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1

Fast Monte Carlo Electron-Photon Transport Method and Application in Accurate Radiotherapy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo (MC) method is the most accurate computational method for dose calculation, but its wide application on clinical accurate radiotherapy is hindered due to its poor speed of converging and long computation time. In the MC dose calculation research, the main task is to speed up computation while high precision is maintained. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the calculation speed of MC method for electron-photon transport with high precision and ultimately to reduce the accurate radiotherapy dose calculation time based on normal computer to the level of several hours, which meets the requirement of clinical dose verification. Based on the existing Super Monte Carlo Simulation Program (SuperMC), developed by FDS Team, a fast MC method for electron-photon coupled transport was presented with focus on two aspects: firstly, through simplifying and optimizing the physical model of the electron-photon transport, the calculation speed was increased with slightly reduction of calculation accuracy; secondly, using a variety of MC calculation acceleration methods, for example, taking use of obtained information in previous calculations to avoid repeat simulation of particles with identical history; applying proper variance reduction techniques to accelerate MC method convergence rate, etc. The fast MC method was tested by a lot of simple physical models and clinical cases included nasopharyngeal carcinoma, peripheral lung tumor, cervical carcinoma, etc. The result shows that the fast MC method for electron-photon transport was fast enough to meet the requirement of clinical accurate radiotherapy dose verification. Later, the method will be applied to the Accurate/Advanced Radiation Therapy System ARTS as a MC dose verification module.

Hao, Lijuan; Sun, Guangyao; Zheng, Huaqing; Song, Jing; Chen, Zhenping; Li, Gui

2014-06-01

2

TART97 a coupled neutron-photon 3-D, combinatorial geometry Monte Carlo transport code

TART97 is a coupled neutron-photon, 3 Dimensional, combinatorial geometry, time dependent Monte Carlo transport code. This code can on any modern computer. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART97 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared to other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART97 is distributed on CD. This CD contains on- line documentation for all codes included in the system, the codes configured to run on a variety of computers, and many example problems that you can use to familiarize yourself with the system. TART97 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that users only use the most recent version of TART97 and its data riles.

Cullen, D.E.

1997-11-22

3

ITS Version 6 : the integrated TIGER series of coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport codes.

ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of lineartime-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and internal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 6, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 5.0 codes, and (2) conversion to Fortran 90. The general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through memory allocation to reduce the need for users to modify and recompile the code.

Franke, Brian Claude; Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Laub, Thomas William

2008-04-01

4

COMET-PE as an Alternative to Monte Carlo for Photon and Electron Transport

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo methods are a central component of radiotherapy treatment planning, shielding design, detector modeling, and other applications. Long calculation times, however, can limit the usefulness of these purely stochastic methods. The coarse mesh method for photon and electron transport (COMET-PE) provides an attractive alternative. By combining stochastic pre-computation with a deterministic solver, COMET-PE achieves accuracy comparable to Monte Carlo methods in only a fraction of the time. The method's implementation has been extended to 3D, and in this work, it is validated by comparison to DOSXYZnrc using a photon radiotherapy benchmark. The comparison demonstrates excellent agreement; of the voxels that received more than 10% of the maximum dose, over 97.3% pass a 2% / 2mm acceptance test and over 99.7% pass a 3% / 3mm test. Furthermore, the method is over an order of magnitude faster than DOSXYZnrc and is able to take advantage of both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel architectures for increased performance.

Hayward, Robert M.; Rahnema, Farzad

2014-06-01

5

Purpose: In this work, the authors describe an approach which has been developed to drive the application of different variance-reduction techniques to the Monte Carlo simulation of photon and electron transport in clinical accelerators. Methods: The new approach considers the following techniques: Russian roulette, splitting, a modified version of the directional bremsstrahlung splitting, and the azimuthal particle redistribution. Their application is controlled by an ant colony algorithm based on an importance map. Results: The procedure has been applied to radiosurgery beams. Specifically, the authors have calculated depth-dose profiles, off-axis ratios, and output factors, quantities usually considered in the commissioning of these beams. The agreement between Monte Carlo results and the corresponding measurements is within {approx}3%/0.3 mm for the central axis percentage depth dose and the dose profiles. The importance map generated in the calculation can be used to discuss simulation details in the different parts of the geometry in a simple way. The simulation CPU times are comparable to those needed within other approaches common in this field. Conclusions: The new approach is competitive with those previously used in this kind of problems (PSF generation or source models) and has some practical advantages that make it to be a good tool to simulate the radiation transport in problems where the quantities of interest are difficult to obtain because of low statistics.

Garcia-Pareja, S.; Galan, P.; Manzano, F.; Brualla, L.; Lallena, A. M. [Servicio de Radiofisica Hospitalaria, Hospital Regional Universitario ''Carlos Haya'', Avda. Carlos Haya s/n, E-29010 Malaga (Spain); Unidad de Radiofisica Hospitalaria, Hospital Xanit Internacional, Avda. de los Argonautas s/n, E-29630 Benalmadena (Malaga) (Spain); NCTeam, Strahlenklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45122 Essen (Germany); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

2010-07-15

6

Multiple processor version of a Monte Carlo code for photon transport in turbid media

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Monte Carlo (MC) simulations represent an accurate and flexible tool to study the photon transport in strongly scattering media with complex geometrical topologies, they are very often infeasible because of their very high computation times. Parallel computing, in principle very suitable for MC approach because it consists in the repeated application of the same calculations to unrelated and superposing events, offers a possible approach to overcome this problem. It was developed an MC multiple processor code for optical and IR photon transport which was run on the parallel processor computer CRAY-T3E (128 DEC Alpha EV5 nodes, 600 Mflops) at CINECA (Bologna, Italy). The comparison between single processor and multiple processor runs for the same tissue models shows that the parallelization reduces the computation time by a factor of about N , where N is the number of used processors. This means a computation time reduction by a factor ranging from about 10 2 (as in our case where 128 processors are available) up to about 10 3 (with the most powerful parallel computers with 1024 processors). This reduction could make feasible MC simulations till now impracticable. The scaling of the execution time of the parallel code, as a function of the values of the main input parameters, is also evaluated.

Colasanti, Alberto; Guida, Giovanni; Kisslinger, Annamaria; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Quarto, Maria; Riccio, Patrizia; Roberti, Giuseppe; Villani, Fulvia

2000-10-01

7

Application of parallel computing to a Monte Carlo code for photon transport in turbid media

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of photon transport in turbid media suffer a severe limitation represented by very high execution times in all practical cases. This problem could be approached with the technique of parallel computing, which, in principle, is very suitable for MC simulations because they consist in the repeated application of the same calculations to unrelated and superposing events. For the first time in the field of the optical and IR photon transport, we developed a MC parallel code running on the parallel processor computer CRAY-T3E (128 DEC Alpha EV5 nodes, 600 Mflops) at CINECA (Bologna, Italy). The comparison of several single processor runs (on Alpha AXP DEC 2100) and N-processor runs (on Cray T3E) for the same tissue models shows that the computation time is reduced by a factor of about 5*N, where N is the number of used processors. This means a computation time reduction by a factor ranging from about 102 (as in our case) up to about 5*103 (with the most powerful parallel computers) that could make feasible MC simulations till now impracticable.

Colasanti, Alberto; Guida, Giovanni; Kisslinger, Annamaria; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Quarto, Maria; Riccio, Patrizia; Roberti, Giuseppe; Villani, Fulvia

1998-12-01

8

RCP01; Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport. [CDC7600,6600; FORTRAN IV

RCP01 is a Monte Carlo program which estimates neutron capture rates and photon heating rates over the energy range important to the fission process, i.e., 10 Mev to 0 ev. There is a neutron eigenvalue capability as well as the usual fixed source capability. The geometry is modular comprising: (a) module zero, a set of concentric cylinders or spheres with

T. B. Fowler; M. L. Tobias; J. N. Fox; B. E. Lawler; J. U. Koppel; J. R. Triplett; L. L. Lynn; L. A. Waldman; I. Goldberg; P. Greebler; M. D. Kelley; R. A. Davis; C. E. Keck; J. A. Redfield; L. A. O. II II

2008-01-01

9

Parallel Monte Carlo Electron and Photon Transport Simulation Code (PMCEPT code)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations for customized cancer radiation treatment planning for each patient are very useful for both patient and doctor. These simulations can be used to find the most effective treatment with the least possible dose to the patient. This typical system, so called ``Doctor by Information Technology", will be useful to provide high quality medical services everywhere. However, the large amount of computing time required by the well-known general purpose Monte Carlo(MC) codes has prevented their use for routine dose distribution calculations for a customized radiation treatment planning. The optimal solution to provide ``accurate" dose distribution within an ``acceptable" time limit is to develop a parallel simulation algorithm on a beowulf PC cluster because it is the most accurate, efficient, and economic. I developed parallel MC electron and photon transport simulation code based on the standard MPI message passing interface. This algorithm solved the main difficulty of the parallel MC simulation (overlapped random number series in the different processors) using multiple random number seeds. The parallel results agreed well with the serial ones. The parallel efficiency approached 100% as was expected.

Kum, Oyeon

2004-11-01

10

ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state of the art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent couple electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and internal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2)multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, and (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes. Moreover the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.

Franke, Brian Claude; Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Laub, Thomas William

2004-06-01

11

An electron-photon coupled Monte Carlo code ARCHER - Accelerated Radiation-transport Computations in Heterogeneous Environments - is being developed at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute as a software test bed for emerging heterogeneous high performance computers that utilize accelerators such as GPUs. In this paper, the preliminary results of code development and testing are presented. The electron transport in media was modeled using the class-II condensed history method. The electron energy considered ranges from a few hundred keV to 30 MeV. Moller scattering and bremsstrahlung processes above a preset energy were explicitly modeled. Energy loss below that threshold was accounted for using the Continuously Slowing Down Approximation (CSDA). Photon transport was dealt with using the delta tracking method. Photoelectric effect, Compton scattering and pair production were modeled. Voxelised geometry was supported. A serial ARHCHER-CPU was first written in C++. The code was then ported to the GPU platform using CUDA C. The hardware involved a desktop PC with an Intel Xeon X5660 CPU and six NVIDIA Tesla M2090 GPUs. ARHCHER was tested for a case of 20 MeV electron beam incident perpendicularly on a water-aluminum-water phantom. The depth and lateral dose profiles were found to agree with results obtained from well tested MC codes. Using six GPU cards, 6x10{sup 6} histories of electrons were simulated within 2 seconds. In comparison, the same case running the EGSnrc and MCNPX codes required 1645 seconds and 9213 seconds, respectively, on a CPU with a single core used. (authors)

Su, L.; Du, X.; Liu, T.; Xu, X. G. [Nuclear Engineering Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

2013-07-01

12

A major computer program has been written to perform Monte Carlo studies of electron-photon cascades and the resultant production and transport of photoneutrons in finite three-dimensional systems. It is programmed in FORTRAN and is explicitly designed to be easily used and extended to yield a fast, adaptable, and versatile computer program that has wide application to problems in solid-state, nuclear,

E. C. Hansen; C. S. Bartoletti; P. B. Daitch

1975-01-01

13

A major computer program has been written to perform Monte Carlo studies of electron?photon cascades and the resultant production and transport of photoneutrons in finite three?dimensional systems. It is programmed in FORTRAN and is explicitly designed to be easily used and extended to yield a fast, adaptable, and versatile computer program that has wide application to problems in solid?state, nuclear,

E. C. Hansent; C. S. Bartoletti; P. B. Daitch

1975-01-01

14

Simulation of the full-core pin-model by JMCT Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code

Since the large numbers of cells over a million, the tallies over a hundred million and the particle histories over ten billion, the simulation of the full-core pin-by-pin model has become a real challenge for the computers and the computational methods. On the other hand, the basic memory of the model has exceeded the limit of a single CPU, so the spatial domain and data decomposition must be considered. JMCT (J Monte Carlo Transport code) has successful fulfilled the simulation of the full-core pin-by-pin model by the domain decomposition and the nested parallel computation. The k{sub eff} and flux of each cell are obtained. (authors)

Li, D.; Li, G.; Zhang, B.; Shu, L.; Shangguan, D.; Ma, Y.; Hu, Z. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)

2013-07-01

15

Two-dimensional (2D) arrays of thick segmented scintillators are of interest as X-ray detectors for both 2D and 3D image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Their detection process involves ionizing radiation energy deposition followed by production and transport of optical photons. Only a very limited number of optical Monte Carlo simulation models exist, which has limited the number of modeling studies that have considered both stages of the detection process. We present ScintSim1, an in-house optical Monte Carlo simulation code for 2D arrays of scintillation crystals, developed in the MATLAB programming environment. The code was rewritten and revised based on an existing program for single-element detectors, with the additional capability to model 2D arrays of elements with configurable dimensions, material, etc., The code generates and follows each optical photon history through the detector element (and, in case of cross-talk, the surrounding ones) until it reaches a configurable receptor, or is attenuated. The new model was verified by testing against relevant theoretically known behaviors or quantities and the results of a validated single-element model. For both sets of comparisons, the discrepancies in the calculated quantities were all <1%. The results validate the accuracy of the new code, which is a useful tool in scintillation detector optimization. PMID:24600168

Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Zarrini-Monfared, Zinat; Karbasi, Sareh; Zamani, Ali

2014-01-01

16

Two-dimensional (2D) arrays of thick segmented scintillators are of interest as X-ray detectors for both 2D and 3D image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Their detection process involves ionizing radiation energy deposition followed by production and transport of optical photons. Only a very limited number of optical Monte Carlo simulation models exist, which has limited the number of modeling studies that have considered both stages of the detection process. We present ScintSim1, an in-house optical Monte Carlo simulation code for 2D arrays of scintillation crystals, developed in the MATLAB programming environment. The code was rewritten and revised based on an existing program for single-element detectors, with the additional capability to model 2D arrays of elements with configurable dimensions, material, etc., The code generates and follows each optical photon history through the detector element (and, in case of cross-talk, the surrounding ones) until it reaches a configurable receptor, or is attenuated. The new model was verified by testing against relevant theoretically known behaviors or quantities and the results of a validated single-element model. For both sets of comparisons, the discrepancies in the calculated quantities were all <1%. The results validate the accuracy of the new code, which is a useful tool in scintillation detector optimization. PMID:24600168

Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Zarrini-Monfared, Zinat; Karbasi, Sareh; Zamani, Ali

2014-01-01

17

Details of the interaction of photons with tissue phantoms are elucidated using Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, photon sampling volumes and photon pathlengths are determined for a variety of scattering and absorption parameters. The Monte Carlo simulations are specifically designed to model light delivery and collection geometries relevant to clinical applications of optical biopsy techniques. The Monte Carlo simulations assume that light is delivered and collected by two, nearly-adjacent optical fibers and take into account the numerical aperture of the fibers as well as reflectance and refraction at interfaces between different media. To determine the validity of the Monte Carlo simulations for modeling the interactions between the photons and the tissue phantom in these geometries, the simulations were compared to measurements of aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres in the wavelength range 450-750 nm.

Mourant, J.R.; Hielscher, A.H.; Bigio, I.J.

1996-04-01

18

ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and internal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2) multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes, (4) a general purpose geometry engine for linking with CAD or other geometry formats, and (5) the Cholla facet geometry library. Moreover, the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.

Franke, Brian Claude; Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Laub, Thomas William

2005-09-01

19

Low energy photon dosimetry using Monte Carlo and convolution methods

Low energy photon dosimetry was investigated using Monte Carlo and convolution methods. Photon energy deposition kernels describing the three dimensional distribution of energy deposition about a primary photon interaction site were computed using EGS4 Monte Carlo. These photon energy deposition kernels were utilized as the convolution kernel in convolution\\/superposition dose calculations. A Monte Carlo bench mark describing the energy deposition

Joseph Michael Modrick

2000-01-01

20

The ITS (Integrated Tiger Series) Monte Carlo code package developed at Sandia National Laboratories and distributed as CCC-467/ITS by the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) consists of eight codes - the standard codes, TIGER, CYLTRAN, ACCEPT; the P-codes, TIGERP, CYLTRANP, ACCEPTP; and the M-codes ACCEPTM, CYLTRANM. The codes have been adapted to run on the IBM 3081, VAX 11/780, CDC-7600, and Cray 1 with the use of the update emulator UPEML. This manual should serve as a guide to a user running the codes on IBM computers having 370 architecture. The cases listed were tested on the IBM 3033, under the MVS operating system using the VS Fortran Level 1.3.1 compiler.

Kirk, B.L.

1985-12-01

21

Applications of the Monte Carlo radiation transport toolkit at LLNL

Modern Monte Carlo radiation transport codes can be applied to model most applications of radiation, from optical to TeV photons, from thermal neutrons to heavy ions. Simulations can include any desired level of detail in three-dimensional geometries using the right level of detail in the reaction physics. The technology areas to which we have applied these codes include medical applications,

Kenneth E. Sale; Paul M. Bergstrom; Richard M. Buck; Dermot Cullen; D. Fujino; Christine Hartmann-Siantar

1999-01-01

22

Improved geometry representations for Monte Carlo radiation transport.

ITS (Integrated Tiger Series) permits a state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-integrated coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. ITS allows designers to predict product performance in radiation environments.

Martin, Matthew Ryan (Cornell University)

2004-08-01

23

TOPICAL REVIEW: Monte Carlo modelling of external radiotherapy photon beams

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An essential requirement for successful radiation therapy is that the discrepancies between dose distributions calculated at the treatment planning stage and those delivered to the patient are minimized. An important component in the treatment planning process is the accurate calculation of dose distributions. The most accurate way to do this is by Monte Carlo calculation of particle transport, first in the geometry of the external or internal source followed by tracking the transport and energy deposition in the tissues of interest. Additionally, Monte Carlo simulations allow one to investigate the influence of source components on beams of a particular type and their contaminant particles. Since the mid 1990s, there has been an enormous increase in Monte Carlo studies dealing specifically with the subject of the present review, i.e., external photon beam Monte Carlo calculations, aided by the advent of new codes and fast computers. The foundations for this work were laid from the late 1970s until the early 1990s. In this paper we will review the progress made in this field over the last 25 years. The review will be focused mainly on Monte Carlo modelling of linear accelerator treatment heads but sections will also be devoted to kilovoltage x-ray units and 60Co teletherapy sources.

Verhaegen, Frank; Seuntjens, Jan

2003-11-01

24

Coupled electron-photon radiation transport

Massively-parallel computers allow detailed 3D radiation transport simulations to be performed to analyze the response of complex systems to radiation. This has been recently been demonstrated with the coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo code, ITS. To enable such calculations, the combinatorial geometry capability of ITS was improved. For greater geometrical flexibility, a version of ITS is under development that can track particles in CAD geometries. Deterministic radiation transport codes that utilize an unstructured spatial mesh are also being devised. For electron transport, the authors are investigating second-order forms of the transport equations which, when discretized, yield symmetric positive definite matrices. A novel parallelization strategy, simultaneously solving for spatial and angular unknowns, has been applied to the even- and odd-parity forms of the transport equation on a 2D unstructured spatial mesh. Another second-order form, the self-adjoint angular flux transport equation, also shows promise for electron transport.

Lorence, L.; Kensek, R.P.; Valdez, G.D.; Drumm, C.R.; Fan, W.C.; Powell, J.L.

2000-01-17

25

The RCP01 Monte Carlo program is used to analyze many geometries of interest in nuclear design and analysis of light water moderated reactors such as the core in its pressure vessel with complex piping arrangement, fuel storage arrays, shipping and container arrangements, and neutron detector configurations. Written in FORTRAN and in use on a variety of computers, it is capable of estimating steady state neutron or photon reaction rates and neutron multiplication factors. The energy range covered in neutron calculations is that relevant to the fission process and subsequent slowing-down and thermalization, i.e., 20 MeV to 0 eV. The same energy range is covered for photon calculations.

Ondis, L.A., II; Tyburski, L.J.; Moskowitz, B.S.

2000-03-01

26

Recent advances in the Mercury Monte Carlo particle transport code

We review recent physics and computational science advances in the Mercury Monte Carlo particle transport code under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We describe recent efforts to enable a nuclear resonance fluorescence capability in the Mercury photon transport. We also describe recent work to implement a probability of extinction capability into Mercury. We review the results of current parallel scaling and threading efforts that enable the code to run on millions of MPI processes. (authors)

Brantley, P. S.; Dawson, S. A.; McKinley, M. S.; O'Brien, M. J.; Stevens, D. E.; Beck, B. R.; Jurgenson, E. D.; Ebbers, C. A.; Hall, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

2013-07-01

27

Precise Monte Carlo Simulation of Single-Photon Detectors

We demonstrate the importance and utility of Monte Carlo simulation of single-photon detectors. Devising an optimal simulation is strongly influenced by the particular application because of the complexity of modern, avalanche-diode-based single-photon detectors.. Using a simple yet very demanding example of random number generation via detection of Poissonian photons exiting a beam splitter, we present a Monte Carlo simulation that faithfully reproduces the serial autocorrelation of random bits as a function of detection frequency over four orders of magnitude of the incident photon flux. We conjecture that this simulation approach can be easily modified for use in many other applications.

Mario Stip?evi?; Daniel J. Gauthier

2014-11-13

28

Application of photonic systems for transportation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In transportation, photonics helps save lives and improves safety. Photonics also helps to monitor the rate of rail and highway wears. Lasers and imagers offer a range of capabilities for transportation industry. The proposed paper will discuss some photonic applications for railway transportation in Russia.

Inozemtsev, Vladimir G.; Semionov, Liveriy L.; Shilin, Victor A.

1999-10-01

29

A New Monte Carlo Method for Time-Dependent Neutrino Radiation Transport

Monte Carlo approaches to radiation transport have several attractive properties such as simplicity of implementation, high accuracy, and good parallel scaling. Moreover, Monte Carlo methods can handle complicated geometries and are relatively easy to extend to multiple spatial dimensions, which makes them potentially interesting in modeling complex multi-dimensional astrophysical phenomena such as core-collapse supernovae. The aim of this paper is to explore Monte Carlo methods for modeling neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae. We generalize the Implicit Monte Carlo photon transport scheme of Fleck & Cummings and gray discrete-diffusion scheme of Densmore et al. to energy-, time-, and velocity-dependent neutrino transport. Using our 1D spherically-symmetric implementation, we show that, similar to the photon transport case, the implicit scheme enables significantly larger timesteps compared with explicit time discretization, without sacrificing accuracy, while the discrete-diffusion method leads to significant speed-ups at high optical depth. Our results suggest that a combination of spectral, velocity-dependent, Implicit Monte Carlo and discrete-diffusion Monte Carlo methods represents a robust approach for use in neutrino transport calculations in core-collapse supernovae. Our velocity-dependent scheme can easily be adapted to photon transport.

Ernazar Abdikamalov; Adam Burrows; Christian D. Ott; Frank Löffler; Evan O'Connor; Joshua C. Dolence; Erik Schnetter

2012-03-13

30

A NEW MONTE CARLO METHOD FOR TIME-DEPENDENT NEUTRINO RADIATION TRANSPORT

Monte Carlo approaches to radiation transport have several attractive properties such as simplicity of implementation, high accuracy, and good parallel scaling. Moreover, Monte Carlo methods can handle complicated geometries and are relatively easy to extend to multiple spatial dimensions, which makes them potentially interesting in modeling complex multi-dimensional astrophysical phenomena such as core-collapse supernovae. The aim of this paper is to explore Monte Carlo methods for modeling neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae. We generalize the Implicit Monte Carlo photon transport scheme of Fleck and Cummings and gray discrete-diffusion scheme of Densmore et al. to energy-, time-, and velocity-dependent neutrino transport. Using our 1D spherically-symmetric implementation, we show that, similar to the photon transport case, the implicit scheme enables significantly larger timesteps compared with explicit time discretization, without sacrificing accuracy, while the discrete-diffusion method leads to significant speed-ups at high optical depth. Our results suggest that a combination of spectral, velocity-dependent, Implicit Monte Carlo and discrete-diffusion Monte Carlo methods represents a robust approach for use in neutrino transport calculations in core-collapse supernovae. Our velocity-dependent scheme can easily be adapted to photon transport.

Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Ott, Christian D.; O'Connor, Evan [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, 1200 E California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burrows, Adam; Dolence, Joshua C. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Loeffler, Frank; Schnetter, Erik, E-mail: abdik@tapir.caltech.edu [Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, 216 Johnston Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

2012-08-20

31

Herein we present a comparison of Monte Carlo, radiative transport (RT), and diffusion based forward models for implementation into small animal optical tomography algorithm. The simulations show that the unique RT solver can accurately predict the time-dependent propagation of excitation and emission photons in diffuse as well as transport limited systems. Furthermore, the need for the accurate modeling of incident

John C. Rasmussen; Tianshu Pan; Amit Joshi; Todd A. Wareing; John Mcghee; Eva M. Sevick-muraca

2007-01-01

32

Monte Carlo simulations of the photon calibration fields at the underground laboratory of PTB.

A unique photon calibration facility operated by Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) provides photon fields with area dose rates in the order of the natural environmental radiation and even below. This facility is located in an underground laboratory in the Asse salt mine at a depth of 490 m below ground, where the ambient dose equivalent rate is only 2 nSv h(-1). Radioactive sources of the nuclides (241)Am, (57)Co, (137)Cs, (60)Co and (226)Ra are used to generate photon fields with different characteristics. In the past, the basic properties of the photon field, especially the area dose rate at the reference point and the mean energy of the photon spectra, were calculated by using analytic methods. However, information about scattered photons is only accessible through an investigation of spectra by performing Monte Carlos simulations. Therefore, the photon spectra at the reference point of the calibration facility were calculated using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP. The results obtained by using this method are of relevance for the traceability of the reference dose rate values to PTB's primary standards, as well as for the determination of the mean photon energy of the spectra. The latter was calculated with respect to the different quantities 'photon fluence', 'air kerma' and 'ambient dose equivalent'. The origin of the scattered component in the photon spectrum is investigated in detail by studying the photon field produced by the quasi-monoenergetic gamma emitter (137)Cs (E(?) = 662 keV) under various geometrical conditions. Implications of the Monte Carlo simulations on the traceability of the dose rate reference values as well as on the assessment of uncertainties will be described. PMID:20924123

Kowatari, M; Dombrowski, H; Neumaier, S

2010-12-01

33

Performance of three-photon PET imaging: Monte Carlo simulations

We have recently introduced the idea of making use of three-photon positron annihilations in positron emission tomography. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the three-gamma imaging in PET are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical computations. Two typical configurations of human and small animal scanners are considered. Three-photon imaging requires high-energy resolution detectors. Parameters currently attainable

Krzysztof Kacperski; Nicholas M. Spyrou

2005-01-01

34

MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron Photon) capabilities for nuclear well logging calculations

The Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) consists of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes and data libraries. The general-purpose continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron Photon), part of the LARTCS, provides a computational predictive capability for many applications of interest to the nuclear well logging community. The generalized three-dimensional geometry of MCNP is well suited for borehole-tool models. SABRINA, another component of the LARTCS, is a graphics code that can be used to interactively create a complex MCNP geometry. Users can define many source and tally characteristics with standard MCNP features. The time-dependent capability of the code is essential when modeling pulsed sources. Problems with neutrons, photons, and electrons as either single particle or coupled particles can be calculated with MCNP. The physics of neutron and photon transport and interactions is modeled in detail using the latest available cross-section data. A rich collections of variance reduction features can greatly increase the efficiency of a calculation. MCNP is written in FORTRAN 77 and has been run on variety of computer systems from scientific workstations to supercomputers. The next production version of MCNP will include features such as continuous-energy electron transport and a multitasking option. Areas of ongoing research of interest to the well logging community include angle biasing, adaptive Monte Carlo, improved discrete ordinates capabilities, and discrete ordinates/Monte Carlo hybrid development. Los Alamos has requested approval by the Department of Energy to create a Radiation Transport Computational Facility under their User Facility Program to increase external interactions with industry, universities, and other government organizations. 21 refs.

Forster, R.A.; Little, R.C.; Briesmeister, J.F.

1989-01-01

35

Monte Carlo Simulation of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the scatter processes which occur in Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography. The transport of photons from their emission by the radioactive source within the phantom to their detection by the nuclear medicine camera was modeled. The simulation was tested by comparing qualitatively and quantitatively the theoretical with the experimental energy spectra. Also, experimental and theoretical scatter fractions and detector efficiencies were compared. In addition, two phenomenological correction algorithms, the Gaussian Subtraction and Least Squares Fit methods, were studied for their ability to correct for scatter. Eighteen cases involving phantoms containing uniform and nonuniform biological media along with a point or distributed source were studied. Cylindrical symmetry of the phantom and source was assumed in order to reduce the computer runtime. The theoretical energy spectra generated by the Monte Carlo code agreed with the experimental spectra to within one standard deviation. The exceptions involved regions in the energy spectrum below 120 keV for a radioactive source in air and the nonscattered peak region for the modeling of bone. The energy spectra were found to be dependent on the medium and radioactive source distribution within the phantom. The Gaussian Subtraction method was found to give a relatively constant mean difference of 4 +/- 4 percent between the "theoretical" and "estimated" scatter fractions for windows of up to 22 keV in width. For wider windows, the mean difference was found to increase linearly with width. The Least Squares Fit method was found to parallel the results given by the Gaussian Subtraction method for windows of up to 22 keV in width. The mean difference, though, was found to increase much less rapidly for wider windows that that found in the Gaussian Subtraction method thereby making this method more attractive. Both quantitative methods had difficulty with cases involving an effective linear attenuation differing from that most commonly found. Such cases had to be treated separately in the Least Squares Fit method but they could be treated along with the others in the Gaussian Subtraction method with the penalty of a larger error than usual.

Henry, Leanne Joan

36

Monte Carlo simulation for the transport beamline

In the framework of the ELIMED project, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are widely used to study the physical transport of charged particles generated by laser-target interactions and to preliminarily evaluate fluence and dose distributions. An energy selection system and the experimental setup for the TARANIS laser facility in Belfast (UK) have been already simulated with the GEANT4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) MC toolkit. Preliminary results are reported here. Future developments are planned to implement a MC based 3D treatment planning in order to optimize shots number and dose delivery.

Romano, F.; Cuttone, G.; Jia, S. B.; Varisano, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Attili, A.; Marchetto, F.; Russo, G. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)] [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)

2013-07-26

37

Calculation of radiation therapy dose using all particle Monte Carlo transport

The actual radiation dose absorbed in the body is calculated using three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport. Neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, helium-3, alpha particles, photons, electrons, and positrons are transported in a completely coupled manner, using this Monte Carlo All-Particle Method (MCAPM). The major elements of the invention include: computer hardware, user description of the patient, description of the radiation source, physical databases, Monte Carlo transport, and output of dose distributions. This facilitated the estimation of dose distributions on a Cartesian grid for neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons, and heavy charged-particles incident on any biological target, with resolutions ranging from microns to centimeters. Calculations can be extended to estimate dose distributions on general-geometry (non-Cartesian) grids for biological and/or non-biological media.

Chandler, William P. (Tracy, CA); Hartmann-Siantar, Christine L. (San Ramon, CA); Rathkopf, James A. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

38

Calculation of radiation therapy dose using all particle Monte Carlo transport

The actual radiation dose absorbed in the body is calculated using three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport. Neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, helium-3, alpha particles, photons, electrons, and positrons are transported in a completely coupled manner, using this Monte Carlo All-Particle Method (MCAPM). The major elements of the invention include: computer hardware, user description of the patient, description of the radiation source, physical databases, Monte Carlo transport, and output of dose distributions. This facilitated the estimation of dose distributions on a Cartesian grid for neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons, and heavy charged-particles incident on any biological target, with resolutions ranging from microns to centimeters. Calculations can be extended to estimate dose distributions on general-geometry (non-Cartesian) grids for biological and/or non-biological media. 57 figs.

Chandler, W.P.; Hartmann-Siantar, C.L.; Rathkopf, J.A.

1999-02-09

39

Advantages of Analytical Transformations in Monte Carlo Methods for Radiation Transport

Monte Carlo methods for radiation transport typically attempt to solve an integral by directly sampling analog or weighted particles, which are treated as physical entities. Improvements to the methods involve better sampling, probability games or physical intuition about the problem. We show that significant improvements can be achieved by recasting the equations with an analytical transform to solve for new, non-physical entities or fields. This paper looks at one such transform, the difference formulation for thermal photon transport, showing a significant advantage for Monte Carlo solution of the equations for time dependent transport. Other related areas are discussed that may also realize significant benefits from similar analytical transformations.

McKinley, M S; Brooks III, E D; Daffin, F

2004-12-13

40

Overview and applications of the Monte Carlo radiation transport kit at LLNL

Modern Monte Carlo radiation transport codes can be applied to model most applications of radiation, from optical to TeV photons, from thermal neutrons to heavy ions. Simulations can include any desired level of detail in three-dimensional geometries using the right level of detail in the reaction physics. The technology areas to which we have applied these codes include medical applications,

Sale

1999-01-01

41

Shape based Monte Carlo code for light transport in complex heterogeneous Tissues

A Monte Carlo code for the calculation of light transport in heterogeneous scattering media is presented together with its validation. Triangle meshes are used to define the interfaces between different materials, in contrast with techniques based on individual volume elements. This approach allows to address realistic problems in a flexible way. A hierarchical spatial organisation enables a fast photon-surface intersection

Eduardo Margallo-Balbás; Patrick J. French

2007-01-01

42

Monte Carlo method for photon heating using temperature-dependent optical properties.

The Monte Carlo method for photon transport is often used to predict the volumetric heating that an optical source will induce inside a tissue or material. This method relies on constant (with respect to temperature) optical properties, specifically the coefficients of scattering and absorption. In reality, optical coefficients are typically temperature-dependent, leading to error in simulation results. The purpose of this study is to develop a method that can incorporate variable properties and accurately simulate systems where the temperature will greatly vary, such as in the case of laser-thawing of frozen tissues. A numerical simulation was developed that utilizes the Monte Carlo method for photon transport to simulate the thermal response of a system that allows temperature-dependent optical and thermal properties. This was done by combining traditional Monte Carlo photon transport with a heat transfer simulation to provide a feedback loop that selects local properties based on current temperatures, for each moment in time. Additionally, photon steps are segmented to accurately obtain path lengths within a homogenous (but not isothermal) material. Validation of the simulation was done using comparisons to established Monte Carlo simulations using constant properties, and a comparison to the Beer-Lambert law for temperature-variable properties. The simulation is able to accurately predict the thermal response of a system whose properties can vary with temperature. The difference in results between variable-property and constant property methods for the representative system of laser-heated silicon can become larger than 100K. This simulation will return more accurate results of optical irradiation absorption in a material which undergoes a large change in temperature. This increased accuracy in simulated results leads to better thermal predictions in living tissues and can provide enhanced planning and improved experimental and procedural outcomes. PMID:25488656

Slade, Adam Broadbent; Aguilar, Guillermo

2015-02-01

43

Vertical Photon Transport in Cloud Remote Sensing Problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photon transport in plane-parallel, vertically inhomogeneous clouds is investigated and applied to cloud remote sensing techniques that use solar reflectance or transmittance measurements for retrieving droplet effective radius. Transport is couched in terms of weighting functions which approximate the relative contribution of individual layers to the overall retrieval. Two vertical weightings are investigated, including one based on the average number of scatterings encountered by reflected and transmitted photons in any given layer. A simpler vertical weighting based on the maximum penetration of reflected photons proves useful for solar reflectance measurements. These weighting functions are highly dependent on droplet absorption and solar/viewing geometry. A superposition technique, using adding/doubling radiative transfer procedures, is derived to accurately determine both weightings, avoiding time consuming Monte Carlo methods. Superposition calculations are made for a variety of geometries and cloud models, and selected results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Effective radius retrievals from modeled vertically inhomogeneous liquid water clouds are then made using the standard near-infrared bands, and compared with size estimates based on the proposed weighting functions. Agreement between the two methods is generally within several tenths of a micrometer, much better than expected retrieval accuracy. Though the emphasis is on photon transport in clouds, the derived weightings can be applied to any multiple scattering plane-parallel radiative transfer problem, including arbitrary combinations of cloud, aerosol, and gas layers.

Platnick, S.

1999-01-01

44

Benchmarking of Proton Transport in Super Monte Carlo Simulation Program

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Monte Carlo (MC) method has been traditionally applied in nuclear design and analysis due to its capability of dealing with complicated geometries and multi-dimensional physics problems as well as obtaining accurate results. The Super Monte Carlo Simulation Program (SuperMC) is developed by FDS Team in China for fusion, fission, and other nuclear applications. The simulations of radiation transport, isotope burn-up, material activation, radiation dose, and biology damage could be performed using SuperMC. Complicated geometries and the whole physical process of various types of particles in broad energy scale can be well handled. Bi-directional automatic conversion between general CAD models and full-formed input files of SuperMC is supported by MCAM, which is a CAD/image-based automatic modeling program for neutronics and radiation transport simulation. Mixed visualization of dynamical 3D dataset and geometry model is supported by RVIS, which is a nuclear radiation virtual simulation and assessment system. Continuous-energy cross section data from hybrid evaluated nuclear data library HENDL are utilized to support simulation. Neutronic fixed source and critical design parameters calculates for reactors of complex geometry and material distribution based on the transport of neutron and photon have been achieved in our former version of SuperMC. Recently, the proton transport has also been intergrated in SuperMC in the energy region up to 10 GeV. The physical processes considered for proton transport include electromagnetic processes and hadronic processes. The electromagnetic processes include ionization, multiple scattering, bremsstrahlung, and pair production processes. Public evaluated data from HENDL are used in some electromagnetic processes. In hadronic physics, the Bertini intra-nuclear cascade model with exitons, preequilibrium model, nucleus explosion model, fission model, and evaporation model are incorporated to treat the intermediate energy nuclear reactions for proton. Some other hadronic models are also being developed now. The benchmarking of proton transport in SuperMC has been performed according to Accelerator Driven subcritical System (ADS) benchmark data and model released by IAEA from IAEA's Cooperation Research Plan (CRP). The incident proton energy is 1.0 GeV. The neutron flux and energy deposition were calculated. The results simulated using SupeMC and FLUKA are in agreement within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method. The proton transport in SuperMC has also been applied in China Lead-Alloy cooled Reactor (CLEAR), which is designed by FDS Team for the calculation of spallation reaction in the target.

Wang, Yongfeng; Li, Gui; Song, Jing; Zheng, Huaqing; Sun, Guangyao; Hao, Lijuan; Wu, Yican

2014-06-01

45

Photon beam description in PEREGRINE for Monte Carlo dose calculations

Goal of PEREGRINE is to provide capability for accurate, fast Monte Carlo calculation of radiation therapy dose distributions for routine clinical use and for research into efficacy of improved dose calculation. An accurate, efficient method of describing and sampling radiation sources is needed, and a simple, flexible solution is provided. The teletherapy source package for PEREGRINE, coupled with state-of-the-art Monte Carlo simulations of treatment heads, makes it possible to describe any teletherapy photon beam to the precision needed for highly accurate Monte Carlo dose calculations in complex clinical configurations that use standard patient modifiers such as collimator jaws, wedges, blocks, and/or multi-leaf collimators. Generic beam descriptions for a class of treatment machines can readily be adjusted to yield dose calculation to match specific clinical sites.

Cox, L. J., LLNL

1997-03-04

46

Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-dimensional entangled photons pairs are interesting for quantum information and cryptography: Compared to the well-known 2D polarization case, the stronger non-local quantum correlations could improve noise resistance or security, and the larger amount of information per photon increases the available bandwidth. One implementation is to use entanglement in the spatial degree of freedom of twin photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, which is equivalent to orbital angular momentum entanglement, this has been proven to be an excellent model system. The use of optical fiber technology for distribution of such photons has only very recently been practically demonstrated and is of fundamental and applied interest. It poses a big challenge compared to the established time and frequency domain methods: For spatially entangled photons, fiber transport requires the use of multimode fibers, and mode coupling and intermodal dispersion therein must be minimized not to destroy the spatial quantum correlations. We demonstrate that these shortcomings of conventional multimode fibers can be overcome by using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, which follows the paradigm to mimic free-space transport as good as possible, and are able to confirm entanglement of the fiber-transported photons. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons is largely unexplored yet, therefore we discuss the main complications, the interplay of intermodal dispersion and mode mixing, the influence of external stress and core deformations, and consider the pros and cons of various fiber types.

Löffler, W.; Eliel, E. R.; Woerdman, J. P.; Euser, T. G.; Scharrer, M.; Russell, P.

2012-03-01

47

Performance of three-photon PET imaging: Monte Carlo simulations.

We have recently introduced the idea of making use of three-photon positron annihilations in positron emission tomography. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the three-gamma imaging in PET are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical computations. Two typical configurations of human and small animal scanners are considered. Three-photon imaging requires high-energy resolution detectors. Parameters currently attainable by CdZnTe semiconductor detectors, the technology of choice for the future development of radiation imaging, are assumed. Spatial resolution is calculated as a function of detector energy resolution and size, position in the field of view, scanner size and the energies of the three-gamma annihilation photons. Possible ways to improve the spatial resolution obtained for nominal parameters, 1.5 cm and 3.2 mm FWHM for human and small animal scanners, respectively, are indicated. Counting rates of true and random three-photon events for typical human and small animal scanning configurations are assessed. A simple formula for minimum size of lesions detectable in the three-gamma based images is derived. Depending on the contrast and total number of registered counts, lesions of a few mm size for human and sub mm for small animal scanners can be detected. PMID:16306661

Kacperski, Krzysztof; Spyrou, Nicholas M

2005-12-01

48

Performance of three-photon PET imaging: Monte Carlo simulations

We have recently introduced the idea of making use of three-photon positron annihilations in positron emission tomography. In this paper the basic characteristics of the three-gamma imaging in PET are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical computations. Two typical configurations of human and small animal scanners are considered. Three-photon imaging requires high energy resolution detectors. Parameters currently attainable by CdZnTe semiconductor detectors, the technology of choice for the future development of radiation imaging, are assumed. Spatial resolution is calculated as a function of detector energy resolution and size, position in the field of view, scanner size, and the energies of the three gamma annihilation photons. Possible ways to improve the spatial resolution obtained for nominal parameters: 1.5 cm and 3.2 mm FWHM for human and small animal scanners, respectively, are indicated. Counting rates of true and random three-photon events for typical human and small animal scann...

Kacperski, K; Kacperski, Krzysztof; Spyrou, Nicholas M.

2005-01-01

49

The specialized Monte Carlo code X-GENERATOR which optimizes design of high intensity X-ray producing equipment employing magnetically confined electron beams was developed for Win32, i.e., for operating systems of Windows 95, 98 and Windows NT 4.0, 4.5. X-GENERATOR implements Class II of the Monte Carlo scheme of electron transport and the conventional scheme of photon transport simulation. The X-GENERATOR package

Vadim Moskvin

2000-01-01

50

ITS: the integrated TIGER series of electron\\/photon transport codes-Version 3.0

The ITS system is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron\\/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Version 3.0 is a major upgrade of the system with important improvements in the physical model. Improvements in the Monte Carlo codes

John A. Halbleib; Ronald P. Kensek; Greg D. Valdez; Stephen M. Seltzer; Martin J. Berger

1992-01-01

51

Response kernel density estimation Monte Carlo method for electron transport

Electron transport simulation plays an important role in the dose calculation in electron cancer therapy as well as in many other fields. Traditional numerical solutions for particle transport are inadequate because of the extremely anisotropic collisions between electrons and the background medium. In principle, analog Monte Carlo (AMC) can be used, however, the large cross section for coulombic interactions makes

Jie Du

1997-01-01

52

Review of Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general survey is provided on the capability of Monte Carlo (MC) modeling in tissue optics while paying special attention to the recent progress in the development of methods for speeding up MC simulations. The principles of MC modeling for the simulation of light transport in tissues, which includes the general procedure of tracking an individual photon packet, common light-tissue interactions that can be simulated, frequently used tissue models, common contact/noncontact illumination and detection setups, and the treatment of time-resolved and frequency-domain optical measurements, are briefly described to help interested readers achieve a quick start. Following that, a variety of methods for speeding up MC simulations, which includes scaling methods, perturbation methods, hybrid methods, variance reduction techniques, parallel computation, and special methods for fluorescence simulations, as well as their respective advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Then the applications of MC methods in tissue optics, laser Doppler flowmetry, photodynamic therapy, optical coherence tomography, and diffuse optical tomography are briefly surveyed. Finally, the potential directions for the future development of the MC method in tissue optics are discussed.

Zhu, Caigang; Liu, Quan

2013-05-01

53

A generic algorithm for Monte Carlo simulation of proton transport

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mixed (class II) algorithm for Monte Carlo simulation of the transport of protons, and other heavy charged particles, in matter is presented. The emphasis is on the electromagnetic interactions (elastic and inelastic collisions) which are simulated using strategies similar to those employed in the electron-photon code PENELOPE. Elastic collisions are described in terms of numerical differential cross sections (DCSs) in the center-of-mass frame, calculated from the eikonal approximation with the Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater atomic potential. The polar scattering angle is sampled by employing an adaptive numerical algorithm which allows control of interpolation errors. The energy transferred to the recoiling target atoms (nuclear stopping) is consistently described by transformation to the laboratory frame. Inelastic collisions are simulated from DCSs based on the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA), making use of the Sternheimer-Liljequist model of the generalized oscillator strength, with parameters adjusted to reproduce (1) the electronic stopping power read from the input file, and (2) the total cross sections for impact ionization of inner subshells. The latter were calculated from the PWBA including screening and Coulomb corrections. This approach provides quite a realistic description of the energy-loss distribution in single collisions, and of the emission of X-rays induced by proton impact. The simulation algorithm can be readily modified to include nuclear reactions, when the corresponding cross sections and emission probabilities are available, and bremsstrahlung emission.

Salvat, Francesc

2013-12-01

54

A hybrid (Monte Carlo/deterministic) approach for multi-dimensional radiation transport

Highlights: {yields} We introduce a variance reduction scheme for Monte Carlo (MC) transport. {yields} The primary application is atmospheric remote sensing. {yields} The technique first solves the adjoint problem using a deterministic solver. {yields} Next, the adjoint solution is used as an importance function for the MC solver. {yields} The adjoint problem is solved quickly since it ignores the volume. - Abstract: A novel hybrid Monte Carlo transport scheme is demonstrated in a scene with solar illumination, scattering and absorbing 2D atmosphere, a textured reflecting mountain, and a small detector located in the sky (mounted on a satellite or a airplane). It uses a deterministic approximation of an adjoint transport solution to reduce variance, computed quickly by ignoring atmospheric interactions. This allows significant variance and computational cost reductions when the atmospheric scattering and absorption coefficient are small. When combined with an atmospheric photon-redirection scheme, significant variance reduction (equivalently acceleration) is achieved in the presence of atmospheric interactions.

Bal, Guillaume, E-mail: gb2030@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, 200 S.W. Mudd Building, 500 W. 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Davis, Anthony B., E-mail: Anthony.B.Davis@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-237, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Langmore, Ian, E-mail: ianlangmore@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, 200 S.W. Mudd Building, 500 W. 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2011-08-20

55

Electromagnetic energy transport in finite photonic structures.

We have derived, for oblique propagation, an equation relating the averaged energy flux density to energy fluxes arising in the process of scattering by a lossless finite photonic structure. The latter fluxes include those associated with the dispersion relation of the structure, reflection, and interference between the incident and reflected waves. We have also derived an explicit relation between the energy flux density and the group velocity, which provides a simple and systematical procedure for studying theoretically and experimentally the properties of the energy transport through a wide variety of finite photonic structures. Such a relation may be regarded as a generalization of the corresponding one for infinite periodic systems to finite photonic structures. A finite, N-period, photonic crystal was used to illustrate the usefulness of our results. PMID:24921471

de Dios-Leyva, M; Duque, C A; Drake-Pérez, J C

2014-06-01

56

Monte Carlo simulations of the transport of sputtered particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Program SPATS models the transport of neutral particles during magnetron sputtering deposition. The 3D Monte Carlo simulation provides information about spatial distribution of the fluxes, density of the sputtered particles in the chamber glow discharge area, and kinetic energy distribution of the arrival flux. Collision events are modelled by scattering in Biersack's potential, Lennard-Jones potential, or by binary hard sphere collision approximation. The code has an interface for Monte Carlo TRIM simulated results of the sputtered particles.

