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[Asthma and allergy due to carmine dye].  


Cochineal carmine, or simply carmine (E120), is a red colouring that is obtained from the dried bodies of the female insect Dactylopius coccus Costa (the cochineal insect). We have evaluated the prevalence of sensitization and asthma caused by carmine in a factory using natural colouring, following the diagnosis of two workers with occupational asthma. The accumulated incidence of sensitization and occupational asthma due to carmine in this factory are 48.1% and 18.5% respectively, figures that make the introduction of preventive measures obligatory. Occupational asthma caused by inhaling carmine should be considered as a further example of the capacity of certain protein particles of arthropods (in this case cochineal insects) to act as aeroallergens. Carmine should be added to the list of agents capable of producing occupational asthma, whose mechanism, according to our studies, would be immunological mediated by IgE antibodies in the face of diverse allergens of high molecular weight, which can vary from patient to patient. Nonetheless, given the existence of different components in carmine, it cannot be ruled out that substances of low molecular weight, such as carminic acid, might act as haptenes. Besides, since we are dealing with a colouring that is widely used as a food additive, as a pharmaceutical excipient and in the composition of numerous cosmetics, it is not surprising that allergic reactions can appear both through ingestion and through direct cutaneous contact. We find ourselves facing a new example of an allergen that can act through both inhalation and digestion, giving rise to an allergolical syndrome that can show itself clinically with expressions of both respiratory allergy and alimentary allergy. PMID:13679965

Tabar, A I; Acero, S; Arregui, C; Urdánoz, M; Quirce, S



Electrochemical degradation of the dye indigo carmine at boron-doped diamond anode for wastewaters remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we demonstrate that anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode can be applied to the remediation of wastewaters containing indigo carmine. This environmentally friendly method decontaminates completely acid and alkaline aqueous solutions of this dye. The degradation rate increases with increasing current and dye concentration. Indigo carmine is more rapidly removed in alkaline than in acid medium, but

Salah Ammar; Ridha Abdelhedi; Cristina Flox; Conchita Arias; Enric Brillas



Dye-interleaved nanocomposite: Indigo carmine and methyl orange in the lamella of zinc-aluminium-layered double hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layered organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite, containing an organic dye in an inorganic interlayer was prepared using indigo carmine (IC) and methyl orange (OM) as a guest in Zn2-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) inorganic host by a ion exchange , with [Zn2-Al-Cl] LDH in aqueous solution. The affinity of the LDH with the dyes was studied as a function of contact time,

Layla El Gaini; Mohamed Lakraimi; Mina Bakasse



Red cochineal dye (carminic Acid): its role in nature.  


Carminic acid, the well-known red dyestuff from cochineal insects (Dactylopius spp.), is a potent feeding deterrent to ants. This deterrency may be indicative of the natural function of the compound, which may have evolved in cochineals as a chemical weapon against predation. The behavior of an unusual predator is described-the carnivorous caterpillar of a pyralid moth (Laetilia coccidivora)-which is undeterred by carminic acid and feeds on cochineals. The animal has the remarkable habit of utilizing the ingested carminic acid for defensive purposes of its own. PMID:17779027

Eisner, T; Nowicki, S; Goetz, M; Meinwald, J



Occupational asthma and immunologic responses induced by inhaled carmine among employees at a factory making natural dyes.  


Carmine is a natural red dye widely used as a food coloring agent and for cosmetic manufacture. It is extracted from the dried females of the insect Dactylopius coccus var. Costa (cochineal). Although it has been reported that inhalation of carmine may give rise to occupational asthma and extrinsic allergic alveolitis, there is little evidence of its immunogenic capacity. We studied nine current employees at a factory making natural dyes and one former employee who had left this plant after occupational asthma developed. A current employee had work-related symptoms of rhinitis and asthma that were confirmed by bronchial provocation tests, and another worker had rhinitis. Immunologic sensitization to carmine and cochineal was evaluated by means of skin testing and determination of serum-specific IgE and IgG subclass antibodies by RAST and ELISA, respectively. The specificity of the RAST assay was investigated by RAST inhibition with different fractions of carmine. The three workers with respiratory symptoms had positive skin prick test reactions to both carmine and cochineal. An immediate response to the bronchial provocation test with carmine and cochineal was observed in the current employee with asthma. Specific IgE antibodies against carmine and cochineal were found only in this worker. RAST inhibition studies indicated that the main allergen had a molecular weight between 10 and 30 kd. Specific IgG antibodies against carmine and cochineal, mainly the subclasses IgG1, IgG3, and IgG4, were found in the 10 subjects surveyed. These findings suggest that carmine may induce immunologic responses, most likely IgE mediated in workers with symptoms of occupational asthma. PMID:8308181

Quirce, S; Cuevas, M; Olaguibel, J M; Tabar, A I



Stability of ?-Irradiated Carmine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carmine is a dye used mainly for coloring food products and galenicals but also in inks. As food irradiation is becoming a regular treatment for food preservation, it is desirable to have a proper knowledge about the radiation sensitivity of additives that can be included in the food formula. The aim of this work was to establish the radiation stability of carmine against Co-60 gamma radiation. Samples of 50% pure carmine powder as well as 50%, 10% and 5% aqueous solutions were irradiated in a Gammacell 220, dose rate of about 5.2 kGy/h, with doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 kGy. Spectrophotometric readings at 494 nm show a slight decrease of the absorbance as a function of dose: Samples irradiated with 4 and 32 kGy retained 95% and 90% of absorbance of the unirradiated samples respectively. These results indicate a rather good stability of carmine against ?-irradiation.

Cosentino, Hélio M.; Fontenele, Rinaldo S.; DelMastro, Nélida L.



