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Sample records for carie dental induzida

  1. Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ralph C.

    1988-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases afflicting mankind. It reached a peak in the 1950s but has been declining drastically in recent years in children and young adults. This article describes the three contributing factors in dental caries: microbial plaque, tooth susceptibility, and diet, and discusses practical preventive measures which help to reduce caries incidence. Some of these, such as vaccines and antimicrobial varnishes, are still in the research stages, while others, such as sucrose substitutes, low-calorie sweeteners, and limitation of frequency of sugar snacks are well established and can be promoted by family physicians. PMID:21253193

  2. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find Data by Topic > Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Main Content Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic ... important source of information on oral health and dental care in the United States since the early ...

  3. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries.

  4. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly. PMID:25802916

  5. Mouthrinses and dental caries.

    PubMed

    2002-10-01

    Mouthrinsing for the prevention of dental caries in children and adolescents was established as a mass prophylactic method in the 1960s and has shown average efficacy of caries reduction between 20-50%. Commonly, weekly or twice monthly rinsing procedures using neutral 0.2% NaF solutions have been used in schools or institutions in areas with low fluoride concentrations in the drinking water. Today, when dental caries has declined substantially in the western countries, and relatively few individuals are suffering from caries, the efficiency of large scale mouthrinsing is questioned and more individual approaches of caries prevention strategies are needed. For this reason individual caries risk assessments are necessary, utilising diagnostic tools with the aim of explaining the main causes of the caries disease. Therefore in high risk patients, daily mouthrinses using 0.05% NaF can be recommended combined with other selective preventive measures such as sugar restriction, improved oral hygiene, antibacterial treatments, and so forth. Mouthrinsing solutions have therefore been combined with antiplaque agents like chlorhexidine and other agents which can improve the caries preventive effect not only in high caries risk patients, including those with dry mouth problems and root caries. Other agents than sodium fluoride have been used, such as stannous and amine fluoride with proven clinical effects. However, although a series of new formulas of mouthrinses containing fluoride combined with different antiplaque agents have shown promising antibacterial and antiplaque efficacy, their long-term clinical effects are sparsely documented. Acute and chronic side effects from established and recommended mouthrinsing routines are extremely rare but ethanol containing products should not be recommended to children for long-term use or to individuals with alcohol problems. Patients with dry mouth problems should avoid mouthrinses containing high concentration of detergent

  6. Glucosyltransferase inactivation reduces dental caries.

    PubMed

    Devulapalle, K S; Mooser, G

    2001-02-01

    Dental caries has been an intractable disease in spite of intense dental research. The metabolic acids produced by mutans streptococci demineralize the tooth surface and lead to dental caries. The enzyme glucosyltransferase (GTF) produced by mutans streptococci is the key factor in this process. Oral bacterial GTFs use sucrose as a substrate in synthesis of either water-soluble or insoluble glucans. In this investigation, kinetic studies with divalent metal ions revealed their strong binding affinity to GTF. The metal ions also proved to be strong inhibitors of the enzyme. Here we describe a simple method of inactivating the enzyme that actively participates in dental caries by taking advantage of a Fenton reaction which requires metal ions such as iron or copper and peroxide. The hydroxyl radical ions produced via the Fenton reaction inactivate GTF, a factor in the production of dental caries. PMID:11332534

  7. Nutrition and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Connie C

    2003-04-01

    Promotion of sound dietary practices is an essential component of caries management, along with fluoride exposure and oral hygiene practices. Scientific discoveries have lead to better understanding of the caries process, the ever-expanding food supply, and the interaction between the two. Fermentable carbohydrates interact dynamically with oral bacteria and saliva, and these foods will continue to be a major part of a healthful diet. Dental health professionals can serve their patients and the public by providing comprehensive oral health care and by promoting lifestyle behaviors to improve oral and general health within the time constraints of their practice. Dietary advice given should not contradict general health principles when providing practical guidance to reduce caries risk. The following principles should guide messages: * Encourage balanced diets based on moderation and variety as depicted by the Food Guide Pyramid and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to provide a sound approach. Avoid references to "bad" foods and focus on "good" diets that include a variety of foods. * Give examples of how combining and sequencing foods can enhance mastication, saliva production, and oral clearance at each eating occasion. Combining dairy foods with sugary foods, raw foods with cooked, and protein-rich foods with acidogenic foods are all good examples. Suggest that eating and drinking be followed by cariostatic foods such as xylitol chewing gum. * Drink water to satisfy thirst and hydration needs as often as possible. Restrict consumption of sweetened beverages to meal and snack times when they can be combined with other cariostatic foods. * When a patient reports excessive dietary intake of a fermentable carbohydrate to the point of displacing other important foods in the diet, identify alternatives that will help the patient maintain or achieve a healthy body weight, oral health status, and a nutrient-dense intake. PMID:12699234

  8. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. PMID:26662487

  9. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility. PMID:7844299

  10. Is dental caries neglect?

    PubMed

    Stevens, C L

    2014-11-01

    The recent and widespread media interest highlighting the concerning number of children with poor oral health has, at last, put paediatric dentistry well and truly under the spotlight. Whether on the front page of the Sunday Times (http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/uk_news/Health/Sugar/article1433860.ece), on GDPUK forums or live Twitter feeds as ITV's The Dentists was broadcast, the whole nation has suddenly awoken to the realisation that tens of thousands of children are undergoing multiple dental extractions under general anaesthesia in the UK every year. This is of course, not a new phenomenon, so why the sudden interest? PMID:25377816

  11. On the initial propagation of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Fabregas, Rene; Rubinstein, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    A multi-dimensional model for dental caries is applied to study the shape of caries lesions in a realistic tooth geometry and to examine the rate of progress of caries. An upgraded model, taking into account the outer prismless enamel layer, is derived and solved. The model demonstrates the importance of this layer in delaying the onset of caries. The conclusions are discussed in light of experimental results. PMID:25232054

  12. On the initial propagation of dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Fabregas, Rene; Rubinstein, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A multi-dimensional model for dental caries is applied to study the shape of caries lesions in a realistic tooth geometry and to examine the rate of progress of caries. An upgraded model, taking into account the outer prismless enamel layer, is derived and solved. The model demonstrates the importance of this layer in delaying the onset of caries. The conclusions are discussed in light of experimental results. PMID:25232054

  13. Dental Caries Vaccine – A Possible Option?

    PubMed Central

    KT, Shanmugam; KMK, Masthan; N, Balachander; Jimson, Sudha; R, Sarangarajan

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an irreversible microbial disease of the calcified tissues of the teeth and it has a multifactorial origin. In India, the dental caries prevalence in 35-44 year olds was reported to be 80-95% in a DCI survey. Among the elderly in the 65-74 years age group, the DCI survey reported the caries prevalence to be about 70%, while the present survey reported it to be 51- 95% in various states. Surveys which were done on school children in India showed a carie prevalence of approximately 58%.Among the U.S. population, a survey showed an incidence of 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries and an incidence of 45.3% in children 23. In countries like Brazil and China, it is reaching epidemic proportions. Thus, more effective public-health measures are needed to combat dental caries. Mutans streptococci is one of the main microorganisms which are associated with the aetiology of dental caries. Preclinical studies of immunological interventions have shown that the disease can be interrupted. Clinical trials have indicated that a mucosal immune response to Streptococcus mutans crucial antigens can influence the pathogenesis of dental caries. The dental caries vaccine, when it is used in appropriate individuals at the appropriate time, can reduce the reemergence of the disease. PMID:23905153

  14. Sealants and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Jean A.; Modesto, Adriana; Oakley, Marnie; Polk, Deborah E.; Valappil, Benita; Spallek, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Background The authors conducted a qualitative study of private-practice dentists in their offices by using vignette-based interviews to assess barriers to the use of evidence-based clinical recommendations in the treatment of noncavitated carious lesions. Methods The authors recruited 22 dentists as a convenience sample and presented them with two patient vignettes involving noncavitated carious lesions. Interviewers asked participants to articulate their thought processes as they described treatment recommendations. Participants compared their treatment plans with the American Dental Association’s recommendations for sealing noncavitated carious lesions, and they described barriers to implementing these recommendations in their practices. The authors recorded and transcribed the sessions for accuracy and themes. Results Personal clinical experience emerged as the determining factor in dentists’ treatment decisions regarding noncavitated carious lesions. Additional factors were lack of reimbursement and mistrust of the recommendations. The authors found that knowledge of the recommendations did not lead to their adoption when the recommendation was incongruent with the dentist’s personal experience. Conclusions The authors found that ingrained practice behavior based on personal clinical experience that differed substantially from evidence-based recommendations resulted in a rejection of these recommendations. Practical Implications Attempts to improve the adoption of evidence-based practice must involve more than simple dissemination of information to achieve a balance between personal clinical experience and scientific evidence. PMID:23543700

  15. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  16. Approaches to Arresting Dental Caries: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Manjunath P.; K.R., Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases across the globe that can be both treated and prevented. Preventive management strategies can effectively arrest and even completely reverse the caries process. This article aimed to review the literature on different approaches explored towards arresting caries progression. Materials and Methods Literature search of publications in Pubmed/Medline was carried out. Total 73 articles including clinical trials, invitro studies, case reports and review articles were reviewed. Results Twenty-two clinical trials and invitro studies were selected for review. Most studies suggested use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) as simple and effective caries arresting approach. Fluoride varnish treatment effectively arrests caries by inhibiting demineralization, resulting in highly significant caries reductions. Arginine with an insoluble calcium compound enhances arresting and reversing buccal, coronal and root caries. A few clinical studies have shown that sealants placed in caries fissures can arrest the caries process. Conclusion Various fluoride containing agents are clinically effective in arresting progression of carious lesion. However, these materials should be used appropriately understanding their scope and limitations to arrest dental caries. PMID:26155592

  17. Inhibition of Experimental Dental Caries by Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Robert J.

    1972-01-01

    A variety of antibiotic and chemotherapeutic agents were tested for their ability to inhibit the development of dental caries in Sprague-Dawley rats receiving the drugs in a coarse-particle sucrose-containing diet. Drugs which inhibit gram-positive microorganisms were effective inhibitors of caries, whereas agents which are active solely against gram-negative bacteria did not inhibit caries development. In vivo efficacy of the agents tested generally, but not invariably, paralleled in vitro inhibition of the growth of Streptococcus mutans strain FA-1, an organism which was isolated from carious Sprague-Dawley rats and which is known to induce caries in gnotobiotic Sprague-Dawley rats. Caries was significantly inhibited when 1-ephenamine penicillin (20 units/mg) was administered intermittently in the diet, 1 day per week or 1 week of every 4 weeks, but protection against caries was greatest when the same amount of the drug was fed continuously. PMID:4670694

  18. Dental caries and pulpal disease.

    PubMed

    Zero, Domenick T; Zandona, Andrea Ferreira; Vail, Mychel Macapagal; Spolnik, Kenneth J

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the diagnostic process, from the first clinically evident stages of the caries process to development of pulpal pathosis. The caries diagnostic process includes 4 interconnected components-staging caries lesion severity, assessing caries lesion activity, and risk assessments at the patient and tooth surface level - which modify treatment decisions for the patient. Pulpal pathosis is diagnosed as reversible pulpitis, irreversible pulpitis (asymptomatic), irreversible pulpitis (symptomatic), and pulp necrosis. Periapical disease is diagnosed as symptomatic apical periodontitis, asymptomatic apical periodontitis, acute apical abscess, and chronic apical abscess. Ultimately, the goal of any diagnosis should be to achieve better treatment decisions and health outcomes for the patient. PMID:21094717

  19. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  20. The oral microbiome in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Struzycka, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic and multifactorial diseases affecting the human population. The appearance of a caries lesion is determined by the coexistence of three main factors: acidogenic and acidophilic microorganisms, carbohydrates derived from the diet, and host factors. Socio-economic and behavioral factors also play an important role in the etiology of the disease. Caries develops as a result of an ecological imbalance in the stable oral microbiom. Oral microorganisms form dental plaque on the surfaces of teeth, which is the cause of the caries process, and shows features of the classic biofilm. Biofilm formation appears to be influenced by large scale changes in protein expression over time and under genetic control Cariogenic microorganisms produce lactic, formic, acetic and propionic acids, which are a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Their presence causes a decrease in pH level below 5.5, resulting in demineralization of enamel hydroxyapatite crystals and proteolytic breakdown of the structure of tooth hard tissues. Streptococcus mutans, other streptococci of the so-called non-mutans streptococci group, Actinomyces and Lactobacillus play a key role in this process. Dental biofilm is a dynamic, constantly active metabolically structure. The alternating processes of decrease and increase of biofilm pH occur, which are followed by the respective processes of de- and remineralisation of the tooth surface. In healthy conditions, these processes are in balance and no permanent damage to the tooth enamel surface occurs. PMID:25115106

  1. Solving the etiology of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Simón-Soro, Aurea; Mira, Alex

    2015-02-01

    For decades, the sugar-fermenting, acidogenic species Streptococcus mutans has been considered the main causative agent of dental caries and most diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have been targeted toward this microorganism. However, recent DNA- and RNA-based studies from carious lesions have uncovered an extraordinarily diverse ecosystem where S. mutans accounts only a tiny fraction of the bacterial community. This supports the concept that consortia formed by multiple microorganisms act collectively, probably synergistically, to initiate and expand the cavity. Thus, antimicrobial therapies are not expected to be effective in the treatment of caries and other polymicrobial diseases that do not follow classical Koch's postulates. PMID:25435135

  2. Vitamin D and Dental Caries in Children.

    PubMed

    Schroth, R J; Rabbani, R; Loewen, G; Moffatt, M E

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and dental caries in Canadian school-aged children participating in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). The CHMS was a national cross-sectional study involving physical assessments, laboratory analysis, and interviews. Analysis was restricted to data for 1,017 children 6 to 11 y of age. Outcome variables included the presence of caries and overall total caries score (dmft/DMFT index). Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured from serum samples obtained from participants. Bivariate analysis, logistic regression for the presence of caries, and multiple linear regression for total caries scores were used. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Overall, 56.4% of children experienced caries, and the mean dmft/DMFT score was 2.47 (95% CI 2.09 to 2.84). The unadjusted odds of children with 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/L having experienced caries was 0.57 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.82), while the odds for caries at the ≥50 nmol/L level was 0.56 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.89). After controlling for other covariates, backward logistic regression revealed that the presence of caries was significantly associated with 25(OH) levels <75 nmol/L and <50 nmol/L, lower household education, not brushing twice daily, and yearly visits to the dentist. Similarly, multiple linear regression revealed that total dmft/DMFT caries scores were also associated with 25(OH)D concentrations <75 nmol/L, not brushing twice daily, lower household education, and yearly visits to the dentist. Data from a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of Canadian children suggest that there is an association between caries and lower serum vitamin D. Improving children's vitamin D status may be an additional preventive consideration to lower the risk for caries. PMID:26553883

  3. [Dental caries of the developmental age as a civilization disease].

    PubMed

    Wójcicka, Anna; Zalewska, Magdalena; Czerech, Ewa; Jabłoński, Robert; Grabowska, Stanisława Zyta; Maciorkowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), dental caries is a local pathological process of the extrasomatic background, leading to enamel decalcification, decomposition of dental hard tissue, and in consequence to formation of a dental cavity. Morbidity of dental caries increases with age, reaching 100% of children, aged from 6 to 7. Poland is one of few European countries where the incidence of dental caries in children did not decrease, despite recommendations of WHO for 2000 year, aimed at the decrease in the incidence of dental caries among 6-year-old children to the level of 50%. The recommendation of WHO for 2015 year is to reduce the incidence of dental caries to 30% among 6-year-olds, i.e., 70% of 6 year-old children should be free of dental caries. Apart from genetic conditioning, inappropriate health behaviors, nutritional habits and gastroesophageal reflux disease influence the development of dental caries. Consumption of 'fast food' and drinking sweetened beverages of low pH contribute markedly to the development of dental caries, decreasing simultaneously consumption of pro healthy foods, including milk and cereals. Taking into consideration perspective clinical examinations of children and adolescents, evaluating the relationship between dental caries and nutritional habits as well as environmental conditioning, the study shows current data about factors, contributing to the incidence of dental caries in children, collected from the literature. The attention was paid to the relationship between dental caries and gastroesophageal reflux disease and the necessity of its early diagnostics and proper treatment. PMID:23484402

  4. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  5. Caries prevalence and restorative dental services in some Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Speake, J D

    1980-08-01

    Caries prevalence rates at eight and eleven years of age were estimated according to WHO criteria in six Pacific Island countries and territories during the period 1975 to 1977. The components of the dental caries index (DIMF(T)) on a country or territory basis were examined and the dental care index calculated. Factors influencing the delivery of dental services in the region are discussed. PMID:6934741

  6. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  7. Relation between pulpal neuropeptides and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Kangarlou Haghighi, Ali; Nafarzadeh, Shima; Shantiaee, Yazdan; Naseri, Mandana; Ahangari, Zohreh

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp has neural fibers that produce neuropeptides like Substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The inflammation of dental pulp can lead to an increase amount of SP and CGRP release, especially in symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Therefore, it can be assumed that neuropeptides have some role in the progression of inflammation of the dental pulp. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the presence and concentration of neuropeptides in dental pulps of carious teeth caries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose, pulpal tissues were collected from 40 teeth (20 carious and 20 intact). Pulpal samples were cultured for 72 hours. ELISA reader was used for the detection of SP and CGRP in supernatant fluids. Statistical analysis was made by Mann-Whitney U and Chi square tests. RESULTS: SP and CGRP were present in 65% and 20% of inflamed pulpal samples, respectively and 40% and 5% of normal pulpal samples, respectively. Level of SP was significantly higher in inflamed pulp samples compared to intact pulps; however, there was no statistical difference when the other groups and neuropeptides were compared. The mean concentration of SP in normal pulps was 3.4 times greater than that of CGRP; interestingly in inflamed pulps the concentration of SP was 22.3 times greater than CGRP. CONCLUSION: We can conclude that in inflamed dental pulps, the concentration of SP is higher than CGRP. It can be hypothesized that CGRP has less effect on the inflammatory changes of dental pulps. PMID:24778684

  8. Risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Braúna, Ana Paula Vasques Sales; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2016-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities who were treated at a clinical reference service for patients with special needs in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated 401 dental charts of individuals without dental caries or restorations in their first dental appointment. The dependent variable was the time of occurrence of new dental caries or restorations and was measured in months. Gender, age, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mother´s education, sugar consumption, use of fluoride toothpaste, oral hygiene, mouth breathing, reports of xerostomia, gingival status, use of psychotropic or asthma drugs, and history of asthma were covariates. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the raw and adjusted hazard ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The average time that individuals remained free of dental caries/restoration was equal to 107.46 months (95%CI 95.41 to 119.51), with a median of caries-free children up to 94 months. For each point increase in the scale of sucrose consumption, the increase in caries risk was 1.07 (95%CI 1.01 to 1.15). Sucrose consumption was the only risk factor for dental caries found in this group of individuals with developmental disabilities. PMID:27305514

  9. Dental Caries and Periodontal Status of Mentally Handicapped Institutilized Children

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sarika; Arya, Astha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most prevalent dental disease among mentally retarded children worldwide. Aims and Objectives: A study was carried out in Jodhpur city of Rajasthan state of India to assess the Dental caries and periodontal Status of Mentally handicapped attending special schools children in Jodhpur city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 80 mentally handicapped subjects, attending a Special Needs school in Jodhpur City. Dental caries and Periodontal Status were recorded following the WHO basic oral health survey. Results: None of the subject had healthy periodontal status, dental caries was found in 79.2% of the subjects, Lymphadenopathy was observed in highest number of subjects 55 (76.3%). Conclusion: Health professionals should therefore be aware of the impact of mental illness and its treatment on oral health, Health personnel should receive training to support and provide all possible services to this population. PMID:25177632

  10. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo. PMID:26538821

  11. Periodontal effects and dental caries associated with smokeless tobacco use.

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, J A; Burt, B A

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use has been increasing in the United States with concomitant social, medical, legal, and regulatory ramifications. This paper examines the association between the use of smokeless tobacco and the occurrence of periodontal disease and dental caries. Existing literature consists primarily of case reports and cross-sectional studies among teenagers. The limited evidence suggests an association between smokeless tobacco use and gingival recession. There is insufficient evidence to support any associations between smokeless tobacco use and gingivitis, periodontitis, or dental caries. Methods to improve future epidemiologic research to examine possible associations between smokeless tobacco use and periodontal effects or dental caries are discussed. PMID:3101120

  12. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. PMID:25422590

  13. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    PubMed

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries. PMID:26192983

  14. Management of dental caries as an infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Tinanoff, N; Cantin, R

    1986-01-01

    Dental caries is an infectious disease that demineralizes tooth structure as a consequence of bacterial metabolism. Chemical suppression of bacteria, especially using stannous fluoride, is gaining popularity because of its practicality and clinical efficacy. PMID:3463581

  15. Recall compliance and incidence of dental caries among underserved children.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ulysses; Hui, Brian K; Pourat, Nadereh

    2015-02-01

    Regular dental recall intervals are widely recommended by dentists in the U.S. to prevent caries and improve periodontal health. However, there is some debate on whether or not compliance with six-month or more frequent recall intervals results in reduced incidence of dental caries. This study examines whether compliance with regular recall and receipt of cleanings, exams and patient education reduces rates of new decay in underserved children and finds a positive impact. PMID:25868221

  16. Effects of Early Dental Office Visits on Dental Caries Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rozier, R. Gary; Preisser, John S.; Stearns, Sally C.; Lee, Jessica Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the association between timing of a first dentist office visit before age 5 years and dental disease in kindergarten. Methods. We used North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999–2006) linked to state oral health surveillance data to compare caries experience for kindergarten students (2005–2006) who had a visit before age 60 months (n = 11 394) to derive overall exposure effects from a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. We repeated the analysis separately for children who had preventive and tertiary visits. Results. Children who had a visit at age 37 to 48 and 49 to 60 months had significantly less disease than children with a visit by age 24 months (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81, 0.95; IRR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.69, 0.82, respectively). Disease status did not differ between children who had a tertiary visit by age 24 months and other children. Conclusions. Medicaid-enrolled children in our study followed an urgent care type of utilization, and access to dental care was limited. Children at high risk for dental disease should be given priority for a preventive dental visit before age 3 years. PMID:24134364

  17. Changes in dental fluorosis and dental caries in Newburgh and Kingston, New York.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J V; Swango, P A; Lininger, L L; Leske, G S; Green, E L; Haley, V B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries had changed in a fluoridated community and a nonfluoridated community since an earlier study conducted in 1986. METHODS: Dental fluorosis and dental caries data were collected on 7- to 14-year-old lifelong residents (n = 1493) of Newburgh and Kingston, NY. RESULTS: Estimated dental fluorosis prevalence rates were 19.6% in Newburgh and 11.7% in Kingston. The greatest disparity in caries scores was observed between poor and nonpoor children in nonfluoridated Kingston. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis has not declined in Newburgh and Kingston, whereas the prevalence of dental caries has continued to decline. PMID:9842391

  18. Dental caries pathogenicity: a genomic and metagenomic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Scott N.; Snesrud, Erik; Schork, Nicholas J.; Bretz, Walter A.

    2013-01-01

    In this review we address the subject of dental caries pathogenicity from a genomic and metagenomic perspective. The application of genomic technologies is certain to yield novel insights into the relationship between the bacterial flora, dental health and disease. Three primary attributes of bacterial species are thought to have direct impact on caries development, these include: adherence on tooth surfaces (biofilm formation), acid production and acid tolerance. Attempts to define the specific aetiological agents of dental caries have proven to be elusive, supporting the notion that caries aetiology is perhaps complex and multi-faceted. The recently introduced Human Microbiome Project (HMP) that endeavors to characterise the micro-organisms living in and on the human body is likely to shed new light on these questions and improve our understanding of polymicrobial disease, microbial ecology in the oral cavity and provide new avenues for therapeutic and molecular diagnostics developments. PMID:21726221

  19. Dental caries status of Chinese children in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    McInnes, P M; Vieira, E

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dental health status of a representative sample of Johannesburg Chinese schoolchildren, all 250 attending the only Chinese school in the city. In 18 preschoolchildren, 3--5 years old, 16.7% were caries-free, mean dmft was 7.1 +/- 5.8 and labial caries was present in 33.3%. In 165 primary schoolchildren aged 5--16 years, the mean dmft was 590 +/- 3.2 with 20% of the primary dentition caries-free and the mean DMFT was 2.4 +/- 1.9 4.8% of the primary schoolchildren were caries-free. In 67 high school pupils of 11--17 years, 4.5% were caries-free and the mean DMFT score was 7.1 +/- 3.9. Caries prevalences among the Chinese were similar to corresponding groups of children of Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom and Malaysia. PMID:287589

  20. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mary A.S.; Guedes, Sarah F.F.; Xu, Hockin H.K.; Rodrigues, Lidiany K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been applied to dental materials as an innovative concept for the development of materials with better properties and anticaries potential. In this review we discuss the current progress and future applications of functional nanoparticles incorporated in dental restorative materials as useful strategies to dental caries management. We also overview proposed antimicrobial and remineralizing mechanisms. Nanomaterials have great potential to decrease biofilm accumulation, inhibit the demineralization process, to be used for remineralizing tooth structure, and to combat caries-related bacteria. These results are encouraging and open the doors to future clinical studies that will allow the therapeutic value of nanotechnology-based restorative materials to be established. PMID:23810638

  1. Dental caries and dental registration status in nursery school children in Newry, Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCabe, M; Kinirons, M J

    1995-04-01

    294 children aged 2-4 yr attending nursery schools in Northern Ireland were examined for dental caries and dental registration status under the capitation system in general dental practice. Their mean age was 3 yr 10 months. Sixty eight per cent were caries free, mean dmft was 1.10 and dt, mt and ft scores were 0.74, 0.28 and 0.09, respectively. With increasing age the prevalence of caries increased, though the very low care index (d/dmft) did improve in the older children. Seventy per cent reported being registered for dental care and their levels of dental caries were significantly higher than those who were not yet enrolled (P < 0.001). For those not enrolled for dental care the main perceived barriers to seeking care related to lack of symptoms (33.6%) and apathy (31.6%) while few reported fear as a barrier (4.5%). PMID:7781302

  2. The application of multilevel modelling to dental caries data.

    PubMed

    Burnside, G; Pine, C M; Williamson, P R

    2007-09-30

    Clinical studies of dental caries experience generate multiple outcome data for each participant, with information collected for each individual tooth surface. This paper investigates multilevel modelling as a method of analysis for dental caries data, allowing for full use of the data collected at surface level. Data from a clinical trial of a caries preventive agent in adolescents are modelled. The effect of tooth position within the mouth on the development of dental caries is investigated, with the results showing the importance of differentiating between the upper and lower arches, when modelling the probabilities of caries developing on teeth. Calculation of the intracluster correlation using the threshold model is suggested for use in multilevel logistic regression modelling of caries data. This model, which assumes that a dichotomous outcome is based on an underlying continuous variable with a threshold point where the outcome changes from zero to one, is identified to be appropriate for the analysis of caries which is a continuous process, but is only identified as present in a clinical trial when it has reached a certain level of severity. PMID:17340596

  3. Accuracy of dental radiographs for caries detection.

    PubMed

    Keenan, James R; Keenan, Analia Veitz

    2016-06-01

    0.43 (0.41/0.45) and the specificity was 0.97 (0.95/0.98) and 0.89 (0.88/0.90).With regard to the dentine lesions the sensitivities were 0.36 (0.24-0.49) for proximal to 0.56 (0.53-0.59) for occlusal lesions and specificities ranged between 0.87 (0.85-0.89) and 0.95 (0.94-0.96). No reports were found for cavitated occlusal lesions. For proximal lesions sensitivities were above 0.60 and sensitivities above 0.90. Diagnostic Odds Ratios (DOR) were >1 (indicates a useful test) and were higher in proximal than in occlusal lesions. The DOR calculated for proximal lesions in vitro studies was 16.0 (11.5/22.4) and DOR 7.5 (3.4/16.5) for clinical studies). Heterogeneity calculated using I(2) test was moderate: > 50-67%.ConclusionsCaries detection determined by dental radiographs is highly accurate for proximal lesions and dentine caries lesions. For initial carious lesions the test needs to be used with other more sensitive methods in populations that present with high caries risk. PMID:27339235

  4. Evidence-based prevention, management, and monitoring of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lois Rigmont; Wilkins, Esther M

    2002-01-01

    Dental caries, not unlike periodontal diseases, is now recognized as an infectious, transmissible, multifactorial disease of bacterial origin. Current evidence-based emphasis is on the need to recognize a carious lesion in its earliest stage before demineralization has produced a cavitated lesion that requires restoration by a dentist. As a result of current understanding of caries control, the dental hygienist's role as a prevention specialist is to determine the dental caries risk factors for patients of all ages and to introduce remineralization strategies into the patient's dental hygiene care plan. Conservative strategies of a concentrated program include initial infection control with a chlorhexidine rinse; extra daily fluoride exposures; placement of pit and fissure sealants where indicated; control of sucrose exposures; use of sugar substitutes, particularly xylitol-containing sugar-free chewing gum; and an emphasis on a daily bacterial plaque removal routine. Evidence supports the management and monitoring of dental caries. Caries risk level must be reevaluated at each maintenance appointment. Appropriate in-office strategies to preserve tooth structure should be carried out and followed by applicable home regimens that are based on need, not age. PMID:12592918

  5. Has dental caries prevalence some connection with caries index values in adults?

    PubMed

    Larmas, M

    2010-01-01

    DMF index values have been used for 70 years and were originally meant to describe both dental status and treatment need in elementary school children. Since then its application to caries experience and severity determination has expanded. Today, WHO has standardized its use in oral health surveys in describing past and present caries experience in adults and the elderly as well. This expansion to all age cohorts creates some problems if the index is limited to dental caries, which can be easily avoided when individual values are not combined. This has been performed in some of the 7,187 DMF index publications included in PubMed. The high number of scientific articles using this index underlines its leading role in the present epidemiological caries research. On the other hand, WHO uses different determinations for clinical dental caries and missing teeth in ICD-10, the 10th revision of International Classification of Diseases, which does not include dental restorations. Combining the individual parameters of Oral Health Surveys and diseases of ICD-10, and analyzing the mean value of each parameter separately, will give a precise picture of dental health at different ages. PMID:20130404

  6. Dental caries imaging using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Jian, Lin; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    We report the development of a polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique based on a picosecond (ps) laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator system for label-free imaging of dental caries. In our imaging system, hyperspectral SRS images (512×512 pixels) in both fingerprint region (800-1800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber region (2800-3600 cm-1) are acquired in minutes by scanning the wavelength of OPO output, which is a thousand times faster than conventional confocal micro Raman imaging. SRS spectra variations from normal enamel to caries obtained from the hyperspectral SRS images show the loss of phosphate and carbonate in the carious region. While polarization-resolved SRS images at 959 cm-1 demonstrate that the caries has higher depolarization ratio. Our results demonstrate that the polarization resolved-hyperspectral SRS imaging technique developed allows for rapid identification of the biochemical and structural changes of dental caries.