Macàk, Karol; Macàk, Peter; Helmersson, Ulf

1999-08-01

57

In the algorithm of Leksell GAMMAPLAN (the treatment planning software of Leksell Gamma Knife), scattered photons from the collimator system are presumed to have negligible effects on the Gamma Knife dosimetry. In this study, we used the EGS4 Monte Carlo (MC) technique to study the scattered photons coming out of the single beam channel of Leksell Gamma Knife. The PRESTA (Parameter Reduced Electron-Step Transport Algorithm) version of the EGS4 (Electron Gamma Shower version 4) MC computer code was employed. We simulated the single beam channel of Leksell Gamma Knife with the full geometry. Primary photons were sampled from within the {sup 60}Co source and radiated isotropically in a solid angle of 4{pi}. The percentages of scattered photons within all photons reaching the phantom space using different collimators were calculated with an average value of 15%. However, this significant amount of scattered photons contributes negligible effects to single beam dose profiles for different collimators. Output spectra were calculated for the four different collimators. To increase the efficiency of simulation by decreasing the semiaperture angle of the beam channel or the solid angle of the initial directions of primary photons will underestimate the scattered component of the photon fluence. The generated backscattered photons from within the {sup 60}Co source and the beam channel also contribute to the output spectra.

Cheung, Joel Y.C.; Yu, K.N. [Gamma Knife Centre, Canossa Hospital, 1 Old Peak Road, Hong Kong (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

2006-01-15

58

ELECTRON\\/PHOTON TRANSPORT AND ITS APPLICATIONS

This paper surveys the wide range of radiation physics topics that involve the transport of energetic electrons and x-rays. Applications in the high-energy range (100 keV to 30 MeV) include: radiation therapy physics (including treatment planning), industrial radiation processing of materials, shielding, experimental and theoretical dosimetry, dose profiles near material interfaces, beta-ray dosimetry, characterization of the photon spectrum from radioisotope

John C. Garth

2005-01-01

59

Guideline of Monte Carlo calculation. Neutron/gamma ray transport simulation by Monte Carlo method

This report condenses basic theories and advanced applications of neutron/gamma ray transport calculations in many fields of nuclear energy research. Chapters 1 through 5 treat historical progress of Monte Carlo methods, general issues of variance reduction technique, cross section libraries used in continuous energy Monte Carlo codes. In chapter 6, the following issues are discussed: fusion benchmark experiments, design of ITER, experiment analyses of fast critical assembly, core analyses of JMTR, simulation of pulsed neutron experiment, core analyses of HTTR, duct streaming calculations, bulk shielding calculations, neutron/gamma ray transport calculations of the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Chapters 8 and 9 treat function enhancements of MCNP and MVP codes, and a parallel processing of Monte Carlo calculation, respectively. An important references are attached at the end of this report.

2002-01-01

60

Purpose: This paper presents the results of a series of calculations to determine buildup factors for ordinary concrete, baryte concrete, lead, steel, and iron in broad beam geometry for photons energies from 0.125 to 25.125 MeV at 0.250 MeV intervals.Methods: Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code has been used to determine the buildup factors for the studied shielding materials.Results: The computation of the primary broad beams using buildup factors data was done for nine published megavoltage photon beam spectra ranging from 4 to 25 MV in nominal energies, representing linacs made by the three major manufacturers. The first tenth value layer and the equilibrium tenth value layer are calculated from the broad beam transmission for these nine primary megavoltage photon beam spectra.Conclusions: The results, compared with published data, show the ability of these buildup factor data to predict shielding transmission curves for the primary radiation beam. Therefore, the buildup factor data can be combined with primary, scatter, and leakage x-ray spectra to perform computation of broad beam transmission for barriers in radiotherapy shielding x-ray facilities.

Karim Karoui, Mohamed [Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l'environnement 5019 Monastir -Tunisia (Tunisia); Kharrati, Hedi [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques de la Sante de Monastir, Avenue Avicenne 5000 Monastir (Tunisia)

2013-07-15

61

MORSE Monte Carlo radiation transport code system

This report is an addendum to the MORSE report, ORNL-4972, originally published in 1975. This addendum contains descriptions of several modifications to the MORSE Monte Carlo Code, replacement pages containing corrections, Part II of the report which was previously unpublished, and a new Table of Contents. The modifications include a Klein Nishina estimator for gamma rays. Use of such an estimator required changing the cross section routines to process pair production and Compton scattering cross sections directly from ENDF tapes and writing a new version of subroutine RELCOL. Another modification is the use of free form input for the SAMBO analysis data. This required changing subroutines SCORIN and adding new subroutine RFRE. References are updated, and errors in the original report have been corrected. (WHK)

Emmett, M.B.

1983-02-01

62

Photon-induced carrier transport in high efficiency midinfrared quantum cascade lasers

A midinfrared quantum cascade laser with high wall-plug efficiency is analyzed by means of an ensemble Monte Carlo method. Both the carrier transport and the cavity field dynamics are included in the simulation, offering a self-consistent approach for analyzing and optimizing the laser operation. It is shown that at low temperatures, photon emission and absorption can govern the carrier transport in such devices. Furthermore, we find that photon-induced scattering can strongly affect the kinetic electron distributions within the subbands. Our results are validated against available experimental data.

Mátyás, Alpár; Jirauschek, Christian; 10.1063/1.3608116

2011-01-01

63

Efficient, automated Monte Carlo methods for radiation transport

Monte Carlo simulations provide an indispensible model for solving radiative transport problems, but their slow convergence inhibits their use as an everyday computational tool. In this paper, we present two new ideas for accelerating the convergence of Monte Carlo algorithms based upon an efficient algorithm that couples simulations of forward and adjoint transport equations. Forward random walks are first processed in stages, each using a fixed sample size, and information from stage k is used to alter the sampling and weighting procedure in stage k+1. This produces rapid geometric convergence and accounts for dramatic gains in the efficiency of the forward computation. In case still greater accuracy is required in the forward solution, information from an adjoint simulation can be added to extend the geometric learning of the forward solution. The resulting new approach should find widespread use when fast, accurate simulations of the transport equation are needed.

Kong Rong; Ambrose, Martin [Claremont Graduate University, 150 E. 10th Street, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Spanier, Jerome [Claremont Graduate University, 150 E. 10th Street, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, 1002 Health Science Road E., Irvine, CA 92612 (United States)], E-mail: jspanier@uci.edu

2008-11-20

64

Perturbation Monte Carlo methods to solve inverse photon migration problems in heterogeneous tissues

We introduce a novel and efficient method to provide solutions to inverse photon migration problems in hetero- geneous turbid media. The method extracts derivative information from a single Monte Carlo simulation to permit the rapid determination of rates of change in the detected photon signal with respect to perturbations in background tissue optical properties. We then feed this derivative information

Carole K. Hayakawa; Jerome Spanier; Frédéric Bevilacqua; Andrew K. Dunn; Joon S. You; Bruce J. Tromberg; Vasan Venugopalan

2001-01-01

65

We present an approach to solving the radiative transport equation (RTE) for layered media in the spatial frequency domain (SFD) using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. This is done by obtaining a complex photon weight from analysis of the Fourier transform of the RTE. We also develop a modified shortcut method that enables a single MC simulation to efficiently provide RTE solutions in the SFD for any number of spatial frequencies. We provide comparisons between the modified shortcut method and conventional discrete transform methods for SFD reflectance. Further results for oblique illumination illustrate the potential diagnostic utility of the SFD phase-shifts for analysis of layered media. PMID:21685989

Gardner, Adam R.; Venugopalan, Vasan

2012-01-01

66

Thermoelectric transport perpendicular to thin-film heterostructures calculated using the Monte The Monte Carlo technique is used to calculate electrical as well as thermoelectric transport properties ballistic thermionic transport and fully diffusive thermoelectric transport is also described. DOI: 10

67

Specific Absorbed Fractions of Electrons and Photons for Rad-HUMAN Phantom Using Monte Carlo Method

The specific absorbed fractions (SAF) for self- and cross-irradiation are effective tools for the internal dose estimation of inhalation and ingestion intakes of radionuclides. A set of SAFs of photon and electron were calculated using the Rad-HUMAN phantom, a computational voxel phantom of Chinese adult female and created using the color photographic image of the Chinese Visible Human (CVH) data set. The model can represent most of Chinese adult female anatomical characteristics and can be taken as an individual phantom to investigate the difference of internal dose with Caucasians. In this study, the emission of mono-energetic photons and electrons of 10keV to 4MeV energy were calculated using the Monte Carlo particle transport calculation code MCNP. Results were compared with the values from ICRP reference and ORNL models. The results showed that SAF from Rad-HUMAN have the similar trends but larger than those from the other two models. The differences were due to the racial and anatomical differences in o...

Wang, Wen; Long, Peng-cheng; Hu, Li-qin

2014-01-01

68

Neutron streaming Monte Carlo radiation transport code MORSE-CG

Calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo code, MORSE-CG, to determine the neutron streaming through various straight and stepped gaps between radiation shield sectors in the conceptual tokamak fusion power plant design STARFIRE. This design calls for ''pie-shaped'' radiation shields with gaps between segments. It is apparent that some type of offset, or stepped gap, configuration will be necessary to reduce neutron streaming through these gaps. To evaluate this streaming problem, a MORSE-to-MORSE coupling technique was used, consisting of two separate transport calculations, which together defined the entire transport problem. The results define the effectiveness of various gap configurations to eliminate radiation streaming.

Halley, A.M.; Miller, W.H.

1986-11-01

69

Topologically Robust Transport of Photons in a Synthetic Gauge Field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic transport is localized in low-dimensional disordered media. The addition of gauge fields to disordered media leads to fundamental changes in the transport properties. We implement a synthetic gauge field for photons using silicon-on-insulator technology. By determining the distribution of transport properties, we confirm that waves are localized in the bulk and localization is suppressed in edge states. Our system provides a new platform for investigating the transport properties of photons in the presence of synthetic gauge fields.

Mittal, S.; Fan, J.; Faez, S.; Migdall, A.; Taylor, J. M.; Hafezi, M.

2014-08-01

70

Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in a cloud computing environment with MapReduce

Monte Carlo simulation is considered the most reliable method for modeling photon migration in heterogeneous media. However, its widespread use is hindered by the high computational cost. The purpose of this work is to report on our implementation of a simple MapReduce method for performing fault-tolerant Monte Carlo computations in a massively-parallel cloud computing environment. We ported the MC321 Monte Carlo package to Hadoop, an open-source MapReduce framework. In this implementation, Map tasks compute photon histories in parallel while a Reduce task scores photon absorption. The distributed implementation was evaluated on a commercial compute cloud. The simulation time was found to be linearly dependent on the number of photons and inversely proportional to the number of nodes. For a cluster size of 240 nodes, the simulation of 100 billion photon histories took 22 min, a 1258 × speed-up compared to the single-threaded Monte Carlo program. The overall computational throughput was 85,178 photon histories per node per second, with a latency of 100 s. The distributed simulation produced the same output as the original implementation and was resilient to hardware failure: the correctness of the simulation was unaffected by the shutdown of 50% of the nodes. PMID:22191916

Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei

2011-01-01

71

Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in a cloud computing environment with MapReduce.

Monte Carlo simulation is considered the most reliable method for modeling photon migration in heterogeneous media. However, its widespread use is hindered by the high computational cost. The purpose of this work is to report on our implementation of a simple MapReduce method for performing fault-tolerant Monte Carlo computations in a massively-parallel cloud computing environment. We ported the MC321 Monte Carlo package to Hadoop, an open-source MapReduce framework. In this implementation, Map tasks compute photon histories in parallel while a Reduce task scores photon absorption. The distributed implementation was evaluated on a commercial compute cloud. The simulation time was found to be linearly dependent on the number of photons and inversely proportional to the number of nodes. For a cluster size of 240 nodes, the simulation of 100 billion photon histories took 22 min, a 1258 × speed-up compared to the single-threaded Monte Carlo program. The overall computational throughput was 85,178 photon histories per node per second, with a latency of 100 s. The distributed simulation produced the same output as the original implementation and was resilient to hardware failure: the correctness of the simulation was unaffected by the shutdown of 50% of the nodes. PMID:22191916

Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei

2011-12-01

72

Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in a cloud computing environment with MapReduce

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo simulation is considered the most reliable method for modeling photon migration in heterogeneous media. However, its widespread use is hindered by the high computational cost. The purpose of this work is to report on our implementation of a simple MapReduce method for performing fault-tolerant Monte Carlo computations in a massively-parallel cloud computing environment. We ported the MC321 Monte Carlo package to Hadoop, an open-source MapReduce framework. In this implementation, Map tasks compute photon histories in parallel while a Reduce task scores photon absorption. The distributed implementation was evaluated on a commercial compute cloud. The simulation time was found to be linearly dependent on the number of photons and inversely proportional to the number of nodes. For a cluster size of 240 nodes, the simulation of 100 billion photon histories took 22 min, a 1258 × speed-up compared to the single-threaded Monte Carlo program. The overall computational throughput was 85,178 photon histories per node per second, with a latency of 100 s. The distributed simulation produced the same output as the original implementation and was resilient to hardware failure: the correctness of the simulation was unaffected by the shutdown of 50% of the nodes.

Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei

2011-12-01

73

A Residual Monte Carlo Method for Spatially Discrete, Angularly Continuous Radiation Transport

Residual Monte Carlo provides exponential convergence of statistical error with respect to the number of particle histories. In the past, residual Monte Carlo has been applied to a variety of angularly discrete radiation-transport problems. Here, we apply residual Monte Carlo to spatially discrete, angularly continuous transport. By maintaining angular continuity, our method avoids the deficiencies of angular discretizations, such as

Ryan T. Wollaeger; Jeffery D. Densmore

2012-01-01

74

Monte Carlo Based Design of Photonic Processes in Azopolymers

Monte Carlo kinetics of diffraction efficiency evolution in a process of a pulsed diffraction grating inscription in a model system consisting of a polymer doped with azo-dye is presented. A comparison between simulations and degenerate two-wave mixing (DTWM) experiment is given. A good qualitative agreement of those results supports the concept of Monte Carlo based analysis and design of temperature-dependent

A. C. Mitus; G. Pawlik; B. Sahraoui; A. Miniewicz; F. Kajzar

2006-01-01

75

Shape based Monte Carlo code for light transport in complex heterogeneous Tissues.

A Monte Carlo code for the calculation of light transport in heterogeneous scattering media is presented together with its validation. Triangle meshes are used to define the interfaces between different materials, in contrast with techniques based on individual volume elements. This approach allows to address realistic problems in a flexible way. A hierarchical spatial organisation enables a fast photon-surface intersection test. The application of the new environment to evaluate the impact of the trabecular structure of bone on its optical properties is demonstrated. A model of the trabecular micro structure recovered from microCT data was used to compute light distribution within tissue. Time-resolved curves across a spherical bone volume were computed. The work presented enables simulation of radiative transport in complex reality-based models of tissue and serves as a powerful, generic tool to study the effect of heterogeneity in the field of biomedical optics. PMID:19550681

Margallo-Balbás, Eduardo; French, Patrick J

2007-10-17

76

Control of single-photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide by a single photon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study controllable single-photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide with a nonlinear dispersion relation coupled to a three-level emitter in a cascade configuration. An extra cavity field is introduced to drive one of the level transitions of the emitter. In the resonance case, when the extra cavity does not contain photons, the input single photon will be reflected; when the cavity contains one photon, the full transmission of the input single photon can be obtained. In the off-resonance case, the single-photon transport can also be controlled by the parameters of the cavity. Therefore, we show that single-photon transport can be controlled by an extra cavity field.

Yan, Wei-Bin; Fan, Heng

2014-11-01

77

Control of single-photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide by another single photon

We study the controllable single-photon transport in a one-dimensional (1D) waveguide with nonlinear dispersion relation coupled to a three-level emitter in cascade configuration. An extra cavity field was introduced to drive one of the level transitions of the emitter. In the resonance case, when the extra cavity does not contain photons, the input single photon will be reflected, and when the cavity contains one photon, the full transmission of the input single photon can be obtained. In the off-resonance case, the single-photon transport can also be controlled by the parameters of the cavity. Therefore, we have shown that the single-photon transport can be controlled by an extra cavity field.

Wei-Bin Yan; Heng Fan

2014-08-10

78

Discrete angle biasing in Monte Carlo radiation transport

An angular biasing procedure is presented for use in Monte Carlo radiation transport with discretized scattering angle data. As in more general studies, the method is shown to reduce statistical weight fluctuations when it is combined with the exponential transformation. This discrete data application has a simple analytic form which is problem independent. The results from a sample problem illustrate the variance reduction and efficiency characteristics of the combined biasing procedures, and a large neutron and gamma ray integral experiment is also calculated. A proposal is given for the possible code generation of the biasing parameter p and the preferential direction /ovr/Omega///sub 0/ used in the combined biasing schemes.

Cramer, S.N.

1988-05-01

79

Discrete angle biasing in Monte Carlo radiation transport

An angular biasing procedure is presented for use in Monte Carlo radiation transport with discretized scattering angle data. As in more general studies, the method is shown to reduce statistical weight fluctuations when it is combined with the exponential transformation. This discrete data application has a simple analytic form that is problem independent. The results from a sample problem illustrate the variance reduction and efficiency characteristics of the combined biasing procedures, and a large neutron and gamma-ray integral experiment is also calculated. A proposal is given for the possible code generation of the biasing parameter rho and the preferential direction ..cap omega../sub 0/ used in the combined biasing schemes.

Cramer, S.N.

1988-04-01

80

The effect of coherent scattering in photon radiation transport calculations

The effect of including or excluding the coherent scattering cross section in the Monte Carlo analysis of photon penetration in water has been studied. Source energies from 80 keV down to 20 keV were investigated. The inclusion of coherent scattering has the effect of degrading the photon population with depth of penetration, but at the same time dispersing the population over a larger volume than when it is excluded from the scattering model. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Cramer, S.N.; Kirk, B.L.; Broadway, J.

1989-04-01

81

Optimization of Monte Carlo transport simulations in stochastic media

This paper presents an accurate and efficient approach to optimize radiation transport simulations in a stochastic medium of high heterogeneity, like the Very High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) configurations packed with TRISO fuel particles. Based on a fast nearest neighbor search algorithm, a modified fast Random Sequential Addition (RSA) method is first developed to speed up the generation of the stochastic media systems packed with both mono-sized and poly-sized spheres. A fast neutron tracking method is then developed to optimize the next sphere boundary search in the radiation transport procedure. In order to investigate their accuracy and efficiency, the developed sphere packing and neutron tracking methods are implemented into an in-house continuous energy Monte Carlo code to solve an eigenvalue problem in VHTR unit cells. Comparison with the MCNP benchmark calculations for the same problem indicates that the new methods show considerably higher computational efficiency. (authors)

Liang, C.; Ji, W. [Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., 110 8th street, Troy, NY (United States)

2012-07-01

82

Monte Carlo based beam model using a photon MLC for modulated electron radiotherapy

Purpose: Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) promises sparing of organs at risk for certain tumor sites. Any implementation of MERT treatment planning requires an accurate beam model. The aim of this work is the development of a beam model which reconstructs electron fields shaped using the Millennium photon multileaf collimator (MLC) (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) for a Varian linear accelerator (linac). Methods: This beam model is divided into an analytical part (two photon and two electron sources) and a Monte Carlo (MC) transport through the MLC. For dose calculation purposes the beam model has been coupled with a macro MC dose calculation algorithm. The commissioning process requires a set of measurements and precalculated MC input. The beam model has been commissioned at a source to surface distance of 70 cm for a Clinac 23EX (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) and a TrueBeam linac (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA). For validation purposes, measured and calculated depth dose curves and dose profiles are compared for four different MLC shaped electron fields and all available energies. Furthermore, a measured two-dimensional dose distribution for patched segments consisting of three 18 MeV segments, three 12 MeV segments, and a 9 MeV segment is compared with corresponding dose calculations. Finally, measured and calculated two-dimensional dose distributions are compared for a circular segment encompassed with a C-shaped segment. Results: For 15 × 34, 5 × 5, and 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} fields differences between water phantom measurements and calculations using the beam model coupled with the macro MC dose calculation algorithm are generally within 2% of the maximal dose value or 2 mm distance to agreement (DTA) for all electron beam energies. For a more complex MLC pattern, differences between measurements and calculations are generally within 3% of the maximal dose value or 3 mm DTA for all electron beam energies. For the two-dimensional dose comparisons, the differences between calculations and measurements are generally within 2% of the maximal dose value or 2 mm DTA. Conclusions : The results of the dose comparisons suggest that the developed beam model is suitable to accurately reconstruct photon MLC shaped electron beams for a Clinac 23EX and a TrueBeam linac. Hence, in future work the beam model will be utilized to investigate the possibilities of MERT using the photon MLC to shape electron beams.

Henzen, D., E-mail: henzen@ams.unibe.ch; Manser, P.; Frei, D.; Volken, W.; Born, E. J.; Vetterli, D.; Chatelain, C.; Fix, M. K. [Division of Medical Radiation Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)] [Division of Medical Radiation Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Neuenschwander, H. [Clinic for Radiation-Oncology, Lindenhofspital Bern, CH-3012 Berne (Switzerland)] [Clinic for Radiation-Oncology, Lindenhofspital Bern, CH-3012 Berne (Switzerland); Stampanoni, M. F. M. [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zürich and Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5234 Villigen (Switzerland)] [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zürich and Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5234 Villigen (Switzerland)

2014-02-15

83

GPU-accelerated object-oriented Monte Carlo modeling of photon migration in turbid media

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the recent intense developments in lasers and optical technologies a number of novel revolutionary imaging and photonic-based diagnostic modalities have arisen. Utilizing various features of light these techniques provide new practical solutions in a range of biomedical, environmental and industrial applications. Conceptual engineering design of new optical diagnostic systems requires a clear understanding of the light-tissue interaction and the peculiarities of optical radiation propagation therein. Description of photon migration within the random media is based on the radiative transfer that forms a basis of Monte Carlo modelling of light propagation in complex turbid media like biological tissues. In current presentation with a further development of the Monte Carlo technique we introduce a novel Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) paradigm accelerated by Graphics Processing Unit that provide an opportunity to escalate the performance of standard Monte Carlo simulation over 100 times.

Doronin, Alex; Meglinski, Igor

2011-03-01

84

Purpose: A simulation of buildup factors for ordinary concrete, steel, lead, plate glass, lead glass, and gypsum wallboard in broad beam geometry for photons energies from 10 keV to 150 keV at 5 keV intervals is presented. Methods: Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code has been used to determine the buildup factors for the studied shielding materials. Results: An example concretizing the use of the obtained buildup factors data in computing the broad beam transmission for tube potentials at 70, 100, 120, and 140 kVp is given. The half value layer, the tenth value layer, and the equilibrium tenth value layer are calculated from the broad beam transmission for these tube potentials. Conclusions: The obtained values compared with those calculated from the published data show the ability of these data to predict shielding transmission curves. Therefore, the buildup factors data can be combined with primary, scatter, and leakage x-ray spectra to provide a computationally based solution to broad beam transmission for barriers in shielding x-ray facilities.

Kharrati, Hedi; Agrebi, Amel; Karoui, Mohamed Karim [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques de la Sante de Monastir, Avenue Avicenne, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia)

2012-10-15

85

Characterization of a novel micro-irradiator using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small animals are highly valuable resources for radiobiology research. While rodents have been widely used for decades, zebrafish embryos have recently become a very popular research model. However, unlike rodents, zebrafish embryos lack appropriate irradiation tools and methodologies. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to use Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations to characterize dosimetric parameters, determine dosimetric sensitivity and help with the design of a new micro-irradiator capable of delivering irradiation fields as small as 1.0 mm in diameter. The system is based on a miniature x-ray source enclosed in a brass collimator with 3 cm diameter and 3 cm length. A pinhole of 1.0 mm diameter along the central axis of the collimator is used to produce a narrow photon beam. The MCNP5, Monte Carlo code, is used to study the beam energy spectrum, percentage depth dose curves, penumbra and effective field size, dose rate and radiation levels at 50 cm from the source. The results obtained from Monte Carlo simulations show that a beam produced by the miniature x-ray and the collimator system is adequate to totally or partially irradiate zebrafish embryos, cell cultures and other small specimens used in radiobiology research.

Rodriguez, Manuel; Jeraj, Robert

2008-06-01

86

Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in degenerate and inhomogeneous semiconductors

Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in degenerate and inhomogeneous semiconductors Mona exclusion principle in Monte Carlo simulations. This algorithm has significant advantages to implement the scattering rate. The ensemble Monte Carlo MC simulation is accepted as a powerful numerical technique

87

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have shown potential to be used as a radiosensitizer for radiation therapy. Despite extensive research activity to study GNP radiosensitization using photon beams, only a few studies have been carried out using proton beams. In this work Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the dose enhancement of GNPs for proton therapy. The enhancement effect was compared between a clinical proton spectrum, a clinical 6?MV photon spectrum, and a kilovoltage photon source similar to those used in many radiobiology lab settings. We showed that the mechanism by which GNPs can lead to dose enhancements in radiation therapy differs when comparing photon and proton radiation. The GNP dose enhancement using protons can be up to 14 and is independent of proton energy, while the dose enhancement is highly dependent on the photon energy used. For the same amount of energy absorbed in the GNP, interactions with protons, kVp photons and MV photons produce similar doses within several nanometers of the GNP surface, and differences are below 15% for the first 10?nm. However, secondary electrons produced by kilovoltage photons have the longest range in water as compared to protons and MV photons, e.g. they cause a dose enhancement 20 times higher than the one caused by protons 10??m away from the GNP surface. We conclude that GNPs have the potential to enhance radiation therapy depending on the type of radiation source. Proton therapy can be enhanced significantly only if the GNPs are in close proximity to the biological target.

Lin, Yuting; McMahon, Stephen J.; Scarpelli, Matthew; Paganetti, Harald; Schuemann, Jan

2014-12-01

88

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. In these applications, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used to preserve as much information as possible about the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used modeling tool for this type of problem, but computational times for many problems can be prohibitive. This work explores the use of coupled Monte Carlo-deterministic methods for the simulation of neutron-induced photons for high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy applications. RAdiation Detection Scenario Analysis Toolbox (RADSAT), a code which couples deterministic and Monte Carlo transport to perform radiation detection scenario analysis in three dimensions [1], was used as the building block for the methods derived in this work. RADSAT was capable of performing coupled deterministic-Monte Carlo simulations for gamma-only and neutron-only problems. The purpose of this work was to develop the methodology necessary to perform coupled neutron-photon calculations and add this capability to RADSAT. Performing coupled neutron-photon calculations requires four main steps: the deterministic neutron transport calculation, the neutron-induced photon spectrum calculation, the deterministic photon transport calculation, and the Monte Carlo detector response calculation. The necessary requirements for each of these steps were determined. A major challenge in utilizing multigroup deterministic transport methods for neutron-photon problems was maintaining the discrete neutron-induced photon signatures throughout the simulation. Existing coupled neutron-photon cross-section libraries and the methods used to produce neutron-induced photons were unsuitable for high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy applications. Central to this work was the development of a method for generating multigroup neutron-photon cross-sections in a way that separates the discrete and continuum photon emissions so the neutron-induced photon signatures were preserved. The RADSAT-NG cross-section library was developed as a specialized multigroup neutron-photon cross-section set for the simulation of high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy applications. The methodology and cross sections were tested using code-to-code comparison with MCNP5 [2] and NJOY [3]. A simple benchmark geometry was used for all cases compared with MCNP. The geometry consists of a cubical sample with a 252Cf neutron source on one side and a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer on the opposing side. Different materials were examined in the cubical sample: polyethylene (C2H4), P, N, O, and Fe. The cross sections for each of the materials were compared to cross sections collapsed using NJOY. Comparisons of the volume-averaged neutron flux within the sample, volume-averaged photon flux within the detector, and high-purity gamma-ray spectrometer response (only for polyethylene) were completed using RADSAT and MCNP. The code-to-code comparisons show promising results for the coupled Monte Carlo-deterministic method. The RADSAT-NG cross-section production method showed good agreement with NJOY for all materials considered although some additional work is needed in the resonance region and in the first and last energy bin. Some cross section discrepancies existed in the lowest and highest energy bin, but the overall shape and magnitude of the two methods agreed. For the volume-averaged photon flux within the detector, typically the five most intense lines agree to within approximately 5% of the MCNP calculated flux for all of materials considered. The agreement in the code-to-code comparisons cases demonstrates a proof-of-concept of the method for use in RADSAT for coupled neutron-photon problems

Burns, Kimberly Ann

89

The dose rate conversion factors {dot D}{sub CF} (absorbed dose rate in air per unit activity per unit of soil mass, nGy h{sup {minus}1} per Bq kg{sup {minus}1}) are calculated 1 m above ground for photon emitters of natural radionuclides uniformly distributed in the soil. Three Monte Carlo codes are used: (1) The MCNP code of Los Alamos; (2) The GEANT code of CERN; and (3) a Monte Carlo code developed in the Nuclear Technology Laboratory of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The accuracy of the Monte Carlo results is tested by the comparison of the unscattered flux obtained by the three Monte Carlo codes with an independent straightforward calculation. All codes and particularly the MCNP calculate accurately the absorbed dose rate in air due to the unscattered radiation. For the total radiation (unscattered plus scattered) the {dot D}{sub CF} values calculated from the three codes are in very good agreement between them. The comparison between these results and the results deduced previously by other authors indicates a good agreement (less than 15% of difference) for photon energies above 1,500 keV. Antithetically, the agreement is not as good (difference of 20--30%) for the low energy photons.

Clovas, A.; Zanthos, S.; Antonopoulos-Domis, M.; Silva, J.

2000-03-01

90

Accelerating execution of the integrated TIGER series Monte Carlo radiation transport codes

Execution of the integrated TIGER series (ITS) of coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo radiation transport codes has been accelerated by modifying the FORTRAN source code for more efficient computation. Each member code of ITS was benchmarked and profiled with a specific test case that directed the acceleration effort toward the most computationally intensive subroutines. Techniques for accelerating these subroutines included replacing linear search algorithms with binary versions, replacing the pseudo-random number generator, reducing program memory allocation, and proofing the input files for geometrical redundancies. All techniques produced identical or statistically similar results to the original code. Final benchmark timing of the accelerated code resulted in speed-up factors of 2.00 for TIGER (the one-dimensional slab geometry code), 1.74 for CYLTRAN (the two-dimensional cylindrical geometry code), and 1.90 for ACCEPT (the arbitrary three-dimensional geometry code).

Smith, L.M.; Hochstedler, R.D. [Univ of Tennessee Space Inst., Tullahoma, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ of Tennessee Space Inst., Tullahoma, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1997-02-01

91

Light transport in trabecular bone: Monte Carlo simulation based on 3D triangle meshes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light transport in trabecular bone is not well understood despite its clinical interest. Recent experimental studies on optical bone biopsy are lacking models that relate their measurements to the underlying morphology and thus to tissue condition. Laser surgery can also benefit from a better understanding of energy distribution in cancellous bone. A Monte Carlo (MC) simulation environment, able to efficiently compute complex geometries and account for refraction and reflection on tissue boundaries has been developed to provide the missing insight. The geometry description is based on a 3D triangle mesh organised in a bounding-volume hierarchy. This efficient structure allows a fast photon-surface intersection test, ensuring a sufficient number of photon paths and thus a good signal-to-noise ratio. The simulation program has been validated against well-known problems of refractive optics and turbid media. This new tool has been applied to a set of numerical phantoms indicating that morphology may have a fundamental impact on long-range light transport. The simulation environment has also been used on high-resolution models of trabecular bone, based on micro-CT scans. Calculation of time resolved signals in transmission and reflectance geometries has been demonstrated, paving the way to numerical evaluation of new minimally invasive diagnostic techniques, and offering a link to evaluation of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in complex heterogeneous geometries. Preliminary experimental results in support of the mentioned effects are presented.

Margallo-Balbás, Eduardo; French, Patrick J.; Wieringa, Peter A.

2006-03-01

92

SIMIND Monte Carlo simulation of a single photon emission CT

In this study, we simulated a Siemens E.CAM SPECT system using SIMIND Monte Carlo program to acquire its experimental characterization in terms of energy resolution, sensitivity, spatial resolution and imaging of phantoms using 99mTc. The experimental and simulation data for SPECT imaging was acquired from a point source and Jaszczak phantom. Verification of the simulation was done by comparing two sets of images and related data obtained from the actual and simulated systems. Image quality was assessed by comparing image contrast and resolution. Simulated and measured energy spectra (with or without a collimator) and spatial resolution from point sources in air were compared. The resulted energy spectra present similar peaks for the gamma energy of 99mTc at 140 KeV. FWHM for the simulation calculated to 14.01 KeV and 13.80 KeV for experimental data, corresponding to energy resolution of 10.01 and 9.86% compared to defined 9.9% for both systems, respectively. Sensitivities of the real and virtual gamma cameras were calculated to 85.11 and 85.39 cps/MBq, respectively. The energy spectra of both simulated and real gamma cameras were matched. Images obtained from Jaszczak phantom, experimentally and by simulation, showed similarity in contrast and resolution. SIMIND Monte Carlo could successfully simulate the Siemens E.CAM gamma camera. The results validate the use of the simulated system for further investigation, including modification, planning, and developing a SPECT system to improve the quality of images. PMID:20177569

Bahreyni Toossi, M. T.; Islamian, J. Pirayesh; Momennezhad, M.; Ljungberg, M.; Naseri, S. H.

2010-01-01

93

Acceleration of a Monte Carlo radiation transport code

Execution time for the Integrated TIGER Series (ITS) Monte Carlo radiation transport code has been reduced by careful re-coding of computationally intensive subroutines. Three test cases for the TIGER (1-D slab geometry), CYLTRAN (2-D cylindrical geometry), and ACCEPT (3-D arbitrary geometry) codes were identified and used to benchmark and profile program execution. Based upon these results, sixteen top time-consuming subroutines were examined and nine of them modified to accelerate computations with equivalent numerical output to the original. The results obtained via this study indicate that speedup factors of 1.90 for the TIGER code, 1.67 for the CYLTRAN code, and 1.11 for the ACCEPT code are achievable. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Hochstedler, R.D.; Smith, L.M. [The University of Tennessee Space Institute, B. H. Goethert Parkway, MS 21, Tullahoma, Tennessee 37388-8897 (United States)

1996-03-01

94

Dissipationless electron transport in photon-dressed nanostructures.

It is shown that the electron coupling to photons in field-dressed nanostructures can result in the ground electron-photon state with a nonzero electric current. Since the current is associated with the ground state, it flows without the Joule heating of the nanostructure and is nondissipative. Such a dissipationless electron transport can be realized in strongly coupled electron-photon systems with the broken time-reversal symmetry--particularly, in quantum rings and chiral nanostructures dressed by circularly polarized photons. PMID:21981519

Kibis, O V

2011-09-01

95

Phonon transport analysis of semiconductor nanocomposites using monte carlo simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocomposites are composite materials which incorporate nanosized particles, platelets or fibers. The addition of nanosized phases into the bulk matrix can lead to significantly different material properties compared to their macrocomposite counterparts. For nanocomposites, thermal conductivity is one of the most important physical properties. Manipulation and control of thermal conductivity in nanocomposites have impacted a variety of applications. In particular, it has been shown that the phonon thermal conductivity can be reduced significantly in nanocomposites due to the increase in phonon interface scattering while the electrical conductivity can be maintained. This extraordinary property of nanocomposites has been used to enhance the energy conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric devices which is proportional to the ratio of electrical to thermal conductivity. This thesis investigates phonon transport and thermal conductivity in Si/Ge semiconductor nanocomposites through numerical analysis. The Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) is adopted for description of phonon thermal transport in the nanocomposites. The BTE employs the particle-like nature of phonons to model heat transfer which accounts for both ballistic and diffusive transport phenomenon. Due to the implementation complexity and computational cost involved, the phonon BTE is difficult to solve in its most generic form. Gray media (frequency independent phonons) is often assumed in the numerical solution of BTE using conventional methods such as finite volume and discrete ordinates methods. This thesis solves the BTE using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation technique which is more convenient and efficient when non-gray media (frequency dependent phonons) is considered. In the MC simulation, phonons are displaced inside the computational domain under the various boundary conditions and scattering effects. In this work, under the relaxation time approximation, thermal transport in the nanocomposites are computed by using both gray media and non-gray media approaches. The non-gray media simulations take into consideration the dispersion and polarization effects of phonon transport. The effects of volume fraction, size, shape and distribution of the nanowire fillers on heat flow and hence thermal conductivity are studied. In addition, the computational performances of the gray and non-gray media approaches are compared.

Malladi, Mayank

96

Kernel density estimator methods for Monte Carlo radiation transport

In this dissertation, the Kernel Density Estimator (KDE), a nonparametric probability density estimator, is studied and used to represent global Monte Carlo (MC) tallies. KDE is also employed to remove the singularities from two important Monte Carlo tallies, namely point detector and surface crossing flux tallies. Finally, KDE is also applied to accelerate the Monte Carlo fission source iteration for

Kaushik Banerjee

2010-01-01

97

A Fano cavity test for Monte Carlo proton transport algorithms

Purpose: In the scope of reference dosimetry of radiotherapy beams, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are widely used to compute ionization chamber dose response accurately. Uncertainties related to the transport algorithm can be verified performing self-consistency tests, i.e., the so-called “Fano cavity test.” The Fano cavity test is based on the Fano theorem, which states that under charged particle equilibrium conditions, the charged particle fluence is independent of the mass density of the media as long as the cross-sections are uniform. Such tests have not been performed yet for MC codes simulating proton transport. The objectives of this study are to design a new Fano cavity test for proton MC and to implement the methodology in two MC codes: Geant4 and PENELOPE extended to protons (PENH). Methods: The new Fano test is designed to evaluate the accuracy of proton transport. Virtual particles with an energy ofE{sub 0} and a mass macroscopic cross section of (?)/(?) are transported, having the ability to generate protons with kinetic energy E{sub 0} and to be restored after each interaction, thus providing proton equilibrium. To perform the test, the authors use a simplified simulation model and rigorously demonstrate that the computed cavity dose per incident fluence must equal (?E{sub 0})/(?) , as expected in classic Fano tests. The implementation of the test is performed in Geant4 and PENH. The geometry used for testing is a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} parallel virtual field and a cavity (2 × 2 × 0.2 cm{sup 3} size) in a water phantom with dimensions large enough to ensure proton equilibrium. Results: For conservative user-defined simulation parameters (leading to small step sizes), both Geant4 and PENH pass the Fano cavity test within 0.1%. However, differences of 0.6% and 0.7% were observed for PENH and Geant4, respectively, using larger step sizes. For PENH, the difference is attributed to the random-hinge method that introduces an artificial energy straggling if step size is not small enough. Conclusions: Using conservative user-defined simulation parameters, both PENH and Geant4 pass the Fano cavity test for proton transport. Our methodology is applicable to any kind of charged particle, provided that the considered MC code is able to track the charged particle considered.

Sterpin, Edmond, E-mail: esterpin@yahoo.fr [Université catholique de Louvain, Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)] [Université catholique de Louvain, Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Sorriaux, Jefferson; Souris, Kevin [Université catholique de Louvain, Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and Université catholique de Louvain, ICTEAM institute, Chemin du cyclotron 6, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)] [Université catholique de Louvain, Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and Université catholique de Louvain, ICTEAM institute, Chemin du cyclotron 6, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Vynckier, Stefaan [Université catholique de Louvain, Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and Département de Radiothérapie, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)] [Université catholique de Louvain, Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and Département de Radiothérapie, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Bouchard, Hugo [Département de radio-oncologie, Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM), 1560 Sherbrooke est, Montréal, Québec H2L 4M1 (Canada)] [Département de radio-oncologie, Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM), 1560 Sherbrooke est, Montréal, Québec H2L 4M1 (Canada)

2014-01-15

98

Controlling single-photon transport with three-level quantum dots in photonic crystals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate how to control single-photon transport along the photonic crystal waveguide with the recent experimentally demonstrated artificial atoms [i.e., ?-type quantum dots (QDs)] [S. G. Carter et al., Nat. Photon. 7, 329 (2013), 10.1038/nphoton.2013.41] in an all-optical way. Adopting full quantum theory in real space, we analytically calculate the transport coefficients of single photons scattered by a ?-type QD embedded in single- and two-mode photonic crystal cavities (PCCs), respectively. Our numerical results clearly show that the photonic transmission properties can be exactly manipulated by adjusting the coupling strengths of waveguide-cavity and QD-cavity interactions. Specifically, for the PCC with two degenerate orthogonal polarization modes coupled to a ?-type QD with two degenerate ground states, we find that the photonic transmission spectra show three Rabi-splitting dips and the present system could serve as single-photon polarization beam splitters. The feasibility of our proposal with the current photonic crystal technique is also discussed.

Yan, Cong-Hua; Jia, Wen-Zhi; Wei, Lian-Fu

2014-03-01

99

Controlling light transport by using a graded photonic crystal.

Light transport in a graded photonic crystal is studied using the finite-difference time-domain technique. The photonic crystal consists of a square lattice of elliptical dielectric rods. Within a frequency window, light can propagate inside the photonic crystal with the beam width nearly unchanged. The propagation direction can be easily manipulated by the structure gradient, which is achieved by gradually varying the orientation of the elliptical rods. The degree of control over the flow of light can be modulated by changing the ellipticity. This provides a promising approach to design of optical devices for spatial-beam routing. PMID:21614106

Ren, Kun; Ren, Xiaobin

2011-05-20

100

Status of the MORSE multigroup Monte Carlo radiation transport code

There are two versions of the MORSE multigroup Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. MORSE-CGA is the most well-known and has undergone extensive use for many years. MORSE-SGC was originally developed in about 1980 in order to restructure the cross-section handling and thereby save storage. However, with the advent of new computer systems having much larger storage capacity, that aspect of SGC has become unnecessary. Both versions use data from multigroup cross-section libraries, although in somewhat different formats. MORSE-SGC is the version of MORSE that is part of the SCALE system, but it can also be run stand-alone. Both CGA and SGC use the Multiple Array System (MARS) geometry package. In the last six months the main focus of the work on these two versions has been on making them operational on workstations, in particular, the IBM RISC 6000 family. A new version of SCALE for workstations is being released to the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). MORSE-CGA, Version 2.0, is also being released to RSIC. Both SGC and CGA have undergone other revisions recently. This paper reports on the current status of the MORSE code system.

Emmett, M.B.

1993-06-01

101

Study of scattered photons from the collimator system of Leksell Gamma Knife using the EGS4 Monte Carlo Code Joel Y. C. Cheung Gamma Knife Centre, Canossa Hospital, 1 Old Peak Road, Hong Kong K. N. Yua Gamma Knife , scattered photons from the collimator system are presumed to have negligible effects

Yu, K.N.

102

A Residual Monte Carlo Method for Spatially Discrete, Angularly Continuous Radiation Transport

Residual Monte Carlo provides exponential convergence of statistical error with respect to the number of particle histories. In the past, residual Monte Carlo has been applied to a variety of angularly discrete radiation-transport problems. Here, we apply residual Monte Carlo to spatially discrete, angularly continuous transport. By maintaining angular continuity, our method avoids the deficiencies of angular discretizations, such as ray effects. For planar geometry and step differencing, we use the corresponding integral transport equation to calculate an angularly independent residual from the scalar flux in each stage of residual Monte Carlo. We then demonstrate that the resulting residual Monte Carlo method does indeed converge exponentially to within machine precision of the exact step differenced solution.

Wollaeger, Ryan T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Densmore, Jeffery D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-19

103

Light transport in PT -invariant photonic structures with hidden symmetries

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a recursive bosonic quantization technique for generating classical parity-time (PT ) photonic structures that possess hidden symmetries and higher-order exceptional points. We study light transport in these geometries and we demonstrate that perfect state transfer is possible only for certain initial conditions. Moreover, we show that for the same propagation direction, left and right coherent transports are not symmetric with field amplitudes following two different trajectories. A general scheme for identifying the conservation laws in such PT -symmetric photonic networks is also presented.

Teimourpour, M. H.; El-Ganainy, R.; Eisfeld, A.; Szameit, A.; Christodoulides, D. N.

2014-11-01

104

Anomalous diffusion has recently turned out to be almost ubiquitous in transport problems. When the physical properties of the medium where the transport process takes place are stationary and constant at each spatial location, anomalous transport has been successfully analysed within the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) model. In this paper, within a Monte Carlo approach to CTRW, we focus

Marzio Marseguerra; A. Zoia

2007-01-01

105

Analysis of EBR-II neutron and photon physics by multidimensional transport-theory techniques

This paper contains a review of the challenges specific to the EBR-II core physics, a description of the methods and techniques which have been developed for addressing these challenges, and the results of some validation studies relative to power-distribution calculations. Numerical tests have shown that the VARIANT nodal code yields eigenvalue and power predictions as accurate as finite difference and discrete ordinates transport codes, at a small fraction of the cost. Comparisons with continuous-energy Monte Carlo results have proven that the errors introduced by the use of the diffusion-theory approximation in the collapsing procedure to obtain broad-group cross sections, kerma factors, and photon-production matrices, have a small impact on the EBR-II neutron/photon power distribution.

Jacqmin, R.P.; Finck, P.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Palmiotti, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

1994-03-01

106

An automated variance reduction method for global Monte Carlo neutral particle transport problems

A method to automatically reduce the variance in global neutral particle Monte Carlo problems by using a weight window derived from a deterministic forward solution is presented. This method reduces a global measure of the variance of desired tallies and increases its associated figure of merit. Global deep penetration neutron transport problems present difficulties for analog Monte Carlo. When the

Marc Andrew Cooper

1999-01-01

107

Simulation is often used to predict the response of gamma-ray spectrometers in technology viability and comparative studies for homeland and national security scenarios. Candidate radiation transport methods generally fall into one of two broad categories: stochastic (Monte Carlo) and deterministic. Monte Carlo methods are the most heavily used in the detection community and are particularly effective for calculating pulse-height spectra

Leon E. Smith; Christopher J. Gesh; Richard T. Pagh; Erin A. Miller; Mark W. Shaver; Eric D. Ashbaker; Michael T. Batdorf; J. Edward Ellis; William R. Kaye; Ronald J. McConn; George H. Meriwether; Jennifer J. Ressler; Andrei B. Valsan; Todd A. Wareing

2008-01-01

108

SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF A TISSUE EQUIVALENT PROPORTIONAL COUNTER USING THE MONTE CARLO TRANSPORT CODE FLUKA A Thesis by JEREMY DELL NORTHUM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2010 Major Subject: Health Physics SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF A TISSUE EQUIVALENT PROPORTIONAL COUNTER USING THE MONTE CARLO TRANSPORT CODE FLUKA A Thesis...

Northum, Jeremy Dell

2011-08-08

109

Monte Carlo radiation transport: A revolution in science

When Enrico Fermi, Stan Ulam, Nicholas Metropolis, John von Neuman, and Robert Richtmyer invented the Monte Carlo method fifty years ago, little could they imagine the far-flung consequences, the international applications, and the revolution in science epitomized by their abstract mathematical method. The Monte Carlo method is used in a wide variety of fields to solve exact computational models approximately

Hendricks

1993-01-01

110

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geant4 Monte Carlo code simulations were used to solve experimental and theoretical complications for calculation of mass energy-absorption coefficients of elements, air, and compounds. The mass energy-absorption coefficients for nuclear track detectors were computed first time using Geant4 Monte Carlo code for energy 1 keV-20 MeV. Very good agreements for simulated results of mass energy-absorption coefficients for carbon, nitrogen, silicon, sodium iodide and nuclear track detectors were observed on comparison with the values reported in the literatures. Kerma relative to air for energy 1 keV-20 MeV and energy absorption buildup factors for energy 50 keV-10 MeV up to 10 mfp penetration depths of the selected nuclear track detectors were also calculated to evaluate the absorption of the gamma photons. Geant4 simulation can be utilized for estimation of mass energy-absorption coefficients in elements and composite materials.

Singh, Vishwanath P.; Medhat, M. E.; Badiger, N. M.