Raman spectroscopy of organic dyes adsorbed on pulsed laser deposited silver thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) study performed on representative organic and inorganic dyes adsorbed on silver nanostructured thin films are presented and discussed. Silver thin films were deposited on glass slides by focusing the beam from a KrF excimer laser (wavelength 248 nm, pulse duration 25 ns) on a silver target and performing the deposition in a controlled Ar atmosphere. Clear Raman spectra were acquired for dyes such as carmine lake, garanza lake and brazilwood overcoming their fluorescence and weak Raman scattering drawbacks. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy measurements were not able to discriminate among the different chromophores usually referred as carmine lake (carminic, kermesic and laccaic acid), as brazilwood (brazilin and brazilein) and as garanza lake (alizarin and purpurin). SERS measurements showed that the analyzed samples are composed of a mixture of different chromophores: brazilin and brazilein in brazilwood, kermesic and carminic acid in carmine lake, alizarin and purpurin in garanza lake. Detection at concentration level as low as 10-7 M in aqueous solutions was achieved. Higher Raman intensities were observed using the excitation line of 632.8 nm wavelength with respect to the 785 nm, probably due to a pre-resonant effect with the molecular electronic transitions of the dyes.

Fazio, E.; Neri, F.; Valenti, A.; Ossi, P. M.; Trusso, S.; Ponterio, R. C.



Prospects for Organic Dye Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Abstract  A review of organic nanoparticles consisting of small functional dye molecules is presented in this chapter. The study of\\u000a organic dye nanoparticles does not have a lengthy history, but there is growing scientific and technological interest owing\\u000a to their special characteristics: physicochemical properties of organic dye nanoparticles considerably differ not only from\\u000a those of individual molecules due to the presence

Hiroshi Yao


Preparation of mesoporous poly (acrylic acid)/SiO2 composite nanofiber membranes having adsorption capacity for indigo carmine dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous poly (acrylic acid)/SiO2 (PAA/SiO2) composite nanofiber membranes functionalized with mercapto groups were fabricated by a sol-gel electrospinning method, and their adsorption capacity for indigo carmine was investigated. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. SEM and TEM observation results showed that the PAA/SiO2 fibers had diameters between 400-800 nm and mesopores with an average pore size of 3.88 nm. The specific surface area of the mesoporous nanofiber membranes was 514.89 m2/g. The characteristic peaks for mercapto group vibration in FTIR and Raman spectra demonstrated that the mercapto groups have been incorporated into the silica skeleton. The adsorption isotherm data of indigo carmine on the membranes fit well with Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity calculated was 523.11 mg/g. It was found that the removal rate of indigo carmine by the membranes reached a maximum of 98% in 90 min and the adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The high adsorption capacity of PAA/SiO2 nanofiber membrane makes it a promising adsorbent for indigo carmine removal from the wastewater.

Xu, Ran; Jia, Min; Li, Fengting; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Bingru; Qiao, Junlian



Photodegradation of indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution by SiC-TiO2 catalysts prepared by sol-gel.  


Indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution were photodegraded using SiC-TiO(2) catalysts prepared by sol-gel method. After thermal treatment at 450°C, SiC-TiO(2) catalysts prepared in this work showed the presence of SiC and TiO(2) anatase phase. Those compounds showed specific surface area values around 22-25 m(2)g(-1), and energy band gap values close to 3.05 eV. In comparison with TiO(2) (P25), SiC-TiO(2) catalysts showed the highest activity for indigo carmine and methylene blue degradation, but this activity cannot be attributed to the properties above mentioned. Therefore, photocatalytic performance is due to the synergy effect between SiC and TiO(2) particles caused by the sol-gel method used to prepare the SiC-TiO(2) catalysts. TiO(2) nanoparticles are well dispersed onto SiC surface allowing the transfer of electronic charges between SiC and TiO(2) semiconductors, which avoid the fast recombination of the electron-hole pair during the photocatalytic process. PMID:22464585

Gómez-Solís, Christian; Juárez-Ramírez, Isaías; Moctezuma, Edgar; Torres-Martínez, Leticia M



Carminic acid dye from the homopteran Dactylopius coccus hemolymph is consumed during treatment with different microbial elicitors.  


The activation of Dactylopius coccus (Costa) hemolymph with microbial polysaccharide molecules was studied. Hemolymph incubated in the presence of laminarin, zymosan, and N-acetyl glucosamine produced a dark fibrillar precipitated, and the red pigment (carminic acid) was consumed (measured spectrophotometrically at 495 nm). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) did not induce any response. The reaction was inhibited with millimolar concentrations of serine and cysteine protease inhibitors, EGTA and phenyl thiourea. It was also diminished by prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors: dexamethasone, acetylsalicylic acid, and indomethacin. However, Mg2+ chelator EDTA did not inhibit hemolymph activation. Hemolymph proteins were depleted from soluble phase during treatment with laminarin, but a group of around 34 kDa remained unmodified. These results showed that D. coccus hemolymph is activated by microbial elicitors, its activation depends on eicosanoids, and suggest participation of a prophenoloxidase (PPO)-like activation system that could consume carminic acid. We are currently dissecting the molecular factors involved in D. coccus hemolymph activation to determine homologies and differences with other arthropods immune response pathways. PMID:12942514

Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz; de Muñoz, Fernando García-Gil; Rojas-Martínez, Alberto; Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto



Degradation of organic dyes by corona discharge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several dyes in water were individually exposed to corona discharge. Light absorbance decreased for all organic dyes with time. Absorbance losses with methylene blue, malachite green, and new coccine were studied. The loss of color was followed using an i...

S. C. Goheen M. McCulloch D. E. Durham W. O. Heath



Environmentally Friendly Natural Dyeing of Organic Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, organic cotton fabrics were dyed with different natural dye sources (madder root, walnut shell, henna, horse chestnut, pomegranate peel, berberis vulgaris root, thyme, and sage tea). The dyeing was carried out with different mordants (copper sulphate, potassium aluminum sulphate, potassium tartrate, and citric acid), using pre-mordanting dyeing methods. The color of the fabrics was investigated in terms

Mustafa Tutak; N. Ebru Korkmaz



Flashlamp-Pumped, Organic Dye Lasers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes an experimental program directed at investigating the potential of visible, organic dye lasers. The dye Rhodamine 6G was chosen for the most intense study, and solutions to a mathematical model of a dye laser were compared to the expe...