  7. The Use of Quaternary Ammonium to Combat Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yang; Wang, Suping; Zhou, Xuedong; Wang, Haohao; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Cheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Resin composites and adhesives are increasingly popular in dental restorations, but secondary caries is one of the main reasons for restoration failure. Quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs) have an anti-microbial effect and are widely used in many fields. Since the concept of the immobilized antibacterial effect was put forward, dental restorations containing QAMs have been studied to reduce secondary caries. Previous studies have been struggling to develop novel anti-caries materials which might have triple benefits: good mechanical properties, antibacterial effects and remineralization potentials. Different kinds of QAMs have been proven to be effective in inhibiting the growth and metabolism of biofilms. Combination of QAMs and other nanoparticles in resin composites and adhesives could enhance their anti-caries capability. Therefore, QAMs are promising to show significant impact on the future of restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:26635932

  8. A tissue-dependent hypothesis of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Simón-Soro, A; Belda-Ferre, P; Cabrera-Rubio, R; Alcaraz, L D; Mira, A

    2013-01-01

    Current understanding of dental caries considers this disease a demineralization of the tooth tissues due to the acid produced by sugar-fermenting microorganisms. Thus, caries is considered a diet- and pH-dependent process. We present here the first metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities present at different stages of caries development, with the aim of determining whether the bacterial composition and biochemical profile are specific to the tissue affected. The data show that microbial composition at the initial, enamel-affecting stage of caries is significantly different from that found at subsequent stages, as well as from dental plaque of sound tooth surfaces. Although the relative proportion of Streptococcus mutans increased from 0.12% in dental plaque to 0.72% in enamel caries, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis were the dominant streptococci in these lesions. The functional profile of caries-associated bacterial communities indicates that genes involved in acid stress tolerance and dietary sugar fermentation are overrepresented only at the initial stage (enamel caries), whereas other genes coding for osmotic stress tolerance as well as collagenases and other proteases enabling dentin degradation are significantly overrepresented in dentin cavities. The results support a scenario in which pH and diet are determinants of the disease during the degradation of enamel, but in dentin caries lesions not only acidogenic but also proteolytic bacteria are involved. We propose that caries disease is a process of varying etiology, in which acid-producing bacteria are the vehicle to penetrate enamel and allow dentin degrading microorganisms to expand the cavity. PMID:24080530

  9. Role of saliva proteinase 3 in dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Teng-Yu; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Du, Yue; Wu, Song-Tao; Yuan, Wen-Wen; Yu, Yu; Su, Lin; Luo, Yang; Zhang, Jie-Hua; Lu, Wan-Lu; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Chen, Jiao; Feng, Yun; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Salivary analysis can be used to assess the severity of caries. Of the known salivary proteins, a paucity of information exists concerning the role of proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease of the chymotrypsin family, in dental caries. Whole, unstimulated saliva was collected from children with varying degrees of active caries and tested using a Human Protease Array Kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A significantly decreased concentration of salivary PR3 was noted with increasing severity of dental caries (P<0.01); a positive correlation (r=0.87; P<0.01; Pearson's correlation analysis) was also observed between salivary pH and PR3 concentration. In an antibacterial test, a PR3 concentration of 250 ng·mL−1 or higher significantly inhibited Streptococcus mutans UA159 growth after 12 h of incubation (P<0.05). These studies indicate that PR3 is a salivary factor associated with the severity of dental caries, as suggested by the negative relationship between salivary PR3 concentration and the severity of caries as well as the susceptibility of S. mutans to PR3. PMID:26756046

  10. Frequency of radiographic caries examinations and development of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Lith, A

    2001-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to evaluate whether a change in the threshold for surgical intervention in the caries process can be consistent with a stricter attitude towards the use of radiographic caries diagnosis. Bitewing radiographs of 3 groups of patients were retrospectively studied. Two groups comprised 229 patients, 18 years old at the end of the study in 1984. 102 had lived in an area with 1.2 ppm water-fluoride content (F84-group) and 127 in an area with 0.02 ppm fluoride content (O84-group). In the 3rd group 285 patients, 19 years old at the end of the study in 1993, lived in an area with 1.2 ppm water-fluoride content (F93-group). The latter patients were managed according to a restrictive attitude to surgical intervention and radiographic diagnosis of caries. The prevalence of patients and the frequency of tooth surfaces with caries was significantly lower in the fluoride groups than in the non-fluoride group. The correlation between patients' accumulated number of posterior proximal lesions and fillings at the last examination and the mean interval between their bitewing examinations was weak in all groups. The mean interval between examinations was significantly longer in the F93-group than in the other 2 groups. By applying an algorithm for individualisation of examination intervals these could be prolonged depending on the accepted risk for the development of inner dentin lesions. Future development of proximal dentin lesions was rather well predicted by means of past caries experience as demonstrated by ROC-analysis. The proportion of inner dentin lesions that were operatively treated was significantly higher in patients from the F93-group than in those from the other 2 groups in which a less strict attitude towards operative treatment was used. In the F93-group the average survival time of enamel and outer dentin lesions was 8.0 and 3.4 years, respectively, when right censored data were taken into account. In populations with low caries

  11. Comparative epidemiology of multiple sclerosis and dental caries.

    PubMed Central

    Craelius, W

    1978-01-01

    The geographical distribution and other epidemiological characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) are compared with those of dental caries. The rates of death due to MS in Australian states are linearly related to the numbers of decayed, missing, and filled (DMF) teeth found in individuals from those states (r=0.97, P less than 0.002). In the United States of America, a strong positive correlation (r=0.55, P less than 0.001) also exists between MS death rates and dental caries indices. The prevalence of MS in 45 countries or areas correlates well with the frequencies of DMF teeth among children of school age in those locations (r=0.78, P less than 0.001). The prevalence of MS also correlates well with the percentage of edentulous individuals in certain countries (r=0.99, P less than 0.001). A review of the literature shows that the risk for dental caries is lower among the following groups: the lower socioeconomic classes in the United States of America; Chinese immigrants to England compared with natives; blacks compared with whites; and males compared with females. The dental caries risk is higher during pregnancy and lactation. All these trends have been described for MS as well. It is suggested that dental caries may be a more accurate epidemiological model for MS than poliomyelitis. It is also suggested that MS and dental caries may share certain aetiological factors, two of which may be dietary excess of certain fats, and vitamin D deficiency. PMID:711974

  12. Dental caries - not just holes in teeth! A perspective.

    PubMed

    Bowen, W H

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation in teeth results from a pathogenic process termed dental caries that has occurred on the tooth surface for weeks or even years. Accumulation of dental plaque (biofilm) on the tooth is usually the first manifestation of the disease. Although acid production is the immediate and proximal cause of dissolution of teeth; it is the milieu within which the acid is formed that should be of primary concern. Focusing on the 'critical pH' has detracted attention from the more biological aspects (biofilm formation) of dental caries. Dental caries is unique; it is a biological process occurring on essentially an inert surface. Investigation of the multitude of interactions occurring in plaque ranging from enamel interfaces to surfaces of bacteria and matrices poses challenges worthy of the best scientific minds. The mouth clearly offers unique opportunities to investigate the multi facets of biofilm formation in vivo, generating data that have relevance way beyond the mouth. Prevention of this ubiquitous disease, dental caries, continues to present serious challenges. The public health benefits of fluoride delivered in its various formats are well recognized. Nevertheless, additional preventive approaches are required. Overcoming the rapid clearance of agents from the mouth is particularly challenging. Building on the polymerizing capacity of glucosyltransferases it may be possible to incorporate a therapeutic agent into the matrix plaque, thereby delivering therapeutic agents precisely to where they are needed. PMID:26343264

  13. Challenges of Iranian Adolescents for Preventing Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Arezoo; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Malekafzali, Beheshteh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral health plays a vital role in people’s general health and well-being. With regard to the costly treatments of oral diseases, preventive programs need to be designed for dental caries based on children’s perspectives. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe and explore challenges for caring dental health based on children’s perspectives. Patients and Methods: A qualitative design with content analysis approach was applied to collect and analyze the perspectives of students about factors influencing oral and dental care. Eighteen Iranian students in 8 guidance schools were chosen through the purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were held for data gathering. In order to support the validity and rigor of the data, different criteria such as acceptability, confirmability, and transferability were utilized. Results: During data analysis, four main themes developed: “barriers to dental health,” “maintaining dental health,” “uncertainty in decision-making” and “supportive factors”. “Uncertainty in decision-making” and “barriers to dental health” were the main challenges for preventing dental caries among adolescents. Conclusions: “Certainty in decision-making” to maintain dental health depends on overcoming the barriers of dental health. Further research is needed to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:25593720

  14. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry. PMID:24917276

  15. Treating dental caries as an infectious disease. Applying the medical model in practice to prevent dental caries.

    PubMed

    Limeback, H

    1996-01-01

    The above diagnostic and treatment principles may be self evident to most dental practitioners. To many, however, this treatment philosophy is a new one. Continuing dental education and quality assurance programs will play a significant role in helping dentists make the philosophical shift from a highly technical restorative approach to one that uses the medical model and treats dental caries as an infectious disease. While a total cure in humans suffering from dental disease may never be attainable, dental practitioners should soon be better able to direct more of their attention to the patients who already demonstrate a high incidence of dental decay and to those who are clearly at risk to develop future dental decay. PMID:9470624

  16. The Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Dental Caries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, M. Lisa

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the development of tooth decay and the diet includes a multitude of variables other than sugar. However, the frequency with which food is consumed and its consistency or stickiness may be primary contributors to the development of dental caries. (JN)

  17. Gene-environment Interactions in the Etiology of Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, G; Ermis, R B; Calapoglu, N S; Celik, E U; Türel, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in adults. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal mucosa, and adults aged 20 to 60 y were placed into 1 of 2 groups: low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5; n = 77) and high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14; n = 77). The frequency of AMELX (+522), CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) single-nucleotide polymorphisms was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Environmental risk factors examined in the study included plaque amount, toothbrushing frequency, dietary intake between meals, saliva secretion rate, saliva buffer capacity, mutans streptococci counts, and lactobacilli counts. There was no difference between the caries risk groups in relation to AMELX (+522) polymorphism (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). The distribution of CA6 genotype and allele frequencies in the low caries risk group did not differ from the high caries risk group (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). Polymorphism of DEFB1 (G-20A) was positively associated, and TAS2R38 (A49P) negatively associated, with caries risk (χ(2) test, P = 0.000). There were significant differences between caries susceptibility and each environmental risk factor, except for the saliva secretion rate (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.000). Based on stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 (G-20A), TAS2R38 (A49P), and CA6 (T55M) gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of the variations in DMFT scores. It can be concluded that variation in CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) may be associated with caries experience in Turkish adults with a high level of dental plaque, lactobacilli count

  18. Indigenous Australian dental health: a brief review of caries experience.

    PubMed

    Martin-Iverson, N; Pacza, T; Phatouros, A; Tennant, M

    2000-03-01

    The indigenous community in Australia is an at risk population for oral diseases such as dental caries. The majority of communities are isolated and dental services in these areas are limited. Oral hygiene standards are poor and this combined with a diet rich in refined carbohydrates has led to high incidences of dental caries. In addition, diabetes, which is related to obesity (and a diet high in sugar and fat) has been linked to increases in oral disease. Caries prevalence was found to be low in areas where fluoridation levels in the water were high. The fact that the fluoride supplementation appears to improve oral health to a significant degree suggests that implementation of fluoride treatment programmes for school children and, where viable, fluoridation of water sources would be appropriate. In addition, dental education programmes should receive high priority. As with the rest of the community, these preventive measures will result in less need for emergency dental treatment in the future, better oral health for the community and reduced financial burden on the State. It is under these circumstances that oral health planners and providers must, in consultation with the relevant community representatives, develop appropriate mechanisms to address the needs of this group. The development of strategies that integrate with the plethora of general health strategies currently being implemented is just one means of achieving improved oral health outcomes for indigenous Australians. PMID:10846267

  19. The relationship of dental caries and dental fear in Malaysian adolescents: a latent variable approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the role of geography (place of residence) as a moderator in the relationship between dental caries disease and treatment experience and dental fear in 16-year-olds living in Malaysia. Methods A multi-stage-stratified sampling method was employed. Five hundred and three, 16-year-olds from 6 government secondary schools participated in this study. The questionnaire examined participants’ demographic profile and assessed their dental fear using the Dental Fear Survey (DFS). The clinical examination consisted of the DMFT as the outcome measure of dental caries disease and treatment experience by a single examiner (ICC = 0.98). Structural equation modelling inspected the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience. Results The mean DMFT was 2.76 (SD 3.25). The DT, MT and FT components were 0.64 (SD 1.25), 0.14 (SD 0.56) and 1.98 (SD 2.43) respectively. Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly greater mean numbers of decayed and missing teeth. The mean DFS score was 40.8 (SD 12.4). Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly higher mean scores for physical symptoms of dental fear. The correlation between dental fear (DFS) and dental caries disease and treatment experience (DMFT) was 0.29, p < 0.0001. The structural equation model fitted the raw data well (χ2 = 9.20, df = 8, p = 0.34). All components of DMFT were closely associated in equal strength to the unidimensional hypothetical latent variable of dental caries disease and treatment experience. The strength of the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience varied in accordance with place of residence. Conclusion In conclusion a relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience was shown to exist in 16-year-old adolescents living in Malaysia. This study showed that the rural–urban dichotomy acted as a moderator upon this

  20. Conceptualization of dental caries by undergraduate dental students from the first to the last year.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Nóbilo, Naiara de Paula; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, still one of the most common diseases affecting people around the world, has a multifactorial nature encompassing necessary (biofilm accumulation), determinant (exposure to sugars and fluoride) and modulating factors (biological and social). The concepts about caries learned at dental schools may directly influence the conduct of the future dentists regarding the control and treatment of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the concept that students at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, have about dental caries. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 274 students answered the discursive question "Conceptualize dental caries". Students' answers were analyzed by a content analysis technique that allowed the creation of response categories and classification of the concepts in categories. Frequencies were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Differences between the responses according to the students' class years were tested by the chi-square test. Differences with p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. The response categories were: biological concept (53.6%), restrictive multifactorial concept (12.1%), comprehensive multifactorial concept (8.1%), transmissibility concept (15.8%), and other (10.4%). Differences in response category frequencies were seen between the class years (p<0.001). There was no consensus on the disease definition, although students predominantly had a biological concept of dental caries. PMID:24789294

  1. Hyperspectral laser-induced autofluorescence imaging of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentine and pulp. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Laser induced autofluorescence was shown to be a useful method for early detection of demineralization. The existing studies involved either a single point spectroscopic measurements or imaging at a single spectral band. In the case of spectroscopic measurements, very little or no spatial information is acquired and the measured autofluorescence signal strongly depends on the position and orientation of the probe. On the other hand, single-band spectral imaging can be substantially affected by local spectral artefacts. Such effects can significantly interfere with automated methods for detection of early caries lesions. In contrast, hyperspectral imaging effectively combines the spatial information of imaging methods with the spectral information of spectroscopic methods providing excellent basis for development of robust and reliable algorithms for automated classification and analysis of hard dental tissues. In this paper, we employ 405 nm laser excitation of natural caries lesions. The fluorescence signal is acquired by a state-of-the-art hyperspectral imaging system consisting of a high-resolution acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a highly sensitive Scientific CMOS camera in the spectral range from 550 nm to 800 nm. The results are compared to the contrast obtained by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique employed in the existing studies on early detection of dental caries.

  2. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS): an integrated system for measuring dental caries.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A I; Sohn, W; Tellez, M; Amaya, A; Sen, A; Hasson, H; Pitts, N B

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes early findings of evaluations of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) conducted by the Detroit Center for Research on Oral Health Disparities (DCR-OHD). The lack of consistency among the contemporary criteria systems limits the comparability of outcomes measured in epidemiological and clinical studies. The ICDAS criteria were developed by an international team of caries researchers to integrate several new criteria systems into one standard system for caries detection and assessment. Using ICDAS in the DCR-OHD cohort study, dental examiners first determined whether a clean and dry tooth surface is sound, sealed, restored, crowned, or missing. Afterwards, the examiners classified the carious status of each tooth surface using a seven-point ordinal scale ranging from sound to extensive cavitation. Histological examination of extracted teeth found increased likelihood of carious demineralization in dentin as the ICDAS codes increased in severity. The criteria were also found to have discriminatory validity in analyses of social, behavioral and dietary factors associated with dental caries. The reliability of six examiners to classify tooth surfaces by their ICDAS carious status ranged between good to excellent (kappa coefficients ranged between 0.59 and 0.82). While further work is still needed to define caries activity, validate the criteria and their reliability in assessing dental caries on smooth surfaces, and develop a classification system for assessing preventive and restorative treatment needs, this early evaluation of the ICDAS platform has found that the system is practical; has content validity, correlational validity with histological examination of pits and fissures in extracted teeth; and discriminatory validity. PMID:17518963

  3. Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnosis of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakaki, Eleni A.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan; Serafetinides, Alexandros A.

    2003-09-01

    The autofluorescence spectra of hard dental tissues, both in normal and pathological areas were investigated in this study. The measurements were performed both on the intact hard tissues of the examined teeth, such as enamel, dentine, cementum, and root canal, and on the tissues pathologically affected by caries (superficial, intermediate, and deep). Various laser wavelengths (337 nm, 488 nm, and 514 nm) were used to irradiate the dental surfaces and a computer-controlled spectrograph captured the fluorescent spectra. The emission signals were stored, measured, analyzed and quantified in terms of wavelength distribution and the relative photon intensity. Results indicated that the fluorescent spectra from healthy enamel, dentine, and cementum were almost identical in form, depending on the excitation wavelength. The intact and affected hard tissues were greatly different in the integral fluorescent intensity. Healthy areas were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity, whereas the carious regions produced the weaker fluorescent intensity. Independently of the laser excitation wavelength, dentin regions were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity than any other dental component. The fluorescence signal of carious affected dental structure revealed a reed shifted spectral curve, more pronounced after 488 nm excitation. There was a pronounced red shift for deep caries (crown -- root caries), after ultraviolet laser excitation. Excitation with visible wavelengths did not produce such differences between intact and cervical, deep carious affected tissue. Using a monochromatic light source without any light output at the wavelengths of fluorescence, e.g. a laser with the appropriate filters, the difference in fluorescence between intact and carious enamel was generally easy to observe. Finally, we found that the blue line of an argon ion laser is preferable for superficial caries detection, while the ultraviolet emitting nitrogen

  4. A mathematical model for the progression of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Fabregas, L Rene I; Rubinstein, J

    2014-12-01

    A model for the progression of dental caries is derived. The analysis starts at the microscopic reaction and diffusion process. The local equations are averaged to derive a set of macroscopic equations. The global system includes features such as anisotropic diffusion and local changes in the geometry due to the melting of the enamel. The equations are then solved numerically. The simulations highlight the effect of anisotropy. In addition, we draw conclusions on the progression rate of caries, and discuss them in light of a number of experiments. PMID:23803287

  5. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children. PMID:27223127

  6. Social indicators of dental caries among Sierra Leonean schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Nörmark, S

    1993-06-01

    Most of the caries of African child populations is found in limited fractions of that population. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the caries situation of Sierra Leonean schoolchildren in relation to demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables, in order to develop an appropriate index for prediction of caries. A total of 610 students from primary class 1 (mean age: 7 yr) and secondary form 1 (mean age 15 yr) were dentally examined by three examiners and interviewed by their teachers. Intra- and interexaminer reproducibilities were 82 and 70%, and interinterviewer reliability was 67-100% for the individual questions. Urban students had more caries than rural. In class 1, dmfs+DMFS was 4.1 and 1.8, respectively; in form 1, DMFS was 5.3 and 3.5. Two tribes (the Fulas and the Madingos) had higher caries means than the rest, especially in class 1, where dmfs+DMFS was 6.5 and 2.4, respectively. Form 1 students with literate parents had a higher caries mean, and class 1 pupils with defective school uniforms a lower mean. The apparently high-risk groups did not consume more sweet snacks or clean their teeth less frequently. There was clearly more caries among the quartiles of children with most visible plaque on molars, but all social and demographic subgroups had similar amounts of plaque. Multivariate analyses of class 1 children showed that pupils living in urban areas, Fulas and Madingos, and children wearing complete school uniforms had caries significantly more frequently, other factors being equal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8322004

  7. Characteristics of Streptococcus mutans genotypes and dental caries in children.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Kyounga; Moser, Stephen A; Wiener, Howard W; Whiddon, Jennifer; Momeni, Stephanie S; Ruby, John D; Cutter, Gary R; Childers, Noel K

    2013-06-01

    This longitudinal cohort study evaluated the diversity, commonality, and stability of Streptococcus mutans genotypes associated with dental caries history. Sixty-seven 5- and 6-yr-old children, considered as being at high caries risk, had plaque collected from baseline through 36 months for S. mutans isolation and genotyping using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (4,392 total isolates). Decayed, missing, or filled surfaces (dmfs (primary teeth)/DMFS (secondary teeth)) for each child were recorded at baseline. At baseline, 18 distinct genotypes were found among 911 S. mutans isolates from 67 children (diversity), and 13 genotypes were shared by at least two children (commonality). The number of genotypes per individual was positively associated with the proportion of decayed surfaces (p-ds) at baseline. Twenty-four of the 39 children who were available at follow-up visits maintained a predominant genotype for the follow-up periods (stability) and this was negatively associated with the p-ds. The observed diversity, commonality, and stability of S. mutans genotypes represent a pattern of dental caries epidemiology in this high-caries-risk community, which suggests that fewer decayed surfaces are significantly associated with lower diversity and higher stability of S. mutans genotypes. PMID:23659236

  8. Host and microbiological factors related to dental caries development.

    PubMed

    De Soet, J J; van Gemert-Schriks, M C M; Laine, M L; van Amerongen, W E; Morré, S A; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2008-01-01

    Studies on dental caries suggest that in severe cases it may induce a systemic immune response. This occurs particularly when caries progresses into pulpal inflammation and results in abscess or fistula formation (AFF). We hypothesized that severe dental caries will affect the general health of children. The acute phase proteins alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), C-reactive protein (CRP) and the cytokine neopterin were chosen as parameters to monitor general health. Also, a polymorphism in the bacterial ligand CD14 (-260) was studied to investigate the relationship between genotype sensitivity for bacterial infections and AFF. In Suriname, children aged 6 years were recruited and enrolled into a dental care scheme, randomly assigned to 4 groups with different treatment strategies and monitored longitudinally. 348 children were included in the present study. Blood and saliva samples were taken at baseline and 1 year, and concentrations of serum AGP, CRP, neopterin, salivary Streptococcus mutans and CD14-260 C>T polymorphism were determined. There was no significant association between different treatment strategies and the serum parameters. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed a significant association between AFF as the outcome variable and the CD14 genotype and the concentrations of CRP and of neopterin as factors (p < 0.05). A significant negative association was found between the CD14-260 TT and AFF (p = 0.035, OR = 3.3) for the whole population. For children who had 4 or more carious lesions at baseline, the significance increased (p = 0.005, OR = 4.8), suggesting that the CD14-260 TT genotype was protective for AFF as a consequence of dental caries. PMID:18701824

  9. Diagnosis of dental caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-10-01

    Current dental diagnostic methods can detect caries but cannot quantify the mineral status of the lesion. Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) measures the percentage fluorescence radiance change of demineralised enamel with respect to surround sound enamel, and related it directly to the amount of mineral lost during demineralisation. Demineralisation of teeth to produce caries-like lesions and the subsequent remineralisation of the lesions were monitored quantitatively and longitudinally with QLF. The influence of factors such as presence of plaque or saliva, lesion staining, lesion magnification, tooth thickness and developmental hypomineralisation, on the reproducibility of QLF imaging and analysis were investigated, Results showed that the integrated fluorescence change (hence the mineral loss) increased linearly with demineralisation time and decreased with increasing remineralisation time. Caries detection was limited by saliva or plaque, but enhanced by staining. QLF could not discriminate between developmental hypomineralisation and caries. Neither the variation in tooth thickness nor lesion magnification within the limit of a sharp image made a significant difference in QLF analysis. It was concluded that QLF could detect and quantitatively monitor the mineral changes in an incipient caries on a longitudinal basis, however detection may be limited by the presence of saliva or plaque or enhanced by staining.

  10. Topical fluoride for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Miller, Faith Y; Campus, Guglielmo; Giuliana, Giovanna; Piscopo, Maria R; Pizzo, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The use of topically applied fluoride has been widely researched as a means to reduce the risk of dental caries in conjunction with other treatment modalities (mechanical oral hygiene, dietary control, antimicrobial intervention, pit and fissure sealants). There is overwhelming evidence that reports not only the significance and importance of the use of fluoride as a caries-preventive agent, but also how safe fluoride application is when used appropriately, particularly in higher risk individuals and populations. This paper reviews the caries-protective benefits of topical fluoride application in children and adolescents, with an emphasis on the clinical efficacy and safety of the vehicles by which fluoride is topically delivered. Fluoride toothpaste represents today the most cost-effective fluoride-delivery system in the oral cavity and its use should be the centerpiece in all caries-preventive strategies. On the other hand, mouthrinses, gels and varnishes currently represent adjuncts to toothpaste use and should be targeted towards individuals and groups at high risk of caries. PMID:22632397

  11. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Begzati, Agim; Kelmendi, Jeta; Ilijazi, Donika; Kqiku, Lumnije

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12) in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42) in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12) among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81) in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41) in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old). PMID:27516774

  12. Dental caries in Rome, 50-100 AD.

    PubMed

    Fejerskov, O; Guldager Bilde, P; Bizzarro, M; Connelly, J N; Skovhus Thomsen, J; Nyvad, B

    2012-01-01

    Scarce information exists on the clinical features of dental caries in the Imperial Roman population and no structural data on caries lesions from this period have so far been published. We report on the findings of 86 teeth (50-100 AD) found during archaeological excavations of the temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum Romanum. We found that nearly all teeth had large carious cavities extending into the pulp. The distribution and size of the caries lesions were similar to those found in contemporary adult populations in Africa and China living without access to dental care. Most lesions had a hypermineralized zone in the dentin at the advancing front of the carious cavities as revealed by micro-computed tomography. This biological dentin reaction combined with the morphology of the cavities might indicate that some temporary topical pain relief and intervention treatment slowed down the rate of lesion progression. This is indirectly supported by examination of cavities of similar size and depth from a contemporary population without access to dental health care. In contrast to the lesions in the Roman teeth, these lesions did not exhibit a hypermineralized dentin reaction. We investigated whether the Pb isotopic composition of enamel and/or dentin of a single tooth matched that of a sample of an ancient Forum water lead pipe. The Pb isotopic composition of the tooth did not match that of the tube, suggesting that the subjects were exposed to different Pb sources during their lifetime other than the lead tubes. PMID:22796661

  13. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world's population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to <5% of energy to protect dental health throughout life. These recommendations were informed by a systematic review of the evidence pertaining to amount of sugars and dental caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to <5% of energy. Available data were from ecologic studies and, although classified as being of low quality, showed lower dental caries when free sugar intake was <5% of energy compared with when it was >5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice. PMID:26773022

  14. Caries management pathways preserve dental tissues and promote oral health.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amid I; Tellez, Marisol; Pitts, Nigel B; Ekstrand, Kim R; Ricketts, David; Longbottom, Christopher; Eggertsson, Hafsteinn; Deery, Christopher; Fisher, Julian; Young, Douglas A; Featherstone, John D B; Evans, Wendell; Zeller, Gregory G; Zero, Domenick; Martignon, Stefania; Fontana, Margherita; Zandona, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    In May 2012, cariologists, dentists, representatives of dental organizations, manufacturers, and third party payers from several countries, met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to define a common mission; goals and strategic approaches for caries management in the 21th century. The workshop started with an address by Mr. Stanley Bergman, CEO of Henry Schein Inc. which focused on the imperative for change in academia, clinical practice, and public health. For decades, new scientific evidence on caries and how it should be managed have been discussed among experts in the field. However, there has been some limited change, except in some Scandinavian countries, in the models of caries management and reimbursement which have been heavily skewed toward 'drilling and filling'. There is no overall agreement on a caries' case definition or on when to surgically intervene. The participants in the workshop defined a new mission for all caries management approaches, both conventional and new. The mission of each system should be to preserve the tooth structure, and restore only when necessary. This mission marks a pivotal line for judging when to surgically intervene and when to arrest or remineralize early noncavitated lesions. Even when restorative care is necessary, the removal of hard tissues should be lesion-focused and aim to preserve, as much as possible, sound tooth structure. Continuing management of the etiological factors of caries and the use of science-based preventive regimens also will be required to prevent recurrence and re-restoration. These changes have been debated for over a decade. The Caries Management Pathways includes all systems and philosophies, conventional and new, of caries management that can be used or modified to achieve the new mission. The choice of which system to use to achieve the mission of caries management is left to the users and should be based on the science supporting each approach or philosophy, experience, utility, and ease of use

  15. How do dental students determine patients' caries risk level using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system?

