV1 regulates adipogenesis and inflammation in adipose tissues, whereas TRPC3, TRPC5, TRPC6, TRPV1, and TRPM7 are involved in vasoconstriction and regulation of blood pressure. Other members of the TRP family are involved in regulation of insulin secretion, lipid composition, and atherosclerosis. Although there is no evidence that a single TRP channelopathy may be the cause of all metabolic syndrome characteristics, further studies will help to clarify the role of specific TRP channels involved in the metabolic syndrome. (Hypertens Res 2008; 31: 1989-1995). PMID:19098369

  3. Correlations between metabolic syndrome, serologic factors, and gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Jae Hong; Ki, Nam Kyun; Cho, Jae Hwan; Ahn, Jae Ouk; Sunwoo, Jae Gun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the serologic factors associated with metabolic syndrome and gallstones. [Subjects and Methods] The study evaluated subjects who visited a health promotion center in Seoul from March 2, 2013 to February 28, 2014, and had undergone abdominal ultrasonography. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Blood sampling was performed for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thyroid stimulating hormone, and red and white blood cell counts. We conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. [Results] The risk factors for metabolic syndrome in men, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, body mass index, maximum size of gallstones, white blood cell count, waist circumference, and uric acid level. The factors in women, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, presence/absence of gallstones, uric acid level, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, and waist circumference. [Conclusion] Most serum biochemical factors and gallstone occurrence could be used to indicate the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome, independent of gender.

  4. Identification of metabolic syndrome using decision tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Pidetcha, Phannee; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2010-10-01

    This study employs decision tree as a decision support system for rapid and automated identification of individuals with metabolic syndrome (MS) among a Thai population. Results demonstrated strong predictivity of the decision tree in classification of individuals with and without MS, displaying an overall accuracy in excess of 99%. PMID:20619912

  5. Tea and cinnamon polyphenols improve the metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, key features of the metabolic syndrome, are leading causes of early brain alterations. Green tea, by a mechanism involving the improvement of insulin sensitivity and the control of oxidative stress, could be a factor of neuroprotection in insulin-resistant state...

  6. Decreased weight loss and metabolic syndrome in Mexican American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by a group of risk factors that increase one's risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. An increased prevalence of MS has been documented in Mexican American children. It is important to understand how the development of MS will impact attempts at weig...

  7. Metabolic Syndrome in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahi, Gita; LeBlanc, Paul J.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.; O'Leary, Debra; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have higher rates of obesity compared to children with typical motor development, and, as a result may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MetS and its components among children with and without DCD. This…

  8. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  9. Magnesium Intake and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher dietary intake of magnesium (Mg) may protect against development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome risk factors in elderly men and women. We examined cross-sectional associations between magnesium i...

  10. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…

  11. Physical Activity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Overweight in Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Justin B.; Davis, Catherine L.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Lewis, Richard D.; Yin, Zenong

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research suggests significant health differences between rural dwelling youth and their urban counterparts with relation to cardiovascular risk factors. This study was conducted to (1) determine relationships between physical activity and markers of metabolic syndrome, and (2) to explore factors relating to physical activity in a…

  12. METABOLIC SYNDROME RISK ACROSS WEIGHT STATUS IN MEXICAN AMERICAN CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mexican Americans experience some of the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in this country. With the rising rates of obesity in Mexican American children, these children are also at increased risk for type 2 diabetes, especially when diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. There is not, however, standard ...

  13. Targeting SREBPs for treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Soyal, Selma M; Nofziger, Charity; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus; Patsch, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Over the past few decades, mortality resulting from cardiovascular disease (CVD) steadily decreased in western countries; however, in recent years, the decline has become offset by the increase in obesity. Obesity is strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome and its atherogenic dyslipidemia resulting from insulin resistance. While lifestyle treatment would be effective, drugs targeting individual risk factors are often required. Such treatment may result in polypharmacy. Novel approaches are directed towards the treatment of several risk factors with one drug. Studies in animal models and humans suggest a central role for sterol regulatory-element binding proteins (SREBPs) in the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome. Four recent studies targeting the maturation or transcriptional activities of SREBPs provide proof of concept for the efficacy of SREBP inhibition in this syndrome. PMID:26005080

  14. Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Risk in HIV

    PubMed Central

    Nix, Linda

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection and its treatment have been associated with adipose tissue changes and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism. The proportion of HIV-infected adults over the age of 50 is also growing placing HIV-infected adults at particular risk for metabolic perturbations and cardiovascular disease. The metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected adults has been increasingly studied but whether HIV is associated with greater risk remains unclear, likely because of the interplay of host, viral and antiretroviral factors that are associated with the components of the metabolic syndrome. While the Framingham Risk Score is a well-accepted measure of 10-year cardiovascular risk in the general population, it may not accurately predict risk in the HIV setting due to HIV-related factors such as inflammation that are not accounted for. The relationship between HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM) risk has also been debated. We summarize the recent literature on metabolic syndrome, DM, and cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected adults. PMID:25027062

  15. OBESITY PREVALENCE AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN A PARK USERS

    PubMed Central

    de SOUZA, Maíra Danielle Gomes; VILAR, Lucio; de ANDRADE, Cinthia Barbosa; ALBUQUERQUE, Raíssa de Oliveira e; CORDEIRO, Lúcia Helena de Oliveira; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; FERRAZ, Álvaro Antônio Bandeira

    2015-01-01

    Background - Overweight and obesity are associated with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity, thereby increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. In Brazil, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of these disorders, especially among individuals who carry out some kind of physical activity in public spaces and there are no education and prevention programs for obesity. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity among park users. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 619 individuals assessed and stratified by profile according to a specific protocol. The group was characterized as follows: female (50.1%) and mean age =50.6±14.8, with predominance of individuals aged between 50 and 59 years (26.8%) and with higher education (68%) and a household income of between 4 and 10 minimum wages (29.2%). Results: Regular physical exercise was reported by 78% of the individuals and it was found that 70.7% were nevertheless of above normal weight: 45% overweight and 25.7% obese, of whom 20.7% had obesity grade I, 3.9% grade II and 1.1% grade III. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 4.3%, mostly in men (6.3%). Arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus were detected in 17.8% and 5.5%, respectively. In view of the influence of obesity on the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, it was found that this association was not significant for the two conditions (p=0.014 and 0.017, respectively). Conclusion : The findings demonstrate a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the studied population, and metabolic syndrome in 4.3%, despite the fact that 70% reported engaging in regular physical activity. PMID:26537270

  16. Rare nonconservative LRP6 mutations are associated with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajvir; Smith, Emily; Fathzadeh, Mohsen; Liu, Wenzhong; Go, Gwang-Woong; Subrahmanyan, Lakshman; Faramarzi, Saeed; McKenna, William; Mani, Arya

    2013-09-01

    A rare mutation in LRP6 has been shown to underlie autosomal dominant coronary artery disease (CAD) and metabolic syndrome in an Iranian kindred. The prevalence and spectrum of LRP6 mutations in the disease population of the United States is not known. Two hundred white Americans with early onset familial CAD and metabolic syndrome and 2,000 healthy Northern European controls were screened for nonconservative mutations in LRP6. Three novel mutations were identified, which cosegregated with the metabolic traits in the kindreds of the affected subjects and none in the controls. All three mutations reside in the second propeller domain, which plays a critical role in ligand binding. Two of the mutations substituted highly conserved arginines in the second YWTD domain and the third substituted a conserved glycosylation site. The functional characterization of one of the variants showed that it impairs Wnt signaling and acts as a loss of function mutation. PMID:23703864

  17. The metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease: Part I.

    PubMed

    Jiamsripong, Panupong; Mookadam, Martina; Honda, Tadaaki; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Mookadam, Farouk

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic risk factors and physical conditions that are accompanied by an enhanced propensity toward the development of type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. It presents a combination of atherosclerosis risk including atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, elevated plasma glucose, hypercoagulability, and a proinflammatory state. The 2 major underlying risk factors for the metabolic syndrome are obesity and insulin resistance. Exacerbating factors are physical inactivity, advancing age, and endocrine and genetic factors. Associated hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and elevated adipokine levels (adipose cytokines) lead to vascular endothelial dysfunction, an abnormal lipid profile, hypertension, and vascular inflammation, all of which promote the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In this 2-part series, the authors present an up-to-date and detailed systematic review of the literature on this important topic. PMID:18607151

  18. Rare nonconservative LRP6 mutations are associated with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajvir; Smith, Emily; Fathzadeh, Mohsen; Liu, Wenzhong; Go, Gwang-Woong; Subrahmanyan, Lakshman; Faramarzi, Saeed; McKenna, William; Mani, Arya

    2013-01-01

    A rare mutation in LRP6 has been shown to underlie autosomal dominant coronary artery disease (CAD) and metabolic syndrome in an Iranian kindred. The prevalence and spectrum of LRP6 mutations in the disease population of the United States is not known. Two hundred white Americans with early onset familial CAD and metabolic syndrome and 2000 healthy Northern European controls were screened for nonconservative mutations in LRP6. Three novel mutations were identified, which co-segregated with the metabolic traits in the kindreds of the affected subjects and none in the controls. All three mutations reside in the second propeller domain, which plays a critical role in ligand binding. Two of the mutations substituted highly conserved arginines in the second YWTD domain and the third substituted a conserved glycosylation site. The functional characterization of one of the variants showed that it impairs Wnt signaling and acts as a loss of function mutation. PMID:23703864

  19. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the scope of the problem of obesity in the United States, noting the health risks associated with being overweight or obese (e.g., gallstones, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and colon cancer); discussing the association of type-II diabetes mellitus with obesity; examining the effects of exercise on metabolic disease; and looking at…

  20. Metabolic Syndrome and Periodontal Disease Progression in Men.

    PubMed

    Kaye, E K; Chen, N; Cabral, H J; Vokonas, P; Garcia, R I

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of 3 or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease, is associated with periodontal disease, but few studies have been prospective in design. This study's aim was to determine whether metabolic syndrome predicts tooth loss and worsening of periodontal disease in a cohort of 760 men in the Department of Veterans Affairs Dental Longitudinal Study and Normative Aging Study who were followed up to 33 y from 1981 to 2013. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. Waist circumference was measured in units of 0.1 cm following a normal expiration. Fasting blood samples were measured in duplicate for glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein. Calibrated periodontists served as dental examiners. Periodontal outcome events on each tooth were defined as progression to predefined threshold levels of probing pocket depth (≥5 mm), clinical attachment loss (≥5 mm), mobility (≥0.5 mm), and alveolar bone loss (≥40% of the distance from the cementoenamel junction to the root apex, on radiographs). Hazards ratios (95% confidence intervals) of tooth loss or a periodontitis event were estimated from tooth-level extended Cox proportional hazards regression models that accounted for clustering of teeth within individuals and used time-dependent status of metabolic syndrome. Covariates included age, education, smoking status, plaque level, and initial level of the appropriate periodontal disease measure. Metabolic syndrome as defined by the International Diabetes Federation increased the hazards of tooth loss (1.39; 1.08 to 1.79), pocket depth ≥5 mm (1.37; 1.14 to 1.65), clinical attachment loss ≥5 mm (1.19; 1.00 to 1.41), alveolar bone loss ≥40% (1.25; 1.00 to 1.56), and tooth mobility ≥0.5 mm (1.43; 1.07 to 1.89). The number of positive metabolic syndrome conditions was also associated with each of these outcomes. These findings suggest that the metabolic disturbances that

  1. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, R.M.; Parker, E.S.; Clark, C.M.; Martin, P.R.; George, D.T.; Weingartner, H.; Sokoloff, L.; Ebert, M.H.; Mishkin, M.

    1985-05-01

    Seven alcoholic male subjects diagnosed as having Korsakoff's syndrome and eight age-matched male normal volunteers were studied with /sup 18/F 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2/sup 18/FDG). All subjects were examined at rest with eyes covered in a quiet, darkened room. Serial plasma samples were obtained following injection of 4 to 5 mCi of 2/sup 18/FDG. Tomographic slices spaced at 10mm axial increments were obtained (in-plane resolution = 1.75 cm, axial resolution = 1.78 cm). Four planes were selected from each subject, and a total of 46 regions of interest were sampled and glucose metabolic rates for each region calculated. The mean glucose metalbolic rate for the 46 regions in the Korsakoff subjects was significantly lower than that in the normal controls (5.17 +- .43 versus 6.6 +- 1.31). A Q-component analysis, which examined each subject's regional rates relative to his mean rate, revealed two distinct patterns in the Korsakoff group. Glucose metabolism was significantly reduced in 37 of the 46 regions sampled. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism in a nondemented group of subjects has not previously been reported. The reduction in cortical metabolism may be the result of damage to sub-cortical projecting systems. The differing patterns of cerebral metabolism in Korsakoff's syndrome suggests subgroups with differing neuropathology. Regions implicated in memory function, medial temporal, thalamic and medial prefrontal were among the regions reduced in metabolism.

  2. Caregiver Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  3. Hepatitis B virus infection and metabolic syndrome: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Chi; Tseng, Tai-Chung; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Although hepatitis C virus infection is known to be linked with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis, the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and metabolic factors remains unclear. HBV infection is a health problem worldwide, especially in endemic regions such as Asia and Africa. It induces liver decompensation, cirrhosis, hepatocellualr carcinoma, and premature mortality. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome continues to increase in parallel with the epidemic of obesity, which is closely associated with the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or even cancer. The systemic review shows that chronic HBV infection protects against instead of promotes fatty liver. The mechanism is possibly due to a lower frequency of dyslipidemia profile in patients with chronic HBV infection. The association of HBV with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and the risk of arteriosclerosis is still inconclusive. In addition, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome may accelerate the progression of liver disease in patients with chronic HBV infection and synergistically induce cirrhosis or even hepatocellualr carcinoma development. PMID:25092429

  4. Metabolic syndrome and right ventricle: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Tadic, Marijana; Ivanovic, Branislava; Cuspidi, Cesare

    2013-10-01

    The cluster of metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities which characterize the metabolic syndrome (MS) is responsible for subclinical cardiac and extra-cardiac damage such as left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, carotid atherosclerosis and microalbuminuria. The development of different non-invasive imaging methods enabled a detail investigation of right ventricular structure and function, and revealed that right ventricular remodeling followed changes in the left ventricular structure and function in patients with arterial hypertension, diabetes or obesity. Previous investigations also reported that the coexistence of two components of the MS induced more significant cardiac remodeling than the presence of only one MS risk-factor. The relationship between different components of the MS (increased blood pressure, abdominal obesity, increased fasting glucose level and dyslipidemia) and right ventricular remodeling could be explained by several hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic mechanisms. However, the association between right ventricular remodeling and the MS has not been sufficiently investigated so far. The aim of this article was to review recent articles focusing on the association between metabolic syndrome components and the metabolic syndrome itself with impairments in right ventricular structure and function assessed by different imaging techniques. PMID:24001437

  5. Childhood cancer and later development of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Talvensaari, K; Knip, M

    1997-10-01

    The improving survival rate of patients with childhood cancer has led to a growing awareness of the long-term effects of malignant disease and its treatment. Various endocrine abnormalities have been reported as frequent long-term adverse effects of cancer treatment in childhood, and among these growth hormone (GH) deficiency is the most common one, especially after cranial irradiation. Besides promoting growth, GH has well-established metabolic effects. Patients with GH deficiency tend to be obese, and obesity per se is also associated with insulin resistance which plays a key role in a cluster of metabolic derangements including glucose intolerance, hypertension, lipid abnormalities and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This condition is known as the metabolic syndrome. Our recent observations indicate that a combination of obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinaemia and an abnormal lipid profile can be observed in long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Every sixth patient had the triad of obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and low HDL cholesterol, whereas this combination was not seen in any of the controls. The survivors with such a high-risk profile for cardiovascular disease had markedly reduced spontaneous GH secretion, and also additional features of the metabolic syndrome, such as higher systolic blood pressure and higher plasma glucose and serum triglyceride levels. Accordingly, decreased GH secretion, or alternatively some other disturbance in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, emerging as a consequence of cranial radiation, may expose long-term survivors of childhood cancer to premature evolution of the metabolic syndrome. This can have an important impact on the long-term prognosis in these patients, because the syndrome as such results in an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:9453278

  6. Optimal management of lipids in diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brown, W Virgil; Clark, Luther; Falko, James M; Guyton, John R; Rees, Tomas J; Schonfeld, Gustav; Lopes-Virella, Maria F

    2008-10-01

    Patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome frequently have higher triglycerides, lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and more particles containing apolipoprotein B (ApoB); this combination contributes significantly to their cardiovascular risk. Optimal management of dyslipidemia and increased atherosclerotic risk requires a fundamental understanding of diabetic dyslipidemia, the clinical evidence for different interventional strategies, and the potential benefit of achieving therapeutic targets. For this review, we considered guidelines, recent reviews, and clinical trial results. The features of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome are linked metabolically and are related to central adiposity and insulin resistance. Levels of ApoB and HDL cholesterol are particularly important markers of risk. Guidelines broadly agree that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol should be reduced below population average levels. Additional or secondary strategies in patients with diabetes or the metabolic syndrome are to decrease non-HDL cholesterol, ApoB and/or LDL particle concentration, to increase HDL cholesterol, and to reduce triglycerides. Lifestyle changes and statins are the bedrock of treatment, although second-line treatment using fibrates or niacin will likely benefit many patients with residual risk. Ezetimibe, too, has a favorable effect on lipid profile and inflammatory biomarkers of risk. Dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome has a distinct profile, suggesting the need for a tailored therapy that targets the key features of lowered HDL cholesterol and raised triglycerides, in addition to the primary antiatherogenic strategy of lowering ApoB-containing lipoproteins, such as LDL. With the prominent failure of some recent intervention trials, new therapeutic strategies-particularly safe and effective means to raise HDL-are needed to manage dyslipidemia in this high-risk population. PMID:21291758

  7. Developmental programming of the metabolic syndrome - critical windows for intervention.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Mark H

    2011-09-15

    Metabolic disease results from a complex interaction of many factors, including genetic, physiological, behavioral and environmental influences. The recent rate at which these diseases have increased suggests that environmental and behavioral influences, rather than genetic causes, are fuelling the present epidemic. In this context, the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis has highlighted the link between the periconceptual, fetal and early infant phases of life and the subsequent development of adult obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Although the mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated, this programming was generally considered an irreversible change in developmental trajectory. Recent work in animal models suggests that developmental programming of metabolic disorders is potentially reversible by nutritional or targeted therapeutic interventions during the period of developmental plasticity. This review will discuss critical windows of developmental plasticity and possible avenues to ameliorate the development of postnatal metabolic disorders following an adverse early life environment. PMID:21954418

  8. Fructokinase, Fructans, Intestinal Permeability, and Metabolic Syndrome: An Equine Connection?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J; Rivard, Chris; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Otabachian-Smith, Silvia; Ishimoto, Takuji; Cicerchi, Christina; Cheeke, Peter R.; MacIntosh, Bridgett; Hess, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Fructose is a simple sugar present in honey and fruit, but can also exist as a polymer (fructans) in pasture grasses. Mammals are unable to metabolize fructans, but certain gram positive bacteria contain fructanases and can convert fructans to fructose in the gut. Recent studies suggest that fructose generated from bacteria, or directly obtained from the diet, can induce both increased intestinal permeability and features of metabolic syndrome, especially the development of insulin resistance. The development of insulin resistance is driven in part by the metabolism of fructose by fructokinase C in the liver, which results in oxidative stress in the hepatocyte. Similarly, the metabolism of fructose in the small bowel by intestinal fructokinase may lead to increased intestinal permeability and endotoxemia. While speculative, these observations raise the possibility that the mechanism by which fructans induce laminitis could involve intestinal and hepatic fructokinase. Further studies are indicated to determine the role of fructanases, fructose and fructokinase in equine metabolic syndrome and laminitis. PMID:23439477

  9. Role of sleep quality in the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Dorit; Dumin, Magdalena; Gozal, David

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has assigned an important role to sleep as a modulator of metabolic homeostasis. The impact of variations in sleep duration, sleep-disordered breathing, and chronotype to cardiometabolic function encompasses a wide array of perturbations spanning from obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease risk and mortality in both adults and children. Here, we critically and extensively review the published literature on such important issues and provide a comprehensive overview of the most salient pathophysiologic pathways underlying the links between sleep, sleep disorders, and cardiometabolic functioning. PMID:27601926

  10. Continuous Metabolic Syndrome Scores for Children Using Salivary Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ping; Goodson, J. Max; Hartman, Mor-Li; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Background Binary definitions of the metabolic syndrome based on the presence of a particular number of individual risk factors are limited, particularly in the pediatric population. To address this limitation, we aimed at constructing composite and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cmetS) to represent an overall measure of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a large cohort of metabolically at-risk children, focusing on the use of the usual clinical parameters (waist circumference (WC) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), supplemented with two salivary surrogate variables (glucose and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Two different approaches used to create the scores were evaluated in comparison. Methods Data from 8,112 Kuwaiti children (10.00 ± 0.67 years) were used to construct two cmetS for each subject. The first cmetS (cmetS-Z) was created by summing standardized residuals of each variable regressed on age and gender; and the second cmetS (cmetS-PCA) was defined as the first principal component from gender-specific principal component analysis based on the four variables. Results There was a graded relationship between both scores and the number of adverse risk factors. The areas under the curve using cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA as predictors for severe metabolic syndrome (defined as the presence of ≥3 metabolic risk factors) were 0.935 and 0.912, respectively. cmetS-Z was positively associated with WC, SBP, and glucose, but inversely associated with HDLC. Except for the lack of association with glucose, cmetS-PCA was similar to cmetS-Z in boys, but had minimum loading on HDLC in girls. Analysis using quantile regression showed an inverse association of fitness level with cmetS-PCA (p = 0.001 for boys; p = 0.002 for girls), and comparison of cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA suggested that WC and SBP were main contributory components. Significant alterations in the relationship between cmetS and salivary adipocytokines were demonstrated in overweight and obese

  11. Role of sleep quality in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koren, Dorit; Dumin, Magdalena; Gozal, David

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has assigned an important role to sleep as a modulator of metabolic homeostasis. The impact of variations in sleep duration, sleep-disordered breathing, and chronotype to cardiometabolic function encompasses a wide array of perturbations spanning from obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease risk and mortality in both adults and children. Here, we critically and extensively review the published literature on such important issues and provide a comprehensive overview of the most salient pathophysiologic pathways underlying the links between sleep, sleep disorders, and cardiometabolic functioning. PMID:27601926

  12. Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, D.; Cuda, C.; Luhovyy, B. L.; Anderson, G. H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan) is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its multiple functional and bioactive properties. Its beneficial role in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity is being continuously documented. The fermentability of β-glucans and their ability to form highly viscous solutions in the human gut may constitute the basis of their health benefits. Consequently, the applicability of β-glucan as a food ingredient is being widely considered with the dual purposes of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Therefore, this paper explores the role of β-glucans in the prevention and treatment of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, their underlying mechanisms of action, and their potential in food applications. PMID:22187640

  13. JNK REGULATION OF HEPATIC MANIFESTATIONS OF THE METABOLIC SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now recognized as both an important component of the metabolic syndrome and the most prevalent liver disease in the United States. Although the mechanisms for development of steatosis and chronic liver injury in NAFLD remain unclear, recent investigations have indicated that overactivation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is critical to this process. These findings, together with evidence for the involvement of JNK signaling in other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity and insulin resistance, have suggested that JNK may be a novel therapeutic target in this disorder. This review details findings that JNK mediates lipid accumulation and cell injury in fatty liver disease and discusses the possible cellular mechanisms of JNK actions. PMID:20888782

  14. Menopause, the metabolic syndrome, and mind-body therapies

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk rises sharply with menopause, likely due to the coincident increase in insulin resistance and related atherogenic changes that together comprise the metabolic or insulin resistance syndrome, a cluster of metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities strongly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease. A growing body of research suggests that traditional mind-body practices such as yoga, tai chi, and qigong may offer safe and cost-effective strategies for reducing insulin resistance syndrome-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease in older populations, including postmenopausal women. Current evidence suggests that these practices may reduce insulin resistance and related physiological risk factors for cardiovascular disease; improve mood, well-being, and sleep; decrease sympathetic activation; and enhance cardiovagal function. However, additional rigorous studies are needed to confirm existing findings and to examine long-term effects on cardiovascular health. PMID:18779682

  15. Beta glucan: health benefits in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, D; Cuda, C; Luhovyy, B L; Anderson, G H

    2012-01-01

    Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan) is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its multiple functional and bioactive properties. Its beneficial role in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity is being continuously documented. The fermentability of β-glucans and their ability to form highly viscous solutions in the human gut may constitute the basis of their health benefits. Consequently, the applicability of β-glucan as a food ingredient is being widely considered with the dual purposes of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Therefore, this paper explores the role of β-glucans in the prevention and treatment of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, their underlying mechanisms of action, and their potential in food applications. PMID:22187640

  16. Long-Term Consequences for Offspring of Paternal Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Linares Segovia, Benigno; Gutiérrez Tinoco, Maximiliano; Izquierdo Arrizon, Angeles; Guízar Mendoza, Juan Manuel; Amador Licona, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recent studies have reported an increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, few have focused how diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome together in parents can influence on obesity and metabolic disturbances in offspring. Objective. To know the risk obesity and metabolic disturbance in children, adolescents, and young adults whose parents have diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Methods. A comparative survey was made in healthy children of parents with diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome compared with offspring of healthy parents. We performed anthropometry and evaluated blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels in plasma. We registered parent antecedents to diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome and investigated the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic disturbances in offspring. Results. We studied 259 subjects of 7 to 20 years of age. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 27% and 37%, respectively. The highest proportion of BMI >95th of the entire group was found in offspring with both diabetic parents. Glucose and total cholesterol levels were lower in the group with healthy parents compared with the group with diabetic mother and metabolic syndrome but with healthy father. HDL cholesterol was higher in the group with both healthy parents than in the group with diabetic mother and metabolic syndrome but healthy father. Conclusions. The offspring of parents with diabetes plus metabolic syndrome showed higher proportion of variables related to metabolic syndrome compared with healthy parents. PMID:23193389

  17. Validation of the Friedewald Formula in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Knopfholz, José; Disserol, Caio César Diniz; Pierin, Andressa Jardim; Schirr, Fernanda Letícia; Takito, Lilian Lumi; Massucheto Ledesma, Patrícia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha; Olandoski, Marcia; da Cunha, Claudio Leinig Pereira; Bandeira, Antonio Milton

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the Friedewald formula (FF) is the main method for evaluating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). Recently, many limitations have emerged regarding its use, including patients with triglyceride levels ≥400 mg/dL, diabetes mellitus, and kidney or hepatic chronic diseases. We analyzed the use of the FF in patients with metabolic syndrome. We selected patients with known metabolic syndrome that fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) Final Report and excluded patients with triglyceride levels ≥400 mg/dL and chronic liver and/or kidney disease. Using direct assays, we measured total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c. Then, LDL-c was estimated using the FF and compared with the LDL-c by direct assay. The sample size was 135 patients. Using the FF, the mean LDL-c value was 124.4 ± 42.1 mg/dL; it was 125.1 ± 38.5 mg/dL by direct assay. The correlation coefficient between these two methods was 0.89, with statistical significance (P  value < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the patients with triglyceride levels >150 mg/dL (P = 0.618). In conclusion, FF is a good method for estimating LDL-c in patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:24672715

  18. Diet, sleep and metabolic syndrome among a legal Amazon population, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Poliana Rodrigues; Ferrari, Graziele Souza Lira; Ferrari, Carlos K B

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome incidence is increasing worldwide then it is important to study the possible risk and protective factors. Our previous study suggested an association between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to address possible associations between dietary lifestyle factors with metabolic syndrome. In a case-control study we compared 74 metabolic syndrome patients with 176-matched controls attended at a public health central unit. Incident cases diagnosed according to ATP III criteria were matched with control group composed of healthy subjects performing routine examinations. Having lower educational level compared to highest levels tend to increase metabolic syndrome prevalence, which was not statistically significant. Similar pattern was observed for marital status. No difference was found regarding gender and metabolic syndrome odds. Interestingly, daily drinking two to three cups of coffee (OR=0.0646, 95% CI, 0.0139-0.3005, p=0.0005) or until 2 cups of milk were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome odds (OR=0.5368, 95% CI, 0.3139-0.9181, p=0.0231). Sleeping seven to eight hours per night was also associated with decreased odds of metabolic syndrome (OR=0.0789, 95% CI, 0.0396-0.1570, p<0.0001). Eating at least two portions of chocolate was also associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome (OR=0.3475, 95%CI, 0.1865-0.6414, p=0.0009). Adequate sleeping and dietary intake of some foods materially decreased the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25713791

  19. Microvascular function, metabolic syndrome, and novel risk factor status in women with cardiac syndrome X.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Sachin T; Ferrell, William R; Petrie, John R; Scherbakova, Olga; Greer, Ian A; Cobbe, Stuart M; Sattar, Naveed

    2006-06-15

    To characterize microvascular function, candidate risk pathways, and metabolic syndrome prevalence in women with cardiac syndrome X, 52 nondiabetic women with angiographically normal epicardial arteries but >1 mm of planar ST depression during exercise testing (patients) and 24 healthy controls of similar age were recruited. In addition to fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements, forearm cutaneous microvascular function after iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was assessed by laser Doppler imaging. Despite body mass index correction and a larger proportion on statin therapy, patients had high levels of insulin (p=0.016), triglycerides (p=0.018), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (p=0.021), von Willebrand factor (p=0.005), and leptin (p=0.005) and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.042) compared with controls. Consistent with these data, 30% of patients but only 8% of controls fulfilled criteria for the metabolic syndrome as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (p=0.015). Endothelium-dependent and -independent microvascular functions were markedly impaired in patients (p<0.001), and the odds ratio for cardiac syndrome X was 7.38 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 24.7) if the acetylcholine response was <8,710 flux units. In conclusion, women with cardiac syndrome X more commonly have metabolic syndrome and related adiposity, metabolic, and inflammatory derangements. They also have significantly impaired skin microvascular function as assessed by laser Doppler imaging, consistent with generalized vascular dysfunction, a finding with potential diagnostic implications. PMID:16765122

  20. Role of Sirtuins in Linking Metabolic Syndrome with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhyun; Kim, Jongpil

    2016-01-01

    Depression is now widely regarded as a common disabling disorder that affects negatively the social functioning all over the world. Depression is associated with diverse phenomenon in brain such as neuroinflammation, synaptic dysfunction, and cognitive deficit. Recent studies reported that depression occurs by various metabolic changes, leading to metabolic syndrome. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD+-dependent class III histone deacetylases, known to regulate diverse biological mechanism such as longevity, genomic stability, and inflammation. The modulation of sirtuin activity has been highlighted as a promising approach to reduce neurodegenerative processes. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries regarding the potential relationship between SIRTs and depression caused by metabolic disorders (Mets). Ultimately, we suggest the possibility that SIRTs will be novel targets to alleviate neuropathogenesis induced by depression. PMID:27065808

  1. An association of metabolic syndrome constellation with cellular membrane caveolae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-zheng

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that can predispose an individual to a greater risk of developing type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The cluster includes abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia – all of which are risk factors to public health. While searching for a link among the aforementioned malaises, clues have been focused on the cell membrane domain caveolae, wherein the MetS-associated active molecules are colocalized and interacted with to carry out designated biological activities. Caveola disarray could induce all of those individual metabolic abnormalities to be present in animal models and humans, providing a new target for therapeutic strategy in the management of MetS. PMID:24563731

  2. Metabolic syndrome risk factors and dry eye syndrome: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ye-Lei; Cheng, Ya-Lan; Ren, Yu-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Ning; Shentu, Xing-Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the relationship between metabolic risk factors and dry eye syndrome (DES). METHODS Retrieved studies on the association of metabolic syndrome risk factors (hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, and hyperlipidemia) and DES were collected from PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library in December 2015. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled to evaluate the final relationship. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to diagnostic criteria of DES. RESULTS Nine cross-sectional studies and three case-control studies were included in this Meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that people with hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia had a higher risk of suffering from DES (P<0.05), especially the typical DES symptoms. On the other hand, obesity did not increase the risk of DES. CONCLUSION The present Meta-analysis suggests that all metabolic risk factors except obesity were risk factors for DES. PMID:27500114

  3. Is Metabolic Syndrome On the Radar? Improving Real-Time Detection of Metabolic Syndrome and Physician Response by Computerized Scan of the Electronic Medical Record

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Kingwai; Randhawa, Gagandeep; Totten, Vicken; Smith, Adam E.; Raese, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic syndrome is a common underdiagnosed condition among psychiatric patients exacerbated by second-generation antipsychotics, with the exception of aripiprazole and ziprasidone. This study evaluated the prescribing and treating behavior with regard to antipsychotics and metabolic syndrome of psychiatrists before and after implementation of a mandatory admission order set and electronic notification of results. Method: Baseline data from 9,100 consecutive psychiatric admissions to a mental health hospital (July 2013–July 2014) were compared to postintervention data (July 2014–January 2015), which included 1,499 consecutive patient records. The intervention initiated standardized admission testing with electronic notification to psychiatrists when patients met metabolic syndrome criteria (according to Axis III of the DSM-IV). Charts were examined for inclusion of this diagnosis at discharge and for treatment changes. Results: At baseline, only 2.4% of patients (n = 214) were evaluated for metabolic syndrome. Of these, 34.5% (0.8% of the total sample) met metabolic syndrome criteria. Only 15 patients (0.16%) were comprehensively treated. No chart listed metabolic syndrome under Axis III of the DSM-IV. After the intervention, the diagnosis of patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome increased from 0% to 29.3%. Less than 3% of patients were switched to drugs with a more benign metabolic profile. All patients who continued on second-generation antipsychotics had metabolic retesting. Thirty-eight experienced a significant and rapid increase in triglyceride levels after only 3 to 17 days. Conclusions: Mandatory intake testing increases the number of patients evaluated for metabolic syndrome. Electronic alerts increase the inclusion of metabolic syndrome among discharge diagnoses but rarely affect prescribing practices. PMID:27247842

  4. Disorders of lipid metabolism in nephrotic syndrome: mechanisms and consequences.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2016-07-01

    Nephrotic syndrome results in hyperlipidemia and profound alterations in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins (very low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], immediate-density lipoprotein [IDL], and low-density lipoprotein [LDL]), lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), and the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio are increased in nephrotic syndrome. This is accompanied by significant changes in the composition of various lipoproteins including their cholesterol-to-triglyceride, free cholesterol-to-cholesterol ester, and phospholipid-to-protein ratios. These abnormalities are mediated by changes in the expression and activities of the key proteins involved in the biosynthesis, transport, remodeling, and catabolism of lipids and lipoproteins including apoproteins A, B, C, and E; 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase; fatty acid synthase; LDL receptor; lecithin cholesteryl ester acyltransferase; acyl coenzyme A cholesterol acyltransferase; HDL docking receptor (scavenger receptor class B, type 1 [SR-B1]); HDL endocytic receptor; lipoprotein lipase; and hepatic lipase, among others. The disorders of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in nephrotic syndrome contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular and kidney disease. In addition, by limiting delivery of lipid fuel to the muscles for generation of energy and to the adipose tissues for storage of energy, changes in lipid metabolism contribute to the reduction of body mass and impaired exercise capacity. This article provides an overview of the mechanisms, consequences, and treatment of lipid disorders in nephrotic syndrome. PMID:27165836

  5. Caregiver Survey of Pharmacotherapy to Treat Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Marilee A.; Seyfer, Daisha L.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Foster, Jessica E. A.; McClure, Kelsey E.; Coury, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by a unique neurocognitive and behavioral profile, including increased incidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the perceived helpfulness and side effects of medications used to treat ADHD (methylphenidate class,…

  6. Music Therapy for Children with Down Syndrome: Perceptions of Caregivers in a Special School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pienaar, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder resulting from chromosome 21 having three copies (trisomy 21). Cognitive functioning and anatomical features cause speech and language development delay (Kumin, 2003). Children with DS generally enjoy communication (Schoenbrodt, 2004), and respond well to interaction and social scripts. Music therapy has…

  7. Measuring Shaken Baby Syndrome Awareness: Preliminary Reliability of a Caregiver Attitudes and Beliefs Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Beth S.; Britner, Preston A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent estimates of Shaken Baby Syndrome awareness suggest that approximately half of all American adults have not heard of the often devastating risks of shaking an infant. Using a sample of 288 undergraduate students, we developed a measure of attitudes around infant care practices. A total of 264 community participants completed a revised…

  8. Key elements of plant-based diets associated with reduced risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Harris, Metria

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20 %-25 % of adults worldwide have metabolic syndrome. Vegetarian and vegan diets have demonstrated effectiveness in improving body weight, glycemic control, and cardiovascular risk factors, as compared with conventional therapeutic approaches, and are potentially useful in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. This article consists of two steps: (1) a review of the literature on studies examining vegetarian and vegan diets and metabolic syndrome and (2) a review of foods and nutrients that are protective against or associated with metabolic syndromes that may help to explain the beneficial effects of plant-based dietary approaches for metabolic syndrome. The present review found eight observational research studies, and no intervention studies, examining the association of plant-based dietary approaches with metabolic syndrome. These studies, conducted mostly in Asian populations, yielded varying results. The majority, however, found better metabolic risk factors and lowered risk of metabolic syndrome among individuals following plant-based diets, as compared with omnivores. Some dietary components that are lower in the diets of vegetarians, such as energy intake, saturated fat, heme iron, and red and processed meat, may influence metabolic syndrome risk. In addition, plant-based diets are higher in fruits, vegetables, and fiber, which are protective against the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:25084991

  9. Endogenous fructose production and metabolism in the liver contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lanaspa, Miguel A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Li, Nanxing; Cicerchi, Christina; Orlicky, David J.; Ruzicky, Philip; Rivard, Christopher; Inaba, Shinichiro; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Bales, Elise S.; Diggle, Christine P.; Asipu, Aruna; Petrash, J. Mark; Kosugi, Tomoki; Maruyama, Shoichi; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G.; McManaman, James L.; Bonthron, David T; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates with high glycemic index are proposed to promote the development of obesity, insulin resistance and fatty liver, but the mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. High serum glucose concentrations glucose are known to induce the polyol pathway and increase fructose generation in the liver. Here we show that this hepatic, endogenously-produced fructose causes systemic metabolic changes. We demonstrate that mice unable to metabolize fructose are protected from an increase in energy intake and body weight, visceral obesity, fatty liver, elevated insulin levels and hyperleptinemia after exposure to 10% glucose for 14 weeks. In normal mice, glucose consumption is accompanied by aldose reductase and polyol pathway activation in steatotic areas. In this regard, we show that aldose reductase deficient mice were protected against glucose-induced fatty liver. We conclude that endogenous fructose generation and metabolism in the liver represents an important mechanism whereby glucose promotes the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24022321

  10. A metabolic syndrome severity score: A tool to quantify cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Joshua F; Carrington, Melinda J

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardio-metabolic risk factors and is associated with increased mortality. There is no standard, validated way to assess the severity of aggregated metabolic syndrome risk factors. Cardiovascular and diabetes risk factor data came from two studies conducted in Australia from 2006 to 2010 in adults aged 18 or above. In medication free adults, sex-specific clinical thresholds and Principal Component Analysis were used to develop a formula to calculate a metabolic syndrome severity score (MetSSS). These scores were compared to scores derived using the same process in subgroups by sex, age, medication status, and time. We also examined the MetSSS in relation to other known risk factors. In 2125 adults (57.6±14.7years of age), the MetSSS ranged from 0 to 8.7 with a mean of 2.6. There were strong correlations (.95-.99) between the MetSSS in medication free adults and the MetSSS calculated from subgroups. MetSSS predicted medication initiation for hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia over six months (OR=1.31, 95% CI [1.00-1.70], per MetSSS unit, p=.043). Lower education, medication prescription, history of smoking and age were associated with higher MetSSS (all p<.05). Higher physical but not mental health quality of life was associated with lower MetSSS (p<.001). A standardized formula to measure cardio-metabolic risk factor severity was constructed and demonstrated expected relations with known risk factors. The use of the MetSSS is recommended as a measure of change within individuals in cardio-metabolic risk factors and to guide treatment and management. PMID:27095322

  11. Caregiver care.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lauren G; Swartz, Kristine

    2011-06-01

    In 2009, nearly 66 million Americans (three in 10 U.S. households) reported at least one person providing unpaid care as a family caregiver. More adults with chronic conditions and disabilities are living at home than ever before, and family caregivers have an even higher level of responsibility. Caring for loved ones is associated with several benefits, including personal fulfillment. However, caregiving is also associated with physical, psychological, and financial burdens. Primary care physicians can aid in the identification, support, and treatment of caregivers by offering caregiver assessments-interviews directed at identifying high levels of burden-as soon as caregivers are identified. Repeat assessments may be considered when there is a change in the status of caregiver or care recipient. Caregivers should be directed to appropriate resources for support, including national caregiving organizations, local area agencies on aging, Web sites, and respite care. Psychoeducational, skills-training, and therapeutic counseling interventions for caregivers of patients with chronic conditions such as dementia, cancer, stroke, and heart failure have shown small to moderate success in decreasing caregiver burden and increasing caregiver quality of life. Further research is needed to further identify strategies to offset caregiver stress, depression, and poor health outcomes. Additional support and anticipatory guidance for the care recipient and caregiver are particularly helpful during care transitions and at the care recipient's end of life. PMID:21661713

  12. The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Osteoporosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sok Kuan; Chin, Kok-Yong; Suhaimi, Farihah Hj; Ahmad, Fairus; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and osteoporosis are two major healthcare problems worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of medical conditions consisting of central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, in which each acts on bone tissue in different ways. The growing prevalence of MetS and osteoporosis in the population along with the controversial findings on the relationship between both conditions suggest the importance for further investigation and discussion on this topic. This review aims to assess the available evidence on the effects of each component of MetS on bone metabolism from the conventional to the contemporary. Previous studies suggested that the two conditions shared some common underlying pathways, which include regulation of calcium homeostasis, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of the NF-κB (RANK)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathways. In conclusion, we suggest that MetS may have a potential role in developing osteoporosis and more studies are necessary to further prove this hypothesis. PMID:27338453

  13. Adipobiology for novel therapeutic approaches in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malagón, María M; Díaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Guzmán-Ruiz, Rocío; Jiménez-Gómez, Yolanda; Moreno, Natalia R; García-Navarro, Socorro; Vázquez-Martínez, Rafael; Peinado, Juan R