2015-01-01

111

Heterogeneity model for photon beams incorporating electron transport

A method of calculating photon doses in heterogeneous media incorporating electron transport is studied. The dose is represented as the convolution of kerma with an exponential longitudinal electron spread function which describes the penetration of electrons from one medium to another. At large distances from an interface, the dose approaches an asymptotic value equal to the kerma multiplied by a

Paula L. Petti; R. K. Rice; B. J. Mijnheer; L. M. Chin; B. E. Bjaerngard

1987-01-01

112

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the FASTER-III program for Monte Carlo Carlo calculation of photon and neutron transport in complex geometries is presented. Major revisions include the capability of calculating minimum weight shield configurations for primary and secondary radiation and optimal importance sampling parameters. The program description includes a users manual describing the preparation of input data cards, the printout from a sample problem including the data card images, definitions of Fortran variables, the program logic, and the control cards required to run on the IBM 7094, IBM 360, UNIVAC 1108 and CDC 6600 computers.

Jordan, T. M.

1970-01-01

113

FZ2MC: A Tool for Monte Carlo Transport Code Geometry Manipulation

The process of creating and validating combinatorial geometry representations of complex systems for use in Monte Carlo transport simulations can be both time consuming and error prone. To simplify this process, a tool has been developed which employs extensions of the Form-Z commercial solid modeling tool. The resultant FZ2MC (Form-Z to Monte Carlo) tool permits users to create, modify and validate Monte Carlo geometry and material composition input data. Plugin modules that export this data to an input file, as well as parse data from existing input files, have been developed for several Monte Carlo codes. The FZ2MC tool is envisioned as a 'universal' tool for the manipulation of Monte Carlo geometry and material data. To this end, collaboration on the development of plug-in modules for additional Monte Carlo codes is desired.

Hackel, B M; Nielsen Jr., D E; Procassini, R J

2009-02-25

114

Simple beam models for Monte Carlo photon beam dose calculations in radiotherapy.

Monte Carlo (code GEANT) produced 6 and 15 MV phase space (PS) data were used to define several simple photon beam models. For creating the PS data the energy of starting electrons hitting the target was tuned to get correct depth dose data compared to measurements. The modeling process used the full PS information within the geometrical boundaries of the beam including all scattered radiation of the accelerator head. Scattered radiation outside the boundaries was neglected. Photons and electrons were assumed to be radiated from point sources. Four different models were investigated which involved different ways to determine the energies and locations of beam particles in the output plane. Depth dose curves, profiles, and relative output factors were calculated with these models for six field sizes from 5x5 to 40x40cm2 and compared to measurements. Model 1 uses a photon energy spectrum independent of location in the PS plane and a constant photon fluence in this plane. Model 2 takes into account the spatial particle fluence distribution in the PS plane. A constant fluence is used again in model 3, but the photon energy spectrum depends upon the off axis position. Model 4, finally uses the spatial particle fluence distribution and off axis dependent photon energy spectra in the PS plane. Depth dose curves and profiles for field sizes up to 10x10cm2 were not model sensitive. Good agreement between measured and calculated depth dose curves and profiles for all field sizes was reached for model 4. However, increasing deviations were found for increasing field sizes for models 1-3. Large deviations resulted for the profiles of models 2 and 3. This is due to the fact that these models overestimate and underestimate the energy fluence at large off axis distances. Relative output factors consistent with measurements resulted only for model 4. PMID:11190957

Fix, M K; Keller, H; Rüegsegger, P; Born, E J

2000-12-01

115

We examine the relative error of Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transport that employ two commonly used estimators that account for absorption differently, either discretely, at interaction points, or continuously, between interaction points. We provide a rigorous derivation of these discrete and continuous absorption weighting estimators within a stochastic model that we show to be equivalent to an analytic model, based on the radiative transport equation (RTE). We establish that both absorption weighting estimators are unbiased and, therefore, converge to the solution of the RTE. An analysis of spatially resolved reflectance predictions provided by these two estimators reveals no advantage to either in cases of highly scattering and highly anisotropic media. However, for moderate to highly absorbing media or isotropically scattering media, the discrete estimator provides smaller errors at proximal source locations while the continuous estimator provides smaller errors at distal locations. The origin of these differing variance characteristics can be understood through examination of the distribution of exiting photon weights. PMID:24562029

Hayakawa, Carole K.; Spanier, Jerome; Venugopalan, Vasan

2014-01-01

116

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A versatile computer program MORSE, based on neutron and photon transport theory has been utilized to investigate radiation therapy treatment planning quantities and techniques. A multi-energy group representation of transport equation provides a concise approach in utilizing Monte Carlo numerical techniques to multiple radiation therapy treatment planning problems. A general three dimensional geometry is used to simulate radiation therapy treatment planning problems in configurations of an actual clinical setting. Central axis total and scattered dose distributions for homogeneous and inhomogeneous water phantoms are calculated and the correction factor for lung and bone inhomogeneities are also evaluated. Results show that Monte Carlo calculations based on multi-energy group transport theory predict the depth dose distributions that are in good agreement with available experimental data. Improved correction factors based on the concepts of lung-air-ratio and bone-air-ratio are proposed in lieu of the presently used correction factors that are based on tissue-air-ratio power law method for inhomogeneity corrections. Central axis depth dose distributions for a bremsstrahlung spectrum from a linear accelerator is also calculated to exhibit the versatility of the computer program in handling multiple radiation therapy problems. A novel approach is undertaken to study the dosimetric properties of brachytherapy sources. Dose rate constants for various radionuclides are calculated from the numerically generated dose rate versus source energy curves. Dose rates can also be generated for any point brachytherapy source with any arbitrary energy spectrum at various radial distances from this family of curves.

Palta, Jatinder Raj

117

Purpose: The goal of this work is to compare D{sub m,m} (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in medium) and D{sub w,m} (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in water) obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for a subset of human tissues of interest in low energy photon brachytherapy. Using low dose rate seeds and an electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the authors quantify the large cavity theory conversion factors required. The authors also assess whether applying large cavity theory utilizing the sources' initial photon spectra and average photon energy induces errors related to spatial spectral variations. First, ideal spherical geometries were investigated, followed by clinical brachytherapy LDR seed implants for breast and prostate cancer patients. Methods: Two types of dose calculations are performed with the GEANT4 MC code. (1) For several human tissues, dose profiles are obtained in spherical geometries centered on four types of low energy brachytherapy sources: {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, and {sup 131}Cs seeds, as well as an EBS operating at 50 kV. Ratios of D{sub w,m} over D{sub m,m} are evaluated in the 0-6 cm range. In addition to mean tissue composition, compositions corresponding to one standard deviation from the mean are also studied. (2) Four clinical breast (using {sup 103}Pd) and prostate (using {sup 125}I) brachytherapy seed implants are considered. MC dose calculations are performed based on postimplant CT scans using prostate and breast tissue compositions. PTV D{sub 90} values are compared for D{sub w,m} and D{sub m,m}. Results: (1) Differences (D{sub w,m}/D{sub m,m}-1) of -3% to 70% are observed for the investigated tissues. For a given tissue, D{sub w,m}/D{sub m,m} is similar for all sources within 4% and does not vary more than 2% with distance due to very moderate spectral shifts. Variations of tissue composition about the assumed mean composition influence the conversion factors up to 38%. (2) The ratio of D{sub 90(w,m)} over D{sub 90(m,m)} for clinical implants matches D{sub w,m}/D{sub m,m} at 1 cm from the single point sources. Conclusions: Given the small variation with distance, using conversion factors based on the emitted photon spectrum (or its mean energy) of a given source introduces minimal error. The large differences observed between scoring schemes underline the need for guidelines on choice of media for dose reporting. Providing such guidelines is beyond the scope of this work.

Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie, Universite Laval, CHUQ Pavillon L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada) and Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands) and Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2011-03-15

118

Photonic transport control by spin-optical disordered metasurface

Photonic metasurfaces are ultrathin electromagnetic wave-molding metamaterials providing the missing link for the integration of nanophotonic chips with nanoelectronic circuits. An extra twist in this field originates from spin-optical metasurfaces providing the photon spin (polarization helicity) as an additional degree of freedom in light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. Here we report on a generic concept to control the photonic transport by disordered (random) metasurfaces with a custom-tailored geometric phase. This approach combines the peculiarity of random patterns to support extraordinary information capacity within the intrinsic limit of speckle noise, and the optical spin control in the geometric phase mechanism, simply implemented in two-dimensional structured matter. By manipulating the local orientations of anisotropic optical nanoantennas, we observe spin-dependent near-field and free-space open channels, generating state-of-the-art multiplexing and interconnects. Spin-optical disordered m...

Veksler, Dekel; Ozeri, Dror; Shitrit, Nir; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez

2014-01-01

119

LDRD project 151362 : low energy electron-photon transport.

At sufficiently high energies, the wavelengths of electrons and photons are short enough to only interact with one atom at time, leading to the popular %E2%80%9Cindependent-atom approximation%E2%80%9D. We attempted to incorporate atomic structure in the generation of cross sections (which embody the modeled physics) to improve transport at lower energies. We document our successes and failures. This was a three-year LDRD project. The core team consisted of a radiation-transport expert, a solid-state physicist, and two DFT experts.

Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Bondi, Robert James; Crawford, Martin James

2013-09-01

120

Ion beam transport in tissue-like media using the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT

The development of the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT (heavy ion transport) for the simulation of the transport of protons and heavier ions in tissue-like media is described. The code SHIELD-HIT, a spin-off of SHIELD (available as RSICC CCC-667), extends the transport of hadron cascades from standard targets to that of ions in arbitrary tissue-like materials, taking into account ionization energy-loss

Irena Gudowska; Nikolai Sobolevsky; Pedro Andreo; Dževad Belki?; Anders Brahme

2004-01-01

121

We describe a tissue optics plug-in that interfaces with the GEANT4/GAMOS Monte Carlo (MC) architecture, providing a means of simulating radiation-induced light transport in biological media for the first time. Specifically, we focus on the simulation of light transport due to the ?erenkov effect (light emission from charged particle’s traveling faster than the local speed of light in a given medium), a phenomenon which requires accurate modeling of both the high energy particle and subsequent optical photon transport, a dynamic coupled process that is not well-described by any current MC framework. The results of validation simulations show excellent agreement with currently employed biomedical optics MC codes, [i.e., Monte Carlo for Multi-Layered media (MCML), Mesh-based Monte Carlo (MMC), and diffusion theory], and examples relevant to recent studies into detection of ?erenkov light from an external radiation beam or radionuclide are presented. While the work presented within this paper focuses on radiation-induced light transport, the core features and robust flexibility of the plug-in modified package make it also extensible to more conventional biomedical optics simulations. The plug-in, user guide, example files, as well as the necessary files to reproduce the validation simulations described within this paper are available online at http://www.dartmouth.edu/optmed/research-projects/monte-carlo-software. PMID:23667790

Glaser, Adam K.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Arce, Pedro; Pogue, Brian W.

2013-01-01

122

The goal of the PEREGRINE Monte Carlo Dose Calculation Project is to deliver a Monte Carlo package that is both accurate and sufficiently fast for routine clinical use. One of the operational requirements for photon-treatment plans is a fast, accurate method of describing the photon phase-space distribution at the surface of the patient. The open-field case is computationally the most tractable; we know, a priori, for a given machine and energy, the locations and compositions of the relevant accelerator components (i.e., target, primary collimator, flattening filter, and monitor chamber). Therefore, we can precalculate and store the expected photon distributions. For any open-field treatment plan, we then evaluate these existing photon phase-space distributions at the patient`s surface, and pass the obtained photons to the dose calculation routines within PEREGRINE. We neglect any effect of the intervening air column, including attenuation of the photons and production of contaminant electrons. In principle, for treatment plans requiring jaws, blocks, and wedges, we could precalculate and store photon phase-space distributions for various combinations of field sizes and wedges. This has the disadvantage that we would have to anticipate those combinations and that subsequently PEREGRINE would not be able to treat other plans. Therefore, PEREGRINE tracks photons through the patient-dependent beam modifiers. The geometric and physics methods used to do this are described here. 4 refs., 8 figs.

Schach von Wittenau, A.E.; Cox, L.J.; Bergstrom, P.M. Jr.; Hornstein, S.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mohan, R.; Libby, B.; Wu, Q. [Medical Coll. of Virginia, Richmond, VA (United States); Lovelock, D.M.J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

1997-03-01

123

PyMercury: Interactive Python for the Mercury Monte Carlo Particle Transport Code

Monte Carlo particle transport applications are often written in low-level languages (C/C++) for optimal performance on clusters and supercomputers. However, this development approach often sacrifices straightforward usability and testing in the interest of fast application performance. To improve usability, some high-performance computing applications employ mixed-language programming with high-level and low-level languages. In this study, we consider the benefits of incorporating an interactive Python interface into a Monte Carlo application. With PyMercury, a new Python extension to the Mercury general-purpose Monte Carlo particle transport code, we improve application usability without diminishing performance. In two case studies, we illustrate how PyMercury improves usability and simplifies testing and validation in a Monte Carlo application. In short, PyMercury demonstrates the value of interactive Python for Monte Carlo particle transport applications. In the future, we expect interactive Python to play an increasingly significant role in Monte Carlo usage and testing.

Iandola, F N; O'Brien, M J; Procassini, R J

2010-11-29

124

Accurate modeling of nuclear-medicine collimators in Monte Carlo simulation of high-energy photons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of nuclear medicine imaging is more difficult for procedures employing 131I than for those using 99mTc because of the higher probability of collimator penetration for the higher-energy 131I gamma. Additionally, an accurate model of the imaging camera must also simulate the scattering and penetration of photons emitted above the 364 keV photo peak (637 keV (6.5%) and 723 keV (1.7%)). Most MC codes used in nuclear medicine either employ severe approximations of the collimator interactions or have not been extended to higher energies. The MC program SKEPTIC, which has previously been used to simulate slit aperture penetration of 511 keV gammas, has been modified to permit modeling of parallel hole collimators. We present here a comparison of measured and simulated energy spectra and point spread functions for 131I.

Wilderman, S. J.; Dewaraja, Y.; Koral, K. F.

1999-02-01

125

This review presents in a comprehensive and tutorial form the basic principles of the Monte Carlo method, as applied to the solution of transport problems in semiconductors. Sufficient details of a typical Monte Carlo simulation have been given to allow the interested reader to create his own Monte Carlo program, and the method has been briefly compared with alternative theoretical

Carlo Jacoboni; Lino Reggiani

1983-01-01

126

Extension of the Integrated Tiger Series (ITS) of electron-photon Monte Carlo codes to 100 GeV

Version 2.1 of the Integrated Tiger Series (ITS) of electron-photon Monte Carlo codes was modified to extend their ability to model interactions up to 100 GeV. Benchmarks against experimental results conducted at 10 and 15 GeV confirm the accuracy of the extended codes. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Miller, S.G.

1988-08-01

127

Monte Carlo modelling of positron transport in real world applications

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the unstable nature of positrons and their short lifetime, it is difficult to obtain high positron particle densities. This is why the Monte Carlo simulation technique, as a swarm method, is very suitable for modelling most of the current positron applications involving gaseous and liquid media. The ongoing work on the measurements of cross-sections for positron interactions with atoms and molecules and swarm calculations for positrons in gasses led to the establishment of good cross-section sets for positron interaction with gasses commonly used in real-world applications. Using the standard Monte Carlo technique and codes that can follow both low- (down to thermal energy) and high- (up to keV) energy particles, we are able to model different systems directly applicable to existing experimental setups and techniques. This paper reviews the results on modelling Surko-type positron buffer gas traps, application of the rotating wall technique and simulation of positron tracks in water vapor as a substitute for human tissue, and pinpoints the challenges in and advantages of applying Monte Carlo simulations to these systems.

Marjanovi?, S.; Bankovi?, A.; Šuvakov, M.; Petrovi?, Z. Lj

2014-05-01

128

Inverse Monte Carlo: a unified reconstruction algorithm for SPECT

Inverse Monte Carlo (IMOC) is presented as a unified reconstruction algorithm for Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) providing simultaneous compensation for scatter, attenuation, and the variation of collimator resolution with depth. The technique of inverse Monte Carlo is used to find an inverse solution to the photon transport equation (an integral equation for photon flux from a specified source) for a

Carey E. Floyd; R. E. Coleman; R. J. Jaszczak

1985-01-01

129

Comparison of space radiation calculations for deterministic and Monte Carlo transport codes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For space radiation protection of astronauts or electronic equipments, it is necessary to develop and use accurate radiation transport codes. Radiation transport codes include deterministic codes, such as HZETRN from NASA and UPROP from the Naval Research Laboratory, and Monte Carlo codes such as FLUKA, the Geant4 toolkit and HETC-HEDS. The deterministic codes and Monte Carlo codes complement each other in that deterministic codes are very fast while Monte Carlo codes are more elaborate. Therefore it is important to investigate how well the results of deterministic codes compare with those of Monte Carlo transport codes and where they differ. In this study we evaluate these different codes in their space radiation applications by comparing their output results in the same given space radiation environments, shielding geometry and material. Typical space radiation environments such as the 1977 solar minimum galactic cosmic ray environment are used as the well-defined input, and simple geometries made of aluminum, water and/or polyethylene are used to represent the shielding material. We then compare various outputs of these codes, such as the dose-depth curves and the flux spectra of different fragments and other secondary particles. These comparisons enable us to learn more about the main differences between these space radiation transport codes. At the same time, they help us to learn the qualitative and quantitative features that these transport codes have in common.

Lin, Zi-Wei; Adams, James; Barghouty, Abdulnasser; Randeniya, Sharmalee; Tripathi, Ram; Watts, John; Yepes, Pablo

130

NOVICE 3-D transport code simulation of directional photon sensors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes simulations by an adjoint, Monte Carlo code (NOVICE) of directional gamma ray and X-ray photon sensor responses in detecting and locating radiation sources. Three types of sensor designs were studied. Models of each detector type, Ionization Chamber (IC), Scintillation Counter (SC), and a new High-Sensitivity Scintillation Sensor (HSSS) were generated in the code and various radiation sources were detected and located by applying the program. Comparisons with experimental results show that the code accurately simulates the responses of those sensors. The program includes the physics that control and describe the photo-Compton and pair interactions for incident angles of photons on the high/low- Z detector layers, ranging from 0° to 90° relative to the plane of the layers. The small grazing angles of incidence (near zero degrees) must be accounted for in any theoretical simulation since the directional sensors' operating principle depends on the emission of photo-Compton and pair electrons for small incident angles as a function of atomic number Z and energy. NOVICE contains the necessary theory and also provides 3-D solutions for the sensors, experimental geometries, and setups. The effects of detector high/low- Z materials, their dimensions, and geometry, were investigated.

Kronenberg, S.; Brucker, G. J.; Jordan, T.

131

shield — universal Monte Carlo hadron transport code: scope and applications

shield is a transport code for simulation of hadron cascades in complex extended targets of arbitrary geometric configuration and chemical composition in the energy range up to 1 TeV. Transport of nucleons, pions, kaons, antinucleons, and muons is considered. Recently the transfer of ions (arbitrary A,Z-nuclei) was included. Hadron–nucleus and nucleus–nucleus interactions inside the target are simulated in exclusive approach

A. V Dementyev; N. M Sobolevsky

1999-01-01

132

Full 3D visualization tool-kit for Monte Carlo and deterministic transport codes

We propose a package of tools capable of translating the geometric inputs and outputs of many Monte Carlo and deterministic radiation transport codes into open source file formats. These tools are aimed at bridging the gap between trusted, widely-used radiation analysis codes and very powerful, more recent and commonly used visualization software, thus supporting the design process and helping with shielding optimization. Three main lines of development were followed: mesh-based analysis of Monte Carlo codes, mesh-based analysis of deterministic codes and Monte Carlo surface meshing. The developed kit is considered a powerful and cost-effective tool in the computer-aided design for radiation transport code users of the nuclear world, and in particular in the fields of core design and radiation analysis. (authors)

Frambati, S.; Frignani, M. [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso F.M. Perrone 25, 1616 Genova (Italy)

2012-07-01

133

Methods of Monte Carlo electron transport in particle-in-cell codes

An algorithm has been implemented in CCUBE and ISIS to treat electron transport in materials using a Monte Carlo method in addition to the electron dynamics determined by the self-consistent electromagnetic, relativistic, particle-in-cell simulation codes that have been used extensively to model generation of electron beams and intense microwave production. Incorporation of a Monte Carlo method to model the transport of electrons in materials (conductors and dielectrics) in a particle-in-cell code represents a giant step toward realistic simulation of the physics of charged-particle beams. The basic Monte Carlo method used in the implementation includes both scattering of electrons by background atoms and energy degradation.

Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

1985-01-01

134

A Monte-Carlo Code for Computing Transport Coefficients in Weakly Ionized Gas

Summary form only given. A Monte-Carlo code (MCSwarm) has been developed to provide transport coefficients in weakly ionized gases. The code can generate transport coefficients in crossed electric and magnetic fields for a wide varietv of gases including N2, O2, SF6 , H2, H2O, Ar, Ne, CO2, and He. The code follows many different interactions including rotational and vibrational modes,

S. B. Swanekamp; D. D. Hinshelwood; P. F. Ottinger; J. W. Schumer; D. Mosher; M. L. Kiefer; D. B. Seidel; T. D. Pointon

2007-01-01

135

BioMOCA—a Boltzmann transport Monte Carlo model for ion channel simulation

With the recent availability of high-resolution structural information for several key ion channel proteins and large-scale computational resources, Molecular Dynamics has become an increasingly popular tool for ion channel simulation. However, the CPU requirements for simulating ion transport on time scales relevant to conduction still exceed the resources presently available. To address this problem, we have developed Biology Monte Carlo

T. A. van der Straaten; G. Kathawala; A. Trellakis; R. S. Eisenberg; U. Ravaioli

2005-01-01

136

MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues

A Monte Carlo model of steady-state light transport in multi-layered tissues (MCML) has been coded in ANSI Standard C; therefore, the program can be used on various computers. Dynamic data allocation is used for MCML, hence the number of tissue layers and grid elements of the grid system can be varied by users at run time. The coordinates of the

Lihong Wang; Steven L. Jacques; Liqiong Zheng

1995-01-01

137

Exponentially-convergent Monte Carlo for the One-dimensional Transport Equation

An exponentially-convergent Monte Carlo (ECMC) method is analyzed using the one-group, one-dimension, slab-geometry transport equation. The method is based upon the use of a linear discontinuous finite-element trial space in position and direction...

Peterson, Jacob Ross

2014-04-23

138

A monte-carlo code for computing transport coefficients in weakly ionized gas

Summary form only given. A Monte-Carlo code (MCSwarm) has been developed to compute transport coefficients in a weakly ionized gas. The MCSwarm code includes rotational and vibrational effects as well as excitation, ionization, and attachment reactions to determine the electron mobility, mean electron energy, and ionization and attachment rates. The MCSwarm code is time accurate and correctly handles both electric

S. B. Swanekamp; S. D. Strasburg; D. D. Hinshelwood; J. W. Schumer; P. F. Ottinger; B. V. Weber; T. D. Pointon; D. B. Seidel; M. L. Kiefer

2006-01-01

139

Dynamic Monte-Carlo modeling of hydrogen isotope reactivediffusive transport in porous graphite

Dynamic Monte-Carlo modeling of hydrogen isotope reactiveÂdiffusive transport in porous graphite R in a fusion reactor. It is important to study the recycling and mixing of these hydrogen isotopes in graphite) continued use of graphite as a first wall and divertor material, and (iii) reaction with carbon atoms

Nordlund, Kai

140

Characterization of a novel micro-irradiator using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations

Small animals are highly valuable resources for radiobiology research. While rodents have been widely used for decades, zebrafish embryos have recently become a very popular research model. However, unlike rodents, zebrafish embryos lack appropriate irradiation tools and methodologies. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to use Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations to characterize dosimetric parameters, determine dosimetric sensitivity

Manuel Rodriguez; Robert Jeraj

2008-01-01

141

Update On the Status of the FLUKA Monte Carlo Transport Code*

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code is a well-known simulation tool in High Energy Physics. FLUKA is a dynamic tool in the sense that it is being continually updated and improved by the authors. We review the progress achieved since the last CHEP Conference on the physics models, some technical improvements to the code and some recent applications. From the point of view of the physics, improvements have been made with the extension of PEANUT to higher energies for p, n, pi, pbar/nbar and for nbars down to the lowest energies, the addition of the online capability to evolve radioactive products and get subsequent dose rates, upgrading of the treatment of EM interactions with the elimination of the need to separately prepare preprocessed files. A new coherent photon scattering model, an updated treatment of the photo-electric effect, an improved pair production model, new photon cross sections from the LLNL Cullen database have been implemented. In the field of nucleus-- nucleus interactions the electromagnetic dissociation of heavy ions has been added along with the extension of the interaction models for some nuclide pairs to energies below 100 MeV/A using the BME approach, as well as the development of an improved QMD model for intermediate energies. Both DPMJET 2.53 and 3 remain available along with rQMD 2.4 for heavy ion interactions above 100 MeV/A. Technical improvements include the ability to use parentheses in setting up the combinatorial geometry, the introduction of pre-processor directives in the input stream. a new random number generator with full 64 bit randomness, new routines for mathematical special functions (adapted from SLATEC). Finally, work is progressing on the deployment of a user-friendly GUI input interface as well as a CAD-like geometry creation and visualization tool. On the application front, FLUKA has been used to extensively evaluate the potential space radiation effects on astronauts for future deep space missions, the activation dose for beam target areas, dose calculations for radiation therapy as well as being adapted for use in the simulation of events in the ALICE detector at the LHC.

Ferrari, A.; Lorenzo-Sentis, M.; Roesler, S.; Smirnov, G.; Sommerer, F.; Theis, C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Carboni, M.; Mostacci, A.; Pelliccioni, M.

2006-01-01

142

The purpose of this study is to calculate correction factors for plastic water (PW) and plastic water diagnostic-therapy (PWDT) phantoms in clinical photon and electron beam dosimetry using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system. A water-to-plastic ionization conversion factor k{sub pl} for PW and PWDT was computed for several commonly used Farmer-type ionization chambers with different wall materials in the range of 4-18 MV photon beams. For electron beams, a depth-scaling factor c{sub pl} and a chamber-dependent fluence correction factor h{sub pl} for both phantoms were also calculated in combination with NACP-02 and Roos plane-parallel ionization chambers in the range of 4-18 MeV. The h{sub pl} values for the plane-parallel chambers were evaluated from the electron fluence correction factor {phi}{sub pl}{sup w} and wall correction factors P{sub wall,w} and P{sub wall,pl} for a combination of water or plastic materials. The calculated k{sub pl} and h{sub pl} values were verified by comparison with the measured values. A set of k{sub pl} values computed for the Farmer-type chambers was equal to unity within 0.5% for PW and PWDT in photon beams. The k{sub pl} values also agreed within their combined uncertainty with the measured data. For electron beams, the c{sub pl} values computed for PW and PWDT were from 0.998 to 1.000 and from 0.992 to 0.997, respectively, in the range of 4-18 MeV. The {phi}{sub pl}{sup w} values for PW and PWDT were from 0.998 to 1.001 and from 1.004 to 1.001, respectively, at a reference depth in the range of 4-18 MeV. The difference in P{sub wall} between water and plastic materials for the plane-parallel chambers was 0.8% at a maximum. Finally, h{sub pl} values evaluated for plastic materials were equal to unity within 0.6% for NACP-02 and Roos chambers. The h{sub pl} values also agreed within their combined uncertainty with the measured data. The absorbed dose to water from ionization chamber measurements in PW and PWDT plastic materials corresponds to that in water within 1%. Both phantoms can thus be used as a substitute for water for photon and electron dosimetry.

Araki, Fujio; Hanyu, Yuji; Fukuoka, Miyoko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Okumura, Masahiko; Oguchi, Hiroshi [Department of Radiological Technology, Kumamoto University School of Health Sciences, 4-24-1, Kuhonji, Kumamoto, 862-0976 (Japan); Division of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, 162-8666 (Japan); Department of Central Radiology, Kinki University Hospital, Osaka, 589-8511 (Japan); Department of Central Radiology, Shinshu University Hospital, Matsumoto, 390-8621 (Japan)

2009-07-15

143

Monte Carlo simulation of small electron fields collimated by the integrated photon MLC

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a Monte Carlo (MC)-based beam model for an ELEKTA linear accelerator was established. The beam model is based on the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, whereby electron beams with nominal energies of 10, 12 and 15 MeV were considered. For collimation of the electron beam, only the integrated photon multi-leaf-collimators (MLCs) were used. No additional secondary or tertiary add-ons like applicators, cutouts or dedicated electron MLCs were included. The source parameters of the initial electron beam were derived semi-automatically from measurements of depth-dose curves and lateral profiles in a water phantom. A routine to determine the initial electron energy spectra was developed which fits a Gaussian spectrum to the most prominent features of depth-dose curves. The comparisons of calculated and measured depth-dose curves demonstrated agreement within 1%/1 mm. The source divergence angle of initial electrons was fitted to lateral dose profiles beyond the range of electrons, where the imparted dose is mainly due to bremsstrahlung produced in the scattering foils. For accurate modelling of narrow beam segments, the influence of air density on dose calculation was studied. The air density for simulations was adjusted to local values (433 m above sea level) and compared with the standard air supplied by the ICRU data set. The results indicate that the air density is an influential parameter for dose calculations. Furthermore, the default value of the BEAMnrc parameter 'skin depth' for the boundary crossing algorithm was found to be inadequate for the modelling of small electron fields. A higher value for this parameter eliminated discrepancies in too broad dose profiles and an increased dose along the central axis. The beam model was validated with measurements, whereby an agreement mostly within 3%/3 mm was found.

Mihaljevic, Josip; Soukup, Martin; Dohm, Oliver; Alber, Markus

2011-02-01

144

In this, the second of two papers concerned with the use of numerical simulation to examine flow and transport parameters in heterogeneous porous media via Monte Carlo methods, results from the transport aspect of these simulations are reported on. Transport simulations contained herein assume a finite pulse input of conservative tracer, and the numerical technique endeavors to realistically simulate tracer spreading as the cloud moves through a heterogeneous medium. Medium heterogeneity is limited to the hydraulic conductivity field, and generation of this field assumes that the hydraulic- conductivity process is second-order stationary. Methods of estimating cloud moments, and the interpretation of these moments, are discussed. Techniques for estimation of large-time macrodispersivities from cloud second-moment data, and for the approximation of the standard errors associated with these macrodispersivities, are also presented. These moment and macrodispersivity estimation techniques were applied to tracer clouds resulting from transport scenarios generated by specific Monte Carlo simulations. Where feasible, moments and macrodispersivities resulting from the Monte Carlo simulations are compared with first- and second-order perturbation analyses. Some limited results concerning the possible ergodic nature of these simulations, and the presence of non- Gaussian behavior of the mean cloud, are reported on as well.

Naff, R.L.; Haley, D.F.; Sudicky, E.A.

1998-01-01

145

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this, the second of two papers concerned with the use of numerical simulation to examine flow and transport parameters in heterogeneous porous media via Monte Carlo methods, results from the transport aspect of these simulations are reported on. Transport simulations contained herein assume a finite pulse input of conservative tracer, and the numerical technique endeavors to realistically simulate tracer spreading as the cloud moves through a heterogeneous medium. Medium heterogeneity is limited to the hydraulic conductivity field, and generation of this field assumes that the hydraulic-conductivity process is second-order stationary. Methods of estimating cloud moments, and the interpretation of these moments, are discussed. Techniques for estimation of large-time macrodispersivities from cloud second-moment data, and for the approximation of the standard errors associated with these macrodispersivities, are also presented. These moment and macrodispersivity estimation techniques were applied to tracer clouds resulting from transport scenarios generated by specific Monte Carlo simulations. Where feasible, moments and macrodispersivities resulting from the Monte Carlo simulations are compared with first- and second-order perturbation analyses. Some limited results concerning the possible ergodic nature of these simulations, and the presence of non-Gaussian behavior of the mean cloud, are reported on as well.

Naff, R. L.; Haley, D. F.; Sudicky, E. A.

1998-04-01

146

A fully coupled Monte Carlo/discrete-ordinates solution to the neutron-transport equation

The neutron transport equation is solved by a hybrid method that iteratively couples regions where deterministic (S{sub N}) and stochastic (Monte Carlo) methods are applied. Unlike previous hybrid methods, the Monte Carlo and S{sub N} regions are fully coupled in the sense that no assumption is made about geometrical separation or decoupling. The hybrid method provides a new means of solving problems involving both optically thick and optically thin regions that neither Monte Carlo nor S{sub N} is well suited for by themselves. The fully coupled Monte Carlo/S{sub N} technique consists of defining spatial and/or energy regions of a problem in which either a Monte Carlo calculation or an S{sub N} calculation is to be performed. The hybrid method has been implemented in the S{sub N} code TWODANT by adding special-purpose Monte Carlo subroutines to calculate the response matrices and volumetric sources, and linkage subroutines to carry out the interface flux iterations. The common angular boundary fluxes are included in the S{sub N} code as interior boundary sources, leaving the logic for the solution of the transport flux unchanged, while, with minor modifications, the diffusion synthetic accelerator remains effective in accelerating the S{sub N} calculations. The special-purpose Monte Carlo routines used are essentially analog, with few variance reduction techniques employed. The hybrid method is capable of solving forward, inhomogeneous source problems in X {minus} Y and R {minus} Z geometries. This capability includes multigroup problems involving upscatter and fission in non-highly multiplying (k{sub eff} {le} .8) systems. The hybrid method has been applied to several simple test problems with good results.

Baker, R.S.

1990-01-01

147

Transport in open spin chains: A Monte Carlo wave-function approach

We investigate energy transport in several two-level atom or spin-1/2 models by a direct coupling to heat baths of different temperatures. The analysis is carried out on the basis of a recently derived quantum master equation which describes the nonequilibrium properties of internally weakly coupled systems appropriately. For the computation of the stationary state of the dynamical equations, we employ a Monte Carlo wave-function approach. The analysis directly indicates normal diffusive or ballistic transport in finite models and hints toward an extrapolation of the transport behavior of infinite models.

Mathias Michel; Ortwin Hess; Hannu Wichterich; Jochen Gemmer

2008-03-07

148

Radiation transport modeling methods used in the radiation detection community fall into one of two broad categories: stochastic (Monte Carlo) and deterministic. Monte Carlo methods are typically the tool of choice for simulating gamma-ray spectrometers operating in homeland and national security settings (e.g. portal monitoring of vehicles or isotope identification using handheld devices), but deterministic codes that discretize the linear Boltzmann transport equation in space, angle, and energy offer potential advantages in computational efficiency for many complex radiation detection problems. This paper describes the development of a scenario simulation framework based on deterministic algorithms. Key challenges include: formulating methods to automatically define an energy group structure that can support modeling of gamma-ray spectrometers ranging from low to high resolution; combining deterministic transport algorithms (e.g. ray-tracing and discrete ordinates) to mitigate ray effects for a wide range of problem types; and developing efficient and accurate methods to calculate gamma-ray spectrometer response functions from the deterministic angular flux solutions. The software framework aimed at addressing these challenges is described and results from test problems that compare coupled deterministic-Monte Carlo methods and purely Monte Carlo approaches are provided.

Smith, Leon E.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Pagh, Richard T.; Miller, Erin A.; Shaver, Mark W.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Ellis, J. E.; Kaye, William R.; McConn, Ronald J.; Meriwether, George H.; Ressler, Jennifer J.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Wareing, Todd A.

2008-10-31

149

In the framework of further development of the unified approach of photon migration in complex turbid media, such as biological tissues we present a peer-to-peer (P2P) Monte Carlo (MC) code. The object-oriented programming is used for generalization of MC model for multipurpose use in various applications of biomedical optics. The online user interface providing multiuser access is developed using modern web technologies, such as Microsoft Silverlight, ASP.NET. The emerging P2P network utilizing computers with different types of compute unified device architecture-capable graphics processing units (GPUs) is applied for acceleration and to overcome the limitations, imposed by multiuser access in the online MC computational tool. The developed P2P MC was validated by comparing the results of simulation of diffuse reflectance and fluence rate distribution for semi-infinite scattering medium with known analytical results, results of adding-doubling method, and with other GPU-based MC techniques developed in the past. The best speedup of processing multiuser requests in a range of 4 to 35 s was achieved using single-precision computing, and the double-precision computing for floating-point arithmetic operations provides higher accuracy. PMID:23085901

Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor

2012-09-01

150

Peer-to-peer Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in topical applications of biomedical optics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of further development of the unified approach of photon migration in complex turbid media, such as biological tissues we present a peer-to-peer (P2P) Monte Carlo (MC) code. The object-oriented programming is used for generalization of MC model for multipurpose use in various applications of biomedical optics. The online user interface providing multiuser access is developed using modern web technologies, such as Microsoft Silverlight, ASP.NET. The emerging P2P network utilizing computers with different types of compute unified device architecture-capable graphics processing units (GPUs) is applied for acceleration and to overcome the limitations, imposed by multiuser access in the online MC computational tool. The developed P2P MC was validated by comparing the results of simulation of diffuse reflectance and fluence rate distribution for semi-infinite scattering medium with known analytical results, results of adding-doubling method, and with other GPU-based MC techniques developed in the past. The best speedup of processing multiuser requests in a range of 4 to 35 s was achieved using single-precision computing, and the double-precision computing for floating-point arithmetic operations provides higher accuracy.

Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor

2012-09-01

151

This study investigated the dose enhancement due to the presence of mouse bone irradiated by the kilovoltage (kV) photon beams. Dosimetry of the bone associated with soft and lung tissue was determined by Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc-based code in millimeter scale. Two inhomogeneous phantoms with 2mm of bone layer sandwiched by: (1) water and lung (bone–lung phantom); and

James C. L. Chow

2010-01-01

152

This study investigated the dose enhancement due to the presence of mouse bone irradiated by the kilovoltage (kV) photon beams. Dosimetry of the bone associated with soft and lung tissue was determined by Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc-based code in millimeter scale. Two inhomogeneous phantoms with 2 mm of bone layer sandwiched by: (1) water and lung (bone-lung phantom);

James C. L. Chow

2010-01-01

153

Data decomposition of Monte Carlo particle transport simulations via tally servers

An algorithm for decomposing large tally data in Monte Carlo particle transport simulations is developed, analyzed, and implemented in a continuous-energy Monte Carlo code, OpenMC. The algorithm is based on a non-overlapping decomposition of compute nodes into tracking processors and tally servers. The former are used to simulate the movement of particles through the domain while the latter continuously receive and update tally data. A performance model for this approach is developed, suggesting that, for a range of parameters relevant to LWR analysis, the tally server algorithm should perform with minimal overhead on contemporary supercomputers. An implementation of the algorithm in OpenMC is then tested on the Intrepid and Titan supercomputers, supporting the key predictions of the model over a wide range of parameters. We thus conclude that the tally server algorithm is a successful approach to circumventing classical on-node memory constraints en route to unprecedentedly detailed Monte Carlo reactor simulations.

Romano, Paul K., E-mail: paul.k.romano@gmail.com [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Siegel, Andrew R., E-mail: siegala@mcs.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Theory and Computing Sciences, 9700 S Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Forget, Benoit, E-mail: bforget@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Smith, Kord, E-mail: kord@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2013-11-01

154

A Monte Carlo model for out-of-field dose calculation from high-energy photon therapy.

As cancer therapy becomes more efficacious and patients survive longer, the potential for late effects increases, including effects induced by radiation dose delivered away from the treatment site. This out-of-field radiation is of particular concern with high-energy radiotherapy, as neutrons are produced in the accelerator head. We recently developed an accurate Monte Carlo model of a Varian 2100 accelerator using MCNPX for calculating the dose away from the treatment field resulting from low-energy therapy. In this study, we expanded and validated our Monte Carlo model for high-energy (18 MV) photon therapy, including both photons and neutrons. Simulated out-of-field photon doses were compared with measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters in an acrylic phantom up to 55 cm from the central axis. Simulated neutron fluences and energy spectra were compared with measurements using moderated gold foil activation in moderators and data from the literature. The average local difference between the calculated and measured photon dose was 17%, including doses as low as 0.01% of the central axis dose. The out-of-field photon dose varied substantially with field size and distance from the edge of the field but varied little with depth in the phantom, except at depths shallower than 3 cm, where the dose sharply increased. On average, the difference between the simulated and measured neutron fluences was 19% and good agreement was observed with the neutron spectra. The neutron dose equivalent varied little with field size or distance from the central axis but decreased with depth in the phantom. Neutrons were the dominant component of the out-of-field dose equivalent for shallow depths and large distances from the edge of the treatment field. This Monte Carlo model is useful to both physicists and clinicians when evaluating out-of-field doses and associated potential risks. PMID:17926952

Kry, Stephen F; Titt, Uwe; Followill, David; Pönisch, Falk; Vassiliev, Oleg N; White, R Allen; Stovall, Marilyn; Salehpour, Mohammad

2007-09-01

155

Photon-transport properties of luminescent solar concentrators - Analysis and optimization

The principle of a luminescent solar concentrator is analyzed with an emphasis on the photon-transport yield. A mathematical model is developed, which takes into account the loss factors related to the photon transport in the LSC matrix. The relations obtained show that whereas the optical efficiency is still a decreasing factor with the LSC size, the concentration ratio can be

J. Roncali; F. Garnier

1984-01-01

156

Multigroup Boltzmann Fokker Planck electron-photon transport capability in MCNP{sup trademark}

The MCNP code system has a robust multigroup transport capability which includes a multigroup Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck (MGBFP) transport algorithm to perform coupled electron-photon or other coupled charged and neutral particle transport in either a forward or adjoint mode. This paper will discuss this capability and compare code results with other transport codes.

Adams, K.J.; Hart, M.

1995-07-01

157

Photon transport in cylindrically-shaped disordered meso-macroporous materials.

We theoretically and experimentally investigate light diffusion in disordered meso-macroporous materials with a cylindrical shape. High Internal Phase Emulsion (HIPE)-based silica foam samples, exhibiting a polydisperse pore-size distribution centered around 19 ?m to resemble certain biological tissues, are realized. To quantify the effect of a finite lateral size on measurable quantities, an analytical model for diffusion in finite cylinders is developed and validated by Monte Carlo random walk simulations. Steady-state and time-resolved transmission experiments are performed and the transport parameters (transport mean free path and material absorption length) are successfully retrieved from fits of the experimental curves with the proposed model. This study reveals that scattering losses on the lateral sides of the samples are responsible for a lowering of the transmission signal and a shortening of the photon lifetime, similar in experimental observables to the effect of material absorption. The recognition of this geometrical effect is essential since its wrong attribution to material absorption could be detrimental in various applications, such as biological tissue diagnosis or conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:24718124

Gaikwad, P; Ungureanu, S; Backov, R; Vynck, K; Vallée, R A L

2014-04-01

158

Monte Carlo simulation of hot electron transport in deep submicron SOI MOSFET

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensemble Monte-Carlo simulation of electron and hole transport in deep submicron n-channel SOI MOSFET with 100 nm channel length is performed. The influence of interband impact ionization process on the transistor characteristics is investigated within the framework of Keldysh impact ionization model. Effective threshold energy of electron impact ionization as a parameter characterizing the process is calculated. The dependence of the effective threshold energy on the drain bias is determined.

Borzdov, A. V.; Borzdov, V. M.; V'yurkov, V. V.

2014-12-01

159

Modular, object-oriented redesign of a large-scale Monte Carlo neutron transport program

This paper describes the modular, object-oriented redesign of a large-scale Monte Carlo neutron transport program. This effort represents a complete 'white sheet of paper' rewrite of the code. In this paper, the motivation driving this project, the design objectives for the new version of the program, and the design choices and their consequences will be discussed. The design itself will also be described, including the important subsystems as well as the key classes within those subsystems.

Moskowitz, B.S.

2000-02-01

160

Statistical and deterministic pattern recognition systems are designed ; to classify the state space of a Monte Carlo transport problem into importance ; regions. The surfaces separating the regions can be used for particle splitting ; and Russian roulette in state space in order to reduce the variance of the Monte ; Carlo tally. Computer experiments are performed to evaluate

1975-01-01

161

Boltzmann equation and Monte Carlo studies of electron transport in resistive plate chambers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi term theory for solving the Boltzmann equation and Monte Carlo simulation technique are used to investigate electron transport in Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that are used for timing and triggering purposes in many high energy physics experiments at CERN and elsewhere. Using cross sections for electron scattering in C2H2F4, iso-C4H10 and SF6 as an input in our Boltzmann and Monte Carlo codes, we have calculated data for electron transport as a function of reduced electric field E/N in various C2H2F4/iso-C4H10/SF6 gas mixtures used in RPCs in the ALICE, CMS and ATLAS experiments. Emphasis is placed upon the explicit and implicit effects of non-conservative collisions (e.g. electron attachment and/or ionization) on the drift and diffusion. Among many interesting and atypical phenomena induced by the explicit effects of non-conservative collisions, we note the existence of negative differential conductivity (NDC) in the bulk drift velocity component with no indication of any NDC for the flux component in the ALICE timing RPC system. We systematically study the origin and mechanisms for such phenomena as well as the possible physical implications which arise from their explicit inclusion into models of RPCs. Spatially-resolved electron transport properties are calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation technique in order to understand these phenomena.

Bošnjakovi?, D.; Petrovi?, Z. Lj; White, R. D.; Dujko, S.

2014-10-01

162

Development of A Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code System For HEDS: Status Update

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modifications of the Monte Carlo radiation transport code HETC are underway to extend the code to include transport of energetic heavy ions, such as are found in the galactic cosmic ray spectrum in space. The new HETC code will be available for use in radiation shielding applications associated with missions, such as the proposed manned mission to Mars. In this work the current status of code modification is described. Methods used to develop the required nuclear reaction models, including total, elastic and nuclear breakup processes, and their associated databases are also presented. Finally, plans for future work on the extended HETC code system and for its validation are described.

Townsend, Lawrence W.; Gabriel, Tony A.; Miller, Thomas M.

2003-01-01

163

Exponentially-convergent Monte Carlo for the 1-D transport equation

We define a new exponentially-convergent Monte Carlo method for solving the one-speed 1-D slab-geometry transport equation. This method is based upon the use of a linear discontinuous finite-element trial space in space and direction to represent the transport solution. A space-direction h-adaptive algorithm is employed to restore exponential convergence after stagnation occurs due to inadequate trial-space resolution. This methods uses jumps in the solution at cell interfaces as an error indicator. Computational results are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the new approach. (authors)

Peterson, J. R.; Morel, J. E.; Ragusa, J. C. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, TAMU 3133, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States)

2013-07-01

164

Monte Carlo calculated correction factors for diodes and ion chambers in small photon fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of small photon fields in modern radiotherapy requires the determination of total scatter factors Scp or field factors \\Omega ^{f_{clin} ,f_{msr}}_{Q_{clin} ,Q_{msr}} with high precision. Both quantities require the knowledge of the field-size-dependent and detector-dependent correction factor k^{f_{clin} ,f_{msr}}_{Q_{clin} ,Q_{msr}}. The aim of this study is the determination of the correction factor k^{f_{clin} ,f_{msr}}_{Q_{clin} ,Q_{msr}} for different types of detectors in a clinical 6 MV photon beam of a Siemens KD linear accelerator. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the dose to water and the dose to different detectors to determine the field factor as well as the mentioned correction factor for different small square field sizes. Besides this, the mean water to air stopping power ratio as well as the ratio of the mean energy absorption coefficients for the relevant materials was calculated for different small field sizes. As the beam source, a Monte Carlo based model of a Siemens KD linear accelerator was used. The results show that in the case of ionization chambers the detector volume has the largest impact on the correction factor k^{f_{clin} ,f_{msr}}_{Q_{clin} ,Q_{msr}}; this perturbation may contribute up to 50% to the correction factor. Field-dependent changes in stopping-power ratios are negligible. The magnitude of k^{f_{clin} ,f_{msr}}_{Q_{clin} ,Q_{msr}} is of the order of 1.2 at a field size of 1 × 1 cm2 for the large volume ion chamber PTW31010 and is still in the range of 1.05-1.07 for the PinPoint chambers PTW31014 and PTW31016. For the diode detectors included in this study (PTW60016, PTW 60017), the correction factor deviates no more than 2% from unity in field sizes between 10 × 10 and 1 × 1 cm2, but below this field size there is a steep decrease of k^{f_{clin} ,f_{msr}}_{Q_{clin} ,Q_{msr}} below unity, i.e. a strong overestimation of dose. Besides the field size and detector dependence, the results reveal a clear dependence of the correction factor on the accelerator geometry for field sizes below 1 × 1 cm2, i.e. on the beam spot size of the primary electrons hitting the target. This effect is especially pronounced for the ionization chambers. In conclusion, comparing all detectors, the unshielded diode PTW60017 is highly recommended for small field dosimetry, since its correction factor k^{f_{clin} ,f_{msr}}_{Q_{clin} ,Q_{msr}} is closest to unity in small fields and mainly independent of the electron beam spot size.