    PubMed

    Doméjean, Sophie; Léger, Stéphanie; Rechmann, Peter; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-03-01

    Research has demonstrated the validation of specific caries risk assessment (CRA) systems, but little is known about how dental practitioners assign a caries risk level to their patients. The aim of this study was to explore dental students' decision making in caries risk assignment when using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system. Multiple correspondence analysis and chi-squared automated interaction detector analysis were performed on data collected retrospectively for a period of six years (2003-09) at the University of California, San Francisco predoctoral dental clinic. The study population consisted of 12,952 patients from six years of age through adult who received a baseline CRA during the period, were new to CAMBRA, and had not received any prior CAMBRA recommendations. The results showed variation in decision making and risk level assignment, illustrated by the range of percentages for the three scores (low, moderate, and high/extreme caries risk) when CRA was assigned for the first time. For those first-time CRAs, decision making was mainly based on four factors: cavities or caries lesions into dentin on radiograph, restorations during the last three years due to caries, visible heavy plaque, and interproximal lesions into enamel (by radiographs). This study's findings provide important data regarding one group of CAMBRA users and thus contribute to the development of knowledge about the implementation of caries risk assessment in contemporary dental practice. PMID:25729021

  16. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  17. Microanalysis of dental caries using laser-scanned fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Joseph R.; Paton, Barry E.; Zakariasen, Kenneth L.

    1992-06-01

    It is well known that enamel and dentin fluoresce when illuminated by short-wavelength optical radiation. Fluorescence emission from carious and non-carious regions of teeth have been studied using a new experimental scanning technique for fluorescence analysis of dental sections. Scanning in 2 dimensions will allow surface maps of dental caries to be created. These surface images are then enhanced using the conventional and newer image processing techniques. Carious regions can be readily identified and contour maps can be used to graphically display the degree of damage on both surfaces and transverse sections. Numerous studies have shown that carious fluorescence is significantly different than non-carious regions. The scanning laser fluorescence spectrometer focuses light from a 25 mW He-Cd laser at 442 nm through an objective lens onto a cross-section area as small as 3 micrometers in diameter. Microtome prepared dental samples 100 micrometers thick are laid flat onto an optical bench perpendicular to the incident beam. The sample is moved under computer control in X & Y with an absolute precision of 0.1 micrometers . The backscattered light is both spatial and wavelength filtered before being measured on a long wavelength sensitized photomultiplier tube. High precision analysis of dental samples allow detailed maps of carious regions to be determined. Successive images allow time studies of caries growth and even the potential for remineralization studies of decalcified regions.

  18. Exposure to high-fluoride drinking water and risk of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Ashokkumar, B R; Dhingra, Sonal; Dahiya, Vandana; Gupta, Anil

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of and relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying levels of fluoride in drinking water. The study was conducted among 3007 school children in the age group of 12 to 16 years in 2 districts of Haryana having varying fluoride levels in drinking water. Type III examination for dental caries according to the WHO index and dental fluorosis estimation according to Dean's index was done. The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 48.02% to 28.07% as fluoride levels increased from 0.5 to 1.13 ppm, but as the fluoride level increased further to 1.51 ppm, there was no further reduction in caries prevalence, but there was a substantial increase in fluorosis prevalence. The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water was found to be 1.13 ppm, at which there was maximum caries reduction with minimum amount of esthetically objectionable fluorosis. PMID:23070755

  19. Factors of deprivation associated with dental caries in young children.

    PubMed

    Gratrix, D; Holloway, P J

    1994-06-01

    Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on the communities in the Tameside and Glossop Health Authority district served by the five primary schools with the highest prevalences of dental caries among their 5-year-old children and contrasted with similar information from communities served by five schools whose 5-year-old pupils had the lowest prevalences of caries. Quantitative data were collected from a variety of sources including the health and education authorities, and qualitative information was gathered by interviewing health and education personnel with special knowledge of the primary and pre-school children involved. It was found that communities with a high caries activity among their primary school children had lower proportions of babies of normal birth weight and uptake of poliomyelitis vaccination, while more children were born to single parent families. They also had lower percentages of private housing, homes with a car and households in social classes 1 and 2. The high caries schools had more children receiving clothing allowances and free school meals. The communities they served had higher Townsend mean deprivation Z scores and lower percentages of crime rates per household. The high caries communities tended to bottle feed their babies, wean them earlier, use infant feeding bottles longer and give babies fruit juices more regularly. The parents in the high caries communities were reported to have higher proportions of social and financial problems, were less likely to form parent-teacher associations, their children had poorer attendance and punctuality records, worse behaviour and greater consumption of confectionery after school.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8044712

  20. Prevalence of dental caries and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Meedani, Laila A.; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender and social factors status were obtained by questionnaires that had been answered by parents. Results: About 69% of children had dental caries with dmft score of 3.4 (± 3.6) and dmfs of 6.9 (± 9.9). There was no statistically significant difference between boys and girls. Less caries was observed among children whose parents worked and it was statistically significant as well as whose mothers had high or low educational level. Increased number of family members appeared to have a high incidence of dental caries which was also statistically significant. There was no significant difference in dental caries prevalence with birth order. Conclusions: Dental caries among preschool children in Saudi Arabia was still very common. Improvement of preventive measure at early age should be emphasized by parents and dental health professionals. More attention is required for Non-working parents telling them about the risk of dental caries affecting their children and the awareness of preventive care of dental health. PMID:27182260

  1. Epidemiology of dental caries in children in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Bluwi, Ghada S M

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries has a significant impact on the general health and development of children. Understanding caries epidemiology is an essential task for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) policymakers to evaluate preventive programmes and to improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to collect and summarise all data available in the published literature on the epidemiology of dental caries in the UAE in children aged under 13 years. This will provide dental health planners with a comprehensive data summary, which will help in the planning for and evaluation of dental caries prevention programmes. Data were collected from the various published studies in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Google, and the reference lists in relevant articles. Four keywords were used in the search: 'dental caries,' 'epidemiology,' 'prevalence,' and 'UAE'. All studies conducted in the UAE in general or any single emirate that sheds light on the prevalence of dental caries of children under 13 years were included in this literature review. Studies on early childhood caries and factors associated with dental caries were also included. The review comprises 11 published surveys of childhood caries in UAE. The earliest study was published in 1991 and the most recent was published in 2011. The range of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in UAE children (age between 4 years and 6 years) was 5.1-8.4. For the 12-year-old group the decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) ranged from 1.6 to 3.24. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate goals and planning for preventive oral health programmes. The current data available on the dmft and DMFT indicate that childhood dental caries is still a serious dental public health problem in the UAE that warrants immediate attention by the government and policy makers. PMID:24860920

  2. Prevalence of Dental Caries among School Children in Chennai, Based on ICDAS II

    PubMed Central

    Arangannal, Ponnudurai; Jayaprakash, Jeevarathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is a common dental disease, which occurs during childhood and continues to be a major public health problem. The prevalence of dental caries was associated with oral hygiene practice, sugar consumption and implementation of the preventive oral health program. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in school children aged between 6-14 years using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II). Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 2796 school children living in Pallikkaranai, Chennai, India and studying in government recognized schools. Each student was examined by a single examiner using ICDAS system under natural light during normal school hours. Results The prevalence of dental caries was 68.8% in the total surveyed population. The gender-wise prevalence of dental caries shows, females to have slightly higher prevalence than male. The prevalence of dental caries at the age group of 6 years was 57%, seven year 67%, eight year 63%, nine year 74%, 10 year 76%, 11 year 74%, 12 year 69%, 13 year 71%, and 14 year 69%. The distribution of CARS (Caries associated with Sealants and Restorations) in the surveyed population was only 1.4% Conclusion The distribution of non-cavitated/early enamel lesions was higher in the studied population and indicated a requirement of a sustained dental health preventive program targeting specific segments of the population. PMID:27190939

  3. Survey and Analysis of Dental Caries in Students at a Deaf-Mute High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hong; Wang, Yan-Ling; Cong, Xiao-Na; Tang, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping-Min

    2012-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence of dental caries of 229 deaf adolescents in a special senior high school and to identify factors related to dental caries, with a match group of 196 healthy adolescents in a normal senior high school, in Jiangsu province of East China. In this study the prevalence…

  4. Dental caries and chemical warfare within the mouth.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang; Tsang, Phoebe; Shi, Wenyuan; Qi, Fengxia

    2005-12-01

    To date, it appears that the dentists' war against dental caries has no end in sight due to the fact that dentists lack any genuine offensive firepower. Make no mistake, the defense has drastically improved as dentists have shifted the focus more toward the preventive aspects of dental care. But defense by itself cannot defeat the enemy; at best, it can maintain the status quo. In order to defeat the enemy, one must study and understand the enemy, to know its strengths and weaknesses, and to strike at those points of vulnerability. The aim of this research is to identify and characterize genes that are responsible for observed virulence factors in Streptococcus mutans, which is the primary pathogen involved in the development of dental caries. Once there is a more defined understanding of the many virulence factors of S. mutans, there will be a much more valuable insight into its role in the ecology of the oral cavity. Eventually, this knowledge could enable dentists to convert the bacterial "weaponry" into its own arsenal, which could then be innovatively employed as preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents to treat oral bacterial-related diseases. PMID:16454237

  5. Dental caries and the need for treatment among institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Vigild, M

    1989-04-01

    The main purpose for the study was to determine the occurrence of untreated dental decay, and to assess the expressed demand for operative caries therapy among dentate institutionalized elderly in Denmark. The study population comprised all dentate elderly in eight nursing homes (n = 126) and in five hospital long-term care facilities (n = 75). In both groups of elderly 70% had untreated decay. The mean number of surfaces with untreated decay among the elderly in nursing homes (NH) and in hospital long-term care facilities (LTC) was respectively 9.7 and 7.5. The predominant factors influencing the occurrence of untreated decay were the use of dental services and the degree of helplessness. Regular use of dental services reduced the amount of untreated decay among the NH elderly, and the totally helpless LTC elderly had more decay than those able to manage alone. Half of the NH residents who had decay did not want treatment or were not able to express their demand for treatment due to poor mental or physical health. The realistic need for traditional operative filling therapy is discussed and it is concluded that the goal of an oral health care program for NH elderly should be to meet not only the demand for such treatment but also the need for emergency treatment and non-operative caries treatment. PMID:2522034

  6. Impact of dental caries on preschool children's quality of life: an update.

    PubMed

    Bönecker, Marcelo; Abanto, Jenny; Tello, Gustavo; Oliveira, Luciana Butini

    2012-01-01

    The literature reports that dental caries can cause functional, physical and aesthetic impairment, often with repercussions on children's general health at an early age. Moreover, recent studies have investigated how caries lesions can compromise children's quality of life. This paper aims to describe the current situation of dental caries prevalence in children and how this oral health disease can impact their quality of life. PMID:23318751

  7. Predicting Dental Caries Outcomes in Children: A "Risky" Concept.

    PubMed

    Divaris, K

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, unprecedented gains in the understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying human health and disease have been made. In the domain of oral health, although much remains to be learned, the complex interactions between different systems in play have begun to unravel: host genome, oral microbiome with its transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, and more distal influences, including relevant behaviors and environmental exposures. A reasonable expectation is that this emerging body of knowledge can help improve the oral health and optimize care for individuals and populations. These goals are articulated by the National Institutes of Health as "precision medicine" and the elimination of health disparities. Key processes in these efforts are the discovery of causal factors or mechanistic pathways and the identification of individuals or population segments that are most likely to develop (any or severe forms of) oral disease. This article critically reviews the fundamental concepts of risk assessment and outcome prediction, as they relate to early childhood caries (ECC)-a common complex disease with significant negative impacts on children, their families, and the health system. The article highlights recent work and advances in methods available to estimate caries risk and derive person-level caries propensities. It further discusses the reasons for their limited utility in predicting individual ECC outcomes and informing clinical decision making. Critical issues identified include the misconception of defining dental caries as a tooth or surface-level condition versus a person-level disease; the fallacy of applying population-level parameters to individuals, termed privatization of risk; and the inadequacy of using frequentist versus Bayesian modeling approaches to derive individual disease propensity estimates. The article concludes with the notion that accurate caries risk assessment at the population level and "precision dentistry" at the

  8. [Helicobacter pylori in the development of dental caries].

    PubMed

    Moseeva, M V; Belova, E V; Vakhrushev, Ia M

    2010-01-01

    It is shown, that in patients with erosive and ulcer defects of gastroduodenal zone at settling Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in an oral cavity in 100% of cases caries develops at intensity 13.6 +/- 1.4 teeth. Produced Hp protease and ammonia cause disintegration connected to protein silica acids and reduce activity lysocim, worsening, thus, fluid and protective properties of a saliva. In the subsequent infringement of autopurification of a teeth results in accumulation of a dental strike where protease activity conditionally pathogenic microflora conducts to depolymerization and demineralization enamels of a teeth. PMID:20496804

  9. Effectiveness of methods used by dental professionals for the primary prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Rozier, R G

    2001-10-01

    This paper summarizes and rates the evidence for the effectiveness of methods available to dental professionals for their use in the primary prevention of dental caries. It reviews operator-applied therapeutic agents or materials and patient counseling. Evidence of effectiveness is extracted from published systematic reviews. A search for articles since publication of these reviews was done to provide updates, and a systematic review of the caries-inhibiting effects of fluoride varnish in primary teeth is provided. Good evidence is available for the effectiveness of fluoride gel and varnish, chlorhexidine gel, and sealant when used to prevent caries in permanent teeth of children and adolescents. The evidence for effectiveness of fluoride varnish use in primary teeth, chlorhexidine varnish, and patient counseling is judged to be insufficient. Use of fluoride, chlorhexidine and sealant according to tested protocols and for the populations in which evidence of effect is available can be recommended. However, they may need to be used selectively. Estimates for the number of patients or tooth surfaces needed to treat to prevent a carious event suggest that the effects of these professional treatments are low in patients who are at reduced risk for dental caries. The literature on use of these preventive methods in individuals other than school-aged children needs expansion. PMID:11699978

  10. Sugar Consumption and Changes in Dental Caries from Childhood to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Peres, M A; Sheiham, A; Liu, P; Demarco, F F; Silva, A E R; Assunção, M C; Menezes, A M; Barros, F C; Peres, K G

    2016-04-01

    There are no prospective studies investigating the effects of sugar-related feeding practices on changes in dental caries from early childhood to young adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess whether sugar-related feeding practices affect dental caries between the ages of 6 and 18 y. This birth cohort study was initiated in 1993 in Pelotas, Brazil. There were 3 dental clinical assessments; at ages 6 y (n = 359), 12 y (n = 339), and 18 y (n = 307). Sugar-related feeding practices were assessed at ages 4, 15, and 18 y. Covariates included sex and life course variables, such as family income, breast-feeding, mother's education, regularity of dental visit, and child's toothbrushing habits. Group-based trajectory analysis was performed to characterize trajectories of time-varying independent variables that had at least 3 time points. We fitted a generalized linear mixed model assuming negative binomial distribution with log link function on 3-time repeated dental caries assessments. One in 5 participants was classified as "high" sugar consumers, and nearly 40% were "upward consumers." "Low consumers" accounted for >40% of the sample. High and upward sugar consumers had higher dental caries prevalence and mean DMFT in all cohort waves when compared with low sugar consumers. Caries occurred at a relatively constant rate over the period of study, but in all sugar consumption groups, the increment of dental caries was slightly higher between ages 6 and 12 y than between 12 and 18 y. Adjusted analysis showed that dental caries increment ratio between ages 6 and 18 y was 20% and 66% higher in upward and high sugar consumer groups as compared with low consumers. The higher the sugar consumption along the life course, the higher the dental caries increment. Even the low level of sugar consumption was related to dental caries, despite the use of fluoride. PMID:26758380

  11. Prevalence of dental caries among 12–14 year old children in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed; El Ansari, Walid; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. Objectives The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12–14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12–14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. Results The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (±3.2), 4.79 (±3.5), and 5.5 (±3.7), for 12, 13, and 14 year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where more female children showed dental caries than male children. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas showed more dental caries than in urban areas. Conclusion Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region. PMID:25057232

  12. Role of Sugar and Sugar Substitutes in Dental Caries: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term “caries” denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries. PMID:24490079

  13. Dietary habits and dental caries in a population of Spanish schoolchildren with low levels of caries experience.

    PubMed

    Serra Majem, L; García Closas, R; Ramón, J M; Manau, C; Cuenca, E; Krasse, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between current dietary habits and dental caries in schoolchildren from an area of Spain on which the prevalence of caries was low. The results of an epidemiological study conducted on a random sample of 893 children from the cities of Girona and Figueres are presented. The method of dietary interview consisted of a food-frequency questionnaire. This showed a positive relationship between dental caries and consumption of ice cream, pastries, cakes, sliced bread, on the one hand, and sugar-free chewing gum and sugar-free candies, on the other. A protective effect of skimmed milk and artificial sweeteners was also observed. Results reflect the role of certain foods in caries development, but also the outcome of selective dietary counseling to high-risk children. PMID:8281564

  14. Effect of Iron Containing Supplements on Rats’ Dental Caries Progression

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, AR.; Kowsari-Isfahan, R.; Rezaiefar, M.; Razavi, M.; Zeighami, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit this vital supplement in their children’s diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or non-cariogenic diet. Materials and Methods: Twelve rats were selected and divided into four groups for this interventional experimental study. Four different types of dietary regimens were used for four months; group A, cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group B, cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements; group C, non-cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group D, non-cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements. After sacrificing the rats, 20-micron histological sections of their posterior teeth were prepared using the Ground Section method, then they were studied under polarized light microscopy. In order to compare the progression of caries in different samples, the depth of the lesions in the enamel was measured as three grades I, II and III. Results: The mean grade value of A, B, C and D groups were 1.61, 2.61, 1.37 and 1.80, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that significantly fewer caries were seen in the group which had received iron containing supplements and cariogenic diet compared with cariogenic diet without iron supplements (p<0.05). Conclusion: Ferrous sulfate reduces the progression of dental caries in the cariogenic dietary regimen. PMID:22924097

  15. The Contribution of Dietary Factors to Dental Caries and Disparities in Caries

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Connie; Marshall, Teresa A.; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Frequent consumption of simple carbohydrates, primarily in the form of dietary sugars is significantly associated with increased dental caries risk. Malnutrition (under or over nutrition) in children is often a consequence of inappropriate infant and childhood feeding practices and dietary behaviors associated with limited access to fresh, nutrient dense foods substituting instead, high-energy low cost and nutrient poor sugary and fatty foods. Lack of availability of quality food stores in rural and poor neighborhoods, food insecurity, and changing dietary beliefs resulting from acculturation including changes in traditional ethnic eating behaviors, can further deter healthful eating and increase risk for Early Childhood Caries and obesity. America is witnessing substantial increases in children and ethnic minorities living in poverty, widening the gap in oral health disparities noted in the Surgeon General's Report, Oral Health in America. Dental and other care providers can educate and counsel pregnant women, parents and families to promote healthy eating behaviors and should advocate for governmental policies and programs that decrease parental financial and educational barriers to achieving healthy diets. For families living in poverty, however, greater efforts are needed to facilitate access to affordable healthy foods, particularly in urban and rural neighborhoods in order to effect positive changes in children's diets and advance the oral components of general health. PMID:19945075

  16. The contribution of dietary factors to dental caries and disparities in caries.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Connie; Marshall, Teresa A; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    Frequent consumption of simple carbohydrates, primarily in the form of dietary sugars, is significantly associated with increased dental caries risk. Malnutrition (undernutrition or overnutrition) in children is often a consequence of inappropriate infant and childhood feeding practices and dietary behaviors associated with limited access to fresh, nutrient dense foods, substituting instead high-energy, low-cost, nutrient-poor sugary and fatty foods. Lack of availability of quality food stores in rural and poor neighborhoods, food insecurity, and changing dietary beliefs resulting from acculturation, including changes in traditional ethnic eating behaviors, can further deter healthful eating and increase risk for early childhood caries and obesity. America is witnessing substantial increases in children and ethnic minorities living in poverty, widening the gap in oral health disparities noted in Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Dental and other care providers can educate and counsel pregnant women, parents, and families to promote healthy eating behaviors and should advocate for governmental policies and programs that decrease parental financial and educational barriers to achieving healthy diets. For families living in poverty, however, greater efforts are needed to facilitate access to affordable healthy foods, particularly in urban and rural neighborhoods, to effect positive changes in children's diets and advance the oral components of general health. PMID:19945075

  17. Dental Caries Experience and Use of Dental Services among Brazilian Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Leite Cavalcanti, Alessandro; Araujo Rodrigues, Iris Sant´Anna; de Melo Silveira, Ingrid Thays; Sarmento de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista; de Almeida Pinto, Magaly Suenya; Cabral Xavier, Alidianne Fabia; Dias de Castro, Ricardo; Nascimento Padilha, Wilton Wilney

    2014-01-01

    This ross-sectional study involving 127 male prisoners evaluates the use of dental services and dental caries among Brazilian inmates. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination. Sociodemographic and sentencing information as well as use of dental services, self-reported dental morbidity, self-perception, and oral health impacts were investigated. The mean DMFT index value was 19.72. Of the components, the decayed component showed the highest mean value (11.06 ± 5.37). Statistically significant association was found between DMFTs with values from 22 to 32 and oral health satisfaction (p = 0.002), difficulty speaking (p = 0.024), shame of talking (p = 0.004) and smiling (p < 0.001). Regarding the use of dental services, 80% had their last dental appointment less than one year ago, with most visits occurring in prison (80%), with restorative treatment (32%), followed by dental pain (26.4%), being the main reasons for such appointments. Most prisoners used dental services provided by the prison. Although restorative treatment has been the main reason for the use of dental services, “decayed” and “missing” components contributed to the high mean DMFT index. PMID:25429680

  18. The Association Between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alswat, Khaled; Mohamed, Waleed S.; Wahab, Moustafa A.; Aboelil, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing health-related problem worldwide. Both obesity and dental caries are important health issues with multifactorial aspects. Some studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) and caries in childhood/adolescence but limited data about such an association are available in adults. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship to BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at Taif University Outpatient Clinic, for adults who had a visit to the dental clinic. Baseline characteristics were obtained by the participating physician. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to determine the prevalence of dental caries. Information about healthy eating, smoking, exercise, sleep patterns, media consumption, and brushing habits were collected. Results A total of 385 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 28.39 years, 72.8% were male, mean DMFT index score was 6.55, and 85.5% reported brushing their teeth at least once daily. Of the participants, 55.3% were either overweight or obese, and 42.2% demonstrated a high prevalence of dental caries with no significant difference in BMI when compared to the low dental caries group. Conclusions A high prevalence of overweight/obesity and dental caries was observed among the participants. After controlling for potential confounders like smoking and brushing habits, significant positive correlation between BMI and DMFT was observed. PMID:26767084

  19. Evaluating performance of dental caries detection methods among third-year dental students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reliable caries detection is a cornerstone in the modern caries treatment schema. This study aimed to evaluate adopting traditional and new caries detection methods by third-year dental students. Methods Fifty-seven students were given lectures on caries detection, after which they evaluated 27 extracted carious teeth using traditional clinical assessment (CE), Nyvad’s, and ICDAS methods. On three teeth they also performed DIAGNOdent pen® (LF) scanning. Histological scores of the sectioned teeth (ICDAS, LF) and activity estimations of the lesions by the supervisors were used as golden standards (Nyvad, CE). For the ICDAS method , sensitivity and specificity were calculated using dentine caries (D3) as a cut-off point. Mean ICC and kappa values were calculated to evaluate interexaminer agreement for all lesions and methods. Spearman’s correlation coefficient evaluated LF scanning. Results ICDAS method presented good sensitivity (0.78) and specificity (0.87). The inter-examiner agreement for different methods was fair or good (CE ICC = 0.69, κ = 0.53; Nyvad’s method ICC = 0.68, κ = 0.48, ICDAS ICC = 0.66, κ = 0.47). Variation in LF values was the greatest with lesions extending to middle third of dentin. In that case, the Spearman’s correlation coefficient was also the weakest. Conclusions To follow the guidelines by the European Core Curriculum on Cariology, the third year dental students are introduced to methods for detecting lesion depth and assessing lesion activity as well as using new caries detection methods. Their performance in estimating lesion depth is good, and fair to good in estimating lesion activity even after basic training only. PMID:24314305

  20. Clinical evaluation of Krimidanta Pratishedha (anti-caries) activity of Triphaladi Gandusha in high risk dental caries patients

    PubMed Central

    Atara, Achyuta G.; Manjusha, R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Vaghela, Dharmendra B.; Rooparalia, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is the most common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Virtually every adult in the world has experience of dental caries. It affects almost 80% of the population. It is now being viewed in dual perspective- “caries as a disease” and “caries as a lesion”. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Triphaladi Gandusha for its anti-caries activity and improvement in Oral Hygiene Index in high risk patients of dental caries and to compare the efficacy of prevalent method of mouth rinsing and classical method of Gandusha. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 40 patients, 20 in each Group-1 and 2. Group -1 was given prepared Triphaladi mouthwash (mouth rinse) while Group-2 was given Triphaladi Kwath for Gandusha (retention). Results: The effect of treatment was assessed by subjective and objective parameters (like salivary pH, buffering capacity and microbial count). Triphaladi Gandusha (retention) in Group - 2 provided better results in the improvement of Ruja (toothache), Dantaharsha (tooth sensitivity), Sarambha (inflammation), pH of saliva, microbial count in salivary sample. And Triphaladi Mouthwash in Group - 1 provided better results in Srava (discharge), bad breath, pH of saliva and buffering capacity of salivary sample. There was no improvement in Chidrata (cavity formation), Krishnata (discoloration) and Chaladanta (mobility) with Triphaladi Gandusha and mouthwash. Conclusion: Study concluded that although both groups were effective, but Gandusha group patients’ got better relief in subjective symptoms compared to mouthwash group. PMID:25364198

  1. Dental caries status of inmates in central prison, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    George, Benley; John, Joseph; Saravanan, S.; Arumugham, I. Meignana; Johny, Minimol K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To understand the dental health among prison inmates, we assessed the dental caries status of central prison inmates in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1060 inmates from three divisions of the central prison in Chennai were assessed by a single investigator for dental caries status based on World Health Organization specifications. Results: Among the inmates, 58.2% of males and 54.2% of females had decayed teeth. About 4.1% of males and 2.9% of females had filled teeth. The mean decayed, missing, filled teeth index was 5.1 and 3.9 for female and male prisoners, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was highest among inmates younger than 24 years age. Conclusion: Our study suggests that a high proportion of prison inmates was affected by dental caries, which necessitates the need for initiating oral health promotion activities among prison inmates. PMID:26604596

  2. Radiation-induced dental caries, prevention and treatment - A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishtha; Pal, Manoj; Rawat, Sheh; Grewal, Mandeep S.; Garg, Himani; Chauhan, Deepika; Ahlawat, Parveen; Tandon, Sarthak; Khurana, Ruparna; Pahuja, Anjali K.; Mayank, Mayur; Devnani, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck cancers (HNCs) involves radiotherapy. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNCs are prone to dental complications. Radiotherapy to the head and neck region causes xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction which dramatically increases the risk of dental caries and its sequelae. Radiation therapy (RT) also affects the dental hard tissues increasing their susceptibility to demineralization following RT. Postradiation caries is a rapidly progressing and highly destructive type of dental caries. Radiation-related caries and other dental hard tissue changes can appear within the first 3 months following RT. Hence, every effort should be focused on prevention to manage patients with severe caries. This can be accomplished through good preoperative dental treatment, frequent dental evaluation and treatment after RT (with the exception of extractions), and consistent home care that includes self-applied fluoride. Restorative management of radiation caries can be challenging. The restorative dentist must consider the altered dental substrate and a hostile oral environment when selecting restorative materials. Radiation-induced changes in enamel and dentine may compromise bonding of adhesive materials. Consequently, glass ionomer cements have proved to be a better alternative to composite resins in irradiated patients. Counseling of patients before and after radiotherapy can be done to make them aware of the complications of radiotherapy and thus can help in preventing them. PMID:27390489

  3. Novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries: a patent survey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fu; Wang, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field: Dental caries is one of the most common preventable childhood diseases; people are susceptible to this ailment throughout their lifetime. In the United States, 90% of late adolescents and young adults have dental caries, while 94% of all dentate adults had evidence of treated or untreated coronal caries. Dental caries is often not self-limiting and without proper care, caries can progress until the tooth is destroyed. Areas covered in this review: In this paper, the etiology of dental caries was briefly introduced. It was followed by a thorough review of patents and literatures on the recent development of various novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. What the reader will gain: Recent advances in anti-plaque agents, including chemoprophylactic agents, antimicrobial peptides, vaccines, probiotics/replacement therapy and sugar substitutes, and remineralization agents including fluorides and casein phosphopeptides are analyzed. Take home massage: Both the discovery of new anti-caries agents and the development of dentotropic delivery systems will be the future focus of this research field. PMID:20230309

  4. Dental caries management at a rural district hospital in northern Rwanda: a neglected disease

    PubMed Central

    Uzabakiriho, B.; Amoroso, C. L.; Mpunga, T.; Odhiambo, J.; Mukashema, P.; Seymour, B. A.; Sindayigaya, J. de D.; Hedt-Gauthier, B. L.

    2015-01-01

    Setting: While some studies have reported the prevalence of dental caries in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about care-seeking behavior or how dental caries are managed, particularly at rural district hospitals. Objective: To describe the management of patients seeking care for dental caries at Butaro District Hospital (BDH) in rural Rwanda. Design: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in BDH, in northern Rwanda. A sample of 287 patient encounters for dental caries between January and December 2013 was randomly selected and stratified by age group (⩽5 years, 6–21 years and >21 years). We estimated the treatment received with 95% confidence intervals in each age group, and differences between age groups were assessed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Nearly all patients (97.6%) underwent tooth extraction, and this did not vary significantly by age group (P = 0.558). In addition to dental caries, most patients also had chronic pulpitis (74.9%). Conclusion: Caries prevention and care should be prioritized through a developed community program on oral health. We recommend introducing advanced training, equipment and materials for dental caries management other than tooth extraction, and increasing the number of qualified dentists. PMID:26399283

  5. [Inequalities in distribution of dental caries in teenagers of Indaiatuba, São Paulo State, 2004].