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is dramatically increasing virtually worldwide, which has been linked to the rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Excess fat accumulation causes severe alterations in adipose tissue function. Actually, adipose tissue is now recognized as a major endocrine and secretory organ that releases a wide variety of signaling molecules (hormones, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, etc.), the adipokines, which play central roles in the regulation of energy metabolism and homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. In addition, adipose tissue is no longer regarded as a passive lipid storage site but as a highly dynamic energy depot which stores excess energy during periods of positive energy balance and mobilizes it in periods of nutrient deficiency in a tightly regulated manner. Altered lipid release and adipokine production and signaling, as occurs in obesity, are linked to insulin resistance and the associated comorbidities of metabolic syndrome (dyslipidemia, hypertension), which confer an increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here we summarize current knowledge on adipose tissue and review the contribution of novel techniques and experimental approaches in adipobiology to the identification of novel biomarkers and potential targets for dietary or pharmacological intervention to prevent and treat adipose tissue-associated diseases. PMID:24168446

  14. The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Osteoporosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sok Kuan; Chin, Kok-Yong; Suhaimi, Farihah Hj; Ahmad, Fairus; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and osteoporosis are two major healthcare problems worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of medical conditions consisting of central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, in which each acts on bone tissue in different ways. The growing prevalence of MetS and osteoporosis in the population along with the controversial findings on the relationship between both conditions suggest the importance for further investigation and discussion on this topic. This review aims to assess the available evidence on the effects of each component of MetS on bone metabolism from the conventional to the contemporary. Previous studies suggested that the two conditions shared some common underlying pathways, which include regulation of calcium homeostasis, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of the NF-κB (RANK)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathways. In conclusion, we suggest that MetS may have a potential role in developing osteoporosis and more studies are necessary to further prove this hypothesis. PMID:27338453

  15. Clinical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in Korea, and its comparison with other Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Hong, A Ram; Lim, Soo

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is referred to as syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome, and is primarily composed of abdominal obesity, diabetes, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. Asians have a lower frequency of obesity than Caucasians, but have an increasing tendency toward metabolic syndrome. Thus, metabolic syndrome poses a major challenge for public health professionals, and is set to become a social and economic problem in Asian populations. Most data on metabolic syndrome are based on studies from Western countries with only limited information derived from Asian populations. Recently, several studies were carried out on a large scale that represents the general Korean population. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults has varied depending on the study designs and different criteria, but shows a distinct increasing trend of metabolic syndrome driven by an increase in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Given the rapid economic progression of Korea over the past 30 years along with a rise of the aged population, it is expected that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome will further increase. Therefore, a proactive strategy at the governmental level for metabolic syndrome prevention should be implemented, reducing abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Healthy dietary habits and regular exercise should be emphasized as a part of such a strategy. PMID:26417407

  16. β-cell function is associated with metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects

    PubMed Central

    Baez-Duarte, Blanca G; Sánchez-Guillén, María Del Carmen; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo; Zamora-Ginez, Irma; Leon-Chavez, Bertha Alicia; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Islas-Andrade, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Aims The clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome does not find any parameters to evaluate the insulin sensitivity (IS) or β-cell function. The evaluation of these parameters would detect early risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between β-cell function and presence of metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects. Material and methods This study is part of the Mexican Survey on the Prevention of Diabetes (MexDiab Study) with headquarters in the city of Puebla, Mexico. The study comprised of 444 subjects of both genders, aged between 18 and 60 years and allocated into two study groups: (1) control group of individuals at metabolic balance without metabolic syndrome and (2) group composed of subjects with metabolic syndrome and diagnosed according to the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Defection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical assessments were carried out. Results Average age of the subjects in the control group (n = 254) was 35.7 ± 11.5 years and 42.0 ± 10.7 years for subjects in the metabolic syndrome group (n = 190). Subjects at metabolic balance without metabolic syndrome showed decreased IS, increased insulin resistance (IR), and altered β-cell function. Individuals with metabolic syndrome showed a high prevalence (P ≤ 0.05) of family history of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This group also showed a significant metabolic imbalance with glucose and insulin levels and lipid profile outside the ranges considered safe to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease and T2D. Conclusion The main finding in this study was the detection of altered β-cell function, decreased IS, an increased IR in subjects at metabolic balance, and the progressive deterioration of β-cell function and IS in subjects with metabolic syndrome as the number of features of metabolic syndrome increases

  17. Patients with Old Age or Proximal Tumors Benefit from Metabolic Syndrome in Early Stage Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jian-xin; Yu, Hong-mei; Liang, Wei-ping; Jin, Ying; Ren, Chao; He, Ming-ming; Chen, Wei-wei; Luo, Hui-yan; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Feng-hua; Li, Yu-hong; Xu, Rui-hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. Methods Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. Results Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P = 0.036). Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P = 0.009 in multivariate analysis) or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P = 0.047 in multivariate analysis). No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P = 0.052 in univariate analysis). Conclusions Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors. PMID:24599168

  18. Treatment benefits on metabolic syndrome with diet and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dragusha, Gani; Elezi, Abdulla; Dragusha, Shpend; Gorani, Daut; Begolli, Luljeta

    2010-05-01

    The research has included 422 patients aged between 25 to 60, of whom 341 were men and 81 women. The purpose of research was to determine impact of diet and physical activity in the treatment of metabolic syndrome during the six month period. Processing of results through descriptive and discriminative analysis have indicated that 6 month treatment with diet and physical activity have had an impact in the: waistline decrease by 6.05 cm or 5.50% among males, and 4.92 cm or 5.10% among females; body mass index (BMI) decrease by 1.78 or 6.20% among males, and 2.3 or 8.16% among females; decrease of blood triglycerides levels by 0.35 mmol/L or 16.28% among males, and 0.27 mmol/L or 13.30% among females; increase of blood cholesterol HDL-C by 0.48 mmol/L or 34.78% among males, and 0.06 mmol/L or 4.28% among females; systolic arterial pressure decreased by 15 mmHg or 10.18%, and diastolic blood pressure by 8.74 mmHg or 9.47% among males, and systolic arterial pressure decreased by 7.39 mmHg or 5.17%, and diastolic blood pressure decreased by 5.18 mmHg or 5.75% among females; the level of blood glucose decreased by 0.45 mmol/L or 7.04% among males, and by 0.64 mmol/L or 9.92% decreased among females. The results show that physical exercise and diet are important factors in reducing the values symptoms of metabolic syndrome. In order to improve symptoms of metabolic syndrome, it is necessary to keep on with healthy diet and physical exercise that means the change of lifestyle. PMID:20507300

  19. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in elderly Japanese-Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Natasha Priscilla; Chaim, Rita Cristina; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinh; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta Gouvea; Hirai, Amelia Toyomi; Rosa, Camila Moreno; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Okoshi, Marina Politi; Okoshi, Katashi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Prevalence of individuals with a high cardiovascular risk is elevated in elderly populations. Although metabolic syndrome (MS) increases cardiovascular risk, information is scarce on the prevalence of MS in the elderly. In this study we assessed MS prevalence in a population of elderly Japanese-Brazilians using different MS definitions according to waist circumference cutoff values. Material/Methods We studied 339 elderly subjects, 44.8% males, aged between 60 to 88 years (70.1±6.8). MS was defined according to criteria proposed by the Joint Interim Statement in 2009. As waist circumference cutoff point values remain controversial for Asian and Japanese populations, we employed 3 different cutoffs that are commonly used in Japanese epidemiological studies: 1) ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women; 2) ≥85 cm for men and ≥90 cm for women; 3) ≥85 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women. Results MS prevalence ranged from 59.9% to 65.8% according to the different definitions. We observed 90% concordance and no statistical difference (p>0.05) in MS prevalence between the 3 definitions. MS diagnosis according to all 3 cutoff values was found in 55.8% of our population, while in only 34.2% was MS discarded by all cutoffs. The prevalence of altered MS components was as follows: arterial blood pressure 82%, fasting glycemia 65.8%, triglyceride 43.4%, and HDL-C levels 36.9%. Conclusions Elderly Japanese-Brazilians present high metabolic syndrome prevalence independent of waist circumference cutoff values. Concordance between the 3 definitions is high, suggesting that all 3 cutoff values yield similar metabolic syndrome prevalence values in this population. PMID:22293888

  20. METABOLIC SYNDROME INCREASES CAROTID ARTERY STIFFNESS: THE NORTHERN MANHATTAN STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Della-Morte, David; Gardener, Hannah; Denaro, Federica; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Paik, Myunghee C.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Rundek, Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Background Arterial Stiffness, an intermediate pre-clinical marker of atherosclerosis, has been associated with an increased risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The metabolic syndrome and its components are established CVD risk factors and may also increase arterial stiffness, but data on this potential relationship is limited. The goal of this study was to determine the association between the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and carotid artery stiffness (STIFF) in an elderly multi-ethnic cohort. Methods STIFF was assessed by carotid ultrasound as part of the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), a prospective population-based cohort of stroke-free individuals. STIFF was calculated as [ln(systolicBP/diastolicBP)/Strain], where Strain was [(Systolic Diameter Diastolic Diameter)/Diastolic Diameter]. MetSyn was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program: Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria. LogSTIFF was analyzed as the dependent variable in linear regression models, adjusting for demographics, education, current smoking, presence of carotid plaque and intima-media thickness. Results STIFF was analyzed in 1133 NOMAS subjects (mean age 65±9 years; 61% women; 58% Hispanic, 22% Black, 20% White). The prevalence of MetSyn was 49%. The mean LogSTIFF was 2.01±0.61 among those with and 1.90±0.59 among those without MetSyn (p=0.003). MetSyn was significantly associated with increased logSTIFF in the final adjusted model (parameter estimate β=0.100, p=0.01). Among individual MetSyn components, waist circumference and elevated blood pressure were most significantly associated with a mean increase in logSTIFF (p<0.01). Conclusion MetSyn is significantly associated with increased carotid artery stiffness in a multiethnic population. Increased carotid artery stiffness may, in part, explain a high risk of stroke among individuals with the metabolic syndrome. PMID:20536608

  1. Fatty acids and chronic low grade inflammation associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Aoife A; Connaughton, Ruth M; Lyons, Claire L; McMorrow, Aoibheann M; Roche, Helen M

    2016-08-15

    The metabolic syndrome is a group of obesity associated metabolic conditions that result in increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Global increases in obesity rates have led to an increase in metabolic syndrome resulting in a demand for increased understanding of the mechanisms involved. This review examines the relationship between adipose tissue biology, lipid metabolism and chronic low grade inflammation relating to obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:27083551

  2. [Pathogenesis of lipodystrophy and metabolic syndromes associated with HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Sanz, Agustín; Rodríguez-Vidigal, Francisco F; Domingo, Pere

    2006-09-30

    Lipodystrophy, and the metabolic alterations (dislipemia, insulin-resistance) associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is a multifactorial syndrome due to the interaction of host related factors (cellular immune status, diet, gene mutations), viral factors (cytokine synthesis, polyunsaturated fatty acid or PUFA depletion), and pharmacological effects (mitochondrial DNA-polymerase inhibition, lipolysis inhibition, adiponectin synthesis reduction). HIV probably modifies the adipocyte differentiation and the lipid metabolism. This retroviral effect is mediated by proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor) and the participation of other factors (drugs, diet), all in the context of a particular host genetic setting. The adipocyte (and several cellular receptors, fatty acids, membrane proteins, and cytokines) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated lipodystrophy. PMID:17040633

  3. An approach to the etiology of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bedoya Berrío, Gabriel; Velásquez R, Claudia M

    2013-01-01

    Increased prevalence of obesity in the world, especially accumulation of abnormal amounts of visceral fat predisposes to insulin resistance, which is the central role of metabolic syndrome (MS). Obesity can deregulate the intracellular signaling of insulin due to the production of inflammatory substances, chemoattractant proteins, adipokines and molecules that trigger hormonal mediator potentials for destabilization of signal transduction, leading to metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The complexity of the MS and of the genetic mechanisms involved in its etiology derives from the combination of variants on genes involved and environmental factors that predispose it. The purpose of this paper is to review the effects of obesity in molecular and biochemical responses that trigger insulin resistance and its relation to some candidate genes and the ancestral component of the population. PMID:24892324

  4. Therapeutic approaches to dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Daryl A; Marshall, Brian J; Falko, James M

    2003-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the closely related metabolic syndrome are associated with significant risk for cardiovascular disease. Recent evidence suggests that both conditions are increasing in epidemic proportions. Dyslipidemia is characterized by increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles; increased postprandial lipemia; and abnormal apolipoprotein A1 and B metabolism. All these lipoprotein disturbances accelerate atherosclerosis in these patients. It is likely that many patients will need combinations of lipid-modifying therapy to achieve American Diabetes Association (ADA), Adult Treatment Panel III, and American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) guidelines to help prevent cardiovascular disease and death. PMID:12858129

  5. Caregiving Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... more likely than non-caregivers to live in poverty and five times more likely to receive Supplemental ... caregiving families. In every state and DC the poverty rate is higher among families with members with ...

  6. Caregiver Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2005). Psychophysiological mediators of caregiver stress and differential cognitive decline . Psychology and Aging, 20 (3), 402–411. Pew Research ... 2005). Psychophysiological mediators of caregiver stress and differential cognitive decline . Psychology and Aging, 20 (3), 402–411. Return to ...

  7. Recovery and outcomes after the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients and their family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Herridge, Margaret S; Moss, Marc; Hough, Catherine L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Rice, Todd W; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Azoulay, Elie

    2016-05-01

    Outcomes after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are similar to those of other survivors of critical illness and largely affect the nerve, muscle, and central nervous system but also include a constellation of varied physical devastations ranging from contractures and frozen joints to tooth loss and cosmesis. Compromised quality of life is related to a spectrum of impairment of physical, social, emotional, and neurocognitive function and to a much lesser extent discrete pulmonary disability. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is ubiquitous and includes contributions from both critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy, and recovery from these lesions may be incomplete at 5 years after ICU discharge. Cognitive impairment in ARDS survivors ranges from 70 to 100 % at hospital discharge, 46 to 80 % at 1 year, and 20 % at 5 years, and mood disorders including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are also sustained and prevalent. Robust multidisciplinary and longitudinal interventions that improve these outcomes are still uncertain and data in our literature are conflicting. Studies are needed in family members of ARDS survivors to better understand long-term outcomes of the post-ICU family syndrome and to evaluate how it affects patient recovery. PMID:27025938

  8. Unhealthy diets: a common soil for the association of metabolic syndrome and cancer.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Katherine; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Giugliano, Dario

    2014-05-01

    The association between metabolic syndrome and cancer continues to be acknowledged. Metabolic syndrome is a common long-term complication in cancer survivors; on the other hand, findings from several recent meta-analyses suggest that the presence of metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of future cancer at specific sites. Approximately one-third of cancer deaths occurring in the USA each year may be caused by unhealthy lifestyle habits, including poor nutrition. Worldwide, diets low in fruits rank third for deaths attributable to individual risk factors. Metabolic syndrome may be a surrogate marker for dietary risk factors for cancer, a sentinel for the deleterious effect of unhealthy diet in susceptible individuals, who may first manifest metabolic consequences (visceral obesity, dysglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia), and then an increased risk of cancer. From the standpoint of preventive oncology, people with the metabolic syndrome should be encouraged, more than sex- and age-matched counterparts, to undergo appropriate cancer screenings. PMID:24408049

  9. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni; Borghi, Elisa; Moretti, Francesca; Verduci, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26307979

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors including insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension that markedly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes, PPARα, PPARδ/β and PPARγ are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors, which modulate the expression of an array of genes that play a central role in regulating glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, where imbalance can lead to obesity, T2DM and CVD. They are also drug targets, and currently, PPARα (fibrates) and PPARγ (thiazolodinediones) agonists are in clinical use for treating dyslipidemia and T2DM, respectively. These metabolic characteristics of the PPARs, coupled with their involvement in metabolic diseases, mean extensive efforts are underway worldwide to develop new and efficacious PPAR-based therapies for the treatment of additional maladies associated with the MetS. This article presents an overview of the functional characteristics of three PPAR isotypes, discusses recent advances in our understanding of the diverse biological actions of PPARs, particularly in the vascular system, and summarizes the developmental status of new single, dual, pan (multiple) and partial PPAR agonists for the clinical management of key components of MetS, T2DM and CVD. It also summarizes the clinical outcomes from various clinical trials aimed at evaluating the atheroprotective actions of currently used fibrates and thiazolodinediones. PMID:20932114

  11. Association between Metabolite Profiles, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity Status

    PubMed Central

    Allam-Ndoul, Bénédicte; Guénard, Frédéric; Garneau, Véronique; Cormier, Hubert; Barbier, Olivier; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Underlying mechanisms associated with the development of abnormal metabolic phenotypes among obese individuals are not yet clear. Our aim is to investigate differences in plasma metabolomics profiles between normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (Ov/Ob) individuals, with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling was used to compare metabolite levels between each group. Three main principal components factors explaining a maximum of variance were retained. Factor 1’s (long chain glycerophospholipids) metabolite profile score was higher among Ov/Ob with MetS than among Ov/Ob and NW participants without MetS. This factor was positively correlated to plasma total cholesterol (total-C) and triglyceride levels in the three groups, to high density lipoprotein -cholesterol (HDL-C) among participants without MetS. Factor 2 (amino acids and short to long chain acylcarnitine) was positively correlated to HDL-C and negatively correlated with insulin levels among NW participants. Factor 3’s (medium chain acylcarnitines) metabolite profile scores were higher among NW participants than among Ov/Ob with or without MetS. Factor 3 was negatively associated with glucose levels among the Ov/Ob with MetS. Factor 1 seems to be associated with a deteriorated metabolic profile that corresponds to obesity, whereas Factors 2 and 3 seem to be rather associated with a healthy metabolic profile. PMID:27240400

  12. Novel nutraceutic therapies for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Méndez-Del Villar, Miriam; Pérez-Rubio, Karina G; Zuñiga, Laura Y; Cortez-Navarrete, Marisol; Ramírez-Rodriguez, Alejandra; González-Ortiz, Manuel

    2016-04-10

    Nutraceutic therapies such as berberine, bitter melon, Gymnema sylvestre, Irvingia gabonensis, resveratrol and ursolic acid have been shown to help control metabolic syndrome (MetS). The effect of berberine on glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension, obesity and MetS has been evaluated in animal models and humans. Most clinical trials involving bitter melon have been conducted to evaluate its effect on glucose metabolism; nevertheless, some studies have reported favorable effects on lipids and blood pressure although there is little information about its effect on body weight. Gymnema sylvestre helps to decrease body weight and blood sugar levels; however, there is limited information on dyslipidemia and hypertension. Clinical trials of Irvingia gabonensis have shown important effects decreasing glucose and cholesterol concentrations as well decreasing body weight. Resveratrol acts through different mechanisms to decrease blood pressure, lipids, glucose and weight, showing its effects on the population with MetS. Finally, there is evidence of positive effects with ursolic acid in in vitro and in vivo studies on glucose and lipid metabolism and on body weight and visceral fat. Therefore, a review of the beneficial effects and limitations of the above-mentioned nutraceutic therapies is presented. PMID:27076875

  13. Novel nutraceutic therapies for the treatment of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Méndez-del Villar, Miriam; Pérez-Rubio, Karina G; Zuñiga, Laura Y; Cortez-Navarrete, Marisol; Ramírez-Rodriguez, Alejandra; González-Ortiz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Nutraceutic therapies such as berberine, bitter melon, Gymnema sylvestre, Irvingia gabonensis, resveratrol and ursolic acid have been shown to help control metabolic syndrome (MetS). The effect of berberine on glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension, obesity and MetS has been evaluated in animal models and humans. Most clinical trials involving bitter melon have been conducted to evaluate its effect on glucose metabolism; nevertheless, some studies have reported favorable effects on lipids and blood pressure although there is little information about its effect on body weight. Gymnema sylvestre helps to decrease body weight and blood sugar levels; however, there is limited information on dyslipidemia and hypertension. Clinical trials of Irvingia gabonensis have shown important effects decreasing glucose and cholesterol concentrations as well decreasing body weight. Resveratrol acts through different mechanisms to decrease blood pressure, lipids, glucose and weight, showing its effects on the population with MetS. Finally, there is evidence of positive effects with ursolic acid in in vitro and in vivo studies on glucose and lipid metabolism and on body weight and visceral fat. Therefore, a review of the beneficial effects and limitations of the above-mentioned nutraceutic therapies is presented. PMID:27076875

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Salman

    2010-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors including insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension that markedly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes, PPARα, PPARδ/ß and PPARγ are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors, which modulate the expression of an array of genes that play a central role in regulating glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, where imbalance can lead to obesity, T2DM and CVD. They are also drug targets, and currently, PPARα (fibrates) and PPARγ (thiazolodinediones) agonists are in clinical use for treating dyslipidemia and T2DM, respectively. These metabolic characteristics of the PPARs, coupled with their involvement in metabolic diseases, mean extensive efforts are underway worldwide to develop new and efficacious PPAR-based therapies for the treatment of additional maladies associated with the MetS. This article presents an overview of the functional characteristics of three PPAR isotypes, discusses recent advances in our understanding of the diverse biological actions of PPARs, particularly in the vascular system, and summarizes the developmental status of new single, dual, pan (multiple) and partial PPAR agonists for the clinical management of key components of MetS, T2DM and CVD. It also summarizes the clinical outcomes from various clinical trials aimed at evaluating the atheroprotective actions of currently used fibrates and thiazolodinediones. PMID:20932114

  15. Physical Activity, Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Minna K.; Wasenius, Niko; Kajantie, Eero; Lano, Aulikki; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low physical activity (PA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS), its components and body composition among young Finnish adults. Research Design and Methods The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband) five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET). Results The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours) or intensity (MET) were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS. Conclusions MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS. PMID:25992848

  16. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jing; Shen, Chong; Chu, Min J.; Gao, Yue X.; Xu, Guang F.; Huang, Jian P.; Xu, Qiong Q.; Cai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China. Methods The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Results Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15–40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15–30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids. Conclusions Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also

  17. The Association between Shift Work and the Metabolic Syndrome in Female Workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine identify any association between shift work and the metabolic syndrome by comparing the prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome in shift work groups and daytime work groups for female workers. Methods Based on data from health examinations carried out from April to December of 2012, we selected as our subjects 254 female workers from the Daegu area Dyeing Industrial Complex. We diagnosed the metabolic syndrome using the examination results, and information about age, whether or not they did shift work, job type, smoking habits, drinking habits, exercise habits, and past medical history was collected through self-administered questionnaire surveys and face-to-face interviews. The variables found in a univariate analysis to be significant in the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome - age, drinking habits, exercise habits, and shift work - were included in a logistic regression analysis of the risk of the metabolic syndrome for female workers. Results The prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome for the total group of study subjects was 11.8%, for daytime workers was 2.8%, and for shift workers was 15.3%. A logistic regression analysis of the odds of the metabolic syndrome for female workers was conducted that included factors associated with the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome: age, drinking habits, exercise habits, and shift work. The results revealed that the odds ratio of the metabolic syndrome in the shift work group, 6.30 (95% CI 1.24-32.15), was significantly higher when compared with the daytime work group. Conclusion Shift work appears to have an association with the metabolic syndrome in female workers. Accordingly, we believe that the attention of government agencies and business owners is needed together with the individual practice of health behaviors to manage the metabolic syndrome for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in female shift workers. PMID:24472469

  18. Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Obese Youth.

    PubMed

    Platt, Adrienne M

    2015-07-01

    School nurses are well aware of the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States, as one in three youth are overweight or obese. Co-morbidities found in overweight or obese adults were not commonly found in youth three decades ago but are now increasingly "normal" as the obesity epidemic continues to evolve. This article is the second of six related articles discussing the co-morbidities of childhood obesity and discusses the complex association between obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Insulin resistance increases up to 50% during puberty, which may help to explain why youth are more likely to develop co-morbidities as teens. Treatment of these disorders is focused on changing lifestyle habits, as a child cannot change his or her pubertal progression, ethnicity, or family history. School nurses and other personnel can assist youth with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome by supporting their efforts to make changes, reinforcing that insulin resistance is not necessarily type 2 diabetes even if the child is taking medication, and intervening with negative peer pressure. PMID:25816425

  19. Diabetes, Insulin Resistance, and Metabolic Syndrome in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Philip J.; Wiedmeyer, Charles E.; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V. K. (Seshu); Messer, Nat T.

    2012-01-01

    Analogous to the situation in human medicine, contemporary practices in horse management, which incorporate lengthy periods of physical inactivity coupled with provision of nutritional rations characterized by inappropriately high sugar and starch, have led to obesity being more commonly recognized by practitioners of equine veterinary practice. In many of these cases, obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and glucose intolerance. An equine metabolic syndrome (MS) has been described that is similar to the human MS in that both IR and aspects of obesity represent cornerstones of its definition. Unlike its human counterpart, identification of the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) portends greater risk for development of laminitis, a chronic, crippling affliction of the equine hoof. When severe, laminitis sometimes necessitates euthanasia. Unlike the human condition, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and many other chronic conditions, for which the risk is recognized as increased in the face of MS, is less likely in horses. The equine veterinary literature has been replete with reports of scientific investigations regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of EMS. PMID:22768883

  20. Metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population: a short overview

    PubMed Central

    Varda, Natasa Marcun; Gregoric, Alojz

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) in adults is defined as a concurrence of obesity, disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidemia, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Studies now indicate that many of its components are also present in children and adolescents. Moreover, the clustering of these risk factors has been documented in some children, who are at increased cardiovascular risk in adulthood. The MS is highly prevalent among overweight children and adolescents. Identifying these children is important for early prevention and treatment of different components of the syndrome. The first-line treatment comprises lifestyle modification consisting of diet and exercise. The most effective tool for prevention of the MS is to stop the development of childhood obesity. The first attempt at consensus-based pediatric diagnostic criteria was published in 2007 by the International Diabetes Federation. Nevertheless, national prevalence data, based on uniform pediatric definition, protocols for prevention, early recognition and effective treatment of pediatric MS are still needed. The aim of this article is to provide a short overview of the diagnosis and treatment options of childhood MS, as well as to present the relationships between MS and its individual components. PMID:21589817

  1. Modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yeyi; Lambert, Joshua D

    2013-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L., Sterculiaceae) is a widely consumed food ingredient. Although typically found in high-fat, high-sugar foods such as chocolate, cocoa is rich in polyphenols, methylxanthines, and monounsaturated fatty acids. There is increasing evidence that moderate consumption of cocoa and cocoa-containing foods may have beneficial effects on the health including vasodilatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Polyphenols in cocoa, including monomeric flavanols, as well as polymeric proanthocyanidins, may play a role in these observed beneficial effects. Chronic inflammation represents a potential mechanistic link between obesity and its related pathologies: insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which comprise the metabolic syndrome. In the present review, we discuss the available data regarding the modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa and cocoa-derived compounds. We emphasize studies using laboratory animals or human subjects since such studies often represent the strongest available evidence for biological effects. In vitro studies are included to provide some mechanistic context, but are critically interpreted. Although the available data seem to support the anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa, further studies are needed with regard to the dose-response relationship as well as the underlying mechanisms of action. We hope this review will stimulate further research on cocoa and its anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23637048

  2. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This syndrome increases the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. It has been demonstrated that the prevalence of MS is increasing worldwide. Despite the importance of MS in the context of metabolic and cardiovascular disease, few studies have described the prevalence of MS and its determinants in Latin America. The present study aims to assess studies describing the prevalence of MS in Brazil in order to determine the global prevalence of the syndrome and its components. Methods Systematic review. Searches were carried out in PubMed and Scielo from the earliest available online indexing year through May 2013. There were no restrictions on language. The search terms used to describe MS were taken from the PubMed (MeSH) dictionary: “metabolic syndrome x”, “prevalence” and “Brazil”. Studies were included if they were cross-sectional, described the prevalence of MS and were conducted in apparently healthy subjects, from the general population, 19-64 years old (adult and middle aged) of both genders. The titles and abstracts of all the articles identified were screened for eligibility. Results Ten cross-sectional studies were selected. The weighted mean for general prevalence of MS in Brazil was 29.6% (range: 14.9%-65.3%). Half of the studies used the criteria for clinical diagnosis of MS proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) (2001). The highest prevalence of MS (65.3%) was found in a study conducted in an indigenous population, whereas the lowest prevalence of MS (14.9%) was reported in a rural area. The most frequent MS components were low HDL-cholesterol (59.3%) and hypertension (52.5%). Conclusions Despite methodological differences among the studies selected, our findings suggested a high prevalence of MS in the Brazilian adult population. PMID:24350922

  3. Folate metabolism and the risk of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Patterson, David

    2008-10-01

    Folate is an important vitamin that contributes to cell division and growth and is therefore of particular importance during infancy and pregnancy. Folate deficiency has been associated with slowed growth, anaemia, weight loss, digestive disorders and some behavioural issues. Adequate folate intake around the time of conception and early pregnancy can reduce the risk of certain problems including neural tube defects. It has been suggested that certain versions (polymorphisms) of some genes can increase the risk of conceiving a baby with Down syndrome. If this is the case, then people with Down syndrome may be more likely to carry these forms of these genes and to experience associated problems in folate metabolism. Studies to date have found conflicting results, suggesting that these gene variants may be part of a more complex picture. In this issue, a further study reports no association between the presence of a common polymorphism of one of these genes and the risk of having a child with Down syndrome among mothers of Northern Indian origin. This article reviews these challenging findings and looks at where investigations can now go to resolve these issues. PMID:19026278

  4. Childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop

    2013-03-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (< 40 y). Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity are most important strategies for preventing childhood obesity. Effective health awareness educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG'). PMID:23334584

  5. Beneficial Effects Of Cinnamon On Oxidtive Stress, Muscle Mass, and Glycemia In Rats With Metabolic Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress. Polyphenols from cinnamon have been reported to act as insulin potentiating factors and antioxidants, and therefore might act in preventing the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine the ef...

  6. Health behavior and perceptions among African American women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Malayala, Srikrishna Varun; Raza, Ambreen

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of different risk factors (abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol) that predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. African American women (AAW) are easily predisposed to metabolic syndrome due to higher levels of insulin resistance. Various sociodemographic factors further contribute to higher prevalence. Aim This study evaluates the current prevalence of metabolic syndrome in AAW and identifies the related sociodemographic risk factors. Methods The study utilized 2007–11 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data sets from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The sample was divided into two groups: AAW with and without metabolic syndrome. Sociodemographic, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and health perceptions were compared between the two groups. Results Out of the available sample of 30,442 individuals, 1918 (6.4%) met the inclusion criteria (AAW, age>20, non-pregnant women). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 47%. Older age, lower education level, low socioeconomic status, unmarried status, low physical activity level, and smoking were associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (p<0.001). The prevalence of borderline hypertension, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in AAW with metabolic syndrome (p<0.001). Conclusion In spite of the focus on prevention of cardiovascular risk factors and elimination of ethnic and gender disparities, metabolic syndrome is still widely prevalent in AAW and poses a threat to the goals of Healthy People 2020. PMID:26908390

  7. High Anger Expression Exacerbates the Relationship Between Age and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ryff, Carol D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Building on prior work linking high anger expression to poor health, this cross-sectional study addressed whether anger expression exacerbated age-related risk for metabolic syndrome in a national sample of adults, known as MIDUS (Midlife in the United States). Method. Respondents reported anger expression via survey assessments and completed an overnight clinic visit. Results. Unadjusted metabolic syndrome prevalence was 40.6%. Men, less educated individuals, and those who reported not getting regular physical activity were at significantly higher risk for metabolic syndrome. Anger expression did not predict higher risk for metabolic syndrome in main effects models, but it moderated the relationship between age and metabolic syndrome. Age-associated risk for metabolic syndrome was significant only for adults with high anger expression. Discussion. Among older adults, anger expression predicted higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Older adults reporting low anger expression had metabolic syndrome rates comparable to younger adults. Results highlight that failing to show the frequently observed decline in anger expression with age may have pernicious health concomitants. PMID:24077742

  8. Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Hair Cortisol and the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gaete, Helen Patricia

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we discuss the possibility of using Hair Cortisol in Clinical Practice to monitor HPA status in patents at risk of developing the Metabolic Syndrome, and also its possible use to assess effectiveness of the effectiveness of treatment in patients with the Metabolic Syndrome. PMID:26417828

  9. Cinnamon: potential role in the prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, elevated glucose and lipids, inflammation, decreased antioxidant activity, increased weight gain, and increased glycation of proteins. Cinnamon has been shown to improve aspects of metabolic syndrome in cells cultured in vitro, and in an...

  10. A traditional rice and beans pattern is associated with metabolic syndrome in Puerto Rican older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was approximately 50% for Puerto Rican elders living in Massachusetts. Diet is known to be associated with metabolic syndrome. Little information exists regarding the dietary intakes of Puerto Ricans. We aimed to characterize the dietary patterns of 1167 Puerto...

  11. Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hanjie; Ye, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 22 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect β cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans consistently supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines. PMID:18537696

  12. Evaluation of metabolic syndrome in adults of Talca city, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Mujica, Veronica; Leiva, Elba; Icaza, Gloria; Diaz, Nora; Arredondo, Miguel; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Orrego, Roxana; Vásquez, Marcela; Palomo, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Objective- Insulin resistance (IR) is an important risk factor for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a clustering of metabolic alterations associated to IR; however, there is no international consensus for defining its diagnosis. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of MS identified by the ATP III and IDF criteria in adults from Talca city. Research and methods- We studied 1007 individuals, aged 18–74, and residents from Talca. MS subjects were defined according to ATP III (three altered factors) and IDF criteria (patients with waist circumference >80/90 cm (W/M) and two others altered factors). Results- The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the IDF and ATP III criteria was 36.4% and 29.5%, respectively after adjustment for age and sex. The agreement for both criteria was 89%. The prevalence in men was higher than in women for both MS definitions, although not significant. MS probability increased with age, and the highest risk was in the 57–68 age group (ATP-MS) and 53–72 age group (IDF-MS). Hypertension, high triglycerides and abdominal obesity are the most frequent alterations in MS. Conclusion- MS prevalence in adults was higher when diagnosed with IDF than with ATP criterion; in both, age is directly related with the MS presence. The MS subjects showed higher levels of blood pressure, waist circumference and plasma triglycerides. Considering our results, it is worrisome that one third of our population has a high risk of developing DM2 and CVD in the future. PMID:18482457

  13. Fermented Red Ginseng Potentiates Improvement of Metabolic Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome Rat Models.

    PubMed

    Kho, Min Chul; Lee, Yun Jung; Park, Ji Hun; Kim, Hye Yoom; Yoon, Jung Joo; Ahn, You Mee; Tan, Rui; Park, Min Cheol; Cha, Jeong Dan; Choi, Kyung Min; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension is a cluster of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. Red ginseng (RG), a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Aim in the present study was to investigate that the effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG) on a high-fructose (HF) diet induced metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to RG and losartan. Animals were divided into four groups: a control group fed a regular diet and tap water, and fructose groups that were fed a 60% high-fructose (HF) diet with/without RG 250 mg/kg/day or FRG 250 mg/kg/day for eight weeks, respectively. Treatment with FRG significantly suppressed the increments of body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat weight and adipocyte size. Moreover, FRG significantly prevented the development of metabolic disturbances such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Staining with Oil-red-o demonstrated a marked increase of hepatic accumulation of triglycerides, and this increase was prevented by FRG. FRG ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adhesion molecules in the aorta. In addition, FRG induced markedly upregulation of Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) in the muscle. These results indicate that FRG ameliorates obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and fatty liver in HF diet rats. More favorable pharmacological effects on HF diet induced metabolic disorders were observed with FRG, compared to an equal dose of RG. These results showed that the pharmacological activity of RG was enhanced by fermentation. Taken together, fermentated red ginseng might be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome. PMID:27322312

  14. Fermented Red Ginseng Potentiates Improvement of Metabolic Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Min Chul; Lee, Yun Jung; Park, Ji Hun; Kim, Hye Yoom; Yoon, Jung Joo; Ahn, You Mee; Tan, Rui; Park, Min Cheol; Cha, Jeong Dan; Choi, Kyung Min; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension is a cluster of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. Red ginseng (RG), a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Aim in the present study was to investigate that the effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG) on a high-fructose (HF) diet induced metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to RG and losartan. Animals were divided into four groups: a control group fed a regular diet and tap water, and fructose groups that were fed a 60% high-fructose (HF) diet with/without RG 250 mg/kg/day or FRG 250 mg/kg/day for eight weeks, respectively. Treatment with FRG significantly suppressed the increments of body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat weight and adipocyte size. Moreover, FRG significantly prevented the development of metabolic disturbances such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Staining with Oil-red-o demonstrated a marked increase of hepatic accumulation of triglycerides, and this increase was prevented by FRG. FRG ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adhesion molecules in the aorta. In addition, FRG induced markedly upregulation of Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) in the muscle. These results indicate that FRG ameliorates obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and fatty liver in HF diet rats. More favorable pharmacological effects on HF diet induced metabolic disorders were observed with FRG, compared to an equal dose of RG. These results showed that the pharmacological activity of RG was enhanced by fermentation. Taken together, fermentated red ginseng might be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome. PMID:27322312

  15. Albuminuria and chronic kidney disease in association with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health problem because it is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. The metabolic syndrome, which is characterized by abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and dyslipidemia, is also an increasingly common disorder and a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A close association has been found between the metabolic syndrome and the risk for developing renal impairment, clinically expressed in the form of microalbuminuria or chronic kidney disease. Several potential mechanisms, including insulin resistance, renal atherosclerosis, and inflammation, induce the deterioration of renal function. Despite the close association between the metabolic syndrome and renal impairment, it is still unclear whether and to what extent treating the metabolic syndrome will prevent renal impairment. A clinical trial is needed to clarify whether the effect of preventing and treating metabolic syndrome components will result in improved renal prognosis. PMID:17684460

  16. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Schizophrenia Referred to Farabi Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Jalal; Karimi, Kamyar; Farnia, Vahid; Golshani, Senobar; Alikhani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our study was conducted to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia. Methods The study population included all patients with schizophrenia who were referred to Farabi Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, between March 2014 and March 2015. A total of 280 subjects who met the study criteria were selected according to the census sampling method. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 30.4% (20.7% in men and 51.5% in women). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was greater in patients > 40 years than patients aged 20–40 years. There was a significant relationship between marital status and number of hospitalizations with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Given the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia, healthcare professionals should take measures to identify the risk factors and timely treatment of affected patients, thereby improving the patient’s quality of life and reducing health costs. PMID:27403239

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the metabolic syndrome: Consequences of a dual threat

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Dukhabandhu; Joshi, Anjali; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil; Thomas, Nihal

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is found to be more frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The presence of inflammatory markers in circulation, sputum, and broncho-alveolar fluid suggest systemic inflammation is one of the potential mechanisms responsible for both COPD and metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity, skeletal muscle dysfunction, hypogonadism, and steroid use are also important causes of the metabolic syndrome in COPD. Obesity and insulin resistance is found to be more common in mild to moderate stages (I and II) of COPD. Patients with COPD and the metabolic syndrome have increase risk of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. This review describes in details the various components of metabolic syndrome and its impact on long outcomes in COPD patients. PMID:25285275

  18. Variations of Lipoprotein(a) Levels in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Report from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Rojas, Joselyn; Salazar, Juan; Bello, Luis; Áñez, Roberto; Toledo, Alexandra; Chacín, Maricarmen; Aguirre, Miguel; Villalobos, Marjorie; Chávez, Mervin; Martínez, María Sofía; Torres, Wheeler; Torres, Yaquelin; Mejías, José; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Liliana; Sánchez de Rosales, Milagro; Quevedo, Ana; Cano, Raquel; Cabrera, Mayela; París, Rafael; Lubo, Adonías; Montiel, María; Cano, Climaco

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet its influence on metabolic syndrome (MS) is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact generated by this diagnosis in serum Lp(a) concentrations. Materials and Methods. A total of 1807 subjects of both genders (55.3% women and 44.7% men) belonging to the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study were evaluated. Results were expressed as Mean ± SD, determining differences through Student's t-test and One-Way ANOVA test. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized for analyzing factors associated with elevated serum Lp(a) levels and MS. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were corrected according to Lp(a)-Cholesterol when necessary. Results. No differences were found in Lp(a) values between genders; P = 0,292. The association between MS and the classification of Lp(a) was statistically significant (χ2 = 28.33; P < 0,0001), with greater levels in subjects with this diagnosis. In the univariate analysis, subjects with each of the separate diagnostic criteria showed higher serum Lp(a) concentrations, except for hyperglycemia. Conclusions. Lp(a) values exhibit important variations regarding MS and each of its components. Impaired fasting glucose appeared as a protecting factor against elevated Lp(a) concentrations, whereas its association with LDL-C and hs-CRP suggests a potential pro-inflammatory role. PMID:23710466

  19. Development of a Dietary Management Care Map for Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Royall, Dawna; Brauer, Paula; Bjorklund, Laura; O'Young, Olivia; Tremblay, Angelo; Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed; Heyland, Daren; Dhaliwal, Rupinder; Klein, Doug; Mutch, David M

    2014-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a particular cluster of metabolic abnormalities (hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and visceral fat deposition) that can lead to a 1.5- to 2-fold increased relative risk of cardiovascular disease. Various combinations of healthier eating patterns and increased physical activity have been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities and reduce MetS prevalence. Dietitians who counsel MetS patients are challenged to integrate guidance from various medical management guidelines and research studies with effective behavioural change strategies and specific advice on what food and eating pattern changes will be most effective, feasible, and acceptable to clients. As part of a demonstration project that is currently underway, we developed a care map (decision aid) that represents the key decision processes involved in diet counselling for MetS. The care map is based on evidence from both clinical and health behaviour change studies and expert consensus and has undergone limited dietitian review. It is being used to help project dietitians clearly articulate their specific food intake change goals. Additional studies to directly compare counselling strategies could inform future development of the map. In the meantime, dietitians may find this care map helpful in clarifying counselling goals and strategies in this client group. PMID:26066817

  20. The potential role of antioxidants in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gregório, Bianca Martins; De Souza, Diogo Benchimol; de Morais Nascimento, Fernanda Amorim; Pereira, Leonardo Matta; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of risk factors that raise the risk for heart disease and other health problems, such as obesity. The clustering of metabolic abnormality is closely related to oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as the progression of atherosclerosis. Antioxidants are reducing agents which inhibit the oxidation of other molecules and can be used not only to prevent but also to treat health complications of MS and atherosclerosis. They can be ingested in the normal diet, since they are found in many food sources, or in supplement formulations. Herein, we aim to review the literature concerning the effect of antioxidants on MS. We focus on antioxidants with some evidence of action on this condition, like flavonoids, arginine, vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, resveratrol and selenium. Experimental and clinical studies show that most of the above-mentioned antioxidants exhibit a wide range of effects in protecting the human body, especially in MS patients. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated for most of these compounds. Also, some of them should be used with caution because their excess can be toxic to the body. In general, antioxidants (especially those present in foods) can be used by MS individuals because of their direct effect on oxidative stress. Additionally, they should be encouraged as part of a nutritional lifestyle change, since this is part of the therapy for all diseases involved in metabolic disorders. PMID:26648468