Czarnecki, D.; Zink, K.

2013-04-01

165

A portable, parallel, object-oriented Monte Carlo neutron transport code in C++

We have developed a multi-group Monte Carlo neutron transport code using C++ and the Parallel Object-Oriented Methods and Applications (POOMA) class library. This transport code, called MC++, currently computes k and {alpha}-eigenvalues and is portable to and runs parallel on a wide variety of platforms, including MPPs, clustered SMPs, and individual workstations. It contains appropriate classes and abstractions for particle transport and, through the use of POOMA, for portable parallelism. Current capabilities of MC++ are discussed, along with physics and performance results on a variety of hardware, including all Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) hardware. Current parallel performance indicates the ability to compute {alpha}-eigenvalues in seconds to minutes rather than hours to days. Future plans and the implementation of a general transport physics framework are also discussed.

Lee, S.R.; Cummings, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nolen, S.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-05-01

166

The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has established a method for ionisation chamber calibrations using megavoltage photon reference beams. The new method will reduce the calibration uncertainty compared to a (60)Co calibration combined with the TRS-398 energy correction factor. The calibration method employs a graphite calorimeter and a Monte Carlo (MC) conversion factor to convert the absolute dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water. EGSnrc is used to model the linac head and doses in the calorimeter and water phantom. The linac model is validated by comparing measured and modelled PDDs and profiles. The relative standard uncertainties in the calibration factors at the ARPANSA beam qualities were found to be 0.47% at 6?MV, 0.51% at 10?MV and 0.46% for the 18?MV beam. A comparison with the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) as part of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 gave results of 0.9965(55), 0.9924(60) and 0.9932(59) for the 6, 10 and 18?MV beams, respectively, with all beams within 1? of the participant average. The measured kQ values for an NE2571 Farmer chamber were found to be lower than those in TRS-398 but are consistent with published measured and modelled values. Users can expect a shift in the calibration factor at user energies of an NE2571 chamber between 0.4-1.1% across the range of calibration energies compared to the current calibration method. PMID:25565406

Wright, Tracy; Lye, Jessica E; Ramanathan, Ganesan; Harty, Peter D; Oliver, Chris; Webb, David V; Butler, Duncan J

2015-01-21

167

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has established a method for ionisation chamber calibrations using megavoltage photon reference beams. The new method will reduce the calibration uncertainty compared to a 60Co calibration combined with the TRS-398 energy correction factor. The calibration method employs a graphite calorimeter and a Monte Carlo (MC) conversion factor to convert the absolute dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water. EGSnrc is used to model the linac head and doses in the calorimeter and water phantom. The linac model is validated by comparing measured and modelled PDDs and profiles. The relative standard uncertainties in the calibration factors at the ARPANSA beam qualities were found to be 0.47% at 6?MV, 0.51% at 10?MV and 0.46% for the 18?MV beam. A comparison with the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) as part of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 gave results of 0.9965(55), 0.9924(60) and 0.9932(59) for the 6, 10 and 18?MV beams, respectively, with all beams within 1? of the participant average. The measured kQ values for an NE2571 Farmer chamber were found to be lower than those in TRS-398 but are consistent with published measured and modelled values. Users can expect a shift in the calibration factor at user energies of an NE2571 chamber between 0.4–1.1% across the range of calibration energies compared to the current calibration method.

Wright, Tracy; Lye, Jessica E.; Ramanathan, Ganesan; Harty, Peter D.; Oliver, Chris; Webb, David V.; Butler, Duncan J.

2015-01-01

168

Photon energy-modulated radiotherapy: Monte Carlo simulation and treatment planning study

Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of photon energy-modulated radiotherapy during beam-on time. Methods: A cylindrical device made of aluminum was conceptually proposed as an energy modulator. The frame of the device was connected with 20 tubes through which mercury could be injected or drained to adjust the thickness of mercury along the beam axis. In Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, a flattening filter of 6 or 10 MV linac was replaced with the device. The thickness of mercury inside the device varied from 0 to 40 mm at the field sizes of 5 x 5 cm{sup 2} (FS5), 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} (FS10), and 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} (FS20). At least 5 billion histories were followed for each simulation to create phase space files at 100 cm source to surface distance (SSD). In-water beam data were acquired by additional MC simulations using the above phase space files. A treatment planning system (TPS) was commissioned to generate a virtual machine using the MC-generated beam data. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for six clinical cases were generated using conventional 6 MV, 6 MV flattening filter free, and energy-modulated photon beams of the virtual machine. Results: As increasing the thickness of mercury, Percentage depth doses (PDD) of modulated 6 and 10 MV after the depth of dose maximum were continuously increased. The amount of PDD increase at the depth of 10 and 20 cm for modulated 6 MV was 4.8% and 5.2% at FS5, 3.9% and 5.0% at FS10 and 3.2%-4.9% at FS20 as increasing the thickness of mercury from 0 to 20 mm. The same for modulated 10 MV was 4.5% and 5.0% at FS5, 3.8% and 4.7% at FS10 and 4.1% and 4.8% at FS20 as increasing the thickness of mercury from 0 to 25 mm. The outputs of modulated 6 MV with 20 mm mercury and of modulated 10 MV with 25 mm mercury were reduced into 30%, and 56% of conventional linac, respectively. The energy-modulated IMRT plans had less integral doses than 6 MV IMRT or 6 MV flattening filter free plans for tumors located in the periphery while maintaining the similar quality of target coverage, homogeneity, and conformity. Conclusions: The MC study for the designed energy modulator demonstrated the feasibility of energy-modulated photon beams available during beam-on time. The planning study showed an advantage of energy-and intensity modulated radiotherapy in terms of integral dose without sacrificing any quality of IMRT plan.

Park, Jong Min; Kim, Jung-in; Heon Choi, Chang; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kim, Il Han; Ye, Sung-Joon [Interdiciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-744, Korea and Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Interdiciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Interdiciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Interdiciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Intelligent Convergence Systems, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-03-15

169

Monte Carlo simulations of the particle transport in semiconductor detectors of fast neutrons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several Monte Carlo all-particle transport codes are under active development around the world. In this paper we focused on the capabilities of the MCNPX code (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) to follow the particle transport in semiconductor detector of fast neutrons. Semiconductor detector based on semi-insulating GaAs was the object of our investigation. As converter material capable to produce charged particles from the (n, p) interaction, a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was employed. As the source of fast neutrons, the 239Pu-Be neutron source was used in the model. The simulations were performed using the MCNPX code which makes possible to track not only neutrons but also recoiled protons at all interesting energies. Hence, the MCNPX code enables seamless particle transport and no other computer program is needed to process the particle transport. The determination of the optimal thickness of the conversion layer and the minimum thickness of the active region of semiconductor detector as well as the energy spectra simulation were the principal goals of the computer modeling. Theoretical detector responses showed that the best detection efficiency can be achieved for 500 ?m thick HDPE converter layer. The minimum detector active region thickness has been estimated to be about 400 ?m.

Sedla?ková, Katarína; Za?ko, Bohumír; Šagátová, Andrea; Ne?as, Vladimír

2013-05-01

170

Ion beam transport in tissue-like media using the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT.

The development of the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT (heavy ion transport) for the simulation of the transport of protons and heavier ions in tissue-like media is described. The code SHIELD-HIT, a spin-off of SHIELD (available as RSICC CCC-667), extends the transport of hadron cascades from standard targets to that of ions in arbitrary tissue-like materials, taking into account ionization energy-loss straggling and multiple Coulomb scattering effects. The consistency of the results obtained with SHIELD-HIT has been verified against experimental data and other existing Monte Carlo codes (PTRAN, PETRA), as well as with deterministic models for ion transport, comparing depth distributions of energy deposition by protons, 12C and 20Ne ions impinging on water. The SHIELD-HIT code yields distributions consistent with a proper treatment of nuclear inelastic collisions. Energy depositions up to and well beyond the Bragg peak due to nuclear fragmentations are well predicted. Satisfactory agreement is also found with experimental determinations of the number of fragments of a given type, as a function of depth in water, produced by 12C and 14N ions of 670 MeV u(-1), although less favourable agreement is observed for heavier projectiles such as 16O ions of the same energy. The calculated neutron spectra differential in energy and angle produced in a mimic of a Martian rock by irradiation with 12C ions of 290 MeV u(-1) also shows good agreement with experimental data. It is concluded that a careful analysis of stopping power data for different tissues is necessary for radiation therapy applications, since an incorrect estimation of the position of the Bragg peak might lead to a significant deviation from the prescribed dose in small target volumes. The results presented in this study indicate the usefulness of the SHIELD-HIT code for Monte Carlo simulations in the field of light ion radiation therapy. PMID:15214534

Gudowska, Irena; Sobolevsky, Nikolai; Andreo, Pedro; Belki?, Dzevad; Brahme, Anders

2004-05-21

171

The Implementation of Photon Polarization into the Mercury Transport Code

direction, and a polarization ellipticity. These new variables are tracked throughout each particle’s history. They impact and are impacted by interactions with the medium. The determination of how these variables affect the photon’s interactions...

Windsor, Ethan

2014-06-04

172

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the variations of the dose and dose distribution in a small-animal irradiation due to the photon beam energy and presence of inhomogeneity. Based on the same mouse computed tomography image set, three Monte Carlo phantoms namely, inhomogeneous, homogeneous and bone-tissue phantoms were used in this study. These phantoms were generated by overriding the relative electron density of no voxel (inhomogeneous), all voxel (homogeneous) and the bone voxel (bone-tissue) to one. 360° photon arcs with beam energies of 50-1250 kV were used in mouse irradiations. Doses in the above phantoms were calculated using the EGSnrc-based DOSXYZnrc code through the DOSCTP. It was found that the dose conformity increased with the increase of the photon beam energy from the kV to MV range. For the inhomogeneous mouse phantom, increasing the photon beam energy from 50 kV to 1250 kV increased about 21 times the dose deposited at the isocenter. For the bone dose enhancement, the mean dose was 1.4 times higher when the bone inhomogeneity was not neglected using the 50 kV photon beams in the mouse irradiation. Bone dose enhancement affecting the mean dose in the mouse irradiation can be found in the photon beams with energy range of 50-200 kV, and the dose enhancement decreases with an increase of the beam energy. Moreover, the MV photon beam has a higher dose at the isocenter, and a better dose conformity compared to the kV beam.

Chow, James C. L.

2013-05-01

173

MONTE CARLO SIMULATION MODEL OF ENERGETIC PROTON TRANSPORT THROUGH SELF-GENERATED ALFVEN WAVES

A new Monte Carlo simulation model for the transport of energetic protons through self-generated Alfven waves is presented. The key point of the model is that, unlike the previous ones, it employs the full form (i.e., includes the dependence on the pitch-angle cosine) of the resonance condition governing the scattering of particles off Alfven waves-the process that approximates the wave-particle interactions in the framework of quasilinear theory. This allows us to model the wave-particle interactions in weak turbulence more adequately, in particular, to implement anisotropic particle scattering instead of isotropic scattering, which the previous Monte Carlo models were based on. The developed model is applied to study the transport of flare-accelerated protons in an open magnetic flux tube. Simulation results for the transport of monoenergetic protons through the spectrum of Alfven waves reveal that the anisotropic scattering leads to spatially more distributed wave growth than isotropic scattering. This result can have important implications for diffusive shock acceleration, e.g., affect the scattering mean free path of the accelerated particles in and the size of the foreshock region.

Afanasiev, A.; Vainio, R., E-mail: alexandr.afanasiev@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland)

2013-08-15

174

A fast Monte Carlo code for proton transport in radiation therapy based on MCNPX

An important requirement for proton therapy is a software for dose calculation. Monte Carlo is the most accurate method for dose calculation, but it is very slow. In this work, a method is developed to improve the speed of dose calculation. The method is based on pre-generated tracks for particle transport. The MCNPX code has been used for generation of tracks. A set of data including the track of the particle was produced in each particular material (water, air, lung tissue, bone, and soft tissue). This code can transport protons in wide range of energies (up to 200 MeV for proton). The validity of the fast Monte Carlo (MC) code is evaluated with data MCNPX as a reference code. While analytical pencil beam algorithm transport shows great errors (up to 10%) near small high density heterogeneities, there was less than 2% deviation of MCNPX results in our dose calculation and isodose distribution. In terms of speed, the code runs 200 times faster than MCNPX. In the Fast MC code which is developed in this work, it takes the system less than 2 minutes to calculate dose for 106 particles in an Intel Core 2 Duo 2.66 GHZ desktop computer. PMID:25190994

Jabbari, Keyvan; Seuntjens, Jan

2014-01-01

175

A fast Monte Carlo code for proton transport in radiation therapy based on MCNPX.

An important requirement for proton therapy is a software for dose calculation. Monte Carlo is the most accurate method for dose calculation, but it is very slow. In this work, a method is developed to improve the speed of dose calculation. The method is based on pre-generated tracks for particle transport. The MCNPX code has been used for generation of tracks. A set of data including the track of the particle was produced in each particular material (water, air, lung tissue, bone, and soft tissue). This code can transport protons in wide range of energies (up to 200 MeV for proton). The validity of the fast Monte Carlo (MC) code is evaluated with data MCNPX as a reference code. While analytical pencil beam algorithm transport shows great errors (up to 10%) near small high density heterogeneities, there was less than 2% deviation of MCNPX results in our dose calculation and isodose distribution. In terms of speed, the code runs 200 times faster than MCNPX. In the Fast MC code which is developed in this work, it takes the system less than 2 minutes to calculate dose for 10(6) particles in an Intel Core 2 Duo 2.66 GHZ desktop computer. PMID:25190994

Jabbari, Keyvan; Seuntjens, Jan

2014-07-01

176

Purpose: The impact of photon beam energy and tissue heterogeneities on dose distributions and dosimetric characteristics such as point dose, mean dose, and maximum dose was investigated in the context of small-animal irradiation using Monte Carlo simulations based on the EGSnrc code. Methods: Three Monte Carlo mouse phantoms, namely, heterogeneous, homogeneous, and bone homogeneous were generated based on the same mouse computed tomography image set. These phantoms were generated by overriding the tissue type of none of the voxels (heterogeneous), all voxels (homogeneous), and only the bone voxels (bone homogeneous) to that of soft tissue. Phase space files of the 100 and 225 kVp photon beams based on a small-animal irradiator (XRad225Cx, Precision X-Ray Inc., North Branford, CT) were generated using BEAMnrc. A 360 deg. photon arc was simulated and three-dimensional (3D) dose calculations were carried out using the DOSXYZnrc code through DOSCTP in the above three phantoms. For comparison, the 3D dose distributions, dose profiles, mean, maximum, and point doses at different locations such as the isocenter, lung, rib, and spine were determined in the three phantoms. Results: The dose gradient resulting from the 225 kVp arc was found to be steeper than for the 100 kVp arc. The mean dose was found to be 1.29 and 1.14 times higher for the heterogeneous phantom when compared to the mean dose in the homogeneous phantom using the 100 and 225 kVp photon arcs, respectively. The bone doses (rib and spine) in the heterogeneous mouse phantom were about five (100 kVp) and three (225 kVp) times higher when compared to the homogeneous phantom. However, the lung dose did not vary significantly between the heterogeneous, homogeneous, and bone homogeneous phantom for the 225 kVp compared to the 100 kVp photon beams. Conclusions: A significant bone dose enhancement was found when the 100 and 225 kVp photon beams were used in small-animal irradiation. This dosimetric effect, due to the presence of the bone heterogeneity, was more significant than that due to the lung heterogeneity. Hence, for kV photon energies of the range used in small-animal irradiation, the increase of the mean and bone dose due to the photoelectric effect could be a dosimetric concern.

Chow, James C. L.; Leung, Michael K. K.; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada) and Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics and Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

2010-10-15

177

Hybrid Parallel Programming Models for AMR Neutron Monte-Carlo Transport

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with High Performance Computing (HPC) applied to neutron transport theory on complex geometries, thanks to both an Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) algorithm and a Monte-Carlo (MC) solver. Several Parallelism models are presented and analyzed in this context, among them shared memory and distributed memory ones such as Domain Replication and Domain Decomposition, together with Hybrid strategies. The study is illustrated by weak and strong scalability tests on complex benchmarks on several thousands of cores thanks to the petaflopic supercomputer Tera100.

Dureau, David; Poëtte, Gaël

2014-06-01

178

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A deterministic suite of radiation transport codes, developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), which describe the transport of electrons, photons, protons, and heavy ions in condensed media is used to simulate exposures from spectral distributions typical of electrons, protons and carbon-oxygen-sulfur (C-O-S) trapped heavy ions in the Jovian radiation environment. The particle transport suite consists of a coupled electron and photon deterministic transport algorithm (CEPTRN) and a coupled light particle and heavy ion deterministic transport algorithm (HZETRN). The primary purpose for the development of the transport suite is to provide a means for the spacecraft design community to rapidly perform numerous repetitive calculations essential for electron, proton and heavy ion radiation exposure assessments in complex space structures. In this paper, the radiation environment of the Galilean satellite Europa is used as a representative boundary condition to show the capabilities of the transport suite. While the transport suite can directly access the output electron spectra of the Jovian environment as generated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Galileo Interim Radiation Electron (GIRE) model of 2003; for the sake of relevance to the upcoming Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), the 105 days at Europa mission fluence energy spectra provided by JPL is used to produce the corresponding dose-depth curve in silicon behind an aluminum shield of 100 mils ( 0.7 g/sq cm). The transport suite can also accept ray-traced thickness files from a computer-aided design (CAD) package and calculate the total ionizing dose (TID) at a specific target point. In that regard, using a low-fidelity CAD model of the Galileo probe, the transport suite was verified by comparing with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for orbits JOI--J35 of the Galileo extended mission (1996-2001). For the upcoming EJSM mission with a potential launch date of 2020, the transport suite is used to compute the traditional aluminum-silicon dose-depth calculation as a standard shield-target combination output, as well as the shielding response of high charge (Z) shields such as tantalum (Ta). Finally, a shield optimization algorithm is used to guide the instrument designer with the choice of graded-Z shield analysis.

Norman, Ryan B.; Badavi, Francis F.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Atwell, William

2011-01-01

179

The path-history-based fluorescence Monte Carlo method used for fluorescence tomography imaging reconstruction has attracted increasing attention. In this paper, we first validate the standard fluorescence Monte Carlo (sfMC) method by experimenting with a cylindrical phantom. Then, we describe a path-history-based decoupled fluorescence Monte Carlo (dfMC) method, analyze different perturbation fluorescence Monte Carlo (pfMC) methods, and compare the calculation accuracy and computational efficiency of the dfMC and pfMC methods using the sfMC method as a reference. The results show that the dfMC method is more accurate and efficient than the pfMC method in heterogeneous medium. PMID:25607163

Jiang, Xu; Deng, Yong; Luo, Zhaoyang; Wang, Kan; Lian, Lichao; Yang, Xiaoquan; Meglinski, Igor; Luo, Qingming

2014-12-29

180

A method is provided to represent the calculated phase space of photons emanating from medical accelerators used in photon teletherapy. The method reproduces the energy distributions and trajectories of the photons originating in the bremsstrahlung target and of photons scattered by components within the accelerator head. The method reproduces the energy and directional information from sources up to several centimeters in radial extent, so it is expected to generalize well to accelerators made by different manufacturers. The method is computationally both fast and efficient overall sampling efficiency of 80% or higher for most field sizes. The computational cost is independent of the number of beams used in the treatment plan.

Schach Von Wittenau, Alexis E. (Livermore, CA)

2003-01-01

181

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Langley research center (LaRC) developed deterministic suite of radiation transport codes describing the propagation of electron, photon, proton and heavy ion in condensed media is used to simulate the exposure from the spectral distribution of the aforementioned particles in the Jovian radiation environment. Based on the measurements by the Galileo probe (1995-2003) heavy ion counter (HIC), the choice of trapped heavy ions is limited to carbon, oxygen and sulfur (COS). The deterministic particle transport suite consists of a coupled electron photon algorithm (CEPTRN) and a coupled light heavy ion algorithm (HZETRN). The primary purpose for the development of the transport suite is to provide a means to the spacecraft design community to rapidly perform numerous repetitive calculations essential for electron, photon, proton and heavy ion exposure assessment in a complex space structure. In this paper, the reference radiation environment of the Galilean satellite Europa is used as a representative boundary condition to show the capabilities of the transport suite. While the transport suite can directly access the output electron and proton spectra of the Jovian environment as generated by the jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) Galileo interim radiation electron (GIRE) model of 2003; for the sake of relevance to the upcoming Europa Jupiter system mission (EJSM), the JPL provided Europa mission fluence spectrum, is used to produce the corresponding depth dose curve in silicon behind a default aluminum shield of 100 mils (˜0.7 g/cm2). The transport suite can also accept a geometry describing ray traced thickness file from a computer aided design (CAD) package and calculate the total ionizing dose (TID) at a specific target point within the interior of the vehicle. In that regard, using a low fidelity CAD model of the Galileo probe generated by the authors, the transport suite was verified versus Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for orbits JOI-J35 of the Galileo probe extended mission. For the upcoming EJSM mission with an expected launch date of 2020, the transport suite is used to compute the depth dose profile for the traditional aluminum silicon as a standard shield target combination, as well as simulating the shielding response of a high charge number (Z) material such as tantalum (Ta). Finally, a shield optimization algorithm is discussed which can guide the instrument designers and fabrication personnel with the choice of graded-Z shield selection and analysis.

Badavi, Francis F.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Atwell, William; Nealy, John E.; Norman, Ryan B.

2011-02-01

182

The generation of photoacoustic signals for imaging objects embedded within tissues is dependent on how well light can penetrate to and deposit energy within an optically absorbing object, such as a blood vessel. This report couples a 3D Monte Carlo simulation of light transport to stress wave generation to predict the acoustic signals received by a detector at the tissue surface. The Monte Carlo simulation allows modeling of optically heterogeneous tissues, and a simple MATLAB™ acoustic algorithm predicts signals reaching a surface detector. An example simulation considers a skin with a pigmented epidermis, a dermis with a background blood perfusion, and a 500-?m-dia. blood vessel centered at a 1-mm depth in the skin. The simulation yields acoustic signals received by a surface detector, which are generated by a pulsed 532-nm laser exposure before and after inserting the blood vessel. A MATLAB™ version of the acoustic algorithm and a link to the 3D Monte Carlo website are provided. PMID:25426426

Jacques, Steven L

2014-12-01

183

Monte Carlo simulations of transport of the bremsstrahlung produced by relativistic runaway electron avalanches are performed for altitudes up to the orbit altitudes where terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) have been detected aboard satellites. The photon flux per runaway electron and angular distribution of photons on a hemisphere of radius similar to that of the satellite orbits are calculated as functions of the source altitude z. The calculations yield general results, which are recommended for use in TGF data analysis. The altitude z and polar angle are determined for which the calculated bremsstrahlung spectra and mean photon energies agree with TGF measurements. The correlation of TGFs with variations of the vertical dipole moment of a thundercloud is analyzed. We show that, in agreement with observations, the detected TGFs can be produced in the fields of thunderclouds with charges much smaller than 100 C and that TGFs are not necessarily correlated with the occurrence of blue jets and red sprites.

Babich, L. P., E-mail: babich@elph.vniief.ru; Donskoy, E. N.; Kutsyk, I. M. [All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation)

2008-07-15

184

Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Transport in 4H- and 6H-SiC

The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of electron transport properties at high electric field region in 4H- and 6H-SiC are presented. This MC model includes two non-parabolic conduction bands. Based on the material parameters, the electron scattering rates included polar optical phonon scattering, optical phonon scattering and acoustic phonon scattering are evaluated. The electron drift velocity, energy and free flight time are simulated as a function of applied electric field at an impurity concentration of 1x10{sup 18} cm{sup 3} in room temperature. The simulated drift velocity with electric field dependencies is in a good agreement with experimental results found in literature. The saturation velocities for both polytypes are close, but the scattering rates are much more pronounced for 6H-SiC. Our simulation model clearly shows complete electron transport properties in 4H- and 6H-SiC.

Sun, C. C. [Centre for Diploma Program, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); You, A. H.; Wong, E. K. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

2010-07-07

185

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To a large extent, the flow and transport behaviour within a subsurface reservoir is governed by its permeability. Typically, permeability measurements of a subsurface reservoir are affordable at few spatial locations only. Due to this lack of information, permeability fields are preferably described by stochastic models rather than deterministically. A stochastic method is needed to asses the transition of the input uncertainty in permeability through the system of partial differential equations describing flow and transport to the output quantity of interest. Monte Carlo (MC) is an established method for quantifying uncertainty arising in subsurface flow and transport problems. Although robust and easy to implement, MC suffers from slow statistical convergence. To reduce the computational cost of MC, the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method was introduced. Instead of sampling a random output quantity of interest on the finest affordable grid as in case of MC, MLMC operates on a hierarchy of grids. If parts of the sampling process are successfully delegated to coarser grids where sampling is inexpensive, MLMC can dramatically outperform MC. MLMC has proven to accelerate MC for several applications including integration problems, stochastic ordinary differential equations in finance as well as stochastic elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations. In this study, MLMC is combined with a reservoir simulator to assess uncertain two phase (water/oil) flow and transport within a random permeability field. The performance of MLMC is compared to MC for a two-dimensional reservoir with a multi-point Gaussian logarithmic permeability field. It is found that MLMC yields significant speed-ups with respect to MC while providing results of essentially equal accuracy. This finding holds true not only for one specific Gaussian logarithmic permeability model but for a range of correlation lengths and variances.

Müller, Florian; Jenny, Patrick; Daniel, Meyer

2014-05-01

186

It recently has been shown experimentally that the focusing provided by a longitudinal nonuniform high magnetic field can significantly improve electron beam dose profiles. This could permit precise targeting of tumors near critical areas and minimize the radiation dose to surrounding healthy tissue. The experimental results together with Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the magnetic confinement of electron radiotherapy beams may provide an alternative to proton or heavy ion radiation therapy in some cases. In the present work, the external magnetic field capability of the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE was utilized by providing a subroutine that modeled the actual field produced by the solenoid magnet used in the experimental studies. The magnetic field in our simulation covered the region from the vacuum exit window to the phantom including surrounding air. In a longitudinal nonuniform magnetic field, it is observed that the electron dose can be focused in both the transverse and longitudinal directions. The measured dose profiles of the electron beam are generally reproduced in the Monte Carlo simulations to within a few percent in the region of interest provided that the geometry and the energy of the incident electron beam are accurately known. Comparisons for the photon beam dose profiles with and without the magnetic field are also made. The experimental results are qualitatively reproduced in the simulation. Our simulation shows that the excessive dose at the beam entrance is due to the magnetic field trapping and focusing scattered secondary electrons that were produced in the air by the incident photon beam. The simulations also show that the electron dose profile can be manipulated by the appropriate control of the beam energy together with the strength and displacement of the longitudinal magnetic field.

Chen Yu; Bielajew, Alex F.; Litzenberg, Dale W.; Moran, Jean M.; Becchetti, Frederick D. [Department of Physics, Randall Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0010 (United States); Department of Physics, Randall Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120 (United States)

2005-12-15

187

A recent theoretical analysis and experimental results show that interesting transport properties of a single microwave photon emerge when a quantum bit in a cavity is coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide. Here we adopt a real-space model Hamiltonian to give a unified approach which accounts for the experimental results, and make new predictions on the properties of single photon transport, such as the general Fano line shape, symmetric vacuum Rabi splitting for a leaky cavity at resonance, and a one-photon switching capability. PMID:16384136

Shen, Jung-Tsung; Fan, Shanhui

2005-11-18

188

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Onboard TARANIS satellite, the CNES mission dedicated to the study of TLE and TGFs, IDEE and XGRE are the two instruments which will measure the relativistic electrons and X and gamma rays. At the altitude of the satellite, the fluxes have been significantly altered by the filtering of the atmosphere and the satellite only measures a subset of the particles. Therefore, the inverse problem, to get an information on the sources and on the mechanisms responsible for these emissions, is rather tough to tackle, especially if we want to take advantage of the other instruments which will provide indirect information on those particles. The only reasonable way to solve this problem is to embed in the data processing, a theoretical approach using a numerical model of the generation and the transport of these burst emissions. For this purpose, we start to develop a numerical Monte carlo model which solves the transport in the atmosphere of both relativistic electrons and gamma-rays. After a brief presentation of the model and the validation by comparison with GEANT 4, we discuss how the photons and electrons may be spatially dispersed as a function of their energy at the altitude of the satellite, depending on the source properties, and the impact that could have on the detection by the satellite. Then, we give preliminary results on the interaction of the energetic particles with the neutral atmosphere, mainly in term of production rate of excited states, which will accessible through MCP experiment, and ionized species, which are important for the electrodynamics.

Sarria, D.; Forme, F.; Blelly, P.

2013-12-01

189

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the dose enhancement due to the presence of mouse bone irradiated by the kilovoltage (kV) photon beams. Dosimetry of the bone associated with soft and lung tissue was determined by Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc-based code in millimeter scale. Two inhomogeneous phantoms with 2 mm of bone layer sandwiched by: (1) water and lung (bone-lung phantom); and (2) water (bone-water phantom), were used. Relative depth doses along the central beam axes in the phantoms and dose enhancement ratios (bone dose in the above inhomogeneous phantoms to the dose at the same point in the water phantom) were determined using the 100 and 225 kVp photon beams. For the 100 kVp photon beams, the depth dose gradient in the bone was significantly larger compared to that in a water phantom without the bone. This is due to the beam hardening effect that some low-energy photons were filtered out in the deeper depth, resulting in less photoelectric interactions and hence energy depositions in the bone. Moreover, dose differences between the top and downstream (bottom) bone edges at depths of 1-5 mm were 168-192% and 149-166% for the bone-lung and bone-water phantom, respectively. These differences were larger than 21-27% (bone-lung) and 12-23% (bone-water) for the 225 kVp photon beams. The maximum dose enhancement ratio in the bone for the bone-lung and bone-water phantoms in various depths was about 5.7 using the 100 kVp photon beams. This ratio was larger than two times of that (2.4) for the 225 kVp photon beams. It is concluded that, apart from the basic beam characteristics such as attenuation and penumbra, which are related to the photon beam energy in the mouse irradiation, the bone dose is another important factor to consider when selecting the beam energy in the small-animal treatment planning, provided that the bone dose enhancement is a concern in the preclinical model.

Chow, James C. L.

2010-05-01

190

Monte Carlo studies of the exit photon spectra and dose to a metal/phosphor portal imaging screen.

The energy spectra and the dose to a Cu plate/Gd2O2S phosphor portal imaging detector were investigated for monoenergetic incident beams of photons (1.25, 2, and 5 MeV). The Monte Carlo method was used to characterize the influence of the patient/detector geometry, detector material and design, and incident beam energy on the spectral distribution and the dose, at the imaging detector plane, of a photon beam scattered from a water phantom. The results show that radiation equilibrium is lost in the air gap and that, for the geometries studied, this effect led to a reduction in the exit dose of up to 40%. The finding that the effects of the air gap and field size are roughly complementary has led to the hypothesis that an equivalent field size concept may be used to account for intensity and spectral changes arising from air gap variations. The copper plate preferentially attenuates the low-energy scattered photons incident on it, while producing additional annihilation, bremsstrahlung, and scattered photons. As a result, the scatter spectra at the copper surface entrance of the detector differs significantly from that at the Cu/phosphor interface. In addition, the mean scattered photon energy at the interface was observed to be roughly 0.4 MeV higher than the corresponding effective energy for 2 MeV incident beams. A comparison of the dose to various detector materials showed that exit dosimetry errors of up to 24% will occur if it is assumed that the Cu plate/Gd2O2S phosphor detector is water equivalent. PMID:10718136

Yeboah, C; Pistorius, S

2000-02-01

191

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to present a Monte-Carlo (MC)-based optimization procedure to improve conventional treatment plans for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using modulated electron beams alone or combined with modulated photon beams, to be delivered by a single collimation device, i.e. a photon multi-leaf collimator (xMLC) already installed in a standard hospital. Five left-sided breast cases were retrospectively planned using modulated photon and/or electron beams with an in-house treatment planning system (TPS), called CARMEN, and based on MC simulations. For comparison, the same cases were also planned by a PINNACLE TPS using conventional inverse intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Normal tissue complication probability for pericarditis, pneumonitis and breast fibrosis was calculated. CARMEN plans showed similar acceptable planning target volume (PTV) coverage as conventional IMRT plans with 90% of PTV volume covered by the prescribed dose (Dp). Heart and ipsilateral lung receiving 5% Dp and 15% Dp, respectively, was 3.2-3.6 times lower for CARMEN plans. Ipsilateral breast receiving 50% Dp and 100% Dp was an average of 1.4-1.7 times lower for CARMEN plans. Skin and whole body low-dose volume was also reduced. Modulated photon and/or electron beams planned by the CARMEN TPS improve APBI treatments by increasing normal tissue sparing maintaining the same PTV coverage achieved by other techniques. The use of the xMLC, already installed in the linac, to collimate photon and electron beams favors the clinical implementation of APBI with the highest efficiency.

Atriana Palma, Bianey; Ureba Sánchez, Ana; Salguero, Francisco Javier; Arráns, Rafael; Míguez Sánchez, Carlos; Walls Zurita, Amadeo; Romero Hermida, María Isabel; Leal, Antonio

2012-03-01

192

Unified single-photon and single-electron counting statistics: From cavity QED to electron transport

A key ingredient of cavity QED is the coupling between the discrete energy levels of an atom and photons in a single-mode cavity. The addition of periodic ultrashort laser pulses allows one to use such a system as a source of single photons--a vital ingredient in quantum information and optical computing schemes. Here we analyze and time-adjust the photon-counting statistics of such a single-photon source and show that the photon statistics can be described by a simple transport-like nonequilibrium model. We then show that there is a one-to-one correspondence of this model to that of nonequilibrium transport of electrons through a double quantum dot nanostructure, unifying the fields of photon-counting statistics and electron-transport statistics. This correspondence empowers us to adapt several tools previously used for detecting quantum behavior in electron-transport systems (e.g., super-Poissonian shot noise and an extension of the Leggett-Garg inequality) to single-photon-source experiments.

Lambert, Neill [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Chen, Yueh-Nan [Department of Physics and National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

2010-12-15

193

a Test Particle Model for Monte Carlo Simulation of Plasma Transport Driven by Quasineutrality

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the problem of transport in controlled nuclear fusion as it applies to confinement in a tokamak or stellarator. We perform numerical experiments to validate a mathematical model of P. R. Garabedian in which the electric potential is determined by quasineutrality because of singular perturbation of the Poisson equation. The simulations are made using a transport code written by O. Betancourt and M. Taylor, with changes to incorporate our case studies. We adopt a test particle model naturally suggested by the problem of tracking particles in plasma physics. The statistics due to collisions are modeled by a drift kinetic equation whose numerical solution is based on the Monte Carlo method of A. Boozer and G. Kuo -Petravic. The collision operator drives the distribution function in velocity space towards the normal distribution, or Maxwellian. It is shown that details of the collision operator other than its dependence on the collision frequency and temperature matter little for transport, and the role of conservation of momentum is investigated. Exponential decay makes it possible to find the confinement times of both ions and electrons by high performance computing. Three -dimensional perturbations in the electromagnetic field model the anomalous transport of electrons and simulate the turbulent behavior that is presumably triggered by the displacement current. We make a convergence study of the method, derive scaling laws that are in good agreement with predictions from experimental data, and present a comparison with the JET experiment.

Kuhl, Nelson M.

1995-11-01

194

High atomic number (Z) heterogeneities in tissue exposed to photons with energies of up to about 1 MeV can cause significant dose perturbations in their immediate vicinity. The recently released Monte Carlo (MC) code EGSnrc (Kawrakow 2000a Med. Phys. 27 485-98) was used to investigate the dose perturbation of high-Z heterogeneities in tissue in kilovolt (kV) and 60Co photon beams.

Frank Verhaegen

2002-01-01

195

Radiation-induced "zero-resistance state" and the photon-assisted transport.

We demonstrate that the radiation-induced "zero-resistance state" observed in a two-dimensional electron gas is a result of the nontrivial structure of the density of states of the systems and the photon-assisted transport. A toy model of a quantum tunneling junction with oscillatory density of states in leads catches most of the important features of the experiments. We present a generalized Kubo-Greenwood conductivity formula for the photon-assisted transport in a general system and show essentially the same nature of the transport anomaly in a uniform system. PMID:14525265

Shi, Junren; Xie, X C

2003-08-22

196

3D electro-thermal Monte Carlo study of transport in confined silicon devices

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous explosion of portable microelectronics devices and the rapid shrinking of microprocessor size have provided a tremendous motivation to scientists and engineers to continue the down-scaling of these devices. For several decades, innovations have allowed components such as transistors to be physically reduced in size, allowing the famous Moore's law to hold true. As these transistors approach the atomic scale, however, further reduction becomes less probable and practical. As new technologies overcome these limitations, they face new, unexpected problems, including the ability to accurately simulate and predict the behavior of these devices, and to manage the heat they generate. This work uses a 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulator to investigate the electro-thermal behavior of quasi-one-dimensional electron gas (1DEG) multigate MOSFETs. In order to study these highly confined architectures, the inclusion of quantum correction becomes essential. To better capture the influence of carrier confinement, the electrostatically quantum-corrected full-band MC model has the added feature of being able to incorporate subband scattering. The scattering rate selection introduces quantum correction into carrier movement. In addition to the quantum effects, scaling introduces thermal management issues due to the surge in power dissipation. Solving these problems will continue to bring improvements in battery life, performance, and size constraints of future devices. We have coupled our electron transport Monte Carlo simulation to Aksamija's phonon transport so that we may accurately and efficiently study carrier transport, heat generation, and other effects at the transistor level. This coupling utilizes anharmonic phonon decay and temperature dependent scattering rates. One immediate advantage of our coupled electro-thermal Monte Carlo simulator is its ability to provide an accurate description of the spatial variation of self-heating and its effect on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics, a key determinant in device performance. The dependence of short-channel effects and Joule heating on the lateral scaling of the cross-section is specifically explored in this work. Finally, this dissertation studies the basic tradeoff between various n-channel multigate architectures with square cross-sectional lengths ranging from 30 nm to 5 nm are presented.

Mohamed, Mohamed Y.

197

Monte Carlo modeling of transport in PbSe nanocrystal films

A Monte Carlo hopping model was developed to simulate electron and hole transport in nanocrystalline PbSe films. Transport is carried out as a series of thermally activated hopping events between neighboring sites on a cubic lattice. Each site, representing an individual nanocrystal, is assigned a size-dependent electronic structure, and the effects of particle size, charging, interparticle coupling, and energetic disorder on electron and hole mobilities were investigated. Results of simulated field-effect measurements confirm that electron mobilities and conductivities at constant carrier densities increase with particle diameter by an order of magnitude up to 5?nm and begin to decrease above 6?nm. We find that as particle size increases, fewer hops are required to traverse the same distance and that site energy disorder significantly inhibits transport in films composed of smaller nanoparticles. The dip in mobilities and conductivities at larger particle sizes can be explained by a decrease in tunneling amplitudes and by charging penalties that are incurred more frequently when carriers are confined to fewer, larger nanoparticles. Using a nearly identical set of parameter values as the electron simulations, hole mobility simulations confirm measurements that increase monotonically with particle size over two orders of magnitude.

Carbone, I., E-mail: icarbone@ucsc.edu; Carter, S. A. [University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95060 (United States); Zimanyi, G. T. [University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

2013-11-21

198

MCNPX Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport in SiC semiconductor detectors of fast neutrons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper was to investigate particle transport properties of a fast neutron detector based on silicon carbide. MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) code was used in our study because it allows seamless particle transport, thus not only interacting neutrons can be inspected but also secondary particles can be banked for subsequent transport. Modelling of the fast-neutron response of a SiC detector was carried out for fast neutrons produced by 239Pu-Be source with the mean energy of about 4.3 MeV. Using the MCNPX code, the following quantities have been calculated: secondary particle flux densities, reaction rates of elastic/inelastic scattering and other nuclear reactions, distribution of residual ions, deposited energy and energy distribution of pulses. The values of reaction rates calculated for different types of reactions and resulting energy deposition values showed that the incident neutrons transfer part of the carried energy predominantly via elastic scattering on silicon and carbon atoms. Other fast-neutron induced reactions include inelastic scattering and nuclear reactions followed by production of ?-particles and protons. Silicon and carbon recoil atoms, ?-particles and protons are charged particles which contribute to the detector response. It was demonstrated that although the bare SiC material can register fast neutrons directly, its detection efficiency can be enlarged if it is covered by an appropriate conversion layer. Comparison of the simulation results with experimental data was successfully accomplished.

Sedla?ková, K.; Zat'ko, B.; Šagátová, A.; Pavlovi?, M.; Ne?as, V.; Stacho, M.

2014-05-01

199

The Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety owns two facilities producing realistic mixed neutron-photon radiation fields, CANEL, an accelerator driven moderator modular device, and SIGMA, a graphite moderated americium-beryllium assembly. These fields are representative of some of those encountered at nuclear workplaces, and the corresponding facilities are designed and used for calibration of various instruments, such as survey meters, personal dosimeters or spectrometric devices. In the framework of the European project EVIDOS, irradiations of personal dosimeters were performed at CANEL and SIGMA. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to estimate the reference values of the personal dose equivalent at both facilities. The Hp(10) values were calculated for three different angular positions, 0 degrees, 45 degrees and 75 degrees, of an ICRU phantom located at the position of irradiation. PMID:17578872

Lacoste, V; Gressier, V

2007-01-01

200

Purpose: To commission Monte Carlo beam models for five Varian megavoltage photon beams (4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV). The goal is to closely match measured dose distributions in water for a wide range of field sizes (from 2x2 to 35x35 cm{sup 2}). The second objective is to reinvestigate the sensitivity of the calculated dose distributions to variations in the primary electron beam parameters. Methods: The GEPTS Monte Carlo code is used for photon beam simulations and dose calculations. The linear accelerator geometric models are based on (i) manufacturer specifications, (ii) corrections made by Chibani and Ma [''On the discrepancies between Monte Carlo dose calculations and measurements for the 18 MV Varian photon beam,'' Med. Phys. 34, 1206-1216 (2007)], and (iii) more recent drawings. Measurements were performed using pinpoint and Farmer ionization chambers, depending on the field size. Phase space calculations for small fields were performed with and without angle-based photon splitting. In addition to the three commonly used primary electron beam parameters (E{sub AV} is the mean energy, FWHM is the energy spectrum broadening, and R is the beam radius), the angular divergence ({theta}) of primary electrons is also considered. Results: The calculated and measured dose distributions agreed to within 1% local difference at any depth beyond 1 cm for different energies and for field sizes varying from 2x2 to 35x35 cm{sup 2}. In the penumbra regions, the distance to agreement is better than 0.5 mm, except for 15 MV (0.4-1 mm). The measured and calculated output factors agreed to within 1.2%. The 6, 10, and 18 MV beam models use {theta}=0 deg., while the 4 and 15 MV beam models require {theta}=0.5 deg. and 0.6 deg., respectively. The parameter sensitivity study shows that varying the beam parameters around the solution can lead to 5% differences with measurements for small (e.g., 2x2 cm{sup 2}) and large (e.g., 35x35 cm{sup 2}) fields, while a perfect agreement is maintained for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field. The influence of R on the central-axis depth dose and the strong influence of {theta} on the lateral dose profiles are demonstrated. Conclusions: Dose distributions for very small and very large fields were proved to be more sensitive to variations in E{sub AV}, R, and {theta} in comparison with the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field. Monte Carlo beam models need to be validated for a wide range of field sizes including small field sizes (e.g., 2x2 cm{sup 2}).

Chibani, Omar; Moftah, Belal; Ma, C.-M. Charlie [Department of Biomedical Physics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia) and Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States); Department of Biomedical Physics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)

2011-01-15

201

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic-media simulations require numerous boundary crossings. We consider two Monte Carlo electron transport approaches and evaluate accuracy with numerous material boundaries. In the condensed-history method, approximations are made based on infinite-medium solutions for multiple scattering over some track length. Typically, further approximations are employed for material-boundary crossings where infinite-medium solutions become invalid. We have previously explored an alternative "condensed transport" formulation, a Generalized Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck GBFP method, which requires no special boundary treatment but instead uses approximations to the electron-scattering cross sections. Some limited capabilities for analog transport and a GBFP method have been implemented in the Integrated Tiger Series (ITS) codes. Improvements have been made to the condensed history algorithm. The performance of the ITS condensed-history and condensed-transport algorithms are assessed for material-boundary crossings. These assessments are made both by introducing artificial material boundaries and by comparison to analog Monte Carlo simulations.

Franke, Brian C.; Kensek, Ronald P.; Prinja, Anil K.

2014-06-01

202

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new concept for the design of flattening filters applied in the generation of 6 and 15 MV photon beams by clinical linear accelerators is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation. The beam head of the Siemens Primus accelerator has been taken as the starting point for the study of the conceived beam head modifications. The direction-selective filter (DSF) system developed in this work is midway between the classical flattening filter (FF) by which homogeneous transversal dose profiles have been established, and the flattening filter-free (FFF) design, by which advantages such as increased dose rate and reduced production of leakage photons and photoneutrons per Gy in the irradiated region have been achieved, whereas dose profile flatness was abandoned. The DSF concept is based on the selective attenuation of bremsstrahlung photons depending on their direction of emission from the bremsstrahlung target, accomplished by means of newly designed small conical filters arranged close to the target. This results in the capture of large-angle scattered Compton photons from the filter in the primary collimator. Beam flatness has been obtained up to any field cross section which does not exceed a circle of 15 cm diameter at 100 cm focal distance, such as 10 × 10 cm2, 4 × 14.5 cm2 or less. This flatness offers simplicity of dosimetric verifications, online controls and plausibility estimates of the dose to the target volume. The concept can be utilized when the application of small- and medium-sized homogeneous fields is sufficient, e.g. in the treatment of prostate, brain, salivary gland, larynx and pharynx as well as pediatric tumors and for cranial or extracranial stereotactic treatments. Significant dose rate enhancement has been achieved compared with the FF system, with enhancement factors 1.67 (DSF) and 2.08 (FFF) for 6 MV, and 2.54 (DSF) and 3.96 (FFF) for 15 MV. Shortening the delivery time per fraction matters with regard to workflow in a radiotherapy department, patient comfort, reduction of errors due to patient movement and a slight, probably just noticable improvement of the treatment outcome due to radiobiological reasons. In comparison with the FF system, the number of head leakage photons per Gy in the irradiated region has been reduced at 15 MV by factors 1/2.54 (DSF) and 1/3.96 (FFF), and the source strength of photoneutrons was reduced by factors 1/2.81 (DSF) and 1/3.49 (FFF).