B. G. Huth M. R. Kagan G. I. Farmer



Occupational asthma and food allergy due to carmine.  


Carmine (E120), a natural red dye extracted from the dried females of the insect Dactylopius coccus var. Costa (cochineal), has been reported to cause hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of occupational asthma and food allergy due to carmine in a worker not engaged in dye manufacturing. A 35-year-old nonatopic man, who had worked for 4 years in a spice warehouse, reported asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis for 5 months, related to carmine handling in his work. Two weeks before the visit, he reported one similar episode after the ingestion of a red-colored sweet containing carmine. Peak flow showed drops higher than 25% related to carmine exposure. Prick tests with the cochineal insect and carmine were positive, but negative to common aeroallergens, several mites, foods, and spices. The methacholine test was positive. Specific bronchial challenge test with a cochineal extract was positive with a dual pattern (20% and 24% fall in FEV1). Double-blind oral challenge with E120 was positive. The patient's sera contained specific IgE for various high-molecular-weight proteins from the cochineal extract, as shown by immunoblotting. Carmine proteins can induce IgE-mediated food allergy and occupational asthma in workers using products where its presence could be easily overlooked, as well as in dye manufacture workers. PMID:9788693

Acero, S; Tabar, A I; Alvarez, M J; Garcia, B E; Olaguibel, J M; Moneo, I




EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...


Beam Quality of Pulsed Organic Dye Lasers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various aspects of flashlamp-pumped organic dye laser efficiency and beam quality are investigated. A coaxial Marx-Bank driver circuit and flashlamp system are described. Shock wave induced optical distortion in the active solution was identified as a cau...

T. F. Ewanizky



Trans-spectral organic dye laser photocoagulation.  

PubMed Central

Clinical research utilizing the yellow, orange, and red wavelengths of the dye laser (Rhodamine 6G and MD-631) appears to have considerable promise and may demonstrate that the liquid organic dye laser is the laser of choice for photocoagulation of many types of ocular defects. The effectiveness of the dye laser as a photocoagulation source is due to the trans-spectral availability of relatively high output power wavelengths. Therefore, a target tissue can be selectively coagulated with minimal laser energy transmitted through the refractive media and minimal damage to nearby normal tissues. The dye laser, as a photocoagulation system, should prove valuable in the therapy of many ocular diseases. Images FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 6 (Cont'd) C FIGURE 6 (Cont'd) D FIGURE 5 (Cont'd) E FIGURE 5 (Cont'd) F FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 7 (Cont'd) C FIGURE 7 (Cont'd) D FIGURE 5 (Cont'd) C FIGURE 5 (Cont'd) D FIGURE 7 (Cont'd) E FIGURE 7 (Cont'd) F FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 6 (Cont'd) E FIGURE 8 (Cont'd) C FIGURE 9

L'Esperance, F A



Comparative gain measurements for twelve organic laser dye solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gain versus frequency is measured for twelve organic laser dye solutions in identical transversely pumped configurations.\\u000a Results show lasing performance and give relative values of dye parameters.

A. Dienes



Photophysical and electrochemical properties, and molecular structures of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.  


Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on organic dyes adsorbed on oxide semiconductor electrodes, such as TiO(2), ZnO, or NiO, which have emerged as a new generation of sustainable photovoltaic devices, have attracted much attention from chemists, physicists, and engineers because of enormous scientific interest in not only their construction and operational principles, but also in their high incident-solar-light-to-electricity conversion efficiency and low cost of production. To develop high-performance DSSCs, it is important to create efficient organic dye sensitizers, which should be optimized for the photophysical and electrochemical properties of the dyes themselves, with molecular structures that provide good light-harvesting features, good electron communication between the dye and semiconductor electrode and between the dye and electrolyte, and to control the molecular orientation and arrangement of the dyes on a semiconductor surface. The aim of this Review is not to make a list of a number of organic dye sensitizers developed so far, but to provide a new direction in the epoch-making molecular design of organic dyes for high photovoltaic performance and long-term stability of DSSCs, based on the accumulated knowledge of their photophysical and electrochemical properties, and molecular structures of the organic dye sensitizers developed so far. PMID:22807392

Ooyama, Yousuke; Harima, Yutaka



Molecular design principle of all-organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.  


All-organic dyes have shown promising potential as an effective sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The design concept of all-organic dyes to improve light-to-electric-energy conversion is discussed based on the absorption, electron injection, dye regeneration, and recombination. How the electron-donor-acceptor-type framework can provide better light harvesting through bandgap-tuning and why proper arrangement of acceptor/anchoring groups within a conjugated dye frame is important in suppressing improper charge recombination in DSSCs are discussed. Separating the electron acceptor from the anchoring unit in the donor-acceptor-type organic dye would be a promising strategy to reduce recombination and improve photocurrent generation. PMID:23495018

Kim, Bong-Gi; Chung, Kyeongwoon; Kim, Jinsang



21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and...restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye,...



Flashlamp-excited organic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flashlamp-excited dye laser is presently the only type of laser capable of tunable emission throughout most of the visible spectrum. Gain and power output of the device are comparable to solid-state systems although the laser performance is hindered by thermal effects, produced by spatially nonuniform excitation of the dye, and optical losses associated with the molecular triplet state. In




Photoreduction of dyes catalysed by organic and bio-molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Photoreduction of methylene blue in the presence of various organic and biomolecules has been studied spectrophotometrically and potentiometrically. During the photoreduction, the emf of the system measured against calomel electrode increases and attains a plateau long before the complete reduction of the dye. This indicates that the emf developed in this system is not that of the dye\\/leucodye in

M. K. Pal; K. K. Mazumdar



Turnable Second Harmonic Generation from an Organic Dye Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet light has been generated from a Rhodamine 60 organic dye laser by frequency doubling with a KDP crystal. The second harmonic was tuned from 2900Å to 3000Å with peak powers of 40 watts.Organic dye lasers have now been reported with output wave-lengths extending throughout the visible and near infrared. The tunability and output energies now available in the visible

B. G. Huth; G. I. Farmer; L. M. Taylor; M. R. Kagan



Molecular dynamics simulations on the aggregation behavior of indole type organic dye molecules in dye-sensitized solar cells.  