  1. The metabolic syndrome: definition, global impact, and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Potenza, Matthew V; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic derangements that are associated with primary disturbances in adipose tissue. Abnormal visceral fat accumulates from physical inactivity and excess calories in genetically susceptible individuals. This increased adipocyte mass acts as an endocrine organ and communicates with other organ systems via increases in inflammatory cytokines. The resulting disorders define MS as increased waist circumference, decreased serum high-density lipoprotein, and increased serum triglyceride levels, hypertension, and insulin resistance. MS accounts for the majority of cardiovascular disease risk in the U.S. population. Dietary interventions, such as the Mediterranean diet, have been shown to improve these metabolic derangements. Many substances found in these diets are being investigated as specific therapies for MS, and when scientific substantiation is lacking, they may be considered as part of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, as scientific evidence accumulates, these CAM treatments may become part of conventional medicine. This review will scrutinize the emerging evidence behind many, though not all, CAM treatments currently thought to target the various derangements found in MS. PMID:19841245

  2. Reduced Flexibility Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Community-Dwelling Elders

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ke-Vin; Hung, Chen-Yu; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hung; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Han, Der-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background The ageing process may lead to reductions in physical fitness, a known risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate cross-sectional and combined associations of metabolic syndrome with body composition and physical fitness in a community based geriatric population. Methods A total of 628 community-dwelling elders attending a geriatric health examination were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criterion with Asian cutoff of waist girth was adopted in this study. Body composition was obtained using bioimpedance analysis, and physical fitness was evaluated through the measurement of muscle strength (handgrip force), lower extremity muscle endurance (sit-to-stand test), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), and cardiorespiratory endurance (2-minute step test). Multivariable logistic regression and correlation analysis were performed to determine the association of metabolic syndrome with body composition and functionality variables. Results Metabolic syndrome was associated with increased skeletal muscle index (SMI) (odds ratio (OR), 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–2.07) and decreased flexibility (OR, 0.97, 95% CI, 0.95–0.99) compared with those without metabolic syndrome. When body mass index was accounted for in the analysis, the association of SMI with metabolic syndrome was reduced. Waist circumference was positively correlated with SMI but negatively correlated with flexibility, whereas high density lipoprotein was positively correlated with flexibility but negatively correlated with SMI. Conclusion Reduced flexibility was positively associated with metabolic syndrome independent of age, gender, body composition, and functionality measurements in a community based geriatric population. Significant associations between metabolic syndrome with muscle strength

  3. Serum leptin is associated with cardiometabolic risk and predicts metabolic syndrome in Taiwanese adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Leptin is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, few studies have assessed its relationship with metabolic syndrome, especially in an Asian population. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess leptin levels and evaluate its association with CVD and metabolic syndrome. Methods In 2009, 957 subjects, who underwent a routine physical examination and choose leptin examination, were selected to participate. Participants (269 females and 688 males) were stratified according to leptin level quartiles. Metabolic syndrome was defined by NCEP ATP III using waist circumference cutoffs modified for Asian populations, and CVD risk was determined using the Framingham Heart Study profile. Results Leptin levels were correlated with CVD risk in men and women. With the exception of fasting plasma glucose, increased leptin levels were observed as factors associated with metabolic syndrome increased in both males and females. After adjusting for age, an association between leptin levels and metabolic syndrome was observed. After adjusting for age alone or with tobacco use, subjects in the highest leptin quartile had a higher risk of having metabolic syndrome than those in the lowest quartile (OR = 6.14 and 2.94 for men and women, respectively). After further adjustment for BMI, metabolic syndrome risk remained significantly increased with increasing leptin quartiles in men. Finally, increased leptin levels were a predictor of metabolic syndrome in men and women. Conclusions Serum leptin levels are correlated with CVD risk and metabolic syndrome. Analysis of leptin as part of routine physical examinations may prove beneficial for early diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. PMID:21526991

  4. Nature and Nurture in the Early-Life Origins of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Astiz, Susana; Ovilo, Cristina; Garcia-Contreras, Consolacion; Vazquez-Gomez, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The combination of genetic background together with food excess and lack of exercise has become the cornerstone of metabolic disorders associated to lifestyle. The scenario is furthermore reinforced by their interaction with other environmental factors (stress, sleeping patterns, education, culture, rural versus urban locations, and xenobiotics, among others) inducing epigenetic changes in the exposed individuals. The immediate consequence is the development of further alterations like obesity and metabolic syndrome, and other adverse health conditions (type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, reproductive, immune and neurological disorders). Thus, having in mind the impact of the metabolic syndrome on the worldwide public health, the present review affords the relative roles and the interrelationships of nature (genetic predisposition to metabolic syndrome) and nurture (lifestyle and environmental effects causing epigenetic changes), on the establishment of the metabolic disorders in women; disorders that may evolve to metabolic syndrome prior or during pregnancy and may be transmitted to their descendants. PMID:26927212

  5. Strawberries decrease atherosclerotic markers in subjects with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Du, Mei; Wilkinson, Marci; Simmons, Brandi; Wu, Mingyuan; Betts, Nancy M.; Fu, Dong Xu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Strawberries have been reported to be potent antioxidants and reduce cardiovascular risk factors, such as, elevated blood pressure, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and inflammation in limited studies. We hypothesized that freeze-dried strawberry supplementation will improve blood pressure, impaired glucose, dyslipidemia, or circulating adhesion molecules in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome, thereby lowering cardiovascular risk factors in these subjects. Twenty-seven subjects with metabolic syndrome [2 males and 25 females; BMI: 37.5±2.15 kg/m2; age: 47.0±3.0y (means ±SE)] consumed 4 cups freeze-dried strawberry beverage (50g freeze-dried strawberries ~ 3 cups fresh strawberries) or equivalent amounts of fluids (controls, 4 cups water) daily for eight weeks in a randomized controlled trial. Anthropometrics and blood pressure measurements, assessment of dietary intakes and fasting blood draws were conducted at screen and eight weeks of the study. Strawberry supplementation significantly decreased total and LDL-cholesterol [5.8±0.2 to 5.2±0.2 mmol/L, and 3.5±0.2 to 3.1±0.1 mmol/L, respectively, (means ±SE), p<0.05] and small LDL-particles using nuclear magnetic resonance-determined lipoprotein subclass profile (NMR-LSP) versus controls at eight weeks [794.6±94.0 to 681.8±86.0 nmol/L, (means ±SE), p<0.05]. Strawberry supplementation further decreased circulating levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) versus controls at eight weeks [272.7±17.4 to 223.0±14.0 ng/mL, (means ±SE), p<0.05). Serum glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and waist circumference were not affected. Thus, short-term freeze-dried strawberry supplementation improved selected atherosclerotic risk factors, including, dyslipidemia and circulating adhesion molecules in subjects with metabolic syndrome and these results need confirmation in future trials. PMID:20797478

  6. Sudden infant death syndrome and abnormal metabolism of thiamin.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Derrick

    2015-12-01

    Although it has been generally accepted that moving the infant from the prone to the supine position has solved the problem of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), it has been hypothesized that this is an insufficient explanation and that a mixture of genetic risk, some form of stressful incident and marginal brain metabolism is proportionately required. It is suggested that each of these three variables, with dominance in one or more of them, act together in the common etiology. Much has been written about the association of thiamin and magnesium but the finding of extremely high concentrations of serum thiamin in SIDs victims has largely caused rejection of thiamin as being involved in the etiology. The publication of abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potentials strongly suggests that there are electrochemical changes in the brainstem affecting the mechanisms of automatic breathing and the control of cardiac rhythm. The brainstem, cerebellum and limbic system of the brain are known to be highly sensitive to thiamin deficiency (pseudo-hypoxia) and the pathophysiology is similar to a mild continued deprivation of oxygen. Little attention has been paid to the complex metabolism of thiamin. Dietary thiamin requires the cooperation of the SLC19 family of thiamin transporters for its absorption into cells and recent information has shown that transporter SNPs may be relatively common and can be expected to increase genetic risk. Thiamin must be phosphorylated to synthesize thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), well established in its vital action in glucose metabolism. TPP is also a cofactor for the enzyme 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1) in the peroxisome, emphasizing its importance in alpha oxidation and plasmalogen synthesis in cell membrane physiology. The importance of thiamine triphosphate (TTP) in energy metabolism is still largely unknown. Thiamin metabolism has been implicated in hyperemesis gravidarum and iatrogenic Wernicke encephalopathy has been reported when the

  7. Testosterone Supplementation Therapy in the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason R.; Pastuszak, Alexander W.; Lamb, Dolores J.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clinical complex of risk factors including increased waist circumference, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure and insulin resistance whose presence increases the likelihood of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. With a quarter of the American adult population affected, MetS has been referred to as the most significant public health threat of the 21st century. While lifestyle modification and weight loss are recommended, no specific pharmacological treatment is known. Given that low levels of testosterone have been implicated in the pathogenesis of MetS and an inverse relationship exists between circulating testosterone and the development of MetS, it is tempting to speculate that men with MetS may benefit from testosterone supplementation therapy (TST). As such, this review seeks to examine the role of testosterone and the use of TST as a treatment modality in men with MetS. PMID:25387223

  8. Functional foods as potential therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brown, L; Poudyal, H; Panchal, S K

    2015-11-01

    Obesity as part of metabolic syndrome is a major lifestyle disorder throughout the world. Current drug treatments for obesity produce small and usually unsustainable decreases in body weight with the risk of major adverse effects. Surgery has been the only treatment producing successful long-term weight loss. As a different but complementary approach, lifestyle modification including the use of functional foods could produce a reliable decrease in obesity with decreased comorbidities. Functional foods may include fruits such as berries, vegetables, fibre-enriched grains and beverages such as tea and coffee. Although health improvements continue to be reported for these functional foods in rodent studies, further evidence showing the translation of these results into humans is required. Thus, the concept that these fruits and vegetables will act as functional foods in humans to reduce obesity and thereby improve health remains intuitive and possible rather than proven. PMID:26345360

  9. Metabolic Syndrome in Childhood: Rare Case of Alstrom Syndrome with Blindness.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Afzal; D'Souza, Benedicta; Yadav, Charu; Agarwal, Ashish; Kumar, Anand; Nandini, M; D'Souza, Vivian; Poornima, A M; Kamath, Nutan

    2016-10-01

    Alstrom's syndrome (AS) is a rare autosomal recessive ciliopathic condition affecting 1:10,00,000 children. It's a single gene disorder of ALMS1 on chromosome 2 with multisystem involvement with cone-rod retinal dystrophy causing juvenile blindness, obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 Diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism and sensorineural hearing loss. Till now only 800 patients with this disorder has been identified so far. In this report, we describe the case of a 9-year old male boy from south India. He had been initially referred for polyphagia, polyuria, polydipsia, generalized weakness from 1 weeks. On examination he was demonstrated features suggestive of AS, including blindness, obesity, type 2 diabetes, altered lipid profile, hypogonadism, acanthosis nigricans, seborrheic dermatitis, right ear discharge and episodes of respiratory tract infections. So, diagnosis of AS is critical as it can easily be overlooked because of the many features associated with metabolic syndrome starting at age 7, a relatively early age. PMID:27605748

  10. Association of Microalbuminuria with Metabolic Syndrome among Aged Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Lin, Hai-Yan; Wang, Shu-Hua; Guan, Li-Ying; Wang, Yi-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of the various components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on chronic kidney disease has been conflicting. We aim to investigate the association between MetS and microalbuminuria and identify the major contributing components of MetS that result in microalbuminuria in the Chinese aged population. Methods. A total of 674 adults aged 55–98 years (males: 266; mean age: 66.5 ± 7.5 years) were studied. MetS was defined by the 2004 Chinese Diabetes Society criteria and microalbuminuria by urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥3 mg/mmoL. Results. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was gradually increased with increasing number of MetS components (P < 0.05). In multivariate regression, after adjusting for age and sex, MetS was the strongest correlate of microalbuminuria (OR = 1.781, 95% CI = 1.226–2.587; P < 0.05) followed by the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (OR = 1.217, 95% CI = 1.044–1.092; P < 0.05), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (OR = 1.011, 95% CI = 1.107–1.338; P < 0.05), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR = 0.576, 95% CI = 0.348–0.953; P < 0.05). Conclusions. MetS is independently associated with microalbuminuria in the Chinese aged population. Elevated FPG is the most predominant component of metabolic syndrome associated with microalbuminuria followed by elevated SBP and reduced HDL-C. PMID:27200378

  11. A new mouse model of metabolic syndrome and associated complications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Zheng, Yue; Nishina, Patsy M; Naggert, Jürgen K.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) encompasses a clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. We characterized a new mouse model carrying a dominant mutation, C57BL/6J-Nmf15/+ (B6-Nmf15/+), which develops additional complications of MS such as adipose tissue inflammation and cardiomyopathy. A backcross was used to genetically map the Nmf15 locus. Mice were examined in the CLAMS™ animal monitoring system, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and blood chemistry analyses were performed. Hypothalamic LepR, SOCS1 and STAT3 phosphorylation were examined. Cardiac function was assessed by Echo- and Electro Cardiography. Adipose tissue inflammation was characterized by in situ hybridization and measurement of Jun kinase activity. The Nmf15 locus mapped to distal mouse chromosome 5 with a LOD score of 13.8. Nmf15 mice developed obesity by 12 weeks of age. Plasma leptin levels were significantly elevated in pre-obese Nmf15 mice at 8 weeks of age and an attenuated STAT3 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus suggests a primary leptin resistance. Adipose tissue from Nmf15 mice showed a remarkable degree of inflammation and macrophage infiltration as indicated by expression of the F4/80 marker and increased phosphorylation of JNK1/2. Lipidosis was observed in tubular epithelial cells and glomeruli of the kidney. Nmf15 mice demonstrate both histological and pathophysiological evidence of cardiomyopathy. The Nmf15 mouse model provides a new entry point into pathways mediating leptin resistance and obesity. It is one of few models that combine many aspects of metabolic syndrome and can be useful for testing new therapeutic approaches for combating obesity complications, particularly cardiomyopathy. PMID:19398498

  12. Association of Microalbuminuria with Metabolic Syndrome among Aged Population.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Lin, Hai-Yan; Wang, Shu-Hua; Guan, Li-Ying; Wang, Yi-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of the various components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on chronic kidney disease has been conflicting. We aim to investigate the association between MetS and microalbuminuria and identify the major contributing components of MetS that result in microalbuminuria in the Chinese aged population. Methods. A total of 674 adults aged 55-98 years (males: 266; mean age: 66.5 ± 7.5 years) were studied. MetS was defined by the 2004 Chinese Diabetes Society criteria and microalbuminuria by urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥3 mg/mmoL. Results. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was gradually increased with increasing number of MetS components (P < 0.05). In multivariate regression, after adjusting for age and sex, MetS was the strongest correlate of microalbuminuria (OR = 1.781, 95% CI = 1.226-2.587; P < 0.05) followed by the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (OR = 1.217, 95% CI = 1.044-1.092; P < 0.05), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (OR = 1.011, 95% CI = 1.107-1.338; P < 0.05), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR = 0.576, 95% CI = 0.348-0.953; P < 0.05). Conclusions. MetS is independently associated with microalbuminuria in the Chinese aged population. Elevated FPG is the most predominant component of metabolic syndrome associated with microalbuminuria followed by elevated SBP and reduced HDL-C. PMID:27200378

  13. Metabolic syndrome in youth: chimera or useful concept?

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of the MetS is not particularly high in the overall pediatric population (3 %-4 %) but it is as high as 30 %-50 % among overweight youth. Several definitions of the MetS have been used, thus, generating confusion and difficulties in defining the true prevalence of this syndrome. The recent definition of the International Diabetes Federation has tried to standardize the diagnostic criteria. However, there are still some concerns about use of cut-offs values and dichotomous variables, and some debate as to whether a continuous cardiometabolic risk score could be more appropriate for the pediatric population. Although there are some studies that have shown the association between childhood and adolescent MetS with long-term outcomes, further prospective studies are needed to clarify the true value of diagnosing MetS in youth. PMID:23054749

  14. Metabolic syndrome and C-reactive protein in bank employees

    PubMed Central

    Cattafesta, Monica; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani

    2016-01-01

    Background The ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (us-CRP) is used for the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, but it is not well described as a marker for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods An observational and transversal study of bank employees evaluated anthropometric, hemodynamic, and biochemical data. CRP values were determined using commercial kits from Roche Diagnostics Ltd, and MS criteria were analyzed according to National Cholesterol Education Program’s – Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III). Results A total of 88 individuals had MS, and 77.3% (n=68) of these showed alterations of us-CRP (P=0.0001, confidence interval [CI] 0.11–0.34). Individuals with MS had higher mean values of us-CRP in global measures (P=0.0001) and stratified by sex (P=0.004) than individuals without the syndrome. This marker exhibited significant differences with varying criteria for MS, such as waist circumference (P=0.0001), triglycerides (P=0.002), and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.007), and the highest levels of us-CRP were found in individuals with more MS criteria. Conclusion us-CRP was strongly associated with the presence of MS and MS criteria in this group of workers. us-CRP is a useful and effective marker for identifying the development of MS and may be used as a reference in routine care. PMID:27274294

  15. PPARs Link Early Life Nutritional Insults to Later Programmed Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Chan, Julie Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is an important component of metabolic syndrome. Adulthood hypertension and metabolic syndrome can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) serve as a nutrient-sensing signaling linking nutritional programming to hypertension and metabolic syndrome. All three members of PPARs, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are expressed in the kidney and involved in blood pressure control. This review provides an overview of potential clinical applications of targeting on the PPARs in the kidney to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome, with an emphasis on the following areas: mechanistic insights to interpret programmed hypertension; the link between the PPARs, nutritional insults, and programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome; the impact of PPAR signaling pathway in a maternal high-fructose model; and current experimental studies on early intervention by PPAR modulators to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Animal studies employing a reprogramming strategy via targeting PPARs to prevent hypertension have demonstrated interesting results. It is critical that the observed effects on developmental reprogramming in animal models are replicated in human studies, to halt the globally-growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome-related diseases. PMID:26712739

  16. Associations between Metabolic Syndrome and Inadequate Sleep Duration and Skipping Breakfast

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nak-Hyun; Shin, Dong Heon; Kim, Hee-Tae; Jeong, Su Min; Kim, Su-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide, and previous studies have shown that inadequate sleep duration and skipping breakfast may be related to metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we investigated the effects of inadequate sleep and skipping breakfast on metabolic syndrome using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV & V reports (2007-2009 and 2010-2012, respectively). Methods The sample included 12,999 subjects who participated in the KNHANES IV & V. Sleep duration and breakfast eating were self-reported, and metabolic syndrome was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Subjects were divided into 12 groups according to breakfast eating and sleep duration patterns, and multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, household income, education level, smoking status, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and total daily energy intake were conducted. Results In subjects under 50 years of age, sleeping less than 6 hours was significantly associated with increased metabolic syndrome except among those who ate breakfast on only 1 of the past 2 days. In subjects over 50 years of age, sleeping less than 6 hours was significantly associated with a decreased risk of metabolic syndrome among those who ate breakfast on both days. Conclusion In conclusion, significant associations between metabolic syndrome and sleep duration were identified, and these associations differed according to age group. PMID:26634092

  17. High prevalence of aspirin resistance in elderly patients with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; Gao, Ying-Hui; Cao, Jian; Zhang, Hua-Xin; Fan, Li; Hu, Guo-Liang; Hu, Yi-Xin; Li, Xiao-Li; Zou, Xiao; Li, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is known to be a prothrombotic state. We undertook this study to examine a hypothesis that aspirin resistance may be associated with metabolic syndrome, and to assess other potential determinants of aspirin resistance in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods A total of 469 elderly patients with CVD were recruited. One hundred and seventy-two patients with metabolic syndrome and 297 without metabolic syndrome (control group) received daily aspirin therapy (≥ 75 mg) over one month. Platelet aggregation was measured by light transmission aggregometry (LTA). Aspirin resistance was defined as ≥ 20% arachidonic acid (AA)- and ≥ 70% adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation according to LTA. Aspirin semi-responders were defined as meeting one (but not both) of these criteria. Results By LTA, 38 of 469 (8.1%) patients were aspirin resistant. The prevalence of aspirin resistance was higher in the metabolic syndrome group compared with the control group [11.6 % vs. 6.6%, odds ratio (OR) = 2.039; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.047–3.973]. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, metabolic syndrome (OR = 4.951, 95% CI: 1.440–17.019, P = 0.011) was a significant risk factor for aspirin resistance. Conclusions A significant number of patients with CVD and metabolic syndrome are resistant to aspirin therapy. This might further increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these patients. PMID:27582771

  18. Association of periodontal status with liver abnormalities and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aisyah; Furuta, Michiko; Shinagawa, Takashi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Takeshita, Toru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between periodontal status and liver abnormalities has been reported, it has not been described in relation to metabolic syndrome (MetS), which often coexists with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We examined the association of a combination of liver abnormality and MetS with periodontal condition in Japanese adults, based on the level of alcohol consumption. In 2008, 4,207 males aged 45.4 ± 8.9 years and 1,270 females aged 45.9 ± 9.7 years had annual workplace health check-ups at a company in Japan. Periodontal status was represented as periodontal pocket depth at the mesio-buccal and mid-buccal sites for all teeth. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and metabolic components were examined. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between deep pocket depth and the coexistence of elevated ALT and MetS in males with low alcohol consumption. Females showed no such relationship. In conclusion, the association between periodontal condition and the combination of elevated ALT and MetS was confirmed in males. That is, a clear association between liver abnormalities and periodontal condition was seen in male subjects with no or low alcohol consumption and MetS, providing new insights into the connection between liver function and periodontal health. PMID:26666857

  19. Nesfatin-1 levels and metabolic markers in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alp, Esra; Görmüş, Uzay; Güdücü, Nilgün; Bozkurt, Selen

    2015-07-01

    Nesfatin-1 is a novel hormone synthesized in hypothalamus and several other specific organs to regulate eating habits, appetite and is thought to be related to ovarian functions. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the nesfatin-1 levels with other metabolic parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition that is known to be related to both ovarian functions and obesity. Study subjects were chosen from the women attended to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Istanbul Bilim University, Avrupa Florence Nightingale Hospital. Thirty-five healthy control subjects and 55 PCOS patients were included. Blood samples were obtained on the 3rd day of the menstrual cycle. Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), insulin, fasting blood glucose (FBG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured; homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value was calculated. The nesfatin-1 levels were measured by competitive inhibition ELISA method. Due to our results, PCOS patients were having lower nesfatin-1 levels compared to the control group and this was not seemed to be related to body mass index (BMI) levels. This is an important result to be investigated in larger study groups and is related to other metabolic markers. PMID:26062107

  20. Metabolic syndrome showed significant relationship with carotid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Andou, Takeshi; Fukumitsu, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We assessed the associations between MetS and the indicators of carotid atherosclerosis as assessed by ultrasonography taking into consideration of confounders in the general population. A total of 1281 subjects (856 males, 425 females) were included in the present study. The total plaque score and maximum intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries were measured as indicators of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular risk factors were several metabolic components, serum uric acid, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and lifestyle factors. MetS was defined according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program. The prevalences of an elevated total plaque score (≥5) and elevated IMT (>1 mm) of the carotid arteries were significantly higher in subjects with MetS as compared to subjects without MetS. Furthermore, a trend was observed towards higher prevalences of these indicators of atherosclerosis as the number of components of MetS increased. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between elevated plaque score and MetS even after adjustments for age, serum uric acid, serum CRP and lifestyle factors in the males. Among the indicators of atherosclerosis assessed by carotid ultrasonography, a significant independent association was observed between the total plaque score and MetS in males in the general population. PMID:25810113

  1. Is There Really Relationship between Androgenetic Alopecia and Metabolic Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Ozbas Gok, Seyran; Akin Belli, Asli; Dervis, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Background. There are several studies investigating the relationship between androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and metabolic syndrome (MS) with conflicting results. Objective. We sought to investigate whether there is a relationship between AGA and MS. Methods. A case-control study including 74 male patients with AGA and 42 male controls was conducted. Age, duration of AGA, AGA onset age, anthropometric measures, body mass index, lipid parameters, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, and presence of MS were recorded. Results. Of the 74 male AGA patients (age range 20–50 years, mean 32.14), 24 were in stage 2, 26 were in stage 3, 17 were in stage 3V, 1 was in stage 5, and 6 were in stage 7. There was no significant difference in the rate of MS between AGA and control groups (P = 0.135). Among the evaluated parameters, only systolic blood pressure in AGA group was significantly higher than control group. Conclusion. In contrast to the most of the previous studies, our study does not support the link between AGA and MS. To exclude confounding factors such as advanced age and therefore metabolic disturbances, further studies are needed with large group of AGA patients including different age groups and varying severity. PMID:26617635

  2. Nuts in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-07-01

    Nuts are rich in many bioactive compounds that can exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. We reviewed the evidence relating nut consumption and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. Nuts reduce the postprandial glycemic response; however, long-term trials of nuts on insulin resistance and glycemic control in diabetic individuals are inconsistent. Epidemiologic studies have shown that nuts may lower the risk of diabetes incidence in women. Few studies have assessed the association between nuts and abdominal obesity, although an inverse association with body mass index and general obesity has been observed. Limited evidence suggests that nuts have a protective effect on blood pressure and endothelial function. Nuts have a cholesterol-lowering effect, but the relation between nuts and hypertriglyceridemia and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is not well established. A recent pooled analysis of clinical trials showed that nuts are inversely related to triglyceride concentrations only in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. An inverse association was found between the frequency of nut consumption and the prevalence and the incidence of MetS. Several trials evaluated the effect of nuts on subjects with MetS and found that they may have benefits in some components. Compared with a low-fat diet, a Mediterranean diet enriched with nuts could be beneficial for MetS management. The protective effects on metabolism could be explained by the modulation of inflammation and oxidation. Further trials are needed to clarify the role of nuts in MetS prevention and treatment. PMID:24898227

  3. Investigating the metabolic syndrome: Contributions of swine models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes, and an important contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, occurs in nearly 35% of adults and 50% of the aging population in the United States. However, the underlying mechanisms by which MetS orchestrates and amplifies cardiovascular events remain elusive. Furthermore, traditional therapeutic strategies addressing lifestyle modifications and individual components of MetS are often unsuccessful in decreasing morbidity due to MetS. The availability of an adequate experimental platform that mimics the complexity of MetS may allow development of novel management techniques. Swine models, including domestic pigs and minipigs, have made important contributions to our understanding of many aspects of MetS. Given their similarity to human anatomy and physiology, those models may have significant predictive power for elucidating the pathophysiology of MetS in a manner applicable to humans. Moreover, experimental maneuvers and drugs can be tested in these pre-clinical models before application in patients with MetS. This review highlights the utility of the pig as an animal model for metabolic disorders, which may play a crucial role in novel drug development to optimize management of MetS. PMID:26933085

  4. Facing the Metabolic Syndrome Epidemic in Living Kidney Donor Programs.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Vilet, Juan M; Córdova-Sánchez, Bertha M; Arreola-Guerra, José M; Alberú, Josefina; Morales-Buenrostro, Luis E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Due to the shortage of organs for transplantation, there has been increased interest in developing living-donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) programs. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 668 potential living kidney donors (PLKD) for 496 intended recipients were evaluated in a LDKT program between 2010 and 2014. Causes for PLKD exclusion were recorded, as well as patient survival. RESULTS After evaluation, 250 (37.4%) PLKD were considered suitable for kidney donation, 331 (49.6%) were excluded for medical reasons, and 87 (13.0%) withdrew their consent. The main cause of exclusion was metabolic syndrome and its components: 131 (39.6%) obesity, 37 (11.2%) new diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 25 (7.6%) new diagnosis of hypertension. Sixty-three (19.0%) were excluded for previously undetected renal diseases. Forty-six (13.9%) PLKD were excluded for immunological incompatibility. A total of 158 patients (31.9%) were transplanted from living donors and 31 (6.3%) from deceased donors (after the donor was considered non-suitable). Three-year patient survival was 99.4% for transplanted patients and 41.4% for patients who remained on dialysis. CONCLUSIONS Metabolic diseases constitute the main cause of donor exclusion in some LDKT programs. The high mortality rate of patients whose donor is excluded renews the debate over expanding donor criteria against the long-term risks they may pose to the living kidney donor. PMID:27443824

  5. Influence of metabolic syndrome on upper gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Sogabe, Masahiro; Okahisa, Toshiya; Kimura, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Koichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-08-01

    A recent increase in the rate of obesity as a result of insufficient physical exercise and excess food consumption has been seen in both developed and developing countries throughout the world. Additionally, the recent increased number of obese individuals with lifestyle-related diseases associated with abnormalities in glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, defined as metabolic syndrome (MS), has been problematic. Although MS has been highlighted as a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and arteriosclerotic diseases, it was also recently shown to be associated with digestive system disorders, including upper gastrointestinal diseases. Unlike high body weight and high body mass index, abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation is implicated in the onset of various digestive system diseases because excessive visceral fat accumulation may cause an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, inducing the release of various bioactive substances, known as adipocytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. This review article focuses on upper gastrointestinal disorders and their association with MS, including obesity, visceral fat accumulation, and the major upper gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27372302

  6. Metabolic dysfunction in obese Hispanic women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sam, Susan; Scoccia, Bert; Yalamanchi, Sudha; Mazzone, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are certain ethnic groups with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) at increased risk of metabolic disorders? SUMMARY ANSWER Obese Hispanic women with PCOS are at increased risk of metabolic disorders compared with age- and BMI-matched obese non-Hispanic white women with PCOS in the USA. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Ethnic differences in body composition and metabolic risk are well established. PCOS is a common disorder in women of reproductive age and is associated with high rates of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A cross-sectional observational study was performed at an Academic Medical Center on 60 women of reproductive age with PCOS. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Blood was obtained after fasting from 17 Hispanic, 22 non-Hispanic black and 21 non-Hispanic white women with PCOS who were similar in age and BMI. Anthropometric parameters, insulin, lipid and lipoprotein levels (measured by nuclear magnetic resonance) were compared between the three groups. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Age and BMI did not differ between the groups. Hispanic women with PCOS had higher waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (P = 0.02), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = 0.03) and a more atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein profile consisting of lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.02), higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle number (P = 0.02), higher very low-density lipoprotein particle (VLDL) size (P = 0.03) and lower LDL (P = 0.03) and HDL particle size (P = 0.005) compared with non-Hispanic white women. The differences in HDL, HOMA-IR, VLDL and LDL size did not persist after adjustment for WHR while differences in LDL particle number (P = 0.04) and HDL size (P = 0.01) persisted. LIMITATIONS, REASON FOR CAUTION The sample size for the three groups was small but the findings were still significant. The women were mostly obese so the ethnic differences in metabolic disorders may

  7. Metabolic Syndrome Based on IDF Criteria in a Sample of Normal Weight and Obese School Children.

    PubMed

    Quah, Y V; Poh, B K; Ismail, M N

    2010-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome was once reported only in adults but is now occurring more frequently in children. This study compared the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components among normal and obese children using the 2007 International Diabetes Federation (IDF) pediatric definition for metabolic syndrome. Subjects comprised 78 school children aged 8-10 years, with 34 obese and 44 normal weight children. Body weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were measured and body mass index was calculated. Clinical profiles measured included fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and blood pressure. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined using the 2007 IDF pediatric criteria. Obese subjects had a significantly (p< 0.001) higher mean BMI (26.0 ± 3.6 kg/m2) compared to normal weight subjects (15.1 ± 0.8 kg/m2). Only one obese subject (1.3% of subjects) had metabolic syndrome based on the IDF definition, but all obese subjects had at least one component of metabolic syndrome. In comparison, no normal weight subjects had metabolic syndrome and only 9.1% of normal weight subjects had at least one component of metabolic syndrome. The most common component was central obesity, observed in 43.6% of subjects having WC equal to or greater than the 90th percentile. In concurrence with central obesity as the core feature of the IDF criteria, WC showed the strongest correlation with indicators of obesity such as BMI (r=0.938, p< 0.001), fat mass (r=0.912, p< 0.001) and fat-free mass (r=0.863, p< 0.001). We conclude that the problem of metabolic syndrome is more prominent among obese children, although the incidence of MS as defined by the 2007 pediatric IDF criteria, is low in this population (1.3%). PMID:22691926

  8. Components of Metabolic Syndrome as Risk Factors for Hearing Threshold Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Shan; Fang, Wen-Hui; Kao, Tung-Wei; Yang, Hui-Fang; Peng, Tao-Chun; Wu, Li-Wei; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chou, Chang-Yi; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background Hearing loss was a common, chronically disabling condition in the general population and had been associated with several inflammatory diseases. Metabolic syndrome, which was associated with insulin resistance and visceral obesity, was considered a chronic inflammatory disease. To date, few attempts had been made to establish a direct relationship between hearing loss and metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and hearing loss by analyzing the data in the reports of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004. Methods This study included 2100 participants aged ≤ 65 years who enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004). We examined the relationship between the presence of different features of metabolic syndrome in the participants and their pure-tone air-conduction hearing thresholds, including low-frequency and high-frequency thresholds. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, such as age, medical conditions, and smoking status, the participants with more components of metabolic syndrome were found to have higher hearing thresholds than those with fewer components of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.05 for a trend). The low-frequency hearing threshold was associated with individual components of metabolic syndrome, such as abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, and a low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p < 0.05 for all parameters). Conclusions The results indicated that the presence of a greater number of components of metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with the hearing threshold in the US adult population. Among the components of metabolic syndrome, the most apparent association was observed between low HDL and hearing loss. PMID:26247614

  9. Binge Drinking and Its Relation to Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Im, Ho-Jin; Choi, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background It is reported that heavy drinking increases the risk of metabolic syndrome. But there have been few studies on the relationship between the intensity of drinking and metabolic syndrome when drinking the same amount of alcohol. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the frequency of binge drinking and metabolic syndrome in Korean adult men. Methods From the database of the 4th and 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2007-2010, data of 8,305 adult men (≥19 years of age) was included in this analysis. Cross-sectional relationship between the frequency of binge drinking and metabolic syndrome was investigated adjusting for pure alcohol consumed per day. Results Adjusting for various confounders including pure alcohol consumed per day, the adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in those in higher frequency (more than 1/wk) binge drinking group was 1.62 (95% confidence interval, 1.30 to 2.03; P for trend = <0.001) compared to those in the non-binge drinking group. Through analysis of the relationship between pure alcohol consumed per day and metabolic syndrome, it was found that pure alcohol consumed per day had a positive relation to metabolic syndrome in the higher frequency binge drinking group (P for trend = 0.041). The relationship was inverse in the non-binge drinking group (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusion Our study found a positive relationship between frequency of binge drinking and metabolic syndrome in adult men. And the effect of drinking on metabolic syndrome may depend on the frequency of binge drinking. Further studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:25120888

  10. Nutritional strategies in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Feldeisen, Sabrina E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2007-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The exact etiology remains unclear, but it is known to be a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, dietary habits are of central importance in the prevention and treatment of this condition. However, there is currently no firm consensus on the most appropriate dietary recommendations. General recommendations include decreasing obesity, increasing physical activity, and consuming an anti-atherogenic diet, and have traditionally focused on low total fat intake. A major problem with the focus on low fat is that high-carbohydrate diets can contribute to increasing triglyceride and decreasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations. Low-carbohydrate diets have been popular in recent years. However, such diets are typically higher in saturated fat and lower in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains than national dietary recommendations. More recently the quality of carbohydrate has been studied in relation to MetS, including a focus on dietary fiber and glycemic index. Similarly, there has been a move from limiting total fat to a focus on the quality of the fat, with evidence of beneficial effects of replacing some carbohydrate with monounsaturated fat. Other nutrients examined for possible importance include calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium. Together, the evidence suggests that the components of diet currently recommended as "healthy" are likely also protective against MetS, including low saturated and trans fat (rather than low total fat) and balanced carbohydrate intake rich in dietary fiber, as well as high fruit and vegetable intake (rather than low total carbohydrate); and the inclusion of low-fat dairy foods. Accelerating research on gene-diet interactions is likely to contribute interesting information that may lead to further

  11. Metabolic Syndrome Risk for Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in the ARIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Ballantyne, Christie M.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; McNeill, Ann Marie; Heiss, Gerardo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B.; Pankow, James S.

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study enrolled 15,792 middle-aged Americans in 4 communities in the United States and has followed them for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Several analyses from this large, biracial, population study have shown that the metabolic syndrome, as well as individual metabolic syndrome components, is predictive of the prevalence and incidence of coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, carotid artery disease, and diabetes. PMID:18469836

  12. Genetic variants in lipid metabolism are independently associated with multiple features of the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Our objective was to find single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), within transcriptional pathways of glucose and lipid metabolism, which are related to multiple features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods 373 SNPs were measured in 3575 subjects of the Doetinchem cohort. Prevalence of MetS features, i.e. hyperglycemia, abdominal obesity, decreased HDL-cholesterol levels and hypertension, were measured twice in 6 years. Associations between the SNPs and the individual MetS features were analyzed by log-linear models. For SNPs related to multiple MetS features (P < 0.01), we investigated whether these associations were independent of each other. Results Two SNPs, CETP Ile405Val and APOE Cys112Arg, were associated with both the prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol level (Ile405Val P = < .0001; Cys112Arg P = 0.001) and with the prevalence of abdominal obesity (Ile405Val P = 0.007; Cys112Arg P = 0.007). For both SNPs, the association with HDL-cholesterol was partly independent of the association with abdominal obesity and vice versa. Conclusion Two SNPs, mainly known for their role in lipid metabolism, were associated with two MetS features i.e., low HDL-cholesterol concentration, as well as, independent of this association, abdominal obesity. These SNPs may help to explain why low HDL-cholesterol levels and abdominal obesity frequently co-occur. PMID:21767357

  13. Kapalabhati pranayama: An answer to modern day polycystic ovarian syndrome and coexisting metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Reshma Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Breath, the vital force of life, is controlled positively by pranayama to ensure homeostasis and wellbeing in humans. Kapalabhati is the rapid breathing technique of pranayama, which is considered as a cure for various ailments. The possible use of this technique to combat metabolic syndrome (MS) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been discussed in this article. Various published literature from PubMed, Scopus, and theses were reviewed to reinforce the hypothesis that this technique is the answer to ailments due to modernization. It was worthwhile to note that Kapalabhati does combat various features of MS, but its efficacy against PCOS is yet to be proven. However, since both syndromes arise due to a common factor hyperinsulinemia primarily induced by stress in this modern world, it is hypothesized that Kapalabhati holds good against PCOS too. Hence, in conclusion, it can be said that it would be beneficial to conduct a study on PCOS women to ascertain the efficacy of Kapalabhati in their population. PMID:27512324

  14. Mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 induced by ROS contributed to cardiomyocyte apoptosis in metabolic syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Aibin; Liu, Jingyi; Liu, Peilin; Jia, Min; Wang, Han; Tao, Ling

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Metabolic syndrome exacerbated MI/R induced injury accompanied by decreased Nur77. • ROS led to Nur77 translocation in metabolic syndrome. • Inhibiting relocation of Nur77 to mitochondria reduced ROS-induced cardiomyocyte injury in metabolic syndrome. - Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis which contributes to cardiac dysfunction after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Nur77, a nuclear orphan receptor, is involved in such various cellular events as apoptosis, proliferation, and glucose and lipid metabolism in several cell types. Apoptosis is positively correlated with mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 in the cancer cells. However, the roles of Nur77 on cardiac myocytes in patients with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether Nur77 may contribute to cardiac apoptosis in patients with metabolic syndrome after I/R injury, and, if so, to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible. We used leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice to make metabolic syndrome models. In this report, we observed that, accompanied by the substantial decline in apoptosis inducer Nur77, MI/R induced cardiac dysfunction was manifested as cardiomyopathy and increased ROS. Using the neonatal rat cardiac myocytes cultured in a high-glucose and high-fat medium, we found that excessive H{sub 2}O{sub 2} led to the significant alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential and translocation of Nur77 from the nucleus to the mitochondria. However, inhibition of the relocation of Nur77 to mitochondria via Cyclosporin A reversed the changes in membrane potential mediated by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and reduced myocardial cell injury. Therefore, these data provide a potential underlying mechanism for cardiac dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and the suppression of Nur77 translocation may provide an effective approach to reduce cardiac injury in the

  15. QT correction formulas and laboratory analysis on patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sara; Rivera, Pedro; Rodríguez, María. G.; Severeyn, Érika; Altuve, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a study of ventricular repolarization in diabetic and metabolic syndrome subjects. The corrected QT interval (QTc) was estimated using four correction formulas commonly employed in the literature: Bazett, Fridericia, Framingham and Hodges. After extracting the Q, R and T waves from the electrocardiogram of 52 subjects (19 diabetic, 15 with metabolic syndrome and 18 control), using a wavelet-based approach, the RR interval and QT interval were determined. Then, QTc interval was computed using the formulas previously mentioned. Additionally, laboratory test (fasting glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides) were also evaluated. Results show that metabolic syndrome subjects have normal QTc. However, a longer QTc in this population may be a sign of future complication. The corrected QT interval by Fridericia's formula seems to be the most appropriated for metabolic syndrome subjects (low correlation coefficient between RR and QTc). Significant differences were obtained in the blood glucose and triglyceride levels, principally due to the abnormal sugar metabolization of metabolic syndrome and diabetic subjects. Further studies are focused on the acquisition of a larger database of metabolic syndrome and diabetics subjects and the repetition of this study using other populations, like high performance athletes.

  16. Vasodilator responses and endothelin-dependent vasoconstriction in metabolically healthy obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schinzari, Francesca; Iantorno, Micaela; Campia, Umberto; Mores, Nadia; Rovella, Valentina; Tesauro, Manfredi; Di Daniele, Nicola; Cardillo, Carmine

    2015-11-01

    Patients with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) do not present the cluster of metabolic abnormalities that define the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Whether MHO is associated with lower impairment of vasoreactivity than the MetS is unknown. For this purpose, forearm blood flow (FBF) responses were measured by strain-gauge plethysmography during the intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and/or the selective endothelin type A (ETA) receptor blocker BQ-123 in 119 obese individuals with MHO (n = 34) or with the MetS (n = 85) and in healthy lean controls (n = 56). ACh and SNP caused a significant vasodilation in both obese and lean participants (all P < 0.001). However, the response to both agents was significantly lower in the obese than in the control group (both P < 0.001). Among the obese participants, the reactivity to ACh was higher in MHO than in MetS patients, whereas the responsiveness to SNP was equally impaired in both groups (P = 0.45). Infusion of BQ-123 significantly increased FBF in obese patients (P < 0001), but not in the lean participants; hence, FBF following ETA receptor blockade was higher in both obese groups than in controls (both P < 0.001). FBF response to BQ-123 was significantly higher in patients with the MetS than in those with MHO (P = 0.007). In conclusion, patients with MHO have abnormal vascular reactivity, although their endothelial dysfunction is less pronounced than in patients with the MetS. These findings indicate that obesity is associated with vascular damage independent of those metabolic abnormalities underlying the MetS. PMID:26374766

  17. Adipocyte Mineralocorticoid Receptor Activation Leads to Metabolic Syndrome and Induction of Prostaglandin D2 Synthase.