    PubMed

    Rihs, Lilian Berta; de Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário; Cypriano, Silvia; Abdalla, Nádja Moscoso

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of this work was to know the dental caries prevalence and treatment need, besides the distribution of the dental caries in a population of 12 year-old teenagers with high incidence of dental caries. 309 adolescents of public schools of Indaiatuba, São Paulo State, in 2004, were examined. They were selected by process systematic random and the exams followed the World Health Organization criteria. The percentile of school caries free was of 38.8%. Among the adolescents examined, 36.6% (n=113) presented dental caries. DMFT was of 2.50 (IC95%=2.07-2.93). The decayed component was the highest (61.0%). The coefficient of Gini was 0.602 and SiC value was of 5.97 (IC95%=5.32-6.62); in this group especially, 74.7% (n=74) presented dental caries activity in the moment of the exam. Thus, it can be concluded that the adolescents of this city presented low dental caries experience; however, their needs were not assisted, once most of DMFT was formed of the decayed component at 12 years old. In the group SiC, it was verified that this came quite high, being recommended actions addressed to this specific group of adolescents. PMID:20694339

  6. Impact of Oral Health Behaviors on Dental Caries in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zifeng; Yu, Dongsheng; Luo, Wei; Yang, Jing; Lu, Jiaxuan; Gao, Shuo; Li, Wenqing; Zhao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Dental care is consistently reported as one of the primary medical needs of children with disabilities (IDC). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of oral health behaviors on the caries experience in children with intellectual disabilities in Guangzhou, China. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 477 intellectually disabled children, 12 to 17 years old, who were randomly selected from special educational schools in Guangzhou. A self-administered parental questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and oral health behavior variables, and 450 valid questionnaires were returned. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with dental caries. The average age of those in the sample was 14.6 years (SD = 1.3), 68.4% of whom were male, and the caries prevalence rate was 53.5% (DMFT = 1.5 ± 2.0). The factors significantly affecting the development of dental caries in IDC included gender, the presence or absence of cerebral palsy, and the frequency of dental visits and toothbrushing. In conclusion, the presence of cerebral palsy contributed to an increase risk of caries experience in intellectually disabled children, while toothbrushing more than twice a day and routine dental visits were caries-protective factors. Oral health promotion action may lead to a reduction in dental caries levels in IDC. PMID:25340906

  7. Impact of oral health behaviors on dental caries in children with intellectual disabilities in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zifeng; Yu, Dongsheng; Luo, Wei; Yang, Jing; Lu, Jiaxuan; Gao, Shuo; Li, Wenqing; Zhao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Dental care is consistently reported as one of the primary medical needs of children with disabilities (IDC). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of oral health behaviors on the caries experience in children with intellectual disabilities in Guangzhou, China. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 477 intellectually disabled children, 12 to 17 years old, who were randomly selected from special educational schools in Guangzhou. A self-administered parental questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and oral health behavior variables, and 450 valid questionnaires were returned. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with dental caries. The average age of those in the sample was 14.6 years (SD = 1.3), 68.4% of whom were male, and the caries prevalence rate was 53.5% (DMFT = 1.5 ± 2.0). The factors significantly affecting the development of dental caries in IDC included gender, the presence or absence of cerebral palsy, and the frequency of dental visits and toothbrushing. In conclusion, the presence of cerebral palsy contributed to an increase risk of caries experience in intellectually disabled children, while toothbrushing more than twice a day and routine dental visits were caries-protective factors. Oral health promotion action may lead to a reduction in dental caries levels in IDC. PMID:25340906

  8. Tomographic imaging of incipient dental-caries using optical coherence tomography and comparison with various modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jihoon; Baek, Jae Ho; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Changsu; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2009-07-01

    We present the optical coherence tomography (OCT) made to investigate the early dental caries in human teeth and compare its results with those taken by conventional imaging modalities including light illuminating examination (LIE), digital intra-oral radiography (DIOR), and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Morphological features and caries-involved areas of the dental structure were mainly investigated by LIE, DIOR, and OCT to study the infection of the caries lesion in pits and fissures. The biochemical information acquired with EPMA and the morphological features taken with OCT in the early stage of caries were compared and analyzed to present an objective and practical index for the degree of caries. The experimental results allow us to conclude that OCT could be used to provide quantitative analysis of caries based on the reflectivity difference in the specimen.

  9. Dental caries affects body weight, growth and quality of life in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Sheiham, A

    2006-11-25

    The effect of a relatively common chronic disease, severe dental caries, affects young childrens' growth and well-being. Treating dental caries in pre-school children would increase growth rates and the quality of life of millions of children. Severe untreated dental caries is common in pre-school children in many countries. Children with severe caries weighed less than controls, and after treatment of decayed teeth there was more rapid weight gain and improvements in their quality of life. This may be due to dietary intake improving because pain affected the quantity and variety of food eaten, and second, chronic inflammation from caries related pulpitis and abscesses is known to suppress growth through a metabolic pathway and to reduce haemoglobin as a result of depressed erythrocyte production. PMID:17128231

  10. Dental Caries, and Supragingival Plaque and Calculus among Students, Tanga, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, L. C.; Kabulwa, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries and supragingival plaque and calculus in 785 secondary schools students was assessed. More than half (53.6%) of the students were caries-free, and the majority of those with dental caries experience were aged 14–17 (68.1%) and females (53%). Mean DMFT was 1.26, with mean D-component of 1.05, and molars were most affected. Most students had supragingival plaque (74%) and calculus (56.9%) and more so in males than females (P > 0.05). Less than half of the students had experience of dental caries and those with caries were mostly females and of the younger age group. The low DMFT was contributed to the D-component, and molars were the tooth type most affected.The majority of students had supra-gingival plaque and calculus and more so in males than females. PMID:22461985

  11. Genome-wide association Scan of dental caries in the permanent dentition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over 90% of adults aged 20 years or older with permanent teeth have suffered from dental caries leading to pain, infection, or even tooth loss. Although caries prevalence has decreased over the past decade, there are still about 23% of dentate adults who have untreated carious lesions in the US. Dental caries is a complex disorder affected by both individual susceptibility and environmental factors. Approximately 35-55% of caries phenotypic variation in the permanent dentition is attributable to genes, though few specific caries genes have been identified. Therefore, we conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genes affecting susceptibility to caries in adults. Methods Five independent cohorts were included in this study, totaling more than 7000 participants. For each participant, dental caries was assessed and genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) were genotyped or imputed across the entire genome. Due to the heterogeneity among the five cohorts regarding age, genotyping platform, quality of dental caries assessment, and study design, we first conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analyses on each of the five independent cohorts separately. We then performed three meta-analyses to combine results for: (i) the comparatively younger, Appalachian cohorts (N = 1483) with well-assessed caries phenotype, (ii) the comparatively older, non-Appalachian cohorts (N = 5960) with inferior caries phenotypes, and (iii) all five cohorts (N = 7443). Top ranking genetic loci within and across meta-analyses were scrutinized for biologically plausible roles on caries. Results Different sets of genes were nominated across the three meta-analyses, especially between the younger and older age cohorts. In general, we identified several suggestive loci (P-value ≤ 10E-05) within or near genes with plausible biological roles for dental caries, including RPS6KA2 and PTK2B, involved in p38-depenedent MAPK signaling

  12. Cranberry polyphenols: potential benefits for dental caries and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Bonifait, Laetitia; Grenier, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, cranberries and their molecular components have received increasing attention from researchers in human health. In particular, the properties of the high-molecular-weight polyphenols isolated from cranberries have shown promise with regard to dental caries and periodontal disease. These potential anticaries agents inhibit the production of organic acids and the formation of biofilms by cariogenic bacteria. In addition, cranberry polyphenols may reduce the inflammatory response, as well as the production and activity of proteolytic enzymes contributing to the destruction of the extracellular matrix in periodontal disease. The polyphenols of cranberries also interfere with various activities (including formation of biofilm and adhesion) of Porphyromonas gingivalis, the main etiologic agent in chronic periodontitis. This article summarizes the scientific evidence supporting the potential of cranberry polyphenols to prevent and/or treat diseases of the mouth. PMID:20943032

  13. Discrimination of Dental Caries Using Colorimetric Characteristics of Fluorescence Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingguang; Zhu, Haihua; Xu, Ying; Lin, Bin; Chen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of colorimetric parameters for the discrimination of the stages of dental caries based on a light-induced autofluorescence spectrum at a 405-nm excitation wavelength was investigated. The fluorescence spectra of 4 groups of tooth samples (10 sound, 10 early-stage decay, 14 established decay, and 10 severe decay), which were classified by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System, were experimentally measured in vitro. The carious lesion samples had an additional fluorescence peak at around 627 nm. The mathematical relation of the fluorescence spectrum and human color perception was established and computed. With increasing severity, the fluorescence color changed from green to yellow according to the colorimetric parameters of the CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticity coordinates and dominant wavelengths. The results from a one-way ANOVA of the dominant wavelength showed a statistically significant difference among the 4 classified groups. The colorimetric parameters of the light-induced fluorescence spectrum can potentially be applied to evaluate the various carious levels. PMID:26112288

  14. Occlusal dental caries incidence and implications for sealant programs in a US college student population.

    PubMed

    Stahl, J W; Katz, R V

    1993-01-01

    Given the decline in dental caries incidence in preteens and young teenagers in the United States, a study of the incidence of dental caries in young adults (17-23 years) was conducted to provide a descriptive epidemiologic picture of this "new" natural history of dental caries in the late and post-teenage years. A retrospective study was performed analyzing the detailed dental records of the four-year college experience in the class of 1989, US Coast Guard Academy. Occlusal caries incidence, in the absence of associated proximal caries, was shown to be moderately common in molars (11.9%) and rare in premolars (0.8%). In contrast to previous studies' findings, demographic indicators, socioeconomic status indicators, and prior caries experience were poor predictors of occlusal caries incidence; targeting a universal sealant policy in this population therefore would be done best by tooth type rather than patient type. A preliminary cost-comparison model, projected over a 40-month period, suggests that the cost of initiating a universal molar sealant policy in this population would be 92 cents per year per student greater than the cost of restoring occlusal caries in the presence of sound proximal surfaces. This cost comparison suggests that it would be advantageous to initiate such a policy. PMID:8258782

  15. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children of Different Socioeconomic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Koleoso, Titilayo Abiodun

    1989-01-01

    Compares incidence of caries in 60 13 to 15 year olds in 2 Nigerian schools, 1 with an affluent population and the other with students from a lower socioeconomic level. Data on parental occupations, patterns of dental practice, and eating habits were collected. Caries incidence in different categories of social standing was similar. (NH)

  16. Caries Risk Assessment/Treatment Programs in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorty, Jack S.; Brown, K. Birgitta

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 42 U.S. dental schools was conducted to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk- assessment/treatment programs. Findings address lectures about caries risk, use of variable recall programs, categorization of risk level, early detection and treatment of lesions, and restoration of radiographically visible lesions. (DB)

  17. Susceptibility to Dental Caries and the Salivary Proline-Rich Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood caries affects 28% of children aged 2–6 in the US and is not decreasing. There is a well-recognized need to identify susceptible children at birth. Caries-free adults neutralize bacterial acids in dental biofilms better than adults with severe caries. Saliva contains acidic and basic proline-rich proteins (PRPs) which attach to oral streptococci. The PRPs are encoded within a small region of chromosome 12. An acidic PRP allele (Db) protects Caucasian children from caries but is more common in African Americans. Some basic PRP allelic phenotypes have a three-fold greater frequency in caries-free adults than in those with severe caries. Early childhood caries may associate with an absence of certain basic PRP alleles which bind oral streptococci, neutralize biofilm acids, and are in linkage disequilibrium with Db in Caucasians. The encoding of basic PRP alleles is updated and a new technology for genotyping them is described. PMID:22190937

  18. Susceptibility to dental caries and the salivary proline-rich proteins.

    PubMed

    Levine, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood caries affects 28% of children aged 2-6 in the US and is not decreasing. There is a well-recognized need to identify susceptible children at birth. Caries-free adults neutralize bacterial acids in dental biofilms better than adults with severe caries. Saliva contains acidic and basic proline-rich proteins (PRPs) which attach to oral streptococci. The PRPs are encoded within a small region of chromosome 12. An acidic PRP allele (Db) protects Caucasian children from caries but is more common in African Americans. Some basic PRP allelic phenotypes have a three-fold greater frequency in caries-free adults than in those with severe caries. Early childhood caries may associate with an absence of certain basic PRP alleles which bind oral streptococci, neutralize biofilm acids, and are in linkage disequilibrium with Db in Caucasians. The encoding of basic PRP alleles is updated and a new technology for genotyping them is described. PMID:22190937

  19. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling. PMID:26900846

  20. Anthropometric Measurements and Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies123

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143

  1. From the art of filling teeth to the science of dental caries prevention: a personal review.

    PubMed

    Krasse, B

    1996-01-01

    The journey from the art of filling teeth to the science of prevention is reviewed. First, a private winding road is described that produced some new methods of value in risk assessment, treatment of the causes of dental caries, and prevention of the disease. The description illustrates the importance of monitoring the effects of different measures. Next, the new knowledge and methods that form the primary basis of prevention on a large scale are reviewed. They represent a golden era in caries research and form a solid ground for the prevention of dental caries and for the treatment of the causes of disease. The prevalence and incidence of dental caries has fallen not only among schoolchildren, but also among adults in developed countries. Improvement in dental health is due to the successful application of new knowledge-it has not happened by chance. New or improved opportunities for prevention could lead to a further reduction in dental caries. The problem is to find ways to stimulate both dentists and patients to use them. Finally, the next part of the journey is discussed. In some countries the journey probably will be an uphill struggle; in others, it could be fairly undulating, eventually leading to further declines in dental caries. PMID:9034973

  2. Use of Caries Prevention Agents in Children: Findings from the Dental Practice-based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Richman, Joshua S.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Qvist, Vibeke; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gordan, Valeria V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Scientific evidence supports the application of caries preventive agents in children and this knowledge must transfer into the practice of dentistry. There is little multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographic regions. The aim of this study was to characterize the use of caries preventive agents in pediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of dental practices. Methods This study surveyed Dental Practice-based Research Network dentists who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment and use of prevention techniques in children ages 6-18. Results Dental sealants (69%) or in-office fluoride (82%) were the most commonly used of the caries preventive regimens. The recommendation of at-home caries preventive agents ranged from 36%-7%, with non-prescription fluoride rinse the most common. Dentists who practiced in a large group practice model and dentists from the Scandinavian region more frequently use caries risk assessment than regions that were predominately dentists in private practice. Whether or not dentists used caries risk assessment with their pediatric patients was poorly correlated with the likelihood of actually using caries preventive treatments on patients. Conclusion Although dentists reported the use of some form of in-office caries prevention, there was considerable variability across practices. These differences could represent a lack of consensus across practicing dentists about the benefits of caries preventive agents or a function of differing financial incentives or patient pools with differing levels of overall caries risk. PMID:21180672

  3. Ethical considerations of study participants in dental caries clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, H S

    1976-03-01

    During the past 30 years there has been increasing concern for ethical considerations that pertain to the conduct of human biomedical research. Consequently, many national and international medical and dental organizations and agencies have developed regulations, policies or ethical guidelines for the protection of human subjects who take part in clinical investigations. In the United States, more than 500 research institutions have established permanent committees to review research in humans conducted by their institutions. Members of these committees must represent a broad range of backgrounds, interests, and concerns. Prospective study subjects must be able to make an informed decision on whether to participate in any study, without any element of force, deceit, duress, or other form of constraint or coercion. Obtaining informed consent for studies of children, the mentally infirm, and persons with restricted civil freedom presents special problems. Ethical considerations also raise questions on appropriate designs for clinical studies, e.g. use of untreated controls. Dental studies, particularly those testing caries-preventive agents, raise special questions of design, informed consent, ethical procedures and the use of diagnostic radiographs. The director of a clinical study is responsible for the conduct of all personnel connected with the investigation. PMID:767047

  4. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective The authors undertook an updated systematic review of the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents. Method The authors searched Medline, ISI, Cochrane, Scopus, Global Health and CINAHL databases and conducted lateral searches from reference lists for papers published from 2004 to 2011, inclusive. All empirical papers that tested associations between body mass index and dental caries in child and adolescent populations (aged 0 to 18 years) were included. Results Dental caries is associated with both high and low body mass index. Conclusion A non-linear association between body mass index and dental caries may account for inconsistent findings in previous research. We recommend future research investigate the nature of the association between body mass index and dental caries in samples that include a full range of body mass index scores, and explore how factors such as socioeconomic status mediate the association between body mass index and dental caries. PMID:23171603

  5. Oral lactic acid bacteria related to the occurrence and/or progression of dental caries in Japanese preschool children

    PubMed Central

    SHIMADA, Ayumi; NODA, Masafumi; MATOBA, Yasuyuki; KUMAGAI, Takanori; KOZAI, Katsuyuki; SUGIYAMA, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially those classified into the genus Lactobacillus, is associated with the progression of dental caries in preschool children. Nevertheless, the kinds of species of LAB and the characteristics that are important for dental caries have been unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate the distribution of oral LAB among Japanese preschool children with various prevalence levels of caries; and (2) to reveal the characteristics of these isolated LAB species. Seventy-four Japanese preschool children were examined for caries scores and caries progression, and their dental cavity samples were collected for LAB isolation and identification. The saliva-induced agglutination rate and the resistance to acidic environments of the identified strains were measured. Statistical analysis showed that preschool children carrying Lactobacillus (L.) salivarius or Streptococcus mutans have a significantly higher prevalence of dental caries, the growth ability in acidic environments correlates with the caries scores of individuals with L. salivarius, and the caries scores exhibit positive correlation with saliva-induced agglutination in L. salivarius. These results show that specific Lactobacillus species are associated with dental caries based on the level of carious lesion severity. The present study suggests that these specific Lactobacillus species, especially those with easily agglutinated properties and acid resistance, affect the dental caries scores of preschool children, and that these properties may provide useful information for research into the prevention of dental caries. PMID:25918670

  6. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Carlson, Jenna C.; Stanley, Brooklyn O. C.; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Maher, Brion S.; Slayton, Rebecca L.; Willing, Marcia C.; Reis, Steven E.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Levy, Steven M.; Vieira, Alexandre R.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of nonamelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N=3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-byfluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p<0.002) and the suggestive association for multiple variants in TFIP11 across child samples (p<0.05). Moreover, we discovered two genetic variants (rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 and missense rs7439186 in AMBN) involved in gene-by-fluoride interactions. For each interaction, participants with the risk allele/genotype exhibited greater dental caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles. PMID:25373699

  7. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Carlson, Jenna C; Stanley, Brooklyn O C; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M; Maher, Brion S; Slayton, Rebecca L; Willing, Marcia C; Reis, Steven E; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Levy, Steven M; Vieira, Alexandre R; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of non-amelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N = 3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-by-fluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p < 0.002) and the suggestive association for multiple variants in TFIP11 across child samples (p < 0.05). Moreover, we discovered two genetic variants (rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 and missense rs7439186 in AMBN) involved in gene-by-fluoride interactions. For each interaction, participants with the risk allele/genotype exhibited greater dental caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles. PMID:25373699

  8. Dental caries: A complete changeover, PART III: Changeover in the treatment decisions and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Carounanidy, Usha; Sathyanarayanan, R

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive management of dental caries should involve the management of disease as well as the lesion. Current decision making process in cariology is influenced by numerous factors such as the size/ depth/ activity of the carious lesion and age/ the caries risk status of the patient. Treatment decisions should involve planning the non-operative/ preventive treatment for non-cavitated or early cavitated lesions and also formulating operative treatment for cavitated lesions. Apart from these two responsibilities, a clinician should also be knowledgeable enough to decide when not to interfere in the caries dynamics and how frequently to recall the patient for follow-ups. The non-operative treatment prescriptions vary in dose, intensity and mode of delivery according to the caries risk status. Minimal invasion and maximal conservation of tooth structure has become the essence of current operative treatments. This part of the series elaborates on the paradigm shift in the management of dental caries. PMID:21217948

  9. Dental caries and dental anomalies in children treated by chemotherapy for malignant disease: a study in the north of England.

    PubMed

    Nunn, J H; Welbury, R R; Gordon, P H; Kernahan, J; Craft, A W

    1991-12-01

    Fifty-two children in remission from childhood cancer and 41 siblings underwent a full clinical and radiographic dental examination. All the children had received chemotherapy. The leukaemic patients had received radiotherapy also, but not involving the jaws. There was no significant difference in dental caries experience between the treated children and the siblings, but significantly more dental anomalies were detected radiographically in the treated group. PMID:1812966

  10. Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries – a review

    PubMed Central

    Frencken, Jo E.; Peters, Mathilde C.; Manton, David J.; Leal, Soraya C.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Eden, Ece

    2012-01-01

    This publication describes the history of Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the ‘surgical’ care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI’s policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing. PMID:23106836

  11. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group.

    PubMed

    Frencken, Jo E; Peters, Mathilde C; Manton, David J; Leal, Soraya C; Gordan, Valeria V; Eden, Ece

    2012-10-01

    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the 'surgical' care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI's policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing. PMID:23106836

  12. Prevalence of dental caries and dental care utilization in preschool urban children enrolled in a comparative-effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    Kopycka-Kedzierawski, D T.; Billings, R J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess dental caries prevalence and dental care utilization in pre-school children enrolled in urban childcare centres that participated in a comparative-effectiveness study. Study design Cross-sectional study. Methods Caries prevalence was determined in a cohort of children 12-60 months of age. Eligible children were randomized into two groups: group one received a traditional visual/tactile oral examination and group two received a Teledentistry examination. Questionnaires were administered to the children's parents/guardians to gather demographics and information about using dental and medical services. Results Of 234 children examined, approximately 28% had caries experience. The mean dfs score was 1.56 with a range of 0 to 34 carious surfaces. The mean dfs score for the children examined by means of Teledentistry was 1.75 and for the children examined by means of the traditional visual/tactile method mean dfs was 1.40; the means between the two groups were not significantly different. Twenty-six children showed evidence of being treated for dental caries. According to the parents, 31.5% of the children had never had a dental check-up before, only 3% of the children were lacking dental insurance and majority of the parents (92%) did not perceive accessing dental care for the children as a problem. Statistics The Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to assess statistical differences among groups of children. Conclusions The data show that 28% of the children had caries and, of these, 61% had never been treated for caries, thus indicating that continued efforts are needed to improve oral health care utilization by inner-city preschool children. PMID:21640057

  13. Pediatric Dental Care: Prevention and Management Protocols Based on Caries Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    RAMOS-GOMEZ, FRANCISCO J.; CRYSTAL, YASMI O.; NG, MAN WAI; CRALL, JAMES J.; FEATHERSTONE, JOHN D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children, especially among minorities and the economically disadvantaged, highlight the need for early establishment of dental homes and simple, effective infant oral care preventive programs for all children as part of a medical disease prevention management model.1–3 This article presents an updated approach and practical tools for pediatric dental caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA, in an effort to stimulate greater adoption of infant oral care programs among clinicians and early establishment of dental homes for young children. PMID:21162350

  14. Dentists’ practice patterns regarding caries prevention: results from a dental practice-based research network

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yoko; Kakudate, Naoki; Sumida, Futoshi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gordan, Valeria V

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to (1) quantify dentists' practice patterns regarding caries prevention and (2) test the hypothesis that certain dentists' characteristics are associated with these practice patterns. Design The study used a cross-sectional study design consisting of a questionnaire survey. Participants The study queried dentists who worked in outpatient dental practices who were affiliated with the Dental Practice-Based Research Network Japan, which seeks to engage dentists in investigating research questions and sharing experiences and expertise (n=282). Measurement Dentists were asked about their practice patterns regarding caries preventive dentistry. Background data on patients, practice and dentist were also collected. Results 38% of dentists (n=72) provided individualised caries prevention to more than 50% of their patients. Overall, 10% of the time in daily practice was spent on caries preventive dentistry. Dentists who provided individualised caries prevention to more than 50% of their patients spent significantly more time on preventive care and less time on removable prosthetics treatment, compared to dentists who did not provide individualised caries prevention. Additionally, they provided oral hygiene instruction, patient education, fluoride recommendations, intraoral photographs taken and diet counselling to their patients significantly more often than dentists who did not provide individualised caries prevention. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that the percentage of patients interested in caries prevention and the percentage of patients who received hygiene instruction, were both associated with the percentage of patients who receive individualised caries prevention. Conclusions We identified substantial variation in dentists' practice patterns regarding preventive dentistry. Individualised caries prevention was significantly related to provision of other preventive services and to having a higher percentage

  15. DENTAL CARIES EXPERIENCE IN 12-YEAR-OLD SCHOOLCHILDREN IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Cypriano, Silvia; Hoffmann, Rosana H. S.; de Sousa, Maria da Luz R.; Wada, Ronaldo S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries-free children using DMFT and significant caries (SiC) indexes in different caries prevalence groups in cities of the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (1997) was used for caries diagnosis in 2,378 individuals. According to the DMFT index obtained in each evaluated city, 3 prevalence groups with representative samples were formed, being classified as low, moderate and high. SiC index was used to classify the one third of the population with the highest caries prevalence. In the low prevalence group, 32.4% of the children were caries free (DMFT=0), with mean DMFT of 2.29 and SiC index of 4.93. In the moderate prevalence group, 21.8% of the children were caries free, with mean DMFT of 3.36 and SiC of 6.74. Only 6.9% of the children in the high prevalence group were caries free and the mean DMFT was 5.54 (SiC=9.62). There was a great heterogeneity in dental caries distribution within the studied population, as well as a high caries prevalence considering the 3 classifications. Other indexes besides DMFT could be used to improve oral health assessment during establishment of the treatment plan and intervention. PMID:19089262

  16. Black stain and dental caries: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Żyła, Tomasz; Kawala, Beata; Antoszewska-Smith, Joanna; Kawala, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Black stain is characterized as a dark line or an incomplete coalescence of dark dots localized on the cervical third of the tooth. Over the last century, the etiology of black stain has been the subject of much debate. Most of the studies concerning this issue were conducted in pediatric population. According to the reviewed articles published between 2001 and 2014, the prevalence of black stain varies from 2.4% to 18% with equal sex distribution. The majority of the authors confirm the correlation between the presence of black stain and lower caries experience. The microflora of this deposit is dominated by Actinomyces spp. and has lower cariogenic potential than nondiscolored dental plaque. Iron/copper and sulfur complexes are thought to be responsible for the dark color. In patients with black stain saliva has higher calcium concentrations and higher buffering capacity. Factors such as dietary habits, socioeconomic status, and iron supplementation may be contributing to the formation of black stain. PMID:25802850

  17. Black Stain and Dental Caries: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Żyła, Tomasz; Kawala, Beata; Antoszewska-Smith, Joanna; Kawala, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Black stain is characterized as a dark line or an incomplete coalescence of dark dots localized on the cervical third of the tooth. Over the last century, the etiology of black stain has been the subject of much debate. Most of the studies concerning this issue were conducted in pediatric population. According to the reviewed articles published between 2001 and 2014, the prevalence of black stain varies from 2.4% to 18% with equal sex distribution. The majority of the authors confirm the correlation between the presence of black stain and lower caries experience. The microflora of this deposit is dominated by Actinomyces spp. and has lower cariogenic potential than nondiscolored dental plaque. Iron/copper and sulfur complexes are thought to be responsible for the dark color. In patients with black stain saliva has higher calcium concentrations and higher buffering capacity. Factors such as dietary habits, socioeconomic status, and iron supplementation may be contributing to the formation of black stain. PMID:25802850

  18. Nisin inhibits dental caries-associated microorganism in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhongchun; Dong, Liping; Zhou, Lin; Tao, Rui; Ni, Longxing

    2010-11-01

    Nisin, produced by Lactococcus lactis, is an antibiotic peptide to effectively antagonize a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria, and is widely used as a safe food antimicrobial agent. In the present study, we investigated whether nisin could be used as an effective antibiotic peptide against the nine common cariogenic microorganisms, and its antimicrobial activity could be affected by the ingredients of saliva in oral cavity. In the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericide concentration (MBC) and spot-on-lawn assay, nisin displayed different MIC, MBC and antimicrobial activity against the nine tested strains. There was statistical difference between the inhibitory zone diameters of nisin against the different tested bacteria (p<0.05), but no statistical difference between the inhibitory zone diameters of nisin dissolved in PBS and saliva (p>0.05). Furthermore, morphology and membranes of Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus fermenti and Lactobacillus acidophilus with nisin treatment were observed and showed different degrees of variation by a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM). Our findings suggested that nisin has considerable potential for prevention and treatment of dental caries. PMID:20688123

  19. Impact of treating dental caries on schoolchildren’s anthropometric, dental, satisfaction and appetite outcomes: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no randomized controlled trials to assess the impact of treating dental caries on various aspects of children’s health. This study was conducted to assess the impact of dental treatment of severe dental caries on children’s weight, height and subjective health related outcomes, namely dental pain, satisfaction with teeth and smile, dental sepsis and child’s appetite. Methods The study was a community-based, randomized, controlled trial in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years with untreated dental caries. Participants were randomly assigned to early (test) or regular (control) dental treatment. The primary outcome was Weight-for-age Z-score. Secondary outcomes were Height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores, dental pain, dental sepsis, satisfaction with teeth and child’s appetite. Results 86 children were randomly assigned to test (42 children) and control (44) groups. Mean duration of follow-up was 34.8 (±1.1) weeks. There were insignificant improvements in anthropometric outcomes between the groups after treatment of caries. However, treated children had significantly less pain experience (P = 0.006) (OR 0.09, [0.01-0.51]) and higher satisfaction with teeth (P = 0.001) (OR 9.91, [2.68-36.51]) compared to controls. Controls had significantly poorer appetites (P = 0.01) (OR 2.9, [1.24-6.82]) compared to treated children. All treated children were free of clinical dental sepsis whereas 20% (9 of 44) of controls who were free of sepsis at baseline had sepsis at follow-up. Conclusions Although dental treatment did not significantly improve the anthropometric outcomes, it significantly improved the dental outcomes and children’s satisfaction with teeth, smile and appetite. This is the first study to provide evidence that treatment of severe dental caries can improve children’s appetite. Trial registration Effect of Dental Treatment on Children's Growth. Clinical Trial Gov ID# NCT01243866 PMID:22928903

  20. A Systematic Review of Socioeconomic Indicators and Dental Caries in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Simone M.; Martins, Carolina C.; Bonfim, Maria de Lourdes C.; Zina, Lívia G.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Abreu, Mauro H. N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that socioeconomic factors may be associated with an increased risk of dental caries. To provide better evidence of the association between dental caries in adults and socioeconomic indicators, we evaluated the relation between these two conditions in a thorough review of the literature. Seven databases were systematically searched: Pubmed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bireme, Controlled Trials, Clinical Trials and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. No restrictions were placed on the language or year of publication. The search yielded 41 studies for systematic review. Two independent reviewers screened the studies for inclusion, extracted data and evaluated quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The following socioeconomic indicators were found: educational level, income, occupation, socio-economic status and the community index. These indicators were significantly associated with a greater occurrence of dental caries: the subject’s education, subject’s income, subject’s occupation and the Gini coefficient. A high degree of heterogeneity was found among the methods. Quality varied across studies. The criteria employed for socioeconomic indicators and dental caries should be standardized in future studies. The scientific evidence reveals that educational level, income, occupation and the Gini coefficient are associated with dental caries. PMID:23202762

  1. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sapna B.; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil- Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Material and Methods Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Results Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Conclusions Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Key words:Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:26855710

  2. Clinical trial for detection of dental caries using laser-induced fluorescence ratio reference standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Shiny Sara; Mohanty, Soumyakant; Jayanthi, J. L.; Varughese, Jolly Mary; Balan, Anitha; Subhash, Narayanan

    2010-03-01

    We present the clinical applicability of fluorescence ratio reference standard (FRRS) to discriminate different stages of dental caries. Toward this, laser-induced autofluorescence emission spectra are recorded in vivo in the 400- to 800-nm spectral range on a miniature fiber optic spectrometer from 65 patients, with a 404-nm diode laser as the excitation source. Autofluorescence spectra of sound teeth consist of a broad emission at 500 nm that is typical of natural enamel, whereas in caries teeth additional peaks are seen at 635 and 680 nm due to emission from porphyrin compounds in oral bacteria. Scatter plots are developed to differentiate sound teeth from enamel caries, sound teeth from dentinal caries, and enamel caries from dentinal caries using the mean fluorescence intensity (FI) and ratios F500/F635 and F500/F680 measured from 25 sites of sound teeth and 65 sites of carious teeth. The sensitivity and specificity of both the FI and FRRS are determined. It is observed that a diagnostic algorithm based on FRRS scatter plots is able to discriminate enamel caries from sound teeth, dentinal caries from sound teeth, and enamel from dentinal caries with overall sensitivities of 85, 100, and 88% and specificities of 90, 100, and 77%, respectively.