In Ti0(2) nanostructured dye-sensitized solar cells indole based organic dyes D149, D205 exhibits greater power conversion efficiency. Such organic dye molecules are easily undergone for aggregation. Aggregation in dye molecules leads to reduce electron transfer process in dye-sensitized solar cells. Therefore, anti-aggregating agents such as chenodeoxycholic acid are commonly added to organic dye solution in DSSCs. Studying aggregation of such dye molecules in the absence of semiconductors gives a detailed influence of anti-aggregating agents on dye molecules. Atomistic level of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on aggregation of indole type dye molecules D149, D205 and D205-F with anti-aggregating agent chenodeoxy cholic acid using AMBER program. The trajectories of the MD simulations were analyzed with order parameters such as radial atom pair distribution functions g(r), diffusion coefficients and root mean square deviations values. MD results suggest that addition of chenodeoxy cholic acid to dyes significantly reduces structural arrangement and increases conformational flexibility and mobility of dye molecules. The influence of semi-perfluorinated alkyl chains in indole dye molecules was analyzed. The parameters such as open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) and power conversion efficiency (?) of dye-sensitized solar cells are corroborated with flexibility and diffusion values of dye molecules. PMID:21904812

Selvaraj, Ananda Rama Krishnan; Hayase, Shuji



Enhanced photodegradation of organic dyes adsorbed on a clay.  


The interaction of three photoactive organic dyes, Rhodamine B, Rhodamine 6G and a stilbazolium derivative 4'-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium with synthetic sodium-saponite has been examined by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. In all cases, bathochromic shifts and the reduction of peak absorbance for the dyes were observed in the absorption spectra at a low dye concentration (25% adsorption of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the clay), although the shape and the width of their absorption bands were similar to those in aqueous solution. This absorption behavior indicates that the organic dye molecules adsorbed onto the surface of the negatively charged clay particles and the adsorbed molecules were well dispersed. The photodegradation of the organic dyes in aqueous solution and in the clay suspension has been also examined by the irradiation of a laser beam at a wavelength of 532 nm. We have found that the hybridization of the organic dyes with the exfoliated clay particles largely enhanced a photodegradation. The clay particles acted as a catalyst even at a high concentration such as approximately 300% of CEC. PMID:19441365

Tani, Seiji; Yamaki, Hiroshi; Sumiyoshi, Azumi; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Hasegawa, Shinya; Yamazaki, Suzuko; Kawamata, Jun



High open-circuit voltage solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with organic dye.  


Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using an organic dye, 2-cyanoacrylic acid-4-(bis-dimethylfluoreneaniline)dithiophene (JK2), which exhibits more than 1 V open-circuit potential (V(oc)). To scrutinize the origin of high voltage in these cells, transient V(oc) decay measurements and density functional theroy calculations of the interacting dye/semiconductor surface were performed. A negative conduction band shift was observed due to the favorable dipolar field exerted by the JK2 sensitizer to the TiO(2) surface, at variance with heteroleptic Ru(II)-dyes for which an opposite dipole effect was found, providing an increased V(oc). PMID:19438193

Chen, Peter; Yum, Jun Ho; De Angelis, Filippo; Mosconi, Edoardo; Fantacci, Simona; Moon, Soo-Jin; Baker, Robin Humphry; Ko, Jaejung; Nazeeruddin, Md K; Grätzel, Michael



Osmium(VIII)-Catalyzed Kinetics and Mechanism of Indigo Carmine Oxidation by ChloramineB in Basic Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigo carmine (IC) or sodium indigotin disulfonate is a natural dye that finds applications in clinical diagnosis, chemistry and biology. The osmium(VIII)-catalyzed oxidation of IC by chloramine-B (CAB) in alkaline solutions has been spectrophotometrically monitored at the indigo carmine ?max of 610 nm at 298 K. The reaction stoichiometry has been found to be 1:4 (mol:mol), resulting in the formation

Kishore Cholkar; Gilles K. Kouassi; S. Ananda; M. K. Veeraiah; Netkal M. Made Gowda



The J- and H-bands of organic dye aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain molecular aggregates consisting of organic dyes are remarkable in exhibiting an intense and very narrow absorption peak, known as a J-band, which is red-shifted away from the region of monomer absorption. Apart from those dyes showing the J-band on aggregation, there are also dyes where the absorption maximum is shifted to higher energies. The width of the resulting absorption band (called an H-band) is comparable to that of the monomeric dyes and shows a complicated vibrational structure. Following our analysis of the J-band spectra of polymer aggregates using the CES approximation [A. Eisfeld, J.S. Briggs, Chem. Phys. 281 (2002) 61], a theory that includes vibrations explicitly, we show that the same approximation can account for measured H-band spectra. Using simple analytical forms of the monomer spectrum the origin of the widely different shapes of H- and J-bands is explained within the CES approximation.

Eisfeld, A.; Briggs, J. S.



Brazil nut shells as a new biosorbent to remove methylene blue and indigo carmine from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of methylene blue and indigo carmine, respectively a basic and an acid dye, was studied on raw Brazil nut shells. The dye removal from solution by BNS was governed by: (i) polarization effects between the colored ions and the surface sites, leading to physisorbed species due to weak electrostatic forces and (ii) diffusion limitations affecting the kinetic parameters.