    PubMed

    Urbanet, Riccardo; Nguyen Dinh Cat, Aurelie; Feraco, Alessandra; Venteclef, Nicolas; El Mogrhabi, Soumaya; Sierra-Ramos, Catalina; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Adler, Gail K; Quilliot, Didier; Rossignol, Patrick; Fallo, Francesco; Touyz, Rhian M; Jaisser, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Pharmacological antagonism of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, limits metabolic syndrome in preclinical models, but mechanistic studies are lacking to delineate the role of MR activation in adipose tissue. In this study, we report that MR expression is increased in visceral adipose tissue in a preclinical mouse model of metabolic syndrome and in obese patients. In vivo conditional upregulation of MR in mouse adipocytes led to increased weight and fat mass, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome features without affecting blood pressure. We identified prostaglandin D2 synthase as a novel MR target gene in adipocytes and AT56, a specific inhibitor of prostaglandin D2 synthase enzymatic activity, blunted adipogenic aldosterone effects. Moreover, translational studies showed that expression of MR and prostaglandin D2 synthase is strongly correlated in adipose tissues from obese patients. PMID:25966493

  18. Metabolic syndrome: A review of the role of vitamin D in mediating susceptibility and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Strange, Richard C; Shipman, Kate E; Ramachandran, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-recognised role of vitamin D in a wide range of physiological processes, hypovitaminosis is common worldwide (prevalence 30%-50%) presumably arising from inadequate exposure to ultraviolet radiation and insufficient consumption. While generally not at the very low levels associated with rickets, hypovitaminosis D has been implicated in various very different, pathophysiological processes. These include putative effects on the pathogenesis of neoplastic change, inflammatory and demyelinating conditions, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. This review focuses on the association between hypovitaminosis D and the metabolic syndrome as well as its component characteristics which are central obesity, glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, hypertension and atherogenic dyslipidaemia. We also consider the effects of hypovitaminosis D on outcomes associated with the metabolic syndrome such as CVD, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We structure this review into 3 distinct sections; the metabolic syndrome, vitamin D biochemistry and the putative association between hypovitaminosis D, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk. PMID:26185598

  19. A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, A; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common problem world-wide and includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia disorders. It leads to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Allium sativum (garlic) has been documented to exhibit anti-diabetic, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests a potential role of A. sativum in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of A. sativum in different components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of A. sativum in metabolic syndrome. PMID:26036599

  20. Dietary Fiber Supplements: Effects in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome and Relationship to Gastrointestinal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Camilleri, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) is a term that reflects to a heterogenous group of natural food sources, processed grains and commercial supplements. Several forms of DF have been used as complementary or alternative agents in the management of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity. Not surprisingly, there is a great variation in the biological efficacy of DF in metabolic syndrome and body weight control. Diverse factors and mechanisms have been reported as mediators of the effects of DF on the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Among this array of mechanisms, the modulation of gastric sensorimotor influences appears to be crucial for the effects of DF, but also quite variable. This article focuses on the role, mechanism of action and benefits of different forms of fiber and supplements on obesity and metabolic syndrome, glycemia, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular risk, and explores the effects of DF on gastric sensorimotor function and satiety in mediating these actions of DF. PMID:19931537

  1. Metabolic syndrome--from the neurotrophic hypothesis to a theory.

    PubMed

    Hristova, M G

    2013-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex and heterogeneous disease characterized by central obesity, impaired glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, insulin resistance and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. In 2006, a neurotrophic hypothesis of the etiopathogenesis of MetS was launched. This hypothesis considered the neurotrophins a key factor in MetS development. Chronic inflammatory and/or psychoemotional distress provoke a series of neuroimmunoendocrine interactions such as increased tissue and plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines and neurotrophins, vegetodystonia, disbalance of neurotransmitters, hormones and immunity markers, activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. An early and a late clinical stage in the course of MetS are defined. Meanwhile, evidence of supporting results from the world literature accumulates. This enables the transformation of the definition of the neurotrophic hypothesis into a neurotrophic theory of MetS. The important role of two neurotrophic factors, i.e. the nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor as well as of the proinflammatory cytokines, neurotransmitters, adipokines and, especially, of leptin for the development of MetS, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is illustrated. There are reliable scientific arguments that the metabotrophic deficit due to reduced neurotrophins could be implicated in the pathogenesis of MetS, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis as well. A special attention is paid to the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis after stress. The application of the neurotrophic theory of MetS could contribute to the etiological diagnosis and individualized management of MetS by eliminating the chronic distress, hyponeurotrophinemia and consequent pathology. It helps estimating the risk, defining the prognosis and implementing the effective prevention of this socially significant disease as evidenced by the

  2. Adipose tissue n-3 fatty acids and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cespedes, Elizabeth; Baylin, Ana; Campos, Hannia

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding the relationship of n-3 fatty acids (FA) to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome components (MetS) is inconsistent. Objective To examine associations of adipose tissue n-3 FA with MetS. Design We studied 1611 participants without prior history of diabetes or heart disease who were participants in a population-based case-control study of diet and heart disease (The Costa Rica Heart Study). We calculated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for MetS by quartile of n-3 FA in adipose tissue derived mainly from plants [α-Linolenic acid (ALA)], fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], or metabolism [docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), as well as the EPA:ALA ratio, a surrogate marker of delta-6 desaturase activity]. Results N-3 FA levels in adipose tissue were associated with MetS prevalence in opposite directions. The PR (95% CI) for the highest compared to the lowest quartile adjusted for age, sex, BMI, residence, lifestyle, diet and other fatty acids were 0.60 (0.44, 0.81) for ALA, 1.43 (1.12, 1.82) for EPA, 1.63 (1.22, 2.18) for DPA, and 1.47 (1.14, 1.88) for EPA:ALA, all p for trend <0.05. Although these associations were no longer significant (except DPA) after adjustment for BMI, ALA and DPA were associated with lower glucose and higher triglyceride levels, p<0.05 (respectively). Conclusions These results suggest that ALA could exert a modest protective benefit, while EPA and DHA are not implicated in MetS. The positive associations for DPA and MetS could reflect higher delta-6 desaturase activity caused by increased adiposity. PMID:25097001

  3. Exercise-induced albuminuria is related to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Sharon; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Rogowski, Ori; Shapira, Itzhak; Zeltser, David; Weinstein, Talia; Lahav, Dror; Vered, Jaffa; Tovia-Brodie, Oholi; Arbel, Yaron; Berliner, Shlomo; Milwidsky, Assi

    2016-06-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is a known marker for endothelial dysfunction and future cardiovascular events. Exercise-induced albuminuria (EiA) may precede the appearance of MA. Associations between EiA and metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been assessed so far. Our aim was to investigate this association in a large sample of apparently healthy individuals with no baseline albuminuria. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,027 adults with no overt cardiovascular diseases who took part in a health survey program and had no baseline MA. Diagnosis of MS was based on harmonized criteria. All patients underwent an exercise test (Bruce protocol), and urinary albumin was measured before and after the examination. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) values before and after exercise were 0.40 (0.21-0.89) and 1.06 (0.43-2.69) mg/g for median (interquartile range) respectively. A total of 394 (20%) subjects had EiA; ACR rose from normal rest values (0.79 mg/g) to 52.28 mg/g after exercise (P < 0.001); this effect was not shown for the rest of the study population. EiA was related to higher prevalence of MS (13.8% vs. 27.1%, P < 0.001), higher metabolic equivalents (P < 0.001), higher baseline blood pressure (P < 0.001), and higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and body mass index (P < 0.001). Multivariate binary logistic regression model showed that subjects with MS were 98% more likely to have EiA (95% confidence interval: 1.13-3.46, P = 0.016). In conclusion, EiA in the absence of baseline MA is independently related to MS. PMID:27076648

  4. Profiling of plasma metabolites in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Miho; Harada, Sei; Kurihara, Ayako; Fukai, Kota; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Ayano; Okamura, Tomonori; Akiyama, Miki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Asako; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Banno, Kouji; Aoki, Daisuke; Takebayashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the associations of amino acids and other polar metabolites with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women in a lean Asian population. Methods: The participants were 1,422 female residents enrolled in a cohort study from April to August 2012. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III modified for Japanese women. Associations were examined between MetS and 78 metabolites assayed in fasting plasma samples using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Replication analysis was performed to confirm the robustness of the results in a separate population created by random allocation. Results: Analysis was performed for 877 naturally postmenopausal women, including 594 in the original population and 283 in the replication population. The average age, body mass index, and levels of high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of the entire population were 64.6 years, 23.0 kg/m2, 72.1 mg/dL, and 126.1 mg/dL, respectively. There was no significant difference in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between women with and without MetS. Thirteen metabolites were significantly related to MetS: multiple plasma amino acids were elevated in women with MetS, including branched-chain amino acids, alanine, glutamate, and proline; and alpha-aminoadipate, which is generated by lysine degradation, was also significantly increased. Conclusions: Our large-scale metabolomic profiling indicates that Japanese postmenopausal women with MetS have abnormal polar metabolites, suggesting altered catabolic pathways. These results may help to understand metabolic disturbance, including in persons with normal body mass index and relatively high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and may have clinical utility based on further studies. PMID:27070805

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Metabolic Syndrome in Spanish Population

    PubMed Central

    Barreiro, Bienvenido; Garcia, Luis; Lozano, Lourdes; Almagro, Pere; Quintana, Salvador; Alsina, Monserrat; Heredia, Jose Luis

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a clinical picture characterized by repeated episodes of obstruction of the upper airway. OSA is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, some of which are components of metabolic syndrome (MS). Objectives: First, determine the prevalence of MS in patients with OSA visited in sleep clinic. Second, evaluate whether there is an independent association between MS components and the severity of OSA. Methods: Patients with clinical suspicion of OSA were evaluated by polysomnography. Three groups were defined according to apnea hypoapnea index (AHI): no OSA (AHI <5), mild-moderate (AHI≥ 5 ≤30), and severe (AHI> 30). All patients were determined in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin. MS was defined according to criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Results: A total of 141 patients (mean age 54 ± 11 years) were evaluated. According to AIH, 25 subjects had no OSA and 116 had OSA (41mild-moderate and 75 severe). MS prevalence ranged from 43-81% in OSA group. Also, a significant increase in waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose, blood pressure levels, and a decrease in HDL cholesterol levels was observed in more severe OSA patients. All polysomnographic parameters correlated significantly with metabolic abnormalities. After a multiple regression analysis, abdominal obesity (p <0.02), glucose (p <0.01) and HDL cholesterol (p <0.001) were independently associated with OSA. Conclusions: Our findings show high prevalence of MS in OSA, especially in severe group. A significant association between OSA and some of the components of MS was found in Spanish population. PMID:24222804

  6. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Manal; Nassef, Yasser E.; Shady, Mones Abu; Aziz, Ali Abdel; Malt, Heba A. El

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome in a sample of obese adolescent as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future. The high blood lipid levels and obesity are the main risk factors for cardio vascular diseases. Atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between obesity in adolescent and their blood lipids levels and blood glucose level. METHODS: This study was conducted with 100 adolescents of both gender age 12-17 years and body mass index (BMI) greater than 95th percentiles and 100 normal adolescents as control group. The blood samples were collected from all adolescents after overnight fasting (10 hours) to analyze blood lipids (Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein) and hematological profile (Hemoglobin, platelets and red blood cell, C reactive protein and fasting blood glucose. RESULTS: There were statistical difference between the two groups for red blood cells (P<0.001), Hemoglobin (P < 0.001) and platelets (P = 0.002), CRP (P = 0.02). Positive correlation was found between the two groups as regards total cholesterol (P = 0.0001), P value was positive for HDL (P = 0.005 and Atherogenic index P value was positive (P = 0.002). Positive correlation was found between the two group as regards fasting blood glucose (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Saturated fat was associated with elevated lipid levels in obese children. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since child-hood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

  7. The CardioMetabolic Health Alliance: Working Toward a New Care Model for the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Laurence S; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Neeland, Ian J; Herrick, Cynthia J; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ndumele, Chiadi E; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Handelsman, Yehuda; Puckrein, Gary A; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Blum, Quie K; Collins, Karen K; Cook, Stephen; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V; Dixon, Dave L; Egan, Brent M; Ferdinand, Daphne P; Herman, Lawrence M; Hessen, Scott E; Jacobson, Terry A; Pate, Russell R; Ratner, Robert E; Brinton, Eliot A; Forker, Alan D; Ritzenthaler, Laura L; Grundy, Scott M

    2015-09-01

    The Cardiometabolic Think Tank was convened on June 20, 2014, in Washington, DC, as a "call to action" activity focused on defining new patient care models and approaches to address contemporary issues of cardiometabolic risk and disease. Individual experts representing >20 professional organizations participated in this roundtable discussion. The Think Tank consensus was that the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex pathophysiological state comprised of a cluster of clinically measured and typically unmeasured risk factors, is progressive in its course, and is associated with serious and extensive comorbidity, but tends to be clinically under-recognized. The ideal patient care model for MetS must accurately identify those at risk before MetS develops and must recognize subtypes and stages of MetS to more effectively direct prevention and therapies. This new MetS care model introduces both affirmed and emerging concepts that will require consensus development, validation, and optimization in the future. PMID:26314534

  8. [Markers of metabolic syndrome and peptides regulating metabolism in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Skoczeń, Szymon; Tomasik, Przemysław; Balwierz, Walentyna; Surmiak, Marcin; Sztefko, Krystyna; Galicka-Latała, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    Along with the growing epidemic of overweight the risk of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality are increasing markedly. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition clustering together several risk factors of those complications such as visceral obesity, glucose intolerance, arterial hypertension and dislipidemia. The risk of obesity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors is higher than in general population. We aimed to assess (1) the relationships between chosen adipokines and neuropeptides, chemotherapy, CRT, and body fatness and (2) evaluate adipokines and neuropeptides concentrations as a new markers of MS in children. We conducted cross-sectional evaluation of 82 ALL survivors (median age: 13.2 years; range: 4,8-26,2; median time from treatment: 3.2 years), including fasting laboratory testing: peptides (leptin, GLP-1, orexin, PYY, apelin), total cholesterol and its fractions, triglycerides; anthropometric measurements (weight, height), systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We estimated percentiles of body mass index and percentiles of blood pressure. Between 82 survivors overweight and diastolic hypertension was diagnosed in 31% of patients (35% in CRT group) and 15% respectively. At least one abnormality in lipids concentrations was found in 43%. Girls were more affected than boys. Statistically significant increased in leptin and apelin concentrations and decreased in soluble leptin receptor concentrations in the overweight group were observed compared to the non overweight subjects. Significant increase in orexin levels in females who had received CRT compared to those who had not received CRT was found. CRT is the main risk factor of elevated of body mass among survivors of childhood leukemia. Dyslipidemia and hypertension, along with increased adiposity indicate higher risk of MS development. Girls are more affected than boys. Leptin, orexin and apelin seem to be good markers of increased adiposity especially after CRT

  9. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Japanese Workers by Clustered Business Category

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Tomoo; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Hiruta, Yuhei; Hata, Junko; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2016-01-01

    The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted to reveal the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components and describe the features of such prevalence among Japanese workers by clustered business category using big data. The data of approximately 120,000 workers were obtained from a national representative insurance organization, and the study analyzed the health checkup and questionnaire results according to the field of business of each subject. Abnormalities found during the checkups such as excessive waist circumference, hypertension or glucose intolerance, and metabolic syndrome, were recorded. All subjects were classified by business field into 18 categories based on The North American Industry Classification System. Based on the criteria of the Japanese Committee for the Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome, the standardized prevalence ratio (SPR) of metabolic syndrome and its components by business category was calculated, and the 95% confidence interval of the SPR was computed. Hierarchical cluster analysis was then performed based on the SPR of metabolic syndrome components, and the 18 business categories were classified into three clusters for both males and females. The following business categories were at significantly high risk of metabolic syndrome: among males, Construction, Transportation, Professional Services, and Cooperative Association; and among females, Health Care and Cooperative Association. The results of the cluster analysis indicated one cluster for each gender with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome components; among males, a cluster consisting of Manufacturing, Transportation, Finance, and Cooperative Association, and among females, a cluster consisting of Mining, Transportation, Finance, Accommodation, and Cooperative Association. These findings reveal that, when providing health guidance and support regarding metabolic syndrome, consideration must be given to its components and the variety of its

  10. Bidirectional Relationships and Disconnects between NAFLD and Features of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, Patrick; Byrne, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a wide spectrum of liver disease from simple steatosis, to steatohepatitis, (both with and without liver fibrosis), cirrhosis and end-stage liver failure. NAFLD also increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and both HCC and end stage liver disease may markedly increase risk of liver-related mortality. NAFLD is increasing in prevalence and is presently the second most frequent indication for liver transplantation. As NAFLD is frequently associated with insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and hyperglycaemia, NAFLD is often considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. There is growing evidence that this relationship between NAFLD and metabolic syndrome is bidirectional, in that NAFLD can predispose to metabolic syndrome features, which can in turn exacerbate NAFLD or increase the risk of its development in those without a pre-existing diagnosis. Although the relationship between NAFLD and metabolic syndrome is frequently bidirectional, recently there has been much interest in genotype/phenotype relationships where there is a disconnect between the liver disease and metabolic syndrome features. Such potential examples of genotypes that are associated with a dissociation between liver disease and metabolic syndrome are patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein-3 (PNPLA3) (I148M) and transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 protein (TM6SF2) (E167K) genotypes. This review will explore the bidirectional relationship between metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, and will also discuss recent insights from studies of PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 genotypes that may give insight into how and why metabolic syndrome features and liver disease are linked in NAFLD. PMID:26978356

  11. Association of age at menarche with metabolic syndrome and its components in rural Bangladeshi women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early age at menarche is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in both China and the West. However, little is known about the impact of age at menarche and metabolic syndrome in South Asian women, including those from low-income country, where age at menarche is also falling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether age at menarche is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Bangladeshi women, who are mostly poor and have limited access to and or poor health care facilities. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study was performed using 1423 women aged between 15–75 years from rural Bangladesh in 2009 and 2010. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to standard NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between age at menarche and metabolic syndrome, with adjustment of potential confounding variables, including age, education, marital status, tobacco users, use of contraceptives and number of pregnancies. Results Early onset of menarche (<12 years) as compared to late onset (>13 years) was found to be associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio=1.55; 95 % confidence interval =1.05-2.30). Age at onset of menarche was also inversely associated with prevalence of high triglycerides (P for trend <0.01) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P for trend = 0.01), but positively associated with prevalence of high fasting blood glucose (P for trend =0.02). However, no significant association was found between age at menarche, high blood pressure and elevated waist circumference. Conclusion Early onset of menarche might promote or trigger development of metabolic syndrome. Thus, knowledge of the history of age at onset of menarche may be critical in identifying women at risk of developing metabolic syndrome and those likely to benefit the most from early interventions. PMID:23140264

  12. Insulin Responsiveness in Metabolic Syndrome after Eight Weeks of Cycle Training

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Charles A.; South, Mark A.; Lee, Michelle L.; McCurry, Melanie P.; Howell, Mary E. A.; Ramsey, Michael W.; Stone, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Insulin resistance in obesity is decreased after successful diet and exercise. Aerobic exercise training alone was evaluated as an intervention in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Methods Eighteen non-diabetic, sedentary subjects, eleven with the metabolic syndrome, participated in eight weeks of increasing intensity stationary cycle training. Results Cycle training without weight loss did not change insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome subjects or sedentary control subjects. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), activated muscle AMP-dependent kinase, and muscle mitochondrial marker ATP synthase all increased. Strength, lean body mass, and fat mass did not change. Activated mammalian target of rapamycin was not different after training. Training induced a shift in muscle fiber composition in both groups but in opposite directions. The proportion of 2x fibers decreased with a concomitant increase in 2a mixed fibers in the control subjects, but in metabolic syndrome, 2x fiber proportion increased and type 1 fibers decreased. Muscle fiber diameters increased in all three fiber types in metabolic syndrome subjects. Muscle insulin receptor expression increased in both groups and GLUT4 expression increased in the metabolic syndrome subjects. Excess phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at Ser337 in metabolic syndrome muscle tended to increase further after training in spite of a decrease in total IRS-1. Conclusion In the absence of weight loss, cycle training of metabolic syndrome subjects resulted in enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis, and increased expression of insulin receptors and GLUT4 in muscle, but did not decrease the insulin resistance. The failure for the insulin signal to proceed past IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation may be related to excess serine phosphorylation at IRS-1 Ser337 and this is not ameliorated by eight weeks of endurance exercise training. PMID:23669880

  13. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Japanese Workers by Clustered Business Category.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Tomoo; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Hiruta, Yuhei; Hata, Junko; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2016-01-01

    The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted to reveal the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components and describe the features of such prevalence among Japanese workers by clustered business category using big data. The data of approximately 120,000 workers were obtained from a national representative insurance organization, and the study analyzed the health checkup and questionnaire results according to the field of business of each subject. Abnormalities found during the checkups such as excessive waist circumference, hypertension or glucose intolerance, and metabolic syndrome, were recorded. All subjects were classified by business field into 18 categories based on The North American Industry Classification System. Based on the criteria of the Japanese Committee for the Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome, the standardized prevalence ratio (SPR) of metabolic syndrome and its components by business category was calculated, and the 95% confidence interval of the SPR was computed. Hierarchical cluster analysis was then performed based on the SPR of metabolic syndrome components, and the 18 business categories were classified into three clusters for both males and females. The following business categories were at significantly high risk of metabolic syndrome: among males, Construction, Transportation, Professional Services, and Cooperative Association; and among females, Health Care and Cooperative Association. The results of the cluster analysis indicated one cluster for each gender with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome components; among males, a cluster consisting of Manufacturing, Transportation, Finance, and Cooperative Association, and among females, a cluster consisting of Mining, Transportation, Finance, Accommodation, and Cooperative Association. These findings reveal that, when providing health guidance and support regarding metabolic syndrome, consideration must be given to its components and the variety of its

  14. Association Between Elder Abuse and Metabolic Syndromes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Elder abuse and metabolic syndromes are both important public health issues and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to examine the associations between elder abuse and risk for metabolic syndromes. Methods Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP) cohort is a population-based study (N=4,586). We identified 676 participants with some form of elder abuse reported to a social services agency. The primary independent variable was elder abuse reported to a social services agency. Outcomes were metabolic syndrome as categorized by World Health Organization (WHO), American Heart Association (AHA) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between elder abuse and different definitions of metabolic syndromes. Results In the bivariate analyses, elder abuse victims were more likely than those without elder abuse to have metabolic syndromes (22.4% vs. 10.7% [WHO], 50.7% vs. 40.0% [AHA], and 47.7% vs. 33.5% [IDF]). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, elder abuse was associated with increased risk for metabolic syndromes according to WHO (OR, 3.95 (2.86-5.47), AHA (OR, 2.03 (1.56-2.64) and IDF (OR, 2.55 (1.97-3.29) criteria. Interaction term analyses indicate that the association between elder abuse and metabolic syndromes may be moderated by sociodemographic characteristics, but not by health related or psychosocial factors. Conclusion Elder abuse is associated with increased risk for metabolic syndromes. Research is needed to examine the association between elder abuse and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25471532

  15. Effect of Meditation on Endothelial Function in Black Americans with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarino, Viola; Kondwani, Kofi A.; Kelley, Mary E.; Murrah, Nancy V.; Boyd, Linda; Ahmed, Yusuf; Meng, Yuan X.; Gibbons, Gary H.; Hooper, W. Craig; De Staercke, Christine; Quyyumi, Arshed A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Psychological stress may play a role in metabolic syndrome. A consequence of metabolic syndrome is endothelial dysfunction, which is also influenced by psychological stress. We sought to compare the effect of consciously resting meditation (CRM), a sound (mantra)-based meditation, with a control intervention of health education (HE) on endothelial function in the setting of metabolic syndrome. Methods Sixty-eight black Americans with metabolic system risk factors (age 30 to 65 years) were randomized to either CRM (N=33), or to HE (N=35); interventions were matched for frequency and duration of sessions and lasted 12 months. Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD%) at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Arterial elasticity, metabolic risk factors, psychosocial and behavioral variables were secondary endpoints. Results Although FMD % improved in the CRM group over 12 months, this increase was not significantly higher than in the HE group (p=0.51 for the interaction between group and time). Non-endothelium dependent dilation and arterial elasticity did not change in either group. Most metabolic syndrome risk factors showed beneficial trends in the CRM group only. A risk factor score counting the number of metabolic syndrome components decreased in the CRM group but not in the control HE group (p=0.049 for the interaction between treatment group and time). Conclusions Among black Americans with metabolic syndrome risk factors, CRM, a sound-based meditation, did not improve endothelial function significantly more than a control intervention of health education. CRM resulted in favorable trends in metabolic syndrome risk factors which were examined as secondary outcomes. PMID:23788695

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Metabolic Syndrome: Current Understanding and Potential Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an obesity-based, complicated clinical condition that has become a global epidemic problem with a high associated risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes or glucose dysmetabolism are the major factors constituting metabolic syndrome, and these factors are interrelated and share underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Severe obesity predisposes individuals to metabolic syndrome, and recent data suggest that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute significantly to adipocyte generation by increasing the number of adipocytes. Accordingly, an increasing number of studies have examined the potential roles of MSCs in managing obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, despite the growing bank of experimental and clinical data, the efficacy and the safety of MSCs in the clinical setting are still to be optimized. It is thus hoped that ongoing and future studies can elucidate the roles of MSCs in metabolic syndrome and lead to MSC-based therapeutic options for affected patients. This review discusses current understanding of the relationship between MSCs and metabolic syndrome and its potential implications for patient management. PMID:27313625

  17. Development of an Experimental Model of Diabetes Co-Existing with Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Rajesh Kumar; Ray Mohanty, Ipseeta; Borde, Manjusha K.; Maheshwari, Ujwala; Deshmukh, Y. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The incidence of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus is on the rise globally. Objective. The present study was designed to develop a unique animal model that will mimic the pathological features seen in individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, suitable for pharmacological screening of drugs. Materials and Methods. A combination of High-Fat Diet (HFD) and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) at 30, 35, and 40 mg/kg was used to induce metabolic syndrome in the setting of diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Results. The 40 mg/kg STZ produced sustained hyperglycemia and the dose was thus selected for the study to induce diabetes mellitus. Various components of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia {(increased triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and decreased HDL cholesterol)}, diabetes mellitus (blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, and C-peptide), and hypertension {systolic blood pressure} were mimicked in the developed model of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus. In addition to significant cardiac injury, atherogenic index, inflammation (hs-CRP), decline in hepatic and renal function were observed in the HF-DC group when compared to NC group rats. The histopathological assessment confirmed presence of edema, necrosis, and inflammation in heart, pancreas, liver, and kidney of HF-DC group as compared to NC. Conclusion. The present study has developed a unique rodent model of metabolic syndrome, with diabetes as an essential component. PMID:26880906

  18. Metabolic syndrome in urban city of North-Western Nigeria: prevalence and determinants

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Anas Ahmad; Jimoh, Abdulgafar; Iwuala, Sandra Omozehio; Isezuo, Simeon Alabi; Bilbis, Lawal Suleiman; Aminu, Kaoje Umar; Abubakar, Sani Atta; Saidu, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Sokoto metropolis of North-Western Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional community based study was carried out. Four hundred and ten subjects (201 males and 209 females) were recruited for the study using a multi-stage sampling technique. Demographic and the life style data was obtained from the participants. Evaluation of anthropometric variables, fasting blood sugar, lipid profiles, insulin resistance and blood pressure was performed. The classification of metabolic syndrome was based on the NCEP ATP III guidelines. Results The mean (SD) age of the sample population was 39.6 (14.4) years. The mean (SD) age of the male subjects was 38.4(14.9) years and that of the females was 40.8(13.9) years (p> 0.05). The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 35.1% with the females having 42.83% and the males 27.36%. The frequencies of metabolic syndrome parameters in the study subjects were low HDL (56.1%), hypertension (46.1%), dysglycemia (32.7%), central obesity (28%), and elevated triglycerides (22.4%). Most of the women had low HDL (62.2%) and central obesity elevated (49.8%). Conclusion Metabolic syndrome is common in residents of North-Western Nigeria, commoner in the females than males. Risk factors for metabolic syndrome should be detected in normal individuals for implementing effective preventive measures. PMID:27200125

  19. A comparison of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess visceral fat in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gong, Weikun; Ren, Huilong; Tong, Hongzhang; Shen, Xiaoyin; Luo, Jianping; Chen, Shuting; Lai, Jingbo; Chen, Xinyi; Chen, Hongwei; Yu, Wanjun

    2007-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plays a key role in the metabolic syndrome. Easy detection of VAT could be an important tool to increase understanding of the metabolic syndrome. To study the relationship between the area of the inferior part of the perirenal fat (AIPPF) and anthropometric, imaging and cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome, seventy two subjects with metabolic syndrome were recruited including 44 men and 28 women (age: 26-68 yr). Each subject underwent ultrasound detection of AIPPF, intraabdominal fat thickness and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to calculate abdominal VAT (MRI VAT). Anthropometric and cardiovascular risk factors were also evaluated. AIPPF measured by ultrasonography demonstrated excellent reproducibility. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that AIPPF has the best sensitivity for women, specificity for men and accuracy of the various measures to predict visceral obesity (MRI VAT value > or = 110 cm2) for both genders. AIPPF was related to MRI VAT, ultrasound measured intraabdominal fat, waist circumference, the ratio of waist and hip circumferences (of men), body mass index and the main cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis suggested that MRI VAT affected AIPPF independent of other investigated obesity indices. This study showed that AIPPF could be applied as an easy and reliable imaging indicator of visceral obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in the metabolic syndrome. PMID:17392130

  20. The effects of exercise program on burnout and metabolic syndrome components in banking and insurance workers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Han Hui; Yeh, Ching Ying; Su, Chien Tien; Chen, Chiou Jong; Peng, Shu Mei; Chen, Ruey Yu

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effectiveness of exercise program for banking and insurance workers and clarify the association between exercise, burnout, and metabolic syndrome components. In the process of the study, a practicable worksite exercise program was developed for bank and insurance enterprises. A three-month (12-wk) exercise course was conducted, and its benefits evaluated. Levels of burnout and metabolic syndrome components were analyzed after exercise intervention. After intervention, the indicators of burnout and metabolic syndrome components were significantly improved in both low and high intensity groups, and the improvement were expressed in reduction of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, person burnout and work-related burnout. A dose-response of burnouts and metabolic syndrome components with exercise intensity are shown (p<0.05). Metabolic syndrome components were independently associated with burnout and exercise intensity in the crude model. After adjustment for potential confounders, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure differences showed significant associations with exercise intensity (p<0.05). This study demonstrated an effective approach to worksite exercise intervention and exercise intensity played an important role to alleviate damage between burnouts and metabolic syndrome components. PMID:23518604

  1. The Metabolic Syndrome, Oxidative Stress, Environment, and Cardiovascular Disease: The Great Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Rebecca; Rocic, Petra

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome affects 30% of the US population with increasing prevalence. In this paper, we explore the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and the incidence and severity of cardiovascular disease in general and coronary artery disease (CAD) in particular. Furthermore, we look at the impact of metabolic syndrome on outcomes of coronary revascularization therapies including CABG, PTCA, and coronary collateral development. We also examine the association between the metabolic syndrome and its individual component pathologies and oxidative stress. Related, we explore the interaction between the main external sources of oxidative stress, cigarette smoke and air pollution, and metabolic syndrome and the effect of this interaction on CAD. We discuss the apparent lack of positive effect of antioxidants on cardiovascular outcomes in large clinical trials with emphasis on some of the limitations of these trials. Finally, we present evidence for successful use of antioxidant properties of pharmacological agents, including metformin, statins, angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs), and angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, for prevention and treatment of the cardiovascular complications of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22829804

  2. Validity of muscle-to-fat ratio as a predictor of adult metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jongsuk; Kim, Sangho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at determining the validity of the muscle-to-fat ratio as an indicator for the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome by establishing an optimal cutoff value. [Subjects and Methods] Data from the first and second year of the fifth Korea National Health Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare and Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were used. A total of 6,256 subjects were included in the study. Diagnostic accuracy was measured by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. [Results] The receiver operating characteristic curve for the muscle-to-fat ratio, which represents the diagnostic power for predicting metabolic syndrome, was 0.713 in men and 0.721 in women. The optimal cutoff value for the prediction and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was 3.09 kg/kg in men and 1.83 kg/kg in women. Intergroup differences based on the muscle-to-fat ratio indicated that the low-ratio group had higher values for all indicators of metabolic syndrome than the high-ratio group. [Conclusion] The muscle-to-fat ratio can be used as an indicator for the prediction and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, and early prevention and management of metabolic syndrome can help in improving public health. PMID:27134408

  3. The influence of BMI on the association between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Han, Guang-Ming; Soliman, Ghada A; Meza, Jane L; Islam, K M Monirul; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2016-04-14

    Overweight and obese individuals have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome because of subsequent chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, which the antioxidant nutrient lycopene can reduce. However, studies indicate that different BMI statuses can alter the positive effects of lycopene. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how BMI influences the association between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome. The tertile rank method was used to divide 13 196 participants, aged 20 years and older, into three groups according to serum concentrations of lycopene. The associations between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome were analysed separately for normal-weight, overweight and obese participants. Overall, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the first tertile group (OR 38·6%; 95% CI 36·9, 40·3) compared with the second tertile group (OR 29·3%; 95% CI 27·5, 31·1) and the third tertile group (OR 26·6%; 95% CI 24·9, 28·3). However, the associations between lycopene and the metabolic syndrome were only significant for normal-weight and overweight participants (P0·05), even after adjusting for possible confounding variables. In conclusion, BMI appears to strongly influence the association between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:26857614

  4. The obesity paradox is not observed in chronic heart failure patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Narumi, Taro; Watanabe, Tetsu; Kadowaki, Shinpei; Otaki, Yoichiro; Honda, Yuki; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Arimoto, Takanori; Shishido, Tetsuro; Miyamoto, Takuya; Kubota, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although being overweight or obese is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, obese subjects often live longer than their lean peers, and this is known as the obesity paradox. We investigated the impact of obesity on cardiac prognosis in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, with or without metabolic syndrome. Design and Methods: We divided 374 consecutive CHF patients into two groups according to their mean body mass index (BMI) and prospectively followed them for 2 years. Results: There were 126 cardiac events, including 32 cardiac deaths and 94 re-hospitalizations. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly lower cardiac event rate in the higher BMI group (log-rank test P < 0.001) in all patients and those patients without metabolic syndrome. There was no association between BMI and cardiac prognosis in patients with metabolic syndrome. Cox hazard analysis revealed that a higher BMI was associated with favorable cardiac outcomes in all patients and patients without metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for confounding factors. However, this finding did not extend to patients with metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: The advantages of obesity are not found in CHF patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:26417279

  5. Weighing the evidence: obesity, metabolic syndrome, and the risk of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, Ezra; Slotki, Itzchak; Shavit, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating effect of obesity per se and the metabolic syndrome as a whole on the risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) is key factor in developing a comprehensive public health approach to reduce morbidity and healthcare resource consumption. While there is considerable evidence to support increased risk of CKD in obese individuals and those with the metabolic syndrome, this relationship may be influenced by several factors. These include confounding variables, anthropometric measures, the end-point studied (e.g. development of early stage CKD, progression to end-stage renal disease or mortality), and the complex interrelationship between the various components of the metabolic syndrome. The study by Cao et al. in the current issue of BMC nephrology examines the impact of obesity on CKD risk in people with and without co-existing metabolic syndrome. The findings of this large, prospective study illustrate a clear correlation between increased body mass index (BMI) and risk of CKD regardless of whether or not there is co-existing metabolic syndrome. While the presence of the metabolic syndrome confers some additional risk of CKD in overweight and obese individuals, its effect is relatively modest and accounts for only 26 % of the risk associated with increased BMI. We discuss the complex epidemiological and methodological context in which these important findings should be understood, and their implications for public health and for individual patients and healthcare practitioners. PMID:26249332

  6. Prevalence & correlates of metabolic syndrome in alcohol & opioid dependent inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Mattoo, Surendra K.; Chakraborty, Kaustav; Basu, Debasish; Ghosh, Abhishek; Vijaya, Kumar KG; Kulhara, Parmanand

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: The research on the association of metabolic syndrome (MS) and substance abuse is scanty. The present research aimed to study the prevalence and correlates of MS among the inpatients at a Drug De-addiction Centre in north India. Methods: Consecutive male subjects (N=110) admitted to a drug de-addiction centre during July to December 2009 with a primary diagnosis of alcohol or opioid dependence were evaluated for the presence of MS as per the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Results: The prevalence of MS was 24.6 and 29.3 per cent in alcohol and opioid dependent groups, respectively. MS showed a significant association with the age and body mass index (BMI) in the opioid dependent group. Co-morbid tobacco use was not associated with MS in either group. Interpretation & conclusions: The prevalence of MS in our sample of alcohol and opioid dependent male inpatients was greater than the prevalence of MS in general population, however it was comparable to that reported in physical and other psychiatric disorder populations. Even though the absence of any comparative study limits the generalizability of our findings, results indicate towards a need for screening of the patients with substance dependence especially for those aged above 30 years and/or having a high BMI for MS. PMID:21985817

  7. [Advances in studies on metabolic syndrome and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Cao, Li; Yao, Guangyu; Hu, Xiaolei; Chen, Lujia; Ye, Changsheng

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Over these years, the morbidity of metabolic syndrome (MS) has also been increasing in China, probably due to changes in economies and lifestyles. As a result, the association to between these two diseases has at tracted much attention. Results demonstrated the presence of MS was associated with breast cancer risk, and the risk became higher when more MS components were present compared to no components. Moreover, a specific association was indicated between MS and breast cancer recurrence and metastasis to some extent as well. Further, for breast cancer patients, being diagnosed with MS can increase the mortality and lead to poor prognosis. The mechanisms underlying the association is not clear yet, but several factors are speculated to be the possible causes, including the elevated level of insulin, insulin like growth factor-1, leptin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the decreased level of adiponectin as well as the interaction between DBC1 and SIRT1. The prognosis of patients with breast cancer combined MS can be improved by means of changing diet habits, increasing physical activities and drug-intervention. Although the specific mechanisms underlying the association are still need to be elucidated, better understanding of the association must help us with new strategies for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26850671

  8. Effects of Dairy on Metabolic Syndrome Parameters: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Christine E.; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by central obesity, dyslipidemias, hypertension, and hyperglycemia, impacts 34 percent of the U.S. adult population. MetS has been demonstrated to be affected by dietary components. Data from epidemiological studies and clinical interventions suggest that one or more dairy components might directly affect MetS parameters. For example, calcium has been postulated to reduce body weight by modulating vitamin D concentrations in plasma and therefore attenuating intracellular calcium effects in activating genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and reducing those involved in lipolysis. Peptides present in milk have been associated with the inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme and, therefore, with blood pressure reductions. Branched chain amino acids may increase post-prandial insulin secretion and regulate plasma glucose levels, and leucine, an abundant amino acid in milk, may be responsible for decreased plasma glucose through modulation of mTOR. Through different proposed mechanisms, dairy nutrients may target all components of MetS. PMID:24910559

  9. Inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic syndrome: dietary modulation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José C; Cardona, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2013-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. These risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), raised fasting glucose, and central obesity. MetS has become a serious public health and clinical problem whose prevalence and incidence are increasing along with the worldwide rise in rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyles. A number of studies have shown that MetS is associated with a state of low-grade inflammation, characterized by abnormal pro-inflammatory cytokine production, increased acute-phase reactants, and activation of a network of inflammatory signalling pathways. Moreover, MetS has also been linked to oxidative stress, a consequence of a reduction in the antioxidant systems and an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species. Nevertheless, agreement exists that dietary intervention may modulate the pro-inflammatory state and lessen oxidative stress related to MetS, thereby decreasing the cardiovascular risk. In this review we address the current available evidence regarding dietary modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress associated with MetS. PMID:24168441

  10. Use of fibrates in the metabolic syndrome: A review.

    PubMed

    Shipman, Kate E; Strange, Richard C; Ramachandran, Sudarshan

    2016-03-10

    The use of fibrates in the treatment of dyslipidaemia has changed significantly over recent years. Their role appeared clear at the start of this century. The Helsinki Heart Study and Veterans Affairs High-Density Cholesterol Intervention Trial suggested significant benefit, especially in patients with atherogenic dyslipidaemia. However, this clarity disintegrated following the negative outcomes reported by the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention, Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes and Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes randomised controlled trials. In this review we discuss these and other relevant trials and consider patient subgroups such as those with the metabolic syndrome and those needing treatment to prevent the microvascular complications associated with diabetes in whom fibrates may be useful. We also discuss observations from our group that may provide some explanation for the varying outcomes reported in large trials. The actions of fibrates in patients who are also on statins are interesting and appear to differ from those in patients not on statins. Understanding this is key as statins are the primary lipid lowering agents and likely to occupy that position for the foreseeable future. We also present other features of fibrate treatment we have observed in our clinical practice; changes in creatinine, liver function tests and the paradoxical high density lipoprotein reduction. Our purpose is to provide enough data for the reader to make objective decisions in their own clinical practice regarding fibrate use. PMID:26981181

  11. Use of fibrates in the metabolic syndrome: A review

    PubMed Central

    Shipman, Kate E; Strange, Richard C; Ramachandran, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    The use of fibrates in the treatment of dyslipidaemia has changed significantly over recent years. Their role appeared clear at the start of this century. The Helsinki Heart Study and Veterans Affairs High-Density Cholesterol Intervention Trial suggested significant benefit, especially in patients with atherogenic dyslipidaemia. However, this clarity disintegrated following the negative outcomes reported by the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention, Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes and Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes randomised controlled trials. In this review we discuss these and other relevant trials and consider patient subgroups such as those with the metabolic syndrome and those needing treatment to prevent the microvascular complications associated with diabetes in whom fibrates may be useful. We also discuss observations from our group that may provide some explanation for the varying outcomes reported in large trials. The actions of fibrates in patients who are also on statins are interesting and appear to differ from those in patients not on statins. Understanding this is key as statins are the primary lipid lowering agents and likely to occupy that position for the foreseeable future. We also present other features of fibrate treatment we have observed in our clinical practice; changes in creatinine, liver function tests and the paradoxical high density lipoprotein reduction. Our purpose is to provide enough data for the reader to make objective decisions in their own clinical practice regarding fibrate use. PMID:26981181