Chofor, Ndimofor; Harder, Dietrich; Willborn, Kay; Rühmann, Antje; Poppe, Björn

2011-07-01

203

Significant discrepancies between Monte Carlo dose calculations and measurements for the Varian 18 MV photon beam with a large field size (40x40 cm{sup 2}) were reported by different investigators. In this work, we investigated these discrepancies based on a new geometry model (''New Model'') of the Varian 21EX linac using the GEPTS Monte Carlo code. Some geometric parameters used in previous investigations (Old Model) were inaccurate, as suggested by Chibani in his AAPM presentation (2004) and later confirmed by the manufacturer. The entrance and exit radii of the primary collimator of the New Model are 2 mm larger than previously thought. In addition to the corrected dimensions of the primary collimator, the New Model includes approximate models for the lead shield and the mirror frame between the monitor chamber and the Y jaws. A detailed analysis of the phase space data shows the effects of these corrections on the beam characteristics. The individual contributions from the linac component to the photon and electron fluences are calculated. The main source of discrepancy between measurements and calculations based on the Old Model is the underestimated electron contamination. The photon and electron fluences at the isocenter are 5.3% and 36% larger in the New Model in comparison with the Old Model. The flattening filter and the lead shield (plus the mirror frame) contribute 48.7% and 13% of the total electron contamination at the isocenter, respectively. For both open and filtered (2 mm Pb) fields, the calculated (New Model) and measured dose distributions are within 1% for depths larger than 1 cm. To solve the residual problem of large differences at shallow depths (8% at 0.25 cm depth), the detailed geometry of an IC-10 ionization chamber was simulated and the dose in the air cavity was calculated for different positions on the central axis including at the surface, where half of the chamber is outside the phantom. The calculated and measured chamber responses are within 3% even at the zero depth.

Chibani, Omar; Ma, C.-M. Charlie [Radiation Oncology Department, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)

2007-04-15

204

We propose and study an approach to realize quantum switch for single-photon transport in a coupled superconducting transmission-line-resonator (TLR) array with one controllable hopping interaction. We find that the single photon with arbitrary wave vector can transport in a controllable way in this system. We also study how to realize controllable hopping interaction between two TLRs via a Cooper-pair box (CPB). When the frequency of the CPB is largely detuned from those of the two TLRs, the variables of the CPB can be adiabatically eliminated and thus a controllable interaction between two TLRs can be obtained.

Liao Jieqiao; Sun, C. P. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Huang Jinfeng; Kuang Leman [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Liu Yuxi [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2009-07-15

205

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The interpretation of polarised radiation emerging from a planetary atmosphere must rely on solutions to the vector radiative transport equation (VRTE). Monte Carlo integration of the VRTE is a valuable approach for its flexible treatment of complex viewing and/or illumination geometries, and it can intuitively incorporate elaborate physics. Aims: We present a novel pre-conditioned backward Monte Carlo (PBMC) algorithm for solving the VRTE and apply it to planetary atmospheres irradiated from above. As classical BMC methods, our PBMC algorithm builds the solution by simulating the photon trajectories from the detector towards the radiation source, i.e. in the reverse order of the actual photon displacements. Methods: We show that the neglect of polarisation in the sampling of photon propagation directions in classical BMC algorithms leads to unstable and biased solutions for conservative, optically-thick, strongly polarising media such as Rayleigh atmospheres. The numerical difficulty is avoided by pre-conditioning the scattering matrix with information from the scattering matrices of prior (in the BMC integration order) photon collisions. Pre-conditioning introduces a sense of history in the photon polarisation states through the simulated trajectories. Results: The PBMC algorithm is robust, and its accuracy is extensively demonstrated via comparisons with examples drawn from the literature for scattering in diverse media. Since the convergence rate for MC integration is independent of the integral's dimension, the scheme is a valuable option for estimating the disk-integrated signal of stellar radiation reflected from planets. Such a tool is relevant in the prospective investigation of exoplanetary phase curves. We lay out two frameworks for disk integration and, as an application, explore the impact of atmospheric stratification on planetary phase curves for large star-planet-observer phase angles. By construction, backward integration provides a better control than forward integration over the planet region contributing to the solution, and this presents a clear advantage when estimating the disk-integrated signal at moderate and large phase angles. A one-slab, plane-parallel version of the PBMC algorithm is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/A72

García Muñoz, A.; Mills, F. P.

2015-01-01

206

Purpose: To determine detector-specific output correction factors,k{sub Q} {sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n}}}} {sub ,Q} {sub m{sub s{sub r}}} {sup f{sub {sup {sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n}{sub {sup ,f{sub {sup {sub m}{sub s}{sub r}{sub ,}}}}}}}} in 6 MV small photon beams for air and liquid ionization chambers, silicon diodes, and diamond detectors from two manufacturers. Methods: Field output factors, defined according to the international formalism published byAlfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35, 5179–5186 (2008)], relate the dosimetry of small photon beams to that of the machine-specific reference field; they include a correction to measured ratios of detector readings, conventionally used as output factors in broad beams. Output correction factors were calculated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) system with a statistical uncertainty (type-A) of 0.15% or lower. The geometries of the detectors were coded using blueprints provided by the manufacturers, and phase-space files for field sizes between 0.5 × 0.5 cm{sup 2} and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} from a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV linac used as sources. The output correction factors were determined scoring the absorbed dose within a detector and to a small water volume in the absence of the detector, both at a depth of 10 cm, for each small field and for the reference beam of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}. Results: The Monte Carlo calculated output correction factors for the liquid ionization chamber and the diamond detector were within about ±1% of unity even for the smallest field sizes. Corrections were found to be significant for small air ionization chambers due to their cavity dimensions, as expected. The correction factors for silicon diodes varied with the detector type (shielded or unshielded), confirming the findings by other authors; different corrections for the detectors from the two manufacturers were obtained. The differences in the calculated factors for the various detectors were analyzed thoroughly and whenever possible the results were compared to published data, often calculated for different accelerators and using the EGSnrc MC system. The differences were used to estimate a type-B uncertainty for the correction factors. Together with the type-A uncertainty from the Monte Carlo calculations, an estimation of the combined standard uncertainty was made, assigned to the mean correction factors from various estimates. Conclusions: The present work provides a consistent and specific set of data for the output correction factors of a broad set of detectors in a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV accelerator and contributes to improving the understanding of the physics of small photon beams. The correction factors cannot in general be neglected for any detector and, as expected, their magnitude increases with decreasing field size. Due to the reduced number of clinical accelerator types currently available, it is suggested that detector output correction factors be given specifically for linac models and field sizes, rather than for a beam quality specifier that necessarily varies with the accelerator type and field size due to the different electron spot dimensions and photon collimation systems used by each accelerator model.

Benmakhlouf, Hamza, E-mail: hamza.benmakhlouf@karolinska.se [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden, and Department of Physics, Medical Radiation Physics, Stockholm University and Karolinska Institute, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden, and Department of Physics, Medical Radiation Physics, Stockholm University and Karolinska Institute, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Sempau, Josep [Institut de Tècniques Energètiques, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain)] [Institut de Tècniques Energètiques, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Andreo, Pedro [Department of Physics, Medical Radiation Physics, Stockholm University and Karolinska Institute, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Physics, Medical Radiation Physics, Stockholm University and Karolinska Institute, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

2014-04-15

207

Full-dispersion Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport in micron-sized graphene nanoribbons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simulate phonon transport in suspended graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with real-space edges and experimentally relevant widths and lengths (from submicron to hundreds of microns). The full-dispersion phonon Monte Carlo simulation technique, which we describe in detail, involves a stochastic solution to the phonon Boltzmann transport equation with the relevant scattering mechanisms (edge, three-phonon, isotope, and grain boundary scattering) while accounting for the dispersion of all three acoustic phonon branches, calculated from the fourth-nearest-neighbor dynamical matrix. We accurately reproduce the results of several experimental measurements on pure and isotopically modified samples [S. Chen et al., ACS Nano 5, 321 (2011);S. Chen et al., Nature Mater. 11, 203 (2012); X. Xu et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 3689 (2014)]. We capture the ballistic-to-diffusive crossover in wide GNRs: room-temperature thermal conductivity increases with increasing length up to roughly 100 ?m, where it saturates at a value of 5800 W/m K. This finding indicates that most experiments are carried out in the quasiballistic rather than the diffusive regime, and we calculate the diffusive upper-limit thermal conductivities up to 600 K. Furthermore, we demonstrate that calculations with isotropic dispersions overestimate the GNR thermal conductivity. Zigzag GNRs have higher thermal conductivity than same-size armchair GNRs, in agreement with atomistic calculations.

Mei, S.; Maurer, L. N.; Aksamija, Z.; Knezevic, I.

2014-10-01

208

A new Monte Carlo program for simulating light transport through Port Wine Stain skin.

A new Monte Carlo program is presented for simulating light transport through clinically normal skin and skin containing Port Wine Stain (PWS) vessels. The program consists of an eight-layer mathematical skin model constructed from optical coefficients described previously. A simulation including diffuse illumination at the surface and subsequent light transport through the model is carried out using a radiative transfer theory ray-tracing technique. Total reflectance values over 39 wavelengths are scored by the addition of simulated light returning to the surface within a specified region and surface reflections (calculated using Fresnel's equations). These reflectance values are compared to measurements from individual participants, and characteristics of the model are adjusted until adequate agreement is produced between simulated and measured skin reflectance curves. The absorption and scattering coefficients of the epidermis are adjusted through changes in the simulated concentrations and mean diameters of epidermal melanosomes to reproduce non-lesional skin colour. Pseudo-cylindrical horizontal vessels are added to the skin model, and their simulated mean depths, diameters and number densities are adjusted to reproduce measured PWS skin colour. Accurate reproductions of colour measurement data are produced by the program, resulting in realistic predictions of melanin and PWS blood vessel parameters. Using a modest personal computer, the simulation currently requires an average of five and a half days to complete. PMID:24142045

Lister, T; Wright, P A; Chappell, P H

2014-05-01

209

There are numerous scenarios where radioactive particulates can be displaced by external forces. For example, the detonation of a radiological dispersal device in an urban environment will result in the release of radioactive particulates that in turn can be resuspended into the breathing space by external forces such as wind flow in the vicinity of the detonation. A need exists to quantify the internal (due to inhalation) and external radiation doses that are delivered to bystanders; however, current state-of-the-art codes are unable to calculate accurately radiation doses that arise from the resuspension of radioactive particulates in complex topographies. To address this gap, a coupled computational fluid dynamics and Monte Carlo radiation transport approach has been developed. With the aid of particulate injections, the computational fluid dynamics simulation models characterize the resuspension of particulates in a complex urban geometry due to air-flow. The spatial and temporal distributions of these particulates are then used by the Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation to calculate the radiation doses delivered to various points within the simulated domain. A particular resuspension scenario has been modeled using this coupled framework, and the calculated internal (due to inhalation) and external radiation doses have been deemed reasonable. GAMBIT and FLUENT comprise the software suite used to perform the Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations, and Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended is used to perform the Monte Carlo Radiation Transport simulations. PMID:25162421

Ali, Fawaz; Waller, Ed

2014-10-01

210

The TORT three-dimensional discrete ordinates neutron\\/photon transport code (TORT version 3)

TORT calculates the flux or fluence of neutrons and\\/or photons throughout three-dimensional systems due to particles incident upon the system`s external boundaries, due to fixed internal sources, or due to sources generated by interaction with the system materials. The transport process is represented by the Boltzman transport equation. The method of discrete ordinates is used to treat the directional variable,

W. A. Rhoades; D. B. Simpson

1997-01-01

211

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this work is focused on testing the applicability of Geant4 electromagnetic models for studying mass attenuations for different types of composite materials at 59.5, 80, 356, 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The simulated results of mass attenuation coefficients were compared with the experimental and theoretical data for the same samples and a good agreement has been observed. The results indicate that this process can be followed to determine the data on the attenuation of gamma-rays with the several energies in different materials.

Medhat, M. E.

2015-02-01

212

MCNP: Photon benchmark problems

The recent widespread, markedly increased use of radiation transport codes has produced greater user and institutional demand for assurance that such codes give correct results. Responding to these pressing requirements for code validation, the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code MCNP has been tested on six different photon problem families. MCNP was used to simulate these six sets numerically. Results for each were compared to the set's analytical or experimental data. MCNP successfully predicted the analytical or experimental results of all six families within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method. From this we conclude that MCNP can accurately model a broad spectrum of photon transport problems. 8 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

Whalen, D.J.; Hollowell, D.E.; Hendricks, J.S.

1991-09-01

213

Suppression of population transport and control of exciton distributions by entangled photons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entangled photons provide an important tool for secure quantum communication, computing and lithography. Low intensity requirements for multi-photon processes make them idealy suited for minimizing damage in imaging applications. Here we show how their unique temporal and spectral features may be used in nonlinear spectroscopy to reveal properties of multiexcitons in chromophore aggregates. Simulations demostrate that they provide unique control tools for two-exciton states in the bacterial reaction centre of Blastochloris viridis. Population transport in the intermediate single-exciton manifold may be suppressed by the absorption of photon pairs with short entanglement time, thus allowing the manipulation of the distribution of two-exciton states. The quantum nature of the light is essential for achieving this degree of control, which cannot be reproduced by stochastic or chirped light. Classical light is fundamentally limited by the frequency-time uncertainty, whereas entangled photons have independent temporal and spectral characteristics not subjected to this uncertainty.

Schlawin, Frank; Dorfman, Konstantin E.; Fingerhut, Benjamin P.; Mukamel, Shaul

2013-04-01

214

Suppression of population transport and control of exciton distributions by entangled photons.

Entangled photons provide an important tool for secure quantum communication, computing and lithography. Low intensity requirements for multi-photon processes make them idealy suited for minimizing damage in imaging applications. Here we show how their unique temporal and spectral features may be used in nonlinear spectroscopy to reveal properties of multiexcitons in chromophore aggregates. Simulations demostrate that they provide unique control tools for two-exciton states in the bacterial reaction centre of Blastochloris viridis. Population transport in the intermediate single-exciton manifold may be suppressed by the absorption of photon pairs with short entanglement time, thus allowing the manipulation of the distribution of two-exciton states. The quantum nature of the light is essential for achieving this degree of control, which cannot be reproduced by stochastic or chirped light. Classical light is fundamentally limited by the frequency-time uncertainty, whereas entangled photons have independent temporal and spectral characteristics not subjected to this uncertainty. PMID:23653194

Schlawin, Frank; Dorfman, Konstantin E; Fingerhut, Benjamin P; Mukamel, Shaul

2013-01-01

215

Proton transport in water and DNA components: A Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate modeling of DNA damages resulting from ionizing radiation remains a challenge of today's radiobiology research. An original set of physics processes has been recently developed for modeling the detailed transport of protons and neutral hydrogen atoms in liquid water and in DNA nucleobases using the Geant4-DNA extension of the open source Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit. The theoretical cross sections as well as the mean energy transfers during the different ionizing processes were taken from recent works based on classical as well as quantum mechanical predictions. Furthermore, in order to compare energy deposition patterns in liquid water and DNA material, we here propose a simplified cellular nucleus model made of spherical voxels, each containing randomly oriented nanometer-size cylindrical targets filled with either liquid water or DNA material (DNA nucleobases) both with a density of 1 g/cm3. These cylindrical volumes have dimensions comparable to genetic material units of mammalian cells, namely, 25 nm (diameter) × 25 nm (height) for chromatin fiber segments, 10 nm (d) × 5 nm (h) for nucleosomes and 2 nm (d) × 2 nm (h) for DNA segments. Frequencies of energy deposition in the cylindrical targets are presented and discussed.

Champion, C.; Incerti, S.; Tran, H. N.; Karamitros, M.; Shin, J. I.; Lee, S. B.; Lekadir, H.; Bernal, M.; Francis, Z.; Ivanchenko, V.; Fojón, O. A.; Hanssen, J.; Rivarola, R. D.

2013-07-01

216

A sophisticated simulation package has been developed permitting full tomographic acquisition of nuclear medicine data from physically realistic, non-uniform and asymmetric source and scattering objects. The simulation package is based on MCNP (Monte Carlo for neutron-photon transport), a Monte Carlo code developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The MCNP code has been extensively modified with features that allow direct

J. C. Yanch; A. B. Dobrzeniecki; C. Ramanathan; R. Behrman

1992-01-01

217

Purpose: To investigate the response of plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) in a 6 MV photon beam of various field sizes using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Three PSDs were simulated: A BC-400 and a BCF-12, each attached to a plastic-core optical fiber, and a BC-400 attached to an air-core optical fiber. PSD response was calculated as the detector dose per unit water dose for field sizes ranging from 10x10 down to 0.5x0.5 cm{sup 2} for both perpendicular and parallel orientations of the detectors to an incident beam. Similar calculations were performed for a CC01 compact chamber. The off-axis dose profiles were calculated in the 0.5x0.5 cm{sup 2} photon beam and were compared to the dose profile calculated for the CC01 chamber and that calculated in water without any detector. The angular dependence of the PSDs' responses in a small photon beam was studied. Results: In the perpendicular orientation, the response of the BCF-12 PSD varied by only 0.5% as the field size decreased from 10x10 to 0.5x0.5 cm{sup 2}, while the response of BC-400 PSD attached to a plastic-core fiber varied by more than 3% at the smallest field size because of its longer sensitive region. In the parallel orientation, the response of both PSDs attached to a plastic-core fiber varied by less than 0.4% for the same range of field sizes. For the PSD attached to an air-core fiber, the response varied, at most, by 2% for both orientations. Conclusions: The responses of all the PSDs investigated in this work can have a variation of only 1%-2% irrespective of field size and orientation of the detector if the length of the sensitive region is not more than 2 mm long and the optical fiber stems are prevented from pointing directly to the incident source.

Wang, Lilie L. W.; Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2011-03-15

218

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines variations of bone and mucosal doses with variable soft tissue and bone thicknesses, mimicking the oral or nasal cavity in skin radiation therapy. Monte Carlo simulations (EGSnrc-based codes) using the clinical kilovoltage (kVp) photon and megavoltage (MeV) electron beams, and the pencil-beam algorithm (Pinnacle3 treatment planning system) using the MeV electron beams were performed in dose calculations. Phase-space files for the 105 and 220 kVp beams (Gulmay D3225 x-ray machine), and the 4 and 6?MeV electron beams (Varian 21 EX linear accelerator) with a field size of 5 cm diameter were generated using the BEAMnrc code, and verified using measurements. Inhomogeneous phantoms containing uniform water, bone and air layers were irradiated by the kVp photon and MeV electron beams. Relative depth, bone and mucosal doses were calculated for the uniform water and bone layers which were varied in thickness in the ranges of 0.5-2 cm and 0.2-1 cm. A uniform water layer of bolus with thickness equal to the depth of maximum dose (dmax) of the electron beams (0.7 cm for 4 MeV and 1.5 cm for 6 MeV) was added on top of the phantom to ensure that the maximum dose was at the phantom surface. From our Monte Carlo results, the 4 and 6 MeV electron beams were found to produce insignificant bone and mucosal dose (<1%), when the uniform water layer at the phantom surface was thicker than 1.5 cm. When considering the 0.5 cm thin uniform water and bone layers, the 4 MeV electron beam deposited less bone and mucosal dose than the 6 MeV beam. Moreover, it was found that the 105 kVp beam produced more than twice the dose to bone than the 220 kVp beam when the uniform water thickness at the phantom surface was small (0.5 cm). However, the difference in bone dose enhancement between the 105 and 220 kVp beams became smaller when the thicknesses of the uniform water and bone layers in the phantom increased. Dose in the second bone layer interfacing with air was found to be higher for the 220 kVp beam than that of the 105 kVp beam, when the bone thickness was 1 cm. In this study, dose deviations of bone and mucosal layers of 18% and 17% were found between our results from Monte Carlo simulation and the pencil-beam algorithm, which overestimated the doses. Relative depth, bone and mucosal doses were studied by varying the beam nature, beam energy and thicknesses of the bone and uniform water using an inhomogeneous phantom to model the oral or nasal cavity. While the dose distribution in the pharynx region is unavailable due to the lack of a commercial treatment planning system commissioned for kVp beam planning in skin radiation therapy, our study provided an essential insight into the radiation staff to justify and estimate bone and mucosal dose.

Chow, James C. L.; Jiang, Runqing

2012-06-01

219

The physics of electron transport in Si and GaAs is investigated with use of a Monte Carlo technique which improves the ``state-of-the-art'' treatment of high-energy carrier dynamics. (1) The semiconductor is modeled beyond the effective-mass approximation by using the band structure obtained from empirical-pseudopotential calculations. (2) The electron-phonon, electron-impurity, and electron-electron scattering rates are computed in a way consistent with

Massimo V. Fischetti; Steven E. Laux

1988-01-01

220

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimotor transport is studied by Monte-Carlo simulation with consideration of motor detachment from the filament. Our work shows, in the case of low load, the velocity of multi-motor system can decrease or increase with increasing motor numbers depending on the single motor force-velocity curve. The stall force and run-length reduced greatly compared to other models. Especially in the case of low ATP concentrations, the stall force of multi motor transport even smaller than the single motor's stall force.

Wang, Zi-Qing; Wang, Guo-Dong; Shen, Wei-Bo

2010-10-01

221

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is commonly considered as the most accurate method for radiation dose calculations. Commissioning of a beam model in the MC code against a clinical linear accelerator beam is of crucial importance for its clinical implementation. In this paper, we propose an automatic commissioning method for our GPU-based MC dose engine, gDPM. gDPM utilizes a beam model based on a concept of phase-space-let (PSL). A PSL contains a group of particles that are of the same type and close in space and energy. A set of generic PSLs was generated by splitting a reference phase-space file. Each PSL was associated with a weighting factor, and in dose calculations the particle carried a weight corresponding to the PSL where it was from. Dose for each PSL in water was pre-computed, and hence the dose in water for a whole beam under a given set of PSL weighting factors was the weighted sum of the PSL doses. At the commissioning stage, an optimization problem was solved to adjust the PSL weights in order to minimize the difference between the calculated dose and measured one. Symmetry and smoothness regularizations were utilized to uniquely determine the solution. An augmented Lagrangian method was employed to solve the optimization problem. To validate our method, a phase-space file of a Varian TrueBeam 6?MV beam was used to generate the PSLs for 6?MV beams. In a simulation study, we commissioned a Siemens 6?MV beam on which a set of field-dependent phase-space files was available. The dose data of this desired beam for different open fields and a small off-axis open field were obtained by calculating doses using these phase-space files. The 3D ?-index test passing rate within the regions with dose above 10% of dmax dose for those open fields tested was improved averagely from 70.56 to 99.36% for 2%/2?mm criteria and from 32.22 to 89.65% for 1%/1?mm criteria. We also tested our commissioning method on a six-field head-and-neck cancer IMRT plan. The passing rate of the ?-index test within the 10% isodose line of the prescription dose was improved from 92.73 to 99.70% and from 82.16 to 96.73% for 2%/2?mm and 1%/1?mm criteria, respectively. Real clinical data measured from Varian, Siemens, and Elekta linear accelerators were also used to validate our commissioning method and a similar level of accuracy was achieved.

Tian, Zhen; Jiang Graves, Yan; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

2014-10-01

222

Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is commonly considered as the most accurate method for radiation dose calculations. Commissioning of a beam model in the MC code against a clinical linear accelerator beam is of crucial importance for its clinical implementation. In this paper, we propose an automatic commissioning method for our GPU-based MC dose engine, gDPM. gDPM utilizes a beam model based on a concept of phase-space-let (PSL). A PSL contains a group of particles that are of the same type and close in space and energy. A set of generic PSLs was generated by splitting a reference phase-space file. Each PSL was associated with a weighting factor, and in dose calculations the particle carried a weight corresponding to the PSL where it was from. Dose for each PSL in water was pre-computed, and hence the dose in water for a whole beam under a given set of PSL weighting factors was the weighted sum of the PSL doses. At the commissioning stage, an optimization problem was solved to adjust the PSL weights in order to minimize the difference between the calculated dose and measured one. Symmetry and smoothness regularizations were utilized to uniquely determine the solution. An augmented Lagrangian method was employed to solve the optimization problem. To validate our method, a phase-space file of a Varian TrueBeam 6?MV beam was used to generate the PSLs for 6?MV beams. In a simulation study, we commissioned a Siemens 6?MV beam on which a set of field-dependent phase-space files was available. The dose data of this desired beam for different open fields and a small off-axis open field were obtained by calculating doses using these phase-space files. The 3D ?-index test passing rate within the regions with dose above 10% of dmax dose for those open fields tested was improved averagely from 70.56 to 99.36% for 2%/2?mm criteria and from 32.22 to 89.65% for 1%/1?mm criteria. We also tested our commissioning method on a six-field head-and-neck cancer IMRT plan. The passing rate of the ?-index test within the 10% isodose line of the prescription dose was improved from 92.73 to 99.70% and from 82.16 to 96.73% for 2%/2?mm and 1%/1?mm criteria, respectively. Real clinical data measured from Varian, Siemens, and Elekta linear accelerators were also used to validate our commissioning method and a similar level of accuracy was achieved. PMID:25295381

Tian, Zhen; Graves, Yan Jiang; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B

2014-11-01

223

Monte Carlo simulation of gas Cerenkov detectors

Theoretical study of selected gamma-ray and electron diagnostic necessitates coupling Cerenkov radiation to electron/photon cascades. A Cerenkov production model and its incorporation into a general geometry Monte Carlo coupled electron/photon transport code is discussed. A special optical photon ray-trace is implemented using bulk optical properties assigned to each Monte Carlo zone. Good agreement exists between experimental and calculated Cerenkov data in the case of a carbon-dioxide gas Cerenkov detector experiment. Cerenkov production and threshold data are presented for a typical carbon-dioxide gas detector that converts a 16.7 MeV photon source to Cerenkov light, which is collected by optics and detected by a photomultiplier.

Mack, J.M.; Jain, M.; Jordan, T.M.

1984-01-01

224

A new method for generating discrete scattering cross sections to be used in charged particle transport calculations is investigated. The method of data generation is presented and compared to current methods for obtaining discrete cross sections. The new, more generalized approach allows greater flexibility in choosing a cross section model from which to derive discrete values. Cross section data generated with the new method is verified through a comparison with discrete data obtained with an existing method. Additionally, a charged particle transport capability is demonstrated in the time-dependent Implicit Monte Carlo radiative transfer code package, Milagro. The implementation of this capability is verified using test problems with analytic solutions as well as a comparison of electron dose-depth profiles calculated with Milagro and an already-established electron transport code. An initial investigation of a preliminary integration of the discrete cross section generation method with the new charged particle transport capability in Milagro is also presented. (authors)

Walsh, J. A. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, NW12-312 Albany, St. Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Palmer, T. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, 116 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Urbatsch, T. J. [XTD-5: Air Force Systems, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2013-07-01

225

Update on the Status of the FLUKA Monte Carlo Transport Code

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code is a well-known simulation tool in High Energy Physics. FLUKA is a dynamic tool in the sense that it is being continually updated and improved by the authors. Here we review the progresses achieved in the last year on the physics models. From the point of view of hadronic physics, most of the effort is still in the field of nucleus--nucleus interactions. The currently available version of FLUKA already includes the internal capability to simulate inelastic nuclear interactions beginning with lab kinetic energies of 100 MeV/A up the the highest accessible energies by means of the DPMJET-II.5 event generator to handle the interactions for greater than 5 GeV/A and rQMD for energies below that. The new developments concern, at high energy, the embedding of the DPMJET-III generator, which represent a major change with respect to the DPMJET-II structure. This will also allow to achieve a better consistency between the nucleus-nucleus section with the original FLUKA model for hadron-nucleus collisions. Work is also in progress to implement a third event generator model based on the Master Boltzmann Equation approach, in order to extend the energy capability from 100 MeV/A down to the threshold for these reactions. In addition to these extended physics capabilities, structural changes to the programs input and scoring capabilities are continually being upgraded. In particular we want to mention the upgrades in the geometry packages, now capable of reaching higher levels of abstraction. Work is also proceeding to provide direct import into ROOT of the FLUKA output files for analysis and to deploy a user-friendly GUI input interface.

Pinsky, L.; Anderson, V.; Empl, A.; Lee, K.; Smirnov, G.; Zapp, N; Ferrari, A.; Tsoulou, K.; Roesler, S.; Vlachoudis, V.; Battisoni, G.; Ceruti, F.; Gadioli, M. V.; Garzelli, M.; Muraro, S.; Rancati, T.; Sala, P.; Ballarini, R.; Ottolenghi, A.; Parini, V.; Scannicchio, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Wilson, T. L.

2004-01-01

226

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional formulations of changes in cosmogenic nuclide production rates with snow cover are based on a mass-shielding approach, which neglects the role of neutron moderation by hydrogen. This approach can produce erroneous correction factors and add to the uncertainty of the calculated cosmogenic exposure ages. We use a Monte Carlo particle transport model to simulate fluxes of secondary cosmic-ray neutrons near the surface of the Earth and vary surface snow depth to show changes in neutron fluxes above rock or soil surface. To correspond with shielding factors for spallation and low-energy neutron capture, neutron fluxes are partitioned into high-energy, epithermal and thermal components. The results suggest that high-energy neutrons are attenuated by snow cover at a significantly higher rate (shorter attenuation length) than indicated by the commonly-used mass-shielding formulation. As thermal and epithermal neutrons derive from the moderation of high-energy neutrons, the presence of a strong moderator such as hydrogen in snow increases the thermal neutron flux both within the snow layer and above it. This means that low-energy production rates are affected by snow cover in a manner inconsistent with the mass-shielding approach and those formulations cannot be used to compute snow correction factors for nuclides produced by thermal neutrons. Additionally, as above-ground low-energy neutron fluxes vary with snow cover as a result of reduced diffusion from the ground, low-energy neutron fluxes are affected by snow even if the snow is at some distance from the site where measurements are made.

Zweck, Christopher; Zreda, Marek; Desilets, Darin

2013-10-01

227

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current developments in positron emission tomography focus on improving timing performance for scanners with time-of-flight (TOF) capability, and incorporating depth-of-interaction (DOI) information. Recent studies have shown that incorporating DOI correction in TOF detectors can improve timing resolution, and that DOI also becomes more important in long axial field-of-view scanners. We have previously reported the development of DOI-encoding detectors using phosphor-coated scintillation crystals; here we study the timing properties of those crystals to assess the feasibility of providing some level of DOI information without significantly degrading the timing performance. We used Monte Carlo simulations to provide a detailed understanding of light transport in phosphor-coated crystals which cannot be fully characterized experimentally. Our simulations used a custom reflectance model based on 3D crystal surface measurements. Lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals were simulated with a phosphor coating in contact with the scintillator surfaces and an external diffuse reflector (teflon). Light output, energy resolution, and pulse shape showed excellent agreement with experimental data obtained on 3 × 3 × 10 mm3 crystals coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Scintillator intrinsic timing resolution was simulated with head-on and side-on configurations, confirming the trends observed experimentally. These results indicate that the model may be used to predict timing properties in phosphor-coated crystals and guide the coating for optimal DOI resolution/timing performance trade-off for a given crystal geometry. Simulation data suggested that a time stamp generated from early photoelectrons minimizes degradation of the timing resolution, thus making this method potentially more useful for TOF-DOI detectors than our initial experiments suggested. Finally, this approach could easily be extended to the study of timing properties in other scintillation crystals, with a range of treatments and materials attached to the surface.

Roncali, Emilie; Schmall, Jeffrey P.; Viswanath, Varsha; Berg, Eric; Cherry, Simon R.

2014-04-01

228

Enhanced photon-assisted spin transport in a quantum dot attached to ferromagnetic leads

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate real-time dynamics of spin-polarized current in a quantum dot coupled to ferromagnetic leads in both parallel and antiparallel alignments. While an external bias voltage is taken constant in time, a gate terminal, capacitively coupled to the quantum dot, introduces a periodic modulation of the dot level. Using nonequilibrium Green’s function technique we find that spin polarized electrons can tunnel through the system via additional photon-assisted transmission channels. Owing to a Zeeman splitting of the dot level, it is possible to select a particular spin component to be photon transferred from the left to the right terminal, with spin dependent current peaks arising at different gate frequencies. The ferromagnetic electrodes enhance or suppress the spin transport depending upon the leads magnetization alignment. The tunnel magnetoresistance also attains negative values due to a photon-assisted inversion of the spin-valve effect.

Souza, Fabrício M.; Carrara, Thiago L.; Vernek, E.

2011-09-01

229

Monte Carlo simulation of ion transport of the high strain ionomer with conducting powder electrodes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport of charge due to electric stimulus is the primary mechanism of actuation for a class of polymeric active materials known as ionomeric polymer transducers (IPT). At low frequency, strain response is strongly related to charge accumulation at the electrodes. Experimental results demonstrated using conducting powder, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), polyaniline (PANI) powders, high surface area RuO II, carbon black electrodes etc. as an electrode increases the mechanical deformation of the IPT by increasing the capacitance of the material. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulation of a two-dimensional ion hopping model has been built to describe ion transport in the IPT. The shape of the conducting powder is assumed to be a sphere. A step voltage is applied between the electrodes of the IPT, causing the thermally-activated hopping between multiwell energy structures. Energy barrier height includes three parts: the energy height due to the external electric potential, intrinsic energy, and the energy height due to ion interactions. Finite element method software-ANSYS is employed to calculate the static electric potential distribution inside the material with the powder sphere in varied locations. The interaction between ions and the electrodes including powder electrodes is determined by using the method of images. At each simulation step, the energy of each cation is updated to compute ion hopping rate which directly relates to the probability of an ion moving to its neighboring site. Simulation ends when the current drops to constant zero. Periodic boundary conditions are applied when ions hop in the direction perpendicular to the external electric field. When an ion is moved out of the simulation region, its corresponding periodic replica enters from the opposite side. In the direction of the external electric field, parallel programming is achieved in C augmented with functions that perform message-passing between processors using Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. The effects of conducting powder size, locations and amount are discussed by studying the stationary charge density plots and ion distribution plots.

He, Xingxi; Leo, Donald J.

2007-04-01

230

Eigen decomposition solution to the one-dimensional time-dependent photon transport equation.

The time-dependent one-dimensional photon transport (radiative transfer) equation is widely used to model light propagation through turbid media with a slab geometry, in a vast number of disciplines. Several numerical and semi-analytical techniques are available to accurately solve this equation. In this work we propose a novel efficient solution technique based on eigen decomposition of the vectorized version of the photon transport equation. Using clever transformations, the four variable integro-differential equation is reduced to a set of first order ordinary differential equations using a combination of a spectral method and the discrete ordinates method. An eigen decomposition approach is then utilized to obtain the closed-form solution of this reduced set of ordinary differential equations. PMID:21369115

Handapangoda, Chintha C; Pathirana, Pubudu N; Premaratne, Malin

2011-02-14

231

A sophisticated SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) simulation package was developed permitting full tomographic acquisition of data from physically realistic nonuniform and asymmetric 3-D source objects. The package is based on the Los Alamos code MCNP (Monte Carlo for neutron-photon transport), which was extensively modified to allow complete collimator and source modeling and direct manipulation of the geometric and

J. C. Yanch; A. B. Dobrzeniecki

1991-01-01

232

Accelerated Monte Carlo based dose calculations for brachytherapy planning using correlated sampling

Current brachytherapy dose calculations ignore applicator attenuation and tissue heterogeneities, assuming isolated sources embedded in unbounded medium. Conventional Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations, while accurate, are too slow for practical treatment planning. This study evaluates the efficacy of correlated sampling in reducing the variance of MC photon transport simulation in typical brachytherapy geometries. Photon histories were constructed in the homogeneous

Håkan Hedtjärn; Gudrun Alm Carlsson; Jeffrey F. Williamson

2002-01-01

233

Deriving attenuation coefficients from 3D CT data for SPECT Monte Carlo simulations

Quantitation of nuclear medicine data is a major goal in medical imaging. It implies that photon attenuation, scatter and depth dependent spatial resolution be corrected for. Realistic, anthropomorphic numerical phantoms are needed to understand how these phenomena degrade nuclear medicine images, and to validate correction methods. We developed a Monte Carlo simulator which simulates photon transport in an anthropomorphic phantom.

Veronique Baccarne; A. Turzo; Y. Bizais; M. Farine

1997-01-01

234

A rigorous treatment of energy deposition in a Monte Carlo transport calculation, including coupled transport of all secondary and tertiary radiations, increases the computational cost of a simulation dramatically, making fully-coupled heating impractical for many large calculations, such as 3-D analysis of nuclear reactor cores. However, in some cases, the added benefit from a full-fidelity energy-deposition treatment is negligible, especially considering the increased simulation run time. In this paper we present a generalized framework for the in-line calculation of energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo transport simulations. This framework gives users the ability to select among several energy-deposition approximations with varying levels of fidelity. The paper describes the computational framework, along with derivations of four energy-deposition treatments. Each treatment uses a unique set of self-consistent approximations, which ensure that energy balance is preserved over the entire problem. By providing several energy-deposition treatments, each with different approximations for neglecting the energy transport of certain secondary radiations, the proposed framework provides users the flexibility to choose between accuracy and computational efficiency. Numerical results are presented, comparing heating results among the four energy-deposition treatments for a simple reactor/compound shielding problem. The results illustrate the limitations and computational expense of each of the four energy-deposition treatments. (authors)

Griesheimer, D. P. [Bertis Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States); Stedry, M. H. [Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 1072, Schenectady, NY 12301 (United States)

2013-07-01

235

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphics processing units, or GPUs, have gradually increased in computational power from the small, job-specific boards of the early 1990s to the programmable powerhouses of today. Compared to more common central processing units, or CPUs, GPUs have a higher aggregate memory bandwidth, much higher floating-point operations per second (FLOPS), and lower energy consumption per FLOP. Because one of the main obstacles in exascale computing is power consumption, many new supercomputing platforms are gaining much of their computational capacity by incorporating GPUs into their compute nodes. Since CPU-optimized parallel algorithms are not directly portable to GPU architectures (or at least not without losing substantial performance), transport codes need to be rewritten to execute efficiently on GPUs. Unless this is done, reactor simulations cannot take full advantage of these new supercomputers. WARP, which can stand for ``Weaving All the Random Particles,'' is a three-dimensional (3D) continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code developed in this work as to efficiently implement a continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport algorithm on a GPU. WARP accelerates Monte Carlo simulations while preserving the benefits of using the Monte Carlo Method, namely, very few physical and geometrical simplifications. WARP is able to calculate multiplication factors, flux tallies, and fission source distributions for time-independent problems, and can run in both criticality or fixed source modes. WARP can transport neutrons in unrestricted arrangements of parallelepipeds, hexagonal prisms, cylinders, and spheres. WARP uses an event-based algorithm, but with some important differences. Moving data is expensive, so WARP uses a remapping vector of pointer/index pairs to direct GPU threads to the data they need to access. The remapping vector is sorted by reaction type after every transport iteration using a high-efficiency parallel radix sort, which serves to keep the reaction types as contiguous as possible and removes completed histories from the transport cycle. The sort reduces the amount of divergence in GPU ``thread blocks,'' keeps the SIMD units as full as possible, and eliminates using memory bandwidth to check if a neutron in the batch has been terminated or not. Using a remapping vector means the data access pattern is irregular, but this is mitigated by using large batch sizes where the GPU can effectively eliminate the high cost of irregular global memory access. WARP modifies the standard unionized energy grid implementation to reduce memory traffic. Instead of storing a matrix of pointers indexed by reaction type and energy, WARP stores three matrices. The first contains cross section values, the second contains pointers to angular distributions, and a third contains pointers to energy distributions. This linked list type of layout increases memory usage, but lowers the number of data loads that are needed to determine a reaction by eliminating a pointer load to find a cross section value. Optimized, high-performance GPU code libraries are also used by WARP wherever possible. The CUDA performance primitives (CUDPP) library is used to perform the parallel reductions, sorts and sums, the CURAND library is used to seed the linear congruential random number generators, and the OptiX ray tracing framework is used for geometry representation. OptiX is a highly-optimized library developed by NVIDIA that automatically builds hierarchical acceleration structures around user-input geometry so only surfaces along a ray line need to be queried in ray tracing. WARP also performs material and cell number queries with OptiX by using a point-in-polygon like algorithm. WARP has shown that GPUs are an effective platform for performing Monte Carlo neutron transport with continuous energy cross sections. Currently, WARP is the most detailed and feature-rich program in existence for performing continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport in general 3D geometries on GPUs, but compared to production codes like Serpent and MCNP, WARP ha

Bergmann, Ryan

236

The stochastic Galerkin method (SGM) is an intrusive technique for propagating data uncertainty in physical models. The method reduces the random model to a system of coupled deterministic equations for the moments of stochastic spectral expansions of result quantities. We investigate solving these equations using the Monte Carlo technique. We compare the efficiency with brute-force Monte Carlo evaluation of uncertainty, the non-intrusive stochastic collocation method (SCM), and an intrusive Monte Carlo implementation of the stochastic collocation method. We also describe the stability limitations of our SGM implementation. (authors)

Franke, B. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Prinja, A. K. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

2013-07-01

237

useful for calculations requiring a near real-time evaluation period. For Monte Carlo simulations, a small computational unit called a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is capable of bringing the power of a large cluster computer into any personal...

Pasciak, Alexander Samuel

2007-04-25

238

Monte Carlo (MC) is a well known method for quantifying uncertainty arising for example in subsurface flow problems. Although robust and easy to implement, MC suffers from slow convergence. Extending MC by means of multigrid techniques yields the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method. MLMC has proven to greatly accelerate MC for several applications including stochastic ordinary differential equations in finance, elliptic stochastic partial differential equations and also hyperbolic problems. In this study, MLMC is combined with a streamline-based solver to assess uncertain two phase flow and Buckley–Leverett transport in random heterogeneous porous media. The performance of MLMC is compared to MC for a two dimensional reservoir with a multi-point Gaussian logarithmic permeability field. The influence of the variance and the correlation length of the logarithmic permeability on the MLMC performance is studied.

Müller, Florian, E-mail: florian.mueller@sam.math.ethz.ch; Jenny, Patrick, E-mail: jenny@ifd.mavt.ethz.ch; Meyer, Daniel W., E-mail: meyerda@ethz.ch

2013-10-01

239

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts are exposed to a unique radiation environment in space. United States terrestrial radiation worker limits, derived from guidelines produced by scientific panels, do not apply to astronauts. Limits for astronauts have changed throughout the Space Age, eventually reaching the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration limit of 3% risk of exposure induced death, with an administrative stipulation that the risk be assured to the upper 95% confidence limit. Much effort has been spent on reducing the uncertainty associated with evaluating astronaut risk for radiogenic cancer mortality, while tools that affect the accuracy of the calculations have largely remained unchanged. In the present study, the impacts of using more realistic computational phantoms with size variability to represent astronauts with simplified deterministic radiation transport were evaluated. Next, the impacts of microgravity-induced body changes on space radiation dosimetry using the same transport method were investigated. Finally, dosimetry and risk calculations resulting from Monte Carlo radiation transport were compared with results obtained using simplified deterministic radiation transport. The results of the present study indicated that the use of phantoms that more accurately represent human anatomy can substantially improve space radiation dose estimates, most notably for exposures from solar particle events under light shielding conditions. Microgravity-induced changes were less important, but results showed that flexible phantoms could assist in optimizing astronaut body position for reducing exposures during solar particle events. Finally, little overall differences in risk calculations using simplified deterministic radiation transport and 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport were found; however, for the galactic cosmic ray ion spectra, compensating errors were observed for the constituent ions, thus exhibiting the need to perform evaluations on a particle differential basis with common cross-section libraries.

Bahadori, Amir Alexander

240

In this research, Monte-Carlo Continuity Random Walking (MC-RW) model was used to study the relation between electron transport and photocatalysis of nano-crystalline (nc) clusters. The effects of defect energy disorder, spatial disorder of material structure, electron density, and interfacial transfer/recombination on the electron transport and the photocatalysis were studied. Photocatalytic activity is defined as 1/? from a statistical viewpoint with ? being the electron average lifetime. Based on the MC-RW simulation, a clear physical and chemical "picture" was given for the photocatalytic kinetic analysis of nc-clusters. It is shown that the increase of defect energy disorder and material spatial structural disorder, such as the decrease of defect trap number, the increase of crystallinity, the increase of particle size, and the increase of inter-particle connection, can enhance photocatalytic activity through increasing electron transport ability. The increase of electron density increases the electron Fermi level, which decreases the activation energy for electron de-trapping from traps to extending states, and correspondingly increases electron transport ability and photocatalytic activity. Reducing recombination of electrons and holes can increase electron transport through the increase of electron density and then increases the photocatalytic activity. In addition to the electron transport, the increase of probability for electrons to undergo photocatalysis can increase photocatalytic activity through the increase of the electron interfacial transfer speed. PMID:25608276

Liu, Baoshun; Li, Ziqiang; Zhao, Xiujian

2015-02-01

241

Validation of the problem definition and analysis of the results (tallies) produced during a Monte Carlo particle transport calculation can be a complicated, time-intensive processes. The time required for a person to create an accurate, validated combinatorial geometry (CG) or mesh-based representation of a complex problem, free of common errors such as gaps and overlapping cells, can range from days to weeks. The ability to interrogate the internal structure of a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) geometry, prior to running the transport calculation, can improve the user's confidence in the validity of the problem definition. With regard to the analysis of results, the process of extracting tally data from printed tables within a file is laborious and not an intuitive approach to understanding the results. The ability to display tally information overlaid on top of the problem geometry can decrease the time required for analysis and increase the user's understanding of the results. To this end, our team has integrated VisIt, a parallel, production-quality visualization and data analysis tool into Mercury, a massively-parallel Monte Carlo particle transport code. VisIt provides an API for real time visualization of a simulation as it is running. The user may select which plots to display from the VisIt GUI, or by sending VisIt a Python script from Mercury. The frequency at which plots are updated can be set and the user can visualize the simulation results as it is running.

O'Brien, M J; Procassini, R J; Joy, K I

2009-03-09

242

Monte Carlo simulations are employed to study flow and transport in randomly heterogeneous porous media. The aquifer heterogeneity is represented by random conductivity, porosity and geochemistry (distribution coefficient and reaction rate) fields. These aquifer properties are generated from fractional Brownian and other distributions, and are used with the flow and transport equations in two-dimensional settings. An implicit finite difference scheme

Ahmed Emam Ahmed Hassan

1997-01-01

243

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo calculations of hot-electron drift velocity, average energy, and diffusion coefficient are reported for the one-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs quantum-well wire of square cross section with side length L. Electron scattering by acoustic and longitudinal polar optic phonons is included. The transport parameters are found to rise more rapidly with electric field for L=160 Å than for L=40 Å, particularly at a lower ambient temperature. Einstein's relationship is shown to underestimate the hot-electron diffusivity for r=160 Å.

Chattopadhyay, D.; Bhattacharyya, A.

1988-04-01

244

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with verification of three dimensional triangular prismatic discrete ordinates transport calculation code ENSEMBLE-TRIZ by comparison with multi-group Monte Carlo calculation code GMVP in a large fast breeder reactor. The reactor is a 750 MWe electric power sodium cooled reactor. Nuclear characteristics are calculated at beginning of cycle of an initial core and at beginning and end of cycle of equilibrium core. According to the calculations, the differences between the two methodologies are smaller than 0.0002 ?k in the multi-plication factor, relatively about 1% in the control rod reactivity, and 1% in the sodium void reactivity.

Homma, Yuto; Moriwaki, Hiroyuki; Ohki, Shigeo; Ikeda, Kazumi

2014-06-01

245

Enhanced photon-assisted spin transport in a quantum dot attached to ferromagnetic leads

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-dependent transport in quantum dot system (QDs) has received significant attention due to a variety of new quantum physical phenomena emerging in transient time scale.[1] In the present work [2] we investigate real-time dynamics of spin-polarized current in a quantum dot coupled to ferromagnetic leads in both parallel and antiparallel alignments. While an external bias voltage is taken constant in time, a gate terminal, capacitively coupled to the quantum dot, introduces a periodic modulation of the dot level. Using non equilibrium Green's function technique we find that spin polarized electrons can tunnel through the system via additional photon-assisted transmission channels. Owing to a Zeeman splitting of the dot level, it is possible to select a particular spin component to be photon-transferred from the left to the right terminal, with spin dependent current peaks arising at different gate frequencies. The ferromagnetic electrodes enhance or suppress the spin transport depending upon the leads magnetization alignment. The tunnel magnetoresistance also attains negative values due to a photon-assisted inversion of the spin-valve effect. [1] F. M. Souza, Phys. Rev. B 76, 205315 (2007). [2] F. M. Souza, T. L. Carrara, and E. Vernek, Phys. Rev. B 84, 115322 (2011).