  3. DENTAL CARIES AND RELATED ORAL HEALTH FACTORS AMONG 9 TO 18 MONTH OLD THAI CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Detsomboonrat, Palinee; Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn Pantuwadee

    2015-07-01

    Dental caries can occur as soon as the first tooth erupts. We studied the caries prevalence and related risk factors among children aged 9-18 months in U Thong District, Suphan Buri Province, Thailand. A total of 151 children, whose primary caregivers were willing to participate in this study, were evaluated for decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs). Questionnaires were given to the primary caregivers of the study subjects to ascertain their socio-economic status, oral hygiene habits, and child-feeding habits. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to evaluate bivariate outcome data. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to determine variables predictive of dental caries in the studied children. The prevalence of dental caries among the 151 subjects was 32.5%; 15.9% had at least one cavity (cavitated caries) and 16.6% had white lesions (non-cavitated caries). The mean dmfs score was 2.83 ± 6.48. Significant associations were seen between the dmfs score and the number of erupted teeth (p < 0.001) and toothpaste usage (p < 0.01). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed four factors significantly associated with caries: number of erupted teeth, which had the highest Beta value (P = 0.35, p < 0.01), nighttime bottle feeding (P = 0.17, p < 0.05), frequency of drinking sweetened milk (P = 0.17-0.18, p < 0.05) and falling asleep with a bottle in the mouth (P = 0.18, p < 0.05). Nighttime bottle feeding, frequency of drinking sweetened milk and falling asleep with a bottle in the mouth were important caries risk factors and the number of erupted teeth was a strong caries risk predictor. Dentists should educate caregivers about these risk factors. PMID:26867399

  4. Gender differences in practice patterns for diagnosis and treatment of dental caries: Findings from The Dental PBRN

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rouisse, Kathleen M.; McClelland, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives A number of articles have addressed gender differences in the productivity of dentists, but little is known about differences in practice patterns for caries management. This study compared the use of a comprehensive range of specific diagnostic methods, preventive agents, and restorative decision making for caries management between male and female dentists who were members of The Dental Practice-Based Research Network(DPBRN). Methods This study surveyed general dentists who were members of DPBRN and who practiced within the United States. The survey asked about dentist, practice, and patient characteristics, as well as prevention, assessment, and treatment of dental caries. Differences in years since dental school graduation, practice model, full/part-time status, and practice owner/employee were adjusted in the statistical models, before making conclusions about gender differences. Results Three hundred ninety-three male (84%) and seventy-three female (16%) dentists participated. Female dentists recommended at-home fluoride to a significantly larger proportion of their patients, whereas males had a preference for using in-office fluoride treatments with pediatric patients. Female dentists also choose to restore interproximal lesions at a significantly later stage of development, preferring to use preventive therapy more often at earlier stages of dental caries. There were few differences in diagnostic methods, time spent on or charges for restorative dentistry, and busyness of their practices. Conclusion DPBRN female dentists differ from their male counterparts in some aspects of the prevention, assessment, and treatment of dental caries, even with significant covariates taken into account. Practice patterns of female dentists suggest a greater caries preventive treatment philosophy. PMID:21454850

  5. Child externalizing behavior problems linked to genetic and non-genetic variation in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Michael F; Smith Slep, Amy M; Heyman, Richard E; Bretz, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    The association of environmental and genetic variation in caries with child externalizing behavior problems (inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and defiance) was studied in a sample of 239 pairs of 3- to 8-year-old impoverished Brazilian twins. It was hypothesized that externalizing problems would show a stronger positive association with environmental than genetic variation in caries. Univariate twin models were estimated to parse variation in caries into three components: additive genetic (A), shared environment (C) and non-shared environment/error (E). Age-adjusted associations between externalizing problems and each variance component were tested. Contrary to the hypothesis, modest but very consistent negative associations were found between externalizing problems and both genetic and environmental variation in caries. Mutans streptococci and sweetness preference did not explain the negative associations of caries and externalizing problems. Externalizing problems in non-medicated children were associated with less dental decay that could be explained by both genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24852763

  6. Dental Caries Prevalence and Tooth Loss in Chilean Adult Population: First National Dental Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Urzua, I.; Mendoza, C.; Arteaga, O.; Rodríguez, G.; Cabello, R.; Faleiros, S.; Carvajal, P.; Muñoz, A.; Espinoza, I.; Aranda, W.; Gamonal, J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries, tooth loss, and risk factors among adult population of Chile. Furthermore, age, gender, and behavioural specific differences in caries prevalence and tooth loss were examined. A national stratified multistage probabilistic sample design in two-age cohorts was applied to the Chilean population. A sample of 1553 adults, comprising 1088 individuals aged 35–44 and 465 senior individuals aged 65–74, were examined. The DMFT was evaluated following WHO recommendations using diagnostic criteria of caries lesions into dentin. The data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate models using logistic regression analyses. Results showed a mean DMFT of 15.06 in the 35–44-year-old group and of 21.57 in the 65–74 group. Factors related to tooth loss in the 35–44 group through univariate logistic regression were depression (OR 1.9 CI 95% 1.26–2.85), education level <12 years (OR 2.24 CI 95% 1.31–3.73), personal income (OR 1.51 CI 95% 1.04–2.19), and familiar income (OR 2.05 CI 95% 1.34–3.13), and through multivariate logistic regression in the same age group were depression (OR 1.93 CI 95% 1.24–3.0), education level <12 years (OR 1.94 CI 95% 1.2–3.14), and familiar income (OR 1.71 CI 95% 1.09–2.68). Factors related to tooth loss in the 65–74-year-old group through univariate logistic regression were education level <12 years (OR 2.54 CI 95% 1.3–4.96) and personal income (OR 1.66 CI 95% 1.05–2.63), and for multivariate logistic regression in the same age group, it was education level <12 years (OR 2.51 CI 95% 1.21–5.18). In conclusion, adult population in Chile showed a high prevalence of dental caries and tooth loss, as age, education level, personal and familiar incomes, and depression are being the main risk factors. PMID:23316234

  7. Long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience among British adults: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Aldossary, Arwa; Harrison, Victoria E; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    There is inconclusive evidence on the value of regular dental attendance. This study explored the relationship between long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience. We used retrospective data from 3,235 adults, ≥ 16 yrs of age, who participated in the Adult Dental Health Survey in the UK. Participants were classified into four groups (always, current, former, and never regular-attenders) based on their responses to three questions on lifetime dental-attendance patterns. The association between dental-attendance patterns and caries experience, as measured using the decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index, was tested in negative binomial regression models, adjusting for demographic (sex, age, and country of residence) and socio-economic (educational attainment, household income, and social class) factors. A consistent pattern of association between long-term dental attendance and caries experience was found in adjusted models. Former and never regular-attenders had a significantly higher DMFT score and numbers of decayed and missing teeth, but fewer filled teeth, than always regular-attenders. No differences in DMFT or its components were found between current and always regular-attenders. The findings of this study show that adults with different lifetime trajectories of dental attendance had different dental statuses. PMID:25521216

  8. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05–2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65–3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07–2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother’s schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15–4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother’s schooling. PMID:26900846

  9. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years.

    PubMed

    Goyal, A; Gauba, K; Chawla, H S; Kaur, M; Kapur, A

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries in 6, 9, 12 and 15-year-old school children of Chandigarh, selected on a randomized basis was evaluated using Moller's criteria (1966) and correlated with the various risk factors. The mean deft was found to be 4.0 +/- 3.6 in 6 year old and 4.61 +/- 3.14 in 9 year old, whereas the mean DMFT in 12 and 15 year old was found to be 3.03 +/- 2.52 and 3.82 +/- 2.85 respectively. The high prevalence of dental caries in these children was attributed to the lack of use of fluoride toothpaste (80% children), lack of knowledge about etiology of dental caries (98%) and frequency of sugar exposures up to more than five times per day (30%). PMID:17951925

  10. Use of laser fluorescence for the early detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stookey, George K.; Analoui, Mostafa

    1998-04-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent oral disease in spite of remarkable progress made during the past half- century to reduce its prevalence. Conventional procedures for caries detection are unable to detect the lesions until they are well advanced and involve about one-third of the thickness of enamel. Laboratory research on alternative caries detection methods based upon alterations in the conductance and optical properties associated with enamel demineralization has shown significant promise in recent years. Of these alternative measures, quantitative laser/light fluorescence appears to show the greatest promise for the detection of dental caries at a much earlier stage of development than is currently possible. A clinical trial was initiated in 150 children to evaluate, compare and validate several caries detection methods; in addition to the conventional diagnostic procedure, these detection methods involved quantitative light fluorescence, electrical conductivity, and direct digital radiography. Although the clinical trial is not yet complete, early results suggest the possibility for the earlier detection of dental caries with these alternative methods.

  11. Genetic Association of MPPED2 and ACTN2 with Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Stanley, B O C; Feingold, E; Cooper, M; Vanyukov, M M; Maher, B S; Slayton, R L; Willing, M C; Reis, S E; McNeil, D W; Crout, R J; Weyant, R J; Levy, S M; Vieira, A R; Marazita, M L; Shaffer, J R

    2014-07-01

    The first genome-wide association study of dental caries focused on primary teeth in children aged 3 to 12 yr and nominated several novel genes: ACTN2, EDARADD, EPHA7, LPO, MPPED2, MTR, and ZMPSTE24. Here we interrogated 156 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these candidate genes for evidence of association with dental caries experience in 13 race- and age-stratified samples from 6 independent studies (n = 3600). Analysis was performed separately for each sample, and results were combined across samples via meta-analysis. MPPED2 was significantly associated with caries via meta-analysis across the 5 childhood samples, with 4 SNPs showing significant associations after gene-wise adjustment for multiple comparisons (p < .0026). These results corroborate the previous genome-wide association study, although the functional role of MPPED2 in caries etiology remains unknown. ACTN2 also showed significant association via meta-analysis across childhood samples (p = .0014). Moreover, in adults, genetic association was observed for ACTN2 SNPs in individual samples (p < .0025), but no single SNP was significant via meta-analysis across all 8 adult samples. Given its compelling biological role in organizing ameloblasts during amelogenesis, this study strengthens the hypothesis that ACTN2 influences caries risk. Results for the other candidate genes neither proved nor precluded their associations with dental caries. PMID:24810274

  12. Pyrosequencing analysis of oral microbiota in children with severe early childhood dental caries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui

    2013-11-01

    Severe early childhood caries are a prevalent public health problem among preschool children throughout the world. However, little is known about the microbiota found in association with severe early childhood caries. Our study aimed to explore the bacterial microbiota of dental plaques to study the etiology of severe early childhood caries through pyrosequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable regions. Forty participants were enrolled in the study, and we obtained twenty samples of supragingival plaque from caries-free subjects and twenty samples from subjects with severe early childhood caries. A total of 175,918 reads met the quality control standards, and the bacteria found belonged to fourteen phyla and sixty-three genera. Our results show the overall structure and microbial composition of oral bacterial communities, and they suggest that these bacteria may present a core microbiome in the dental plaque microbiota. Three genera, Streptococcus, Granulicatella, and Actinomyces, were increased significantly in children with severe dental cavities. These data may facilitate improvements in the prevention and treatment of severe early childhood caries. PMID:23743597

  13. Association between black stains and dental caries in primary teeth: findings from a Brazilian population-based birth cohort.

    PubMed

    França-Pinto, C C; Cenci, M S; Correa, M B; Romano, A R; Peres, M A; Peres, K G; Matijasevich, A; Santos, I S; Barros, A J D; Demarco, F F

    2012-01-01

    Lower dental caries experience has been observed in children and teenagers with the presence of black stains on dental structures. However, none of the previous investigations were population-based studies or adjusted the analysis for potential confounders. This study assessed the prevalence of black stains at the age of 5 in a population-based birth cohort from Pelotas, Brazil and investigated the association between black stains and dental caries. A total of 1,129 children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort were examined at age 5, and their mothers were interviewed at their households. Dental examinations included a search for black stains and dental caries on the primary dentition through the dmf-s index. The mothers' questionnaire comprised data on demographic, social, and behavior aspects. Prevalence of black stains was 3.5% (95% CI 2.5-4.7) and the prevalence of dental caries was 48.4% (95% CI 45.4-51.4). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between black stains and dental caries. Adjusted analysis revealed that the presence of black stains was associated with lower levels of dental caries (OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99). The results of the present study suggest that black stains are a protective factor for dental caries development. PMID:22488298

  14. Metabolic Syndrome, Lifestyle, and Dental Caries in Japanese School Children.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Hiroya; Sugihara, Naoki; Ukiya, Tokuko; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Birkhed, Dowen; Hasegawa, Masaru; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The number of children with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) has recently been increasing in Japan. Few studies have investigated the relationship between MetS and oral health. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MetS, lifestyle, and oral health status in school children. Our goal is to utilize these results in health education aimed at preventing the onset of MetS in school children and adults. A total of 689 Japanese children (365 boys and 324 girls) aged between 10 and 13 years were examined and waist circumference (WC), ratio of WC to height, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar (FBS), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglyceride values determined together with oral health status, including dental caries experience (DMFT). The results revealed that 6.5% of the children fell under the health board recognized "MetS or high risk of MetS" (MetS/HR) classification. A total of 140 (20%) children had a high Streptococcus mutans count. The mean WC, FBS, and DMFT values were significantly greater in children with a high salivary S. mutans count (p<0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significance association between MetS/HR, non-breakfast eaters (odds ratio (OR): 2.70), no regular exercise (OR: 2.60), and a high salivary S. mutans count (≥10(5) CFU/ml; OR: 2.18; p<0.05). The present results indicate that lifestyle and salivary S. mutans count could be useful in screening children for MetS/HR. These variables may be useful in targeting interventions aimed at preventing MetS in school children. PMID:26657522

  15. Molecular Analysis of the Microflora Associated with Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Munson, M. A.; Banerjee, A.; Watson, T. F.; Wade, W. G.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular techniques have revealed many novel, presumed unculturable, taxa in oral infections. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial community of the middle and advancing front of carious dental lesions by cultural and molecular analyses. Samples were collected with a hand excavator from five teeth with carious lesions involving dentine. Samples were cultured on blood agar and Rogosa agar incubated in air plus 5% CO2 and on fastidious anaerobe agar anaerobically. DNA was also extracted directly from the samples and 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR with universal primers. PCR products were singularized by cloning, and the cloned inserts and cultured isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. We identified 95 taxa among the 496 isolates and 1,577 clones sequenced; 44 taxa were detected by the molecular method alone; 31 taxa were previously undescribed. Only three taxa, Streptococcus mutans, Rothia dentocariosa, and an unnamed Propionibacterium sp., were found in all five samples. The predominant taxa by anaerobic cultivation were the novel Propionibacterium sp. (18%), Olsenella profusa (14%), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (8%). The predominant taxa in the molecular analysis were Streptococcus mutans (16%), Lactobacillus gasseri/johnsonii (13%), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (8%). There was no significant difference between the compositions of the microflora in the middle and advancing front samples (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon matched pairs, signed ranks test). In conclusion, combined cultural and molecular analyses have shown that a diverse bacterial community is found in dentinal caries and that numerous novel taxa are present. PMID:15243054

  16. Antibacterial Peptides: Opportunities for the Prevention and Treatment of Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Pepperney, Adam; Chikindas, Michael L

    2011-06-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that is a growing and costly global health concern. The onset of disease is a consequence of an ecological imbalance within the dental plaque biofilm that favors specific acidogenic and aciduric caries pathogens, namely Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. It is now recognized by the scientific and medical community that it is neither possible nor desirable to totally eliminate dental plaque. Conversely, the chemical biocides most commonly used for caries prevention and treatment indiscriminately attack all plaque microorganisms. These treatments also suffer from other drawbacks such as bad taste, irritability, and staining. Furthermore, the public demand for safe and natural personal hygiene products continues to rise. Therefore, there are opportunities that exist to develop new strategies for the treatment of this disease. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, antibacterial peptides have been explored greatly over the last three decades for many different therapeutic uses. There are currently tens of hundreds of antibacterial peptides characterized across the evolutionary spectrum, and among these, many demonstrate physical and/or biological properties that may be suitable for a more targeted approach to the selective control or elimination of putative caries pathogens. Additionally, many peptides, such as nisin, are odorless, colorless, and tasteless and do not cause irritation or staining. This review focuses on antibacterial peptides for their potential role in the treatment and prevention of dental caries and suggests candidates that need to be explored further. Practical considerations for the development of antibacterial peptides as oral treatments are also discussed. PMID:26781572

  17. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: a path analytic study.

    PubMed

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health. PMID:25661111

  18. Multidimensional causal model of dental caries development in low-income preschool children.

    PubMed Central

    Litt, M D; Reisine, S; Tinanoff, N

    1995-01-01

    Despite the decline in the incidence of dental caries in the United States over the past several years, the condition remains a significant problem for the nation's poor children. Efforts to identify the factors responsible for caries development in samples of children of low socioeconomic status have primarily focused on a limited number of variables, and those have been predominantly biological (mutans streptococci, for example). Resulting models of caries development have usually shown good sensitivity but poor specificity. They have had limited implications for treatment. In an effort to produce a comprehensive model of caries development, 184 low-income preschool children were clinically assessed for mutans streptococci and for decayed, missing, or filled surfaces of deciduous teeth twice, first at age 4 years (baseline) and again a year later (year 1 assessment). As the clinical assessments were being done, caretakers were being interviewed to obtain data from five domains: demographics, social status, dental health behaviors, cognitive factors such as self-efficacy (self-confidence) and controllability, and perceived life stress. Data were analyzed using a structural equations modeling approach in which variables from all domains, plus baseline decayed missing and filled surfaces and baseline mutants, were used together to create a model of caries development in the year 1 assessment. Results confirmed earlier work that suggested that caries development at a 1-year followup was strongly dependent on earlier caries development. Early caries development in this sample was determined in part by mutans levels and by dental health behaviors. These behaviors themselves were accounted for partly by a cognitive factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7480616

  19. Allergic rhinitis, feeding and oral habits, toothbrushing and socioeconomic status. Effects on development of dental caries in primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Nava, F; Vázquez, R E M; Saldivar, G A H; Beltrán, G F J; Almeida, A V M; Vázquez, R C F

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of feeding and oral habits, toothbrushing, socioeconomic status and allergic rhinitis on the development of dental caries in primary dentition. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire on 1,160 children, 4-5 years old (mean = 4.5 +/- 0.5) and born in 1999, 2000 or 2001. The children also had a physical examination by an allergist and dentists. Dental caries was diagnosed according to WHO criteria. Caries experience was measured as number of deft and defs. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association between dental caries and independent variables. The dental caries prevalence was 17.9%, 28.8% of the children had allergic rhinitis symptoms, digit sucking was reported by 9.8% and pacifier use by 13.6% of the children. The mean number of deft of the sample was 1.02 (SD = 2.37) and that of defs was 1.33 (SD = 3.54). Analysis showed that breast-feeding for >12 months (p < 0.01), toothbrushing frequency (p < 0.01), sugar consumption (p < 0.01) and pacifier use (p < 0.01) each had a significant association with dental caries occurrence in primary dentition. Children with pacifier use and allergic rhinitis had more than double the risk of dental caries development. Allergic rhinitis alone has no effect on dental caries. Healthcare professionals attempting to limit dental caries should consider the effect of prolonged breast-feeding, sugary product consumption between meals and nonnutritive habits on dental caries. PMID:18367835

  20. Association between Dental Caries and Socioeconomic Factors in Schoolchildren - A Multilevel Analysis.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Janessa Luiza; Tomazoni, Fernanda; Oliveira, Marta Dutra Machado; Ardenghi, Thiago M

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between dental caries, socioeconomic individual and contextual factors in 12-years-old children. A representative sample of 1,134 children enrolled in public schools from Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, was obtained from a multistage random sampling. Four calibrated dentists examined participants at schools. Data about dental caries (DMF-T index) and dental plaque (present or absent) were assessed. Children's parents or guardians answered questions regarding their demographics and socioeconomic status. Context variables were also collected from official publications of the city. Data analyses were performed using multilevel logistic regression models. Caries prevalence in this sample (DMF-T≥1) was 49.9% (95%CI: 45.05% - 54.77%), and mean DMF-T was 1.15 (95%CI: 1.01-1.29) with 0.068 standard error. Children of the 3rd and 2nd tertile of income represented by the rich and intermediate categories, showed, respectively, a 50% (OR 0.50: CI95 % 0.35-0.71) and 39% (OR 0.61: CI95% 0.45-0.82) lower chance to present untreated caries compared with the poorest portion of the sample represented by the 1st tertile of income. Regarding the context covariates, children from lower income neighborhood presented a higher chance for having untreated dental caries compared with their counterpart (OR 1.70: CI95% 1.19 to 2.43). Inequalities in the distribution of dental caries continue affecting children from poorer socioeconomic profiles. There is need for planning public interventions for oral health promotion that take into account individual and contextual socioeconomic characteristics. PMID:27007350

  1. Dental caries in Mexican schoolchildren: A comparison of 1988–1989 and 1998–2001 surveys

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-González, Adriana; Zepeda-Zepeda, Marco A.; Betancourt-Linares, Armando; Lezana-Fernández, Miguel Á.; Álvarez-Lucas, Carlos H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare two surveys across seven states for the prevalence of dental caries among Mexican schoolchildren. Study Design: Analysis of two cross-sectional surveys: Schoolchildren from 6 to 10 years of age were examined in the 1988–1989 survey and 6- to 10-year-old and 12-year-old students were included in the 1998–2001 survey. The baseline data of seven states were available for analysis. Representative probability samples were conducted statewide in both surveys. The World Health Organization (WHO) method was used to obtain the dental caries index (dmft, DMFT). At present, additional and more recent epidemiological data representative statewide in Mexico are unavailable. Results: The participants were 9798 schoolchildren in the 1988–1989 survey and 16882 schoolchildren in the 1998–2001 survey. The prevalence of caries in children ages 6 to 10 years was 86,6% in the first survey and 65,5% in the second survey, showing a 24,4% reduction. The primary teeth index in the first survey was dmft = 3,86 (IC95% 3,68 4,04) and in permanent teeth, it was DMFT = 1,03 (IC95% 0,95 1,11). In the second survey, the comparable values were dmft = 2,36 (IC95% 2,20 2,52) and DMFT = 0,35 (IC95% 0,29 0,40), corresponding to a reduction of 38,89% and 66,02% in the primary and permanent dentition, respectively. Treatment needs remain high: In the second survey, as 92,75% of the index DMFT was conformed as decayed teeth. Conclusion: Overall, we detected a downward trend in the dental caries indices, particularly in the permanent dentition. The increase in the availability of fluoride likely contributed to the observed decline in dental caries. Key words:Schoolchildren, dental caries, treatment needs, salt fluoridation, Mexico. PMID:22549683

  2. Genetic and environmental factors associated with dental caries in children: the Iowa Fluoride Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Willing, M C; Marazita, M L; Wendell, S; Warren, J J; Broffitt, B; Smith, B; Busch, T; Lidral, A C; Levy, S M

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most common chronic childhood disease. Despite strong evidence of genetic components, there have been few studies of candidate genes and caries. In this analysis we tried to assess genetic and environmental factors contributing to childhood caries in the Iowa Fluoride Study. Environmental factors (age, sex, race, tooth-brushing frequencies and water fluoride level) and three dental caries scores (d(2)fs-total, d(2)fs-pit/fissure, and d(2)fs-smooth surface) were assessed in 575 unrelated children (mean age 5.2 years). Regression analyses were applied to assess environmental correlates. The Family-Based Association Test was used to test genetic associations for 23 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in 7 caries candidate genes on 333 Caucasian parent-child trios. We evaluated the associations between caries status and the level of both single and multiple SNPs (haplotype) respectively. Permutation procedure was performed for correction of inflated type I errors due to multiple testing. Age, tooth-brushing frequency and water fluoride level were significantly correlated to at least one carious score. Caries on pit and fissure surfaces was substantially higher than on smooth surfaces (61 vs. 39%). SNPs in three genes (DSPP, KLK4 and AQP5) showed consistent associations with protection against caries. Of note, KLK4 and AQP5 were also highlighted by subsequent haplotype analysis. Our results support the concept that genes can modify the susceptibility of caries in children. Replication analysis in independent cohorts is highly needed in order to verify the validity of our findings. PMID:22508493

  3. [Determinants of dental caries in Haitian schoolchildren and implications for public health].

    PubMed

    Bedos, C; Brodeur, J M

    2000-01-01

    This work was carried out as part of a community development project in North-West Haiti. The aim was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among young Haitians and to identify the principal determinants and risk factors. A total of 322 schoolchildren, all aged 12 years, participated in the study in March and April 1996. Demographic characteristics, hygiene and dietary habits were recorded. In parallel, a dentist assessed the amount of debris present on the teeth and investigated the children's history of caries. Almost two thirds of the children examined were free of caries. The mean number of decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT index) was 0.93, which is low. However, a high-risk group was identified with a mean DMFT index of 3.8. This group is a source of some concern, particularly as the region's health services are often inaccessible resulting in dental caries frequently remaining untreated until tooth extraction is required. Logistic regression analysis showed that dental hygiene and, to a lesser extent, sugar intake, were the principal risk factors for dental caries. Adolescents who consume more than three meals per day and who, presumably, have a higher intake of cariogenic food, present more caries than those who consume less. These schoolchildren meet the objectives of the WHO for dental caries for 2000, but two courses of action are nonetheless necessary: caries prevention and improved access to dental health care. To prevent caries, techniques for increasing the resistance of teeth could be recommended, as in industrialized countries. However, such strategies would be difficult to implement in the rural context of a developing country. The addition of fluoride to drinking water, for example, is not practical as most of the inhabitants of rural areas do not have access to running water. The use of sealing agents, which protect against decay affecting the occlusal surfaces of molars, is also impractical, for financial reasons. Thus, basic

  4. Reflectance, scattering, and laser induced fluorescence for the detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakaki, Eleni; Makropoulou, Myrsini; Khabbaz, Maruan; Serafetinides, Alexandros A.