Suzana Modesto de Oliveira Brito; Heloysa Martins Carvalho Andrade; Luciana Frota Soares; Rafael Pires de Azevedo



The Effect of Intravenous Indigo Carmine on Near-Infrared Cerebral Oximetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of IV-administered dyes on pulse oximetry have been well described. However, the effects on near-infrared cerebral oximetry have not been well documented. We report a series of four patients undergoing radical prostatectomy who were monitored with cerebral oximetry during surgery. After the administra- tion of indigo carmine, intraoperative desaturations were observed for an extended period. Because clinical use

David L. McDonagh; Matthew R. McDaniel; Terri G. Monk



Organic dyes with a novel anchoring group for dye-sensitized solar cell applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel trialkylsilyl-containing organic sensitizers (JK-53 and JK-54) have been designed and synthesized. Nanocrystalline TiO2–silica-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using these dyes. Under standard global AM 1.5 solar conditions, the JK-53-sensitized cell gave a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 6.37mAcm?2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.70V, and a fill factor of 0.74. These values correspond to an overall

Chul Baik; Duckhyun Kim; Moon-Sung Kang; Sang Ook Kang; Jaejung Ko; Mohammad K. Nazeeruddin; Michael Grätzel



The degradation of organic dyes by corona discharge  

SciTech Connect

Several dyes in water were individually exposed to corona discharge. Light absorbance decreased for all organic dyes with time. Absorbance losses with methylene blue, malachite green, and new coccine were studied. The loss of color was followed using an in situ colorimeter and the effects of varying the current, voltage, gas phase, stirring rates, salinity, and electrode spacing were investigated. The highest reaction rates were observed using the highest current, highest voltage (up to 10kV), highest stirring rate, lowest salinity, smallest electrode spacing, and an environment containing enhanced levels of oxygen. Current was higher in the presence of nitrogen than in the presence of oxygen (for the same voltage), but the reaction of methylene blue did not proceed unless oxygen was present. These results help identify conditions using corona discharge in which dyes, and potentially other organics, can be destroyed. 22 refs., 5 figs.

Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Durham, D.E.; Heath, W.O.



Photochemical hole burning of organic dye doped in inorganic semiconductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new type photochemical hole burning material; organic dye, zinc porphyrin, doped in inorganic semiconductor, titanium dioxide. The hole burning mechanism of this system is concluded to be photoionization via single-photon process. The small temperature dependence of Debye–Waller factor was indicated by cyclic annealing experiment. A hole could be burned and observed at 140 K.

Shinjiro Machida; Kazuyuki Horie; Takashi Yamashita



Enhancement of laser properties of pyrromethene 567 dye incorporated into new organic–inorganic hybrid materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of pyrromethene 567 dye into newly synthesized organic–inorganic hybrid materials, laser photostabilities were demonstrated, which are, to the best of our knowledge, the highest achieved to date for both inorganic and hybrid matrices doped with pyrromethene dyes. These results evidence that, in order to reach the necessary photostability for a solid-state dye laser being competitive with liquid dye

Angel Costela; Inmaculada Garc??a-Moreno; Clara Gómez; Olga Garc??a; Roberto Sastre



Fine-tuning the electronic structure of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.  


A series of metal-free organic dyes exploiting different combinations of (hetero)cyclic linkers (benzene, thiophene, and thiazole) and bridges (4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene (CPDT) and benzodithiophene (BDT)) as the central ?-spacers were synthesized and characterized. Among them, the sensitizer containing the thiophene and CPDT showed the most broad incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra, resulting in a solar energy conversion efficiency (?) of 6.6%. PMID:22882164

Gao, Peng; Tsao, Hoi Nok; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K



Energy transfer in flashlamp pumped organic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pumping characteristics of dye lasers using multiple dyes are discussed. It turns out that varying the dye concentration may change considerably the portion of the pump light spectrum which is effective in creating population inversion. Thus the effect of an energy transfer dye depends strongly on the concentration of the lasing dye. Multiple dye systems are shown to have

P. Burlamacchi; D. Cutter



Co-sensitization of organic dyes for efficient ionic liquid electrolyte-based dye-sensitized solar cells.  


The co-sensitization of two organic dyes (SQ1 and JK2), which are complementary in their spectral responses, shows enhanced photovoltaic performance compared with that of an individual organic dye-sensitized solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of the co-sensitized organic dye solar cell based on the newly developed binary ionic liquid (solvent-free) electrolyte gives 6.4% under AM 1.5 sunlight at 100 mW/cm2 irradiation, which is higher than that of individual dye-sensitized solar cells. The incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the co-sensitized solar cell shows typical absorption peaks at 530 and 650 nm corresponding to the two dyes and displays a broad spectral response over the entire visible spectrum with IPCE of >40% in the 400-700 nm wavelength domain. PMID:17880255

Kuang, Daibin; Walter, Pablo; Nüesch, Frank; Kim, Sanghoon; Ko, Jaejung; Comte, Pascal; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Grätzel, Michael



Crystallization control of organic dyes in self-organized microdomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dewetting process of an evaporating solution is used to form micrometer-sized amorphous droplets, or domes, of the solute on substrates such as silicon, mica, glass, and indium-tin-oxide. The dome size can be controlled by the casting conditions. Higher concentration and slower evaporation of the solvent leads to larger domes. Upon annealing, the dyes may crystallize and form polycrystalline or

Olaf Karthaus; Kazuaki Kaga; Hiroaki Kageyama



Quantum-mechanical theory of the organic-dye laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a fully quantum-mechanical theory for the organic-dye-solution laser, obtain density-matrix equations of motion for the single-mode radiation-density operator and the matter-density operator, and solve and investigate the steady-state case. We generalize the usual Born-Markoff approximation master equation for two matter states to include four matter states, each one of which interacts with the laser radiation field. This allows

R. B. Schaefer; C. R. Willis



Toward rational design of organic dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs): an application to the TA-St-CA dye.  