  12. Basal ganglia morphology links the metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Onyewuenyi, Ikechukwu C.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Christie, Israel C.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Gianaros, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk factors that are often comorbid with depressive symptoms. Individual components of the MetS also covary with the morphology of basal ganglia regions that are altered by depression. However, it remains unknown whether the covariation between the MetS and depressive symptomatology can be accounted for in part by morphological changes in the basal ganglia. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that increased depressive symptoms among individuals with the MetS might be statistically mediated by reduced grey matter volume in basal ganglia regions. The presence of the MetS was determined in 147 middle-aged adults using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Basal ganglia volumes were determined on an a priori basis by automated segmentation of high-resolution magnetic resonance images. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Even after controlling for demographic and other confounding factors, having the MetS and meeting more MetS criteria covaried with reduced globus pallidus volume. Meeting more MetS criteria and reduced pallidal volume were also related to depressive symptoms. Moreover, the MetS-depression association was statistically mediated by pallidal volume. In summary, reduced globus pallidus volume is a neural correlate of the MetS that may partly account for its association with depressive symptoms. PMID:24096008

  13. [Obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Rosende, Andrés; Pellegrini, Carlos; Iglesias, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are closely related to the cases of cardiovascular disease; they are usually regarded as belonging to the adult population but are seen with increasing frequency in children and adolescents. There is evidence that atherosclerotic lesions occur most often in young people with obesity. The factors involved in this pandemic are manifold and range from genetic-biological to cultural changes. The family and the environment in which the child develops play a key role in the adoption of habits related to diet and physical activity. This problem does not respect borders and cultures but all countries are being affected, even more those of middle-income. State and Society as a whole can play a role oriented to modify this environment. The restriction on sales of unhealthy food and the fight against the sedentary lifestyle are urgently needed to be applied. The impact that these disorders will have in terms of cardiovascular disease, has not yet reached its true dimension. PMID:24152409

  14. Dietary factors associated with metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is defined as the association of numerous factors that increase cardiovascular risk and diet is one of the main factors related to increase the MS in the population. This study aimed to evaluate the association of diet on the presence of MS in an adult population sample. Methodology 305 adults were clinically screened to participate in a lifestyle modification program. Anthropometric assessments included waist circumference (WC), body fat and calculated BMI (kg/m2) and muscle-mass index (MMI kg/m2). Dietary intake was estimated by 24 h dietary recall. Fasting blood was used for biochemical analysis. MS was diagnosed using NCEP-ATPIII (2001) criteria with adaptation for glucose (≥ 100 mg/dL). Logistic regression (Odds ratio) was performed in order to determine the odds ratio for developing MS according to dietary intake. Results An adequate intake of fruits, OR = 0.52 (CI:0.28-0.98), and an intake of more than 8 different items in the diet (variety), OR = 0.31 (CI:0.12-0.79) showed to be a protective factor against a diagnosis of MS. Saturated fat intake greater than 10% of total caloric value represented a risk for MS diagnosis, OR = 2.0 (1.04-3.84). Conclusion Regarding the dietary aspect, a risk factor for MS was higher intake of saturated fat, and protective factors were high diet variety and adequate fruit intake. PMID:22417631

  15. Metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Sristi; Nath, Amiya Kumar; Udayashankar, Carounanidy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis patients are at increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS). Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 that are increased in the psoriatic plaques are known to contribute to features of MS such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Aims: (1) To establish the frequency of MS in patients with psoriasis. (2) To study the risk factors associated with MS in psoriasis. Materials and Methods: A hospital based comparative study was conducted involving 40 adult patients with psoriasis and 40 age- and sex-matched controls. All participants were evaluated for components of MS. Results: Both groups included 31 males and 9 females. The mean age of the cases and controls were 49.95 years and 49.35 years, respectively. Psoriasis patients with MS had a statistically significant higher mean age (56.31 ± 11.36 years) compared with those without MS (46.89 ± 11.51 years). MS was present in 13 out of 40 (32.5%) patients with psoriasis and 12 out of 40 (30%) controls; this difference was not statistically significant. Higher age and female gender correlated with the presence of MS in psoriasis patients. The presence of MS in psoriasis patients was statistically independent of psoriasis area severity index score, body surface area involvement or psoriatic arthropathy. Conclusion: Our results suggest that there is no close correlation between psoriasis and MS in South Indian patients. PMID:24860744

  16. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aekplakorn, W.; Satheannoppakao, W.; Putwatana, P.; Taneepanichskul, S.; Kessomboon, P.; Chongsuvivatwong, V.; Chariyalertsak, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women), particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS. PMID:25699190

  17. Is vitamin D status relevant to metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Review of the evidence on hypovitaminosis D as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and its sequelae, T2DM and CVD, suggests long-term vitamin D repletion could reduce these risks. There is mechanistic evidence for protective effects for MetS and the balance of evidence, (cross-sectional and prospective), supports this postulate. Much of the data so far available from randomized controlled trials is weakened by inadequate power, low vitamin D dosages, starting supplementation too late in life or after MetS disorders have developed or, most importantly, by non-inclusion of many recognizable confounders. On balance, therefore, maintenance of US 2010 recommended intakes for bone protection has the potential to prove protective for MetS. Supplementation has been shown to increase survival in patients with cardiac disorders; whether higher doses would provide useful protection for apparently healthy people in the general population awaits the outcomes of ongoing randomized-controlled trials that, it is hoped, will prove or disprove causality for hypovitaminosis D in MetS and its long-term ill-effects. PMID:22928079

  18. Inflammatory markers and cardiovascular risk in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Espinola-Klein, Christine; Gori, Tommaso; Blankenberg, Stefan; Munzel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Elevated blood glucose, obesity, high blood pressure, elevated triglycerides and low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are well accepted risk factors in the development of coronary artery disease. Clustering of at least three of these factors in an individual is defined as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Obesity is a central pathological mechanism in the disease and it is expected that the incidence of this condition will increase dramatically within the next years. The visceral adipose tissue is not only an energy depot but also an endocrine organ which produces a large number of bioactive molecules, the so called adipokines. In the setting of obesity, the over-production of proinflammatory and pro-thrombotic adipokines is associated with insulin resistance. This mechanism represents the pathophysiological basis for the development of MetS. Inflammation has a central role in the pathogenesis of MetS and in mediating its impact on the development of cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of these mechanisms has relevance in the context of preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:21196255

  19. Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiometabolic Risks in Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ferdinand, Keith C.; Rodriguez, Fatima; Nasser, Samar A.; Caballero, A. Enrique; Puckrein, Gary A.; Zangeneh, Farhad; Mansour, Michael; Foody, JoAnne Micale; Pemu, Priscilla E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death in the USA, regardless of self-determined race/ethnicity, and largely driven by cardiometabolic risk (CMR) and cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). The primary drivers of increased CMR include obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease as well as associated adverse behaviors of physical inactivity, smoking, and unhealthy eating habits. Given the importance of CRS for public health, multiple stakeholders, including the National Minority Quality Forum (the Forum), the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC), have developed this review to inform clinicians and other health professionals of the unique aspects of CMR in racial/ethnic minorities and of potential means to improve CMR factor control, to reduce CRS and CVD in diverse populations, and to provide more effective, coordinated care. This paper highlights CRS and CMR as sources of significant morbidity and mortality (particularly in racial/ethnic minorities), associated health-care costs, and an evolving index tool for cardiometabolic disease to determine geographical and environmental factors. Finally, this work provides a few examples of interventions potentially successful at reducing disparities in cardiometabolic health. PMID:24847329

  20. Relationship between chronic kidney disease and metabolic syndrome: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Nashar, Khaled; Egan, Brent M

    2014-01-01

    Both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are increasing in incidence and lead to significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The relationship between these two entities is complex. Individual components of the MetS are known risk factors for incident kidney disease, but it is not clear how the clustering of these components is linked to the development and progression of kidney disease. Cross-sectional studies show an association of the MetS and prevalent CKD; however, one cannot draw conclusions as to which came first – the MetS or the kidney disease. Observational studies suggest a relationship between MetS and incident CKD, but they also demonstrate the development of MetS in patients with established CKD. These observations suggest a bidirectional relationship. A better understanding of the relationship between components of the MetS and whether and how these components contribute to progression of CKD and incident cardiovascular disease could inform more effective prevention strategies. PMID:25258547

  1. Abnormal copper metabolism in Menke's steely-hair syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lott, I T; Dipaolo, R; Raghavan, S S; Clopath, P; Milunsky, A; Robertson, W C; kanfer, J N

    1979-07-01

    Copper (Cu) metabolism was selectively studied in seven infants with Menke's steely-hair syndrome (SHS). A daily oral regimen of CuSO4 (584 microgram Cu/kg) and L-histidine (100 mg/kg) in three infants produced an increase in serum Cu concentrations ranging from 33-95% of normal, but without the formation of ceruloplasmin. Cohn serum protein fractionation after oral Cu/L-histidine loading showed a disproportionate accumulation of Cu in the albumin fraction (V). The electron spin resonance spectrum of fraction V showed a heightened signal for the SHS patients, suggesting that an increased concentration of a radical Cu species is present after oral loading. The Sephadex G-150 chromatographic profile of serum fraction V in SHS did not differ significantly from controls. These results suggest that, in SHS, Cu absorbed in the presence of L-histidine is in an abnormal complex involving albumin, which does not allow for holoceruloplasmin biosynthesis. Cu and ceruloplasmin concentrations in the cord blood specimen of an infant who went on to develop SHS were normal, a finding which may account for the transient period of seemingly normal development after birth in SHS patients. An almost 6-fold difference in mean Cu concentration was observed in SHS fibroblasts compared to controls. Fibroblast Cu concentration was elevated in one to two possible maternal heterozygotes, a finding which may permit diagnosis of the carrier state for some SHS heterozygotes. PMID:481958

  2. Childhood trauma and metabolic syndrome in men and women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chioun; Tsenkova, Vera; Carr, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    The long-term effects of childhood trauma on health are well-documented, but few population-based studies have explored how childhood trauma affects the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Using data from 1234 adults in the second wave of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), we investigate (1) the extent to which childhood abuse affects the risk of developing MetS in adulthood; (2) how the severity of different types of abuse (emotional, physical, sexual, or cumulative abuse) affects this risk; and (3) the extent to which adult socioeconomic status (SES), maladaptive stress responses, and unhealthy behaviors mediate the association. We also test whether these associations differ significantly by sex. We find that emotional and physical abuse increase the risk of developing MetS for both sexes, whereas sexual abuse is a predictor for women only. For both sexes, individuals who experienced more cumulative abuse have a greater risk of developing MetS. Adult SES partially explains the association between childhood abuse and MetS. Maladaptive stress responses and unhealthy behaviors further explain the association. Among the potential mediators, poor sleep quality was a significant pathway for men and women, while stress-induced eating was a significant pathway for women only. Our findings suggest that the well-documented health consequences of early life trauma may vary by the nature of the trauma, the victim's sex, and the coping mechanisms that he or she employs. PMID:24524907

  3. Metabolic Rate: A Factor in Developing Obesity in Children with Down Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chad, Karen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate and its relation to selected anthropomorphic measures were determined in 11 male and 7 female noninstitutionalized children with Down Syndrome. Dietary analysis was performed to determine the children's nutritional status. Results have implications for the prevention and treatment of obesity in children with Down Syndrome.…

  4. Metabolic evidence of diminished lipid oxidation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex diseases, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), are not limited to specific genes, pathogens, toxicoses, or identifiable environmental influences. PCOS still remains a diagnosis of exclusion despite being the most common female endocrinopathy and the leading cause of metabolic syndrome, ...

  5. SIRT3 weighs heavily in the metabolic balance: a new role for SIRT3 in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Green, Michelle F; Hirschey, Matthew D

    2013-02-01

    Eating a "Western diet" high in fat and sugars is associated with accelerated development of age-related metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes while incidences of these diseases are decreased on a low-calorie diet. The mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT3 has previously been shown to be important in adapting to metabolic stress brought on by fasting and calorie restriction. During times of metabolic stress, SIRT3 is upregulated and maintains homeostasis following nutrient deprivation by turning on pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, antioxidant production, and the urea cycle. New studies now demonstrate that SIRT3 is regulated during nutrient excess. During high-fat diet feeding, SIRT3 is downregulated leading to mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation. The consequence of this hyperacetylation is the accelerated development of metabolic syndrome. Thus, SIRT3 is emerging as an important metabolic sensor working to restore metabolic homeostasis during times of stress. PMID:22562958

  6. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  7. Plasma diacylglycerol composition is a biomarker of metabolic syndrome onset in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Polewski, Michael A; Burhans, Maggie S; Zhao, Minghui; Colman, Ricki J; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Lindstrom, Mary J; Ntambi, James M; Anderson, Rozalyn M

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is linked with obesity and is often first identified clinically by elevated BMI and elevated levels of fasting blood glucose that are generally secondary to insulin resistance. Using the highly translatable rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) model, we asked if metabolic syndrome risk could be identified earlier. The study involved 16 overweight but healthy, euglycemic monkeys, one-half of which spontaneously developed metabolic syndrome over the course of 2 years while the other half remained healthy. We conducted a series of biometric and plasma measures focusing on adiposity, lipid metabolism, and adipose tissue-derived hormones, which led to a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in the insulin-resistant animals. Plasma fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography for cholesteryl ester, FFA, diacylglycerol (DAG), phospholipid, and triacylglycerol lipid classes; plasma lipoprotein profiles were generated by NMR; and circulating levels of adipose-derived signaling peptides were determined by ELISA. We identified biomarker models including a DAG model, two lipoprotein models, and a multiterm model that includes the adipose-derived peptide adiponectin. Correlations among circulating lipids and lipoproteins revealed shifts in lipid metabolism during disease development. We propose that lipid profiling may be valuable for early metabolic syndrome detection in a clinical setting. PMID:26063458

  8. Epigenetic and developmental influences on the risk of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caitlin J; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the presence of a variety of metabolic disturbances including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood sugar. Although the risk for metabolic syndrome has largely been attributed to adult lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition, lack of exercise, and smoking, there is now strong evidence suggesting that predisposition to the development of metabolic syndrome begins in utero. First posited by Hales and Barker in 1992, the “thrifty phenotype” hypothesis proposes that susceptibility to adult chronic diseases can occur in response to exposures in the prenatal and perinatal periods. This hypothesis has been continually supported by epidemiologic studies and studies involving animal models. In this review, we describe the structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes that occur in response to adverse intrauterine environments including prenatal and postnatal diet, maternal obesity, and pregnancy complications. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both the developed and developing worlds, a greater understanding and appreciation for the role of the intrauterine environment in adult chronic disease etiology is imperative. PMID:26170704

  9. Pattern of Thyroid Dysfunction in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Its Relationship with Components of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Takanche, Jyoti Shrestha; Shrestha, Raj Kumar; Bhattarai, Prem; Khanal, Kishor; Risal, Prabodh; Koju, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid dysfunction (TD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are known risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). TD is risk factor for ASCVD mediated by the effects of thyroid hormones on lipid metabolism and blood pressure hence the components of MetS. It is possible that coexistence of these two disease entities and unrecognized TD in patients with MetS might substantially increase ASCVD risk. Moreover, little is known about the relationship between TD and the components of MetS. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the pattern of TD in patients with MetS and its relationship with components of the MetS. Methods A total of 358 previously diagnosed patients with MetS were recruited in the study. The thyroid function test parameters were measured to classify TD at Dhulikhel Hospital-Kathmandu University Hospital, Dhulikhel, Nepal. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0 to evaluate pattern and relationship. Results The overall prevalence of TD in patients with MetS was 31.84% with high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (29.32%). We found no evidence of a relationship between TD and components of MetS, although there was significant difference in waist circumference between four groups of TD. Conclusion Patients with MetS had subclinical hypothyroidism greatly. Although there was no evidence of any relationship between thyroid status and all components of MetS, TD should be taken into account when evaluating and treating patients with MetS to reduce the impending risk. PMID:25729715

  10. Plasma Proteome Profiles Associated with Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome and the Early Onset of Metabolic Syndrome in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    te Pas, Marinus F. W.; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Kruijt, Leo; Calus, Mario P. L.; Smits, Mari A.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and related diabetes are important health threatening multifactorial metabolic diseases and it has been suggested that 25% of all diabetic patients are unaware of their patho-physiological condition. Biomarkers for monitoring and control are available, but early stage predictive biomarkers enabling prevention of these diseases are still lacking. We used the pig as a model to study metabolic disease because humans and pigs share a multitude of metabolic similarities. Diabetes was chemically induced and control and diabetic pigs were either fed a high unsaturated fat (Mediterranean) diet or a high saturated fat/cholesterol/sugar (cafeteria) diet. Physiological parameters related to fat metabolism and diabetes were measured. Diabetic pigs' plasma proteome profiles differed more between the two diets than control pigs plasma proteome profiles. The expression levels of several proteins correlated well with (patho)physiological parameters related to the fat metabolism (cholesterol, VLDL, LDL, NEFA) and diabetes (Glucose) and to the diet fed to the animals. Studying only the control pigs as a model for metabolic syndrome when fed the two diets showed correlations to the same parameters but now more focused on insulin, glucose and abdominal fat depot parameters. We conclude that proteomic profiles can be used as a biomarker to identify pigs with developing metabolic syndrome (prediabetes) and diabetes when fed a cafeteria diet. It could be developed into a potential biomarkers for the early recognition of metabolic diseases. PMID:24086269

  11. Irritable Bowel Syndrome May Be Associated with Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Kwang-Min; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have revealed close relationships between hepatic injury, metabolic pathways, and gut microbiota. The microorganisms in the intestine also cause irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to examine whether IBS was associated with elevated hepatic enzyme [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) levels, and metabolic syndrome (MS). Materials and Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. The case and control groups comprised subjects who visited our health promotion center for general check-ups from June 2010 to December 2010. Of the 1127 initially screened subjects, 83 had IBS according to the Rome III criteria. The control group consisted of 260 age- and sex-matched subjects without IBS who visited our health promotion center during the same period. Results Compared to control subjects, patients with IBS showed significantly higher values of anthropometric parameters (body mass index, waist circumference), liver enzymes, γ-GT, and lipid levels. The prevalences of elevated ALT (16.9% vs. 7.7%; p=0.015) and γ-GT (24.1% vs. 11.5%; p=0.037) levels were significantly higher in patients with IBS than in control subjects. A statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of MS between controls and IBS patients (12.7% vs. 32.5%; p<0.001). The relationships between elevated ALT levels, MS, and IBS remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion On the basis of our study results, IBS may be an important condition in certain patients with elevated ALT levels and MS. PMID:26632395

  12. Metabolic syndrome: is equine disease comparable to what we know in humans?

    PubMed Central

    Ertelt, Antonia; Barton, Ann-Kristin; Schmitz, Robert R; Gehlen, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes similarities and differences between the metabolic syndromes in humans and equines, concerning the anatomy, symptoms, and pathophysiological mechanisms. In particular, it discusses the structure and distribution of adipose tissue and its specific metabolic pathways. Furthermore, this article provides insights and focuses on issues concerning laminitis in horses and cardiovascular diseases in humans, as well as their overlap. PMID:24894908

  13. The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: An update on metabolic and hormonal mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrescu, R; Mehedintu, C; Briceag, I; Purcarea, VL; Hudita, D

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOs) is a public health important disease, affecting one in five women at reproductive age. The clinical implications include reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. This article reviews the literature data related to the new metabolic and hormonal mechanisms in PCOs. Recognizing the real diagnostic of PCOs, using the right criteria, is a challenge in current practice. PMID:25866568

  14. The polycystic ovary syndrome: an update on metabolic and hormonal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, R; Mehedintu, C; Briceag, I; Purcarea, V L; Hudita, D

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOs) is a public health important disease, affecting one in five women at reproductive age. The clinical implications include reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. This article reviews the literature data related to the new metabolic and hormonal mechanisms in PCOs. Recognizing the real diagnostic of PCOs, using the right criteria, is a challenge in current practice. PMID:25866568

  15. Chromium picolinate does not improve key features of metabolic syndrome in obese nondiabetic adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of chromium-containing dietary supplements is widespread among patients with type 2 diabetes as a means of improving glucose metabolism. However, chromium’s role as a potential therapy for patients at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes, specifically those with metabolic syndrome, is n...

  16. Metabolic Syndromes Associated with HIV: Mitigating the Side Effects of Drug Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, William W.; Sattler, Fred R.

    2001-01-01

    HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are associated with such metabolic disorders as AIDS wasting syndrome, metabolic dysregulation, and abnormalities of serum lipids. Adjunctive therapies (e.g., diet and antilipid therapy); risk factor modification (e.g., smoking cessation and blood pressure control); aerobic exercise;…

  17. Areca nut chewing and metabolic syndrome: evidence of a harmful relationship

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is some evidence which suggests that areca nut chewing has a relationship with metabolic syndrome. Areca nut chewing is continue to increase and so is the metabolic syndrome which is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of raw areca nut and areca nut chewing with tobacco additives and metabolic syndrome. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted on population of Karachi, Pakistan. Simple random sampling was implied using the voter list as a sampling frame. A detailed questionnaire about the demographic details of all subjects was filled and an informed consent obtained for blood sampling. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to investigate the relationship between areca nut chewing and metabolic syndrome. Results Of the 1070 individuals, 192(17.9%) had metabolic syndrome with significantly higher (p-value <0.001) prevalence among females (26.3%) compared with males (11.4%). Eight individuals (11.1%) among non users had metabolic syndrome while significantly higher (p-value <0.001) proportion of both, raw areca nut users (n = 67, 29%) and areca users with tobacco additives (n = 45, 38.5%) had metabolic syndrome. The crude odds ratio for central obesity among raw areca nut users was 1.46 (95% CI 1.07-1.98) and among areca nut users with tobacco additives was 2.02 (95% CI 1.36-3.00), hypertension among raw areca nut users group was 1.31(0.96-1.78) and among areca nut users with tobacco additives group was 2.05 (95% CI 1.38-3.04). A significant positive association of raw areca nut chewing and metabolic syndrome was found among males (crude OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.52-4.95) and females (crude OR 3.80, 95% CI 2.32-6.20). Similarly, a significant positive association was found with regard to raw areca nut with tobacco additives chewing among males (crude OR 5.46, 95% CI 2.73-10.91) and females (crude OR 4.32, 95% CI 2.41-7.72). These associations

  18. Management of dyslipidemia in the metabolic syndrome: recommendations of the Spanish HDL-Forum.

    PubMed

    Ascaso, Juan; Gonzalez Santos, Pedro; Hernandez Mijares, Antonio; Mangas Rojas, Alipio; Masana, Luis; Millan, Jesus; Pallardo, Luis Felipe; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Perez Jimenez, Francisco; Pintó, Xavier; Plaza, Ignacio; Rubiés, Juan; Zúñiga, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    In order to characterize the metabolic syndrome it becomes necessary to establish a number of diagnostic criteria. Because of its impact on cardiovascular morbidity/mortality, considerable attention has been focussed on the dyslipidemia accompanying the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this review is to highlight the fundamental aspects of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and the treatment of the metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia with recommendations to clinicians. The clinical expression of the metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia is characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). In addition, metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia is associated with high levels of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100-rich particles of a particularly atherogenic phenotype (small dense low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C]. High levels of triglyceride-rich particles (very low-density lipoprotein) are also evident both at baseline and in overload situations (postprandial hyperlipidemia). Overall, the 'quantitative' dyslipidemia characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of HDL-C and the 'qualitative' dyslipidemia characterized by high levels of apo B-100- and triglyceride-rich particles, together with insulin resistance, constitute an atherogenic triad in patients with the metabolic syndrome. The therapeutic management of the metabolic syndrome, regardless of the control of the bodyweight, BP, hyperglycemia or overt diabetes mellitus, aims at maintaining optimum plasma lipid levels. Therapeutic goals are similar to those for high-risk situations because of the coexistence of multiple risk factors. The primary goal in treatment should be achieving an LDL-C level of <100 mg/dL (or <70 mg/dL in cases with established ischemic heart disease or risk equivalents). A further goal is increasing the HDL-C level to >or=40 mg/dL in men or 50 mg/dL in women. A non-HDL-C goal of 130 mg/dL should also be aimed at in cases of hypertriglyceridemia

  19. Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Christiana, Udenze Ifeoma; Casimir, Amadi E.; Nicholas, Awolola Awodele; Christian, Makwe C.; Obiefuna, Ajie I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to determine the plasma levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome and to determine the relationship between components of the metabolic syndrome and CRP in adult Nigerians. Subjects and Methods: This was a case–control study of fifty adult men and women with the metabolic syndrome, and fifty age- and sex-matched males and females without the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Programme-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. Blood pressure and anthropometry measurements were taken and venous blood was collected after an overnight fast. The Ethics Committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparisons of continuous variables and categorical variables were done using the Student's t-test and Chi-square test, respectively. Regression analysis was used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P< 0.05. Results: The age- and sex-matched males and females with and without the metabolic syndrome did not differ in their sociodemographic characteristics. They however differed in some clinical and laboratory parameters such as diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.048), waist circumference (P = 0.002), body mass index (P = 0.012), waist/hip ratio (P = 0.023), high density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.012), and insulin resistance (IR) (P = 0.042). There was a statistically significant increase in the inflammatory marker, CRP (P = 0.019), the cytokines, IL6 (P = 0.040), and TNF-α (P = 0.031) between the subjects with and without metabolic syndrome. There was also a significant association between CRP, waist circumference, IR, and HDL in the metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines are raised in

  20. Metabolic syndrome and associated factors among outpatients of Jimma University Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Abda, Edris; Hamza, Leja; Tessema, Fasil; Cheneke, Waqtola

    2016-01-01

    Background Developing countries are now experiencing the epidemiologic transition, whereby the burden of chronic diseases, like metabolic syndrome, is increasing. However, no study had previously been conducted to show the status of metabolic syndrome among outpatients of Jimma University Teaching Hospital. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated factors among adult (≥20 years) patients. Methods A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in July 2014 among adult (≥20 years) patients attending Jimma University Teaching Hospital, outpatient department. All patients attending the outpatient department and were willing to participate in the study were included. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were undertaken for all the study subjects to know the status of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was identified using the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results A total of 225 participants were included in the study, of whom 106 (47.1%) were males and 119 (52.9%) were females. A total of 59 (26%) adults were found to have metabolic syndrome, which was seen more than twice as much in females, 42 (35%), as compared with males, 17 (16%), (P<0.01). The most frequent metabolic syndrome parameters were hypertension (45%), hyperglycemia (39%), decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (31%), central obesity (26%), and elevated triglycerides (18%). Elevated blood pressure is more common in females (44.5%) than in males (34.9%). Decreased HDL-cholesterol was observed among 37% of females versus 24% males (P<0.001) and 6% of males versus 45% females had central obesity (P<0.001). Hypertension and body mass index were significantly lower among males (35% and 14%) than females (45% and 41%) (P<0.01 and P<0.001), respectively. Conclusion It is demonstrated that metabolic syndrome is prevalent in adult outpatients in Jimma and increases as age increases; it

  1. The Metabolic Syndrome and Mind-Body Therapies: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joel G.; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome, affecting a substantial and increasing percentage of the worldwide population, is comprised of a cluster of symptoms associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic conditions. Mind-body modalities based on Eastern philosophy, such as yoga, tai chi, qigong, and meditation, have become increasingly popular worldwide. These complementary therapies have many reported benefits for improving symptoms and physiological measures associated with the metabolic syndrome. However, clinical trial data concerning the effectiveness of these practices on the syndrome as a whole have not been evaluated using a systematic and synthesizing approach. A systematic review was conducted to critically evaluate the data from clinical trials examining the efficacy of mind-body therapies as supportive care modalities for management of the metabolic syndrome. Three clinical trials addressing the use of mind-body therapies for management of the metabolic syndrome were identified. Findings from the studies reviewed support the potential clinical effectiveness of mind-body practices in improving indices of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21773016

  2. Association of cortisol and the metabolic syndrome in Korean men and women.

    PubMed

    Park, Sat Byul; Blumenthal, James A; Lee, Soon Young; Georgiades, Anastasia

    2011-07-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are closely related and have become increasingly prevalent in Korea. The cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors comprising the metabolic syndrome have previously been associated with increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity, but the associations have not been extensively examined in non-Caucasian populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between cortisol, adiposity and the metabolic syndrome in a Korean population. A total of 1,881 adults participated in the study between January 2001 and February 2008. Sociodemographic data were assessed by questionnaires. Body composition, clinic blood pressures as well as metabolic variables including glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed and analyzed in relation to cortisol levels. Mean age of the participants was 58.7 ± 10.8 yr. Higher levels of cortisol was associated with elevated blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol in men, and between cortisol and systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol in women. There was an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome associated with higher cortisol levels in both men (P < 0.001) and women (P = 0.040) adjusting for age and body mass index. Higher cortisol levels are associated with several CVD risk factors and the metabolic syndrome, independent of overall of adiposity level, in Korean men and women. PMID:21738345

  3. Inflammatory cause of metabolic syndrome via brain stress and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Cai, Dongsheng; Liu, Tiewen

    2012-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome, a network of medical disorders that greatly increase the risk for developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, has reached epidemic levels in many areas of today's world. Despite this alarming medicare situation, scientific understandings on the root mechanisms of metabolic syndrome are still limited, and such insufficient knowledge contributes to the relative lack of effective treatments or preventions for related diseases. Recent interdisciplinary studies from neuroendocrinology and neuroimmunology fields have revealed that overnutrition can trigger intracellular stresses to cause inflammatory changes mediated by molecules that control innate immunity. This type of nutrition-related molecular inflammation in the central nervous system, particularly in the hypothalamus, can form a common pathogenic basis for the induction of various metabolic syndrome components such as obesity, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Proinflammatory NF-κB pathway has been revealed as a key molecular system for pathologic induction of brain inflammation, which translates overnutrition and resulting intracellular stresses into central neuroendocrine and neural dysregulations of energy, glucose, and cardiovascular homeostasis, collectively leading to metabolic syndrome. This article reviews recent research advances in the neural mechanisms of metabolic syndrome and related diseases from the perspective of pathogenic induction by intracellular stresses and NF-κB pathway of the brain. PMID:22328600

  4. NPAS2 and PER2 are linked to risk factors of the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Englund, Ani; Kovanen, Leena; Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Haukka, Jari; Reunanen, Antti; Aromaa, Arpo; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Background Mammalian circadian clocks control multiple physiological events. The principal circadian clock generates seasonal variations in behavior as well. Seasonality elevates the risk for metabolic syndrome, and evidence suggests that disruption of the clockwork can lead to alterations in metabolism. Our aim was to analyze whether circadian clock polymorphisms contribute to seasonal variations in behavior and to the metabolic syndrome. Methods We genotyped 39 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 19 genes which were either canonical circadian clock genes or genes related to the circadian clockwork from 517 individuals drawn from a nationwide population-based sample. Associations between these SNPs and seasonality, metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were analyzed using regression analysis. The p-values were corrected for multiple testing. Results Our findings link circadian gene variants to the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome, since Npas2 was associated with hypertension (P-value corrected for multiple testing = 0.0024) and Per2 was associated with high fasting blood glucose (P-value corrected for multiple testing = 0.049). Conclusion Our findings support the view that relevant relationships between circadian clocks and the metabolic syndrome in humans exist. PMID:19470168

  5. Endocrine and metabolic characteristics in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Glintborg, Dorte

    2016-04-01

    Hirsutism affects 5-25% women, and the condition is most often caused by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The initial evaluation of hirsute patients should include a thorough medical history, clinical evaluation, and standardized blood samples to diagnose the 5% hirsute patients with rare endocrine disorders. The majority of these examinations can be performed by the patient's general practitioner. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion and is a multiorgan disease affecting most endocrine organs including ovaries, adrenals, pituitary, fat cells, and endocrine pancreas. The manifestations of PCOS are diverse, and up to 50% patients are normal weight. In most cases, however, the severity of symptoms can be related to abdominal obesity. Increased inflammation in PCOS can be measured as decreased adiponectin levels and increased levels of adipokines, chemokines, and interleukins. In the present thesis the use of these inflammatory markers is reviewed, but more data including hard end points are needed to determine which of these markers that should be introduced to the daily clinic. Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance stimulates ovarian and adrenal androgen production, whereas SHBG levels are decreased. Increased testosterone levels may further increase abdominal obesity and inflammation, therefore describing PCOS as a vicious cycle. Abdominal obesity and increased activation of the inflammatory system is seen in both normal weight and obese PCOS patients leading to an increased risk of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and possibly cardiovascular disease. Patients diagnosed with PCOS therefore should be screened for elements in the metabolic syndrome including weight, waist, blood pressure, HbA1c, and lipid status. Our data supported that prolactin and HbA1c levels could be markers of cardiovascular risk and should be confirmed by prospective studies. PCOS is a life-long condition and treatment modalities involve lifestyle modification, insulin sensitizers such as metformin, or

  6. Metabolic Syndrome, Lifestyle, and Dental Caries in Japanese School Children.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Hiroya; Sugihara, Naoki; Ukiya, Tokuko; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Birkhed, Dowen; Hasegawa, Masaru; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The number of children with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) has recently been increasing in Japan. Few studies have investigated the relationship between MetS and oral health. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MetS, lifestyle, and oral health status in school children. Our goal is to utilize these results in health education aimed at preventing the onset of MetS in school children and adults. A total of 689 Japanese children (365 boys and 324 girls) aged between 10 and 13 years were examined and waist circumference (WC), ratio of WC to height, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar (FBS), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglyceride values determined together with oral health status, including dental caries experience (DMFT). The results revealed that 6.5% of the children fell under the health board recognized "MetS or high risk of MetS" (MetS/HR) classification. A total of 140 (20%) children had a high Streptococcus mutans count. The mean WC, FBS, and DMFT values were significantly greater in children with a high salivary S. mutans count (p<0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significance association between MetS/HR, non-breakfast eaters (odds ratio (OR): 2.70), no regular exercise (OR: 2.60), and a high salivary S. mutans count (≥10(5) CFU/ml; OR: 2.18; p<0.05). The present results indicate that lifestyle and salivary S. mutans count could be useful in screening children for MetS/HR. These variables may be useful in targeting interventions aimed at preventing MetS in school children. PMID:26657522

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study of Metabolic Syndrome in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seok Won; Chung, Myungguen; Park, Soo-Jung; Cho, Seong Beom

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (METS) is a disorder of energy utilization and storage and increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To identify the genetic risk factors of METS, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 2,657 cases and 5,917 controls in Korean populations. As a result, we could identify 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with genome-wide significance level p-values (<5 × 10-8), 8 SNPs with genome-wide suggestive p-values (5 × 10-8 ≤ p < 1 × 10-5), and 2 SNPs of more functional variants with borderline p-values (5 × 10-5 ≤ p < 1 × 10-4). On the other hand, the multiple correction criteria of conventional GWASs exclude false-positive loci, but simultaneously, they discard many true-positive loci. To reconsider the discarded true-positive loci, we attempted to include the functional variants (nonsynonymous SNPs [nsSNPs] and expression quantitative trait loci [eQTL]) among the top 5,000 SNPs based on the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by genotypic variance. In total, 159 eQTLs and 18 nsSNPs were presented in the top 5,000 SNPs. Although they should be replicated in other independent populations, 6 eQTLs and 2 nsSNP loci were located in the molecular pathways of LPL, APOA5, and CHRM2, which were the significant or suggestive loci in the METS GWAS. Conclusively, our approach using the conventional GWAS, reconsidering functional variants and pathway-based interpretation, suggests a useful method to understand the GWAS results of complex traits and can be expanded in other genomewide association studies. PMID:25705157

  8. Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of Barrett esophagus

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiong; Li, Jian-dong; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Wen-chang; Yang, Jian-quan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Barrett esophagus (BE) is considered precursor condition of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Its incidence and prevalence are increasing in general population. Studies reported that metabolic syndrome (MS) or diabetes mellitus (DM) is related to increased risk of BE. Current study was to assess and better understand the relationship between MS /DM and BE. Methods: Electronic search was conducted in the database Pubmed/Medline (-December, 2015), Embase (-December, 2015), Cochrane Library (-December, 2015), and Web of Knowledge (-December, 2015). Studies included were assessed with summary odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and compared exposure group with control group. The heterogeneity was examined by the funnel plot and the Egger's test. Subgroup analyses and sensitive analyses were performed for the detection of possible heterogeneity and impact on stability of analysis results. Results: Twelve publications met the criteria and included 355,311 subjects were analyzed. The pooled results showed MS was closely associated with increased risk of BE (OR = 1.23; 95%CI 1.03–1.47; P = 0.024), and yet DM did not significantly increase the risk of BE (OR = 1.07; 95%CI 0.82–1.38; P = 0.627). Substantial heterogeneities were detected. No significant publication bias was detected by Egger's test (P = 0.23). Conclusions: Based on the results of current meta-analysis, MS is associated with increased risk of BE. Further long-term follow-up prospective study needs to verify the current results, and definite pathophysiological mechanism needs to be further investigated and clearly elucidated. PMID:27495039

  9. Metabolic syndrome among psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have simultaneously compared the impacts of pharmacotherapy and mental diagnoses on metabolic syndrome (MetS) among psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of pharmacotherapy and mental diagnoses on MetS and the prevalence of MetS among these patients. Methods Two-hundred and twenty-nine outpatients (men/women = 85/144) were enrolled from 1147 outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders by systematic sampling. Psychiatric disorders and MetS were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR and the new International Diabetics Federation definition, respectively. The numbers of antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants being taken were recorded. Logistic regression was used to investigate the impacts of pharmacotherapy and psychiatric diagnoses on MetS. Results Among 229 subjects, 51 (22.3%) fulfilled the criteria for MetS. The prevalence of MetS was highest in the bipolar I disorder (46.7%) patients, followed by bipolar II disorder (25.0%), major depressive disorder (22.0%), anxiety-only disorders (16.7%), and no mood and/or anxiety disorders (14.3%). The percentages of MetS among the five categories were correlated with those of the patients being treated with antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Use of antipsychotics and/or mood stabilizers independently predicted a higher risk of MetS after controlling for demographic variables and psychiatric diagnoses. When adding body mass index (BMI) as an independent variable in the regression model, BMI became the most significant factor to predict MetS. Conclusion BMI was found to be an important factor related to MetS. Pharmacotherapy might be one of underlying causes of elevated BMI. The interactions among MetS, BMI, pharmacotherapy, and psychiatric diagnoses might need further research. PMID:24952586

  10. Predictive value of ceruloplasmin for metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

    PubMed

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-Riovalle, Jacqueline; Sinausía, Laura; Carmen Valenza, Maríe; Perona, Javier S

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is precisely defined and the cardiovascular risk associated with the clustering of its components has been demonstrated in adults. However, data on children and adolescents are still scarce, in part, because of difficulties in transposing the definition from adults. The identification of risk factors for the development of MetS at an early age is essential for prevention purposes with low-grade inflammation acting as a determinant for the association among the MetS components. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of the MetS with systemic markers of inflammation and ceruloplasmin in a population of adolescents. The present is a cross-sectional study whose sample population consisted of 976 adolescents, 13.2 ± 1.2 years of age. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by ELISA. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was determined by a solid-phase chemiluminiscent immunometric assay. Ceruloplasmin was measured by immunoturbidimetry. MetS adolescents exhibited higher levels of TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and ceruloplasmin compared to non-MetS individuals. TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP showed strong correlations with the MetS components and insulin resistance but not relevant predictive values according to ROC curves (AUC values 0.544- 0.555). In contrast, ceruloplasmin only showed significant correlations in non-Mets individuals, but exhibited a very high predictive value (AUC=0.941, P < 0.001). The determination of serum ceruloplasmin in adolescents might be a useful tool to identify patients with the highest risk of future cardiovascular disease. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(2):163-170, 2016. PMID:27083758

  11. The relationship between rosacea and insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akin Belli, Asli; Ozbas Gok, Seyran; Akbaba, Gulhan; Etgu, Fatma; Dogan, Gursoy

    2016-06-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting the face. A positive correlation has been found between rosacea and cardiovascular diseases. We sought to investigate the relation between rosacea and metabolic syndrome (MS) and insulin resistance (IR). Between January and June 2015, a case-control study including 47 age-, gender-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched rosacea patients and 50 controls was conducted. Demographic data, clinical features of rosacea patients, anthropometric measures, laboratory findings, blood pressure levels, BMI, smoking history, alcohol consumption, sports life, family history of cardiovascular disease, and presence of MS and IR were recorded. Forty-seven rosacea patients (12 men and 35 women; age range: 35-68 years) and 50 controls (11 men and 39 women; age range: 38-78 years) were included in our study. Of 47 rosacea patients, 24 had erythematotelangiectatic type, 22 had papulopustular type, and one had phymatous type. Whereas the rate of IR was significantly higher in the rosacea group, there was no significant difference in the rate of MS between rosacea and the control group (p = 0.009 and p = 0.186, respectively). In addition, the rosacea group had significantly higher fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels (p<0.05). Mean levels of LDL, triglyceride, total cholesterol and CRP were significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that there is a relationship between rosacea and IR and some parameters of cardiovascular risk factors. We recommend investigation of IR in rosacea patients. PMID:27328660

  12. Obesity and metabolic syndrome: pathological effects on the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Feakins, Roger M

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is an increasingly common problem worldwide and a risk factor for a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, both non-neoplastic (e.g. gastro-oesophageal reflux and Barrett's oesophagus) and neoplastic (e.g. oesophageal adenocarcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, and gallbladder cancer). Furthermore, obesity is associated with worse GI cancer outcomes. Body mass index is a commonly used measure of fat accumulation, although specific patterns such as abdominal/central obesity and visceral fat quantity sometimes predict disease risk more accurately. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a related condition characterized by central adiposity and insulin resistance. The reasons for the associations with neoplasia are diverse. Established cancer-related conditions that have a higher prevalence in overweight subjects include Barrett's oesophagus and gallstones. Preneoplastic lesions such as colorectal adenoma, colorectal serrated lesions and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia are also associated with obesity/MS. At the cellular level, adipocytes can release carcinogens such as adipokines, insulin-like growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Inflammatory cells constitute a further potential source of carcinogens; in obese subjects, their numbers are increased systemically and in adipose tissue. Animal studies have contributed additional information. For example, mice with a genetic predisposition to develop colorectal carcinoma given a high-fat diet have larger and more numerous intestinal adenomas than controls, and there may be demonstrably higher levels of mucosal oncogenic factors. The associations between obesity and GI disease are of variable strength, and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood, but it is clear that obesity and MS have a significant, potentially avoidable and often under-recognized impact on the population burden of GI disease. PMID:26599607