Souza, Fabricio M.; Carrara, Thiago L.; Vernek, Edson

2012-02-01

246

We have developed a method to couple kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of surface reactions at a molecular scale to transport equations at a macroscopic scale. This method is applicable to steady state reactors. We use a finite difference upwinding scheme and a gap-tooth scheme to efficiently use a limited amount of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. In general the stochastic kinetic Monte Carlo results do not obey mass conservation so that unphysical accumulation of mass could occur in the reactor. We have developed a method to perform mass balance corrections that is based on a stoichiometry matrix and a least-squares problem that is reduced to a non-singular set of linear equations that is applicable to any surface catalyzed reaction. The implementation of these methods is validated by comparing numerical results of a reactor simulation with a unimolecular reaction to an analytical solution. Furthermore, the method is applied to two reaction mechanisms. The first is the ZGB model for CO oxidation in which inevitable poisoning of the catalyst limits the performance of the reactor. The second is a model for the oxidation of NO on a Pt(111) surface, which becomes active due to lateral interaction at high coverages of oxygen. This reaction model is based on ab initio density functional theory calculations from literature.

Schaefer, C.; Jansen, A. P. J. [Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2013-02-07

247

The Monte Carlo (MC) method has been shown through many research studies to calculate accurate dose distributions for clinical radiotherapy, particularly in heterogeneous patient tissues where the effects of electron transport cannot be accurately handled with conventional, deterministic dose algorithms. Despite its proven accuracy and the potential for improved dose distributions to influence treatment outcomes, the long calculation times previously associated with MC simulation rendered this method impractical for routine clinical treatment planning. However, the development of faster codes optimized for radiotherapy calculations and improvements in computer processor technology have substantially reduced calculation times to, in some instances, within minutes on a single processor. These advances have motivated several major treatment planning system vendors to embark upon the path of MC techniques. Several commercial vendors have already released or are currently in the process of releasing MC algorithms for photon and/or electron beam treatment planning. Consequently, the accessibility and use of MC treatment planning algorithms may well become widespread in the radiotherapy community. With MC simulation, dose is computed stochastically using first principles; this method is therefore quite different from conventional dose algorithms. Issues such as statistical uncertainties, the use of variance reduction techniques, the ability to account for geometric details in the accelerator treatment head simulation, and other features, are all unique components of a MC treatment planning algorithm. Successful implementation by the clinical physicist of such a system will require an understanding of the basic principles of MC techniques. The purpose of this report, while providing education and review on the use of MC simulation in radiotherapy planning, is to set out, for both users and developers, the salient issues associated with clinical implementation and experimental verification of MC dose algorithms. As the MC method is an emerging technology, this report is not meant to be prescriptive. Rather, it is intended as a preliminary report to review the tenets of the MC method and to provide the framework upon which to build a comprehensive program for commissioning and routine quality assurance of MC-based treatment planning systems.

Chetty, Indrin J.; Curran, Bruce; Cygler, Joanna E.; DeMarco, John J.; Ezzell, Gary; Faddegon, Bruce A.; Kawrakow, Iwan; Keall, Paul J.; Liu, Helen; Ma, C.-M. Charlie; Rogers, D. W. O.; Seuntjens, Jan; Sheikh-Bagheri, Daryoush; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 and University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198-7521 (United States) and University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States) and Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Center, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 1C4 (Canada); University of California, Los Angeles, Callifornia 90095 (United States) and Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, Arizona 85259 (United States) and University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Stanford University Cancer Center, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States); Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Regional Cancer Center, Erie, Pennsylvania 16505 (United States); Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

2007-12-15

248

Comparison of Space Radiation Calculations from Deterministic and Monte Carlo Transport Codes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation outline includes motivation, radiation transport codes being considered, space radiation cases being considered, results for slab geometry, results from spherical geometry, and summary. ///////// main physics in radiation transport codes hzetrn uprop fluka geant4, slab geometry, spe, gcr,

Adams, J. H.; Lin, Z. W.; Nasser, A. F.; Randeniya, S.; Tripathi, r. K.; Watts, J. W.; Yepes, P.

2010-01-01

249

We generalize a simple Monte Carlo (MC) model for dilute gases to consider the transport behavior of positrons and electrons in Percus-Yevick model liquids under highly non-equilibrium conditions, accounting rigorously for coherent scattering processes. The procedure extends an existing technique [Wojcik and Tachiya, Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 3--4 (1992)], using the static structure factor to account for the altered anisotropy of coherent scattering in structured material. We identify the effects of the approximation used in the original method, and develop a modified method that does not require that approximation. We also present an enhanced MC technique that has been designed to improve the accuracy and flexibility of simulations in spatially-varying electric fields. All of the results are found to be in excellent agreement with an independent multi-term Boltzmann equation solution, providing benchmarks for future transport models in liquids and structured systems.

Tattersall, W J; Boyle, G J; White, R D

2015-01-01

250

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have used semi-classical Monte Carlo simulations to model spin transport in trilayer graphene (TLG) with ABA as well as ABC stacking. We have taken into consideration both the D'yakonov-Perel (DP) and Elliot-Yafet (EY) mechanisms of spin relaxation for modeling purposes. The two different stacking orders, ABA and ABC, have different band-structures, and we have studied the effect of the change in band structure on spin transport. Further, we have compared these results with bilayer graphene and single layer graphene and tried to explain the differences in the spin relaxation lengths in terms of band structure. We observe that TLG with ABC stacking exhibits a significantly higher spin relaxation length than TLG with ABA stacking.

Ghosh, Bahniman; Misra, Soumya

2012-10-01

251

for predicting molecule-specific ionization, excitation, and scattering cross sections in the very low energy regime that can be applied in a condensed history Monte Carlo track-structure code. The present methodology begins with the calculation of a solution...

Madsen, Jonathan R

2013-08-13

252

Use of single scatter electron monte carlo transport for medical radiation sciences

The single scatter Monte Carlo code CREEP models precise microscopic interactions of electrons with matter to enhance physical understanding of radiation sciences. It is designed to simulate electrons in any medium, including materials important for biological studies. It simulates each interaction individually by sampling from a library which contains accurate information over a broad range of energies.

Svatos, Michelle M. (Oakland, CA)

2001-01-01

253

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hollow cathode discharge (HCD) in He is studied based on a Monte Carlo-fluid hybrid model combined with a transport model for metastable He atoms. The Monte Carlo model describes the movement of fast electrons as particles, while in the fluid model, the slow electrons and positive ions are treated as a continuum. The continuity equations are solved together with the Poisson equation in order to obtain a self-consistent electric field. The He metastable transport model considers various production and loss mechanisms for He metastable atoms. These three models are run iteratively until convergence is reached. Typical results are, among others, the excitation and ionization rates, the electron, ion, and metastable densities and fluxes, the electric field, and potential distribution. The relative importance of different processes determining the metastable density in a He HCD is analyzed, as well as the role of He metastable atoms and He ions on the secondary electron emission at the cathode. Calculation results are compared with experimental data for the same discharge conditions, and good agreement was obtained.

Baguer, N.; Bogaerts, A.; Gijbels, R.

2003-01-01

254

The basic idea of Voxel2MCNP is to provide a framework supporting users in modeling radiation transport scenarios using voxel phantoms and other geometric models, generating corresponding input for the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, and evaluating simulation output. Applications at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology are primarily whole and partial body counter calibration and calculation of dose conversion coefficients. A new generic data model describing data related to radiation transport, including phantom and detector geometries and their properties, sources, tallies and materials, has been developed. It is modular and generally independent of the targeted Monte Carlo code. The data model has been implemented as an XML-based file format to facilitate data exchange, and integrated with Voxel2MCNP to provide a common interface for modeling, visualization, and evaluation of data. Also, extensions to allow compatibility with several file formats, such as ENSDF for nuclear structure properties and radioactive decay data, SimpleGeo for solid geometry modeling, ImageJ for voxel lattices, and MCNPX's MCTAL for simulation results have been added. The framework is presented and discussed in this paper and example workflows for body counter calibration and calculation of dose conversion coefficients is given to illustrate its application. PMID:23877204

Pölz, Stefan; Laubersheimer, Sven; Eberhardt, Jakob S; Harrendorf, Marco A; Keck, Thomas; Benzler, Andreas; Breustedt, Bastian

2013-08-21

255

Purpose: Monte Carlo methods based on the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) have previously been used to model light transport in powdered-phosphor scintillator screens. Physically motivated guesses or, alternatively, the complexities of Mie theory have been used by some authors to provide the necessary inputs of transport parameters. The purpose of Part II of this work is to: (i) validate predictions of modulation transform function (MTF) using the BTE and calculated values of transport parameters, against experimental data published for two Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb screens; (ii) investigate the impact of size-distribution and emission spectrum on Mie predictions of transport parameters; (iii) suggest simpler and novel geometrical optics-based models for these parameters and compare to the predictions of Mie theory. A computer code package called phsphr is made available that allows the MTF predictions for the screens modeled to be reproduced and novel screens to be simulated. Methods: The transport parameters of interest are the scattering efficiency (Q{sub sct}), absorption efficiency (Q{sub abs}), and the scatter anisotropy (g). Calculations of these parameters are made using the analytic method of Mie theory, for spherical grains of radii 0.1-5.0 {mu}m. The sensitivity of the transport parameters to emission wavelength is investigated using an emission spectrum representative of that of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb. The impact of a grain-size distribution in the screen on the parameters is investigated using a Gaussian size-distribution ({sigma}= 1%, 5%, or 10% of mean radius). Two simple and novel alternative models to Mie theory are suggested: a geometrical optics and diffraction model (GODM) and an extension of this (GODM+). Comparisons to measured MTF are made for two commercial screens: Lanex Fast Back and Lanex Fast Front (Eastman Kodak Company, Inc.). Results: The Mie theory predictions of transport parameters were shown to be highly sensitive to both grain size and emission wavelength. For a phosphor screen structure with a distribution in grain sizes and a spectrum of emission, only the average trend of Mie theory is likely to be important. This average behavior is well predicted by the more sophisticated of the geometrical optics models (GODM+) and in approximate agreement for the simplest (GODM). The root-mean-square differences obtained between predicted MTF and experimental measurements, using all three models (GODM, GODM+, Mie), were within 0.03 for both Lanex screens in all cases. This is excellent agreement in view of the uncertainties in screen composition and optical properties. Conclusions: If Mie theory is used for calculating transport parameters for light scattering and absorption in powdered-phosphor screens, care should be taken to average out the fine-structure in the parameter predictions. However, for visible emission wavelengths ({lambda} < 1.0 {mu}m) and grain radii (a > 0.5 {mu}m), geometrical optics models for transport parameters are an alternative to Mie theory. These geometrical optics models are simpler and lead to no substantial loss in accuracy.

Poludniowski, Gavin G. [Joint Department of Physics, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT, United Kingdom and Centre for Vision Speech and Signal Processing (CVSSP), Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Evans, Philip M. [Centre for Vision Speech and Signal Processing (CVSSP), Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2013-04-15

256

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between D, K and Kcol are of fundamental importance in radiation dosimetry. These relationships are critically influenced by secondary electron transport, which makes Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation indispensable; we have used MC codes DOSRZnrc and FLURZnrc. Computations of the ratios D/K and D/Kcol in three materials (water, aluminum and copper) for large field sizes with energies from 50?keV to 25?MeV (including 6–15?MV) are presented. Beyond the depth of maximum dose D/K is almost always less than or equal to unity and D/Kcol greater than unity, and these ratios are virtually constant with increasing depth. The difference between K and Kcol increases with energy and with the atomic number of the irradiated materials. D/K in ‘sub-equilibrium’ small megavoltage photon fields decreases rapidly with decreasing field size. A simple analytical expression for \\overline{X} , the distance ‘upstream’ from a given voxel to the mean origin of the secondary electrons depositing their energy in this voxel, is proposed: {{\\overline{X}}\\text{emp}}? 0.5{{R}\\text{csda}}(\\overline{{{E}0}}) , where \\overline{{{E}0}} is the mean initial secondary electron energy. These {{\\overline{X}}\\text{emp}} agree well with ‘exact’ MC-derived values for photon energies from 5–25?MeV for water and aluminum. An analytical expression for D/K is also presented and evaluated for 50?keV–25?MeV photons in the three materials, showing close agreement with the MC-derived values.

Kumar, Sudhir; Deshpande, Deepak D.; Nahum, Alan E.

2015-01-01

257

The relationships between D, K and Kcol are of fundamental importance in radiation dosimetry. These relationships are critically influenced by secondary electron transport, which makes Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation indispensable; we have used MC codes DOSRZnrc and FLURZnrc. Computations of the ratios D/K and D/Kcol in three materials (water, aluminum and copper) for large field sizes with energies from 50?keV to 25?MeV (including 6-15?MV) are presented. Beyond the depth of maximum dose D/K is almost always less than or equal to unity and D/Kcol greater than unity, and these ratios are virtually constant with increasing depth. The difference between K and Kcol increases with energy and with the atomic number of the irradiated materials. D/K in 'sub-equilibrium' small megavoltage photon fields decreases rapidly with decreasing field size. A simple analytical expression for [Formula: see text], the distance 'upstream' from a given voxel to the mean origin of the secondary electrons depositing their energy in this voxel, is proposed: [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the mean initial secondary electron energy. These [Formula: see text] agree well with 'exact' MC-derived values for photon energies from 5-25?MeV for water and aluminum. An analytical expression for D/K is also presented and evaluated for 50?keV-25?MeV photons in the three materials, showing close agreement with the MC-derived values. PMID:25548933

Kumar, Sudhir; Deshpande, Deepak D; Nahum, Alan E

2015-01-21

258

This paper provides a review of the hybrid (Monte Carlo/deterministic) radiation transport methods and codes used at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and examples of their application for increasing the efficiency of real-world, fixed-source Monte Carlo analyses. The two principal hybrid methods are (1) Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) for optimization of a localized detector (tally) region (e.g., flux, dose, or reaction rate at a particular location) and (2) Forward Weighted CADIS (FW-CADIS) for optimizing distributions (e.g., mesh tallies over all or part of the problem space) or multiple localized detector regions (e.g., simultaneous optimization of two or more localized tally regions). The two methods have been implemented and automated in both the MAVRIC sequence of SCALE 6 and ADVANTG, a code that works with the MCNP code. As implemented, the methods utilize the results of approximate, fast-running 3-D discrete ordinates transport calculations (with the Denovo code) to generate consistent space- and energy-dependent source and transport (weight windows) biasing parameters. These methods and codes have been applied to many relevant and challenging problems, including calculations of PWR ex-core thermal detector response, dose rates throughout an entire PWR facility, site boundary dose from arrays of commercial spent fuel storage casks, radiation fields for criticality accident alarm system placement, and detector response for special nuclear material detection scenarios and nuclear well-logging tools. Substantial computational speed-ups, generally O(102-4), have been realized for all applications to date. This paper provides a brief review of the methods, their implementation, results of their application, and current development activities, as well as a considerable list of references for readers seeking more information about the methods and/or their applications.

Wagner, John C [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Mosher, Scott W [ORNL; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL

2011-01-01

259

This paper provides a review of the hybrid (Monte Carlo/deterministic) radiation transport methods and codes used at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and examples of their application for increasing the efficiency of real-world, fixed-source Monte Carlo analyses. The two principal hybrid methods are (1) Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) for optimization of a localized detector (tally) region (e.g., flux, dose, or reaction rate at a particular location) and (2) Forward Weighted CADIS (FW-CADIS) for optimizing distributions (e.g., mesh tallies over all or part of the problem space) or multiple localized detector regions (e.g., simultaneous optimization of two or more localized tally regions). The two methods have been implemented and automated in both the MAVRIC sequence of SCALE 6 and ADVANTG, a code that works with the MCNP code. As implemented, the methods utilize the results of approximate, fast-running 3-D discrete ordinates transport calculations (with the Denovo code) to generate consistent space- and energy-dependent source and transport (weight windows) biasing parameters. These methods and codes have been applied to many relevant and challenging problems, including calculations of PWR ex-core thermal detector response, dose rates throughout an entire PWR facility, site boundary dose from arrays of commercial spent fuel storage casks, radiation fields for criticality accident alarm system placement, and detector response for special nuclear material detection scenarios and nuclear well-logging tools. Substantial computational speed-ups, generally O(10{sup 2-4}), have been realized for all applications to date. This paper provides a brief review of the methods, their implementation, results of their application, and current development activities, as well as a considerable list of references for readers seeking more information about the methods and/or their applications.

Wagner, John C [ORNL] [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL] [ORNL; Mosher, Scott W [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

260

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new software version of the computing complex BRAND used for modeling the electron trans-port process is considered. Our modification differs in the use of nonanalog simulation of the azimuthal angle of particle scattering. The results of simulating electron transport problems are presented.

Androsenko, P. A.; Belousov, V. I.; Mogulyan, V. G.

2013-12-01

261

Hybrid two-dimensional Monte-Carlo electron transport in self-consistent electromagnetic fields

The physics and numerics of the hybrid electron transport code ANTHEM are described. The need for the hybrid modeling of laser generated electron transport is outlined, and a general overview of the hybrid implementation in ANTHEM is provided. ANTHEM treats the background ions and electrons in a laser target as coupled fluid components moving relative to a fixed Eulerian mesh.

R. J. Mason; C. W. Cranfill

1985-01-01

262

The potential use of lead and tungsten pinhole inserts for high-resolution SPECT imaging of intratumor activity in I-131 radioimmunotherapy was investigated using experimental point source measurements and photon transport simulations. I-131 imaging is challenging because the primary photon emission is at 364 keV and penetration through the insert near the pinhole aperture is significant. Point source response functions (PSRF's) for

Mark F. Smith; Ronald J. Jaszczak; Huili Wang; Jianying Li

1997-01-01

263

Monte Carlo simulation studies of spin transport in graphene armchair nanoribbons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research in the area of spintronics is gaining momentum due to the promise spintronics based devices have shown. Since spin degree of freedom of an electron is used to store and process information, spintronics can provide numerous advantages over conventional electronics by providing new functionalities. In this article, we study spin relaxation in graphene nanoribbons (GNR) of armchair type by employing semiclassical Monte Carlo approach. D'yakonov-Perel' relaxation due to structural inversion asymmetry (Rashba spin-orbit coupling) and Elliott-Yafet (EY) relaxation cause spin dephasing in armchair graphene nanoribbons. We investigate spin relaxation in ?-,?- and ?-armchair GNR with varying width and temperature.

Salimath, Akshay Kumar; Ghosh, Bahniman

2014-10-01

264

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuing efforts toward validating the buildup factor method and the BRYNTRN code, which use the deterministic approach in solving radiation transport problems and are the candidate engineering tools in space radiation shielding analyses, are presented. A simplified theory of proton buildup factors assuming no neutron coupling is derived to verify a previously chosen form for parameterizing the dose conversion factor that includes the secondary particle buildup effect. Estimates of dose in tissue made by the two deterministic approaches and the Monte Carlo method are intercompared for cases with various thicknesses of shields and various types of proton spectra. The results are found to be in reasonable agreement but with some overestimation by the buildup factor method when the effect of neutron production in the shield is significant. Future improvement to include neutron coupling in the buildup factor theory is suggested to alleviate this shortcoming. Impressive agreement for individual components of doses, such as those from the secondaries and heavy particle recoils, are obtained between BRYNTRN and Monte Carlo results.

Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

1990-01-01

265

The Monte Carlo computer code, PHOEL-3, which is described here, replaces an earlier code, PHOEL-2, for generating the initial energies of electrons and positrons produced in water by irradiation with photons having an arbitrary energy spectrum up to 1 GeV. The code handles input photons individually on the basis of the energy-dependent cross sections for the physical processes treated, which

A. S. Todo; G. Hiromoto; J. E. Turner; R. N. Hamm; H. A. Wright

1982-01-01

266

Delta f Monte Carlo Calculation Of Neoclassical Transport In Perturbed Tokamaks

Non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations can fundamentally change neoclassical transport in tokamaks by distorting particle orbits on deformed or broken flux surfaces. This so-called non-ambipolar transport is highly complex, and eventually a numerical simulation is required to achieve its precise description and understanding. A new delta#14;f particle code (POCA) has been developed for this purpose using a modi ed pitch angle collision operator preserving momentum conservation. POCA was successfully benchmarked for neoclassical transport and momentum conservation in axisymmetric con guration. Non-ambipolar particle flux is calculated in the non-axisymmetric case, and results show a clear resonant nature of non-ambipolar transport and magnetic braking. Neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) torque is calculated using anisotropic pressures and magnetic fi eld spectrum, and compared with the generalized NTV theory. Calculations indicate a clear #14;B2 dependence of NTV, and good agreements with theory on NTV torque pro les and amplitudes depending on collisionality.

Kimin Kim, Jong-Kyu Park, Gerrit Kramer and Allen H. Boozer

2012-04-11

267

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton radiography has been used to image Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules during their implosions as well as to quantitatively measure magnetic fields generated by laser-plasma interactions at the OMEGA laser facility. An imploded, D^3He-filled capsule provides mono-energetic, ˜15-MeV protons for radiographing another capsule. We are developing simulated models of these experiments using the Geant4 Monte Carlo Particle Transport Toolkit (G4). Of particular interest are the limitations on spatial resolution caused by scattering effects. Experimental and simulated results will be presented for different experiments and models. This work was performed in part at the LLE National Laser User's Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by US DOE, LLNL, LLE and FSC at Univ. Rochester.

Manuel, M. J.-E.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Rygg, J. R.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Betti, R.; Gotchev, O.; Knauer, J.; Marshall, F.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Smalyuk, V. A.

2007-11-01

268

Two enhancements to the combinatorial geometry (CG) particle tracker in the Mercury Monte Carlo transport code are presented. The first enhancement is a hybrid particle tracker wherein a mesh region is embedded within a CG region. This method permits efficient calculations of problems with contain both large-scale heterogeneous and homogeneous regions. The second enhancement relates to the addition of parallelism within the CG tracker via spatial domain decomposition. This permits calculations of problems with a large degree of geometric complexity, which are not possible through particle parallelism alone. In this method, the cells are decomposed across processors and a particles is communicated to an adjacent processor when it tracks to an interprocessor boundary. Applications that demonstrate the efficacy of these new methods are presented.

Greenman, G M; O'Brien, M J; Procassini, R J; Joy, K I

2009-03-09

269

We present results of ultrascaled double-gate MOSFET operation and performance obtained from a new self-consistent particle-based quantum Monte Carlo (MC) approach. The simulation of quantum transport along the source-drain direction is based on the Wigner transport equation and the mode-space approximation of multi subband description. An improved method for correctly reproducing the Wigner function in the phase space by means

Damien Querlioz; Jérôme Saint-Martin; Van-Nam Do; Arnaud Bournel; Philippe Dollfus

2006-01-01

270

Self-Adjoint Angular Flux Equation for Coupled Electron-Photon Transport

Recently, Morel and McGhee described an alternate second-order form of the transport equation called the self adjoint angular flux (SAAF) equation that has the angular flux as its unknown. The SAAF formulation has all the advantages of the traditional even- and odd-parity self-adjoint equations, with the added advantages that it yields the full angular flux when it is numerically solved, it is significantly easier to implement reflective and reflective-like boundary conditions, and in the appropriate form it can be solved in void regions. The SAAF equation has the disadvantage that the angular domain is the full unit sphere and, like the even- and odd- parity form, S{sub n} source iteration cannot be implemented using the standard sweeping algorithm. Also, problems arise in pure scattering media. Morel and McGhee demonstrated the efficacy of the SAAF formulation for neutral particle transport. Here we apply the SAAF formulation to coupled electron-photon transport problems using multigroup cross-sections from the CEPXS code and S{sub n} discretization.

Liscum-Powell, J.L.; Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Morel, J.E.; Prinja, A.K.

1999-07-08

271

Monte Carlo Monte Carlo at Work by Gary D. Doolen and John Hendricks E very second nearly 10,000,000,000 "random" numbers are being generated on computers around the world for Monte Carlo solutions to problems hundreds of full-time careers invested in the fine art of generating Monte Carlo solutions--a livelihood

272

The main goal of the present paper is to quantify, in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms, the differences between experimentally measured dose distributions inside it, and those calculated by the simulation of different transport models using the Monte Carlo computer code MCNP. This objective has been achieved simulating the electron and photon transport in a water phantom irradiated by a Theratron

R. Mir; B. Juste; S. Gallardo; A. Santos; G. Verd

2006-01-01

273

Background: Impaired serotonin transmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of eating disorders. We investigated the in vivo availability of brain serotonin transporters and dopamine transporters in bulimia nervosa patients.Methods: Approximately 24 hours after injection of [123I]-2?-carbomethoxy-3?-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([123I] ?-CIT), single photon emission computed tomography scans were performed in 10 medication-free, female bulimic patients and 10 age-matched, healthy females. For quantification

Johannes Tauscher; Walter Pirker; Matthäus Willeit; Martina de Zwaan; Ursula Bailer; Alexander Neumeister; Susanne Asenbaum; Claudia Lennkh; Nicole Praschak-Rieder; Thomas Brücke; Siegfried Kasper

2001-01-01

274

A novel approach is proposed for charged particle transport problems using a recently developed second-order, self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) form of the Boltzmann transport equation with continuous slowing-down (CSD). A linear continuous (LC) in space and linear discontinuous (LD) in energy finite element discretization is implemented in the computer code DOET1D : ?iscrete O&barbelow;rdinates E&barbelow;lectron-Photon ?ransport in 1D. DOET1D is

JENNIFER L

2000-01-01

275

Recently, a pump beam size dependence of thermal conductivity was observed in Si at cryogenic temperatures using time-domain thermal reflectance (TDTR). These observations were attributed to quasiballistic phonon transport, but the interpretation of the measurements has been semi-empirical. Here, we present a numerical study of the heat conduction that occurs in the full 3D geometry of a TDTR experiment, including an interface, using the Boltzmann transport equation. We identify the radial suppression function that describes the suppression in heat flux, compared to Fourier's law, that occurs due to quasiballistic transport and demonstrate good agreement with experimental data. We also discuss unresolved discrepancies that are important topics for future study.

Ding, D.; Chen, X.; Minnich, A. J., E-mail: aminnich@caltech.edu [Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2014-04-07

276

Parallel FE Electron-Photon Transport Analysis on 2-D Unstructured Mesh

A novel solution method has been developed to solve the coupled electron-photon transport problem on an unstructured triangular mesh. Instead of tackling the first-order form of the linear Boltzmann equation, this approach is based on the second-order form in conjunction with the conventional multi-group discrete-ordinates approximation. The highly forward-peaked electron scattering is modeled with a multigroup Legendre expansion derived from the Goudsmit-Saunderson theory. The finite element method is used to treat the spatial dependence. The solution method is unique in that the space-direction dependence is solved simultaneously, eliminating the need for the conventional inner iterations, a method that is well suited for massively parallel computers.

Drumm, C.R.; Lorenz, J.

1999-03-02

277

We introduce a new implicit Monte Carlo technique for solving time dependent radiation transport problems involving spontaneous emission. In the usual implicit Monte Carlo procedure an effective scattering term in dictated by the requirement of self-consistency between the transport and implicitly differenced atomic populations equations. The effective scattering term, a source of inefficiency for optically thick problems, becomes an impasse

Eugene D. Brooks III

1989-01-01

278

{delta}f Monte Carlo calculation of neoclassical transport in perturbed tokamaks

Non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations can fundamentally change neoclassical transport in tokamaks by distorting particle orbits on deformed or broken flux surfaces. This so-called non-ambipolar transport is highly complex, and eventually a numerical simulation is required to achieve its precise description and understanding. A new {delta}f particle orbit code (POCA) has been developed for this purpose using a modified pitch-angle collision operator preserving momentum conservation. POCA was successfully benchmarked for neoclassical transport and momentum conservation in the axisymmetric configuration. Non-ambipolar particle flux is calculated in the non-axisymmetric case, and the results show a clear resonant nature of non-ambipolar transport and magnetic braking. Neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) torque is calculated using anisotropic pressures and magnetic field spectrum, and compared with the combined and 1/{nu} NTV theory. Calculations indicate a clear {delta}B{sup 2} scaling of NTV, and good agreement with the theory on NTV torque profiles and amplitudes depending on collisionality.

Kim, Kimin; Park, Jong-Kyu; Kramer, Gerrit J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Boozer, Allen H. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2012-08-15

279

A Hybrid (Monte-Carlo/Deterministic) Approach for Multi-Dimensional Radiation Transport

Sam- pling; Variance Reduction; 3D Rendering; Remote Sensing Department of Applied Physics applications in many areas of science including neutron transport [1, 2, 3], medical imaging and optical tomography [4, 5], radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres [6, 7, 8] and in oceans [9, 10], as well

Bal, Guillaume

280

Coupled Deterministic\\/Monte Carlo Simulation of Radiation Transport and Detector Response

The analysis of radiation sensor systems used to detect and identify nuclear and radiological weapons materials requires detailed radiation transport calculations. Two basic steps are required to solve radiation detection scenario analysis (RDSA) problems. First, the radiation field produced by the source must be calculated. Second, the response that the radiation field produces in a detector must be determined. RDSA

Christopher J. Gesh; George H. Meriwether; Richard T. Pagh; Leon E. Smith

2005-01-01

281

In this, the first of two papers concerned with the use of numerical simulation to examine flow and transport parameters in heterogeneous porous media via Monte Carlo methods, Various aspects of the modelling effort are examined. In particular, the need to save on core memory causes one to use only specific realizations that have certain initial characteristics; in effect, these transport simulations are conditioned by these characteristics. Also, the need to independently estimate length Scales for the generated fields is discussed. The statistical uniformity of the flow field is investigated by plotting the variance of the seepage velocity for vector components in the x, y, and z directions. Finally, specific features of the velocity field itself are illuminated in this first paper. In particular, these data give one the opportunity to investigate the effective hydraulic conductivity in a flow field which is approximately statistically uniform; comparisons are made with first- and second-order perturbation analyses. The mean cloud velocity is examined to ascertain whether it is identical to the mean seepage velocity of the model. Finally, the variance in the cloud centroid velocity is examined for the effect of source size and differing strengths of local transverse dispersion.

Naff, R.L.; Haley, D.F.; Sudicky, E.A.

1998-01-01

282

We study the Rayleigh scattering induced by a diamond nanocrystal in a whispering-gallery-microcavity-waveguide coupling system and find that it plays a significant role in the photon transportation. On the one hand, this study provides insight into future solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics aimed at understanding strong-coupling physics. On the other hand, benefitting from this Rayleigh scattering, effects such as dipole-induced transparency and strong photon antibunching can occur simultaneously. As a potential application, this system can function as a high-efficiency photon turnstile. In contrast to B. Dayan et al. [Science 319, 1062 (2008)], the photon turnstiles proposed here are almost immune to the nanocrystal's azimuthal position.

Liu Yongchun; Xiao Yunfeng; Li Beibei; Jiang Xuefeng; Li Yan; Gong Qihuang [State Key Lab for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2011-07-15

283

A MONTE CARLO CODE FOR RELATIVISTIC RADIATION TRANSPORT AROUND KERR BLACK HOLES

We present a new code for radiation transport around Kerr black holes, including arbitrary emission and absorption mechanisms, as well as electron scattering and polarization. The code is particularly useful for analyzing accretion flows made up of optically thick disks and optically thin coronae. We give a detailed description of the methods employed in the code and also present results from a number of numerical tests to assess its accuracy and convergence.

Schnittman, Jeremy D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Krolik, Julian H., E-mail: jeremy.schnittman@nasa.gov, E-mail: jhk@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2013-11-01

284

A Monte Carlo Code for Relativistic Radiation Transport Around Kerr Black Holes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a new code for radiation transport around Kerr black holes, including arbitrary emission and absorption mechanisms, as well as electron scattering and polarization. The code is particularly useful for analyzing accretion flows made up of optically thick disks and optically thin coronae. We give a detailed description of the methods employed in the code and also present results from a number of numerical tests to assess its accuracy and convergence.

Schnittman, Jeremy David; Krolik, Julian H.

2013-01-01

285

On the use of Monte Carlo simulations to model transport of positrons in gases and liquids.

In this paper we make a parallel between the swarm method in physics of ionized gases and modeling of positrons in radiation therapy and diagnostics. The basic idea is to take advantage of the experience gained in the past with electron swarms and to use it in establishing procedures of modeling positron diagnostics and therapy based on the well-established experimental binary collision data. In doing so we discuss the application of Monte Carlo technique for positrons in the same manner as used previously for electron swarms, we discuss the role of complete cross section sets (complete in terms of number, momentum and energy balance and tested against measured swarm parameters), we discuss the role of benchmarks and how to choose benchmarks for electrons that may perhaps be a subject to experimental verification. Finally we show some samples of positron trajectories together with secondary electrons that were established solely on the basis of accurate binary cross sections and also how those may be used in modeling of both gas filled traps and living organisms. PMID:23466009

Petrovi?, Zoran Lj; Marjanovi?, Srdjan; Dujko, Saša; Bankovi?, Ana; Malovi?, Gordana; Buckman, Stephen; Garcia, Gustavo; White, Ron; Brunger, Michael

2014-01-01

286

The TORT three-dimensional discrete ordinates neutron/photon transport code (TORT version 3)

TORT calculates the flux or fluence of neutrons and/or photons throughout three-dimensional systems due to particles incident upon the system`s external boundaries, due to fixed internal sources, or due to sources generated by interaction with the system materials. The transport process is represented by the Boltzman transport equation. The method of discrete ordinates is used to treat the directional variable, and a multigroup formulation treats the energy dependence. Anisotropic scattering is treated using a Legendre expansion. Various methods are used to treat spatial dependence, including nodal and characteristic procedures that have been especially adapted to resist numerical distortion. A method of body overlay assists in material zone specification, or the specification can be generated by an external code supplied by the user. Several special features are designed to concentrate machine resources where they are most needed. The directional quadrature and Legendre expansion can vary with energy group. A discontinuous mesh capability has been shown to reduce the size of large problems by a factor of roughly three in some cases. The emphasis in this code is a robust, adaptable application of time-tested methods, together with a few well-tested extensions.

Rhoades, W.A.; Simpson, D.B.

1997-10-01

287

Rate-dependent effects in the electronics used to instrument the tagger focal plane at the MAX IV Laboratory were recently investigated using the novel approach of Monte Carlo simulation to allow for normalization of high-rate experimental data acquired with single-hit time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The instrumentation of the tagger focal plane has now been expanded to include multi-hit TDCs. The agreement between results obtained from data taken using single-hit and multi-hit TDCs demonstrate a thorough understanding of the behavior of the detector system.

Preston, M F; Annand, J R M; Fissum, K G; Hansen, K; Isaksson, L; Jebali, R; Lundin, M

2013-01-01

288

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rate-dependent effects in the electronics used to instrument the tagger focal plane at the MAX IV Laboratory were recently investigated using the novel approach of Monte Carlo simulation to allow for normalization of high-rate experimental data acquired with single-hit time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The instrumentation of the tagger focal plane has now been expanded to include multi-hit TDCs. The agreement between results obtained from data taken using single-hit and multi-hit TDCs demonstrate a thorough understanding of the behavior of the detector system.

Preston, M. F.; Myers, L. S.; Annand, J. R. M.; Fissum, K. G.; Hansen, K.; Isaksson, L.; Jebali, R.; Lundin, M.

2014-04-01

289

Coupled Deterministic/Monte Carlo Simulation of Radiation Transport and Detector Response

The analysis of radiation sensor systems used to detect and identify nuclear and radiological weapons materials requires detailed radiation transport calculations. Two basic steps are required to solve radiation detection scenario analysis (RDSA) problems. First, the radiation field produced by the source must be calculated. Second, the response that the radiation field produces in a detector must be determined. RDSA problems are characterized by complex geometries, the presence of shielding materials, and large amounts of scattering (or absorption/re-emission). In this paper, we will discuss the use of the Attila code [2] for RDSA.

Gesh, Christopher J.; Meriwether, George H.; Pagh, Richard T.; Smith, Leon E.

2005-09-01

290

Status of Monte Carlo at Los Alamos

At Los Alamos the early work of Fermi, von Neumann, and Ulam has been developed and supplemented by many followers, notably Cashwell and Everett, and the main product today is the continuous-energy, general-purpose, generalized-geometry, time-dependent, coupled neutron-photon transport code called MCNP. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo research and development effort is concentrated in Group X-6. MCNP treats an arbitrary three-dimensional configuration of arbitrary materials in geometric cells bounded by first- and second-degree surfaces and some fourth-degree surfaces (elliptical tori). Monte Carlo has evolved into perhaps the main method for radiation transport calculations at Los Alamos. MCNP is used in every technical division at the Laboratory by over 130 users about 600 times a month accounting for nearly 200 hours of CDC-7600 time.

Thompson, W.L.; Cashwell, E.D.

1980-01-01

291

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful technique for understanding the structural fluctuations and transformations of RNA, DNA and proteins. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide a window into the nature of these fluctuations on a different, faster, time scale. We use Monte Carlo methods to model and compare FRET data from dye-labeled RNA with what might be predicted from the MD simulation. With a few notable exceptions, the contribution of fluorophore and linker dynamics to these FRET measurements has not been investigated. We include the dynamics of the ground state dyes and linkers in our study of a 16mer double-stranded RNA. Water is included explicitly in the simulation. Cyanine dyes are attached at either the 3' or 5' ends with a 3 carbon linker, and differences in labeling schemes are discussed.[4pt] Work done in collaboration with Peker Milas, Benjamin D. Gamari, and Louis Parrot.

Goldner, Lori

2012-02-01

292

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research utilized Monte Carlo N-Particle version 4C (MCNP4C) to simulate K X-ray fluorescent (K XRF) measurements of stable lead in bone. Simulations were performed to investigate the effects that overlying tissue thickness, bone-calcium content, and shape of the calibration standard have on detector response in XRF measurements at the human tibia. Additional simulations of a knee phantom considered uncertainty associated with rotation about the patella during XRF measurements. Simulations tallied the distribution of energy deposited in a high-purity germanium detector originating from collimated 88 keV 109Cd photons in backscatter geometry. Benchmark measurements were performed on simple and anthropometric XRF calibration phantoms of the human leg and knee developed at the University of Cincinnati with materials proven to exhibit radiological characteristics equivalent to human tissue and bone. Initial benchmark comparisons revealed that MCNP4C limits coherent scatter of photons to six inverse angstroms of momentum transfer and a Modified MCNP4C was developed to circumvent the limitation. Subsequent benchmark measurements demonstrated that Modified MCNP4C adequately models photon interactions associated with in vivo K XRF of lead in bone. Further simulations of a simple leg geometry possessing tissue thicknesses from 0 to 10 mm revealed increasing overlying tissue thickness from 5 to 10 mm reduced predicted lead concentrations an average 1.15% per 1 mm increase in tissue thickness (p < 0.0001). An anthropometric leg phantom was mathematically defined in MCNP to more accurately reflect the human form. A simulated one percent increase in calcium content (by mass) of the anthropometric leg phantom's cortical bone demonstrated to significantly reduce the K XRF normalized ratio by 4.5% (p < 0.0001). Comparison of the simple and anthropometric calibration phantoms also suggested that cylindrical calibration standards can underestimate lead content of a human leg up to 4%. The patellar bone structure in which the fluorescent photons originate was found to vary dramatically with measurement angle. The relative contribution of lead signal from the patella declined from 65% to 27% when rotated 30°. However, rotation of the source-detector about the patella from 0 to 45° demonstrated no significant effect on the net K XRF response at the knee.

Lodwick, Camille J.

293

Toward real-time Monte Carlo simulation using a commercial cloud computing infrastructure

Monte Carlo (MC) methods are the gold standard for modeling photon and electron transport in a heterogeneous medium; however, their computational cost prohibits their routine use in the clinic. Cloud computing, wherein computing resources are allocated on-demand from a third party, is a new approach for high performance computing and is implemented to perform ultra-fast MC calculation in radiation therapy.

Henry Wang; Yunzhi Ma; Guillem Pratx; Lei Xing

2011-01-01

294

A sophisticated SPECT (single-photon-emission computed tomography) simulation package has been developed, permitting full tomographic acquisition of data from physically realistic nonuniform and asymmetric 3-D source objects. The package is based on the Los Alamos code MCNP (Monte Carlo for Neutron-Photon transport), which has been extensively modified by the authors to allow complete collimator and source modeling and direct manipulation of

J. C. Yanch; A. B. Dobrzeniecki

1993-01-01

295

Characterization of temperature and thermal transport properties of the skin can yield important information of relevance to both clinical medicine and basic research in skin physiology. Here we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like, or 'epidermal', photonic device that combines colorimetric temperature indicators with wireless stretchable electronics for thermal measurements when softly laminated on the skin surface. The sensors exploit thermochromic liquid crystals patterned into large-scale, pixelated arrays on thin elastomeric substrates; the electronics provide means for controlled, local heating by radio frequency signals. Algorithms for extracting patterns of colour recorded from these devices with a digital camera and computational tools for relating the results to underlying thermal processes near the skin surface lend quantitative value to the resulting data. Application examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with milli-Kelvin precision (±50?mK) and sub-millimetre spatial resolution. Demonstrations in reactive hyperaemia assessments of blood flow and hydration analysis establish relevance to cardiovascular health and skin care, respectively. PMID:25234839

Gao, Li; Zhang, Yihui; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jia, Lin; Jang, Kyung-In; Webb, R Chad; Fu, Haoran; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Guoyan; Shi, Luke; Shah, Deesha; Huang, Xian; Xu, Baoxing; Yu, Cunjiang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

2014-01-01

296

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of temperature and thermal transport properties of the skin can yield important information of relevance to both clinical medicine and basic research in skin physiology. Here we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like, or ‘epidermal’, photonic device that combines colorimetric temperature indicators with wireless stretchable electronics for thermal measurements when softly laminated on the skin surface. The sensors exploit thermochromic liquid crystals patterned into large-scale, pixelated arrays on thin elastomeric substrates; the electronics provide means for controlled, local heating by radio frequency signals. Algorithms for extracting patterns of colour recorded from these devices with a digital camera and computational tools for relating the results to underlying thermal processes near the skin surface lend quantitative value to the resulting data. Application examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with milli-Kelvin precision (±50?mK) and sub-millimetre spatial resolution. Demonstrations in reactive hyperaemia assessments of blood flow and hydration analysis establish relevance to cardiovascular health and skin care, respectively.

Gao, Li; Zhang, Yihui; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jia, Lin; Jang, Kyung-In; Chad Webb, R.; Fu, Haoran; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Guoyan; Shi, Luke; Shah, Deesha; Huang, Xian; Xu, Baoxing; Yu, Cunjiang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

2014-09-01

297

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel approach is proposed for charged particle transport problems using a recently developed second-order, self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) form of the Boltzmann transport equation with continuous slowing-down (CSD). A linear continuous (LC) in space and linear discontinuous (LD) in energy finite element discretization is implemented in the computer code DOET1D : ?iscrete O&barbelow;rdinates E&barbelow;lectron-Photon ?ransport in 1D. DOET1D is a one-dimensional, Cartesian coordinates, multigroup, discrete ordinates code for charged particle transport which employs CEPXS generated cross-sections to incorporate electron and photon transport physics. The discrete ordinates SAAF transport equation is solved using scattering source iteration in conjunction with diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA). The angular fluxes are computed simultaneously at all mesh points by solving a system of equations for each direction and each energy group. The application of LC finite elements in space yields a symmetric, positive definite coefficient matrix which is tridiagonal in structure and solved efficiently using a standard tridiagonal matrix solver. A second and unique within group iteration, referred to as upscatter, is introduced by the LD energy discretization. The upscatter iteration is separate from the source iteration and requires an independent acceleration scheme. A synthetic acceleration technique is derived to increase the rate of convergence of the upscatter iteration and implemented successfully in DOET1D . The estimated spectral radius for the accelerated equations is sufficiently small that an efficient algorithm is achieved by performing at most two iterations for the DSA and upscatter steps. Accurate charge and dose deposition profiles were obtained from the LD SAAF equation for several coupled electron-photon transport problems. Most importantly, it is demonstrated that the LD SAAF equation is able to accurately resolve charge and dose deposition at material interfaces between high-Z and low-Z materials.

Liscum-Powell, Jennifer Lane

2000-10-01

298

Absorbed fraction (AF) calculations to the human skeletal tissues due to alpha particles are of interest to the internal dosimetry of occupationally exposed workers and members of the public. The transport of alpha particles through the skeletal tissue is complicated by the detailed and complex microscopic histology of the skeleton. In this study, both Monte Carlo and chord-based techniques were applied to the transport of alpha particles through 3-D microCT images of the skeletal microstructure of trabecular spongiosa. The Monte Carlo program used was 'Visual Monte Carlo--VMC'. VMC simulates the emission of the alpha particles and their subsequent energy deposition track. The second method applied to alpha transport is the chord-based technique, which randomly generates chord lengths across bone trabeculae and the marrow cavities via alternate and uniform sampling of their cumulative density functions. This paper compares the AF of energy to two radiosensitive skeletal tissues, active marrow and shallow active marrow, obtained with these two techniques. PMID:17569685

Hunt, J G; Watchman, C J; Bolch, W E

2007-01-01

299

Monte Carlo simulation study of RPC-based 0.511 MeV photon detector with GEANT4

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) are low-cost charged-particle detectors with good timing resolution and potentially good spatial resolution. Using RPC as gamma detector provides an opportunity for application in positron emission tomography (PET). In this work, we use the GEANT4 simulation package to study various methods improving the detection efficiency of a realistic RPC-based PET model for 511 keV photons, by adding more detection units, changing the thickness of each layer, choosing different converters and using the multi-gaps RPC (MRPC) technique. The balance among these factor is discussed. It's found that although RPC with materials of high atomic number can reach a higher efficiency, they may contribute to a poor spatial resolution and higher background level.

Zhou, W.; Shao, M.; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Sun, Y.; Chen, T.

2014-09-01

300

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative study was performed to reveal differences and relative figures of merit of seven different calculation algorithms for photon beams when applied to inhomogeneous media. The following algorithms were investigated: Varian Eclipse: the anisotropic analytical algorithm, and the pencil beam with modified Batho correction; Nucletron Helax-TMS: the collapsed cone and the pencil beam with equivalent path length correction; CMS XiO: the multigrid superposition and the fast Fourier transform convolution; Philips Pinnacle: the collapsed cone. Monte Carlo simulations (MC) performed with the EGSnrc codes BEAMnrc and DOSxyznrc from NRCC in Ottawa were used as a benchmark. The study was carried out in simple geometrical water phantoms (? = 1.00 g cm-3) with inserts of different densities simulating light lung tissue (? = 0.035 g cm-3), normal lung (? = 0.20 g cm-3) and cortical bone tissue (? = 1.80 g cm-3). Experiments were performed for low- and high-energy photon beams (6 and 15 MV) and for square (13 × 13 cm2) and elongated rectangular (2.8 × 13 cm2) fields. Analysis was carried out on the basis of depth dose curves and transverse profiles at several depths. Assuming the MC data as reference, ? index analysis was carried out distinguishing between regions inside the non-water inserts or inside the uniform water. For this study, a distance to agreement was set to 3 mm while the dose difference varied from 2% to 10%. In general all algorithms based on pencil-beam convolutions showed a systematic deficiency in managing the presence of heterogeneous media. In contrast, complicated patterns were observed for the advanced algorithms with significant discrepancies observed between algorithms in the lighter materials (? = 0.035 g cm-3), enhanced for the most energetic beam. For denser, and more clinical, densities a better agreement among the sophisticated algorithms with respect to MC was observed.

Fogliata, Antonella; Vanetti, Eugenio; Albers, Dirk; Brink, Carsten; Clivio, Alessandro; Knöös, Tommy; Nicolini, Giorgia; Cozzi, Luca

2007-03-01

301

Quantification of dopamine transporters (DAT) using [99mTc]TRODAT-1 and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) requires full kinetic modeling of the data, using complex and invasive arterial blood sampling to provide an input function to the model. We have shown previously that a simpler reference tissue model provides accurate quantitative results, using a reference region devoid of DAT as the input to the

Paul D. Acton; Philipp T. Meyer; P. David Mozley; Karl Plössl; Hank F. Kung

2000-01-01

302

Transport calculations for a 14.8 MeV neutron beam in a water phantom

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coupled neutron/photon Monte Carlo radiation transport code (MORSE-CG) was used to calculate neutron and photon doses in a water phantom irradiated by 14.8 MeV neutron from the gas target neutron source. The source-collimator-phantom geometry was carefully simulated. Results of calculations utilizing two different statistical estimators (next collision and track length) are presented.