A computer aided rational design has been performed on TA-St-CA dye sensitizer in order to improve the desirable properties for new organic dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A number of electron-donating (ED) and electron-withdrawing (EW) units based on Dewar's rules are substituted into the ?-conjugated oligo-phenylenevinylene bridge of the reference TA-St-CA dye. The effects of these alternations on the molecular structures and the electron absorption spectra are calculated using time-dependant density functional theory (TDDFT). It is found that chemical modifications using electron donating (ED) substitutions exhibit advantages over the electron withdrawing (EW) substitutes to reduce the HOMO-LUMO energy gap as well as the electron distribution of the frontier orbitals of the new dyes. Dewar's rule is a useful guideline for rational design of new dye sensitizers with desired HOMO-LUMO gap. The impact on the optical spectra of new dyes are, however, less significant. PMID:23353583

Mohammadi, Narges; Mahon, Peter J; Wang, Feng



Detection of Bacillus anthracis spores: comparison of quantum dot and organic dye labeling agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic dyes are routinely used in labeling assays and sensing of biological molecules. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have attractive features, particularly good resistance to photobleaching and narrow emission bands, which make them potential replacements for organic dyes. Using a previously identified synthetic peptide, a QD, and the R-phycoerythrin (RPE) dye, we have examined various labeling strategies for detecting Bacillus anthracis

William C. Schumacher; Andrew J. Phipps; Prabir K. Dutta



Removal of Indigo Carmine and Pb(II) Ion from Aqueous Solution by Polyaniline  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we report the synthesis of polyaniline emaraldine salt (PAni-ES) by a chemical oxidative polymerization method. The obtained PAni-ES samples prepared under different conditions were used for the removal of indigo carmine anionic dye and Pb(II) ion from aqueous solutions. The results also showed that the pseudo–second-order kinetic model fitted better than the data obtained from pseudo–first-order model

Murat Ya?ar; Hüseyin Deligöz; Gamze Güçlü



Adsorption of indigo carmine from aqueous solution using coal fly ash and zeolite from fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal fly ash, a waste generated at the Figueira coal-fired electric power plant located in Brazil, was used to synthesize\\u000a zeolite by hydrothermal treatment with NaOH solution at 100 °C for 24 h. The fly ash (FA) and this synthesized zeolite (ZM)\\u000a that was characterized predominantly as hydroxy-sodalite were used as adsorbents for anionic dye indigo carmine from aqueous\\u000a solutions. The samples

Terezinha E. M. de Carvalho; Denise A. Fungaro; Carina P. Magdalena; Patricia Cunico


Femtosecond continuum probe measurements of nonlinearities of organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report measurements of the nonlinear transmission spectra of organic dye solutions. The reverse saturable absorption (RSA) of these organic dyes in the visible and near IR was measured using a 200 fs 425 nm excitation and a temporally delayed 200 fs white light continuum probe. These RSA materials have attracted attention due to their potential usefulness in optical limiting devices. Knowledge of the dynamics of the nonlinear response along with the spectral dependence is important, in order to determine the range of operation of a given material and to properly model the level structure and lifetimes. We developed an optical source based on an argon ion pumped, Kerr lens modelocked Ti:sapphire oscillator followed by a Cr:LiSAF regenerative amplifier producing millijoule level, 200 fs pulses (FWHM) around 850 nm. A single pulse is then split to generate a second harmonic (SH) at 425 nm and a femtosecond continuum that are used as the pump and probe respectively in a standard pump-probe geometry. The SH is produced in a thin BBO crystal and the continuum is produced by focusing the 850 nm light into a water cell. This results in up to 50 microjoules of pump and 3 microjoules of probe in the spectral range from 200 nm to 800 nm. These pulses have been used to temporally resolve the nonlinear spectra of several organic solutions including zinc tetra (p-methoxyphenyl) tetrabenzporphyrin, lead phthalocyanine, and silicon naphthalocyanine up to delays of several nanoseconds.

Buck, Paul; Dogariu, Arthur; Hagan, David J.; van Stryland, Eric W.



494 Skin Sensitization to Carmine Before Onset of Systemic Allergy to Ingested Carmine  

PubMed Central

Background Allergic sensitization to food can occur through skin exposure. We investigated anaphylactic cases due to carmine, a food additive extracted from Dactylopius coccus. Methods Screening all patients, who visited our department from January 2000 to December 2009, we identified 2 new such cases. Both had history of rash induced by certain cosmetics containig carmine. We further investigated previous case reports of carmine allergy, whether skin sensitization antedated food allergy or not. Results Case 1: A 26-year-old woman visited our hospital because of anaphylaxis occurred within 5 minutes after ingesting a Japanese YOKAN (sweetened and jellied bean paste). IgE antibodies against common food allergens including beans and wheat were all negative. As the paste contains carmine, we tested specific IgE antibody, which was positive. She had been avoiding using certain cheeks and lips for 2 years, since they cause erythema. These cosmetics emerged as containing carmine. Abstaining from the food additive made her free from anaphylaxis. Case 2: A 30-year-old woman came to our hospital for dyspnea, uriticaria, and bilateral blepharedema, immediately after drinking Campari soda. Her past history was prominent, as she had 4 episodes of anaphylaxis in 4 years, requiring emergency transport twice. All anaphylactic episodes occurred in Italian restaurants when she drank cocktails, which might contain carmine in Campari soda. She had been also sensitive to certain rouges since several years before the first onset of anaphylaxis. It became clear that the rouges contained carmine. In literatures, we found 22 cases with allergy to ingested carmine. It is surprising that all cases were women (aged 25 to 52), while occupationally sensitized patients are predominantly men. As far as we could know, 85.7 % of (6/7) mentioned cases had previous history of sensitization to cosmetics containing carmine. Conclusions In many cases with allergy against ingested carmine, the route of first sensitization was not via intestine but skin. This is similar to suspected peanut sensitization mechanism and might be a paradigm of food allergy. As allergic reaction to carmine mainly directed to impurities, using highly purified carmine is desired not only for foods but also for cosmetics.