  13. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Nsiah, Kwabena; Shang, V Owusua; Boateng, K Agyenim; Mensah, FO

    2015-01-01

    Background: The diabetic condition is influenced by several factors, some of which can accelerate the disease's progression to various complications that aggravate the morbidity. Aims: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components and the most critical predictive risk factors of MetS in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and was conducted at the Diabetes Centre of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, the Ashanti Region of Ghana, from February, 2013 to April, 2013. The study involved the use of a questionnaire to obtain some information on the diabetics, undertaking anthropometric measurements, as well as collecting blood samples for the measurement of some biochemical parameters; fasting blood glucose and lipid profile. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 58% in the studied Ghanaian population. Hypertension was the commonest risk factor (60%), followed by central obesity (48.67%) and dyslipidemia (37%). Female type 2 diabetics had a higher prevalence of MetS, and carried more components than their male counterparts. Regression analysis showed three factors; femininity, high body mass index and low educational status were the most critical predictive risk factors of MetS, according to this study. Conclusion: With hypertension being the commonest component, future cardiovascular disease prevention strategies should focus attention on its management and prevention, through education. PMID:26097823

  14. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. It is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type-2 diabetes. Consumption of fructose is linked to increased prevalence of MS. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a steroid bile acid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities and has been shown to improve insulin resistance. The current study aims to investigate the effect of UDCA (150 mg/kg) on MS induced in rats by fructose administration (10%) in drinking water for 12 weeks. The effects of UDCA were compared to fenofibrate (100 mg/kg), an agonist of PPAR-α receptors. Treatment with UDCA or fenofibrate started from the 6th week after fructose administration once daily. Fructose administration resulted in significant increase in body weight, elevations of blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), uric acid levels, insulin resistance index and blood pressure compared to control rats. Moreover, fructose increased oxidative stress in aortic tissues indicated by significant increases of malondialdehyde (MDA), expression of iNOS and reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) content. These disturbances were associated with decreased eNOS expression, increased infiltration of leukocytes and loss of aortic vascular elasticity. Treatment with UDCA successfully ameliorated the deleterious effects of fructose. The protective effect of UDCA could be attributed to its ability to decrease uric acid level, improve insulin resistance and diminish oxidative stress in vascular tissues. These results might support possible clinical application of UDCA in MS patients especially those present with liver diseases, taking into account its tolerability and safety. However, further investigations on human subjects are needed before the clinical application of UDCA for this indication. PMID:25202970

  15. Childhood trauma and metabolic syndrome in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chioun; Tsenkova, Vera; Carr, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The long-term effects of childhood trauma on health are well-documented, but few population-based studies have explored how childhood trauma affects the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Using data from 1,234 adults in the second wave of the Midlife Development in the U.S. survey (2004), we investigate (1) the extent to which childhood abuse affects the risk of developing MetS in adulthood; (2) how the severity of different types of abuse (emotional, physical, sexual, or cumulative abuse) affects this risk; and (3) the extent to which adult socioeconomic status (SES), maladaptive stress responses, and unhealthy behaviors mediate the association. We also test whether these associations differ significantly by sex. We find that emotional and physical abuse increase the risk of developing MetS for both sexes, whereas sexual abuse is a predictor for women only. For both sexes, individuals who experienced more cumulative abuse have a greater risk of developing MetS. Adult SES partially explains the association between childhood abuse and MetS. Maladaptive stress responses and unhealthy behaviors further explain the association. Among the potential mediators, poor sleep quality was a significant pathway for men and women, while stress-induced eating was a significant pathway for women only. Our findings suggest that the well-documented health consequences of early life trauma may vary by the nature of the trauma, the victim’s sex, and the coping mechanisms that he or she employs. PMID:24524907

  16. HEALTHY Intervention: Fitness, Physical Activity, and Metabolic Syndrome Results

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; McMurray, Robert G.; Drews, Kimberly L.; Moe, Esther L.; Murray, Tinker; Pham, Trang H.; Venditti, Elizabeth M.; Volpe, Stella L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the effect of the HEALTHY intervention on the metabolic syndrome (Met-S), fitness, and physical activity levels of US middle-school students. Methods Cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 (21 intervention) US middle schools. Participants were recruited at the start of sixth grade (2006) when baseline assessments were made, with post-assessments made 2.5 yr later at the end of eighth grade (2009). The HEALTHY intervention had four components: 1) improved school food environment, 2) physical activity and eating educational sessions, 3) social marketing, and 4) revised physical education curriculum. Met-S risk factors, 20-m shuttle run (fitness), and self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed at each time point. Ethnicity and gender were self-reported. Obesity status (normal weight, overweight, or obese) was also assessed. Results At baseline, 5% of the participants were classified with Met-S, with two-thirds of the males and one-third of the females recording below average baseline fitness levels. Control group participants reported 96 min of MVPA at baseline with 103 min reported by the intervention group. There were no statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences in Met-S, fitness, or MVPA levels at the end of the study after adjustment for baseline values and confounders. There were no differences in any ethnic, obesity, or ethnic × obesity subgroups for either gender. Conclusions The HEALTHY intervention had no effect on the Met-S, fitness, or physical activity levels. Approaches that focus on how to change physical activity, fitness, and Met-S using nonschool or perhaps in addition to school based components need to be developed. PMID:21233778

  17. Metabolism alteration in follicular niche: The nexus among intermediary metabolism, mitochondrial function, and classic polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongcui; Zhao, Yue; Li, Tianjie; Li, Min; Li, Junsheng; Li, Rong; Liu, Ping; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Classic polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a high-risk phenotype accompanied by increased risks of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities; however, the local metabolism characteristics of the ovaries and their effects on germ cell development are unclear. The present study used targeted metabolomics to detect alterations in the intermediate metabolites of follicular fluid from classic PCOS patients, and the results indicated that hyperandrogenism but not obesity induced the changed intermediate metabolites in classic PCOS patients. Regarding the direct contact, we identified mitochondrial function, redox potential, and oxidative stress in cumulus cells which were necessary to support oocyte growth before fertilization, and suggested dysfunction of mitochondria, imbalanced redox potential, and increased oxidative stress in cumulus cells of classic PCOS patients. Follicular fluid intermediary metabolic profiles provide signatures of classic PCOS ovary local metabolism and establish a close link with mitochondria dysfunction of cumulus cells, highlighting the role of metabolic signal and mitochondrial cross talk involved in the pathogenesis of classic PCOS. PMID:26057937

  18. Metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Rendina, Domenico; De Filippo, Gianpaolo; D'Elia, Lanfranco; Strazzullo, Pasquale

    2014-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiometabolic alterations at least partly dependent on reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperinsulinemia that can have several renal implications. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies available in the international literature in English language demonstrates that the metabolic syndrome occurrence is associated with a significantly higher prevalence of nephrolithiasis (odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence intervals: 1.11-1.51). The pathophysiological bases of this association are currently not completely understood, however. Potential pathogenetic links between the two conditions include metabolic factors that promote insulin resistance as well as stone formation in urine, environmental factors such as diet, oxidative stress and inflammation, and molecular changes impacting the transport of some analytes in urine. Metabolic syndrome-related nephrolithiasis shows peculiar clinical and biochemical characteristics and should be considered a multifactorial systemic disorder needing a multidisciplinary approach for adequate prevention and management in pediatric and adult age. PMID:24696310

  19. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment. PMID:24467635

  20. Demographic and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome in Native African type-2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Isezuo, S. A.; Ezunu, E.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the metabolic syndrome and its demographic and clinical correlates in native African type-2 diabetic patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 254 type-2 diabetic indigenous Nigerians consecutively recruited in a teaching hospital. The main outcome measure was metabolic syndrome. Variables of interest included family history/duration of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, gender, socioeconomic class, occupation and place of domicile (urban or rural). Intergroup comparisons were made with Chi-squared tests or t-tests. RESULTS: Patients were aged 35-80 years (mean: 52.0 +/- 11.7 years) and made of 154 (60.6%) males and 100 (39.4%) females. Full-blown metabolic syndrome was noted in 52 patients (20.5%). Metabolic syndrome, as defined by the WHO, was noted in 150 patients (59.1%). About 72.4% of patients were dyslipidemic, 54.3% were hypertensive, 42.5% were obese, 44.9% were microalbuminuric and 32.3% were hyperuricemic. Ischemic heart disease (myocardial infarction) occurred in only 2.4% of patients. Concurrent hypertension and dyslipidemia; obesity and dyslipidemia; and hypertension and obesity occurred in 44.4%, 42.5% and 33.1% of type-2 diabetics, respectively. Compared to the diabetics without metabolic syndrome, those with the syndrome had a significantly higher proportion of patients with a family history of hypertension and diabetes (44% versus 25%; p = 0.003); among the upper/middle socioeconomic class: 52.0% versus 30.8% (p = 0.001); and among the urban dwelling: 68.0% versus 49.0% (p = 0.004). Metabolic syndrome was inversely proportional to the physical activity of an individual (chi2 = 21.69, df = 5, p = 0.001). Blood pressure was significantly higher among patients with metabolic syndrome than those without it (140.6 +/- 22.9/85.2 +/- 12.9 mmHg versus 126.9 +/- 15.4 mmHg; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The development of metabolic syndrome in African type-2 diabetic patients is influenced by demographic and clinical factors

  1. Canonical transient receptor potential channels expression is elevated in a porcine model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoqing; Oboukhova, Elena A; Kumar, Sanjay; Sturek, Michael; Obukhov, Alexander G

    2009-05-01

    Plasma epinephrine and heart rate are elevated in metabolic syndrome, suggesting enhanced catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medulla. Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels are implicated in mediating hormone-induced Ca(2+) influx and catecholamine secretion in adrenomedullary chromaffin cells. We studied the pattern of TRPC expression in the pig adrenal medulla and investigated whether adrenal TRPC expression is altered in prediabetic metabolic syndrome Ossabaw miniature pigs. We used a combination of molecular biological, biochemical, and fluorescence imaging techniques. We determined the sequence of pig TRPC1 and TRPC3-7 channels. We found that the pig adrenal medulla expressed predominantly TRPC1, TRPC5, and TRPC6 transcripts. The expression level of these TRPCs was significantly elevated in the adrenal medulla from pigs with metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, aldosterone, which is endogenously secreted in the adjacent adrenal cortex, increased TRPC1, TRPC5, and TRPC6 expression in adrenal chromaffin cells isolated from metabolic syndrome but not control pigs. Spironolactone, a blocker of mineralocorticoid receptors, inhibited the aldosterone effect. Dexamethasone also increased TRPC5 expression in metabolic syndrome chromaffin cells. The amplitude of hormone-induced divalent cation influx correlated with the level of TRPC expression in adrenal chromaffin cells. Orai1/Stim1 protein expression was not significantly altered in the metabolic syndrome adrenal medulla when compared with the control. We propose that in metabolic syndrome, abnormally elevated adrenal TRPC expression may underlie increased plasma epinephrine and heart rate. The excess of plasma catecholamines and increased heart rate are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Thus, TRPCs are potential therapeutic targets in the fight against cardiovascular disease. PMID:19221052

  2. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Guatemalan school children

    PubMed Central

    Mbowe, Omar; Diaz, Alicia; Wallace, Jana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Jolly, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Guatemala is experiencing a nutritional and lifestyle transition. While chronic malnutrition is prevalent, overweight, obesity and chronic diseases have increased substantially in the country. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the associated cardiovascular risk factors in the pre-adolescent Guatemalan population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 302 Guatemalan children (8–13 years old) attending public and private schools in the Municipality of Chimaltenango. Demographic data and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were collected. A blood sample was taken after an 8-hour overnight fast and analyzed for glucose, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The data were analyzed to identify factors associated with metabolic syndrome and with its components. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the study population was 2.0%. However, approximately 54% of the children had at least one component of metabolic syndrome, while none had four or five of the components. The three most prevalent risk factors were high triglycerides (43.4%), low HDL cholesterol (17.2%) and obesity (12.3%). Boys were more likely to be obese than girls and rural children were more likely to have higher triglyceride levels than urban children. Conclusions Although the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is low, the fact that majority of the children already have at least one component of metabolic syndrome is cause for concern since components of metabolic syndrome can continue into adulthood and increase the risk for chronic diseases later in life. Therefore, immediate action should be taken to address the problem. PMID:24337775

  3. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dibaba, D. T.; Xun, P.; Fly, A. D.; Yokota, K.; He, K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To estimate quantitatively the association between dietary magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome by combining the relevant published articles using meta-analysis. Methods We reviewed the relevant literature in PubMed and EMBASE published up until August 2013 and obtained additional information through Google or a hand search of the references in relevant articles. A random-effects or fixed-effects model, as appropriate, was used to pool the effect sizes on metabolic syndrome comparing individuals with the highest dietary magnesium intake with those having the lowest intake. The dose–response relationship was assessed for every 100-mg/day increment in magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome. Result Six cross-sectional studies, including a total of 24 473 individuals and 6311 cases of metabolic syndrome, were identified as eligible for the meta-analysis. A weighted inverse association was found between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.59, 0.81) comparing the highest with the lowest group. For every 100-mg/day increment in magnesium intake, the overall risk of having metabolic syndrome was lowered by 17% (odds ratio 0.83, 95% CI 0. 77, 0.89). Conclusion Findings from the present meta-analysis suggest that dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Further studies, in particular well-designed longitudinal cohort studies and randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials, are warranted to provide solid evidence and to establish causal inference. PMID:24975384

  4. Metabolic syndrome among 13 year old adolescents: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity and metabolic syndrome is prevalent among Malaysian adolescents and has been associated with certain behavioural factors such as duration of sleep, screen time and physical activity. The aim of the study is to report the prevalence of overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and its risk factors among adolescents. Methods A multi-staged cluster sampling method was used to select participants from urban and rural schools in Selangor, Perak and Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur. Participants underwent anthropometric measurement and physical examination including blood pressure measurement. Blood samples were taken for fasting glucose and lipids and participants answered a self-administered questionnaire. Overweight and obesity was defined using the extrapolated adult body mass index (BMI) cut-offs of >25 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2, according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on International Diabetes Federation (IDF) 2007 criteria. Results Data were collected from 1361 participants. After excluding incomplete data and missing values for the variables, we analysed a sample of 1014 participants. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in this population was 25.4% (N = 258). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% in the population and 10% among the overweight and obese adolescents. Participants who slept between 7 and 9 hours a day has a lower risk of developing metabolic syndrome OR 0.38(0.15-0.94). Conclusion Our results provide the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysian adolescents. Adequate sleep between 7 and 9 hours per day reduces the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. PMID:25437226

  5. The relationship between metabolic syndrome criteria and preeclampsia in primigravid women

    PubMed Central

    Kianpour, Maryam; Norozi, Shahla; Bahadoran, Parvin; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy is associated with many physiological changes, which in some cases may cause serious risks such as preeclampsia, and fetal and maternal health threats. Recent research has focused on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and preeclampsia. By identifying appropriate indicators for early diagnosis, maternal–fetal complications can be prevented. The present study aimed to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome indicators and the occurrence of preeclampsia in nulliparous pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted on 220 nulliparous pregnant women (normal metabolic syndrome) from Isfahan health centers, Iran, selected by random quota sampling method. With physical examination and laboratory results, metabolic syndrome and preeclampsia in the second half of pregnancy were identified. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software. Descriptive statistical tests were used for demographic characteristics, and Chi-square test, Student's independent t-test, and Fisher's exact test were used to determine and compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome indicators and preeclampsia. Results: The relative frequencies of preeclampsia in the group of pregnant women with metabolic syndrome and the healthy group before week 30 (P < 0.001) and after 30 weeks of pregnancy (P < 0.001) were significantly different. The results showed a significant difference in the mean triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose between preeclampsia and control groups; however, the mean high density lipoprotein (HDL) in both groups had no significant differences. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, it was found that in subjects with the metabolic syndrome during pregnancy, the risk for preeclampsia in the second half of pregnancy was higher than in the general population. In this respect, with the design of preventive programs, such as weight management and lowering harmful blood lipids, this complication

  6. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome score and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults: 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Moon, Ae Eun

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score (MSS) and serum vitamin D levels in adults aged 20 or older (n = 5,483) using 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, which represents national data in Korea. Key study results were as follows: First, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels decreased significantly with an increase in MSS (p = 0.004), shown by serum 25(OH)D levels after adjusting the variables (age, gender, BMI, TC, HDL-C, FBS, SBP, and DBP, etc.). These were 17.30 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 0, 17.13 ± 0.15 ng/ml for MSS 1, 17.02 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 2, 16.60 ± 0.20 ng/ml for MSS 3, 16.55 ± 0.28 ng/ml for MSS 4, and 15.52 ± 0.50 ng/ml for MSS 5. Second, after adjusting the related variables, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p = 0.004) in the metabolic syndrome group (16.49 ± 0.19 ng/ml) than the non-metabolic syndrome group (17.16 ± 0.09 ng/ml). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and the increased levels of its components are inversely associated with the serum vitamin D concentration in Korean adults. PMID:26236105

  7. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome score and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults: 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Moon, Ae Eun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score (MSS) and serum vitamin D levels in adults aged 20 or older (n = 5,483) using 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, which represents national data in Korea. Key study results were as follows: First, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels decreased significantly with an increase in MSS (p = 0.004), shown by serum 25(OH)D levels after adjusting the variables (age, gender, BMI, TC, HDL-C, FBS, SBP, and DBP, etc.). These were 17.30 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 0, 17.13 ± 0.15 ng/ml for MSS 1, 17.02 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 2, 16.60 ± 0.20 ng/ml for MSS 3, 16.55 ± 0.28 ng/ml for MSS 4, and 15.52 ± 0.50 ng/ml for MSS 5. Second, after adjusting the related variables, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p = 0.004) in the metabolic syndrome group (16.49 ± 0.19 ng/ml) than the non-metabolic syndrome group (17.16 ± 0.09 ng/ml). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and the increased levels of its components are inversely associated with the serum vitamin D concentration in Korean adults. PMID:26236105

  8. What do we know about metabolic syndrome in adolescents with PCOS?

    PubMed Central

    Cırık, Derya Akdağ; Dilbaz, Berna

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women that manifests itself with a variety of features. For this reason, three different diagnostic criteria have been introduced. For adults, the National Institutes of Health Conference (NIH) criteria, which consists of hyperandrogenism and oligo-anovulation, is the most widely used. Symptoms of PCOS usually start with puberty and may overlap with normal pubertal development. Hormonal fluctuations during this period make the diagnosis of PCOS more difficult. Until now, there is no validated diagnostic criteria for PCOS in adolescents. Although menstrual disorders and cosmetic problems are the most common complaints of adolescents with PCOS, patients should also be evaluated for the potential risk for insulin resistance, obesity, subclinical atherosclerosis, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Obesity is the most prominent predictor of metabolic syndrome. As the incidence of obesity is increasing both in childhood and adolescence, governments will be faced with a social and economic burden in the future. Adolescents with PCOS are more obese than normal adolescents and have an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. It is suggested that abdominal adiposity increases the risk of metabolic syndrome by inducing various cytokine secretions. Although there is no consensus on metabolic syndrome criteria in the adolescent period, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria may be used for children older than 10 years. Various clinical and metabolic markers are investigated for the prediction of metabolic syndrome in the literature. Waist circumference, serum triglycerides and androgens are the suspected predictors of metabolic syndrome. The prevention of abdominal adiposity and the early diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence should be the main target for the prevention of metabolic syndrome. Clinicians should investigate adolescents with PCOS for metabolic and

  9. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Vasanti S.; Popkin, Barry M.; Bray, George A.; Després, Jean-Pierre; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include soft drinks, fruit drinks, iced tea, and energy and vitamin water drinks has risen across the globe. Regular consumption of SSBs has been associated with weight gain and risk of overweight and obesity, but the role of SSBs in the development of related chronic metabolic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, has not been quantitatively reviewed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We searched the MEDLINE database up to May 2010 for prospective cohort studies of SSB intake and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. We identified 11 studies (three for metabolic syndrome and eight for type 2 diabetes) for inclusion in a random-effects meta-analysis comparing SSB intake in the highest to lowest quantiles in relation to risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS Based on data from these studies, including 310,819 participants and 15,043 cases of type 2 diabetes, individuals in the highest quantile of SSB intake (most often 1–2 servings/day) had a 26% greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those in the lowest quantile (none or <1 serving/month) (relative risk [RR] 1.26 [95% CI 1.12–1.41]). Among studies evaluating metabolic syndrome, including 19,431 participants and 5,803 cases, the pooled RR was 1.20 [1.02–1.42]. CONCLUSIONS In addition to weight gain, higher consumption of SSBs is associated with development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. These data provide empirical evidence that intake of SSBs should be limited to reduce obesity-related risk of chronic metabolic diseases. PMID:20693348

  10. Comparing the Ability of Anthropometric Indicators in Identifying Metabolic Syndrome in HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beraldo, Rebeca Antunes; Meliscki, Gabriela Cristina; Silva, Bruna Ramos; Navarro, Anderson Marliere; Bollela, Valdes Roberto; Schmidt, André; Foss-Freitas, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can cause side effects in HIV patients, as the metabolic syndrome. Early identification of risk for development of cardiovascular diseases using available reliable and practical methods is fundamental. On this basis, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of anthropometric indicators to identify metabolic syndrome in HIV patients on HAART. Methods It is a cross-sectional study. A number of 280 stable HIV patients were studied. It measured weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HP), thigh circumference (TC) and calculated body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to thigh ratio (WTR). There was also a performance of biochemical tests of lipid profile and fasting glucose. Systemic blood pressure was measured. The criteria proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program III (NCEP-ATP III) to metabolic syndrome classification was used. Individuals were divided in groups with or without metabolic alterations and their anthropometric indicators were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were designed for each anthropometric indicator using the metabolic syndrome classification to identify sensitivity and specificity. Results WC was a good tool to identify each metabolic disorder separately: total cholesterol (only females, p<0.05), triglycerides (only males, p<0.001), HDL cholesterol (p<0.05), LDL cholesterol (p<005) and fasting glycemic (p<005). WC also showed the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome in both genders (areas under the curve (AUCs): 0.79 and 0.76 for male and female, respectively), while BAI proved to be an inadequate indicator (AUCs: 0.63 and 0.67 for males and females), respectively, in this population. Conclusions The central adiposity measure (WC) had the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome, and it is a convenient, cheap and reliable tool that can be used in clinical

  11. What Is Caregiver Burnout?

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction Caregiving What Is Caregiver Burnout? Caregiver burnout is caused by too much long-term stress. ... themselves. They begin to show signs of caregiver burnout. Your healthy body, mind and spirit benefit your ...

  12. Caregiver Action Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content Caregiver Action Network Toggle navigation Toolbox Forum Volunteers Donate About Us Join National Family Caregivers ... for caring for a loved one Family Caregiver Forum Share and talk with other caregivers Rare Disease ...

  13. Lipoprotein Kinetics in the Metabolic Syndrome: Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Lessons from Stable Isotope Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Dick C; Barrett, P Hugh R; Watts, Gerald F

    2004-01-01

    Dyslipoproteinaemia is a cardinal feature of the metabolic syndrome that accelerates atherosclerosis. It is usually characterised by high plasma concentrations of triglyceride-rich and apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins, with depressed concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Dysregulation of lipoprotein metabolism in these subjects may be due to a combination of overproduction of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apoB-100, decreased catabolism of apoB-containing particles, and increased catabolism of HDL apoA-I particles. These abnormalities may be consequent on a global metabolic effect of insulin resistance that increases the flux of fatty acids from adipose tissue to the liver, the accumulation of fat in the liver, the increased hepatic secretion of VLDL-triglycerides and the remodelling of both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL particles in the circulation; perturbations in lipolytic enzymes and lipid transfer proteins contribute to the dyslipidaemia. Our in vivo understanding of the kinetic defects in lipoprotein metabolism in the metabolic syndrome has been chiefly achieved by ongoing developments in the use of stable isotope tracers and mathematical modelling. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of lipoprotein metabolism in the metabolic syndrome is well complemented by extensive cell biological data. Nutritional modifications and increased physical exercise may favourably alter lipoprotein transport in the metabolic syndrome by collectively decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB and the catabolism of HDL apoA-I, as well as by increasing the clearance of LDL-apoB. Pharmacological treatments, such as statins, fibrates or fish oils, can also correct the dyslipidaemia by several mechanisms of action including decreased secretion and increased catabolism of apoB, as well as increased secretion and decreased catabolism of apoA-I. The complementary mechanisms of action of lifestyle and drug therapies support the use of combination

  14. TREATMENT OF THE METABOLIC SYNDROME: THE IMPACT OF LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Along with the increasing prevalence of obesity comes a constellation of metabolic derangements: dyslipidemias, hypertension, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, as well as increased prothrombotic and inflammatory markers. The association of these factors has been termed the "metabolic synd...

  15. Early-onset metabolic syndrome in mice lacking the intestinal uric acid transporter SLC2A9

    PubMed Central

    DeBosch, Brian J.; Kluth, Oliver; Fujiwara, Hideji; Schürmann, Annette; Moley, Kelle

    2015-01-01

    Excess circulating uric acid, a product of hepatic glycolysis and purine metabolism, often accompanies metabolic syndrome. However, whether hyperuricemia contributes to development of metabolic syndrome or is merely a by-product of other processes that cause this disorder has not been resolved. Additionally, how uric acid is cleared from the circulation is incompletely understood. Here, we present a genetic model of spontaneous, early-onset metabolic syndrome in mice lacking the enterocyte urate transporter Glut9 (encoded by the SLC2A9 gene). Glut9-deficient mice develop impaired enterocyte uric acid transport kinetics, hyperuricemia, hyperuricosuria, spontaneous hypertension, dyslipidemia, and elevated body fat. Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, can reverse the hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. These data provide evidence that hyperuricemia per se could have deleterious metabolic sequelae. Moreover, these findings suggest that enterocytes may regulate whole-body metabolism, and that enterocyte urate metabolism could potentially be targeted to modulate or prevent metabolic syndrome. PMID:25100214

  16. Obesity-related metabolic dysfunction in dogs: a comparison with human metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, metabolic syndrome (MS) has gained attention in human metabolic medicine given its associations with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Canine obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and mild hypertension, but the authors are not aware of any existing studies examining the existence or prevalence of MS in obese dogs. Thirty-five obese dogs were assessed before and after weight loss (median percentage loss 29%, range 10-44%). The diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were modified in order to define canine obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD), which included a measure of adiposity (using a 9-point body condition score [BCS]), systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and fasting plasma glucose. By way of comparison, total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whilst total adiponectin, fasting insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured using validated assays. Results Systolic blood pressure (P = 0.008), cholesterol (P = 0.003), triglyceride (P = 0.018), and fasting insulin (P < 0.001) all decreased after weight loss, whilst plasma total adiponectin increased (P = 0.001). However, hsCRP did not change with weight loss. Prior to weight loss, 7 dogs were defined as having ORMD, and there was no difference in total fat mass between these dogs and those who did not meet the criteria for ORMD. However, plasma adiponectin concentration was less (P = 0.031), and plasma insulin concentration was greater (P = 0.030) in ORMD dogs. Conclusions In this study, approximately 20% of obese dogs suffer from ORMD, and this is characterized by hypoadiponectinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. These studies can form the basis of further investigations to determine path genetic mechanisms and the health significance for dogs, in terms of disease associations

  17. Relation between uric acid and metabolic syndrome in subjects with cardiometabolic risk

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Hellen Abreu; Carraro, Júlia Cristina Cardoso; Bressan, Josefina; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify possible relations between serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome and its components in a population with cardiometabolic risk. Methods This cross-sectional study included 80 subjects (46 women), with mean age of 48±16 years, seen at the Cardiovascular Health Program. Results The prevalence of hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome was 6.3% and 47.1%, respectively. Uric acid level was significantly higher in individuals with metabolic syndrome (5.1±1.6mg/dL), as compared to those with no syndrome or with pre-syndrome (3.9±1.2 and 4.1±1.3mg/dL, respectively; p<0.05). The uric acid levels were significantly higher in men presenting abdominal obesity, and among women with abdominal obesity, lower HDL-c levels and higher blood pressure (p<0.05). Conclusion Uric acid concentrations were positively related to the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and its components, and there were differences between genders. Our results indicate serum uric acid as a potential biomarker for patients with cardiometabolic risk. PMID:26018145

  18. Management of the Metabolic Syndrome and the Obese Patient with Metabolic Disturbances: South Asian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Misra, Anoop; Bhardwaj, Swati

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) among South Asians. The phenotypes of obesity and body fat distribution are different in South Asians; they have high body fat, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat and fatty liver at a lower body mass index compared to white Caucasians; this has led to the frequent occurrence of morbidities related to a higher magnitude of adiposity [e.g. type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension (HTN) and dyslipidemia]. The increasing prevalence of obesity and related diseases in the South Asian population requires aggressive lifestyle management including diet, physical activity and, sometimes, drugs. For therapeutic interventions, several drugs can be used either as mono- or combination therapy. Drugs like orlistat, which is used for the management of obesity, also reduce the risk of T2DM. Similarly, HMG CoA reductase inhibitors decrease low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, some drugs used for the treatment of HTN (e.g. β-blockers) may increase the risk of hyperglycemia and therefore need to be used with caution. Finally, to prevent obesity, MS and T2DM among South Asians, it is particularly important to effectively implement and strengthen population-based primary prevention strategies. PMID:26544194

  19. Interdependency of selected metabolic variables in an animal model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mellouk, Zoheir; Sener, Abdullah; Yahia, Dalila Ait; Malaisse, Willy J

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the correlation between the percentage of glycated hemoglobin, taken as representative of changes in glucose homeostasis, and selected variables was investigated. Rats were treated for 8 weeks with diets containing 64% starch and 5% sunflower oil or containing 64% D-fructose mixed with: 5% sunflower oil; 3.4% sunflower oil and 1.6% salmon oil; or 3.4% sunflower oil and 1.6% safflower oil. Positive correlations were found between glycated hemoglobin and plasma albumin, urea, creatinine, phospholipids, triglycerides and total cholesterol, liver cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid content, and the plasma, liver, heart, kidney, soleus muscle and visceral adipose tissue content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, carbonyl derivatives and hydroperoxides. Inversely, negative correlations were observed between glycated hemoglobin and plasma calcium, iron and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, liver, heart, kidney, soleus muscle and visceral adipose tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity; as well as plasma, liver, heart, kidney, soleus muscle and visceral adipose tissue nitric oxide content. Only the liver glucokinase activity and liver, heart, kidney, soleus muscle and visceral adipose tissue glutathione reductase activity failed to display a significant correlation with glycated hemoglobin. These findings confirm the hypothesis that there is a close association between glucose homeostasis and other variables when considering the effects of long-chain polyunsaturated ω3 and ω6 fatty acids in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:25187839

  20. Mechanical and metabolic reflex activation of the sympathetic nervous system in younger adults with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Limberg, Jacqueline; Morgan, Barbara; Schrage, William

    2014-01-01

    Aim Based on reports of exaggerated blood pressure responses to whole-body exercise in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), we tested the hypothesis that MetSyn adults would exhibit augmented sympathetic and pressor responses to mechanoreflex and metaboreflex activation when compared with healthy, age-matched control subjects. Methods We studied 12 adults with MetSyn (34±3 years) and 12 healthy control subjects (34±3 years). Heart rate (HR; ECG), blood pressure (BP; finger photoplethysmography), and MSNA (microneurography of the peroneal nerve) were measured during: (1) Static handgrip exercise at 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and (2) Static handgrip exercise at 30% MVC to fatigue, followed by post-exercise ischemia (PEI). Increases in MSNA, HR, and BP were assessed. Results During static exercise at both 15 and 30% MVC, increases in MSNA, HR, and BP were not different between groups. MSNA remained significantly elevated from baseline during PEI and responses were not different between groups. Conclusion Sympathetic and pressor responses to mechanoreflex and metaboreflex activation are not augmented in younger adults with MetSyn. PMID:24680829

  1. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus after renal transplantation: prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wissing, Karl Martin; Pipeleers, Lissa

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in dialysis patients is high and further increases after transplantation due to weight gain and the detrimental metabolic effects of immunosuppressive drugs. Corticosteroids cause insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism and arterial hypertension. The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus is diabetogenic by inhibiting insulin secretion, whereas cyclosporine causes hypertension and increases cholesterol levels. Mtor antagonists are responsible for hyperlipidemia and abnormal glucose metabolism by mechanisms that also implicate insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome in transplant recipients has numerous detrimental effects such as increasing the risk of new onset diabetes, cardiovascular disease events and patient death. In addition, it has also been linked with accelerated loss of graft function, proteinuria and ultimately graft loss. Prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome are based on increasing physical activity, promotion of weight loss and control of cardiovascular risk factors. Bariatric surgery before or after renal transplantation in patients with body mass index >35 kg/m(2) is an option but its long term effects on graft and patient survival have not been investigated. Steroid withdrawal and replacement of tacrolimus with cyclosporine facilitate control of diabetes, whereas replacement of cyclosporine and mtor antagonists can improve hyperlipidemia. The new costimulation inhibitor belatacept has potent immunosuppressive properties without metabolic adverse effects and will be an important component of immunosuppressive regimens with better metabolic risk profile. Medical treatment of cardiovascular risk factors has to take potential drug interactions with immunosuppressive medication and drug accumulation due to renal insufficiency into account. PMID:24507957

  2. Women are at a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Mitra, Amal K; Zainuddin, Laila Ruwaida Mohd; Leng, Soo Kah; Wan Muda, Wan Manan

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine gender differences in the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a rural Malay population. This cross-sectional study, conducted in Bachok, Kelantan, involved 306 respondents aged 18 to 70 years. The survey used a structured questionnaire to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements, such as weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Venous blood samples were taken by a doctor or nurses and analyzed for lipid profile and fasting glucose. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% and was higher among females (42.9%). Being unemployed or a housewife and being of older age were independently associated with metabolic syndrome in a multivariate analysis. Weight management and preventive community-based programs involving housewives, the unemployed, and adults of poor education must be reinforced to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome effectively in adults. PMID:23751089

  3. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26800498

  4. Influence of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Metabolic Syndrome in Old Chinese People.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Xuan, Cunfu

    2016-01-01

    Background. H. pylori infection is one of the most common chronic infectious inflammatory diseases worldwide and is also a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Patients with metabolic syndrome are known to be at increased risk for atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of H. pylori infection on serum lipids, body mass index (BMI), and metabolic syndrome in old Chinese people. Material and Method. A total of 191 (133 males and 58 females, aged 73.19 ± 11.03 years) people who had gastroscopy examination in our hospital were divided into H. pylori-positive group (n = 80) and H. pylori-negative group (n = 111). H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test. Results. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and incidence of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.01). It was found that BMI (p < 0.01, OR 74.469), H. pylori infection (p < 0.01, OR 5.427), total cholesterol (p < 0.01, OR 15.544), and diabetes mellitus (p < 0.01, OR 23.957) were significantly associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome by binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusions. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and had incidence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:27429613

  5. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC ABNORMALITIES AMONG MEXICAN AMERICANS: CORRELATIONS WITH DIABETES, OBESITY, AND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Queen, Saulette R.; Smulevitz, Beverly; Rentfro, Anne R.; Vatcheva, Kristina P.; Kim, Hyunggun; McPherson, David D.; Hanis, Craig L.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Laing, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND Resting ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Simple markers of abnormal autonomic tone have also been associated with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in some populations. Data on these electrocardiographic abnormalities and correlations with coronary risk factors are lacking among Mexican Americans wherein these conditions are prevalent. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the prevalent resting electrocardiographic abnormalities among community-dwelling Mexican Americans, and correlate these findings with coronary risk factors, particularly diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. METHODS Study subjects (n=1280) were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort comprised of community-dwelling Mexican Americans living in Brownsville, Texas at the United States-Mexico border. Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were defined as presence of ST/T wave abnormalities suggestive of ischemia, abnormal Q waves, and left bundle branch block. Parameters that reflect autonomic tone, such as heart rate-corrected QT interval and resting heart rate, were also measured. RESULTS Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were more prevalent among older persons and those with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Subjects in the highest quartiles of QTc interval and resting heart rate were also more likely to be diabetic, hypertensive, obese, or have the metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Among Mexican Americans, persons with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome were more likely to have ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities, longer QTc intervals, and higher resting heart rates. A resting electrocardiogram can play a complementary role in the comprehensive evaluation of cardiovascular risk in this minority population. PMID:23515880

  6. Blackcurrant Suppresses Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Fructose Diet in Rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hun; Kho, Min Chul; Kim, Hye Yoom; Ahn, You Mee; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2015-01-01

    Increased fructose ingestion has been linked to obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension associated with metabolic syndrome. Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum; BC) is a horticultural crop in Europe. To induce metabolic syndrome, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 60% high-fructose diet. Treatment with BC (100 or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly suppressed increased liver weight, epididymal fat weight, C-reactive protein (CRP), total bilirubin, leptin, and insulin in rats with induced metabolic syndrome. BC markedly prevented increased adipocyte size and hepatic triglyceride accumulation in rats with induced metabolic syndrome. BC suppressed oral glucose tolerance and protein expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) in muscle. BC significantly suppressed plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL content. BC suppressed endothelial dysfunction by inducing downregulation of endothelin-1 and adhesion molecules in the aorta. Vascular relaxation of thoracic aortic rings by sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine was improved by BC. The present study provides evidence of the potential protective effect of BC against metabolic syndrome by demonstrating improvements in dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and obesity in vivo. PMID:26504474

  7. The roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity and its association with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, collectively known as the metabolic syndrome or syndrome X, is one of the most challenging health problems facing industrialized countries. The nuclear receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs alpha (α), beta (β) also known as delta (δ), and gamma (γ)), have well-documented roles in lipid and glucose metabolism. Pharmacologically, PPARα is activated by fibrate hypolipidemic drugs, whereas PPARγ is activated by insulin sensitizers thiazolidinediones (TZDs). No marketed drug is yet available for PPARβ(δ). The identification of fibrates and TZDs as respective ligands for PPARα and PPARγ was a groundbreaking finding that sparked notable pharmaceutical interest in PPARs as potential drug targets for treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Limiting side effects associated with clinical use of TZDs have emerged in recent years. New and novel PPAR drugs with broad safety margins and therapeutic potentials for the metabolic syndrome are in development. These include partial, dual, or pan PPAR agonists; PPAR antagonists; and selective PPAR modulators. The objective of this chapter is to highlight the therapeutic benefits of targeting more than one PPAR subtype in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. The pros and cons observed during clinical use of TZDs and the strategies and progress made in the production of new generations of safe and effective PPAR ligands are discussed. PMID:24373239

  8. Physical Therapy for Metabolic Syndrome Prevention in Workers: Novel Role of Physical Therapist.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tomonori; Nemoto, Yuki; Utumi, Takako; Munakata, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, physical therapists have usually been involved in physical therapy for patients with functional disorders associated with cerebrovascular or orthopedic diseases in hospitals. With the aging of Japanese society, the number of diseased people will progressively increase; thus, it is important to pay much more attention to disease prevention. In this regard, physical therapists are expected to play a new role in the field of preventive medicine. Metabolic syndrome or central obesity with multiple cardiometabolic risks is associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular diseases and is now a central target for early detection and intervention for disease prevention. The incidence of metabolic syndrome increases with age, and men showed a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome than women in all generations. We have been involved in the guidance of workers with metabolic syndrome for a long time, and we conducted a multicenter study to establish effective guidance for these worker. In this paper, we will use our evidence to discuss the role of physical therapists in providing guidance for preventing metabolic syndrome. We are now conducting worksite supporting exercise intervention for workers who were resistant to conventional lifestyle guidance. In addition, the unique role of physical therapists in this new trial will be introduced. PMID:27246150

  9. Blackcurrant Suppresses Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Fructose Diet in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Hun; Kho, Min Chul; Kim, Hye Yoom; Ahn, You Mee; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2015-01-01

    Increased fructose ingestion has been linked to obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension associated with metabolic syndrome. Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum; BC) is a horticultural crop in Europe. To induce metabolic syndrome, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 60% high-fructose diet. Treatment with BC (100 or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly suppressed increased liver weight, epididymal fat weight, C-reactive protein (CRP), total bilirubin, leptin, and insulin in rats with induced metabolic syndrome. BC markedly prevented increased adipocyte size and hepatic triglyceride accumulation in rats with induced metabolic syndrome. BC suppressed oral glucose tolerance and protein expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) in muscle. BC significantly suppressed plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL content. BC suppressed endothelial dysfunction by inducing downregulation of endothelin-1 and adhesion molecules in the aorta. Vascular relaxation of thoracic aortic rings by sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine was improved by BC. The present study provides evidence of the potential protective effect of BC against metabolic syndrome by demonstrating improvements in dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and obesity in vivo. PMID:26504474

  10. Influence of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Metabolic Syndrome in Old Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Cunfu

    2016-01-01

    Background. H. pylori infection is one of the most common chronic infectious inflammatory diseases worldwide and is also a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Patients with metabolic syndrome are known to be at increased risk for atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of H. pylori infection on serum lipids, body mass index (BMI), and metabolic syndrome in old Chinese people. Material and Method. A total of 191 (133 males and 58 females, aged 73.19 ± 11.03 years) people who had gastroscopy examination in our hospital were divided into H. pylori-positive group (n = 80) and H. pylori-negative group (n = 111). H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test. Results. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and incidence of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.01). It was found that BMI (p < 0.01, OR 74.469), H. pylori infection (p < 0.01, OR 5.427), total cholesterol (p < 0.01, OR 15.544), and diabetes mellitus (p < 0.01, OR 23.957) were significantly associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome by binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusions. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and had incidence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:27429613

  11. Relationship between epicardial adipose tissue thickness and vitamin D in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kirac Utku, Irem; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Demir, Esra; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Aciksari, Gonul; Uygun, Turgut; Kural, Alev; Ozkan, Hanise; Mert, Meral; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is a systemic disorder and manifests as a group of conditions including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and coronary artery disease. The importance of epicardial adipose tissue has been proven through recognition of its contribution to inflammation by pro-inflammatory cytokine discharge. Several investigations have been performed on vitamin D receptors in different tissues. In this study, epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT) and the levels of vitamin D were measured and compared with a healthy control group. Material and Methods: 84 patients who had metabolic syndrome without diabetes and 64 healthy individuals were enrolled into the study. In all patients, the EATT was calculated by ecocardiography and the level of serum 25 (OH) vitamin D was measured. Results: It was observed that EATT in patients with metabolic syndrome increases significiantly compared to the healthy control group (P < 0.001). No significant difference between patients and control group was found for the levels of 25 (OH) vitamin D (P = 0.507). There was no correlation between 25 (OH) vitamin D and EATT (P = 0.622). Conclusions: We observed that EATT increased in patients with metabolic syndrome. In contradiction to literature; the levels of 25 (OH) vitamin D was not found to be high in patients with metabolic syndrome. Any significant correlation was not found between EATT and 25 (OH) vitamin D levels. Further studies with a larger patient population are required to assess the relationship. PMID:26131155