Goetsch, S. J.

303

Study of water transport phenomena on cathode of PEMFCs using Monte Carlo simulation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation deals with the development of a three-dimensional computational model of water transport phenomena in the cathode catalyst layer (CCL) of PEMFCs. The catalyst layer in the numerical simulation was developed using the optimized sphere packing algorithm. The optimization technique named the adaptive random search technique (ARSET) was employed in this packing algorithm. The ARSET algorithm will generate the initial location of spheres and allow them to move in the random direction with the variable moving distance, randomly selected from the sampling range, based on the Lennard-jones potential of the current and new configuration. The solid fraction values obtained from this developed algorithm are in the range of 0.631 to 0.6384 while the actual processing time can significantly be reduced by 8% to 36% based on the number of spheres. The initial random number sampling range was investigated and the appropriate sampling range value is equal to 0.5. This numerically developed cathode catalyst layer has been used to simulate the diffusion processes of protons, in the form of hydronium, and oxygen molecules through the cathode catalyst layer. The movements of hydroniums and oxygen molecules are controlled by the random vectors and all of these moves has to obey the Lennard-Jones potential energy constrain. Chemical reaction between these two species will happen when they share the same neighborhood and result in the creation of water molecules. Like hydroniums and oxygen molecules, these newly-formed water molecules also diffuse through the cathode catalyst layer. It is important to investigate and study the distribution of hydronium oxygen molecule and water molecules during the diffusion process in order to understand the lifetime of the cathode catalyst layer. The effect of fuel flow rate on the water distribution has also been studied by varying the hydronium and oxygen molecule input. Based on the results of these simulations, the hydronium: oxygen input ratio of 3:2 has been found to be the best choice for this study. To study the effect of metal impurity and gas contamination on the cathode catalyst layer, the cathode catalyst layer structure is modified by adding the metal impurities and the gas contamination is introduced with the oxygen input. In this study, gas contamination has very little effect on the electrochemical reaction inside the cathode catalyst layer because this simulation is transient in nature and the percentage of the gas contamination is small, in the range of 0.0005% to 0.0015% for CO and 0.028% to 0.04% for CO2 . Metal impurities seem to have more effect on the performance of PEMFC because they not only change the structure of the developed cathode catalyst layer but also affect the movement of fuel and water product. Aluminum has the worst effect on the cathode catalyst layer structure because it yields the lowest amount of newly form water and the largest amount of trapped water product compared to iron of the same impurity percentage. For the iron impurity, it shows some positive effect on the life time of the cathode catalyst layer. At the 0.75 wt% of iron impurity, the amount of newly formed water is 6.59% lower than the pure carbon catalyst layer case but the amount of trapped water product is 11.64% lower than the pure catalyst layer. The lifetime of the impure cathode catalyst layer is longer than the pure one because the amount of water that is still trapped inside the pure cathode catalyst layer is higher than that of the impure one. Even though the impure cathode catalyst layer has a longer lifetime, it sacrifices the electrical power output because the electrochemical reaction occurrence inside the impure catalyst layer is lower.

Soontrapa, Karn

304

In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the collimator is a crucial element of the imaging chain and controls the noise resolution tradeoff of the collected data. The current study is an evaluation of the effects of different thicknesses of a low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimator on tomographic spatial resolution in SPECT. In the present study, the SIMIND Monte Carlo program was used to simulate a SPECT equipped with an LEHR collimator. A point source of 99mTc and an acrylic cylindrical Jaszczak phantom, with cold spheres and rods, and a human anthropomorphic torso phantom (4D-NCAT phantom) were used. Simulated planar images and reconstructed tomographic images were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. According to the tabulated calculated detector parameters, contribution of Compton scattering, photoelectric reactions, and also peak to Compton (P/C) area in the obtained energy spectrums (from scanning of the sources with 11 collimator thicknesses, ranging from 2.400 to 2.410 cm), we concluded the thickness of 2.405 cm as the proper LEHR parallel hole collimator thickness. The image quality analyses by structural similarity index (SSIM) algorithm and also by visual inspection showed suitable quality images obtained with a collimator thickness of 2.405 cm. There was a suitable quality and also performance parameters’ analysis results for the projections and reconstructed images prepared with a 2.405 cm LEHR collimator thickness compared with the other collimator thicknesses. PMID:23372440

Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh; Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Momennezhad, Mahdi; Zakavi, Seyyed Rasoul; Sadeghi, Ramin; Ljungberg, Michael

2012-01-01

305

Assessment of intake due to long-lived actinides by inhalation pathway is carried out by lung monitoring of the radiation workers inside totally shielded steel room using sensitive detection systems such as Phoswich and an array of HPGe detectors. In this paper, uncertainties in the lung activity estimation due to positional errors, chest wall thickness (CWT) and detector background variation are evaluated. First, calibration factors (CFs) of Phoswich and an array of three HPGe detectors are estimated by incorporating ICRP male thorax voxel phantom and detectors in Monte Carlo code 'FLUKA'. CFs are estimated for the uniform source distribution in lungs of the phantom for various photon energies. The variation in the CFs for positional errors of ±0.5, 1 and 1.5 cm in horizontal and vertical direction along the chest are studied. The positional errors are also evaluated by resizing the voxel phantom. Combined uncertainties are estimated at different energies using the uncertainties due to CWT, detector positioning, detector background variation of an uncontaminated adult person and counting statistics in the form of scattering factors (SFs). SFs are found to decrease with increase in energy. With HPGe array, highest SF of 1.84 is found at 18 keV. It reduces to 1.36 at 238 keV. PMID:25468992

Nadar, M Y; Akar, D K; Rao, D D; Kulkarni, M S; Pradeepkumar, K S

2014-12-01

306

Photonic quantum transport in a nonlinear optical fiber This article has been downloaded from in a nonlinear optical fiber M. Hafezi1(a) , D. E. Chang2 , V. Gritsev1,3 , E. A. Demler1 and M. D. Lukin1 1 in a hollow-core optical fiber. We show that when the interaction between photons is effectively repulsive

Jensen, Grant J.

307

Purpose: Investigation of increased radiation dose deposition due to gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using a 3D computational cell model during x-ray radiotherapy.Methods: Two GNP simulation scenarios were set up in Geant4; a single 400 nm diameter gold cluster randomly positioned in the cytoplasm and a 300 nm gold layer around the nucleus of the cell. Using an 80 kVp photon beam, the effect of GNP on the dose deposition in five modeled regions of the cell including cytoplasm, membrane, and nucleus was simulated. Two Geant4 physics lists were tested: the default Livermore and custom built Livermore/DNA hybrid physics list. 10{sup 6} particles were simulated at 840 cells in the simulation. Each cell was randomly placed with random orientation and a diameter varying between 9 and 13 {mu}m. A mathematical algorithm was used to ensure that none of the 840 cells overlapped. The energy dependence of the GNP physical dose enhancement effect was calculated by simulating the dose deposition in the cells with two energy spectra of 80 kVp and 6 MV. The contribution from Auger electrons was investigated by comparing the two GNP simulation scenarios while activating and deactivating atomic de-excitation processes in Geant4.Results: The physical dose enhancement ratio (DER) of GNP was calculated using the Monte Carlo model. The model has demonstrated that the DER depends on the amount of gold and the position of the gold cluster within the cell. Individual cell regions experienced statistically significant (p < 0.05) change in absorbed dose (DER between 1 and 10) depending on the type of gold geometry used. The DER resulting from gold clusters attached to the cell nucleus had the more significant effect of the two cases (DER {approx} 55). The DER value calculated at 6 MV was shown to be at least an order of magnitude smaller than the DER values calculated for the 80 kVp spectrum. Based on simulations, when 80 kVp photons are used, Auger electrons have a statistically insignificant (p < 0.05) effect on the overall dose increase in the cell. The low energy of the Auger electrons produced prevents them from propagating more than 250-500 nm from the gold cluster and, therefore, has a negligible effect on the overall dose increase due to GNP.Conclusions: The results presented in the current work show that the primary dose enhancement is due to the production of additional photoelectrons.

Douglass, Michael; Bezak, Eva; Penfold, Scott [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 (Australia); Department of Medical Physics, Royal Adelaide Hospital, North Terrace, Adelaide South Australia 5000 (Australia)

2013-07-15

308

A Monte Carlo-based procedure to assess fetal doses from 6-MV external photon beam radiation treatments has been developed to improve upon existing techniques that are based on AAPM Task Group Report 36 published in 1995 [M. Stovall et al., Med. Phys. 22, 63–82 (1995)]. Anatomically realistic models of the pregnant patient representing 3-, 6-, and 9-month gestational stages were implemented into the MCNPX code together with a detailed accelerator model that is capable of simulating scattered and leakage radiation from the accelerator head. Absorbed doses to the fetus were calculated for six different treatment plans for sites above the fetus and one treatment plan for fibrosarcoma in the knee. For treatment plans above the fetus, the fetal doses tended to increase with increasing stage of gestation. This was due to the decrease in distance between the fetal body and field edge with increasing stage of gestation. For the treatment field below the fetus, the absorbed doses tended to decrease with increasing gestational stage of the pregnant patient, due to the increasing size of the fetus and relative constant distance between the field edge and fetal body for each stage. The absorbed doses to the fetus for all treatment plans ranged from a maximum of 30.9 cGy to the 9-month fetus to 1.53 cGy to the 3-month fetus. The study demonstrates the feasibility to accurately determine the absorbed organ doses in the mother and fetus as part of the treatment planning and eventually in risk management. PMID:18697528

Bednarz, Bryan; Xu, X. George

2008-01-01

309

This report is composed of the lecture notes from the first half of a 32-hour graduate-level course on Monte Carlo methods offered at KAPL. These notes, prepared by two of the principle developers of KAPL`s RACER Monte Carlo code, cover the fundamental theory, concepts, and practices for Monte Carlo analysis. In particular, a thorough grounding in the basic fundamentals of Monte Carlo methods is presented, including random number generation, random sampling, the Monte Carlo approach to solving transport problems, computational geometry, collision physics, tallies, and eigenvalue calculations. Furthermore, modern computational algorithms for vector and parallel approaches to Monte Carlo calculations are covered in detail, including fundamental parallel and vector concepts, the event-based algorithm, master/slave schemes, parallel scaling laws, and portability issues.

Brown, F.B.; Sutton, T.M.

1996-02-01

310

A novel approach is proposed for charged particle transport calculations using a recently developed second-order, self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) form of the Boltzmann transport equation with continuous slowing-down. A finite element discretization that is linear continuous in space and linear discontinuous (LD) in energy is described and implemented in a one-dimensional, planar geometry, multigroup, discrete ordinates code for charged particle transport. The cross-section generating code CEPXS is used to generate the electron and photon transport cross sections employed in this code. The discrete ordinates SAAF transport equation is solved using source iteration in conjunction with an inner iteration acceleration scheme and an outer iteration acceleration scheme. Outer iterations are required with the LD energy discretization scheme because the two angular flux unknowns within each group are coupled, which gives rise to effective upscattering. The inner iteration convergence is accelerated using diffusion synthetic acceleration, and the outer iteration convergence is accelerated using a diamond difference approximation to the LD energy discretization. Computational results are given that demonstrate the effectiveness of our convergence acceleration schemes and the accuracy of our discretized SAAF equation.

Liscum-Powell, Jennifer L. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Prinja, Anil B. [University of New Mexico (United States); Morel, Jim E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Lorence, Leonard J Jr. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

2002-11-15

311

Multi-layer diffusion approximation for photon transport in biological tissue

by the Monte Carlo method. This multi-source method is found to be significantly more accurate than the previous single-source method. The appendix to this thesis also shows the derivation of the extrapolated boundary condition. This boundary condition...

Hollmann, Joseph

2009-06-02

312

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has given the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project approval to begin Title I design of the proposed facility to be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and construction is scheduled to commence in FY01. The SNS initially will consist of an accelerator system capable of delivering an approximately 0.5 microsecond pulse of 1 GeV protons, at a 60 Hz frequency, with 1 MW of beam power, into a single target station. The SNS will eventually be upgraded to a 2 MW facility with two target stations (a 60 Hz station and a 10 Hz station). The radiation transport analysis, which includes the neutronic, shielding, activation, and safety analyses, is critical to the design of an intense high-energy accelerator facility like the proposed SNS, and the Monte Carlo method is the cornerstone of the radiation transport analyses.

Johnson, J. O.

313

We present a semiconductor master equation technique to study the input/output characteristics of coherent photon transport in a semiconductor waveguide-cavity system containing a single quantum dot. We use this approach to investigate the effects of photon propagation and anharmonic cavity-QED for various dot-cavity interaction strengths, including weakly-coupled, intermediately-coupled, and strongly-coupled regimes. We demonstrate that for mean photon numbers much less than 0.1, the commonly adopted weak excitation (single quantum) approximation breaks down, even in the weak coupling regime. As a measure of the anharmonic multiphoton-correlations, we compute the Fano factor and the correlation error associated with making a semiclassical approximation. We also explore the role of electron--acoustic-phonon scattering and find that phonon-mediated scattering plays a qualitatively important role on the light propagation characteristics. As an application of the theory, we simulate a conditional phase gate at a phonon bath temperature of $20 $K in the strong coupling regime.

S. Hughes; C. Roy

2012-01-12

314

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the nonequilibrium phenomena through the quantum dot coupled to the normal and superconducting leads by means of a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method in the Nambu formalism. Calculating the time evolution of the current, we discuss how the system approaches the steady state after the sudden interaction quench. The sign problem in the method is also addressed.

Koga, Akihisa

315

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for approximating anisotropic, multi-group scatter cross sections for use in discretized and Monte Carlo multi-group neutron transport is presented. The new method eliminates unphysical artifacts such as negative group scatter cross sections and falsely positive cross sections. Additionally, when combined with the discrete elements angular quadrature method, the new cross sections eliminate the lack of angular support in the discrete ordinates quadrature method. The new method generates piecewise-average group-to-group scatter cross sections. The accuracy and efficiency for calculating the discrete elements cross sections has improved by many orders of magnitude compared to DelGrande and Mathews previous implementation. The new cross sections have extended the discrete elements method to all neutron-producing representations in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files. The new cross section method has been validated and tested with the cross section generation code, NJOY. Results of transport calculations using discrete elements, discrete ordinates, and Monte Carlo methods for two, one-dimensional slab geometry problems are compared.

Gerts, David Walter

316

Review of Fast Monte Carlo Codes for Dose Calculation in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

An important requirement in radiation therapy is a fast and accurate treatment planning system. This system, using computed tomography (CT) data, direction, and characteristics of the beam, calculates the dose at all points of the patient's volume. The two main factors in treatment planning system are accuracy and speed. According to these factors, various generations of treatment planning systems are developed. This article is a review of the Fast Monte Carlo treatment planning algorithms, which are accurate and fast at the same time. The Monte Carlo techniques are based on the transport of each individual particle (e.g., photon or electron) in the tissue. The transport of the particle is done using the physics of the interaction of the particles with matter. Other techniques transport the particles as a group. For a typical dose calculation in radiation therapy the code has to transport several millions particles, which take a few hours, therefore, the Monte Carlo techniques are accurate, but slow for clinical use. In recent years, with the development of the ‘fast’ Monte Carlo systems, one is able to perform dose calculation in a reasonable time for clinical use. The acceptable time for dose calculation is in the range of one minute. There is currently a growing interest in the fast Monte Carlo treatment planning systems and there are many commercial treatment planning systems that perform dose calculation in radiation therapy based on the Monte Carlo technique. PMID:22606661

Jabbari, Keyvan

2011-01-01

317

This paper presents a new hybrid (Monte Carlo/deterministic) method for increasing the efficiency of Monte Carlo calculations of distributions, such as flux or dose rate distributions (e.g., mesh tallies), as well as responses at multiple localized detectors and spectra. This method, referred to as Forward-Weighted CADIS (FW-CADIS), is an extension of the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method, which has been used for more than a decade to very effectively improve the efficiency of Monte Carlo calculations of localized quantities, e.g., flux, dose, or reaction rate at a specific location. The basis of this method is the development of an importance function that represents the importance of particles to the objective of uniform Monte Carlo particle density in the desired tally regions. Implementation of this method utilizes the results from a forward deterministic calculation to develop a forward-weighted source for a deterministic adjoint calculation. The resulting adjoint function is then used to generate consistent space- and energy-dependent source biasing parameters and weight windows that are used in a forward Monte Carlo calculation to obtain more uniform statistical uncertainties in the desired tally regions. The FW-CADIS method has been implemented and demonstrated within the MAVRIC sequence of SCALE and the ADVANTG/MCNP framework. Application of the method to representative, real-world problems, including calculation of dose rate and energy dependent flux throughout the problem space, dose rates in specific areas, and energy spectra at multiple detectors, is presented and discussed. Results of the FW-CADIS method and other recently developed global variance reduction approaches are also compared, and the FW-CADIS method outperformed the other methods in all cases considered.

Wagner, John C [ORNL] [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL] [ORNL; Mosher, Scott W [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

318

Gain Recovery Dynamics and Photon-Driven Transport in Quantum Cascade Lasers

Quantum cascade lasers are semiconductor devices based on the interplay of perpendicular transport through the heterostructure and the intracavity lasing field. We employ femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe measurements to investigate the nature of the transport through the laser structure via the dynamics of the gain. The gain recovery is determined by the time-dependent transport of electrons through both the active regions

Hyunyong Choi; Laurent Diehl; Zong-Kwei Wu; Marcella Giovannini; Jérôme Faist; Federico Capasso; Theodore B. Norris

2008-01-01

319

The paper is intended to show the effect of a biological shielding simulator on fast neutron and photon transport in its vicinity. The fast neutron and photon fluxes were measured by means of scintillation spectroscopy using a 45×45 mm(2) and a 10×10 mm(2) cylindrical stilbene detector. The neutron spectrum was measured in the range of 0.6-10 MeV and the photon spectrum in 0.2-9 MeV. The results of the experiment are compared with calculations. The calculations were performed with various nuclear data libraries. PMID:23434890

Koš?ál, Michal; Cvachovec, František; Mil?ák, Ján; Mravec, Filip

2013-05-01

320

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limiting factors for the scintigraphic clinical application are related to i) biosource characteristics (pharmacokinetic of the drug distribution between organs), Detection chain (photons transport, scintillation, analog to digital signal conversion, etc.) Imaging (Signal to Noise ratio, Spatial and Energy Resolution, Linearity etc) In this work, by using Monte Carlo time resolved transport simulations on a mathematical phantom and on a small field of view scintigraphic device, the trade off between the aforementioned factors was preliminary investigated.

Burgio, N.; Ciavola, C.; Santagata, A.; Iurlaro, G.; Montani, L.; Scafè, R.

2006-04-01

321

CT based 3D Monte Carlo radiation therapy treatment planning.

This paper outlines the "voxel reconstruction" technique used to model the macroscopic human anatomy of the cranial, abdominal and cervical regions directly from CT scans. Tissue composition, density, and radiation transport characteristics were assigned to each individual volume element (voxel) automatically depending on its greyscale number and physical location. Both external beam and brachytherapy treatment techniques were simulated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) version 3A. To obtain a high resolution dose calculation, yet not overly extend computational times, variable voxel sizes have been introduced. In regions of interest where high attention to anatomical detail and dose calculation was required, the voxel dimensions were reduced to a few millimetres. In less important regions that only influence the region of interest via scattered radiation, the voxel dimensions were increased to the scale of centimetres. With the use of relatively old (1991) supercomputing hardware, dose calculations were performed in under 10 hours to a standard deviation of 5% in each voxel with a resolution of a few millimetres--current hardware should substantially improve these figures. It is envisaged that with coupled photon/electron transport incorporated into MCNP version 4A and 4B, conventional photon and electron treatment planning will be undertaken using this technique, in addition to neutron and associated photon dosimetry presented here. PMID:9745789

Wallace, S; Allen, B J

1998-06-01

322

The crucial problem for radiation shielding design at heavy ion accelerator facilities with beam energies of several GeV\\/n is the source term problem. Experimental data on double differential neutron yields from thick targets irradiated with high-energy uranium nuclei are lacking. At present there are not many Monte Carlo multipurpose codes that can work with primary high-energy uranium nuclei. These codes

L. Beskrovnaia; B. Florko; M. Paraipan; N. Sobolevsky; G. Timoshenko

2008-01-01

323

Purpose: The authors describe the modification to a previously developed Monte Carlo model of semiconductor direct x-ray detector required for studying the effect of burst and recombination algorithms on detector performance. This work provides insight into the effect of different charge generation models for a-Se detectors on Swank noise and recombination fraction. Methods: The proposed burst and recombination models are implemented in the Monte Carlo simulation package, ARTEMIS, developed byFang et al. [“Spatiotemporal Monte Carlo transport methods in x-ray semiconductor detectors: Application to pulse-height spectroscopy in a-Se,” Med. Phys. 39(1), 308–319 (2012)]. The burst model generates a cloud of electron-hole pairs based on electron velocity, energy deposition, and material parameters distributed within a spherical uniform volume (SUV) or on a spherical surface area (SSA). A simple first-hit (FH) and a more detailed but computationally expensive nearest-neighbor (NN) recombination algorithms are also described and compared. Results: Simulated recombination fractions for a single electron-hole pair show good agreement with Onsager model for a wide range of electric field, thermalization distance, and temperature. The recombination fraction and Swank noise exhibit a dependence on the burst model for generation of many electron-hole pairs from a single x ray. The Swank noise decreased for the SSA compared to the SUV model at 4 V/?m, while the recombination fraction decreased for SSA compared to the SUV model at 30 V/?m. The NN and FH recombination results were comparable. Conclusions: Results obtained with the ARTEMIS Monte Carlo transport model incorporating drift and diffusion are validated with the Onsager model for a single electron-hole pair as a function of electric field, thermalization distance, and temperature. For x-ray interactions, the authors demonstrate that the choice of burst model can affect the simulation results for the generation of many electron-hole pairs. The SSA model is more sensitive to the effect of electric field compared to the SUV model and that the NN and FH recombination algorithms did not significantly affect simulation results.

Fang, Yuan, E-mail: yuan.fang@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Imaging and Applied Mathematics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993-0002 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)] [Division of Imaging and Applied Mathematics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993-0002 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Karim, Karim S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Badano, Aldo [Division of Imaging and Applied Mathematics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993-0002 (United States)] [Division of Imaging and Applied Mathematics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993-0002 (United States)

2014-01-15

324

The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

Cramer, S.N.

1984-01-01

325

Accurate calculation of the neutron transport through the shielding of the IFMIF test cell, defined by CAD, is a difficult task for several reasons. The ability of the powerful deterministic radiation transport code Attila, to do this rapidly and reliably has been studied. Three models of increasing geometrical complexity were produced from the CAD using the CADfix software. A fourth

W. Arter; M. J. Loughlin

2009-01-01

326

The role of plasma evolution and photon transport in optimizing future advanced lithography sources

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser produced plasma (LPP) sources for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons are currently based on using small liquid tin droplets as target that has many advantages including generation of stable continuous targets at high repetition rate, larger photons collection angle, and reduced contamination and damage to the optical mirror collection system from plasma debris and energetic particles. The ideal target is to generate a source of maximum EUV radiation output and collection in the 13.5 nm range with minimum atomic debris. Based on recent experimental results and our modeling predictions, the smallest efficient droplets are of diameters in the range of 20-30 ?m in LPP devices with dual-beam technique. Such devices can produce EUV sources with conversion efficiency around 3% and with collected EUV power of 190 W or more that can satisfy current requirements for high volume manufacturing. One of the most important characteristics of these devices is in the low amount of atomic debris produced due to the small initial mass of droplets and the significant vaporization rate during the pre-pulse stage. In this study, we analyzed in detail plasma evolution processes in LPP systems using small spherical tin targets to predict the optimum droplet size yielding maximum EUV output. We identified several important processes during laser-plasma interaction that can affect conditions for optimum EUV photons generation and collection. The importance and accurate description of modeling these physical processes increase with the decrease in target size and its simulation domain.

Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

2013-08-01

327

The role of plasma evolution and photon transport in optimizing future advanced lithography sources

Laser produced plasma (LPP) sources for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons are currently based on using small liquid tin droplets as target that has many advantages including generation of stable continuous targets at high repetition rate, larger photons collection angle, and reduced contamination and damage to the optical mirror collection system from plasma debris and energetic particles. The ideal target is to generate a source of maximum EUV radiation output and collection in the 13.5 nm range with minimum atomic debris. Based on recent experimental results and our modeling predictions, the smallest efficient droplets are of diameters in the range of 20–30 ?m in LPP devices with dual-beam technique. Such devices can produce EUV sources with conversion efficiency around 3% and with collected EUV power of 190 W or more that can satisfy current requirements for high volume manufacturing. One of the most important characteristics of these devices is in the low amount of atomic debris produced due to the small initial mass of droplets and the significant vaporization rate during the pre-pulse stage. In this study, we analyzed in detail plasma evolution processes in LPP systems using small spherical tin targets to predict the optimum droplet size yielding maximum EUV output. We identified several important processes during laser-plasma interaction that can affect conditions for optimum EUV photons generation and collection. The importance and accurate description of modeling these physical processes increase with the decrease in target size and its simulation domain.

Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2013-08-28

328

An Xwindow application capable of importing geometric information directly from two Computer Aided Design (CAD) based formats for use in radiation transport and shielding analyses is being developed at ORNL. The application permits the user to graphically view the geometric models imported from the two formats for verification and debugging. Previous models, specifically formatted for the radiation transport and shielding codes can also be imported. Required extensions to the existing combinatorial geometry analysis routines are discussed. Examples illustrating the various options and features which will be implemented in the application are presented. The use of the application as a visualization tool for the output of the radiation transport codes is also discussed.

Burns, T.J.

1994-03-01

329

We present the implementation, validation, and performance of a Neumann-series approach for simulating light propagation at optical wavelengths in uniform media using the radiative transport equation (RTE). The RTE is solved for an anisotropic-scattering medium in a spherical harmonic basis for a diffuse-optical-imaging setup. The main objectives of this paper are threefold: to present the theory behind the Neumann-series form for the RTE, to design and develop the mathematical methods and the software to implement the Neumann series for a diffuse-optical-imaging setup, and, finally, to perform an exhaustive study of the accuracy, practical limitations, and computational efficiency of the Neumann-series method. Through our results, we demonstrate that the Neumann-series approach can be used to model light propagation in uniform media with small geometries at optical wavelengths. PMID:23201893

Jha, Abhinav K.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Masumura, Takahiro; Clarkson, Eric; Maslov, Alexey V.; Barrett, Harrison H.

2014-01-01

330

Absolute dosimetry with ionization chambers of the narrow photon fields used in stereotactic techniques and IMRT beamlets is constrained by lack of electron equilibrium in the radiation field. It is questionable that stopping-power ratio in dosimetry protocols, obtained for broad photon beams and quasi-electron equilibrium conditions, can be used in the dosimetry of narrow fields while keeping the uncertainty at

F. Sánchez-Doblado; P. Andreo; R. Capote; A. Leal; M. Perucha; R. Arráns; L. Núñez; E. Mainegra; J. I. Lagares; E. Carrasco

2003-01-01

331

PEREGRINE: An all-particle Monte Carlo code for radiation therapy

The goal of radiation therapy is to deliver a lethal dose to the tumor while minimizing the dose to normal tissues. To carry out this task, it is critical to calculate correctly the distribution of dose delivered. Monte Carlo transport methods have the potential to provide more accurate prediction of dose distributions than currently-used methods. PEREGRINE is a new Monte Carlo transport code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the specific purpose of modeling the effects of radiation therapy. PEREGRINE transports neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons, and heavy charged-particles, including protons, deuterons, tritons, helium-3, and alpha particles. This paper describes the PEREGRINE transport code and some preliminary results for clinically relevant materials and radiation sources.

Hartmann Siantar, C.L.; Chandler, W.P.; Rathkopf, J.A.; Svatos, M.M.; White, R.M.

1994-09-01

332

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photon counting detector based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) or cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is a promising imaging modality that provides many benefits compared to conventional scintillation detectors. By using a pinhole collimator with the photon counting detector, we were able to improve both the spatial resolution and the sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the photon counting and conventional scintillation detectors in a pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system. We designed five pinhole SPECT systems of two types: one type with a CdTe photon counting detector and the other with a conventional NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. We conducted simulation studies and evaluated imaging performance. The results demonstrated that the spatial resolution of the CdTe photon counting detector was 0.38 mm, with a sensitivity 1.40 times greater than that of a conventional NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for the same detector thickness. Also, the average scatter fractions of the CdTe photon counting and the conventional NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors were 1.93% and 2.44%, respectively. In conclusion, we successfully evaluated various pinhole SPECT systems for small animal imaging.

Lee, Young-Jin; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Seung-Wan; Kim, Dae-Hong; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Hee-Joung

2013-05-01

333

Fast Monte Carlo for radiation therapy: the PEREGRINE Project

The purpose of the PEREGRINE program is to bring high-speed, high- accuracy, high-resolution Monte Carlo dose calculations to the desktop in the radiation therapy clinic. PEREGRINE is a three- dimensional Monte Carlo dose calculation system designed specifically for radiation therapy planning. It provides dose distributions from external beams of photons, electrons, neutrons, and protons as well as from brachytherapy sources. Each external radiation source particle passes through collimator jaws and beam modifiers such as blocks, compensators, and wedges that are used to customize the treatment to maximize the dose to the tumor. Absorbed dose is tallied in the patient or phantom as Monte Carlo simulation particles are followed through a Cartesian transport mesh that has been manually specified or determined from a CT scan of the patient. This paper describes PEREGRINE capabilities, results of benchmark comparisons, calculation times and performance, and the significance of Monte Carlo calculations for photon teletherapy. PEREGRINE results show excellent agreement with a comprehensive set of measurements for a wide variety of clinical photon beam geometries, on both homogeneous and heterogeneous test samples or phantoms. PEREGRINE is capable of calculating >350 million histories per hour for a standard clinical treatment plan. This results in a dose distribution with voxel standard deviations of <2% of the maximum dose on 4 million voxels with 1 mm resolution in the CT-slice plane in under 20 minutes. Calculation times include tracking particles through all patient specific beam delivery components as well as the patient. Most importantly, comparison of Monte Carlo dose calculations with currently-used algorithms reveal significantly different dose distributions for a wide variety of treatment sites, due to the complex 3-D effects of missing tissue, tissue heterogeneities, and accurate modeling of the radiation source.

Hartmann Siantar, C.L.; Bergstrom, P.M.; Chandler, W.P.; Cox, L.J.; Daly, T.P.; Garrett, D.; House, R.K.; Moses, E.I.; Powell, C.L.; Patterson, R.W.; Schach von Wittenau, A.E.

1997-11-11

334

Monte Carlo Simulations for Studying Hot-Electron Transport in Non-Degenerate Plasmas of Arbitrary Z

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Monte Carlo code is used to model the scattering and energy loss of fast electrons off ions and electrons in a cold non-degenerate plasma of arbitrary Z. For Z = 1 solids and plasmas, the effects of e--e scattering are expected to be as important as e--i scattering. These calculations will be compared to the results of analytic calculations studying the penetration, energy deposition, straggling and blooming of fast electrons. These calculations will be used to establish requirements for fast ignition and tolerable levels of electron preheat for direct and indirect ignition targets. This work was supported in part by LLE, LLNL, the U.S. DoE, the Univ. of Rochester, and the N.Y. State Energy Research and Development Authority.

Chen, C. D.; Myatt, J.

2005-10-01

335

MCMini is a proof of concept that demonstrates the possibility for Monte Carlo neutron transport using OpenCL with a focus on performance. This implementation, written in C, shows that tracing particles and calculating reactions on a 3D mesh can be done in a highly scalable fashion. These results demonstrate a potential path forward for MCNP or other Monte Carlo codes.

Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-25

336

Updated version of the DOT 4 one- and two-dimensional neutron/photon transport code

DOT 4 is designed to allow very large transport problems to be solved on a wide range of computers and memory arrangements. Unusual flexibilty in both space-mesh and directional-quadrature specification is allowed. For example, the radial mesh in an R-Z problem can vary with axial position. The directional quadrature can vary with both space and energy group. Several features improve performance on both deep penetration and criticality problems. The program has been checked and used extensively.

Rhoades, W.A.; Childs, R.L.

1982-07-01

337

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the field of medical physics, Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations are considered to be the most accurate method for the determination of dose distributions in patients. The McGill Monte Carlo treatment planning system (MMCTP), provides a flexible software environment to integrate Monte Carlo simulations with current and new treatment modalities. A developing treatment modality called energy and intensity modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) is a promising modality, which has the fundamental capabilities to enhance the dosimetry of superficial targets. An objective of this work is to advance the research and development of MERT with the end goal of clinical use. To this end, we present the MMCTP system with an integrated toolkit for MERT planning and delivery of MERT fields. Delivery is achieved using an automated "few leaf electron collimator" (FLEC) and a controller. Aside from the MERT planning toolkit, the MMCTP system required numerous add-ons to perform the complex task of large-scale autonomous Monte Carlo simulations. The first was a DICOM import filter, followed by the implementation of DOSXYZnrc as a dose calculation engine and by logic methods for submitting and updating the status of Monte Carlo simulations. Within this work we validated the MMCTP system with a head and neck Monte Carlo recalculation study performed by a medical dosimetrist. The impact of MMCTP lies in the fact that it allows for systematic and platform independent large-scale Monte Carlo dose calculations for different treatment sites and treatment modalities. In addition to the MERT planning tools, various optimization algorithms were created external to MMCTP. The algorithms produced MERT treatment plans based on dose volume constraints that employ Monte Carlo pre-generated patient-specific kernels. The Monte Carlo kernels are generated from patient-specific Monte Carlo dose distributions within MMCTP. The structure of the MERT planning toolkit software and optimization algorithms are demonstrated. We investigated the clinical significance of MERT on spinal irradiation, breast boost irradiation, and a head and neck sarcoma cancer site using several parameters to analyze the treatment plans. Finally, we investigated the idea of mixed beam photon and electron treatment planning. Photon optimization treatment planning tools were included within the MERT planning toolkit for the purpose of mixed beam optimization. In conclusion, this thesis work has resulted in the development of an advanced framework for photon and electron Monte Carlo treatment planning studies and the development of an inverse planning system for photon, electron or mixed beam radiotherapy (MBRT). The justification and validation of this work is found within the results of the planning studies, which have demonstrated dosimetric advantages to using MERT or MBRT in comparison to clinical treatment alternatives.

Alexander, Andrew William

338

Computational radiology and imaging with the MCNP Monte Carlo code

MCNP, a 3D coupled neutron/photon/electron Monte Carlo radiation transport code, is currently used in medical applications such as cancer radiation treatment planning, interpretation of diagnostic radiation images, and treatment beam optimization. This paper will discuss MCNP`s current uses and capabilities, as well as envisioned improvements that would further enhance MCNP role in computational medicine. It will be demonstrated that the methodology exists to simulate medical images (e.g. SPECT). Techniques will be discussed that would enable the construction of 3D computational geometry models of individual patients for use in patient-specific studies that would improve the quality of care for patients.

Estes, G.P.; Taylor, W.M.

1995-05-01

339

MCNP{trademark} Monte Carlo: A precis of MCNP

MCNP{trademark} is a general purpose three-dimensional time-dependent neutron, photon, and electron transport code. It is highly portable and user-oriented, and backed by stringent software quality assurance practices and extensive experimental benchmarks. The cross section database is based upon the best evaluations available. MCNP incorporates state-of-the-art analog and adaptive Monte Carlo techniques. The code is documented in a 600 page manual which is augmented by numerous Los Alamos technical reports which detail various aspects of the code. MCNP represents over a megahour of development and refinement over the past 50 years and an ongoing commitment to excellence.

Adams, K.J.

1996-06-01

340

To provide asymmetric propagation of light, we propose a graded index photonic crystal (GRIN PC) based waveguide configuration that is formed by introducing line and point defects as well as intentional perturbations inside the structure. The designed system utilizes isotropic materials and is purely reciprocal, linear, and time-independent, since neither magneto-optical materials are used nor time-reversal symmetry is broken. The numerical results show that the proposed scheme based on the spatial-inversion symmetry breaking has different forward (with a peak value of 49.8%) and backward transmissions (4.11% at most) as well as relatively small round-trip transmission (at most 7.11%) in a large operational bandwidth of 52.6?nm. The signal contrast ratio of the designed configuration is above 0.80 in the telecom wavelengths of 1523.5–1576.1?nm. An experimental measurement is also conducted in the microwave regime: A strong asymmetric propagation characteristic is observed within the frequency interval of 12.8 GHz–13.3?GHz. The numerical and experimental results confirm the asymmetric transmission behavior of the proposed GRIN PC waveguide.

Giden, I. H., E-mail: igiden@etu.edu.tr; Yilmaz, D.; Turduev, M.; Kurt, H. [Nanophotonics Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Ankara 06560 (Turkey); Çolak, E. [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Ankara University, Gölbasi, Ankara 06830 (Turkey); Ozbay, E. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

2014-01-20

341

A system and method is disclosed for radiation dose calculation within sub-volumes of a particle transport grid. In a first step of the method voxel volumes enclosing a first portion of the target mass are received. A second step in the method defines dosel volumes which enclose a second portion of the target mass and overlap the first portion. A third step in the method calculates common volumes between the dosel volumes and the voxel volumes. A fourth step in the method identifies locations in the target mass of energy deposits. And, a fifth step in the method calculates radiation doses received by the target mass within the dosel volumes. A common volume calculation module inputs voxel volumes enclosing a first portion of the target mass, inputs voxel mass densities corresponding to a density of the target mass within each of the voxel volumes, defines dosel volumes which enclose a second portion of the target mass and overlap the first portion, and calculates common volumes between the dosel volumes and the voxel volumes. A dosel mass module, multiplies the common volumes by corresponding voxel mass densities to obtain incremental dosel masses, and adds the incremental dosel masses corresponding to the dosel volumes to obtain dosel masses. A radiation transport module identifies locations in the target mass of energy deposits. And, a dose calculation module, coupled to the common volume calculation module and the radiation transport module, for calculating radiation doses received by the target mass within the dosel volumes.

Bergstrom, Paul M. (Livermore, CA); Daly, Thomas P. (Livermore, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Livermore, CA); Patterson, Jr., Ralph W. (Livermore, CA); Schach von Wittenau, Alexis E. (Livermore, CA); Garrett, Dewey N. (Livermore, CA); House, Ronald K. (Tracy, CA); Hartmann-Siantar, Christine L. (Livermore, CA); Cox, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Fujino, Donald H. (San Leandro, CA)

2000-01-01

342

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient characteristics of wurtzite Zn1-xMgxO are investigated using a three-valley Ensemble Monte Carlo model verified by the agreement between the simulated low-field mobility and the experiment result reported. The electronic structures are obtained by first principles calculations with density functional theory. The results show that the peak electron drift velocities of Zn1-xMgxO (x = 11.1%, 16.7%, 19.4%, 25%) at 3000 kV/cm are 3.735 × 107, 2.133 × 107, 1.889 × 107, 1.295 × 107 cm/s, respectively. With the increase of Mg concentration, a higher electric field is required for the onset of velocity overshoot. When the applied field exceeds 2000 kV/cm and 2500 kV/cm, a phenomena of velocity undershoot is observed in Zn0.889Mg0.111O and Zn0.833Mg0.167O respectively, while it is not observed for Zn0.806Mg0.194O and Zn0.75Mg0.25O even at 3000 kV/cm which is especially important for high frequency devices.

Wang, Ping; Hu, Linlin; Yang, Yintang; Shan, Xuefei; Song, Jiuxu; Guo, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiyong

2015-01-01

343

There is an increasing interest in the use of inhomogeneity corrections for lung, air, and bone in radiotherapy treatment planning. Traditionally, corrections based on physical density have been used. Modern algorithms use the electron density derived from CT images. Small fields are used in both conformal radiotherapy and IMRT, however, their beam characteristics in inhomogeneous media have not been extensively studied. This work compares traditional and modern treatment planning algorithms to Monte Carlo simulations in and near low-density inhomogeneities. Field sizes ranging from 0.5 cm to 5 cm in diameter are projected onto a phantom containing inhomogeneities and depth dose curves are compared. Comparisons of the Dose Perturbation Factors (DPF) are presented as functions of density and field size. Dose Correction Factors (DCF), which scale the algorithms to the Monte Carlo data, are compared for each algorithm. Physical scaling algorithms such as Batho and Equivalent Pathlength (EPL) predict an increase in dose for small fields passing through lung tissue, where Monte Carlo simulations show a sharp dose drop. The physical model-based collapsed cone convolution (CCC) algorithm correctly predicts the dose drop, but does not accurately predict the magnitude. Because the model-based algorithms do not correctly account for the change in backscatter, the dose drop predicted by CCC occurs farther downstream compared to that predicted by the Monte Carlo simulations. Beyond the tissue inhomogeneity all of the algorithms studied predict dose distributions in close agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Dose-volume relationships are important in understanding the effects of radiation to the lung. The dose within the lung is affected by a complex function of beam energy, lung tissue density, and field size. Dose algorithms vary in their abilities to correctly predict the dose to the lung tissue. A thorough analysis of the effects of density, and field size on dose to the lung and how modern dose calculation algorithms compare to Monte Carlo data is presented in this research project. This work can be used as a basis to further refine an algorithm's accuracy in low-density media or to correct prior dosimetric results.

Jones, Andrew Osler [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geisinger Medical Center, 100 North Academy Avenue, MC 20-03, Danville, Pennsylvania 17822 (United States)

2004-11-01

344

Effects of breaking various symmetries on optical properties in ordered materials have been studied. Photonic crystals lacking space-inversion and time-reversal symmetries were shown to display nonreciprocal dispersion ...

Bita, Ion

2006-01-01

345

Parallel Finite Element Electron-Photon Transport Analysis on 2-D Unstructured Mesh

A computer code has been developed to solve the linear Boltzmann transport equation on an unstructured mesh of triangles, from a Pro/E model. An arbitriwy arrangement of distinct material regions is allowed. Energy dependence is handled by solving over an arbitrary number of discrete energy groups. Angular de- pendence is treated by Legendre-polynomial expansion of the particle cross sections and a discrete ordinates treatment of the particle fluence. The resulting linear system is solved in parallel with a preconditioned conjugate-gradients method. The solution method is unique, in that the space-angle dependence is solved si- multaneously, eliminating the need for the usual inner iterations. Electron cross sections are obtained from a Goudsrnit-Saunderson modifed version of the CEPXS code. A one-dimensional version of the code has also been develop@ for testing and development purposes.

Drumm, C.R.

1999-01-01

346

Small-animal molecular imaging is a prominent field of research, and SPECT plays an important role within it. Evaluation of imaging systems and reconstruction algorithms in SPECT imaging often involves Monte Carlo simulations, and SimSET is a widely used code for emission tomography simulation. 123I is a frequently used radionuclide in human and small animal studies. It emits a main yield

Nuria Roe-Vellve; Albert Cot; Domenec Ros; Javier Pavia

2011-01-01

347

Background Significant hepatobiliary accumulation of technetium 99m-labeled cardiac perfusion agents has been shown to cause alterations\\u000a in the apparent localization of the agents in the cardiac walls. A Monte Carlo study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis\\u000a that the cardiac count changes are due to the inconsistencies in the projection data input to reconstruction, and that correction\\u000a of the causes of

Michael A. King; Weishi Xia; Daniel J. deVries; Tin-Su Pan; Benard J. Villegas; Seth Dahlberg; Benjamin M. W. Tsui; Michael H. Ljungberg; Hugh T. Morgan

1996-01-01

348

modelo padrÃ£o (modelo 2); Uma foto 3x4 recente; CÃ³pia do CPF e do RG; #12;Programa de PÃ³s-GraduaÃ§Ã£o em EducaÃ§Ã£o e/ou pelo MinistÃ©rio de RelaÃ§Ãµes Exteriores do Brasil; e Os modelos 1, 2 e 3 acima poderÃ£o ser Catarina / Brasil #12;Programa de PÃ³s-GraduaÃ§Ã£o em Engenharia de Transportes e GestÃ£o Territorial Â PPGTG

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

349

Monte Carlo (MC) is a well-utilized tool for simulating photon transport in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) due to its ability to accurately model physical processes of photon transport. As a consequence of this accuracy, it suffers from a relatively low detection efficiency and long computation time. One technique used to improve the speed of MC modeling is the effective and well-established variance reduction technique (VRT) known as forced detection (FD). With this method, photons are followed as they traverse the object under study but are then forced to travel in the direction of the detector surface, whereby they are detected at a single detector location. Another method, called convolution-based forced detection (CFD), is based on the fundamental idea of FD with the exception that detected photons are detected at multiple detector locations and determined with a distance-dependent blurring kernel. In order to further increase the speed of MC, a method named multiple projection convolution-based forced detection (MP-CFD) is presented. Rather than forcing photons to hit a single detector, the MP-CFD method follows the photon transport through the object but then, at each scatter site, forces the photon to interact with a number of detectors at a variety of angles surrounding the object. This way, it is possible to simulate all the projection images of a SPECT simulation in parallel, rather than as independent projections. The result of this is vastly improved simulation time as much of the computation load of simulating photon transport through the object is done only once for all projection angles. The results of the proposed MP-CFD method agrees well with the experimental data in measurements of point spread function (PSF), producing a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.99 compared to experimental data. The speed of MP-CFD is shown to be about 60 times faster than a regular forced detection MC program with similar results. PMID:20811587

Liu, Shaoying; King, Michael A.; Brill, Aaron B.; Stabin, Michael G.; Farncombe, Troy H.

2010-01-01

350

FERMI@Elettra is comprised of two free electron lasers (FELs) that will generate short pulses (tau ~;; 25 to 200 fs) of highly coherent radiation in the XUV and soft X-ray region. The use of external laser seeding together with a harmonic upshift scheme to obtain short wavelengths will give FERMI@Elettra the capability to produce high quality, longitudinal coherent photon pulses. This capability together with the possibilities of temporal synchronization to external lasers and control of the output photon polarization will open new experimental opportunities not possible with currently available FELs. Here we report on the predicted radiation coherence properties and important configuration details of the photon beam transport system. We discuss the several experimental stations that will be available during initial operations in 2011, and we give a scientific perspective on possible experiments that can exploit the critical parameters of this new light source.

Allaria, Enrico; Callegari, Carlo; Cocco, Daniele; Fawley, William M.; Kiskinova, Maya; Masciovecchio, Claudio; Parmigiani, Fulvio

2010-04-05

351

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although ultraviolet photosensor devices offer many advantages when used in radiation detectors, there is often a significant reduction in pulse amplitude when the photosensor operates in a detector filled with a noble gas. This is due to the backscattering of electrons by the noble gas atoms. In this study, we investigate the problem of the backscattering of the photoelectrons emitted from a CsI photocathode into Xe, Ar, and Ne and the binary mixtures Xe-Ar, Ar-Ne and Xe-Ne using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation. Results for the photoelectron transmission efficiencies are presented and discussed for the case of a CsI photocathode irradiated with photons with energies in the range Eph = 6.8-9.8 eV (183-127 nm) and for applied reduced electric fields in the range E/N = 1-40 Td. The dependence on incident photon energy, nature of the gas and applied electric field are examined, and the results are explained in terms of electron scattering in the different noble gases.

Dias, T. H. V. T.; Rachinhas, P. J. B. M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Santos, F. P.; Távora, L. M. N.; Conde, C. A. N.; Stauffer, A. D.