    2003-10-01

    Directional dependence of reflected laser light and of the laser induced fluorescence signals performed both on the intact hard dental tissues, such as enamel, dentine, cementum and on the tissues pathologically affected by caries (superficial, intermediate, and deep). The laser induced fluorescence spectra were collected at different angles of observation and were correlated with the different scattering and reflectance properties of the hard dental samples

  5. Dental caries: A complete changeover (Part II)-Changeover in the diagnosis and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Carounanidy, Usha; Sathyanarayanan, R

    2009-01-01

    Realization that dental caries is a reversible, dynamic biochemical event at a micron level has changed the way the profession recognizes the caries disease and the caries lesion. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. The most appropriate diagnostic aid for this purpose is the risk model of caries risk assessment. The analyses of the biological determinants provide clues to the dominant causal factor. The detection of a carious lesion has undergone a rigorous revision and revolution in order to identify the earliest mineral change so that it can be controlled without resorting to invasive management options. Apart from detection, it became mandatory to assess the extent of the lesion (noncavitated/cavitated), assess the activity status of the lesion (active/arrested), monitor the lesion progress (progression/regression over a period of time), and finally to predict the prognosis of the lesion as well as the disease. The prognosis of the disease can be best assessed by analyzing the predictor factors in caries risk assessment. The ultimate objective of such a meticulous and methodical approach aids in devising a tailor-made treatment plan, using preventing measures precisely and restorative measures minimally. This ensures the best oral health outcome of the patient. PMID:20543914

  6. Longitudinal study of dental caries increment in Malaysian school children: a 5-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Yusof, Norashikin; Hassan, Mohamed I A; Jaafar, Nasaruddin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this 5-year longitudinal cohort study was to assess the prevalence, severity, and trends in caries increment and impact of the School Dental Incremental Care Programme (SDICP). Data were gathered from school dental records as part of the SDICP. A sample of 1830 children were included and checked for caries experience annually using World Health Organization criteria. In total, 95.4% of the children were caries free in 2004, and caries experience declined to 70.5% in 2009 with an average of 4.9% annually. At baseline, the mean DMFT (confidence interval [CI]) was 0.06 (0.05-0.08) and increased to 0.58 (0.53-0.63) in 2009. Children with active caries were 4.4% in 2004, and figures rose to 9.6% in 2009. The FT component increased most rapidly during these 5 years from 0.2% to 25.1%. Overall caries prevalence and increment was low in this study. Proportions of FT component were higher as compared with DT component with low rate of extractions during the latter years of the study. PMID:22218936

  7. Ex vivo imaging of early dental caries within the interproximal space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Hewko, Mark D.; Dufour, Marc L.; Fulton, Crystal; Qiu, Pingli; Gauthier, Bruno; Padioleau, Christian; Bisaillon, Charles-Etienne; Dong, Cecilia; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Lamouche, Guy; Sowa, Michael G.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is emerging as a technology that can potentially be used for the detection and monitoring of early dental enamel caries since it can provide high-resolution depth imaging of early lesions. To date, most caries detection optical technologies are well suited for examining caries at facial, lingual, incisal and occlusal surfaces. The approximal surfaces between adjacent teeth are difficult to examine due to lack of visual access and limited space for these new caries detection tools. Using a catheter-style probe developed at the NRC-Industrial Materials Institute, the probe was inserted into the interproximal space to examine the approximal surfaces with OCT imaging at 1310 nm. The probe was rotated continuously and translated axially to generate depth images in a spiral fashion. The probe was used in a mock tooth arch model consisting of extracted human teeth mounted with dental rope wax in their anatomically correct positions. With this ex vivo model, the probe provided images of the approximal surfaces revealing morphological structural details, regions of calculus, and especially regions of early dental caries (white spot lesions). Results were compared with those obtained from OCT imaging of individual samples where the approximal surfaces of extracted teeth are accessible on a lab-bench. Issues regarding access, regions of interest, and factors to be considered in an in vivo setting will be discussed. Future studies are aimed at using the probe in vivo with patient volunteers.

  8. Genetic susceptibility to dental caries on pit and fissure and smooth surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, J R; Wang, X; Desensi, R S; Wendell, S; Weyant, R J; Cuenco, K T; Crout, R; McNeil, D W; Marazita, M L

    2012-01-01

    Carious lesions are distributed nonuniformly across tooth surfaces of the complete dentition, suggesting that the effects of risk factors may be surface-specific. Whether genes differentially affect caries risk across tooth surfaces is unknown. We investigated the role of genetics on two classes of tooth surfaces, pit and fissure surfaces (PFS) and smooth surfaces (SMS), in more than 2,600 subjects from 740 families. Participants were examined for surface-level evidence of dental caries, and caries scores for permanent and/or primary teeth were generated separately for PFS and SMS. Heritability estimates (h(2), i.e. the proportion of trait variation due to genes) of PFS and SMS caries scores were obtained using likelihood methods. The genetic correlations between PFS and SMS caries scores were calculated to assess the degree to which traits covary due to common genetic effects. Overall, the heritability of caries scores was similar for PFS (h(2) = 19-53%; p < 0.001) and SMS (h(2) = 17-42%; p < 0.001). Heritability of caries scores for both PFS and SMS in the primary dentition was greater than in the permanent dentition and total dentition. With one exception, the genetic correlation between PFS and SMS caries scores was not significantly different from 100%, indicating that (mostly) common genes are involved in the risk of caries for both surface types. Genetic correlation for the primary dentition dfs (decay + filled surfaces) was significantly less than 100% (p < 0.001), indicating that genetic factors may exert differential effects on caries risk in PFS versus SMS in the primary dentition. PMID:22286298

  9. Dental caries detection by optical spectroscopy: a polarized Raman approach with fibre-optic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, A. C.-T.; Choo-Smith, L.-P.; Werner, J.; Hewko, M.; Sowa, M. G.; Dong, C.; Cleghorn, B.

    2006-09-01

    Incipient dental caries lesions appear as white spots on the tooth surface; however, accurate detection of early approximal lesions is difficult due to limited sensitivity of dental radiography and other traditional diagnostic tools. A new fibre-optic coupled spectroscopic method based on polarized Raman spectroscopy (P-RS) with near-IR laser excitation is introduced which provides contrast for detecting and characterizing incipient caries. Changes in polarized Raman spectra are observed in PO 4 3- vibrations arising from hydroxyapatite of mineralized tooth tissue. Demineralization-induced morphological/orientational alteration of enamel crystallites is believed to be responsible for the reduction of Raman polarization anisotropy observed in the polarized Raman spectra of caries lesions. Supporting evidence obtained by polarized Raman spectral imaging is presented. A specially designed fibre-optic coupled setup for simultaneous measurement of parallel- and cross-polarized tooth Raman spectra is demonstrated in this study.

  10. Dental caries experience among indigenous children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Érica M; Cavalcanti, Laysa C; Firmino, Ramon T; Ribeiro, Gustavo L; Granville-Garcia, Ana F; Menezes, Valdenice A

    2015-06-01

    Investigations into the oral health status of indigenous populations are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate caries experience and associated factors among 342 indigenous children and adolescents aged 5-15 years of the Xukuru community in the municipality of Pesqueira, Brazil. A cross-sectional census study was carried out using the criteria of the World Health Organization to determine caries experience. Examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists and a questionnaire was administered to parents/caregivers addressing socio-demographic data, diet and oral hygiene habits. Logistic regression analysis were performed, with dmft and DMFT as the dependent variables (P < 0.05). Caries experience (dmft/DMFT) was high in both the primary and permanent dentition (75.6% and 62.9%, respectively). Mean dmft and DMFT indices were 3.11 and 2.21, respectively. Caries experience in the primary dentition was associated with children residing in villages far from urban areas (P = 0.016), while caries in the permanent dentition was associated with older children (P < 0.001) and with children from villages at an intermediate distance and far from urban areas (P < 0.001). The indigenous subjects exhibited a high degree of caries experience, which was associated with age and group of villages. Public policies are needed to improve the oral health status of this population. PMID:26062861

  11. Triphala in prevention of dental caries and as an antimicrobial in oral cavity- a review.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Vagish K L

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a widely prevalent infectious disease afflicting the humans worldwide. Each year oral infections such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral candidiasis significantly adds to the economic burden of the world. Though there are standard management techniques for these diseases; they do have side effects and are not cost effective. Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine that is being practiced in the Indian peninsula since ages. Among the various herbal medicines in ayurveda, triphala occupies a royal position due to its wide beneficial systemic actions. Triphala is a mixture of fruits of Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The antimicrobial actions of triphala are well documented in the literature. However availability of review articles regarding triphala as an antimicrobial against oral infections is limited. Need was felt to review this aspect of triphala. The present article reviews the use of triphala and its constituents in the prevention and control of dental caries and other common oral infections. Thorough review of the literature indicated that triphala can be effectively used to manage dental caries, gingival and periodontal diseases. Further it can also be utilized as a root canal irrigant and against oral candida species. PMID:25966965

  12. Caries Risk Assessment for Determination of Focus and Intensity of Prevention in a Dental School Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Michael W. J.; Suddick, Richard P.

    1995-01-01

    A study at the University of Texas, San Antonio's dental school resulted in development of a system of caries risk assessment, applied to all undergraduate clinic patients. The rationale, structure, elements, and application of the system are outlined, and course content supporting the system is noted. Need for validation and other improvements is…

  13. The Relationship between Sugar-Containing Methadone and Dental Caries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathee, Sheela; Akbar, Tahira; Richards, Derek; Themessl-Huber, Markus; Freeman, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To review the evidence of a relationship between sugar-containing methadone and dental caries. Data sources: A systematic search of Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Controlled Trials, WHO, OHRN, SIGLE and ERIC databases was conducted from January 1978 up to June 2010. Study selection: Articles were assessed…

  14. Dental caries and social factors: impact on quality of life in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Milene Torres; Sardenberg, Fernanda; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries and social determinants in the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 1,204 children aged 8 to 10 years randomly selected from 19 public and private schools. The children were clinically examined at school by two trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.78 - 1.00). The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMF-T and dmf-t) was used for the diagnosis of dental caries. The social factors were determined by parents'/caregivers' schooling, household income, number of people in the household, type of school, and by the Social Vulnerability Index. The Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for ages 8 to 10 years was used to assess the impact on quality of life. A total of 278 (23.1%) out of 1,204 children had at least one cavitated carious lesion and 47.0% presented a negative impact on OHRQoL. In the final multivariate Poisson's regression model, household income and presence of untreated dental caries were statistically associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL (p < 0.001).Children with dental caries and from low-income families had a higher negative impact on OHRQoL. PMID:26892354

  15. Dental Caries Prevalence among 12–15 Year Old Palestinian Children

    PubMed Central

    Mahfouz, Maen; Abu Esaid, Albina

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To measure the distribution of dental caries in a group of Palestinian adolescents. Material and Methods. A sample of 677 individuals of both sexes (411 were females and 266 were males) their ages ranged from 12 to 15 year old randomly selected from schools in northern west bank in Palestine. Clinical examination was performed on all the subjects focusing on the index DMFT, representing the number of teeth that were either decayed, missing or with extraction indicated, or restored. Results. The prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition was 54.35% and was the highest in 15 age 75.75% in comparison to the other ages (12, 13, and 14) (40.57%, 41.76%, and 60.47%), respectively. The mean DMFT for the sample was 5.39 ± 2.85525 while the mean DMFT for different age groups (12–15) was 5.52 ± 2.766, 5.58 ± 2.745, 5.23 ± 3.304, and 5.23 ± 2.606, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was higher in females with DMFT 5.39 ± 2.854 than males with DMFT 5.26 ± 2.891. Conclusion. High prevalent dental caries was found among Palestinian adolescents and higher in females than males. Strict preventive programs should be implemented. Further research with large samples required to include all adolescents from Palestine.

  16. Prevalence of dental caries in 12-13-year-old Jordanian students.

    PubMed

    Albashaireh, Z; al-Hadi Hamasha, A

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the caries experience of 12-13-year-old 6th grade students in Jordan. A total of 694 students were selected randomly from a list of schools teaching 6th grade students in Irbid, Jordan. The data were collected by interview and clinical examination performed by two examiners. Dental examinations were done by using dental mirrors and probes under artificial light in classrooms and the diagnosis of dental caries was made by the criteria recommended by the World Health Organisation (1987). On average students had 24.4 sound teeth, 2.3 decayed teeth (D), 0.05 missing teeth (M) and 0.16 filled teeth (F). The mean DMFT index was 2.51. The D represents 92% of the DMF cases. Of the students examined 188 were caries free (27.1%). Of the 19,432 permanent teeth examined the highest frequency of dental caries (61%) and fillings (77%) was found in first molars, and these were the most commonly missing teeth (67%). Second molars and second premolars had the second and third highest frequencies respectively, whereas incisors and canines were the least affected teeth (< 2%). PMID:12061150

  17. Association between Dental Caries and Down Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Scientific evidence of susceptibility to dental caries in the population with Down Syndrome (DS) is limited and conflicting, making it difficult to establish firm conclusions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to obtain scientific evidence of the possible association between dental caries and individuals with DS, compared to individuals without DS (control). An electronic search of five databases was performed, with no language or publication date restrictions. The studies were selected by two independent reviewers (Kappa = 0.83). The systematic review included 13 studies, while eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The studies are presumably all at risk of bias given their observational character. Two of these evaluated the presence or absence of caries in permanent and deciduous teeth, and six evaluated the mean DMFT index in permanent teeth. Combined odds ratios (OR), standard difference, standard error and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. The vast majority of the studies found that individuals from control groups had more carious lesions or caries experience than those with DS. The results were statistically significant in seven studies (p<0.05). Meta-analysis of two studies revealed that individuals with DS had a lower dental caries than those in the control group (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.22–0.57). In six studies, individuals with DS had a significantly lower mean DMFT index than individuals from the control group (Sd = -0.18; SE = 0.09; 95% CI = -0.35–-0.02). The quality of the studies varied and in general had a high risk of bias. Scientific evidence suggests that individuals with DS have fewer dental caries than individuals without DS. PMID:26086498

  18. Association between Dental Caries and Down Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Deps, Tahyna Duda; Angelo, Gabriela Lopes; Martins, Carolina Castro; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Borges-Oliveira, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Scientific evidence of susceptibility to dental caries in the population with Down Syndrome (DS) is limited and conflicting, making it difficult to establish firm conclusions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to obtain scientific evidence of the possible association between dental caries and individuals with DS, compared to individuals without DS (control). An electronic search of five databases was performed, with no language or publication date restrictions. The studies were selected by two independent reviewers (Kappa = 0.83). The systematic review included 13 studies, while eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The studies are presumably all at risk of bias given their observational character. Two of these evaluated the presence or absence of caries in permanent and deciduous teeth, and six evaluated the mean DMFT index in permanent teeth. Combined odds ratios (OR), standard difference, standard error and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. The vast majority of the studies found that individuals from control groups had more carious lesions or caries experience than those with DS. The results were statistically significant in seven studies (p<0.05). Meta-analysis of two studies revealed that individuals with DS had a lower dental caries than those in the control group (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.22-0.57). In six studies, individuals with DS had a significantly lower mean DMFT index than individuals from the control group (Sd = -0.18; SE = 0.09; 95% CI = -0.35--0.02). The quality of the studies varied and in general had a high risk of bias. Scientific evidence suggests that individuals with DS have fewer dental caries than individuals without DS. PMID:26086498

  19. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries: A Model for Niche Adaptation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Caufield, P W; Schön, C N; Saraithong, P; Li, Y; Argimón, S

    2015-09-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental caries and their determinants in adolescents in New Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Manu Raj; Tsakos, Georgios; Millett, Christopher; Arora, Monika; Watt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether socioeconomic inequalities are correlated to dental caries experience and decayed teeth of Indian adolescents, and assess whether behavioural and psychosocial factors mediate this association. Methods Cross-sectional study of 1386 adolescents living in three diverse areas of New Delhi. Caries experience and number of decayed teeth were assessed clinically and a questionnaire was used to gather sociodemographic and psychosocial data. Zero Inflated Negative Binomial regression models were used to assess the relationship between the outcomes (caries experience and decayed teeth) and area of residence, adjusting for covariates. Results Significant inequalities in caries experience and number of decayed teeth were observed. Odds of an adolescent being caries free decreased by 66% (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.49) and 70% (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.43) in adolescents living in resettlement communities or urban slums, respectively, when compared with the middle class group. No difference was observed among those with caries experience/decayed teeth. Adjusting for covariates did not affect the inequalities. Conclusions Area of residence appears to be a very strong and significant determinant for an adolescent to be caries/decay free in India. Psychosocial and behavioural factors do not mediate the association between area of residence and oral health. PMID:25500618

  1. Are Pediatric Antibiotic Formulations Potentials Risk Factors for Dental Caries and Dental Erosion?

    PubMed Central

    Valinoti, Ana Carolina; da Costa Jr., Luiz Carlos; Farah, Adriana; Pereira de Sousa, Valéria; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most frequent parents’ concerns is that oral antibiotic formulations induce dental damage in their children’s. This study aimed to assess the cariogenic and erosive potentials of 29 pediatric antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Replicates of each antibiotic were analyzed for the concentration of sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and sorbitol by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pH was determined by digital pHmeter. Titratable acidity was determined in triplicate using the same pHmeter by gradual addition of 0.1N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) until pH 7.0. Viscosity measurements were carried out using a viscosimeter. In order to rank the relative performance of each medicine, the DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) methodology was used. Results: Sucrose was present in most samples (n=24) with concentrations ranging from 26 to ≈ 100g% (w/w). Only one antibiotic contained sorbitol (66.9g%). Twenty seven antibiotics presented pH values ranging from 4.1 to 6.9 and most of them (n=15) showed the pH below the critical value for dissolution of hydroxyapatite. The values of titratable acidity and viscosity ranged from 0.26 to 40.48 ml and from 20 to 1780cP, respectively. DEA methodology showed that two medicines were distant from the performance frontier (Klaricid® 50mg and Zinnat® 250mg), which means that these medicines showed the worst performance and, therefore, greater potential for dissolution of dental enamel. Conclusion: Many antibiotics presented high concentration of sugars, high titratable acidity, pH below the critical value and high viscosity which can be considered risk factors for dental caries and erosion, when consumed frequently. PMID:27583053

  2. Association of sweet taste receptor gene polymorphisms with dental caries experience in school children.

    PubMed

    Haznedaroğlu, Eda; Koldemir-Gündüz, Meliha; Bakır-Coşkun, Nur; Bozkuş, Hasan M; Çağatay, Penbe; Süsleyici-Duman, Belgin; Menteş, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. The peripheral taste response to sugar is mediated by the TAS1R2/TAS1R3 taste receptors. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between TAS1R2 (rs35874116 or rs9701796) and/or TAS1R3 (rs307355) single nucleotide polymorphisms with dental caries experience in schoolchildren. A total of 184 schoolchildren aged between 7 and 12 years (101 girls, 83 boys) were included in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva samples and the genotypes were identified by qPCR. The genotype frequencies were as follows: 6.6% for homozygous wild type, 41.8% for heterozygous and 51.6% for homozygous polymorphic genotype carriers of TAS1R2 gene rs35874116; 27.8% for heterozygous and 72.2% for homozygous polymorphic genotype carriers of TAS1R2 gene rs9701796, and 83.1% for homozygous wild type and 16.9% for heterozygous genotype carriers of TAS1R3 gene rs307355 polymorphism. A significant association was observed between total caries experience (dft + DMFT - decayed filled primary teeth + decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth) and TAS1R2 rs35874116 (p = 0.008) and TAS1R3 rs307355 (p = 0.04) gene polymorphisms but not for TAS1R2 gene rs9701796 polymorphism. TAS1R3 gene rs307355 polymorphism has been found to be an independent risk factor for dental caries experience by logistic regression analysis and to have increased the risk of caries. Moderate caries experience (4-7 caries) was found to be associated with TAS1R3 rs307355 heterozygous genotype, whereas high-risk caries experience (>8 caries) was found to be associated with TAS1R2 rs35874116 homozygous polymorphic genotype. PMID:25924601

  3. Detection and Proportion of Very Early Dental Caries in Independent Living Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Jennifer S.; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Materials and Methods Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. Results OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Conclusions Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools

  4. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS): A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v) dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983) were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions) from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877 PMID:20923557

  5. Evaluation of cross-polarized near infrared hyperspectral imaging for early detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and oral hygiene, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent oral diseases and represents the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals and are difficult to diagnose. Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for detection of early changes in the surfaces of carious teeth. This noninvasive imaging technique can characterize and differentiate between the sound tooth surface and initial or advanced tooth caries. The absorbing and scattering properties of dental tissues reflect in distinct spectral features, which can be measured, quantified and used to accurately classify and map different dental tissues. Specular reflections from the tooth surface, which appear as bright spots, mostly located around the edges and the crests of the teeth, act as a noise factor which can significantly interfere with the spectral measurements and analysis of the acquired images, degrading the accuracy of the classification and diagnosis. Employing cross-polarized imaging setup can solve this problem, however has yet to be systematically evaluated, especially in broadband hyperspectral imaging setups. In this paper, we employ cross-polarized illumination setup utilizing state-of-the-art high-contrast broadband wire-grid polarizers in the spectral range from 900 nm to 1700 nm for hyperspectral imaging of natural and artificial carious lesions of various degrees.

  6. Research on optical properties of dental enamel for early caries diagnostics using a He-Ne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Liu, Li; Li, Song-zhan

    2008-12-01

    A new and non-invasive method adapted for optical diagnosis of early caries is proposed by researching on the interaction mechanism of laser with dental tissue and relations of remitted light with optical properties of the tissue. This method is based on simultaneous analyses of the following parameters: probing radiation, backscattering and auto-fluorescence. Investigation was performed on 104 dental samples in vitro by using He-Ne laser (λ=632.8nm, 2.0+/-0.1mW) as the probing. Spectrums of all samples were obtained. Characteristic spectrums of dental caries in various stages (intact, initial, moderate and deep) were given. Using the back-reflected light to normalize the intensity of back-scattering and fluorescence, a quantitative diagnosis standard for different stages of caries is proposed. In order to verify the test, comparison research was conducted among artificial caries, morphological damaged enamel, dental calculus and intact tooth. Results show that variations in backscattering characteristic changes in bio-tissue morphological and the quantity of auto-fluorescence is correlated with concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. This method poses a high potential of diagnosing various stages of dental caries, and is more reliability to detect early caries, surface damage of health enamel and dental calculus.

  7. Nanotechnology strategies for antibacterial and remineralizing composites and adhesives to tackle dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2015-03-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread disease and an economic burden. Nanotechnology is promising to inhibit caries by controlling biofilm acids and enhancing remineralization. Nanoparticles of silver were incorporated into composites/adhesives, along with quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs), to combat biofilms. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) released calcium/phosphate ions, remineralized tooth-lesions and neutralized acids. By combining nanoparticles of silver/QAM/NACP, a new class of composites and adhesives with antibacterial and remineralization double benefits was developed. Various other nanoparticles including metal and oxide nanoparticles such as ZnO and TiO2, as well as polyethylenimine nanoparticles and their antibacterial capabilities in dental resins were also reviewed. These nanoparticles are promising for incorporation into dental composites/cements/sealants/bases/liners/adhesives. Therefore, nanotechnology has potential to significantly improve restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:25723095

  8. Nanotechnology strategies for antibacterial and remineralizing composites and adhesives to tackle dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin HK

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread disease and an economic burden. Nanotechnology is promising to inhibit caries by controlling biofilm acids and enhancing remineralization. Nanoparticles of silver were incorporated into composites/adhesives, along with quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs), to combat biofilms. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) released calcium/phosphate ions, remineralized tooth-lesions and neutralized acids. By combining NAg/QAM/NACP, a new class of composites and adhesives with antibacterial and remineralization double benefits was developed. Various other nanoparticles including metal and oxide nanoparticles such as ZnO and TiO2, as well as polyethylenimine nanoparticles and their antibacterial capabilities in dental resins were also reviewed. These nanoparticles are promising for incorporation into dental composites/cements/sealants/bases/liners/adhesives. Therefore, nanotechnology has potential to significantly improve restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:25723095

  9. The Dynamic Behavior of the Early Dental Caries Lesion in Caries-active Adults and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J P; Amaechi, B T; Bader, J D; Shugars, D; Vollmer, W M; Chen, C; Gilbert, G H; Esterberg, E J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the full range of behavior of the visible, non-cavitated, early caries lesion in caries-active adults with substantial fluoride exposure, and to consider implications. Methods The data were from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT), collected annually for 33 months using condensed ICDAS caries threshold criteria. Individual tooth surfaces having a non-cavitated caries lesion were included and the Patterns of transition to each subsequent annual clinical examination to sound, non-cavitated or cavitated, filled or crowned were determined. The resulting sets of Patterns for an individual tooth surface, looking forward from its first appearance as a non-cavitated lesion, were combined into one of four behavior Profiles classified as Reversing, Stable, Oscillating or continuously Progressing, or were excluded if not part of the caries continuum. The distributions of Profile types were assessed using the Rao-Scott Chi square test, which adjusts for clustering of tooth surfaces within teeth. Results Inter-and intra-examiner Kappa scores demonstrated acceptable calibration at baseline and annually. 8084 tooth surfaces from 543 subjects were included. The distribution of Profile types differed significantly between coronal and root surfaces. Overall two-thirds of all coronal non-cavitated lesions were first seen at baseline, half Reversed, over a fifth were Stable, 15% Oscillated and only 8.3% progressed to cavitation, filled or crowned in 33 months or less. (6.3% consistently Progressed plus 2.0% inconsistently, a subset of Oscillating, which oscillated before progressing to cavitation). Approximal, smooth and occlusal coronal surfaces each were significantly different in their individual distributions of Profile types. Xylitol showed no significant and consistent effect on this distribution by tooth surface type. This was in keeping with the X-ACT Trial’s lack of effect of xylitol at the non-cavitated plus cavitated lesion thresholds combined

  10. Dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rakchanok, Noochpoung; Amporn, Dejpitak; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to identify dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant women, and to compare it with those in non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Data were collected from 197 women (94 pregnant and 103 non-pregnant) from June to August, 2008. Dental caries and gingivitis was defined clinically according to the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Over 74.0% of pregnant women had caries, and 86.2% had gingivitis. There were significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with regard to dental caries (p < 0.001) and gingivitis (p = 0.021). The pregnant women were 2.9 times more likely to suffer from dental caries (95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.6-5.4), and 2.2 times more (95% CI, 1.1-4.7) from gingivitis compared to non-pregnant women. Farmers (Odd ratio (OR), 7.0; 95% CI, 1.8-26.3), high school graduation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2-7.3), and universal health insurance coverage (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.3) were significant predictors for gingivitis. Only high school graduates were found to be significant predictors of dental caries with an OR of 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2-6.3). Poor oral hygiene (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.5), lack of knowledge (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.6-6.3), and poor oral hygiene habits (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.6) were important risk factors for dental caries. Similarly, inadequate oral hygiene status (OR, 24.8; 95% CI, 5.5-112.2), and poor oral health habits (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1-25.2) were found to be significant risk factors for gingivitis among pregnant women indicating, that most women should be trained in proper oral hygiene practices. Community awareness programs should be conducted to increase women's awareness of such hygienic practices. PMID:20229702

  11. Access to Fluoridated Water and Adult Dental Caries: A Natural Experiment.

    PubMed

    Peres, M A; Peres, K G; Barbato, P R; Höfelmann, D A

    2016-07-01

    Systematic reviews have found no evidence to support a benefit of water fluoridation (WF) to prevent dental caries in adult populations. The aim of this natural experiment was to investigate whether lifetime access to fluoridated water is associated with dental caries experience among adults from Florianópolis, Brazil. The data originated from a population-based cohort study (EpiFloripa Adult) initiated in 2009 (n = 1,720) when participants were aged 20 to 59 years. The second wave was carried out in 2012 (n = 1,140) and included a dental examination and a face-to-face questionnaire. Participants residing at the same address since the age of 7 y or before were included in the primary analyses. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. WF was implemented in the city in 2 different periods of time: 1982 (60% of the population) and 1996. Dental caries was assessed by the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. A combination of residential status, participant's age, and year of implementation of WF permitted the creation of participants' lifetime access to fluoridated water: >75%, 50% to 75%, and <50% of a participant's lifetime. Covariates included sex, age, socioeconomic mobility, educational attainment, income, pattern of dental attendance, and smoking. Participants who accessed fluoridate water <50% of their lifetime presented a higher mean rate ratio of DMFT (1.39; 95% CI, 1.05-1.84) compared with those living >75% of their lifetime with residential access to fluoridated water. Participants living between 50% and 75% and <50% of their lives in fluoridated areas presented a decayed and filled teeth mean ratio of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02-1.75) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.05-2.04) higher than those with residential access to fluoridated water >75% of their lifetime, respectively. Longer residential lifetime access to fluoridated water was associated with less dental caries even in a context of multiple exposures to fluoride. PMID:27053119

  12. Assessment of dental caries with optical coherence tomography: effect of ambient factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.; Higham, Susan M.; Jackson, David A.

    2002-06-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been used to produce longitudinal images of dental tissues. We investigated the influence on OCT system, of factors that could limit detection and quantitative monitoring of incipient caries. The effect of such factors as saliva, dental plaque, lesion staining, ambient lighting, and Dacron gauze (used to encourage plaque growth in in situ caries studies) on OCT imaging and analysis were determined during demineralization to produce early caries. The system can collect A-scans, B- scans (longitudinal images) and C-scans (en-face images). Caries lesions were shown as volumes of reduced reflectivity. A-scan, which showed the levels of reflectivity versus the depth of penetration into the tooth tissue, was used for the quantitative analysis of the reflectivity loss. The reflectivity of the tooth tissue decreased with demineralization. The percentage change in reflectivity of the tissue was quantified as a measure of the change in mineral status of the tissue following demineralization. Neither the presence of saliva, plaque, Dacron gauze, plaque/Dacron gauze, nor lesion staining nor the level of ambient lighting significantly affected OCT detection and analysis of an incipient caries.