  12. Herbal Medicines for Treating Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Jang, Soobin; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Ko, Youme; Sasaki, Yui; Park, Jeong-Su; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Song, Yun-Kyung; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in the management of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods. On December 9, 2015, we searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, AMED, CNKI, KoreaMed, KMBASE, OASIS, and J-STAGE with no restriction on language or published year. We selected randomized controlled trials that involved patients with metabolic syndrome being treated with herbal medicines as intervention. The main keywords were "Chinese herbal medicines", "metabolic syndrome", and "randomized controlled trials". Herbal substances which were not based on East Asian medical theory, combination therapy with western medicines, and concurrent diseases other than metabolic syndrome were excluded. The risk of bias was assessed by Cochrane's "Risk of Bias" tool. The protocol or review was registered in PROSPERO (an international prospective register of systematic reviews) (CRD42014006842). Results. From 1,098 articles, 12 RCTs were included in this review: five trials studied herbal medicines versus a placebo or no treatment, and seven trials studied herbal medicines versus western medicines. Herbal medicines were effective on decreasing waist circumference, blood glucose, blood lipids, and blood pressure. Conclusion. This study suggests the possibility that herbal medicines can be complementary and alternative medicines for metabolic syndrome. PMID:27413388

  13. Shift work and metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and ischaemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Szosland, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    Shift work is affecting 20% to 25% employees and is becoming increasingly prevalent in contemporary life all over Europe and USA. It is associated with several health problems, such as e.g. metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. These diseases are possibly due to an impairment of biological rhythm. The metabolic syndrome is a complex of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has been demonstrated among shift workers. Rotating shift work has an impact on each component of metabolic syndrome. Shift work might also have an impact on metabolic variables, and be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Only a few studies reported prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism and diabetes mellitus in relation to shift work. There is rather strong evidence in favour of association between shift work and coronary heart disease and that has been repeatedly demonstrated during over 20 years of research. Recent data increasingly reveal relations between shift work and plasma resistin, ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin. PMID:20934953

  14. Metabolic Syndrome Screening and Assertive Community Treatment: A Quality Improvement Study.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Enrico G; Rosati, Justin; Williams, Caroline; Pessin, Neil; Lindy, David C

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome defines a collection of cardiometabolic illnesses that predict risk for poor physical health and early death and is highly prevalent among those with serious mental illness. Despite recommendations for routine monitoring, those with serious mental illness frequently do not receive physical health screenings. We conducted a quality improvement (QI) project to increase rates of metabolic syndrome screening in three New York City Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams. The project, conducted from December 2010 to May 2011, involved educational sessions for staff and consumers and a systematic screening protocol. We collected complete metabolic syndrome screening measurements for 71% of participating ACT consumers. We found metabolic risk to be nearly universal among participants, with over half diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. We also found high rates of previously undiagnosed hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We describe the resources and obstacles we encountered in our QI project to make systematic metabolic screening a routine part of ACT care. This QI project suggests that ACT teams can take a leadership role in screening their consumers for physical health issues, aligning with recent policy trends to better integrate behavioral health and primary care services. PMID:26282669

  15. Metabolic syndrome in hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Mekov, Evgeni; Slavova, Yanina; Tsakova, Adelina; Genova, Marianka; Kostadinov, Dimitar; Minchev, Delcho; Marinova, Dora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The metabolic syndrome (MS) affects 21-53% of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with a higher prevalence in the early stages of COPD, with results being highly variable between studies. MS may also affect natural course of COPD-number of exacerbations, quality of life and lung function. Aim. To examine the prevalence of MS and its correlation with comorbidities and COPD characteristics in patients with COPD admitted for exacerbation. Material and methods. 152 patients with COPD admitted for exacerbation were studied for presence of MS. All of them were also assessed for vitamin D status and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM). Data were gathered for smoking status and exacerbations during the last year. All patients completed CAT (COPD assessment test) and mMRC (Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea scale) questionnaires and underwent spirometry. Duration of current hospital stay was recorded. Results. 25% of patients have MS. 23.1% of the male and 29.5% of the female patients have MS (p > 0.05). The prevalence of MS in this study is significantly lower when compared to a national representative study (44.6% in subjects over 45 years). 69.1% of all patients and 97.4% from MS patients have arterial hypertension. The presence of MS is associated with significantly worse cough and sleep (1st and 7th CAT questions; p = 0.002 and p = 0.001 respectively) and higher total CAT score (p = 0.017). Average BMI is 27.31. None of the patients have MS and BMI <25. There is a correlation between the presence of MS and DM (p = 0.008) and with the number of exacerbations in the last year (p = 0.015). There is no correlation between the presence of MS and the pulmonary function. Conclusion. This study among hospitalized COPD patients finds comparable but relatively low prevalence of MS (25%) compared to previously published data (21-53%) and lower prevalence compared to general population (44.6%). MS may impact quality of life and the number of

  16. Metabolic syndrome among Jaffna Tamil community, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Amarasinghe, Sivarathy; Sandrasegarampillai, Balakumar; Arasaratnam, Vasanthy

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The prevalence and associated risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MS) among adults over 18 years old in Jaffna district. Materials and Methods: It was community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Multistage stratified cluster sampling technique was employed. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain the relevant information. Waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) measurements were recorded. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triacylglycerols were analyzed by the enzymatic colorimetric assay using semi-automated analyzer (Teco Diagnostics TC-3300). International Diabetic Federation guideline for Asians was used to identify MS. Results: Sample response rate was 95.3% and of them, 43.8% (n = 224) was male. The prevalence of central obesity (WC for male ≥90 cm, female ≥80 cm) was 23.9%. Raised FPG (≥100 mg/dL, or previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus), hypertriacylglycerolemia (≥150 mg/dl), low level of HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dL in males, <50 mg/dL in females), and raised BP (systolic BP ≥130 or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg or previously diagnosed hypertension) were found in 23.9%, 25%, 79.3%, and 36.6% of the participants. The prevalence of MS was 15.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.8–19.3) and it was 17.4% in males and 14.6% in females. Participants living in the urban area had a higher prevalence of MS when compared with participants in a rural area (P = 0.015). Older age (P < 0.001) was a risk factor for development of MS. Smoking (P = 0.005) was a risk factor for the development of MS. Participants having sedentary, moderately active, and highly active lifestyle had the prevalence of MS 20.6% (95% CI: 13.2–29.7), 14.7% (95% CI: 10.6–19.5), and 14.7% (95% CI: 9.3–21.6), respectively (P = 0.247). Conclusion: Older age, urban living, and smoking carry a higher risk for development of MS among Jaffna Tamil community. PMID:26425479

  17. Metabolic syndrome in hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Slavova, Yanina; Tsakova, Adelina; Genova, Marianka; Kostadinov, Dimitar; Minchev, Delcho; Marinova, Dora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The metabolic syndrome (MS) affects 21–53% of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with a higher prevalence in the early stages of COPD, with results being highly variable between studies. MS may also affect natural course of COPD—number of exacerbations, quality of life and lung function. Aim. To examine the prevalence of MS and its correlation with comorbidities and COPD characteristics in patients with COPD admitted for exacerbation. Material and methods. 152 patients with COPD admitted for exacerbation were studied for presence of MS. All of them were also assessed for vitamin D status and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM). Data were gathered for smoking status and exacerbations during the last year. All patients completed CAT (COPD assessment test) and mMRC (Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea scale) questionnaires and underwent spirometry. Duration of current hospital stay was recorded. Results. 25% of patients have MS. 23.1% of the male and 29.5% of the female patients have MS (p > 0.05). The prevalence of MS in this study is significantly lower when compared to a national representative study (44.6% in subjects over 45 years). 69.1% of all patients and 97.4% from MS patients have arterial hypertension. The presence of MS is associated with significantly worse cough and sleep (1st and 7th CAT questions; p = 0.002 and p = 0.001 respectively) and higher total CAT score (p = 0.017). Average BMI is 27.31. None of the patients have MS and BMI <25. There is a correlation between the presence of MS and DM (p = 0.008) and with the number of exacerbations in the last year (p = 0.015). There is no correlation between the presence of MS and the pulmonary function. Conclusion. This study among hospitalized COPD patients finds comparable but relatively low prevalence of MS (25%) compared to previously published data (21–53%) and lower prevalence compared to general population (44.6%). MS may impact quality of life and the

  18. Hemoglobin and Ferritin Concentrations in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, Adewumi; Uche, Ebele; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Dada, Akin; Wakama, Tamunomieibi; Damulak, Dapus; Ajibola, Sarah; Okwegbuna, Oluwakemi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a clinical condition characterized by insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity, has been linked with raised levels of serum ferritin (Sfr) concentrations. OBJECTIVES This study was carried out to compare hemoglobin (Hb) and Sfr concentrations in patients with MetS, regular donors and first-time donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 102 subjects who were between 18 and 60 years were enrolled for the study. They were divided into three groups. The first group (n = 20) was made up of 5 males and 15 females, all who met the criteria that define MetS. The second group (n = 52; M = 34, F = 18) were regular donors, while the last group (n = 30; M = 16, F = 14) were first-time donors or those who had not donated before. Following an overnight fast, 20 mL of venous blood was drawn from each subject. About 5 mL of this was put into sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) specimen bottles for the full blood count parameters with Sysmex KX-21N hematology analyzer (made in Japan). The remaining 15 mL had serum separated for Sfr assay using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a commercial assay kit manufactured by Teco Diagnostics. RESULTS Significant difference was found in the mean Sfr concentration of subjects with MetS (163 ± 136.92 ng/mL) and regular donors (41.46 ± 40.33 ng/mL), P = 0.001. The mean Sfr concentrations of subjects with MetS (163 ± 136.92 ng/mL) were also higher than that of first-time donors (102.46 ± 80.26 ng/mL), but it was not statistically significant, P = 0.053. The Hb concentrations of the three groups were not significantly different. CONCLUSION Sfr concentrations of regular donors were lower than that of subjects with MetS and first-time donors. The difference between regular donors and subjects with MetS was statistically significant. However, there is no significant difference in the Hb concentrations in the three groups. MetS is not associated with

  19. Association of FURIN and ZPR1 polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    UEYAMA, CHIKARA; HORIBE, HIDEKI; YAMASE, YUICHIRO; FUJIMAKI, TETSUO; OGURI, MITSUTOSHI; KATO, KIMIHIKO; ARAI, MASAZUMI; WATANABE, SACHIRO; MUROHARA, TOYOAKI; YAMADA, YOSHIJI

    2015-01-01

    Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified various genes and loci in predisposition to metabolic syndrome (MetS) or each component of this condition, the genetic basis of MetS in individuals remains to be identified definitively. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible association of MetS in individuals with 29 polymorphisms that were previously identified as susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction by meta-analyses of GWASs. The study population comprised 1,822 subjects with MetS and 1,096 controls. Subjects with MetS had ≥3 of the 5 components of the diagnostic criteria for MetS, whereas control individuals had 0–1 of the 5 components. The genotypes for the 29 polymorphisms were determined by the multiplex bead-based Luminex assay. Comparisons of allele frequencies by the χ2 test revealed that rs17514846 (A→C) of the furin (paired basic amino acid-cleaving enzyme) gene (FURIN; P=0.0006), rs964184 (C→G) of the ZPR1 zinc finger gene (ZPR1; P=0.0078) and rs599839 (G→A) of the proline/serine-rich coiled-coil 1 gene (P=0.0486) were significantly (P<0.05) associated with the prevalence of MetS. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, gender and smoking status revealed that rs17514846 of FURIN (P=0.0016; odds ratio, 0.76; dominant model) and rs964184 of ZPR1 (P=0.0164; odds ratio, 1.21; dominant model) were significantly associated with MetS. The minor A allele of rs17514846 of FURIN was significantly associated with a decrease in the serum concentration of triglycerides (P=0.0293) and to an increase in the serum concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P=0.0460). The minor G allele of rs964184 of ZPR1 was significantly associated with increases in the serum concentration of triglycerides (P=6.2×10−9) and fasting plasma glucose level (P=0.0028) and to a decrease in the serum concentration of HDL cholesterol (P=0.0105). FURIN and ZPR1 may

  20. Metabolic syndrome: Performance of five different diagnostic criterias

    PubMed Central

    Onesi, S Ogedengbe; Ignatius, U Ezeani

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to describe the metabolic syndrome (MS) and to evaluate five diagnostic criteria of the MS with respect to their sensitivity and specificity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional case control study of T2DM patients and their first degree relatives (FDRs) recruited using convenience sampling and data collected through questionnaire administered technique. Variables of interest included anthropometric indices, blood pressure, serum lipid profile, fasting blood sugar (FBS), proteinuria, and microalbuminuria. The Chi-square test was used for comparison of proportions. A P value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Kappa statistic was used to test the degree of agreement between the diagnostic criteria. Results: The World Health Organization (WHO), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), revised National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-R), NCEP Adult Treatment Panel (ATP)-III, and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) criteria reported a prevalence of 87.1, 64.5, 61.3, 55.6, and 22.6%, respectively in persons with T2DM. Using the WHO criteria as a reference or gold standard, the sensitivity of the IDF, NCEP-R, NCEP ATP-III, and AACE criteria among persons with T2DM were 71.3, 67.6, 61.1, and 25.9% respectively. Using the WHO criteria as a reference or gold standard, the specificity of the IDF, NCEP-R, NCEP ATP-III, and AACE criteria among persons with T2DM were 81.3, 81.3, 81.3, and 100%, respectively. Using the WHO criteria as a reference or gold standard, the level of agreement of the IDF, NCEP-R, NCEP ATP-III, and AACE criteria with the WHO criteria among persons with T2DM (as estimated by the kappa statistics) were 0.30, 0.26, 0.21, and 0.08 respectively. Conclusion: The level of agreement appears to be generally poor, though the IDF criteria showed a fair level of agreement with the WHO criteria: Therefore the IDF criteria is

  1. Cortisol-Metabolizing Enzymes in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Zeev; Kaidar, Gabi; Zuckerman-Levin, Nehama; Dumin, Elena; Knopf, Carlos; Hochberg, Ze’ev

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), using a fully quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) method. DESIGN We investigated the glucocorticoid degradation pathways that include 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) type 1, 5α-reductase (5α-R) and 5β-reductase (5β-R), 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 20α- and 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD and 20β-HSD, respectively) in young nonobese women with PCOS, using a fully quantitative GCMS method. SETTING This study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Israel. PATIENTS This study group consisted of 13 young women, aged 20.1 ± 2.8 years (mean ± SD), with the body mass index (BMI) of 22.6 ± 3.7 kg/m2, diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria. The control group consisted of 14 healthy young women matched for weight, height, and BMI. INTERVENTIONS Urine samples were analyzed using GCMS. We measured urinary steroid metabolites that represent the products and substrates of the study enzymes and calculated the product/substrate ratios to represent enzyme activity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The calculation of enzymatic activity, based on glucocorticoid degradation metabolites, was done by GCMS in PCOS vs. controls. RESULTS All glucocorticoid degradation metabolites were higher in the PCOS group than in controls. Of the adrenal enzymes, the activities of 21-hydroxylase and 17α-hydroxylase were reduced, whereas the activity of 17,20-lyase was enhanced in PCOS. Of the degradation enzymes, the activity of 11β-HSD type 1 was reduced in women with PCOS only when calculated from cortoles and cortolones ratios. The activities of 5α-R/5β-R were increased only when calculating the 11-hydroxy metabolites of androgens. The activity of 20α-HSD was elevated in the patients with PCOS and its relation with the substrate levels was lost. CONCLUSIONS We confirm PCOS

  2. Dietary Patterns and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dietary patterns are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS has increased in Korea, and this condition has become a public health issue. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of MetS among Korean women. The data of 5189 participants were analyzed to determine dietary intake and lifestyle. A principal components analysis was employed to determine participant dietary patterns with regard to 106 food items. MetS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between dietary pattern quintiles and MetS and to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: “traditional,” “western,” and “prudent.” The “prudent” dietary pattern consisted of a high intake of fruits and fruit products as well as nuts, dairy, and a low consumption of grains; this pattern was negatively associated with the risk of MetS. The highest quintile of the “prudent” dietary pattern was significantly less likely to develop MetS (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.36–0.68, P for trend <0.001) compared with the lowest quintile. This pattern was also negatively associated with all of the MetS diagnostic criteria: abdominal obesity (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41–0.65), blood pressure (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59–0.87), triglycerides (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.85), fasting glucose (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43–0.95), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.42–0.68). However, the “traditional” and “western” dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of MetS. The “prudent” dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of developing MetS among Korean women. PMID:26313795

  3. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Donley, David A.; Fournier, Sara B.; Reger, Brian L.; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E.; Olfert, I. Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 ± 0.6 to 7.2 ± 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 ± 1.8 to 5.6 ± 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 ± 5 to 110 ± 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 ± 1 to 7 ± 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 ± 3 to 15 ± 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 ± 8 to 168 ± 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 ± 1.0 to 19.9 ± 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. PMID:24744384

  4. A review of the benefits of Satureja species on metabolic syndrome and their possible mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Babajafari, Siavash; Nikaein, Farzad; Mazloomi, Seyed Mohammad; Zibaeenejad, Mohammad Javad; Zargaran, Arman

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome, also known as insulin resistance disorder, is the simultaneous manifestation of multiple metabolic disorders in an individual. The present-day complementary and alternative therapies suggest several medicinal herbs that may have the potential to improve one or multiple complications of metabolic syndrome. All of them have their own limitations in efficacy and unwanted effects. Therefore, we reviewed species of Satureja as widespread medicinal herbs and potentially good remedies for metabolic syndrome. We reviewed literature found in PubMed and the ISI Web of Knowledge with the key word Satureja in the title. The influence of any species of Satureja on any disease or syndrome, enzymatic, metabolic, or physiological pathways, in human, animals, or in vitro conditions related to any characteristics of metabolic syndrome were considered. The main outcomes of treatment with Satureja species were categorized, and the possible mechanisms of action are discussed in this article. PMID:25563729

  5. Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Adherence: Associations with Prediabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, and Related Microinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Elisa; Liguori, Maria Livia; Marigliano, Benedetta; Saliola, Mirella; Ettorre, Evaristo; Andreozzi, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (Med Diet) seems to reduce the incidence of metabolic syndrome. The present study aimed to explore whether the adherence to the overall Med Diet pattern and to specific Med Diet items is associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), insulin resistance (IR), and microinflammation in subjects free of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Measurements Each patient underwent clinical assessment. Adherence to the Med Diet was measured by a previously validated 14-item questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria; IR was defined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); inflammation was assessed through a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) assay. Results A total of 120 subjects (64.2% women, mean age 59.8±10.2 years) were enrolled at this study. Subjects with lower Med Diet pattern adherence exhibited higher occurrence of metabolic syndrome and all its components and higher HOMA-IR and hsCRP values (P for all <0.0001). Subjects with metabolic syndrome were less likely to consume olive oil (P=0.002) and vegetables (P=0.023). By multivariable analyses, the overall Med Diet score was found to be strongly and inversely associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome [B=−0.066; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.105 to −0.028; P=0.001], IFG (B=−0.076; 95% CI −0.114 to −0.038; p<0.0001), high HOMA-IR (B=−0.071; 95% CI −0.108 to −0.034; P<0.0001) and high hsCRP (B=−0.082; 95% CI −0.125 to −0.045; P<0.0001). None of specific Med Diet items independently predicted metabolic syndrome, IFG, and high HOMA-IR. Instead, the consumption of white meat over red meat (B=−0.324; 95% CI −0.467 to −0.178; P<0.0001) was found to be inversely associated with increased hsCRP. Conclusions The inverse associations between adherence to Med Diet

  6. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Song Vogue; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Youn zoo; Koh, Sang Baek; Huh, Ji Hye; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2016-01-01

    Aims The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. Material and Methods The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40–70 years, who participated from 2005–2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008–2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. Results During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422–0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124–0.337, P<0.001), and the integrated discrimination improvement was 0.0094 (95% CI: 0.0046–0.0143, P<0.001). Conclusions The AST-to-ALT ratio independently predicted the future development of metabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome. PMID:27560931

  7. Cardiolipin metabolism and its causal role in the etiology of the inherited cardiomyopathy Barth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gaspard, Gerard J; McMaster, Christopher R

    2015-12-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a phospholipid with many unique characteristics. CL is synthesized in the mitochondria and resides almost exclusively within the mitochondrial inner membrane. Unlike most phospholipids that have two fatty acyl chains, CL possesses four fatty acyl chains resulting in unique biophysical characteristics that impact several biological processes including membrane fission and fusion. In addition, several proteins directly bind CL including proteins within the electron transport chain, the ADP/ATP carrier, and proteins that mediate mitophagy. Tafazzin is an enzyme that remodels saturated fatty acyl chains within CL to unsaturated fatty acyl chains, loss of function mutations in the TAZ gene encoding tafazzin are causal for the inherited cardiomyopathy Barth syndrome. Cells from Barth syndrome patients as well as several models of Barth have reduced mitochondrial functions including impaired electron transport chain function and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Mitochondria in cells from Barth syndrome patients, as well as several model organism mimics of Barth syndrome, are large and lack cristae consistent with the recently described role of CL participating in the generation of mitochondrial membrane contact sites. Cells with an inactive TAZ gene have also been shown to have a decreased capacity to undergo mitophagy when faced with stresses such as increased ROS or decreased mitochondrial quality control. This review describes CL metabolism and how defects in CL metabolism cause Barth syndrome, the etiology of Barth syndrome, and known modifiers of Barth syndrome phenotypes some of which could be explored for their amelioration of Barth syndrome in higher organisms. PMID:26415690

  8. Neck circumference as a potential marker of metabolic syndrome among college students1

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Dayse Christina Rodrigues; de Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; de Freitas, Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire; Teixeira, Carla Regina de Souza; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to relate neck circumference with metabolic syndrome and its criteria among college students. METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted with 702 college students in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil from September 2010 to June 2011. Socio-demographic data, waist circumference and neck circumference were collected together with blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride levels, and HDL-C. RESULTS: 1.7% of the studied sample presented metabolic syndrome. Of these, 58.3% presented altered neck circumference (p<0.006). As neck circumference decreases, pressure levels improve (p<0.001). Additionally, college students with high fasting blood sugar (p=0.003) and high triglyceride levels (p<0.001) presented higher values of neck circumference. CONCLUSION: neck circumference is a potential predictive marker in the detection of metabolic syndrome and its components among college students. PMID:25591092

  9. Work-Related Psychological Injury Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Components in Apparently Healthy Workers

    PubMed Central

    Magnavita, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between psychological damage caused by common occupational trauma and metabolic syndrome (MES). Method 571 workers from 20 small Italian companies were invited to fill in the Psychological Injury Risk Indicator (PIRI) during their routine medical examination at the workplace. Results Compared to workers with no psychological injury, workers with a high PIRI score had a significantly increased risk of having at least one metabolic syndrome component (adjusted hazards ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.6). There was a significant increase in the risk of hypertriglyceridemia in male workers (OR 2.53 CI95% 1.03-6.22), and of hypertension in female workers (OR 2.45 CI95% 1.29-4.66). Conclusion Psychological injury related to common occupational trauma may be a modifiable risk factor for metabolic syndrome. PMID:26086387

  10. The application of data mining to explore association rules between metabolic syndrome and lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi Chao

    2013-01-01

    This study used an efficient data mining algorithm, called DCIP (the data cutting and inner product method), to explore association rules between the lifestyles of factory workers in Taiwan and the metabolic syndrome. A total of 1,216 workers in four companies completed a lifestyle questionnaire. Results of the questionnaire survey were integrated into the workers' health examination reports to form an attribute database of the metabolic syndrome. Among the association rules derived by DCIP, 80% of those on the list of the top 15 highest support counts are corroborated by medical literature or by healthcare professionals. These findings prove that data mining is a valid and effective research method, and that larger sample sizes will likely produce more accurate associations connecting the metabolic syndrome to specific lifestyles. The rules already verified can serve as a reference guide for the health management of factory workers. The remaining 20%, while still lacking hard evidence, provide fertile ground for future research. PMID:24067239

  11. Leptin and Adiponectin in the HIV Associated Metabolic Syndrome: Physiologic and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Mantzoros, Christos

    2006-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin represent two newly discovered adipose tissue derived hormones with important roles in energy homeostasis and insulin resistance. Their interrelations with the manifestations of the HIV associated metabolic syndrome and specific somatomorphic changes i.e. fat redistribution is reviewed. A synopsis of published studies is presented and the potential role of leptin and adiponectin is discussed. We have described an association of the HIV metabolic syndrome with a state of reduced insulin sensitivity due to adiponectin deficiency. The metabolic syndrome is also accompanied by leptin deficiency in lipoatrophic subjects and possibly by a leptin resistance state in lipohypertrophic patients. Adiponectin and / or leptin therapy in a manner similar to other leptin deficiency states may assist in the future management of such patients. PMID:17183414

  12. Standard and Novel Treatment Options for Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Elliott M; Yu, Katherine; Wong, Nathan D.; Malik, Shaista

    2014-01-01

    Type II Diabetes and metabolic syndrome are two intertwined conditions that are critical to the healthcare landscape in the United States and abroad. Patients with either diabetes or metabolic syndrome can have a dramatically increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Numerous treatment options have existed for some time, which include non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies. Additionally, within the last decade a multiple of novel treatment options have emerged for the management of hyperglycemia in particular. By targeting novel pathways beyond the secretion and supply of insulin, these new therapeutics provide a valuable adjunctive to the currently available therapies for diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Here we discuss the current guideline driven usage of standard therapies with some novel indications. In addition we discuss the novel therapies for the treatment of hyperglycemia, their mechanisms of action and appropriate therapeutic indications. PMID:24234946

  13. Circadian rhythms and metabolic syndrome: from experimental genetics to human disease

    PubMed Central

    Maury, Eleonore; Ramsey, Kathryn Moynihan; Bass, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of the metabolic syndrome represents a spectrum of disorders that continue to increase across the industrialized world. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to metabolic syndrome and recent evidence has emerged to suggest that alterations in circadian systems and sleep participate in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we highlight studies at the intersection of clinical medicine and experimental genetics that pinpoint how perturbations of the internal clock system, and sleep, constitute risk factors for disorders including obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, thrombosis and even inflammation. An exciting aspect of the field has been the integration of behavioural and physiological approaches, and the emerging insight into both neural and peripheral tissues in disease pathogenesis. Consideration of the cell and molecular links between disorders of circadian rhythms and sleep with metabolic syndrome has begun to open new opportunities for mechanism-based therapeutics. PMID:20167942

  14. Adiposopathy, metabolic syndrome, quantum physics, general relativity, chaos and the Theory of Everything.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold

    2005-05-01

    Excessive fat (adiposity) and dysfunctional fat (adiposopathy) constitute the most common worldwide epidemics of our time -- and perhaps of all time. Ongoing efforts to explain how the micro (adipocyte) and macro (body organ) biologic systems interact through function and dysfunction in promoting Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia are not unlike the mechanistic and philosophical thinking processes involved in reconciling the micro (quantum physics) and macro (general relativity) theories in physics. Currently, the term metabolic syndrome refers to a constellation of consequences often associated with excess body fat and is an attempt to unify the associations known to exist between the four fundamental metabolic diseases of obesity, hyperglycemia (including Type 2 diabetes mellitus), hypertension and dyslipidemia. However, the association of adiposity with these metabolic disorders is not absolute and the metabolic syndrome does not describe underlying causality, nor does the metabolic syndrome necessarily reflect any reasonably related pathophysiologic process. Just as with quantum physics, general relativity and the four fundamental forces of the universe, the lack of an adequate unifying theory of micro causality and macro consequence is unsatisfying, and in medicine, impairs the development of agents that may globally improve both obesity and obesity-related metabolic disease. Emerging scientific and clinical evidence strongly supports the novel concept that it is not adiposity alone, but rather it is adiposopathy that is the underlying cause of most cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Adiposopathy is a plausible Theory of Everything for mankind's greatest metabolic epidemics. PMID:15889967

  15. Surgical Management of Metabolic Syndrome Related to Morbid Obesity.

    PubMed

    Rehrig, Scott T

    2016-03-01

    Current treatment approaches in morbid obesity are multimodal in nature. Combination therapies include increases in moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise; behavioral lifestyle changes to increase compliance with diet and activity recommendations; medical nutrition therapy; intensive medical therapy; and metabolic surgical procedures, such as gastric bypass and vertical sleeve gastrectomy. This article focuses on the preoperative evaluation and proper patient selection for metabolic surgery. The procedures are discussed relative to their anatomy, metabolic mechanism of action, and common adverse effects. PMID:26896207

  16. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the family members of women with polycystic ovary syndrome from North India

    PubMed Central

    Shabir, Iram; Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Zargar, Mohd Afzal; Bhat, Dilafroz; Mir, Mohd Muzzafar; Jan, Aleem; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Jan, Vicar; Rasool, Riyaz; Naqati, Andleeb

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most complex and common endocrine disorder of women in reproductive years. In addition to irregular menstrual cycles, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, it has many metabolic manifestations such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease or possibly endometrial cancer. Familial clustering of PCOS in consistence with the genetic susceptibility has been described. Materials and Methods: The present study assessed the clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters including prevalence of metabolic syndrome by two different criteria in the first- degree relatives of patients with PCOS. Results: The average age of 37 index patients was 23 ± 3.6 years, with the mean age of menarche as 13.3 ± 1.2 years. The mean age and age of menarche in mothers (n = 22) was 48.8 ± 5.1 and 13 ± 1.3 years, respectively, whereas as it was 23.5 ± 4.7 and 13.3 ± 1.2 years in sisters (n = 22), respectively. Metabolic syndrome (MS) defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria was present in 10 index patients, 1 brother, 4 sisters, 17 mothers and 15 fathers while as by Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) it was in 8 index patients, 5 sisters, 16 mothers and 11 fathers. Conclusion: The presence of MS or related metabolic derangements is high in the family members of women with PCOS. PMID:24944933

  17. Childhood Physical Abuse Is Associated with Incident Metabolic Syndrome in Mid-Life Women

    PubMed Central

    Midei, Aimee J.; Matthews, Karen A.; Chang, Yue-Fang; Bromberger, Joyce T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous research has suggested that childhood emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse are associated with an increased risk for ischemic heart disease. Our objective was to examine whether childhood abuse predicted incident metabolic syndrome, a precursor to heart disease, in mid-life women. Methods Participants were 342 (114 Black, 228 White) women from the Pittsburgh site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). SWAN included a baseline assessment of premenopausal or early perimenopausal women in midlife (mean age = 45.7), and women were evaluated for presence of the metabolic syndrome over 7 annual follow-up visits. Women were classified as having metabolic syndrome if they met 3 of the following criteria: waist circumference > 88 cm, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl, HDL < 50 mg/dl, SBP ≥ 130 or DBP ≥ 85 mmHg or on blood pressure medication, and fasting glucose ≥ 110 mg/dl or diabetic. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire is a standardized measure that retrospectively assesses three domains of abuse in childhood and adolescence: emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Results Approximately 34% of the participants reported a history of abuse. Cox model survival analysis showed that physical abuse was associated with incident metabolic syndrome over the course of seven years (HR = 2.12, p = .02), adjusted for ethnicity, age at baseline, and time-dependent menopausal status. Sexual abuse and emotional abuse were unrelated to the metabolic syndrome. Conclusion This is the first study to show that a history of childhood abuse, specifically physical abuse, is related to the development of metabolic syndrome in mid-life women. PMID:22775234

  18. Adding Diet and Exercise Counseling to the Health Promotion Plan Alleviates Anthropometric and Metabolic Complications in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morita-Suzuki, S.; Fujioka, Y.; Mitsuoka, H.; Tashiro, M.; Harada, M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of individual (IC) and group (GC) diet and exercise counseling in men with metabolic syndrome. Participants received exercise instruction and exercise load was monitored. IC participants received individual diet counseling sessions and general consultations at baseline and monthly. GC participants received a group diet counseling session at baseline and general consultations at baseline and monthly. In the IC group, body mass index (BMI) percent body fat, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and liver function levels were reduced significantly after 3 months, whereas in the GC group, waist circumference and levels of liver function were reduced. Exercise load was negatively correlated with change in BMI and waist circumference in the IC group, and positively correlated with changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in all subjects and in the GC group. Diet and exercise counseling, especially IC, may benefit patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:23882148

  19. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Metabolic Syndrome via TCM Pattern Differentiation: Tongue Diagnosis for Predictor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Lo, Lun-Chien; Wu, Fang-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a morbid condition, which is manifested by central obesity, abnormal glucose tolerance, lipodystrophy, and hypertension. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clarifies that obesity is classified as phlegm-dampness. It is often accompanied with qi stagnation and blood stasis. One hundred and two overweight adults, who did not receive lipid-lowering drugs, were enrolled for analysis. The exclusion criteria were adults having malignancy disease, DM, and renal disease or who were pregnant or lactating. The study was divided into two groups: metabolic syndrome group (MetS) and nonmetabolic syndrome group (nMetS). The modern tongue analysis and heart rate variability devices for data analysis and Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) for appetite evaluation were used. Obesity patients with metabolic syndrome obviously have lower CNAQ score. The 6 items of CNAQ between two groups have significant difference in variation (P < 0.001). The nMetS average was above 28 scores (96%) and the MetS was all in 17–28 scores. The tongue appearance showed that MetS group have white coating different from the nMetS group with white and yellow coating (P < 0.05). However the HRV is not different from nMetS group significantly. Our results try to explore the relationship between the TCM pattern, nutrition appetite, and heart rate variability in metabolic syndrome patients. PMID:27313640

  20. Epigallocatechin Gallate: A Review of Its Beneficial Properties to Prevent Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Legeay, Samuel; Rodier, Marion; Fillon, Laetitia; Faure, Sébastien; Clere, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and being overweight are linked with a cluster of metabolic and vascular disorders that have been termed the metabolic syndrome. This syndrome promotes the incidence of cardiovascular diseases that are an important public health problem because they represent a major cause of death worldwide. Whereas there is not a universally-accepted set of diagnostic criteria, most expert groups agree that this syndrome is defined by an endothelial dysfunction, an impaired insulin sensitivity and hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity and hypertension. Epidemiological studies suggest that the beneficial cardiovascular health effects of diets rich in green tea are, in part, mediated by their flavonoid content, with particular benefits provided by members of this family such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Although their bioavailability is discussed, various studies suggest that EGCG modulates cellular and molecular mechanisms of various symptoms leading to metabolic syndrome. Therefore, according to in vitro and in vivo model data, this review attempts to increase our understanding about the beneficial properties of EGCG to prevent metabolic syndrome. PMID:26198245

  1. Characterization of the metabolic syndrome by apolipoproteins in the Oklahoma Cherokee.

    PubMed

    Alaupovic, Petar; Blackett, Piers; Wang, Wenyu; Lee, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    Native Americans are susceptible to type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular risk that precedes the diabetes. Nondiabetic Cherokee adolescents and young adults were studied for association of apolipoproteins A-I, B, and C-III with the metabolic syndrome, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and body mass index. Apolipoproteins, lipids, selected ratios, and HOMA-IR changed adversely according to the number of metabolic syndrome criteria present (P<.001 for trend). Logistic regression showed heparin-precipitated apolipoprotein C-III, apolipoprotein C-III bound to apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, to be a significant predictor of the metabolic syndrome in the adolescents and adults, and it appears to be more strongly associated than apolipoprotein B: apolipoprotein A-I. Regression modeling with components of the syndrome as the dependent variables showed that they were all significantly associated with heparin-precipitated apolipoprotein C-III except for fasting blood glucose. The Cherokee have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, which is associated with atherosclerotic lipoprotein particles containing apolipoprotein C-III and B. PMID:19040586

  2. Effects of dietary fibers on disturbances clustered in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Galisteo, Milagros; Duarte, Juan; Zarzuelo, Antonio

    2008-02-01

    Because of its growing prevalence in Western countries, the metabolic syndrome, a common metabolic disorder that clusters a constellation of abnormalities, including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, is emerging as one of the most important public health problems in the world, taking into account that it is a major risk factor mainly for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, and also for many types of cancer. Although the pathogenesis of this syndrome is complex and not fully understood, obesity and insulin resistance, accompanied by an altered profile of number of hormones and cytokines produced by the adipose tissue, seem to be the main causative agents. A prime therapeutic approach to the prevention and treatment of this syndrome involves lifestyle changes. Among dietary modifications, dietary fiber intake could play an interesting role in the management of metabolic syndrome through different mechanisms related to its dietary sources, specific chemical structure and physical properties, or fermentability in the gut. According to all of these variables, the different types of dietary fibers have been reported to take part in the control of body weight, glucose and lipid homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and in the regulation of many inflammation markers involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, and which are also considered to be among its features. PMID:17618108

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Metabolic Syndrome via TCM Pattern Differentiation: Tongue Diagnosis for Predictor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Lo, Lun-Chien; Wu, Fang-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a morbid condition, which is manifested by central obesity, abnormal glucose tolerance, lipodystrophy, and hypertension. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clarifies that obesity is classified as phlegm-dampness. It is often accompanied with qi stagnation and blood stasis. One hundred and two overweight adults, who did not receive lipid-lowering drugs, were enrolled for analysis. The exclusion criteria were adults having malignancy disease, DM, and renal disease or who were pregnant or lactating. The study was divided into two groups: metabolic syndrome group (MetS) and nonmetabolic syndrome group (nMetS). The modern tongue analysis and heart rate variability devices for data analysis and Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) for appetite evaluation were used. Obesity patients with metabolic syndrome obviously have lower CNAQ score. The 6 items of CNAQ between two groups have significant difference in variation (P < 0.001). The nMetS average was above 28 scores (96%) and the MetS was all in 17-28 scores. The tongue appearance showed that MetS group have white coating different from the nMetS group with white and yellow coating (P < 0.05). However the HRV is not different from nMetS group significantly. Our results try to explore the relationship between the TCM pattern, nutrition appetite, and heart rate variability in metabolic syndrome patients. PMID:27313640

  4. Treating metabolic syndrome's metaflammation with low level light therapy: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Tania M.; Kato, Ilka T.; Deana, Alessandro M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a constellation of morbidities such as insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysglycemia and obesity (especially abdominal). Metabolic alterations are observed in major insulin target organs, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and therefore mortality. Tissue alterations are characterized by immune cells infiltrates (especially activated macrophages). Released inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α induce chronic inflammation in subjects with metabolic syndrome, since inflammatory pathways are activated in the neighboring cells. The intra-abdominal adipose tissue appears to be of particular importance in the onset of the inflammatory state, and strategies contributing to modulate the inflammatory process within this adipose tissue can mitigate the metabolic syndrome consequences. Considering the low level light therapy (LLLT) recognized benefits in inflammatory conditions, we hypothesized this therapeutic approach could promote positive effects in modulating the inflammatory state of metabolic syndrome. That being the scope of this study, male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to a high-fat/high-fructose diet among 8 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome. Animals were then irradiated on the abdominal region during 21 days using an 850 nm LED (6 sessions, 300 seconds per session, 60 mW output power, ~6 J/cm2 fluence, ~19 mW/cm2 fluence rate). Before and during treatment, blood was sampled either from the retroorbital plexus or from tail puncture for glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides analysis. So far our results indicate no alterations on these metabolic parameters after LLLT. For further investigations, blood was collected for plasma inflammatory cytokine quantification and fresh ex vivo samples of liver and intra-abdominal adipose tissue were harvested for immunohistochemistry purposes.