2004-02-01

352

RCPL1 is a FORTRAN digital computer program designed and developed to prepare neutron and photon cross section libraries for the RCP01 Monte Carlo computer program for solving neutron and photon transport problems in three-dimensional geometry with detailed energy description. The neutron libraries prepared by RCPL1 contain detailed Doppler-broadened resonance cross sections from unresolved and either single-level or multilevel resonance parameters,

A. V. Dralle; N. R. Candelore; R. C. Gast

1978-01-01

353

A patient dose distribution was calculated by a 3D multi-group S N particle transport code for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri and compared to previously published Monte Carlo results. A Cs-137 LDR intracavitary brachytherapy CT data set was chosen from our clinical database. MCNPX version 2.5.c, was used to calculate the dose distribution. A 3D multi-group S N particle transport code, Attila version 6.1.1 was used to simulate the same patient. Each patient applicator was built in SolidWorks, a mechanical design package, and then assembled with a coordinate transformation and rotation for the patient. The SolidWorks exported applicator geometry was imported into Attila for calculation. Dose matrices were overlaid on the patient CT data set. Dose volume histograms and point doses were compared. The MCNPX calculation required 14.8 hours, whereas the Attila calculation required 22.2 minutes on a 1.8 GHz AMD Opteron CPU. Agreement between Attila and MCNPX dose calculations at the ICRU 38 points was within +/- 3%. Calculated doses to the 2 cc and 5 cc volumes of highest dose differed by not more than +/- 1.1% between the two codes. Dose and DVH overlays agreed well qualitatively. Attila can calculate dose accurately and efficiently for this Cs-137 CT-based patient geometry. Our data showed that a three-group cross-section set is adequate for Cs-137 computations. Future work is aimed at implementing an optimized version of Attila for radiotherapy calculations. PMID:20160682

Gifford, Kent A; Wareing, Todd A; Failla, Gregory; Horton, John L; Eifel, Patricia J; Mourtada, Firas

2010-01-01

354

Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) can potentially be used as a portable and personal dosemeter in mixed neutron and gamma-ray fields, but what hinders this use is their typically large physical size. To formulate compact TEPC designs, the use of a Monte Carlo transport code is necessary to predict the performance of compact designs in these fields. To perform this modelling, three candidate codes were assessed: MCNPX 2.7.E, FLUKA 2011.2 and PHITS 2.24. In each code, benchmark simulations were performed involving the irradiation of a 5-in. TEPC with monoenergetic neutron fields and a 4-in. wall-less TEPC with monoenergetic gamma-ray fields. The frequency and dose mean lineal energies and dose distributions calculated from each code were compared with experimentally determined data. For the neutron benchmark simulations, PHITS produces data closest to the experimental values and for the gamma-ray benchmark simulations, FLUKA yields data closest to the experimentally determined quantities. PMID:24162375

Ali, F; Waker, A J; Waller, E J

2014-10-01

355

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep-space manned flight as a reality depends on a viable solution to the radiation problem. Both acute and chronic radiation health threats are known to exist, with solar particle events as an example of the former and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) of the latter. In this experiment Iron ions of 1A GeV are used to simulate GCR and to determine the secondary radiation field created as the GCR-like particles interact with a thick target. A NASA prepared food pantry locker was subjected to the iron beam and the secondary fluence recorded. A modified version of the Monte Carlo heavy ion transport code developed by Zeitlin at LBNL is compared with experimental fluence. The foodstuff is modeled as mixed nuts as defined by the 71st edition of the Chemical Rubber Company (CRC) Handbook of Physics and Chemistry. The results indicate a good agreement between the experimental data and the model. The agreement between model and experiment is determined using a linear fit to ordered pairs of data. The intercept is forced to zero. The slope fit is 0.825 and the R2 value is 0.429 over the resolved fluence region. The removal of an outlier, Z=14, gives values of 0.888 and 0.705 for slope and R2 respectively. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Stephens, D. L. Jr; Townsend, L. W.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

2002-01-01

356

Retinoblastoma is the most common eye tumour in childhood. According to the available long-term data, the best outcome regarding tumour control and visual function has been reached by external beam radiotherapy. The benefits of the treatment are, however, jeopardized by a high incidence of radiation-induced secondary malignancies and the fact that irradiated bones grow asymmetrically. In order to better exploit the advantages of external beam radiotherapy, it is necessary to improve current techniques by reducing the irradiated volume and minimizing the dose to the facial bones. To this end, dose measurements and simulated data in a water phantom are essential. A Varian Clinac 2100 C/D operating at 6 MV is used in conjunction with a dedicated collimator for the retinoblastoma treatment. This collimator conforms a 'D'-shaped off-axis field whose irradiated area can be either 5.2 or 3.1 cm(2). Depth dose distributions and lateral profiles were experimentally measured. Experimental results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations' run with the penelope code and with calculations performed with the analytical anisotropic algorithm implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system using the gamma test. penelope simulations agree reasonably well with the experimental data with discrepancies in the dose profiles less than 3 mm of distance to agreement and 3% of dose. Discrepancies between the results found with the analytical anisotropic algorithm and the experimental data reach 3 mm and 6%. Although the discrepancies between the results obtained with the analytical anisotropic algorithm and the experimental data are notable, it is possible to consider this algorithm for routine treatment planning of retinoblastoma patients, provided the limitations of the algorithm are known and taken into account by the medical physicist and the clinician. Monte Carlo simulation is essential for knowing these limitations. Monte Carlo simulation is required for optimizing the treatment technique and the dedicated collimator. PMID:23123926

Brualla, L; Mayorga, P A; Flühs, A; Lallena, A M; Sempau, J; Sauerwein, W

2012-11-21

357

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scaling Monte Carlo method and Gaussian model are applied to simulate the transportation of light beam with arbitrary waist radius. Much of the time, Monte Carlo simulation is performed for pencil or cone beam where the initial status of the photon is identical. In practical application, incident light is always focused on the sample to form approximate Gauss distribution on the surface. With alteration of focus position in the sample, the initial status of the photon will not be identical any more. Using the hyperboloid method, the initial reflect angle and coordinates are generated statistically according to the size of Gaussian waist and focus depth. Scaling calculation is performed with baseline data from standard Monte Carlo simulation. The scaling method incorporated with the Gaussian model was tested, and proved effective over a range of scattering coefficients from 20% to 180% relative to the value used in baseline simulation. In most cases, percentage error was less than 10%. The increasing of focus depth will result in larger error of scaled radial reflectance in the region close to the optical axis. In addition to evaluating accuracy of scaling the Monte Carlo method, this study has given implications for inverse Monte Carlo with arbitrary parameters of optical system.

Lin, Lin; Zhang, Mei

2015-02-01

358

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In my presentation, I will describe several approximation methods with different level of complexity; they will be gradually applied to simple examples of horizontally inhomogeneous clouds. Understanding of photon horizontal transport and radiative smoothing can help to improve accuracy of the methods The accuracy of the methods will be compared with the full Monte Carlo calculations. The specifics of Monte Carlo in cloudy atmospheres will be also discussed. A special emphasis will be put on the strong forward scattering peak in the phase functions.

Marshak, Alexander

2004-01-01

359

Monte-Carlo estimation of the inflight performance of the GEMS satellite x-ray polarimeter

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a Monte-Carlo estimation of the in-orbit performance of a cosmic X-ray polarimeter designed to be installed on the focal plane of a small satellite. The simulation uses GEANT for the transport of photons and energetic particles and results from Magboltz for the transport of secondary electrons in the detector gas. We validated the simulation by comparing spectra and modulation curves with actual data taken with radioactive sources and an X-ray generator. We also estimated the in-orbit background induced by cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit.

Kitaguchi, Takao; Tamagawa, Toru; Hayato, Asami; Enoto, Teruaki; Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Kaneko, Kenta; Takeuchi, Yoko; Black, Kevin; Hill, Joanne; Jahoda, Keith; Krizmanic, John; Sturner, Steven; Griffiths, Scott; Kaaret, Philip; Marlowe, Hannah

2014-07-01

360

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image formation in fluorescence diffuse optical tomography is critically dependent on construction of the Jacobian matrix. For clinical and preclinical applications, because of the highly heterogeneous characteristics of the medium, Monte Carlo methods are frequently adopted to construct the Jacobian. Conventional adjoint Monte Carlo method typically compute the Jacobian by multiplying the photon density fields radiated from the source at the excitation wavelength and from the detector at the emission wavelength. Nonetheless, this approach assumes that the source and the detector in Green's function are reciprocal, which is invalid in general. This assumption is particularly questionable in small animal imaging, where the mean free path length of photons is typically only one order of magnitude smaller than the representative dimension of the medium. We propose a new method that does not rely on the reciprocity of the source and the detector by tracing photon propagation entirely from the source to the detector. This method relies on the perturbation Monte Carlo theory to account for the differences in optical properties of the medium at the excitation and the emission wavelengths. Compared to the adjoint methods, the proposed method is more valid in reflecting the physical process of photon transport in diffusive media and is more efficient in constructing the Jacobian matrix for densely sampled configurations.

Zhang, Xiaofeng

2012-03-01

361

TOPICAL REVIEW: Dose calculations for external photon beams in radiotherapy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dose calculation methods for photon beams are reviewed in the context of radiation therapy treatment planning. Following introductory summaries on photon beam characteristics and clinical requirements on dose calculations, calculation methods are described in order of increasing explicitness of particle transport. The simplest are dose ratio factorizations limited to point dose estimates useful for checking other more general, but also more complex, approaches. Some methods incorporate detailed modelling of scatter dose through differentiation of measured data combined with various integration techniques. State-of-the-art methods based on point or pencil kernels, which are derived through Monte Carlo simulations, to characterize secondary particle transport are presented in some detail. Explicit particle transport methods, such as Monte Carlo, are briefly summarized. The extensive literature on beam characterization and handling of treatment head scatter is reviewed in the context of providing phase space data for kernel based and/or direct Monte Carlo dose calculations. Finally, a brief overview of inverse methods for optimization and dose reconstruction is provided.

Ahnesjö, Anders; Mania Aspradakis, Maria

1999-11-01

362

Few-photon transport in a waveguide coupled to a pair of colocated two-level atoms

We calculate the one- and two-photon scattering matrices of a pair of collocated nonidentical two-level atoms coupled to a waveguide. We show that by proper choice of a two-photon input, the background fluorescence by the atoms may be completely quenched, as a result of quantum interference, and that when the atoms' detuning is smaller than their linewidths, extremely narrow fluorescence features emerge. Furthermore, the system emits a two-photon bound state which can display spatial oscillations or quantum beats, and can be tuned from bunched to antibunched statistics as the total photon energy is varied.

Rephaeli, Eden [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Kocabas, Suekrue Ekin; Fan, Shanhui [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2011-12-15

363

Dysregulation of noradrenergic function has been implicated in a variety of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including depression and Alzheimer's disease. The noradrenaline transporter (NAT) is a major target for antidepressant drugs, including reboxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. Therefore, the development of a radiotracer for imaging of the NAT is desirable. In this study, NKJ64, a novel iodinated analog of reboxetine, was radiolabeled and evaluated as a potential single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) radiotracer for imaging the NAT in brain. Biological evaluation of the novel radiotracer, ¹²³/¹²?I-NKJ64, was carried out in rats using: in vitro ligand binding assays; in vitro and ex vivo autoradiography; in vivo biodistribution studies and ex vivo pharmacological blocking studies. ¹²?I-NKJ64 displayed saturable binding with high affinity for NAT in cortical homogenates (K(D) = 4.82 ± 0.87 nM, mean ± SEM, n = 3). In vitro and ex vivo autoradiography showed the regional distribution of ¹²³I-NKJ64 binding to be consistent with the known density of NAT in brain. Following i.v. injection there was rapid uptake of ¹²³I-NKJ64 in brain, with maximum uptake of 2.93% ± 0.14% (mean ± SEM, n = 3) of the injected dose. The specific to nonspecific ratio (locus coeruleus:caudate putamen) of ¹²³I-NKJ64 uptake measured by ex vivo autoradiography was 2.8 at 30 min post i.v. injection. The prior administration of reboxetine significantly reduced the accumulation of ¹²³I-NKJ64 in the locus coeruleus (>50% blocking). The data indicate that further evaluation of ¹²³I-NKJ64 in nonhuman primates is warranted in order to determine its utility as a SPECT radiotracer for imaging of NAT in brain. PMID:21157929

Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S; Jobson, Nicola K; Dewar, Deborah; Sutherland, Andrew; Pimlott, Sally L

2011-07-01

364

Chapter 2 Monte Carlo Integration This chapter gives an introduction to Monte Carlo integration useful in computer graphics. Good references on Monte Carlo methods include Kalos & Whitlock [1986 for Monte Carlo applications to neutron transport problems; Lewis & Miller [1984] is a good source

Stanford University

365

Accelerating Monte Carlo simulations with an NVIDIA ® graphics processor

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern graphics cards, commonly used in desktop computers, have evolved beyond a simple interface between processor and display to incorporate sophisticated calculation engines that can be applied to general purpose computing. The Monte Carlo algorithm for modelling photon transport in turbid media has been implemented on an NVIDIA ® 8800 GT graphics card using the CUDA toolkit. The Monte Carlo method relies on following the trajectory of millions of photons through the sample, often taking hours or days to complete. The graphics-processor implementation, processing roughly 110 million scattering events per second, was found to run more than 70 times faster than a similar, single-threaded implementation on a 2.67 GHz desktop computer. Program summaryProgram title: Phoogle-C/Phoogle-G Catalogue identifier: AEEB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 51 264 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 238 805 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Designed for Intel PCs. Phoogle-G requires a NVIDIA graphics card with support for CUDA 1.1 Operating system: Windows XP Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Phoogle-G is written for SIMD architectures RAM: 1 GB Classification: 21.1 External routines: Charles Karney Random number library. Microsoft Foundation Class library. NVIDA CUDA library [1]. Nature of problem: The Monte Carlo technique is an effective algorithm for exploring the propagation of light in turbid media. However, accurate results require tracing the path of many photons within the media. The independence of photons naturally lends the Monte Carlo technique to implementation on parallel architectures. Generally, parallel computing can be expensive, but recent advances in consumer grade graphics cards have opened the possibility of high-performance desktop parallel-computing. Solution method: In this pair of programmes we have implemented the Monte Carlo algorithm described by Prahl et al. [2] for photon transport in infinite scattering media to compare the performance of two readily accessible architectures: a standard desktop PC and a consumer grade graphics card from NVIDIA. Restrictions: The graphics card implementation uses single precision floating point numbers for all calculations. Only photon transport from an isotropic point-source is supported. The graphics-card version has no user interface. The simulation parameters must be set in the source code. The desktop version has a simple user interface; however some properties can only be accessed through an ActiveX client (such as Matlab). Additional comments: The random number library used has a LGPL ( http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/lesser.html) licence. Running time: Runtime can range from minutes to months depending on the number of photons simulated and the optical properties of the medium. References:http://www.nvidia.com/object/cuda_home.html. S. Prahl, M. Keijzer, Sl. Jacques, A. Welch, SPIE Institute Series 5 (1989) 102.

Martinsen, Paul; Blaschke, Johannes; Künnemeyer, Rainer; Jordan, Robert

2009-10-01

366

Recent modifications to the TART Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code enable calculation of 566-group neutron spectra. This expanded group structure represents a significant improvement over the 50- and 175-group structures that have been previously available. To support use of this new capability, neutron activation cross section libraries have been created in the 175- and 566-group structures starting from

D Cullen; J Latkowski; J Sanz

1999-01-01

367

Coupled Proton, Neutron, and Gamma-Ray Transport; Code Validation Technique and Application

A recent code development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has combined high-energy proton and secondary particle transport with a fully-coupled low energy (<20 MeV) neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport code, MCNP^TM. The resulting code is called MCNPX^TM. The code development effort was undertaken as part of the support for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project. MCNPX is currently

James Langenbrunner; John Sarracino; Mark Jarzemba; Diane Quintana; Phillip Ferguson; Lon Waters; George Morgan; Frank Cverna; Charles Lebeda; Kenneth Adams; Jeffrey Favorite; Rodger Liljestrand; E. Snow; Ronald Cooper; Adam Whiteson; A. Hanson

1999-01-01

368

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the absorption of diffuse photons in aqueous foams by a dye added to the continuous liquid phase. For very wet and for dry foams, the absorption of the diffuse photons equals the absorption length of the liquid divided by the liquid volume fraction. This indicates that the diffuse photons propagate by a random walk, sampling each phase in proportion to its volume. Foams of intermediate wetness, by contrast, absorb photons more strongly than expected. A 2D computer simulation, modeling photons scattering in a foam crystal, also shows enhanced absorption. This encourages us to consider novel transport effects, such as the total internal reflection of photons inside the Plateau borders.

Gittings, A. S.; Bandyopadhyay, R.; Durian, D. J.

2004-02-01

369

Purpose: To compare TG43-based and Acuros deterministic radiation transport-based calculations of the BrachyVision treatment planning system (TPS) with corresponding Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results in heterogeneous patient geometries, in order to validate Acuros and quantify the accuracy improvement it marks relative to TG43. Methods: Dosimetric comparisons in the form of isodose lines, percentage dose difference maps, and dose volume histogram results were performed for two voxelized mathematical models resembling an esophageal and a breast brachytherapy patient, as well as an actual breast brachytherapy patient model. The mathematical models were converted to digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) image series for input to the TPS. The MCNP5 v.1.40 general-purpose simulation code input files for each model were prepared using information derived from the corresponding DICOM RT exports from the TPS. Results: Comparisons of MC and TG43 results in all models showed significant differences, as reported previously in the literature and expected from the inability of the TG43 based algorithm to account for heterogeneities and model specific scatter conditions. A close agreement was observed between MC and Acuros results in all models except for a limited number of points that lay in the penumbra of perfectly shaped structures in the esophageal model, or at distances very close to the catheters in all models. Conclusions: Acuros marks a significant dosimetry improvement relative to TG43. The assessment of the clinical significance of this accuracy improvement requires further work. Mathematical patient equivalent models and models prepared from actual patient CT series are useful complementary tools in the methodology outlined in this series of works for the benchmarking of any advanced dose calculation algorithm beyond TG43.

Zourari, K.; Pantelis, E.; Moutsatsos, A.; Sakelliou, L.; Georgiou, E.; Karaiskos, P.; Papagiannis, P. [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, 115 27 Athens (Greece); Department of Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, University of Athens, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, 115 27 Athens (Greece)

2013-01-15

370

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of topology, the mathematics of conserved properties under continuous deformations, is creating a range of new opportunities throughout photonics. This field was inspired by the discovery of topological insulators, in which interfacial electrons transport without dissipation, even in the presence of impurities. Similarly, the use of carefully designed wavevector-space topologies allows the creation of interfaces that support new states of light with useful and interesting properties. In particular, this suggests unidirectional waveguides that allow light to flow around large imperfections without back-reflection. This Review explains the underlying principles and highlights how topological effects can be realized in photonic crystals, coupled resonators, metamaterials and quasicrystals.

Lu, Ling; Joannopoulos, John D.; Solja?i?, Marin

2014-11-01

371

Purpose: The deterministic Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm was recently implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system. The goal of this study was to compare AXB performance to Monte Carlo (MC) and two standard clinical convolution methods: the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and the collapsed-cone convolution (CCC) method. Methods: Homogeneous water and multilayer slab virtual phantoms were used for this study. The multilayer slab phantom had three different materials, representing soft tissue, bone, and lung. Depth dose and lateral dose profiles from AXB v10 in Eclipse were compared to AAA v10 in Eclipse, CCC in Pinnacle3, and EGSnrc MC simulations for 6 and 18 MV photon beams with open fields for both phantoms. In order to further reveal the dosimetric differences between AXB and AAA or CCC, three-dimensional (3D) gamma index analyses were conducted in slab regions and subregions defined by AAPM Task Group 53. Results: The AXB calculations were found to be closer to MC than both AAA and CCC for all the investigated plans, especially in bone and lung regions. The average differences of depth dose profiles between MC and AXB, AAA, or CCC was within 1.1, 4.4, and 2.2%, respectively, for all fields and energies. More specifically, those differences in bone region were up to 1.1, 6.4, and 1.6%; in lung region were up to 0.9, 11.6, and 4.5% for AXB, AAA, and CCC, respectively. AXB was also found to have better dose predictions than AAA and CCC at the tissue interfaces where backscatter occurs. 3D gamma index analyses (percent of dose voxels passing a 2%?2 mm criterion) showed that the dose differences between AAA and AXB are significant (under 60% passed) in the bone region for all field sizes of 6 MV and in the lung region for most of field sizes of both energies. The difference between AXB and CCC was generally small (over 90% passed) except in the lung region for 18 MV 10?×?10 cm2 fields (over 26% passed) and in the bone region for 5?×?5 and 10?×?10 cm2 fields (over 64% passed). With the criterion relaxed to 5%?2 mm, the pass rates were over 90% for both AAA and CCC relative to AXB for all energies and fields, with the exception of AAA 18 MV 2.5?×?2.5 cm2 field, which still did not pass. Conclusions: In heterogeneous media, AXB dose prediction ability appears to be comparable to MC and superior to current clinical convolution methods. The dose differences between AXB and AAA or CCC are mainly in the bone, lung, and interface regions. The spatial distributions of these differences depend on the field sizes and energies. PMID:21776802

Han, Tao; Mikell, Justin K.; Salehpour, Mohammad; Mourtada, Firas

2011-01-01

372

An efficient depth- and energy-dependent Monte Carlo model for columnar CsI detectors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed an efficient, depth- and energy-dependent Monte Carlo model for columnar CsI detectors. The optical photon, electron/positron Monte Carlo package MANTIS developed by our group, was used to generate optical photon response and collection efficiency as a function of the x-ray/electron interaction depth for a realistic scintillator geometry. The detector geometry we used for the simulations was reported in the past and is based on a 500 ?m thick columnar CsI scintilator. The resulting depth-dependent optical photon responses were fit to a parametrized Gaussian mixture model. The model parameters were the depth-dependent radial shift of the response peak, the depth dependent widths of the Gaussians, and the depth-dependent magnitude of the Gaussians in the mixture. The depth-dependent optical spread has a maximum spatial shift of 53 ?m. The optical collection efficiency at the photo-diode layer followed a power law varying from 90% for interactions at the scintillator exit surface to 20% for interactions at the detector entrance. The responses were consequently incorporated into penMesh, a PENELOPE based Monte Carlo x-ray, electron/positron transport simulation package for generating clinically realistic images of triangular mesh phantoms. The resulting detector responses from this empirical model were compared against the full x-ray/electron/optical photon simulation using the package MANTIS, showing good agreement. The simulation speed, using the optical transport model in penMesh, increases by two orders of magnitude compared to MANTIS.

Kyprianou, Iacovos S.; Brackman, Gabriel; Myers, Kyle J.; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo

2008-03-01

373

Uncertainty analysis in Monte Carlo criticality computations

Uncertainty analysis is imperative for nuclear criticality risk assessments when using Monte Carlo neutron transport methods to predict the effective neutron multiplication factor (keff) for fissionable material systems. For the validation of Monte Carlo codes for criticality computations against benchmark experiments, code accuracy and precision are measured by both the computational bias and uncertainty in the bias. The uncertainty in

Qi Ao

374

Monte Carlo Application ToolKit (MCATK)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Monte Carlo Application ToolKit (MCATK) is a component-based software library designed to build specialized applications and to provide new functionality for existing general purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. We will describe MCATK and its capabilities along with presenting some verification and validations results.

Adams, Terry; Nolen, Steve; Sweezy, Jeremy; Zukaitis, Anthony; Campbell, Joann; Goorley, Tim; Greene, Simon; Aulwes, Rob

2014-06-01

375

Monte Carlo Analysis of Pion Contribution to Absorbed Dose from Galactic Cosmic Rays

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction, particle production and transport is necessary to estimate the radiation damage to equipment used on spacecraft and the biological effects of space radiation. For long duration astronaut missions, both on the International Space Station and the planned manned missions to Moon and Mars, the shielding strategy must include a comprehensive knowledge of the secondary radiation environment. The distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is a function of the type, energy and population of these secondary products. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) comprised of protons and heavier nuclei have energies from a few MeV per nucleon to the ZeV region, with the spectra reaching flux maxima in the hundreds of MeV range. Therefore, the MeV - GeV region is most important for space radiation. Coincidentally, the pion production energy threshold is about 280 MeV. The question naturally arises as to how important these particles are with respect to space radiation problems. The space radiation transport code, HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport), currently used by NASA, performs neutron, proton and heavy ion transport explicitly, but it does not take into account the production and transport of mesons, photons and leptons. In this paper, we present results from the Monte Carlo code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended), showing the effect of leptons and mesons when they are produced and transported in a GCR environment.

Aghara, S.K.; Battnig, S.R.; Norbury, J.W.; Singleterry, R.C.

2009-01-01

376

The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples.

Burns, Kimberly A.

2009-08-01

377

Nuclear data processing for energy release and deposition calculations in the MC21 Monte Carlo code

With the recent emphasis in performing multiphysics calculations using Monte Carlo transport codes such as MC21, the need for accurate estimates of the energy deposition-and the subsequent heating - has increased. However, the availability and quality of data necessary to enable accurate neutron and photon energy deposition calculations can be an issue. A comprehensive method for handling the nuclear data required for energy deposition calculations in MC21 has been developed using the NDEX nuclear data processing system and leveraging the capabilities of NJOY. The method provides a collection of data to the MC21 Monte Carlo code supporting the computation of a wide variety of energy release and deposition tallies while also allowing calculations with different levels of fidelity to be performed. Detailed discussions on the usage of the various components of the energy release data are provided to demonstrate novel methods in borrowing photon production data, correcting for negative energy release quantities, and adjusting Q values when necessary to preserve energy balance. Since energy deposition within a reactor is a result of both neutron and photon interactions with materials, a discussion on the photon energy deposition data processing is also provided. (authors)

Trumbull, T. H. [Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, PO Box 1072, Schenectady, NY 12301 (United States)

2013-07-01

378

Monte Carlo simulation of a CsI-based flat-panel imager for mammography

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of new digital mammography techniques such as dual-energy imaging, tomosynthesis and CT mammography often requires investigating optimal camera design parameters and imaging techniques. One tool that is useful for this purpose is Monte Carlo simulation. This paper presents a methodology for generating simulated images from a CsI-based, flat-panel imager by using the Geant 3 Monte Carlo code to model x-ray transport and absorption within the CsI scintillator, and the DETECT-II code to track optical photon spread within a columnar model of the CsI scintillator. The Monte Carlo modeling of x-ray transport and absorption within the CsI was validated by comparing to previously published values for the probability of a K-shell interaction, the fluorescent yield, the probability of a K-fluorescent emission, and the escape fraction describing the probability of a K x-ray escaping the scintillator. To validate the combined (Geant coupled with DETECT-II) Monte Carlo approach to form simulated images, comparison of modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and system sensitivity (electrons/mR/pixel) obtained from simulations were compared to empirical measurements obtained with different x-ray spectra and imagers with varying CsI thicknesses. By varying the absorption and reflective properties of the columnar CsI used in the DETECT-II code, good agreement between simulated MTFs and system sensitivity and empirically measured values were observed.

Thacker, Samta C.; Glick, Stephen J.; Badano, Aldo

2004-05-01

379

Monte Carlo methods Sequential Monte Carlo

Monte Carlo methods Sequential Monte Carlo A. Doucet Carcans Sept. 2011 A. Doucet (MLSS Sept. 2011) Sequential Monte Carlo Sept. 2011 1 / 85 #12;Generic Problem Consider a sequence of probability distributions, Fn = Fn 1 F. A. Doucet (MLSS Sept. 2011) Sequential Monte Carlo Sept. 2011 2 / 85 #12;Generic Problem

Doucet, Arnaud

380

Monte Carlo Simulator to Study High Mass X-Ray Binary System

We have developed a Monte Carlo simulator for astrophysical objects, which incorporate the transportation of X-ray photons in photoionized plasma. We applied the code to X-ray spectra of high mass X-ray binaries, Vela X-1 and GX 301-2, obtained with Chandra HETGS. By utilizing the simulator, we have successfully reproduced many emission lines observed from Vela X-1. The ionization structure and the matter distribution in the Vela X-1 system are deduced. For GX 301-2, we have derived the physical parameters of material surrounding the neutron star from fully resolved shape of the Compton shoulder in the iron K{alpha} line.

Watanabe, Shin; Nagase, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Tadayuki; /Sagamihara, Inst. Space Astron. Sci.; Sako, Masao; Kahn, Steve M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ishida, Manabu; Ishisaki,; /Tokyo Metropolitan U.; Paerels, Frederik; /Columbia U.

2005-07-08

381

Nuclear spectroscopy for in situ soil elemental analysis: Monte Carlo simulations

We developed a model to simulate a novel inelastic neutron scattering (INS) system for in situ non-destructive analysis of soil using standard Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP5a) transport code. The volumes from which 90%, 95%, and 99% of the total signal are detected were estimated to be 0.23 m{sup 3}, 0.37 m{sup 3}, and 0.79 m{sup 3}, respectively. Similarly, we assessed the instrument's sampling footprint and depths. In addition we discuss the impact of the carbon's depth distribution on sampled depth.

Wielopolski L.; Doron, O.

2012-07-01

382

Monte Carlo methods for design and analysis of radiation detectors

An overview of Monte Carlo as a practical method for designing and analyzing radiation detectors is provided. The emphasis is on detectors for radiation that is either directly or indirectly ionizing. This overview paper reviews some of the fundamental aspects of Monte Carlo, briefly addresses simulation of radiation transport by the Monte Carlo method, discusses the differences between direct and

William L. Dunn; J. Kenneth Shultis

2009-01-01

383

A photon transport algorithm for fully three-dimensional radiotherapy treatment planning has been developed based on the discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) solution of the Boltzmann equation. The algorithm is characterized by orthogonal adaptive meshes, which place additional points where large gradients occur and a procedure to evaluate the collided flux using the representation of spherical harmonic expansion instead of the summation of the volume-weighted contribution from discrete angles. The Boltzmann equation was solved in the form of S{sub N} spatial, energy, and angular discretization with mitigation of ray effects by the first-collision source method. Unlike existing S{sub N} codes, which were designed for general purpose for multiparticle transport in areas such as nuclear engineering, our code is optimized for medical radiation transport. To validate the algorithm, several examples were employed to calculate the photon flux distribution. Numerical results show good agreement with the Monte Carlo calculations using EGSnrc.

Yuan Jiankui; Jette, David; Chen Weimin [ICT Radiotherapy, Livingston, New Jersey 07039 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States); ICT Radiotherapy, Livingston, New Jersey 07039 (United States)

2008-09-15

384

of the offset QW structures. The active region is closer to (a) p-cladding for Laser P and (b) n-cladding Transport on the Current Injection Efficiency of InGaAsN Quantum-Well Lasers Jeng-Ya Yeh, Luke J. Mawst efficiency of InGaAsN quantum-well (QW) lasers can be significantly affected by carrier transport

Gilchrist, James F.

385

A novel approach is proposed for charged particle transport calculations using a recently developed second-order, self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) form of the Boltzmann transport equation with continuous slowing-down. A finite element discretization that is linear continuous in space and linear discontinuous (LD) in energy is described and implemented in a one-dimensional, planar geometry, multigroup, discrete ordinates code for charged particle

Jennifer L. Liscum-Powell; Anil B. Prinja; Jim E. Morel; Leonard J Jr. Lorence

2002-01-01

386

Uranium and thorium contents in different geological samples were determined by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and by calculating the probabilities for ?-particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series to reach and be registered on the SSNTD films. A new method has been developed based on the calculation of the self-absorption and transmission

M. A. Misdaq; A. Merzouki; D. Elabboubi; T. Sfairi

2001-01-01

387

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program called CTRANS is described which was designed to perform radiative transfer computations in an atmosphere with horizontal inhomogeneities (clouds). Since the atmosphere-ground system was to be richly detailed, the Monte Carlo method was employed. This means that results are obtained through direct modeling of the physical process of radiative transport. The effects of atmopheric or ground albedo pattern detail are essentially built up from their impact upon the transport of individual photons. The CTRANS program actually tracks the photons backwards through the atmosphere, initiating them at a receiver and following them backwards along their path to the Sun. The pattern of incident photons generated through backwards tracking automatically reflects the importance to the receiver of each region of the sky. Further, through backwards tracking, the impact of the finite field of view of the receiver and variations in its response over the field of view can be directly simulated.

1976-01-01

388

Mesh-based Monte Carlo method in time-domain widefield fluorescence molecular tomography

Abstract. We evaluated the potential of mesh-based Monte Carlo (MC) method for widefield time-gated fluorescence molecular tomography, aiming to improve accuracy in both shape discretization and photon transport modeling in preclinical settings. An optimized software platform was developed utilizing multithreading and distributed parallel computing to achieve efficient calculation. We validated the proposed algorithm and software by both simulations and in vivo studies. The results establish that the optimized mesh-based Monte Carlo (mMC) method is a computationally efficient solution for optical tomography studies in terms of both calculation time and memory utilization. The open source code, as part of a new release of mMC, is publicly available at http://mcx.sourceforge.net/mmc/. PMID:23224008

Chen, Jin; Fang, Qianqian; Intes, Xavier

2012-01-01

389

Fricke Gel Dosimeter Tissue-Equivalence a Monte Carlo Study

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gel dosimetry has proved to be a valuable technique for absorbed dose distribution measurements in radiotherapy. FriXy-gel dosimeters consist of Fricke (ferrous sulphate) solution infused with xylenol orange. The solution is incorporated to a gel matrix in order to fix it to a solid structure allowing good spatial resolution and is imaged with a transportable optical system, measuring visible light transmittance before and after irradiation. This paper presents an evaluation of total photon mass attenuation coefficients at energies in the range of 50 keV-10MeV for the radiochromic FriXy gel dosimeter sensitive material. Mass attenuation coefficient estimations have been performed by means of Monte Carlo (PENELOPE) simulations. These calculations have been carried out for the FriXy gel sensitive material as well as for soft tissue (ICRU) and pure liquid water; a comparison of the obtained data shows good agreement between the different materials.

Valente, M.; Bartesaghi, G.; Gambarini, G.; Brusa, D.; Castellano, G.; Carrara, M.

2008-06-01

390

Dirac tensor with heavy photon

For the large-angle hard-photon emission by initial leptons in the process of high-energy annihilation of e{sup +}e{sup -} to hadrons, the Dirac tensor is obtained by taking the lowest-order radiative corrections into account. The case of large-angle emission of two hard photons by initial leptons is considered. In the final result, the kinematic case of collinear emission of hard photons and soft virtual and real photons is included; it can be used for the construction of Monte-Carlo generators.

Bytev, V. V.; Kuraev, E. A., E-mail: kuraev@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation); Scherbakova, E. S., E-mail: scherbak@mail.desy.de [Hamburg University (Germany)

2013-03-15

391

Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e..gamma.. scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by ..gamma gamma.. collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F/sub 2//sup ..gamma../(x,Q/sup 2/) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved.

Burke, D.L.

1982-10-01

392

The width of electron-photon cascades in air

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a Monte-Carlo simulation of electron-photon cascades are presented with particular emphasis on cascade lateral spread. The effects of single and multiple Coulomb scattering are represented by giving the particles suitable displacements in position and angle at each interaction point. Some of the more oblique particle tracks are first divided into a number of steps between interaction points and the scattering procedure is applied to each step separately. To represent the particle defections due the geomagnetic field, a field of 0.3 gauss is supposed present and the appropriate helical path is imposed on each particle between interaction points. The results are in good agreement with the calculations of Nordheim et al., with simulations using the Berger-Seltzer electron photon transport program and with experimental measurements in water.

Allan, H. R.; Sun, M. P.; Crannell, C. J.; Hough, J. H.; Shutie, P. F.

1975-01-01

393

Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R&D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy.

Sessler, A.M.

1995-04-01

394

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo transport calculations of dose point kernels (DPKs) and depth dose profiles (DDPs) in both the vapor and liquid phases of water are presented for electrons with initial energy between 10 keV and 1 MeV. The results are obtained by the MC4 code using three different implementations of the condensed-history technique for inelastic collisions, namely the continuous slowing down approximation, the mixed-simulation with ?-ray transport and the addition of straggling distributions for soft collisions derived from accurate relativistic Born cross sections. In all schemes, elastic collisions are simulated individually based on single-scattering cross sections. Electron transport below 10 keV is performed in an event-by-event mode. Differences on inelastic interactions between the vapor and liquid phase are treated explicitly using our recently developed dielectric response function which is supplemented by relativistic corrections and the transverse contribution. On the whole, the interaction coefficients used agree to better than ~5% with NIST/ICRU values. It is shown that condensed phase effects in both DPKs and DDPs practically vanish above 100 keV. The effect of ?-rays, although decreases with energy, is sizeable leading to more diffused distributions, especially for DPKs. The addition of straggling for soft collisions is practically inconsequential above a few hundred keV. An extensive benchmarking with other condensed-history codes is provided.

Bousis, C.; Emfietzoglou, D.; Hadjidoukas, P.; Nikjoo, H.

2008-07-01

395

Absorbed dose measurements and calculations in phantoms for 1.5 to 50 keV photons

A Monte Carlo code EGS4 expanded for low energy photon transport was validated by measuring absorbed doses in a phantom for 30 and 10 keV monoenergetic photons from synchrotron radiation. Using the EGS4 code, depth doses at 0.07 mm, 0.02 to 0.1 mm, and 10 mm in the ICRU slab phantoms were calculated for 1.5 to 50 keV photons using the updated photon cross section data PHOTX. The results show that the doses at 0.02 to 0.1 mm below 10 keV are practical indices of effective dose as calculated by others. 19 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

Nariyama, Nobuteru [Ship Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Shun-ichi; Nakane, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

1995-02-01

396

Absorbed dose measurements and calculations in phantoms for 1.5 to 50 keV photons.

A Monte Carlo code EGS4 expanded for low energy photon transport was validated by measuring absorbed doses in a phantom for 30 and 10 keV monoenergetic photons from synchrotron radiation. Using the EGS4 code, depth doses at 0.07 mm, 0.02 to 0.1 mm, and 10 mm in the ICRU slab phantoms were calculated for 1.5 to 50 keV photons using the updated photon cross section data PHOTX. The results show that the doses at 0.02 to 0.1 mm below 10 keV are practical indices of effective dose as calculated by others, based on the 1990 ICRP recommendations (1991). PMID:7814258

Nariyama, N; Tanaka, S; Nakane, Y; Namito, Y; Hirayama, H; Ban, S; Nakashima, H

1995-02-01

397

Monte Carlo simulation for radiative kaon decays

For high precision measurements of K decays, the presence of radiated photons cannot be neglected. The Monte Carlo simulations must include the radiative corrections in order to compute the correct event counting and efficiency calculations. In this paper we briefly describe a method for simulating such decays.

C. Gatti

2005-07-26

398

Monte Carlo analysis of CLAS data

We present a fit of the virtual-photon scattering asymmetry of polarized Deep Inelastic Scattering which combines a Monte Carlo technique with the use of a redundant parametrization based on Neural Networks. We apply the result to the analysis of CLAS data on a polarized proton target.

L. Del Debbio; A. Guffanti; A. Piccione

2008-06-30

399

An approach to estimating the uncertainty of initial data in calculations by the Monte Carlo method is considered. The relative geometrical position of parts of the analyzed system is assumed to be unknown. The influence of different approximations in the description of the geometrical shape of system objects is studied. The effect of unknown location and approximate shape description of solid radioactive waste in the container on the magnitude of dose fields is considered for photon transport problems.

Androsenko, P. A.; Kolganov, K. M., E-mail: smilodonam@yandex.ru; Mogulyan, V. G. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

2012-12-15

400

Momentum spectra of hydrogen isotopes have been measured at 3.5 deg from C12 fragmentation on a Be target. Momentum spectra cover both the region of fragmentation maximum and the cumulative region. Differential cross sections span five orders of magnitude. The data are compared to predictions of four Monte Carlo codes: QMD, LAQGSM, BC, and INCL++. There are large differences between the data and predictions of some models in the high momentum region. The INCL++ code gives the best and almost perfect description of the data.

B. M. Abramov; P. N. Alexeev; Yu. A. Borodin; S. A. Bulychjov; I. A. Dukhovskoy; A. P. Krutenkova; V. V. Kulikov; M. A. Martemianov; M. A. Matsyuk; E. N. Turdakina; A. I. Khanov; S. G. Mashnik

2015-02-05

401

Momentum spectra of hydrogen isotopes have been measured at 3.5 deg from C12 fragmentation on a Be target. Momentum spectra cover both the region of fragmentation maximum and the cumulative region. Differential cross sections span five orders of magnitude. The data are compared to predictions of four Monte Carlo codes: QMD, LAQGSM, BC, and INCL++. There are large differences between the data and predictions of some models in the high momentum region. The INCL++ code gives the best and almost perfect description of the data.

Abramov, B M; Borodin, Yu A; Bulychjov, S A; Dukhovskoy, I A; Krutenkova, A P; Kulikov, V V; Martemianov, M A; Matsyuk, M A; Turdakina, E N; Khanov, A I; Mashnik, S G

2015-01-01

402

The transport of ions and solutes by biological pores is central for cellular processes and has a variety of applications in modern biotechnology. The time scale involved in the polymer transport across a nanopore is beyond the accessibility of conventional MD simulations. Moreover, experimental studies lack sufficient resolution to provide details on the molecular underpinning of the transport mechanisms. BROMOC, the code presented herein, performs Brownian dynamics simulations, both serial and parallel, up to several milliseconds long. BROMOC can be used to model large biological systems. IMC-MACRO software allows for the development of effective potentials for solute-ion interactions based on radial distribution function from all-atom MD. BROMOC Suite also provides a versatile set of tools to do a wide variety of preprocessing and postsimulation analysis. We illustrate a potential application with ion and ssDNA transport in MspA nanopore. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25503688

De Biase, Pablo M; Markosyan, Suren; Noskov, Sergei

2015-02-01

403

The FLUKA Monte Carlo particle generation and transport code was used to calculate shielding requirements for the 3 GeV, 500 mA SPEAR3 storage ring at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. The photon and neutron dose equivalent source term data were simulated for a 3 GeV electron beam interacting with two typical target\\/shielding geometries in the ring. The targets simulated are

S. H. Rokni; H. Khater; J. C. Liu; S. Mao; H. Vincke

2005-01-01

404

A univel geometry, neutral particle Monte Carlo transport code, written entirely in the Java programming language, is under development for medical radiotherapy applications. The code uses ENDF-VI based continuous energy cross section data in a flexible XML format. Full neutron-photon coupling, including detailed photon production and photonuclear reactions, is included. Charged particle equilibrium is assumed within the patient model so that detailed transport of electrons produced by photon interactions may be neglected. External beam and internal distributed source descriptions for mixed neutron-photon sources are allowed. Flux and dose tallies are performed on a univel basis. A four-tap, shift-register-sequence random number generator is used. Initial verification and validation testing of the basic neutron transport routines is underway. The searchlight problem was chosen as a suitable first application because of the simplicity of the physical model. Results show excellent agreement with analytic solutions. Computation times for similar numbers of histories are comparable to other neutron MC codes written in C and FORTRAN.

Charles A. Wemple; Joshua J. Cogliati

2005-04-01

405

The physics of the three-dimensional, Monte Carlo, general combinatorial geometry High Energy Transport Code (HETC)/Light Heavy Ion (LHI)/Spallation Gamma Source (SGS) radiation transport code system, used to transport neutrons, protons, pions, muons, photons, < or = deuterons, tritons, He3's, alpha particles, and other light heavy nuclei with 5 < or = A < or = 10 through complex materials and geometries, is discussed at an introductory level. The term system is used because HETC/LHI/SGS is really a collection of three and one-half separate codes linked together: (1) HET, which transports high-energy neutrons ( approx. > 15 MeV), protons, pion, and muons; (2) SGS, which calculates the energies of the gamma-ray photons emitted in the final de-excitation of the excited residual nucleus remaining after a non-elastic nucleon-nucleus or pion-nucleus collision in HET (note SGS is not itself a transport code); (3) MORSE, which transports low energy neutrons ( approximately < 15 MeV) and does all photon transport; and (3 1/2) LHI, an addition to HET to allow the partial transport of high-energy light heavy projectiles with 2 < or = A < or = 10. The MORSE code is not discussed.

Dietz, D.

1985-04-01

406

Coupled Monte Carlo neutral uid plasma simulation of Alcator C-Mod divertor plasma near detachment

Coupled Monte Carlo neutral Â± Â¯uid plasma simulation of Alcator C-Mod divertor plasma near Abstract Using the coupled Â¯uid plasma and Monte Carlo neutral transport code, B2-EIRENE, we simulate they are ionized. Coupled Monte Carlo neutral and Â¯uid plasma transport codes similar to those used successfully

Karney, Charles

407

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit designed to increase students' knowledge and understanding of diesel and gasoline engines, providing an introduction for students interested in more specialized training in the automobile field and its scientific principles through math, science, and chemistry. It will also help students realize the importance of transportation, and will help them meet their needs in math through problem solving by dealing with materials in their world, letting them develop skills and techniques through hands-on experience. Includes more than 20 problems to solve.

Bryant, Joyce

2007-05-12

408

Treating electron transport in MCNP{sup trademark}

The transport of electrons and other charged particles is fundamentally different from that of neutrons and photons. A neutron, in aluminum slowing down from 0.5 MeV to 0.0625 MeV will have about 30 collisions; a photon will have fewer than ten. An electron with the same energy loss will undergo 10{sup 5} individual interactions. This great increase in computational complexity makes a single- collision Monte Carlo approach to electron transport unfeasible for many situations of practical interest. Considerable theoretical work has been done to develop a variety of analytic and semi-analytic multiple-scattering theories for the transport of charged particles. The theories used in the algorithms in MCNP are the Goudsmit-Saunderson theory for angular deflections, the Landau an theory of energy-loss fluctuations, and the Blunck-Leisegang enhancements of the Landau theory. In order to follow an electron through a significant energy loss, it is necessary to break the electron`s path into many steps. These steps are chosen to be long enough to encompass many collisions (so that multiple-scattering theories are valid) but short enough that the mean energy loss in any one step is small (for the approximations in the multiple-scattering theories). The energy loss and angular deflection of the electron during each step can then be sampled from probability distributions based on the appropriate multiple- scattering theories. This subsumption of the effects of many individual collisions into single steps that are sampled probabilistically constitutes the ``condensed history`` Monte Carlo method. This method is exemplified in the ETRAN series of electron/photon transport codes. The ETRAN codes are also the basis for the Integrated TIGER Series, a system of general-purpose, application-oriented electron/photon transport codes. The electron physics in MCNP is similar to that of the Integrated TIGER Series.

Hughes, H.G.

1996-12-31

409

State-of-the-art Monte Carlo 1988

Particle transport calculations in highly dimensional and physically complex geometries, such as detector calibration, radiation shielding, space reactors, and oil-well logging, generally require Monte Carlo transport techniques. Monte Carlo particle transport can be performed on a variety of computers ranging from APOLLOs to VAXs. Some of the hardware and software developments, which now permit Monte Carlo methods to be routinely used, are reviewed in this paper. The development of inexpensive, large, fast computer memory, coupled with fast central processing units, permits Monte Carlo calculations to be performed on workstations, minicomputers, and supercomputers. The Monte Carlo renaissance is further aided by innovations in computer architecture and software development. Advances in vectorization and parallelization architecture have resulted in the development of new algorithms which have greatly reduced processing times. Finally, the renewed interest in Monte Carlo has spawned new variance reduction techniques which are being implemented in large computer codes. 45 refs.

Soran, P.D.

1988-06-28

410

Graduiertenschule Hybrid Monte Carlo

Graduiertenschule Hybrid Monte Carlo SS 2005 Heermann - UniversitÂ¨at Heidelberg Seite 1 #12;Graduiertenschule Â· In conventional Monte-Carlo (MC) calculations of condensed matter systems, such as an N probability distribution, unlike Monte-Carlo calculations. Â· The Hybrid Monte-Carlo (HMC) method combines

Heermann, Dieter W.

411

A Monte-Carlo maplet for the study of the optical properties of biological tissues

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte-Carlo simulations are commonly used to study complex physical processes in various fields of physics. In this paper we present a Maple program intended for Monte-Carlo simulations of photon transport in biological tissues. The program has been designed so that the input data and output display can be handled by a maplet (an easy and user-friendly graphical interface), named the MonteCarloMaplet. A thorough explanation of the programming steps and how to use the maplet is given. Results obtained with the Maple program are compared with