Katada, Yoshinori; Harada, Yoshinori; Azuma, Naoto; Hashimoto, Jun; Saeki, Yukihiko; Tanaka, Toshio



Interaction of protonated merocyanine dyes with amines in organic solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2,6-Diphenyl-4-(2,4,6-triphenylpyridinium-1-yl)phenolate ( 1a) and 4-[(1-methyl-4(1 H)-pyridinylidene)-ethylidene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one ( 2a) were protonated in organic solvents (dichloromethane, acetonitrile, and DMSO) to form 1b and 2b, respectively. The appearance of the solvatochromic bands of 1a and 2a was studied UV-vis spectrophotometrically by deprotonation of 1b and 2b in solution in the presence of the following amines: aniline (AN), N-methylaniline (NMAN), N, N-dimethylaniline (NDAN), n-butylamine (BA), diethylamine (DEA), and triethylamine (TEA). Titrations of 1b and 2b with the amines were carried out and the binding constants were determined from the titration curves in each solvent, using a mathematical model adapted from the literature which considers the simultaneous participation of two dye: amine stoichiometries, 1:1 and 1:2. The data obtained showed the following base order for the two compounds in DMSO: BA > DEA > TEA, while aromatic amines did not cause any effect. In dichloromethane, the following base order for 1b was verified: TEA > DEA > BA ?NDAN, while for 2b the order was: TEA > DEA > BA, suggesting that 1b is more acidic than 2b. The data in acetonitrile indicated for 1b and 2b the following order for the amines: DEA > TEA > BA. The diversity of the experimental data were explained based on a model that considers the level of interaction of the protonated dyes with the amines to be dependent on three aspects: (a) the basicity of the amine, which varies according to their molecular structure and the solvent in which it is dissolved, (b) the molecular structure of the dye, and (c) the solvent used to study the system.

Ribeiro, Eduardo Alberton; Sidooski, Thiago; Nandi, Leandro Guarezi; Machado, Vanderlei Gageiro



Optical and Electrical Properties of Organic Dye Crystals. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Crystal spectra of three dyes were studied. The dyes are: 3,3'-diethylthiacyanine bromide, pseudoisocyanine and the squarylium dye, 2,4-bis(2-hydroxy-4-diethylaminophenyl)-1,3-cyclobutadienediylium-1,3- diolate (HBAPS). Polymorphs were discovered for the ...

C. J. Eckhardt



Fenton degradation of organic compounds promoted by dyes under visible irradiation.  


The influence of dyes on the Fenton reaction of organic compounds under visible irradiation (lambda > 450 nm) was examined. It was found that the presence of dyes could accelerate greatly the Fenton reaction of organic compounds such as salicylic acid, sodium benzenesulfonate, benzyltrimethylammonium chloride, and trichloroacetic acid under visible irradiation and that a complete mineralization of those compounds could also be achieved. The dyes such as Alizarin Violet 3B which has an anthraquinone structure unit showed much more significant effect on the reaction than the dyes such as malachite green without the quinone unit. A reaction mechanism of dye AV as a cocatalyst in the photo-Fenton reaction of organic compounds under visible irradiation is proposed based on the cycle of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) catalyzed by quinone species and an electron transfer from the excited dye molecule to Fe3+. PMID:16124319

Ma, Jiahai; Song, Wenjing; Chen, Chuncheng; Ma, Wanhong; Zhao, Jincai; Tang, Yalin



Laser behavior and photostability characteristics of organic dye doped silicate gel materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solgel process is a solution synthesis technique which provides a low temperature chemical route for the preparation of rigid transparent matrix materials. Luminescent organic dye molecules have been incorporated via the solgel method into organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) polymer host matrices. Optical gain, laser oscillation, and photostability of rhodamine and coumarin dyes doped into ORMOSIL gels are reported. The

Edward T. Knobbe; Bruce Dunn; Peter D. Fuqua; Fumito Nishida



Case study on the destruction of organic dyes in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Organic dyes, which were used in Navy shells to mark ships and structures, need to be disposed of without burning. A study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of using supercritical water oxidation to destroy organic dyes. Experimental destruction efficiencies, product analyses, and process configuration are reported.

LaJeunesse, C.A.; Rice, S.F.



Organic dyes incorporating low-band-gap chromophores based on ?-extended benzothiadiazole for dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of new ?-conjugated organic dyes (HKK-BTZ1, HKK-BTZ2, HKK-BTZ3 and HKK-BTZ4), comprising triphenylamine (TPA) moieties as the electron donor and benzothiadiazole moieties as the electron acceptor\\/anchoring groups, was synthesized for the use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). TPA units are bridged to benzothiadiazole with single(S), double(D) and triple bonds(T) in different derivatives. And HKK-BTZ1 was modified by introducing alkoxy

Dong Hyun Lee; Myung Jun Lee; Hae Min Song; Bok Joo Song; Kang Deuk Seo; Mariachiara Pastore; Chiara Anselmi; Simona Fantacci; Filippo De Angelis; Mohammad K. Nazeeruddin; Michael Gräetzel; Hwan Kyu Kim



Organic dye-sensitized sponge-like TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells.  


Light harvesting inside a solar cell is crucial for overall performance. Increasing the optical path of a photon through the delicate design of photoanode morphology can increase the light absorbance. The marine sponge-like photoanode is facilely constructed and assembled into a solar cell, using an organic D-A-?-A-type dye with wide-spectrum response as the sensitizer. The light scattering derived from the large porous cavities in the photoanode enhances the improved light absorbance of the dye molecules, especially in the long-wavelength region, and therefore improves the cell efficiency. Synergistically engineering the photoanode morphology and adopting matchable dye maximized the light energy conversion efficiency in this study, and a maximal conversion efficiency of 5.02% was achieved. PMID:24000365

Liu, Jian; Yang, Qiang; Li, Mingzhu; Zhu, Weihong; Tian, He; Song, Yanlin



Integration of Optical Pumped Dye Laser on Organic Microflowcytometry Chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration techniques of tunable film dye laser on a plastic optical application chip were studied. The developed film dye lasers were waveguided distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, and they can cover the wavelength from 400 to 1100 nm. We fabricated microflowcytometry chip integrated with DFB film lasers as a first example. Partly film-coating technique and film lithography fabrication with an excimer laser

Yuji Oki; Yukinori Ogawa; Kenichi Yamashita; Masaya Miyazaki; Mitsuo Maeda



On the spiking phenomenon in organic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spiking condition of dye lasers is analyzed by means of a small-signal approximation of the rate equations. Dye lasers are generally operated close to the border region between spiking and nonspiking. An initial spike is observed in the output beam of a flash-lamp-excited rhodamine 6G laser with a shortened cavity.