  5. Dietary emulsifiers impact the mouse gut microbiota promoting colitis and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chassaing, Benoit; Koren, Omry; Goodrich, Julia; Poole, Angela; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Ley, Ruth E.; Gewirtz, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large diverse community of microbes collectively referred to as gut microbiota. While gut microbiota provide important benefits to its host, especially in metabolism and immune development, disturbance of the microbiota-host relationship is associated with numerous chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the group of obesity-associated diseases collectively referred to as metabolic syndrome. A primary means by which the intestine is protected from its microbiota is via multilayered mucus structures that cover the intestinal surface thus allowing the vast majority of gut bacteria to be kept at a safe distance from epithelial cells that line the intestine 1. Thus, agents that disrupt mucus-bacterial interactions might have the potential to promote diseases associated with gut inflammation. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that emulsifiers, detergent-like molecules that are a ubiquitous component of processed foods and that can increase bacterial translocation across epithelia in vitro 2, might be promoting the post-mid 20th century increase in IBD 3. Herein, we observed that, in mice, relatively low concentrations of two commonly used emulsifiers, namely carboxymethylcellulose and polysorbate-80, induced low-grade inflammation and obesity/metabolic syndrome in WT hosts and promoted robust colitis in mice predisposed to this disorder. Emulsifier-induced metabolic syndrome was associated with microbiota encroachment, altered species composition, and increased pro-inflammatory potential. Use of germ-free mice and fecal transplants indicated that such changes in microbiota were necessary and sufficient for both low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome. These results support the emerging concept that perturbed host-microbiota interactions resulting in low-grade inflammation can promote adiposity and its associated metabolic effects. Moreover, they suggest that broad use of

  6. Metabolic and mitochondrial morphological changes that mimic Reye syndrome after endotoxin administration to rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, M C; Egler, J M; Yudkoff, M; Chatten, J; Douglas, S D; Polin, R A

    1985-01-01

    The administration of sublethal doses of Escherichia coli O111:B4 endotoxin to starved rats results in significant increases in plasma ammonia, free fatty acids, and serum lactate compared with starved controls. These metabolic alterations are associated with Reye syndrome-like histological findings of hepatic microvesicular fatty accumulation and hepatic ultrastructural evidence of mitochondrial pleomorphism with matrix disruption. This sublethal endotoxin model may help elucidate the relationship between the hepatic mitochondrial injury, characteristic metabolic impairment, and encephalopathy seen in patients with Reye syndrome. Images PMID:3965406

  7. Sleep disorders: A review of the interface between restless legs syndrome and iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Daubian-Nosé, Paulo; Frank, Miriam K.; Esteves, Andrea Maculano

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is characterized by unpleasant sensations mainly in the legs. 43% of RLS-associated conditions have also been associated with systemic iron deficiency. The objective of this study was to review in the literature the relationship between iron metabolism and RLS. With an initial search using the keywords combination “Iron Metabolism OR Iron Deficiency AND Restless Legs Syndrome,” 145 articles were screened, and 20 articles were selected. Few studies were found for this review in the period of 2001–2014, however, the correlation between RLS and iron was evident. PMID:26483934

  8. Plasma Fibrinogen in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and its Relation with Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) and Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, J.V.; Anuradha, T.S.; Talikoti, Prashanth; Nagaraj, R.S.; Vishali, V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome or Syndrome X is characterized by hyperlipidemia, increased blood pressure, abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia, which increases the risk of cardiovascular complications. In addition to these, it is also associated with nontraditional risk factor like C- reactive protein, Plasminogen activator and fibrinogen. Various studies have documented association of these nontraditional risk factor, in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus patients with diabetes mellitus are higher risk of developing micro and macro vascular complications like ischemic heart disease (IHD) and diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of decreased visual acuity, which is associated with maculopathy and profierative complications of it. Chronic hyperglycemia and its associated nonenzymatic glycation play an important role in the development of microangiopathy. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus. To study the plasma fibrinogen and its relationship with IHD and retinopathy in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: Patients of type 2 diabetes Mellitus were recruited based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. History of IHD and ECG evidence of ischemia was obtained. Retinopathy was diagnosed by direct opthalmoscopy. Fasting glucose, lipid profile and plasma fibrinogen were analyzed. Stastical analysis was carried by Chi square test and student‘t’ test. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in study population of 100 type 2 diabetic patients is 58% and is significantly associated with duration of the disease (p<0.001). Fifty eight patients have hyperfibrinogenemia and mean fibrinogen level is significantly high in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome when compared to diabetic patients without metabolic syndrome (p<0.001). Diabetic patient with metabolic syndrome and hyperfibrinogenemia have higher prevalence of IHD and

  9. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Metabolic Syndrome after Liver Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Gitto, Stefano; Villa, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplant is the unique curative therapy for patients with acute liver failure or end-stage liver disease, with or without hepatocellular carcinoma. Increase of body weight, onset of insulin resistance and drug-induced alterations of metabolism are reported in liver transplant recipients. In this context, post-transplant diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and arterial hypertension can be often diagnosed. Multifactorial illnesses occurring in the post-transplant period represent significant causes of morbidity and mortality. This is especially true for metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic steatosis and steatohepatitis are hepatic manifestations of metabolic syndrome and after liver transplant both recurrent and de novo steatosis can be found. Usually, post-transplant steatosis shows an indolent outcome with few cases of fibrosis progression. However, in the post-transplant setting, both metabolic syndrome and steatosis might play a key role in the stratification of morbidity and mortality risk, being commonly associated with cardiovascular disease. The single components of metabolic syndrome can be treated with targeted drugs while lifestyle intervention is the only reasonable therapeutic approach for transplant patients with non-alcoholic steatosis or steatohepatitis. PMID:27049380

  10. Metabolic syndrome - the consequence of lifelong treatment of bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ruzić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja; Petranović, Duska; Graovac, Mirjana; Palijan, Tija Zarković

    2010-06-01

    Mood disturbances are characteristic and dominant feature of Mood disorders. Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD) is a mood disorder which occurs equally in both sexes. BAD may occur in co morbidity with other mental diseases and disorders such as: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Attention Deficit, Panic Disorder and Social Phobia. However, medical disorders (one or more) can also coexist with BAD. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. A 61-year old female patient has been receiving continuous and systematic psychiatric treatment for Bipolar Affective Disorder for the last 39 years. The first episode was a depressive one and it occurred after a child delivery. Seventeen years ago the patient developed diabetes (diabetes type II), and twelve years ago arterial hypertension was diagnosed. High cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as weight gain were objective findings. During the last nine years she has been treated for lower leg ulcer. Since metabolic syndrome includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, increased cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels, the aforesaid patient can be diagnosed with Metabolic Syndrome. When treating Bipolar Affective Disorder, the antipsychotic drug choice should be careful and aware of its side-effects in order to avoid the development or aggravation of metabolic syndrome. PMID:20562789

  11. Herbal Medicines for Treating Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Youme; Sasaki, Yui; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Song, Yun-Kyung; Shin, Yong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in the management of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods. On December 9, 2015, we searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, AMED, CNKI, KoreaMed, KMBASE, OASIS, and J-STAGE with no restriction on language or published year. We selected randomized controlled trials that involved patients with metabolic syndrome being treated with herbal medicines as intervention. The main keywords were “Chinese herbal medicines”, “metabolic syndrome”, and “randomized controlled trials”. Herbal substances which were not based on East Asian medical theory, combination therapy with western medicines, and concurrent diseases other than metabolic syndrome were excluded. The risk of bias was assessed by Cochrane's “Risk of Bias” tool. The protocol or review was registered in PROSPERO (an international prospective register of systematic reviews) (CRD42014006842). Results. From 1,098 articles, 12 RCTs were included in this review: five trials studied herbal medicines versus a placebo or no treatment, and seven trials studied herbal medicines versus western medicines. Herbal medicines were effective on decreasing waist circumference, blood glucose, blood lipids, and blood pressure. Conclusion. This study suggests the possibility that herbal medicines can be complementary and alternative medicines for metabolic syndrome. PMID:27413388

  12. Metabolic Syndrome among Secondary School Teachers: Exploring the Ignored Dimension of School Health Programme

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, Renuka; Kulkarni, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rising trend of obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic abnormalities, pro atherogenic factors are important determinants of both the non-communicable diseases and metabolic syndrome. Employees especially school teachers have chronic stress which predisposes them to metabolic syndrome (MS). Thus, increasing the possibility of premature mortality due to CVD and T2DM and escalating the health care cost is affecting their families. Aim To assess the prevalence and the risk factors influencing metabolic syndrome among secondary school teachers. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study among secondary school teachers of Mysore city. A self administered, pretested and structured questionnaire based on the WHO Steps Approach for NCD evaluation. Data was analysed in SPSS version 20, chi-square test for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variable was applied along with logistic regression analysis to determine the independent predictors of MS. Results The prevalence of MS was 115 (38.3%). It increased from 6 (14.3%) in 21-30 years to 40(56.3%) in > 50 years age group. However, 144(48.0%) had ‘≤ two risk factors, 121(40.3%) had ≥ 3 risk factors and 7(2.3%) had all the five risk factor. Conclusion All components of MS were statistically significant in their association with the metabolic syndrome disease complex. The School health programme can be utilised as an opportunity to screen the teachers and provide primary preventive care. PMID:27190836

  13. Increased Levels of Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) in Plasma of Metabolic Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Najjar, Nahed; Orsó, Evelyn; Wallner, Stefan; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in lipid mass spectrometry enable extensive lipid class and species analysis in metabolic disorders such as diabesity and metabolic syndrome. The minor plasma lipid class sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) was identified as a ligand for lipid sensitive G-protein coupled receptors playing a key role in cell growth, differentiation, motility, calcium signaling, tissue remodeling, vascular diseases and cancer. However, information about its role in diabesity patients is sparse. In this study, we analyzed plasma lipid species in patients at risk for diabesity and the metabolic syndrome and compared them with healthy controls. Our data show that SPC is significantly increased in plasma samples from metabolic syndrome patients but not in plasma from patients at risk for diabesity. Detailed SPC species analysis showed that the observed increase is due to a significant increase in all detected SPC subspecies. Moreover, a strong positive correlation is observed between total SPC and individual SPC species with both body mass index and the acute phase low grade inflammation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163). Collectively, our study provides new information on SPC plasma levels in metabolic syndrome and suggests new avenues for investigation. PMID:26466367

  14. The Establishment of Metabolic Syndrome Model by Induction of Fructose Drinking Water in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thent, Zar Chi; Sapri, Shaiful Ridzwan; Sahruddin, Natasya Nadia; Mohd Yusof, Mohd Rafizul; Haji Suhaimi, Farihah

    2014-01-01

    Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW) in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and hyperglycaemia were determined. Data was presented in mean ± SEM subjected to one-way ANOVA. Results. Male Wistar rats fed with FDW 20% for eight weeks developed significant higher obesity parameters compared to those fed with FDW 25%. There was hypertrophy of adipocytes in F20 and F25. There were also systolic hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia in both groups. Conclusion. We conclude that the metabolic syndrome rat model is best established with the induction of FDW 20% for eight weeks. This was evident in the form of higher obesity parameter which caused the development of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25045660

  15. Increased Levels of Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) in Plasma of Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    El-Najjar, Nahed; Orsó, Evelyn; Wallner, Stefan; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in lipid mass spectrometry enable extensive lipid class and species analysis in metabolic disorders such as diabesity and metabolic syndrome. The minor plasma lipid class sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) was identified as a ligand for lipid sensitive G-protein coupled receptors playing a key role in cell growth, differentiation, motility, calcium signaling, tissue remodeling, vascular diseases and cancer. However, information about its role in diabesity patients is sparse. In this study, we analyzed plasma lipid species in patients at risk for diabesity and the metabolic syndrome and compared them with healthy controls. Our data show that SPC is significantly increased in plasma samples from metabolic syndrome patients but not in plasma from patients at risk for diabesity. Detailed SPC species analysis showed that the observed increase is due to a significant increase in all detected SPC subspecies. Moreover, a strong positive correlation is observed between total SPC and individual SPC species with both body mass index and the acute phase low grade inflammation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163). Collectively, our study provides new information on SPC plasma levels in metabolic syndrome and suggests new avenues for investigation. PMID:26466367

  16. Unraveling the mechanisms responsible for the comorbidity between metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nousen, Elizabeth K.; Franco, Juliana G.; Sullivan, Elinor L.

    2014-01-01

    The increased prevalence and high comorbidity of metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders have prompted investigation into the potential contributing mechanisms. There is a bidirectional association between metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. Medication side effects and social repercussions are contributing environmental factors, but there are a number of shared underlying neurological and physiological mechanisms that explain the high comorbidity between these two disorders. Inflammation is a state shared by both disorders, and it contributes to disruptions of neuroregulatory systems, including the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and neuropeptide Y systems, as well as dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Metabolic syndrome in pregnant women also exposes the developing fetal brain to inflammatory factors that predispose the offspring to metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders. Due to the shared nature of these conditions, treatment should address aspects of both mental health and metabolic disorders. Additionally, interventions need to be developed that can interrupt the transfer of increased risk of the disorders to the next generation. PMID:24080959

  17. Red wine polyphenols modulate fecal microbiota and reduce markers of the metabolic syndrome in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Sánchez-Alcoholado, Lidia; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Cardona, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the possible prebiotic effect of a moderate intake of red wine polyphenols on the modulation of the gut microbiota composition and the improvement in the risk factors for the metabolic syndrome in obese patients. Ten metabolic syndrome patients and ten healthy subjects were included in a randomized, crossover, controlled intervention study. After a washout period, the subjects consumed red wine and de-alcoholized red wine over a 30 day period for each. The dominant bacterial composition did not differ significantly between the study groups after the two red wine intake periods. In the metabolic syndrome patients, red wine polyphenols significantly increased the number of fecal bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus (intestinal barrier protectors) and butyrate-producing bacteria (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia) at the expense of less desirable groups of bacteria such as LPS producers (Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae). The changes in gut microbiota in these patients could be responsible for the improvement in the metabolic syndrome markers. Modulation of the gut microbiota by using red wine could be an effective strategy for managing metabolic diseases associated with obesity. PMID:26599039

  18. Triggering Akkermansia with dietary polyphenols: A new weapon to combat the metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Anhê, Fernando F; Pilon, Geneviève; Roy, Denis; Desjardins, Yves; Levy, Emile; Marette, André

    2016-03-01

    The gut and its bacterial colonizers are now well characterized as key players in whole-body metabolism, opening new avenues of research and generating great expectation for new treatments against obesity and its cardiometabolic complications. As diet is the main environmental factor affecting the gut microbiota, it has been suggested that fruits and vegetables, whose consumption is strongly associated with a healthy lifestyle, may carry phytochemicals that could help maintain intestinal homeostasis and metabolic health. We recently demonstrated that oral administration of a cranberry extract rich in polyphenols prevented diet-induced obesity and several detrimental features of the metabolic syndrome in association with a remarkable increase in the abundance of the mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia in the gut microbiota of mice. This addendum provides an extended discussion in light of recent discoveries suggesting a mechanistic link between polyphenols and Akkermansia, also contemplating how this unique microorganism may be exploited to fight the metabolic syndrome. PMID:26900906

  19. Beneficial Role of Bitter Melon Supplementation in Obesity and Related Complications in Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Subhan, Nusrat; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Jain, Preeti; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are becoming epidemic both in developed and developing countries in recent years. Complementary and alternative medicines have been used since ancient era for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Bitter melon is widely used as vegetables in daily food in Bangladesh and several other countries in Asia. The fruits extract of bitter melon showed strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in experimental condition both in vivo and in vitro. Recent scientific evaluation of this plant extracts also showed potential therapeutic benefit in diabetes and obesity related metabolic dysfunction in experimental animals and clinical studies. These beneficial effects are mediated probably by inducing lipid and fat metabolizing gene expression and increasing the function of AMPK and PPARs, and so forth. This review will thus focus on the recent findings on beneficial effect of Momordica charantia extracts on metabolic syndrome and discuss its potential mechanism of actions. PMID:25650336

  20. Exotic Fruits as Therapeutic Complements for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Devalaraja, Samir; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of obesity, type 2-diabetes, and the resultant metabolic syndrome are rapidly increasing. As successful preventive and therapeutic strategies for these life-threatening health ailments often come with adverse side effects, nutritional elements are widely used in many countries as preventive therapies to prevent or manage metabolic syndrome. Fruits are important dietary components, and contain various bioactive constituents. Many of these constituents have been proven to be useful to manage and treat various chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Although exotic fruits are understudied throughout the world due to their limited regional presence, many studies reveal their potent ability to ameliorate metabolic derangements and the resultant conditions i.e. diabetes and obesity. The aim of this article is to review the role of exotic fruits and their constituents in the regulation of metabolic functions, which can beneficially alter diabetes and obesity pathophysiology. PMID:21857774

  1. Effect of Citrus Flavonoids, Naringin and Naringenin, on Metabolic Syndrome and Their Mechanisms of Action12

    PubMed Central

    Alam, M. Ashraful; Subhan, Nusrat; Rahman, M. Mahbubur; Uddin, Shaikh J.; Reza, Hasan M.; Sarker, Satyajit D.

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are important natural compounds with diverse biologic activities. Citrus flavonoids constitute an important series of flavonoids. Naringin and its aglycone naringenin belong to this series of flavonoids and were found to display strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Several lines of investigation suggest that naringin supplementation is beneficial for the treatment of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. A number of molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial activities have been elucidated. However, their effect on obesity and metabolic disorder remains to be fully established. Moreover, the therapeutic uses of these flavonoids are significantly limited by the lack of adequate clinical evidence. This review aims to explore the biologic activities of these compounds, particularly on lipid metabolism in obesity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in context of metabolic syndrome. PMID:25022990

  2. Beneficial role of bitter melon supplementation in obesity and related complications in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Ashraful; Uddin, Riaz; Subhan, Nusrat; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Jain, Preeti; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are becoming epidemic both in developed and developing countries in recent years. Complementary and alternative medicines have been used since ancient era for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Bitter melon is widely used as vegetables in daily food in Bangladesh and several other countries in Asia. The fruits extract of bitter melon showed strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in experimental condition both in vivo and in vitro. Recent scientific evaluation of this plant extracts also showed potential therapeutic benefit in diabetes and obesity related metabolic dysfunction in experimental animals and clinical studies. These beneficial effects are mediated probably by inducing lipid and fat metabolizing gene expression and increasing the function of AMPK and PPARs, and so forth. This review will thus focus on the recent findings on beneficial effect of Momordica charantia extracts on metabolic syndrome and discuss its potential mechanism of actions. PMID:25650336

  3. Self-Management Training for Chinese Obese Children at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome: Effectiveness and Implications for School Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Jiying; Anderson, Laura M.; Ji, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a school-based self-management intervention for Chinese obese children at risk for metabolic syndrome. Twenty-eight Chinese obese children (M age?=?10 years) and their parents participated in the study. Metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured pre- and post-intervention. The risk factors included Body Mass…

  4. Cinnamon improves insulin sensitivity, prevents mesenteric fat accumulation, and increases glycogen synthesis in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Western countries, over consumption of fat and/or refined carbohydrates are leading causes of insulin resistance, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Some nutritional factors, including many polyphenols, may be beneficial in counteracting insulin resistance associated with the metabolic syndrom...

  5. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Metabolic syndrome indices[Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference] were measured before and after the program. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA were used with the SPSS program for data analysis. There was a significant difference in triglyceride (p < .001), HDL-C (p = .010) and waist circumference (p = .016). Triglyceride and waist circumference was significantly decreased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group and aquatic exercise group. HDL-C was significantly increased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group. The results indicate that combined exercise was more effective in the improvement of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. PMID:25566424

  6. Systematic Review of Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers: A Panel for Early Detection, Management, and Risk Stratification in the West Virginian Population

    PubMed Central

    Srikanthan, Krithika; Feyh, Andrew; Visweshwar, Haresh; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Sodhi, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome represents a cluster of related metabolic abnormalities, including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, with central obesity and insulin resistance in particular recognized as causative factors. These metabolic derangements present significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is commonly recognized as the primary clinical outcome, although other outcomes are possible. Metabolic syndrome is a progressive condition that encompasses a wide array of disorders with specific metabolic abnormalities presenting at different times. These abnormalities can be detected and monitored via serum biomarkers. This review will compile a list of promising biomarkers that are associated with metabolic syndrome and this panel can aid in early detection and management of metabolic syndrome in high risk populations, such as in West Virginia. Methods: A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar to search for markers related to metabolic syndrome. Biomarkers searched included adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), neuropeptides (ghrelin), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10), markers of antioxidant status (OxLDL, PON-1, uric acid), and prothrombic factors (PAI-1). Results: According to the literature, the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), markers of pro-oxidant status (OxLDL, uric acid), and prothrombic factors (PAI-1) were elevated in metabolic syndrome. Additionally, leptin concentrations were found to be elevated in metabolic syndrome as well, likely due to leptin resistance. In contrast, concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10), ghrelin, adiponectin, and antioxidant factors (PON-1) were decreased in metabolic syndrome, and these decreases also correlated with specific disorders within the cluster. Conclusion: Based on the evidence presented within the literature, the

  7. [Microcirculation impairment in periodontal tissues in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis combined with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Krechina, E K; Zorina, O A; Molchanov, A M; Shilov, A M

    2016-01-01

    Using the method of laser Doppler flowmetry the study of microcirculation in periodontal tissues in patients with moderate chronic generalized periodontitis and metabolic syndrome was carried out. The analysis of microcirculation values proved not only the reduction of blood flow intensity but also the decreased vasoactivity of microvessels essential to maintain normal microcirculation in periodontal tissues, as it provides active modulation of tissue blood flow and its adaptation to local metabolic needs. PMID:26925562

  8. Relation of components of the metabolic syndrome to left ventricular geometry in hispanic and non-hispanic black adults

    PubMed Central

    Apridonidze, Teimuraz; Shaqra, Hussein; Ktaich, Nessrine; Liu, Jennifer E; Bella, Jonathan N

    2011-01-01

    Background: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is an independent predictor of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It remains unclear whether components of the metabolic syndrome are associated with LV hypertrophy. Methods and Results: Accordingly, we analyzed echocardiograms in 192 consecutive ambulatory patients referred for echocardiography from October to December 2004. Patients were excluded if they had atrial fibrillation, significant valvular heart disease or failed to cooperate for echocardiogram. Of these, 126 (66%) patients met Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome. 29% had any 3 metabolic syndrome components, 18% had any 4 metabolic syndrome components and 17% had all 5 metabolic syndrome components. In analyses of variance adjusted for age and sex, LV mass and LV mass adjusted to its allometric relation to height2.7 (LV mass/height2.7) were higher in patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome (237 g [228-239 95%CI] vs. 224 g [206-239 95%CI] p=0.005 and 62 g/m2.7 [59-65 95%CI] vs. 56 g/m2.7 [52-60 95%CI] p=0.014, respectively). The prevalence of LV hypertrophy using prognostically-validated gender-specific partition values for LV mass/height2.7 was significantly higher in metabolic syndrome patients than in those without metabolic syndrome (81 v. 58%, p<0.001). There was a step-wise increase in LV mass/height2.7 in those with no metabolic syndrome components to those with increasing number of metabolic syndrome components (Figure, p<0.001). In this study of high-risk patients, the significant independent predictors of LV hypertrophy were only high blood pressure (OR=3.2, p=0.008) and increased waist circumference (OR=2.8, p=0.006) with no interaction between blood pressure and waist circumference. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is associated with higher LV mass and prevalence of LV hypertrophy. Increasing number of metabolic syndrome components is associated with step

  9. Metabolic Syndrome and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Based on the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Mi; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Cha, Boseok; Lee, So-Jin; Seo, Ji-Yeong; Kim, Jaemin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and suicidal ideation in Korean. This study was based on the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A questionnaire was used to measure suicidal ideation and physical examination was performed to measure waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Complex samples logistic regression was performed to estimate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and suicidal ideation among adults and adolescents. Subjects with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have suicidal ideation in adult. There would be essential needs to evaluate suicidal ideation in adult with metabolic syndrome and to follow up suicidal ideation in adolescents with metabolic syndrome. PMID:25110507

  10. Developmental programming of the metabolic syndrome by maternal nutritional imbalance: how strong is the evidence from experimental models in mammals?

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, James A; Khan, Imran Y; Taylor, Paul D; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Poston, Lucilla

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of abnormalities focusing on insulin resistance and associated with high risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, is reaching epidemic proportions. Prevalent in both developed and developing countries, the metabolic syndrome has largely been attributed to altered dietary and lifestyle factors that favour the development of central obesity. However, population-based studies have suggested that predisposition to the metabolic syndrome may be acquired very early in development through inappropriate fetal or neonatal nutrition. Further evidence for developmental programming of the metabolic syndrome has now been suggested by animal studies in which the fetal environment has been manipulated through altered maternal dietary intake or modification of uterine artery blood flow. This review examines these studies and assesses whether the metabolic syndrome can be reliably induced by the interventions made. The validity of the different species, diets, feeding regimes and end-point measures used is also discussed. PMID:15459241

  11. Metabolic product response profiles of Cherax quadricarinatus towards white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weiwei; Ye, Yangfang; Chen, Zhen; Shao, Yina; Xie, Xiaolu; Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Hai-Peng; Li, Chenghua

    2016-08-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most devastating viral pathogens in both shrimp and crayfish farms, which often causes disease outbreak and leads to massive moralities with significant economic losses of aquaculture. However, limited research has been carried out on the intrinsic mechanisms toward WSSV challenge at the metabolic level. To gain comprehensive insight into metabolic responses induced by WSSV, we applied an NMR approach to investigate metabolic changes of crayfish gill and hepatopancreas infected by WSSV for 1, 6 and 12 h. In gill, an enhanced energy metabolism was observed in WSSV-challenged crayfish samples at 1 h, as marked by increased glucose, alanine, methionine, glutamate and uracil. Afterwards, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism as well as osmoregulation were markedly increased at 6 hpi, as shown by elevated glucose, alanine, methionine, fumarate, tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine, phosphorylcholine, betaine and uracil, whereas no obvious metabolites change was detected at 12 hpi. As for hepatopancreas, disturbed lipid metabolism and induced osmotic regulation was found at 6 hpi based on the metabolic biomarkers such as branched chain amino acids, threonine, alanine, methionine, glutamate, glutamine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lactate and lipid. However, no obvious metabolic change was shown in hepatopancreas at both 1 hpi and 12 hpi. Taken together, our present results provided essential metabolic information about host-pathogen interactions in crayfish, which shed new light on our understanding of WSSV infection at metabolic level. PMID:27068762

  12. Caspase-2 promotes obesity, the metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Machado, M V; Michelotti, G A; Jewell, M L; Pereira, T A; Xie, G; Premont, R T; Diehl, A M

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its resulting metabolic disturbances are major health threats. In response to energy surplus, overtaxed adipocytes release fatty acids and pro-inflammatory factors into the circulation, promoting organ fat accumulation (including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease), insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Recently, caspase-2 was linked to lipoapoptosis, so we hypothesized that caspase-2 might be a critical determinant of metabolic syndrome pathogenesis. Caspase-2-deficient and wild-type mice were fed a Western diet (high-fat diet, enriched with saturated fatty acids and 0.2% cholesterol, supplemented with fructose and glucose in the drinking water) for 16 weeks. Metabolic and hepatic outcomes were evaluated. In vitro studies assessed the role of caspase-2 in adipose tissue proliferative properties and susceptibility for lipoapoptosis. Caspase-2-deficient mice fed a Western diet were protected from abdominal fat deposition, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Adipose tissue in caspase-2-deficient mice was more proliferative, upregulated mitochondrial uncoupling proteins consistent with browning, and was resistant to cell hypertrophy and cell death. The liver was protected from steatohepatitis through a decrease in circulating fatty acids and more efficient hepatic fat metabolism, and from fibrosis as a consequence of reduced fibrogenic stimuli from fewer lipotoxic hepatocytes. Caspase-2 deficiency protected mice from diet-induced obesity, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Further studies are necessary to assess caspase-2 as a therapeutic target for those conditions. PMID:26890135

  13. Long working hours and metabolic syndrome among Japanese men: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The link between long working hours and health has been extensively studied for decades. Despite global concern regarding metabolic syndrome, however, no studies to date have solely evaluated the relationship between long working hours and that syndrome. We therefore examined the association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Methods Between May and October 2009, we collected data from annual health checkups and questionnaires from employees at a manufacturing company in Shizuoka, Japan. Questionnaires were returned by 1,601 workers (response rate: 96.2%; 1,314 men, 287 women). After exclusions, including women because of a lack of overtime work, the analysis was performed for 933 men. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for metabolic syndrome. Further, we conducted a stratified analysis by age-group (<40 years vs. ≥40 years). Results Metabolic syndrome was identified in 110 workers (11.8%). We observed a positive association between working hours and metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, occupation, shift work, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and cohabiting status. Compared with subjects who worked 7–8 h/day, multivariate ORs for metabolic syndrome were 1.66 (95% CI, 0.91–3.01), 1.48 (95% CI, 0.75–2.90), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.04–5.16) for those working 8–9 h/day, 9–10 h/day, and >10 h/day, respectively. Similar patterns were obtained when we excluded shift workers from the analysis. In age-stratified analysis, the corresponding ORs among workers aged ≥40 years were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.04–3.90), 1.21 (95% CI, 0.53–2.77), and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.24–7.95). In contrast, no clear association was found among workers aged <40 years. Conclusions The present study suggests that 10 h/day may be a trigger level of working hours for increased risk of metabolic syndrome among Japanese male workers. PMID:22651100

  14. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in scholars from Bucaramanga, Colombia: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Roel, Cristina; Buitrago, Adriana; Rodríguez, Diana C; Cano, Diana J; Martínez, María P; Camacho, Paul A; Ruiz, Álvaro J; Durán, Álvaro E

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, thus the increasing trend in their prevalence among children and adolescents from developing countries requires a further understanding of their epidemiology and determinants. Methods and design A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 6–10 year-old children from Bucaramanga, Colombia. A two-stage random-cluster (neighborhoods, houses) sampling process was performed based on local city maps and local statistics. The study involves a domiciliary survey; including a comprehensive socio-demographic, nutritional and physical activity characterization of the children that participated in the study, followed by a complete clinical examination; including blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile determination, fasting glucose and insulin levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome will be determined using definitions and specific percentile cut-off points for this population. Finally, the association between components of metabolic syndrome and higher degrees of insulin resistance will be analyzed through a multivariable logistic regression model. This study protocol was designed in compliance with the Helsinki declaration and approved by the local ethics board. Consent was obtained from the children and their parents/guardians. Discussion A complete description of the environmental and non-environmental factors underlying the burden of metabolic syndrome in children from a developing country like Colombia will provide policy makers, health care providers and educators from similar settings with an opportunity to guide primary and secondary preventive initiatives at both individual and community levels. Moreover, this description may give an insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating the development of cardio-metabolic diseases early in life. PMID:19383169

  15. PI3K-resistant GSK3 controls adiponectin formation and protects from metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Fajol, Abul; Hoene, Miriam; Zhang, Bingbing; Schleicher, Erwin D; Lin, Yun; Calaminus, Carsten; Pichler, Bernd J; Weigert, Cora; Häring, Hans U; Lang, Florian; Föller, Michael

    2016-05-17

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipidemia. It is the consequence of an imbalance between caloric intake and energy consumption. Adiponectin protects against metabolic syndrome. Insulin-induced signaling includes activation of PI3 kinase and protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt. PKB/Akt in turn inactivates glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3, a major regulator of metabolism. Here, we studied the significance of PI3K-dependent GSK3 inactivation for adiponectin formation in diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Mice expressing PI3K-insensitive GSK3 (gsk3(KI)) and wild-type mice (gsk3(WT)) were fed a high-fat diet. Compared with gsk3(WT) mice, gsk3(KI) mice were protected against the development of metabolic syndrome as evident from a markedly lower weight gain, lower total body and liver fat accumulation, better glucose tolerance, stronger hepatic insulin-dependent PKB/Akt phosphorylation, lower serum insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as higher energy expenditure. Serum adiponectin concentration and the activity of transcription factor C/EBPα controlling the expression of adiponectin in adipose tissue was significantly higher in gsk3(KI) mice than in gsk3(WT) mice. Treatment with GSK3 inhibitor lithium significantly decreased the serum adiponectin concentration of gsk3(KI) mice and abrogated the difference in C/EBPα activity between the genotypes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the expression of PI3K-insensitive GSK3 stimulates the production of adiponectin and protects from diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:27140617

  16. Lifetime History of Major Depression Predicts the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Goldbacher, Edie M.; Bromberger, Joyce; Matthews, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To prospectively examine the association of major depression with incidence of the metabolic syndrome in women. Methods Data were drawn from one of seven sites of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a prospective cohort study of the menopausal transition. Participants were 429 (34.5% African-American) women. Major depression and comorbid diagnoses were assessed via the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Axis I Disorders at baseline and seven annual follow-up evaluations. The metabolic syndrome was measured at baseline and each follow-up evaluation (except the second) based on National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria. Results Longitudinal generalized estimating equations (GEE) models indicated that, in women who were free of the metabolic syndrome at baseline, a lifetime major depression history or current major depressive episode at baseline was significantly associated with the onset and presence of the metabolic syndrome during the follow-up (odds ratio = 1.82; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.06–3.14). Survival analyses showed that, in women who were free of the metabolic syndrome at baseline, a lifetime major depression history or current major depressive episode at baseline predicted increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome during the follow-up (hazard ratio = 1.66; 95% CI = 0.99–3.75). Lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence predicted incident metabolic syndrome and attenuated the association between depression and the metabolic syndrome in both models. Conclusions This study documents that major depression is a significant predictor of the onset of the metabolic syndrome. Intervention studies targeting depression may prevent the development of the metabolic syndrome in women. PMID:19188528

  17. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence and Associations in a Bariatric Surgery Cohort from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Selzer, Faith; Smith, Mark D.; Berk, Paul D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Inabnet, William B.; King, Wendy C.; Pender, John; Pomp, Alfons; Raum, William J.; Schrope, Beth; Steffen, Kristine J.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Patterson, Emma J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, all common conditions in patients referred for bariatric surgery, and it may predict early postoperative complications. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, defined using updated National Cholesterol Education Program criteria, in adults undergoing bariatric surgery and compare the prevalence of baseline co-morbid conditions and select operative and 30-day postoperative outcomes by metabolic syndrome status. Methods: Complete metabolic syndrome data were available for 2275 of 2458 participants enrolled in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2), an observational cohort study designed to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in obese adults. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 79.9%. Compared to those without metabolic syndrome, those with metabolic syndrome were significantly more likely to be men, to have a higher prevalence of diabetes and prior cardiac events, to have enlarged livers and higher median levels of liver enzymes, a history of sleep apnea, and a longer length of stay after surgery following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and gastric sleeves but not open RYGB or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Metabolic syndrome status was not significantly related to duration of surgery or rates of composite end points of intraoperative events and 30-day major adverse surgical outcomes. Conclusions: Nearly four in five participants undergoing bariatric surgery presented with metabolic syndrome. Establishing a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in bariatric surgery patients may identify a high-risk patient profile, but does not in itself confer a higher risk for short-term adverse postsurgery outcomes. PMID:24380645

  18. Primary caregivers' awareness and perception of early-onset dementia conditions in adolescents and young and middle-aged adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Wen-Xiu; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Fu-Gong; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Wu, Jia-Ling; Chu, Cordia; Chou, Yu-Ching

    2014-09-01

    The present study aims to investigate the onset of dementia conditions using the Dementia Screening Questionnaire for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (DSQIID) scale and to identify the possible factors associated with DSQIID scores in people with Down syndrome (DS). The study population was recruited from the voluntary registry members of the Republic of China Foundation for Persons with Down syndrome; primary caregivers provided DSQIID information on 196 adolescents and adults with DS (aged 15-48 years) who were entered into the database and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 software. The results described the distribution of early-onset dementia conditions in 53 adolescents and adults with DS, and 2.6% of the subjects with DS had possible dementia (DSQIID score ≧ 20). Univariate analyses found that older age (p=0.001) and comorbid conditions (p=0.003) were significantly associated with DSQIID scores. Older subjects were more likely to have higher DSQIID scores than were younger age groups after ANOVA and Scheffe's tests. Lastly, a multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (p<0.01), severe disability level (p<0.05) and comorbid condition (p<0.01) significantly explained 13% of the variation in DSQIID scores after adjusting for the factors of gender, education level and multiple disabilities in adolescents and adults with DS. The study highlights that future research should focus on the occurrence of dementia in people with DS and on identifying its influencing factors based on sound measurements, to initiate appropriate healthy aging policies for this group of people. PMID:24858786

  19. Visceral adiposity as a target for the management of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Ken; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2012-05-01

    Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), develops due not only to a single cardiovascular risk factor but to a variety of complex factors. The concept of the multiple cardiometabolic risk factor clustering syndrome has been proposed as a highly atherogenic state, independent of hypercholesterolemia and smoking. Body fat distribution, especially visceral fat accumulation, is a major correlate of a cluster of diabetogenic, atherogenic, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory metabolic abnormalities referred to as the metabolic syndrome, with dysfunctional adipocytes and dysregulated production of adipocytokines (hypoadiponectinemia). Medical research has focused on visceral adiposity as an important component of the syndrome in Japanese subjects with a mild degree of adiposity compared with Western subjects. For the prevention of ACVD at least in Japan, it might be practical to stratify subjects with multiple risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease based on visceral fat accumulation. Visceral fat reduction through health promotion programs using risk factor-oriented approaches may be effective in reducing ACVD events, as well as producing improvement in risks and hypoadiponectinemia. This review article discusses visceral adiposity as a key player in the syndrome. Visceral fat reduction with life-style modification is a potentially useful strategy in the prevention of ACVD in patients with the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21612331

  20. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Pei, Dee; Lue, Ko-Huang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and followed for a median of 7.2 years. Using cutoff points of uric acid for males and females (7.3 and 6.2 mg/dl, respectively), a high level of uric acid was either the second or third best predictor for hypertension in both genders (hazard ratio: 2.920 for males, 5.222 for females; p<0.05). However, uric acid levels failed to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, and only predicted metabolic syndrome in males (hazard ratio: 1.658; p<0.05). The same results were found in multivariate adjusted analysis. In conclusion, a high level of uric acid indicated a higher likelihood of developing hypertension in both genders and metabolic syndrome in males after 10 years of follow-up. However, uric acid levels did not affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both genders. PMID:26618358

  1. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Adults 20 Years of Age and Over

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2003–2006 by R. Bethene Ervin, Ph.D., R.D., Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys Abstract Introduction Objective —The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of individual risk factors for metabolic syndrome as well as the ...

  2. Effect of Low Glycemic Index Diet Versus Metformin on Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Shirin; Mazloom, Zohreh; Zamani, Ali; Tabatabaee, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) continues to be highly prevalent and contributes to a rapidly growing problem worldwide. The most important therapeutic intervention for metabolic syndrome is diet modification, an intervention whose efficacy has been proven for metabolic syndrome. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of low glycemic index diet versus metformin on MetS components in adults with MetS. Patients and Methods: Fifty-one adults with MetS participated in this randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups of metformin and low glycemic index diet. The intervention period was eight weeks. The studied participants were compared at baseline and the end of the trial, regarding the following factors: weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c and lipid profiles (Triglyceride (TG), Total Cholesterol (TC), Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol). Results: The anthropometric measurements, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Hemoglobin A1c, serum lipid profiles (TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C) and lipoprotein ratio (LDL/HDL) showed a significant decrease after the intervention in both groups (P < 0.05). Comparison of the difference between the two groups was not significant, except for the mean reduction in FBS, which was more in the metformin group although this was not clinically significant. Conclusions: This study supports the assumption that low glycemic index diet as well as metformin can positively affect metabolic syndrome components. PMID:26587028

  3. Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhaswant, Maharshi; Poudyal, Hemant; Mathai, Michael L; Ward, Leigh C; Mouatt, Peter; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-09-01

    Both black (B) and green (G) cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C) or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H) for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular remodelling and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 3% dried B or G for the final eight weeks only. The major volatile components were the closely related terpenes, 1,8-cineole in B and α-terpinyl acetate in G. HB (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + black cardamom) rats showed marked reversal of diet-induced changes, with decreased visceral adiposity, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and structure and function of the heart and liver. In contrast, HG (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + green cardamom) rats increased visceral adiposity and total body fat mass, and increased heart and liver damage, without consistent improvement in the signs of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that black cardamom is more effective in reversing the signs of metabolic syndrome than green cardamom. PMID:26378573

  4. Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, and Related Risk Factors among College Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Jesse S.; Lofgren, Ingrid E.; Burke, Joanne D.; Reilly, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome (MbS) and its criteria, and nutrient intakes of college-age men and women via a large-scale screening. Participants and Methods: From August 2005 to July 2008, 2,722 subjects were recruited for the ongoing, cross-sectional…

  5. Magnesium and metabolic syndrome: The role of magnesium in health and disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of conditions associated with elevated risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Magnesium, the fourth most abundant cation in the human body and required in over 300 enzymatic reactions, has been shown in experimental, observational, and clinical studies to ...

  6. Inflammatory Cytokine Profile Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Molina-Ayala, Mario; Ramírez-Rentería, Claudia; Vargas, Guadalupe; Gonzalez, Baldomero; Isibasi, Armando; Archundia-Riveros, Irma; Mendoza, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the serum concentration of IL-6, IL-10, TNF, IL-8, resistin, and adiponectin in type 1 diabetic patients with and without metabolic syndrome and to determine the cut-off point of the estimated glucose disposal rate that accurately differentiated these groups. Design. We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of all patients in our type 1 diabetes clinic from January 2012 to January 2013. Patients were considered to have metabolic syndrome when they fulfilled the joint statement criteria and were evaluated for clinical, biochemical, and immunological features. Methods. We determined serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF with flow cytometry and adiponectin and resistin concentrations with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in patients with and without metabolic syndrome. We also compared estimated glucose disposal rate between groups. Results. We tested 140 patients. Forty-four percent fulfilled the metabolic syndrome criteria (n = 61), 54% had central obesity, 30% had hypertriglyceridemia, 29% had hypoalphalipoproteinemia, and 19% had hypertension. We observed that resistin concentrations were higher in patients with MS. Conclusion. We found a high prevalence of MS in Mexican patients with T1D. The increased level of resistin may be related to the increased fat mass and could be involved in the development of insulin resistance. PMID:26273680

  7. Brain Size and Cerebral Glucose Metabolic Rate in Nonspecific Retardation and Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haier, Richard J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Brain size and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were determined for 10 individuals with mild mental retardation (MR), 7 individuals with Down syndrome (DS), and 10 matched controls. MR and DS groups both had brain volumes of about 80% compared to controls, with variance greatest within the MR group. (SLD)

  8. Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bhaswant, Maharshi; Poudyal, Hemant; Mathai, Michael L.; Ward, Leigh C.; Mouatt, Peter; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Both black (B) and green (G) cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C) or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H) for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular remodelling and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 3% dried B or G for the final eight weeks only. The major volatile components were the closely related terpenes, 1,8-cineole in B and α-terpinyl acetate in G. HB (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + black cardamom) rats showed marked reversal of diet-induced changes, with decreased visceral adiposity, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and structure and function of the heart and liver. In contrast, HG (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + green cardamom) rats increased visceral adiposity and total body fat mass, and increased heart and liver damage, without consistent improvement in the signs of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that black cardamom is more effective in reversing the signs of metabolic syndrome than green cardamom. PMID:26378573

  9. Serum Ferritin Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Red Meat Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Felipe, Avila; Guadalupe, Echeverría; Druso, Pérez; Carlos, Martinez; Pablo, Strobel; Oscar, Castillo; Luis, Villaroel; Diego, Mezzano; Jaime, Rozowski; Inés, Urquiaga; Federico, Leighton

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. Hyperferritinemia has been related with a wide spectrum of pathologies, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperferritinemia and iron consumption. Methods and Results. Serum ferritin concentration was evaluated in 66 presumed healthy men, along with other clinical and biochemical markers of chronic diseases. A three-day food questionnaire was applied for nutrition information. Hyperferritinemia was a condition found in 13.4% of the volunteers analyzed. Significant correlations were found between serum ferritin concentration and metabolic syndrome parameters (HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose) as well as an increase of the serum ferritin mean value with the number of risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Also, oxidative stress markers (carbonyl groups, AOPP, and glycated hemoglobin), hepatic damage markers (GGT, SGOT), and parameters related to insulin resistance (HOMA, blood insulin, and blood glucose) correlate significantly with serum ferritin. Volunteers had an excessive iron intake, principally by bread consumption. Analyses of food intake showed that red meat consumption correlates significantly with serum ferritin. Conclusion. Red meat consumption, metabolic syndrome, and chronic disease markers are associated with hyperferritinemia in a population of Chilean men. PMID:26451235

  10. CLOCK genetic variation and metabolic syndrome risk: modulation by monounsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Disruption of the circadian system may be causal for manifestations of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Objective: To study the associations of five CLOCK polymorphisms with MetS features considering fatty acid (FA) composition, from dietary and red-blood-cells (RBC) membrane sources. Design: ...

  11. Red blood cell fatty acid composition and the metabolic syndrome: NHLBI GOLDN study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different fatty acids may vary in their effect on the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We tested whether fatty acid classes measured in red blood cells (RBC) are associated with the MetS or its components. Included were men (n=497, 49+/-16 y) and women (n=539, 48+/-16 y) from 187 families in the Genetics ...

  12. Tlr2 is critical for diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a murine model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities, termed metabolic syndrome, are increasingly prevalent, and they pose a serious threat to the health of individuals and populations. Gene-environment interactions have been scrutinized since the kinetics of the increased prevalence of obesity would argue agai...

  13. Dietary quality improvement after