  13. Immunization with purified protein antigens from Streptococcus mutans against dental caries in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, T; Russell, M W; Caldwell, J; Smith, R

    1981-01-01

    Protein antigens I, I/II, II, and III were prepared from Streptococcus mutans (serotype c). Their immunogenicities and protective effects against dental caries were investigated in 40 rhesus monkeys kept entirely on a human-type diet, containing about 15% sucrose. Antigens I, I/II and, to a lesser extent, antigen II induced significant reductions in dental caries, as compared with sham-immunized monkeys. This was achieved with 1 or 2 doses of antigen, the first of which was administered with adjuvant (Freund incomplete adjuvant or aluminum hydroxide). There was no reduction in caries in monkeys immunized with antigen III. The reduction in caries in the animals immunized with antigens I or I/II was comparable to that in monkeys immunized with whole cells. Protection against caries was associated predominantly with serum and gingival crevicular fluid immunoglobulin G antibodies, which appeared to be directed against the antigen I determinant, but antibodies to antigen II, though not to antigen III, were also protective. PMID:7309233

  14. Diet and Dental Caries: The Pivotal Role of Free Sugars Reemphasized.

    PubMed

    Sheiham, A; James, W P T

    2015-10-01

    The importance of sugars as a cause of caries is underemphasized and not prominent in preventive strategies. This is despite overwhelming evidence of its unique role in causing a worldwide caries epidemic. Why this neglect? One reason is that researchers mistakenly consider caries to be a multifactorial disease; they also concentrate mainly on mitigating factors, particularly fluoride. However, this is to misunderstand that the only cause of caries is dietary sugars. These provide a substrate for cariogenic oral bacteria to flourish and to generate enamel-demineralizing acids. Modifying factors such as fluoride and dental hygiene would not be needed if we tackled the single cause--sugars. In this article, we demonstrate the sensitivity of cariogenesis to even very low sugars intakes. Quantitative analyses show a log-linear dose-response relationship between the sucrose or its monosaccharide intakes and the progressive lifelong development of caries. This results in a substantial dental health burden throughout life. Processed starches have cariogenic potential when accompanying sucrose, but human studies do not provide unequivocal data of their cariogenicity. The long-standing failure to identify the need for drastic national reductions in sugars intakes reflects scientific confusion partly induced by pressure from major industrial sugar interests. PMID:26261186

  15. [The prophylactic aspects of dental caries in the antenatal period].

    PubMed

    Tumshevits, O N; Leont'ev, V K; Boginskaia, L M

    1990-01-01

    To elucidate the contribution of stress exposures of pregnant women to the development of deciduous teeth caries in their children, the authors have analyzed the stomatological status of 320 infants with favorable and unfavorable antenatal period complicated by stress situations (that were detected with the help of questionnaires) in 3 regions of Moscow, where fluorine levels in potable water are different. The study has revealed that mother's emotional stress in the period of formation of deciduous teeth hard tissues in the fetus reduced infant teeth resistance to caries and lowered the prophylactic effect of fluorine. PMID:2251711

  16. [Dental caries in preschoolers living in a rural locality].

    PubMed

    Smoliar, N I; Ketsman, I N; Kolesnichenko, A V; Solon'ko, G M

    1990-01-01

    The examination has involved 211 children aged 3 to 6, whose mothers were exposed to pesticides when pregnant. Clinical examinations have shown a much higher incidence rate of caries and intensity of the teeth involvement in the children whose mothers were exposed to pesticides than in those whose mothers had no contacts with these chemicals. To prevent caries in children, one should persuade their mothers to breast-feed their babies during the first year. It is desirable that contacts with pesticides be ceased during pregnancy, i.e. that pregnant women be given other work; if that is impossible reliable protection means should be employed. PMID:2371736

  17. A holistic food labelling strategy for preventing obesity and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cinar, A B; Murtomaa, H

    2009-05-01

    Obesity and dental caries in childhood are among the major public health concerns described as a global pandemic because of their global distribution and severe consequences. A consensus has developed as to a recently emerging and alarming common risk factor that leads to the double burden of dental caries and obesity; energy-dense foods (sugar-coated cereals, high-sugar yogurt, soft drinks) are becoming very popular among children because of their dense marketing, cheaper price, increased supply and variety. Implementation of health-promoting and -supporting marketing strategies for healthy food can be one initial cornerstone for successful application of the common risk factor approach in prevention of obesity and dental caries, as also suggested by World Health Organization. Labelling healthy food with a 'health-friendly' logo, illustrating that the teeth and the heart are both parts of the whole body (standing side by side supporting each other as close friends), both happy and protected because of consumption of healthy food for the whole body, can promote the foods that are friendly to health of the whole body, implementing the common risk factor approach under a single theme. Labelling healthy food as 'health-friendly' based on an international consensus will provide a clear and uniform picture of what is healthy to eat and result in an international integrated programme for prevention of obesity and caries. PMID:19207877

  18. Blood lead level and dental caries in school-age children.

    PubMed Central

    Gemmel, Allison; Tavares, Mary; Alperin, Susan; Soncini, Jennifer; Daniel, David; Dunn, Julie; Crawford, Sybil; Braveman, Norman; Clarkson, Thomas W; McKinlay, Sonja; Bellinger, David C

    2002-01-01

    The association between blood lead level and dental caries was evaluated in cross-sectional analyses of baseline data for 543 children 6-10 years old screened for enrollment in the Children's Amalgam Trial, a study designed to assess potential health effects of mercury in silver fillings. Approximately half of the children were recruited from an urban setting (Boston/Cambridge, MA, USA) and approximately half from a rural setting (Farmington, ME, USA). Mean blood lead level was significantly greater among the urban subgroup, as was the mean number of carious tooth surfaces. Blood lead level was positively associated with number of caries among urban children, even with adjustment for demographic and maternal factors and child dental practices. This association was stronger in primary than in permanent dentition and stronger for occlusal, lingual, and buccal tooth surfaces than for mesial or distal surfaces. In general, blood lead was not associated with caries in the rural subgroup. The difference between the strength of the associations in the urban and rural settings might reflect the presence of residual confounding in the former setting, the presence of greater variability in the latter setting in terms of important caries risk factors (e.g., fluoride exposure), or greater exposure misclassification in the rural setting. These findings add to the evidence supporting a weak association between children's lead exposure and caries prevalence. A biologic mechanism for lead cariogenicity has not been identified, however. Our data are also consistent with residual confounding by factors associated with both elevated lead exposure and dental caries. PMID:12361944

  19. Digital Dental X-ray Database for Caries Screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rad, Abdolvahab Ehsani; Rahim, Mohd Shafry Mohd; Rehman, Amjad; Saba, Tanzila

    2016-06-01

    Standard database is the essential requirement to compare the performance of image analysis techniques. Hence the main issue in dental image analysis is the lack of available image database which is provided in this paper. Periapical dental X-ray images which are suitable for any analysis and approved by many dental experts are collected. This type of dental radiograph imaging is common and inexpensive, which is normally used for dental disease diagnosis and abnormalities detection. Database contains 120 various Periapical X-ray images from top to bottom jaw. Dental digital database is constructed to provide the source for researchers to use and compare the image analysis techniques and improve or manipulate the performance of each technique.

  20. Long-term adoption of caries management by risk assessment among dental students in a university clinic.

    PubMed

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term adoption of a risk-based caries management program at a university dental clinic. The authors extracted data from electronic records of adult non-edentulous patients who underwent a comprehensive oral evaluation in the university predoctoral clinic from July 2007 through June 2014 (N=21,984). Consistency with caries management guidelines was measured as the percentage of patients with caries risk designation (low, moderate, high, or extreme) and the percentage of patients provided non-operative anti-caries agents within each designated caries risk category. Additionally, patient and provider characteristics associated with risk assessment completion and with provision of anti-caries therapy were identified. Results showed that the percentage of patients with documented caries risk grew steadily from 62.3% in 2007-08 to 92.8% in 2013-14. Overall, receipt of non-operative anti-caries agents increased with rising caries risk, from low (6.9%), moderate (14.1%), high (36.4%), to extreme (51.4%), but percentages were stable over the study period. Younger patients were more likely to have a completed risk assessment, and among high- and extreme-risk patients, delivery of anti-caries therapy was more common among patients who were younger, identified as Asian or Caucasian, received public dental benefits, or were seen by a student in the four-year DDS program or in the final year of training. These results demonstrate that extensive compliance in documenting caries risk was achieved within a decade of implementing risk-based clinical guidelines at this dental school clinic. Caries risk was the most strongly associated of several factors related to delivery of non-operative therapy. The eventual success of this program suggests that, in dental education, transition to a risk-based, prevention-focused curriculum may require a long-term commitment. PMID:25941147

  1. Dental caries profile in Monte Negro, Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, in 2008

    PubMed Central

    BASTOS, Roosevelt Silva; SILVA, Ricardo Pianta Rodrigues; MAIA-JUNIOR, Adelson Francisco; CARVALHO, Fábio Silva; MERLINI, Sabrina; CALDANA, Magali Lourdes; LAURIS, José Roberto Pereira; BASTOS, José Roberto Magalhães

    2010-01-01

    Objective This epidemiological survey assessed the dental caries profile in Monte Negro, a small town in the Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, and its relationship with the northern region, national and global goals for oral health in the years 2000 and 2020. Material and Methods The groups randomly examined were composed of individuals aged 5, 12, 15 to 19, 35 to 44, 65 to 74 years, living in both rural and urban areas. Results The means dft (standard deviation) and DMFT (standard deviation) for the groups were, respectively, 3.15 (3.12), 3.41 (2.69), 5.96 (4.19), 16.00 (7.30) and 25.96 (9.82). Caries-free individuals were 34.42%, 14.81% and 8.16% in the preschoolchildren, schoolchildren and adolescent groups, respectively. The Significant Caries Index percentages applied to the two younger groups were 6.65 and 6.70, and they increased to 32.00 in the individuals aged 65 to 74 years. Care Index percentages for adolescents, adults and elderly groups were, respectively, 29.40, 25.00 and 1.41. The dental caries profile in Monte Negro in 2008 shows that, 8 years after the year 2000, no FDI/WHO goal for any age settled in 1982 has been achieved. Dental caries increased with age and the main dental problem of adult and elderly groups was tooth loss. Conclusion Oral health promotion and prevention of oral disease policies are urgent needs. Setting of oral health goals and targets to people living in Monte Negro or Amazonia to be pursuit and achieved in a near future is an important action to do because of the culture, sanitary conditions and socioeconomic aspects of this particular population. PMID:21085797

  2. The dental management of troublesome twos: renal tubular acidosis and rampant caries

    PubMed Central

    B, Sandhyarani; Huddar, Dayanand; Patil, Anil; Sankeshwari, Banashree

    2013-01-01

    Renal tubular acidosis is a group of disorders in which there is metabolic acidosis due to defect in renal tubular acidification mechanism to maintain normal plasma bicarbonate and blood pH. Irrespective of organ system involved, oral cavity often reflects the disease occurring anywhere in the body. Thus congenital chronic renal diseases, causing acid–base disturbances affects development and structure of the teeth. Chronic renal tubular acidosis causes enamel defects, dental caries, oral candidiasis, angular cheilitis, etc. We hereby present an unusual case report of a 4-year-old boy suffering from renal tubular acidosis associated with rampant caries, whose full mouth rehabilitation has been done. PMID:23667245

  3. Office-Based Preventive Dental Program and Statewide Trends in Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Ashley M.; Rozier, R. Gary

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a North Carolina Medicaid preventive dentistry program in primary care medical offices (Into the Mouths of Babes Program [IMBP]) on decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) of kindergarten students statewide and in schools with a large proportion of students from low-income families. METHODS: An ecologic study using panel data of 920 505 kindergarten students with 11 694 school-year observations examined the effect of the IMBP on dmft scores from 1998 to 2009. Ordinary least squares regression with fixed effects determined the association between IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county and mean dmft scores per kindergarten student per school, controlling for school-level poverty and ethnicity, county-level Medicaid enrollment, and supply of dentists and physicians. RESULTS: Mean dmft per kindergarten student per school increased from 1.53 in 1998 to 1.84 in 2004, then decreased to 1.59 in 2009. The mean number of IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county increased from 0.01 in 2000 to 0.22 in 2009. A 1-unit increase in IMBP visits per county was associated with a 0.248 (95% confidence interval, −0.40 to −0.10) decrease in dmft per kindergarten student per school. For schools with more students at high risk for dental disease, a 1-unit increase in IMBP visits was associated with a 0.320 (95% confidence interval, −0.55 to −0.09) decrease in dmft. CONCLUSIONS: IMBP reduced dental caries among targeted vulnerable children, which helped reduce oral health disparities among preschool-aged children in North Carolina. PMID:24685954

  4. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  5. Analysis of Polymorphisms in the Lactotransferrin Gene Promoter and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Brancher, João Armando; Pecharki, Giovana Daniela; Doetzer, Andrea Duarte; Medeiros, Kamilla Gabriella dos Santos; Cordeiro Júnior, Carlos Alberto; Sotomaior, Vanessa Santos; Bauer, Peter; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Regarding host aspects, there has been strong evidence for a genetic component in the etiology of caries. The salivary protein lactotransferrin (LTF) exhibits antibacterial activity, but there is no study investigating the association of polymorphisms in the promoter region of LTF gene with caries. The objective of this study was firstly to search the promoter region of the human LTF gene for variations and, if existent, to investigate the association of the identified polymorphisms with dental caries in 12-year-old students. From 687 unrelated, 12-year-old, both sex students, 50 individuals were selected and divided into two groups of extreme phenotypes according to caries experience: 25 students without (DMFT = 0) and 25 with caries experience (DMFT ≥ 4). The selection of individuals with extreme phenotypes augments the chances to find gene variations which could be associated with such phenotypes. LTF gene-putative promoter region (+39 to −1143) of the selected 50 individuals was analyzed by high-resolution melting technique. Fifteen students, 8 without (DMFT = 0) and 7 with caries experience (mean DMFT = 6.28), presented deviations of the pattern curve suggestive of gene variations and were sequenced. However, no polymorphisms were identified in the putative promoter region of the LTF gene. PMID:22190933

  6. Effect of CPP-ACP Paste on Dental Caries in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Sitthisettapong, T.; Phantumvanit, P.; Huebner, C.; DeRouen, T.

    2012-01-01

    This clinical trial tested the effect of daily application of 10% w/v calcium phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste for 1 yr when added to regular toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste to prevent dental caries in pre-school children. High-caries-risk children aged 2½ to 3½ yrs in a suburban area of central Thailand were assigned to receive either CPP-ACP (n = 150) or a placebo control (n = 146) in addition to fluoridated toothpaste. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was recorded at baseline, 6 mos, and 1 yr. At 1 yr, a significant increase in mean numbers of enamel and dentin caries lesions, as well as dmfs, was found in both groups (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between groups on these 3 outcome measures (p = 0.23, 0.84, and 0.91, respectively). The odds of enamel caries lesion transitions to a state of regression or stability, compared with progression from baseline, was also not different between groups [OR = 1.00, 95% CI (0.86, 1.17)]. This trial found that daily application of 10% w/v CPP-ACP paste on school days for 1 yr, when added to regular toothbrushing with a fluoride toothpaste, had no significant added effect in preventing caries in the primary dentition of these pre-school children (ClinicalTrials.gov number CT01 604109). PMID:22805294

  7. Effect of CPP-ACP paste on dental caries in primary teeth: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sitthisettapong, T; Phantumvanit, P; Huebner, C; Derouen, T

    2012-09-01

    This clinical trial tested the effect of daily application of 10% w/v calcium phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste for 1 yr when added to regular toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste to prevent dental caries in pre-school children. High-caries-risk children aged 2½ to 3½ yrs in a suburban area of central Thailand were assigned to receive either CPP-ACP (n = 150) or a placebo control (n = 146) in addition to fluoridated toothpaste. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was recorded at baseline, 6 mos, and 1 yr. At 1 yr, a significant increase in mean numbers of enamel and dentin caries lesions, as well as dmfs, was found in both groups (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between groups on these 3 outcome measures (p = 0.23, 0.84, and 0.91, respectively). The odds of enamel caries lesion transitions to a state of regression or stability, compared with progression from baseline, was also not different between groups [OR = 1.00, 95% CI (0.86, 1.17)]. This trial found that daily application of 10% w/v CPP-ACP paste on school days for 1 yr, when added to regular toothbrushing with a fluoride toothpaste, had no significant added effect in preventing caries in the primary dentition of these pre-school children (ClinicalTrials.gov number CT01 604109). PMID:22805294

  8. [[Streptococcus mutans Acquisition and Dental Caries Development in First-Born Children].

    PubMed

    Noce, Erica; Rubira, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva Rosa, Odila Pereira; da Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio; Bretz, Walter Antonio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the moment of streptococcus mutans (SM) acquisition, caries development and their associate variables along 23 months, in first-born children of low socioeconomic status families, starting at 7 months of age. METHOD: The sample was chosen based on highly SM-colonized mothers, including all members of 14 families living in the same houses. The study included 14 mothers, 14 fathers and 14 first-borns and 8 relatives (mostly grandparents). Initial clinical examinations and radiographs determined the caries indices and periodontal conditions of the adults. SM count in all adults was made in the first 2 visits. The children were examined for SM count, number of teeth and number of carious lesions, in 4 visits. RESULTS: SM prevalence was high in the adults, being absent in only one of the parents. SM was found in 1, 2, 3 and 10 children in the first, second, third and fourth visits. Dental caries was detected in only 3 children in the last visit (at 30 months), who presented significantly higher SM scores than the children without caries in the same visit. CONCLUSION: A low income social condition and mothers highly colonized by SM do not mean necessarily early SM colonization and high caries activity in children with oral homecare. Caries development is significantly associated with high SM scores in the children. PMID:22022218

  9. The Association between Participation of Adolescents in Community Groups and Dental Caries in a Deprived Area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Teixeira Silva, Catarina; Rebelo Vieira, Janete Maria; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2015-01-01

    There is limited evidence concerning the role of social networks on the oral health of adolescents. This study assessed the association between the participation of adolescents in community groups and dental caries. A cross-sectional household-based study was carried out involving 200 subjects aged 15-19 years living in a deprived area in the state of Amazon, Brazil. Dental caries was assessed through dental examinations using the DMFT index conducted by a single examiner who was previously calibrated. Four dental caries outcomes were investigated, including caries experience (DMFT score), current caries (number of current decayed teeth), missing teeth due to caries, and the care index (ratio between number of filled teeth and DMFT score). Details of participation of adolescents in community groups, demographic and socioeconomic data and information on dental visiting were obtained through individual interviews. All caries measures were significantly higher in adolescents who did not participate in community groups compared to their counterparts. Multivariate Poisson regression showed that participation of adolescents in community groups was independently associated with all dental caries outcomes. After adjusting for confounders, participation in community groups was statistically associated with lower DMFT score (ratio of mean, RM: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.24-0.46), fewer decayed teeth (RM: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.11-0.47), fewer missing teeth (RM: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.47), and higher care index (RM: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24-2.29) than those who did not participate. Participation of adolescents in community activities was related to lower levels of dental caries. PMID:26346951

  10. From the mouths of babes: dental caries in infants and children and the intensification of agriculture in mainland Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Halcrow, S E; Harris, N J; Tayles, N; Ikehara-Quebral, R; Pietrusewsky, M

    2013-03-01

    Many bioarchaeological studies have established a link between increased dental caries prevalence and the intensification of agriculture. However, research in Southeast Asia challenges the global application of this theory. Although often overlooked, dental health of infants and children can provide a sensitive source of information concerning health and subsistence change. This article investigates the prevalence and location of caries in the dentition of infants and children (less than 15 years of age) from eight prehistoric mainland Southeast Asian sites collectively spanning the Neolithic to late Iron Age, during which time rice agriculture became an increasingly important subsistence mode. Caries prevalence varied among the sites but there was no correlation with chronological change. The absence of evidence of a decline in dental health over time can be attributed to the relative noncariogenicity of rice and retention of broad-spectrum subsistence strategies. No differences in caries type indicating differences in dental health were found between the sites, apart from the Iron Age site of Muang Sema. There was a higher prevalence of caries in the deciduous dentition than the permanent dentition, likely due to a cariogenic weaning diet and the higher sensitivity of deciduous teeth to decay. The level of caries in the permanent dentition suggests an increased reliance on less cariogenic foods during childhood, including rice. The absence of a temporal decline in dental health of infants and children strengthens the argument that the relationship between caries and agricultural intensification in Southeast Asia was more complex than the general model suggests. PMID:23359102

  11. Association of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake during Infancy with Dental Caries in 6-year-olds

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei; Onufrak, Stephen; Li, Ruowei

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake during infancy is associated with dental caries by age 6, a longitudinal analysis of 1,274 U.S. children was conducted using data from the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the 2012 Follow-up Study at 6 years of age. The exposure variables were maternal-reported SSB intakes during infancy (i.e., any SSB intake during infancy, age at SSB introduction during infancy, and average frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months of age). The outcome variable was maternal-reported dental caries of their 6-year-old in his/her lifetime. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for associations of SSB intake during infancy with having dental caries among 6-year-olds after controlling for baseline characteristics of children and mothers and child's tooth brushing habits and sweet food intake at follow-up. Based on maternal recall, almost 40% of 6-year-olds had dental caries in their lifetime. Adjusted odds of having dental caries was significantly associated with higher frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months (aOR=1.83 for ≥3 times/week, vs. none). Any SSB intake during infancy and age at SSB introduction during infancy were not associated with dental caries. In conclusion, frequent SSB intake during 10-12 months of age significantly increased the likelihood of having dental caries among 6-year-olds. Late infancy may be an important time for mothers to establish healthy beverage practices for their children. These findings can be used to inform efforts to reduce dental caries among children. PMID:25713788

  12. Clarifying the Impact of Untreated and Treated Dental Caries on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Dos Santos Dullius, Angela Isabel; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Hernandez, Pedro Antonio González; Kramer, Paulo Floriani

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dental caries experience and the components of the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among adolescents in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 adolescents aged 11-14 years enrolled at public schools in the municipality of Osório (southern Brazil). A calibrated examiner performed the clinical examination for caries (World Health Organization: DMFT index), malocclusion (Dental Aesthetic Index) and traumatic dental injuries [Andreasen et al., 2007]. The participants answered the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) - Impact Short Form, and their parents/guardians answered a structured questionnaire addressing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data analysis involved Poisson regression with robust variance, with the calculation of rate ratios adjusted for potential confounding variables. High severity of dental caries experience exerted a significant impact on OHRQoL, even after controlling for socioeconomic and clinical factors (rate ratio 1.30; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.12-1.51). All OHRQoL domains were affected by untreated dental caries. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the CPQ11-14 scores were 33% higher among adolescents with untreated caries (rate ratio 1.33; 95% CI 1.17-1.50) and 24% higher among those with missing teeth (rate ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.06-1.47). No difference in OHRQoL was found between adolescents with filled teeth and those without dental caries. In conclusion, dental caries experience, untreated dental caries and missing teeth exerted a negative impact on OHRQoL among the adolescents. PMID:27458722

  13. Longitudinal study of dental caries, tooth mortality and interproximal bone loss in adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Gabre, P; Martinsson, T; Gahnberg, L

    2001-02-01

    The investigation focused on longitudinal changes of oral health in a group of adults with intellectual disability. A number of 124 individuals, aged 21-40 yr in 1990, were followed during 8.5 yr. The incidence and prevalence of caries, incidence of tooth mortality, and interproximal bone loss were registered from clinical examinations and bite-wing radiographs. The subjects visited the dental clinic for preventive dental care on average every third month during the period. The caries incidence was low, on average 0.51 new lesions per yr. Persons with mild intellectual disability experienced more caries than other subjects. During the 8.5 yr, the subjects had lost on average 1.82 teeth, with periodontitis dominating as the reason for tooth mortality. Individuals who cooperated poorly with dental treatment had lost the most teeth. The average annual bone loss in all subjects was 0.03 mm. Subjects with Down syndrome had a higher bone loss compared to those with other diagnoses of intellectual disability. Thus, the major part of the persons with intellectual disability showed satisfactory oral health. However, subjects with poor ability to cooperate with dental treatment and subjects with Down syndrome showed an increased risk for impaired oral health. PMID:11330930

  14. Dental Caries Status and Oral Hygiene Practices of Lock Factory Workers in Aligarh City

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mala; Ingle, Navin Anand; Kaur, Navpreet; Yadav, Pramod; Ingle, Ekta; Charania, Zohara

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim was to evaluate the oral hygiene practices and dental caries status of lock factory workers in Aligarh city. Materials and Methods: WHO Oral Health Assessment form (2013) was used to collect data from each subject. A total of 850 subjects constituted the final sample size. Information was obtained regarding the oral hygiene practices and clinical examinations were conducted. Descriptive analysis was done and the data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 46.5%. Almost half of the workers i.e., 456 (53.6%) used brush to clean their teeth. Majority of the subjects i.e., 784 (92.2%) cleaned their teeth once a day. It was found that 466 (54.8%) used toothpaste for maintaining oral hygiene. Almost half of the subjects consumed tobacco in form of gutkha, cigarette, and in multiple forms. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that dental caries and poor oral hygiene are major public health problems among the factory workers. Primary oral health-care programs like dental screening and oral health education at regular intervals should be made mandatory, which will help to prevent accumulation of health-care demands of the factory employees. PMID:26124601

  15. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  16. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    de Jong-Lenters, M; Duijster, D; Bruist, M A; Thijssen, J; de Ruiter, C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and controls were caries free. Cases (n = 28) and controls (n = 26) were recruited from a referral centre for paediatric dental care and a general dental practice, respectively. Parenting practices and parent-child interactions of the child's primary caregiver were observed using Structured Interaction Tasks and subsequently rated on seven dimensions: positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving, discipline, monitoring, coercion and interpersonal atmosphere. All Structured Interaction Tasks were videotaped, and coded by trained and calibrated observers blind to the dental condition. Differences in parenting dimensions between cases and controls were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance, independent samples T-tests, χ(2)-tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Controls had significantly higher scores on the dimensions positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving and interpersonal atmosphere, compared to cases. Parents of controls were also less likely to show coercive behaviours. These associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for the mother's education level, tooth brushing frequency and the frequency of consuming sugary foods and drinks, except for coercion. There was no significant difference in discipline between cases and controls. In conclusion, this case-control study found a significant relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction quality and childhood dental caries. Our findings suggest that parenting practices may be an important factor to consider in caries preventive programs. PMID:24980791

  17. Maturation of Oral Microbiota in Children with or without Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla; Öhman, Carina; Rönnlund, Agneta; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the oral microbiota in children from age 3 months to 3 years, and to determine the association of the presence of caries at 3 years of age. Methods and findings Oral biofilms and saliva were sampled from children at 3 months (n = 207) and 3 years (n = 155) of age, and dental caries was scored at 3 years of age. Oral microbiota was assessed by culturing of total lactobacilli and mutans streptococci, PCR detection of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, 454 pyrosequencing and HOMIM (Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray) microarray detection of more then 300 species/ phylotypes. Species richness and taxa diversity significantly increased from 3 months to 3 years. Three bacterial genera, present in all the 3-month-old infants, persisted at 3 years of age, whereas three other genera had disappeared by this age. A large number of new taxa were also observed in the 3-year-olds. The microbiota at 3 months of age, except for lactobacilli, was unrelated to caries development at a later age. In contrast, several taxa in the oral biofilms of the 3-year-olds were linked with the presence or absence of caries. The main species/phylotypes associated with caries in 3-year-olds belonged to the Actinobaculum, Atopobium, Aggregatibacter, and Streptococcus genera, whereas those influencing the absence of caries belonged to the Actinomyces, Bergeyella, Campylobacter, Granulicatella, Kingella, Leptotrichia, and Streptococcus genera. Conclusions Thus, during the first years of life, species richness and taxa diversity in the mouth increase significantly. Besides the more prevalent colonization of lactobacilli, the composition of the overall microbiota at 3 months of age was unrelated to caries development at a later age. Several taxa within the oral biofilms of the 3-year-olds could be linked to the presence or absence of caries. PMID:26020247

  18. The Effect of Food Hardness on the Development of Dental Caries in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that dental caries may be produced in diabetic rodent models fed with noncariogenic standard diets; however, many studies usually add large amounts of sugar to the diet to induce dental caries. Moreover, the physical properties of cariogenic diets have been reported as an important factor in the formation of caries. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the hardness of non-cariogenic diets on the development of dental caries in diabetic rodents. Seven-week-old female F344 rats were divided into 4 groups: intact rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet and alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet. All of the rats were sacrificed at 52 weeks of age for morphological examinations on their dental tissue. Dental caries had developed and extended to all the molars in the diabetic rats that were fed with both the pelletized and powdered diets. Moreover, the lesion was significantly enhanced in the powdered diet group compared to that in the pelletized diet group. In conclusion, food hardness is an important factor influencing the development of dental caries in diabetic rats. PMID:23762876

  19. Food insecurity and dental caries in schoolchildren: a cross-sectional survey in the western Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Paulo; Benicio, Maria H D; Narvai, Paulo C; Cardoso, Marly A

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed the association between food insecurity and dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old schoolchildren. We performed a cross-sectional survey nested in a population-based cohort study of 203 schoolchildren. The participants lived in the urban area of a small town within the western Brazilian Amazon. Dental examinations were performed according to criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. The number of decayed deciduous and permanent teeth as a count variable was the outcome measure. Socio-economic status, food security, behavioral variables, and child nutritional status, measured by Z-score for body mass index (BMI), were investigated, and robust Poisson regression models were used. The results showed a mean (SD) of 3.63 (3.26) teeth affected by untreated caries. Approximately 80% of schoolchildren had at least one untreated decayed tooth, and nearly 60% lived in food-insecure households. Sex, household wealth index, mother's education level, and food-insecurity scores were associated with dental caries in the crude analysis. Dental caries was 1.5 times more likely to be associated with high food-insecurity scores after adjusting for socio-economic status and sex. A significant dose-response relationship was observed. In conclusion, food insecurity is highly associated with dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old children and may be seen as a risk factor. These findings suggest that food-security policies could reduce dental caries. PMID:24754799

  20. The influence of lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries among 3-year-old Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masako; Wang, Da-Hong; Ijichi, Akihiro; Shirai, Chika; Zou, Yu; Kubo, Masayuki; Takemoto, Kei; Masatomi, Chie; Ogino, Keiki

    2014-12-01

    The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries incidence at age 3. Inclusion criteria were 1.5-year-old children with no dental caries. Dental examinations were performed for 33,655 children who participated in routine dental examinations at 1.5 years of age, and the exam was repeated approximately 21 months later (at age 3) at the Kobe City Public Health Center in Japan. After excluding 622 children who had caries at age 1.5 and 1831 children with missing lifestyle and household environment data in the questionnaires, the final data analysis was performed on a total of 31,202 children (16,052 boys, 15,150 girls).The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages/snacks, less frequent tooth brushing by the parents, lack of fluoride varnish, family history of smoking, with the risk of developing dental caries. A child's late bedtime is also one of the major risk factors for dental caries development. Further investigation is needed to examine whether the short duration or the irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle would affect early childhood oral health and whether there is a relationship between late bedtime and late night snack intake. PMID:25489996

  1. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12–3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05–3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students. PMID:26927163

  2. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-03-01

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05-3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students. PMID:26927163

  3. How effective is ART in the management of dental caries?

    PubMed

    Frencken, J E; Holmgren, C J

    1999-12-01

    The ART approach involves excavating cavitated dentine caries with hand instruments, then restoring the cavity and sealing any associated fissures and pits with an adhesive restorative material, resulting in a sealant restoration. Until recently, ART has mainly been used under field conditions, and thus the adhesive restorative material used has been glass ionomer which does not require mixing machines and curing lights. Since the inception of ART, a growing number of studies world-wide have taken place. A total of four studies have reported 3-year survival percentages for one-surface ART restorations. The highest 3-year survival percentage in permanent teeth was 88%, which is comparable to the 85% survival of one-surface amalgam restorations placed under the same field conditions after 3 years. The outcomes depend to some extent on the material used, operator experience and presence of caries. The presence of caries as a reason for failure was higher in the early than in the most recent studies. Only one study has reported on the use of ART restorations in the deciduous dentition. It is concluded that: a very large proportion of dentine lesions in the permanent teeth can be treated using the ART approach; the 3-year survival rate of the more recently placed one-surface ART restorations in permanent teeth was higher than that of ART restorations placed in the beginning; the survival of one-surface ART restorations in the permanent dentition with newer glass ionomers is comparable to that of one-surface conventional restorations placed using amalgam in a comparable setting after 3 years; more studies of longer duration are needed to confirm these findings; ART should be considered a caries treatment modality that benefits people; and educational courses need to be organised before the approach is applied in the clinic. PMID:10600076

  4. Rampant Caries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  5. Long-Term Adoption of Caries Management by Risk Assessment Among Dental Students in a University Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the long-term adoption of a risk-based caries management program at a university dental clinic. Methods We extracted data from electronic records of adult non-edentulous patients who underwent a comprehensive oral evaluation in the university predoctoral clinic, from July 2007 through June 2014 (N=21,984). Consistency with caries management guidelines was measured as the percentage of patients with caries risk designation (low, moderate, high, or extreme) and by the percentage of patients provided non-operative anti-caries agents within each designated caries-risk category. Additionally, we identified patient and provider characteristics associated with risk assessment completion and with provision of anti-caries therapy. Results The percentage of patients with documented caries risk grew steadily from 62.3% in 2007-2008 to 92.8% in 2013-2014. Overall, receipt of non-operative anti-caries agents increased with rising caries risk, from low (6.9%), moderate (14.1%), high (36.4%), to extreme (51.4%), but percentages were stable over the study period. Younger patients were more likely to have a completed risk assessment, and among high- and extreme-risk patients, delivery of anti-caries therapy was more common among patients who were younger, identified as Asian or Caucasian, received public dental benefits, or were seen by a student in the four-year doctoral program or in the final year of training. Conclusions Extensive compliance in documenting caries risk was achieved within a decade of implementing risk-based clinical guidelines. Caries risk was the most strongly associated of several factors related to delivery of non-operative therapy. In dental education, transition to a risk-based, prevention-focused curriculum may require a long-term commitment. PMID:25941147

  6. Dentists’ decisions to conduct caries risk assessment in a Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Kakudate, Naoki; Sumida, Futoshi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Yokoyama, Yoko; Riley, Joseph L; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gordan, Valeria V

    2014-01-01

    Objectives 1) To quantify the importance that dentists place on caries risk factors when developing a caries treatment plan, and 2) to test the hypothesis that the ratings of importance for specific factors are significantly associated with whether or not the dentist performs caries risk assessment (CRA). Methods This study used a cross-sectional study design consisting of a questionnaire survey. The study queried dentists who worked in outpatient dental practices who were affiliated with the Dental Practice-Based Research Network Japan (JDPBRN), which seeks to engage dentists in investigating research questions and sharing experiences and expertise (n=282). Participants (n=189) were asked to rate the importance of caries risk factors when developing a caries treatment plan in both adult and pediatric patients. Results Oral hygiene status was rated as the most important risk factor when developing a treatment plan in both adult and pediatric patients, whereas the use of fluorides was rated as the least important. Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratios for the decision to perform CRA in the adult patient for past caries experience and use of fluorides were 2.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29–5.29) and 1.85 (95% CI: 1.12–3.04), respectively, whereas that for oral hygiene was 3.84 (95% CI: 1.15–12.79) and use of fluorides 1.79 (95% CI: 1.06–3.03) in the pediatric patient. Conclusions These results suggest that enhancing dentists’ concept of the importance of current use of fluorides when developing a treatment plan may increase the percentage of dentists who conduct CRA in both adult and pediatric patients (clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT01680848). PMID:25175077

  7. Statistical power of multilevel modelling in dental caries clinical trials: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Burnside, G; Pine, C M; Williamson, P R

    2014-01-01

    Outcome data from dental caries clinical trials have a naturally hierarchical structure, with surfaces clustered within teeth, clustered within individuals. Data are often aggregated into the DMF index for each individual, losing tooth- and surface-specific information. If these data are to be analysed by tooth or surface, allowing exploration of effects of interventions on different teeth and surfaces, appropriate methods must be used to adjust for the clustered nature of the data. Multilevel modelling allows analysis of clustered data using individual observations without aggregating data, and has been little used in the field of dental caries. A simulation study was conducted to investigate the performance of multilevel modelling methods and standard caries increment analysis. Data sets were simulated from a three-level binomial distribution based on analysis of a caries clinical trial in Scottish adolescents, with varying sample sizes, treatment effects and random tooth level effects based on trials reported in Cochrane reviews of topical fluoride, and analysed to compare the power of multilevel models and traditional analysis. 40,500 data sets were simulated. Analysis showed that estimated power for the traditional caries increment method was similar to that for multilevel modelling, with more variation in smaller data sets. Multilevel modelling may not allow significant reductions in the number of participants required in a caries clinical trial, compared to the use of traditional analyses, but investigators interested in exploring the effect of their intervention in more detail may wish to consider the application of multilevel modelling to their clinical trial data. PMID:24216573

  8. Noninvasive control of dental caries in children with active initial lesions. A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hausen, H; Seppa, L; Poutanen, R; Niinimaa, A; Lahti, S; Kärkkäinen, S; Pietilä, I

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether DMFS increment can be decreased among children with active initial caries by oral hygiene and dietary counseling and by using noninvasive preventive measures. Except for mentally disabled and handicapped children attending special schools, all 11- to 12-year-olds in Pori, Finland, with at least one active initial caries lesion were invited to participate in the study and were then randomized into two groups. Children in the experimental group (n = 250) were offered an individually designed patient-centered preventive program aimed at identifying and eliminating factors that had led to the presence of active caries. The program included counseling sessions with emphasis on enhancing use of the children's own resources in everyday life. Toothbrushes, fluoride toothpaste and fluoride and xylitol lozenges were distributed to the children. They also received applications of fluoride/chlorhexidine varnish. The children in the control group (n = 247) received basic prevention offered as standard in the public dental clinics in Pori. For both groups, the average follow-up period was 3.4 years. A community level program of oral health promotion was run in Pori throughout this period. Mean DMFS increments for the experimental and control groups were 2.56 (95% CI 2.07, 3.05) and 4.60 (3.99, 5.21), respectively (p < 0.0001): prevented fraction 44.3% (30.2%, 56.4%). The results show that by using a regimen that includes multiple measures for preventing dental decay, caries increment can be significantly reduced among caries-active children living in an area where the overall level of caries experience is low. PMID:17713339

  9. Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Children who have severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) weigh significantly less than caries-free children. The association between S-ECC and weight suggests that its timely treatment at early stages may preserve general health, in addition to preventing pain and infection. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate whether children with untreated S-ECC had lower weight and height as compared with children with low caries and to evaluate whether full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC resulted in the phenomenon of catch-up growth. Materials and methods: The weight and height of children with noncontributory medical histories and S-ECC (3-6 years) were compared with caries-free children, before and 6 months after full mouth dental rehabilitation. Results: Prior to dental rehabilitation, children with S-ECC had significantly less weight and height than their comparison counterparts (p < 0.001). Following therapeutic intervention, the test group children exhibited catch-up growth in relation to weight, as there was no significant difference in the body weight of the test and control groups (p = 0.171). Conclusion: Comprehensive full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC results in catch-up growth, thus improving the overall health of the child. How to cite this article: Sachdev J, Bansal K, Chopra R. Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):15-20. PMID:27274149

  10. Caries and dental fluorosis in a western Saharan population of refugee children.

    PubMed

    Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Montiel-Company, José María; Ruiz-Miravet, Anna

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental fluorosis and dental caries among western Saharan refugee children. The western Saharan child population is characterized by adverse living conditions, an unbalanced diet, poor oral hygiene habits, and a concentration of fluoride in the drinking water of around 2 p.p.m. (2 mg l(-1)). A sample consisting of 360 children, 6-7 yr of age, and 212 children, 11-13 yr of age, was obtained from four refugee camps (Smara, Awsard, El-Aaiun, and 27-February) situated in the vicinity of Tindouf (southern Algeria). The children were examined using the World Health Organization criteria for caries diagnosis and Dean's index for fluorosis. The decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT) score was 0.48 in the 6-7-yr-old children and 1.69 in the 11-13-yr-old children, with a caries prevalence (DMFT > 0 or decayed and filled primary teeth (dft) > 0) of 47.2% and 63.2%, respectively. Among the 6-7 yr-old children examined, 36.9% were free of fluorosis, 15.6% presented moderate fluorosis, and 7.8% presented severe fluorosis. Among 11-13 yr-old children, only 4.2% were free of fluorosis, 30.2% exhibited moderate fluorosis, and 27.4% presented severe fluorosis. The mean DMFT, decayed permanent teeth (DT), and caries prevalence (DMFT > 0 and DMFT or dft > 0) scores were significantly higher among the children affected by severe fluorosis, suggesting that severe fluorosis might increase the susceptibility to dental caries. PMID:19049520

  11. [Atraumatic restorative treatment to control dental caries: history, characteristics, and contributions of the technique].

    PubMed

    Tascón, Jorge

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents relevant scientific information on the history, characteristics, and contributions of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) for use in preventing and controlling dental caries. Within the area of oral public health, ART has been for years an economical, effective method for preventing and controlling caries in vulnerable populations. Among other things, ART reduces the stress and anxiety in patients that conventional restoration methods produce. This technique promises major benefits for Latin America. However, given its limitations with dental cavities on two or more surfaces, it is recommended that more research on this approach be encouraged, with the aim of improving the technique's effectiveness based on its characteristics, indications, and technical merits. PMID:15826387

  12. Mucoadhesive electrospun chitosan-based nanofibre mats for dental caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Samprasit, Wipada; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Sukma, Monrudee; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-03-01

    The mucoadhesive electrospun nanofibre mats were developed using chitosan (CS) and thiolated chitosan (CS-SH) as mucoadhesive polymers. Garcinia mangostana (GM) extract was incorporated into nanofibre mats. The antibacterial activity in the single and combined agents was evaluated against dental caries pathogens. The morphology of mats was observed using SEM. The mats were evaluated for GM extract amount, mucoadhesion, in vitro release, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. The mucoadhesion and antibacterial activity were determined in healthy human volunteers. The prepared mats were in nanoscale with good physical and mucoadhesive properties. The CS-SH caused the higher mucoadhesion. All mats rapidly released active substances, which had the synergistic antibacterial activity. In addition, the reduction of bacteria and good mucoadhesion in the oral cavity occurred without cytotoxicity. The results suggest that mats have the potential to be mucoadhesive dosage forms to maintain oral hygiene by reducing the bacterial growth that causes the dental caries. PMID:25498719

  13. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

    DOEpatents

    Nathel, Howard; Kinney, John H.; Otis, Linda L.

    1996-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces.

  14. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

    DOEpatents

    Nathel, H.; Kinney, J.H.; Otis, L.L.

    1996-10-29

    A method is disclosed for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces. 7 figs.

  15. Early childhood caries and dental plaque among 1-3-year-olds in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi, Simin Z; Virtanen, Jorma I; Vahid-Golpayegani, Mojtaba; Vehkalahti, Miira M

    2006-12-01

    The association between plaque and caries in older children and adults has been poor, however, some studies show that there may be a relationship in younger children. The aim was to study the relationships between dental caries and dental plaque among 12-36-month-olds in Tehran, Iran. A cross-sectional study among a stratified random sample of 504 children aged one to three years from 18 public health centres in Tehran. Mothers were interviewed about their child's date and order of birth, gender, primary caregiver, the mother's age and the educational level of both parents. Dental examination was carried out according to the WHO criteria. Early childhood caries (ECC) was defined as the presence of any dmf teeth. Dental plaque was visually inspected on the labial surfaces of upper central incisors. Data analysis included Chi-square test, t -test, anova and logistic regression modelling. The prevalence of ECC ranged from 3 to 33% depending on age group, with a mean dt of 1.1 for 26- to 36-month-olds. No gender-differences existed in ECC prevalence and mean dt. Dental plaque was visible on at least one index tooth for 65-75% of the children. Presence of ECC was related to the presence of dental plaque (OR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.3) when controlling for background factors by means of logistic regression. The high occurrence of visible plaque and rather high ECC prevalence call for improvement in oral health promotion programs of the children. PMID:17183180

  16. Influence of socioeconomic and working status of the parents on the incidence of their children's dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Niraj; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: In the contemporary scenario of both parents employed, there seems to be limited focus on the dietary habits and dental health of their children. Hence, we attempted to correlate the socioeconomic and working status of the parents to the incidence of their children's dental caries. Materials and Methods: One thousand school children aged between 3 and 12 years were enrolled in the study. Socioeconomic and working status of their parents was obtained by a pretested questionnaire following which these children were examined for their dental caries status. The data collected were statistically analyzed using logistic regression analysis and calculation of odds ratio. Results: A significant correlation was observed between working status of the parents and dental caries status of their children. Though, the socioeconomic status and dental caries had a weak correlation, the odds ratio was high, indicating that the children of lower socioeconomic status or family with both parents employed were at a higher risk for dental caries. Conclusion: Efforts are needed to implement programs at the school level to enhance the oral and dental health among children, as parental responsibilities toward this maybe inadequate due to economic or time constraints. PMID:27433061

  17. OCT of early dental caries: a comparative study with histology and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewko, Mark D.; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Ko, Alex C.; Leonardi, Lorenzo; Dong, Cecilia C.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Sowa, Michael G.

    2005-03-01

    Early dental caries result from destruction of the tooth's outer mineral matrix by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaques. Early caries begin as surface disruptions where minerals are leached from the teeth resulting in regions of decreased mineral matrix integrity. Visually, these early carious regions appear as white spots due to the higher backscattering of incident light. With age these areas may become stained by organic compounds. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination of human teeth demonstrates a difference in penetration depth of the OCT signal into the carious region in comparison with sound enamel. However, while OCT demonstrates a structural difference in the enamel in the region of the caries, this technique provides little insight into the source of this difference. Raman spectroscopy provides biochemical measures derived from hydroxyapatite within the enamel as well as information on the crystallinity of the enamel matrix. The differences in the biochemical and morphological features of early caries and intact sound enamel are compared. Histological thin sections confirm the observations by OCT morphological imaging while Raman spectroscopy allows for biochemical identification of carious regions by a non-destructive method. Visual examination and conventional radiographic imaging of the intact tooth are used in clinical assessment prior to optical measurements. The combination of OCT, Raman spectroscopy and thin section histology aid in determining the changes that give rise to the visual white spot lesions.

  18. Prevalence and Association of Developmental Defects of Enamel with, Dental- Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children, Lucknow

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, G.V.; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Developmental Defects of Enamel in the primary dentition may be associated and predictors of dental caries and nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to assess the Prevalence of Developmental Defects of Enamel and its Association with, Dental-Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children of Lucknow, India. Materials and Methods Multistage Sampling was done. A total of 302 pre-school (Rural and Urban) children were examined. Type III examination was conducted with WHO Probe. Developmental Enamel Defects (DED) and Dental Caries were assessed using WHO (1997) Proforma. Results The prevalence of DED of any type was 39.9% with that of demarcated opacities being the highest, followed by hypoplasia. The most frequently affected teeth were maxillary anterior teeth, while the least affected teeth were mandibular incisors. The mean dmft was 3.5. A positive association between DED and caries was observed. Association between Dental Caries & BMI was non-significant whereas Pearson correlation showed a negative correlation between the two. Conclusion The prevalence of enamel defects and caries was high, as the enamel defects were strongly associated with caries. PMID:26557622

  19. Sociodemographic, Socio-economic, Clinical and Behavioural Factors Modifying Experience and Prevalence of Dental Caries in the Permanent Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, MS; Medina-Solis, CE; Islas-Granillo, H; Lara-Carrillo, E; Scougall-Vilchis, RJ; Escoffié-Ramírez, M; la Rosa-Santillana, R De; Avila-Burgos, L

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and caries prevalence in Nicaraguan children 9-12 years old. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 800 school children 9-12 years old in the city of León, Nicaragua. The clinical oral examinations to identify caries experience were undertaken by two trained and certified examiners. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and behavioural data were collected using questionnaires. Negative binomial regression (NBR) and binary logistic regression (BLR) models were used to model caries experience and caries prevalence, respectively. Results: Mean DMFT index was 0.98 ± 1.74 and caries prevalence (DMFT > 0) was 37.9%. In the NBR model, the categories that increase the expected DMFT mean were: older age, female gender, presence of plaque, and if the school children received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. In the BLR model, the odds of presenting with caries in the permanent dentition were increased in older children, those from large families, mothers with a positive dental attitude, and those school children who received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. Conclusions: Using different models, we identified several sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience (NBR) and prevalence (BLR) of dental caries. PMID:25867561

  20. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated. PMID:25979683

  1. Dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Andreia M R; Gomes, Lays N; Silva, Clara Regina D; Soares, Renata de S C; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G de; Padilha, Wilton W N; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 80 patients ranging in age from 2 to 18 years old. Oral exams were conducted by an examiner with records of DMFT, dmft, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The statistical analysis used Poisson Regression with robust variance estimation (α = 0.05). The prevalence of dental caries was 59.3%, with DMFT and mean dmft of 1.71 ± 2.42 and 2.22 ± 3.23, respectively. The mean GBI was 22.44%, and in the CPI, the prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep pockets were 94.73%, 79.62%, 12.90% and 3.22%, respectively. The caregiver's educational level of less than eight years were associated with the dental caries experience (PR = 1.439; 95%CI = 1.09-1.89). The periodontal alterations were associated with female sex (PR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.69-0.97), caregiver's educational level of less than eight years (PR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.03-1.29), poor oral perception (PR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.80-0.98), serious communication problem (PR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.76-0.99) and athetoid type of CP (PR = 0.85; 95%CI = 0.75-0.97). The patients with CP presented high dental caries experience and periodontal alterations, which were associated with their demographic, socioeconomic, oral health perception and systemic information. PMID:25551517

  2. Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Brazilian Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Andreia M. R.; Gomes, Lays N.; Silva, Clara Regina D.; de S. C. Soares, Renata; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique N. G.; Padilha, Wilton W. N.; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 80 patients ranging in age from 2 to 18 years old. Oral exams were conducted by an examiner with records of DMFT, dmft, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The statistical analysis used Poisson Regression with robust variance estimation (α = 0.05). The prevalence of dental caries was 59.3%, with DMFT and mean dmft of 1.71 ± 2.42 and 2.22 ± 3.23, respectively. The mean GBI was 22.44%, and in the CPI, the prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep pockets were 94.73%, 79.62%, 12.90% and 3.22%, respectively. The caregiver’s educational level of less than eight years were associated with the dental caries experience (PR = 1.439; 95%CI = 1.09–1.89). The periodontal alterations were associated with female sex (PR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.69–0.97), caregiver’s educational level of less than eight years (PR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.03–1.29), poor oral perception (PR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.80–0.98), serious communication problem (PR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.76–0.99) and athetoid type of CP (PR = 0.85; 95%CI = 0.75–0.97). The patients with CP presented high dental caries experience and periodontal alterations, which were associated with their demographic, socioeconomic, oral health perception and systemic information. PMID:25551517

  3. Emerging technologies for diagnosis of dental caries: The road so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-05-01

    It is now universally recognized that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental decay at an early stage of formation could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction in the time required for clinical trials of anticaries agents. The use of technologies as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost as well as reduce the cost and time for testing potential anticaries agents. This article describes the various technologies available to aid the dental practitioners in detecting dental caries at the earliest stage of its formation, assessing the activities of the detected carious lesion, and quantitatively or qualitatively monitoring of the lesion over time. The need and the importance of these technologies were also discussed. The data discussed are primarily based on published scientific studies and reviews from case reports, clinical trials, and in vitro and in vivo studies. References have been traced manually by MEDLINE® or through manufacturer's websites. While some of the devices are fully developed and commercially available, others are still under development. The devices vary in their modes of action as well as their capability as caries diagnostic aids. It is clear that the differences in caries presentations and behavior in different anatomical sites make it unlikely that any one diagnostic modality will have adequate sensitivity and specificity of detection of carious lesions for all sites; a combination of diagnostic tools will help us diagnose lesions earlier and detect failing restorations sooner, all to avoid more costly, destructive dental procedures and truly take dentistry into the preventive rather than the reactive mode.

  4. Utility and effectiveness of computer-aided diagnosis of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Kyle D; Dykstra, Bradley A; Gakenheimer, David C; Scheetz, James P; Lacina, Stephani; Scarfe, William C; Farman, Allan G

    2011-01-01

    Digital radiography has created a growing opportunity for computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) tools. The Logicon Caries Detector (LCD), with upgraded CAD software based on user feedback, was re-evaluated for its effectiveness via a retrospective clinical study. Using the upgraded LCD software, 12 dentists (evaluators) blindly assessed 17 radiographs taken by another (attending) dentist, who restored 28 proximal surfaces. The attending dentist confirmed the presence of early dentinal caries, as well as identifying 48 surfaces as caries-free or with enamel caries only subject to noninvasive treatment. The radiographs, imported into the software using a digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) reader, were visually assessed under typical operatory lighting conditions, then with the aid of the software's density analysis tool. The effectiveness of the evaluators was gauged by calculating two measures of performance, sensitivity and specificity, for the detection and classification of dentinal caries. Sensitivity among all evaluator dentists was 30% with the initial image; 34% with the brightness and contrast adjusted image; 39% when the image was sharpened; and 69% when the density analysis tool was utilized. Specificity was found to be 97% with the initial image; 95% with the brightness and contrast adjusted image; 93% with the sharpened image; and 94% when the density analysis tool was used. Compared to the unaided eye, the LCD can significantly improve dentists' ability to detect and classify caries. Dentists may be able to find twice as much early dentinal caries requiring restoration (or at least aggressive noninvasive treatment) than previously, while not unnecessarily restoring additional healthy teeth. The LCD enables dentists to obtain more information from dental digital radiography than is possible with the unaided eye, leading to improved patient care. PMID:21903524

  5. Periodic health examination, 1995 update: 2. Prevention of dental caries. The Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, D W; Ismail, A I

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make recommendations, based on current evidence, for practising physicians and dentists on interventions for the prevention of dental caries in their patients. OPTIONS: Systemic fluoride administration, professionally administered fluoride, use of fluoride mouth rinses, fissure sealants, oral-hygiene practices, dietary practices, identification of groups at a high risk of dental caries, and early diagnosis and treatment. OUTCOMES: Reduced prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis, longer retention of teeth and lower treatment costs. EVIDENCE: Several MEDLINE searches were conducted for articles published from January 1980 to December 1992, including relevant review articles. VALUES: Relevant clinical findings were evaluated and categorized with the use of the evidence-based methods and values of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Recommendations were developed for each method of caries prevention, with reduced incidence of dental caries and improved prevalence of caries-free teeth given high values. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The potential benefits of these measures in the long-term are a lower incidence of tooth decay, longer retention of teeth and prevention of fluorosis. The cost saving can be considerable for patients and insurers; however, implementation of some recommendations will be difficult, since the traditional preventive practices of dentists and dental hygienists are not easily changed. RECOMMENDATIONS: There is good evidence that the following manoeuvres are effective in preventing dental caries: use of dentifrices containing fluoride, fluoridation of drinking water, fluoride supplements for patients in areas where there is a low level (0.3 ppm or less) of fluoride in the drinking water, professionally applied topical fluoride and the use of fluoride mouth rinses for patients with very active decay or at a high risk of dental caries and selective use of professionally applied fissure sealants on permanent molar

  6. Family relationships as an explanatory variable in childhood dental caries: a systematic review of measures.

    PubMed

    Duijster, D; O'Malley, L; Elison, S; Van Loveren, C; Marcenes, W; Adair, P M; Pine, C M

    2013-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that parental beliefs (self-efficacy) about oral health and parental oral health-related behaviours play a fundamental role in the establishment of preventative behaviours that will mitigate against the development of childhood dental caries. However, little attention has been given to the wider perspective of family functioning and family relationships on child oral health. For oral health researchers, exploration of this association requires the use of reliable, valid and appropriate assessment tools to measure family relationships. In order to promote methodologically sound research in oral health, this systematic review aims to provide a guide on self-report psychometric measures of family functioning that may be suitable to utilize when exploring childhood dental caries. This systematic review has identified 29 self-report measures of family functioning and evaluated them in terms of their psychometric support, constructs measured and potential utility for oral health research. The majority of the measures reported adequate levels of reliability and construct validity. Construct evaluation of the measures identified five core domains of family functioning, namely 'communication', 'cohesion/engagement', 'control', 'involvement' and 'authoritative/rigid parenting style'. The constructs were subsequently evaluated with respect to their potential relevance to child oral health. Herewith this review provides a framework to guide future research to explore family functioning in furthering our understanding of the development of childhood dental caries. PMID:24107605

  7. PHOTOACOUSTIC NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION AND IMAGING OF CARIES IN DENTAL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.; Dewhurst, R. J.

    2010-02-22

    Dental caries is a disease wherein bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure. Traditional dental radiography has its limitations for detecting early stage caries. In this study, a photoacoustic (PA) imaging system with the near-infrared light source has been applied to postmortem dental samples to obtain 2-D and 3-D images. Imaging results showed that the PA technique can be used to image human teeth caries. For non-destructive photoacoustic evaluation and imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. For example, temperature rises above 5 deg. C within live human teeth will cause pulpal necrosis. Therefore, several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict temperature and pressure fields within samples. Predicted temperature levels are below corresponding safety limits, but care is required to avoid nonlinear absorption phenomena. Furthermore, PA imaging results from the phantom provide evidence for high sensitivity, which shows the imaging potential of the PA technique for detecting early stage disease.

  8. Photoacoustic Non-Destructive Evaluation and Imaging of Caries in Dental Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Dewhurst, R. J.

    2010-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease wherein bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure. Traditional dental radiography has its limitations for detecting early stage caries. In this study, a photoacoustic (PA) imaging system with the near-infrared light source has been applied to postmortem dental samples to obtain 2-D and 3-D images. Imaging results showed that the PA technique can be used to image human teeth caries. For non-destructive photoacoustic evaluation and imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. For example, temperature rises above 5 °C within live human teeth will cause pulpal necrosis. Therefore, several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict temperature and pressure fields within samples. Predicted temperature levels are below corresponding safety limits, but care is required to avoid nonlinear absorption phenomena. Furthermore, PA imaging results from the phantom provide evidence for high sensitivity, which shows the imaging potential of the PA technique for detecting early stage disease.

  9. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children Suffering From Epilepsy with and without Administration of Long Term Liquid Oral Medication

    PubMed Central

    Bhadravathi, Manjunath Chaluvaiah; Kumar, Adarsh; Narang, Ridhi; Gupta, Ambika; Singh, Harneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sucrose is added as sweetening agent in liquid oral medication (LOM) to mask the acrid taste of medicines which may be potentially cariogenic. Many children under long term LOM therapy for treatment of epilepsy may be susceptible to dental caries. Aim To assess and compare dental caries experience in children under long term liquid oral medication with those not under such medication among 2-12 years old children suffering from epilepsy. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a total of 84 children aged 2–12 years, who were suffering from epilepsy receiving liquid oral medication for more than 3 months were selected (study group) and for comparison 106 children of similar age group and disease but on other forms of medication were included as control group. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT/DMFS (Decayed, Missing, Fillled Teeth / Surfaces), dmft/dft and dmfs/dfs indices. One-way ANOVA and t-test were used with p-value fixed at 0.05. Univariate logistic regression was applied. Results Children on LOM were at increased risk of dental caries than those with other forms of medications (OR: 2.55, 95% CI (2.37-4.15) p=0.000, HS). Caries prevalence was high in the study group (76.1%) when compared to control group (55.6%). Conclusion Long term use of liquid medicines containing sucrose is a risk factor for dental caries among children with epilepsy. PMID:27504416

  10. Clinical diagnosis of dental caries: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a broad international perspective on aspects of the RTI/UNC systematic review, to introduce relevant literature not cited, and to make recommendations for clinical practice education and research suggested by the evidence. Clinical caries diagnosis represents the foundation on which the answers to most of the consensus questions will be based. This paper highlights needs for being clear about definitions and nomenclature; understanding the importance of the concepts underlying the D1 and D3 diagnostic thresholds used widely within the RTI/UNC Review; and appreciating that the diagnostic challenge now faced by clinicians is significant and is becoming more complex as the presentation and distribution of the disease changes over time and the range of preventive and operative treatment options expands. A series of recommendations informed by the evidence are made, including a rather contentious issue for many clinicians concerning the lack of evidence supporting the continued use of a sharp explorer as a diagnostic tool for primary caries diagnosis. This practice should be discontinued as it may cause some harm to the patient and yet fails to provide a significant balancing diagnostic benefit. Finally, it is suggested that dentistry should learn from the developing evidence base in medicine on how best to disseminate the findings of reviews and promote appropriate changes in clinical practice. PMID:11699999