Y. Miyazoe; M. Maeda



Rapid photobleaching of organic laser dyes in continuously operated devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid bleaching of Rhodamine 6G and several other dyes has been observed in capillary-guide liquid lasers longitudinally pumped atlambda = 5145Å. This bleaching appears to be permanent and is shown to present a severe limitation to the operation of nonflowing continuously excited dye lasers. The rate of bleaching has been measured under a variety of conditions and is found to

E. Ippen; C. Shank; A. Dienes



Identification of Major Organic Constituents in Textile Waste Water Resulting from the Use of Sulfur Dyes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The waste water from textile dyeing facilities contains many organic contaminants. A laboratory simulation of the sulfur dyeing of cotton fabrics was done in order to determine the nature of the by-products normally discharged in textile waste water syste...

B. L. Slaten



Effect of oxygen on flashlamp-pumped organic-dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved oxygen was found to dramatically influence the intensity of flashlamp-pumped organic-dye lasers. The relative energy per laser pulse was measured for nine new and 19 previously reported dye solutions in equilibrium with partial pressures of oxygen ranging from 0 to 1 atmosphere.

J. Marling; D. Gregg; S. Thomas



Decontamination of wastewaters containing synthetic organic dyes by electrochemical methods: A general review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents of a large variety of industries usually contain important quantities of synthetic organic dyes. The discharge of these colored compounds in the environment causes considerable non-aesthetic pollution and serious health-risk factors. Since conventional wastewater treatment plants cannot degrade the majority of these pollutants, powerful methods for the decontamination of dyes wastewaters have received increasing attention over the past decade.

Carlos A. Martínez-Huitle; Enric Brillas



Voltammetric determination of sericin based on its interaction with carmine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple yet sensitive method is developed for the determination of sericin using voltammetry based on the interaction between sericin and carmine for the first time. In the absence of sericin, carmine has a pair of well-defined redox peaks in a pH 1.81 Britton–Robinson buffer solution. Although no new redox peaks appear upon the addition of sericin into a carmine

Ming-Ming Ma; Jun-Feng Song



Effects of methylene blue, indigo carmine solution and autologous erythrocyte suspension on formation of adhesions after injection into rats.  


The aim of this study was to determine whether autologous erythrocyte suspension can be used as a dye for evaluation of tubal patency and whether it has any advantages over methylene blue or indigo carmine solutions. Reproductively healthy female nulliparous Wistar Albino rats (n = 30), aged 6 months, mass 165-195 g, were assigned randomly to three groups. Rats received a 1 ml i.p. injection of 5% (w/v) methylene blue solution (methylene blue group: n = 10), 5% (w/v) indigo carmine solution (indigo carmine group: n = 10) or 5% (v/v) fresh autologous erythrocyte suspension (autologous erythrocyte group: n = 10). At 4 weeks after injection, a small sterile opening was made in the peritoneal cavity of each rat. The cavity was rinsed once with TCM-199 to collect macrophages. The rinsed peritoneal contents were cultured overnight to evaluate macrophage activation. The peritoneal opening was expanded for evaluation of adhesion formation. Only one rat from the autologous erythrocyte group had intra-peritoneal adhesions (score 2), whereas all rats in the methylene blue group (score 1: n = 1; score 2: n = 4; score 3: n = 4; and score 4: n = 1) and seven rats in the indigo carmine group (score 1: n = 1; score 2: n = 2; score 3: n = 3; and score 4: n = 1) had intra-abdominal adhesions. Macrophage activity was observed in the cultured peritoneal contents collected from the methylene blue and indigo carmine groups but not from the autologous erythrocyte group. Adhesion formation could be due to macrophage activation caused by methylene blue and indigo carmine solutions. These results indicate that tubal patency can be observed by laparoscopy using autologous erythrocyte suspension. The results of this study are believed to be the first to indicate that a patient's own erythrocyte suspension could be used during observation of tubal patency by laparoscopy. However, further studies are required. PMID:11058437

Gül, A; Kotan, C; Dilek, I; Gül, T; Ta?, A; Berkta?, M



Brazil nut shells as a new biosorbent to remove methylene blue and indigo carmine from aqueous solutions.  


The adsorption of methylene blue and indigo carmine, respectively a basic and an acid dye, was studied on raw Brazil nut shells. The dye removal from solution by BNS was governed by: (i) polarization effects between the colored ions and the surface sites, leading to physisorbed species due to weak electrostatic forces and (ii) diffusion limitations affecting the kinetic parameters. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of methylene blue and of indigo carmine was spontaneous and exothermic occurring with entropy decrease. H(0) values confirmed the physical nature of the adsorption processes. The adsorption followed the Langmuir model and pseudo-second order kinetics over the entire range of tested concentrations but the process was controlled by intraparticle diffusion. The maximal uptakes were 7.81 mg g(-1), for methylene blue, and 1.09 mg g(-1) for indigo carmine, at room temperature. These results indicate that Brazil nut shells may be useful as adsorbent either for basic or acid dyes. PMID:19781853

de Oliveira Brito, Suzana Modesto; Andrade, Heloysa Martins Carvalho; Soares, Luciana Frota; de Azevedo, Rafael Pires



Femtosecond spectroscopic study of carminic acid DNA interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photo-excited carminic acid and carminic acid-DNA complexes in a buffer solution at pH 7 have been examined using a variety of spectroscopy techniques, that are in particular, the femtosecond resolved fluorescence upconversion and transient absorption spectroscopy. The observation of dual fluorescence emission, one peaks at 470 nm and the other at 570 nm, indicates to an excited-state (S 1) intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). A detailed analysis of the transient absorption measurements of an aqueous carminic-acid solution at pH 7 yielded four lifetimes for the excited-state (S 1): 8, 15, 33 and 46 ps. On the other hand, only two lifetimes, 34 and 47 ps, were observed by fluorescence upconversion spectroscopy because of the detection limitation to the long wavelength edge of the carminic-acid spectrum. The four S 1 lifetimes were ascribed to the coexistence of respectively two tautomer (normal and tautomer) forms of carminic acid, in the non-dissociated state (CAH) and in the deprotonated state (CA -). The fluorescence upconversion measurements of carminic acid-DNA complexes exhibited a prolongation of the fluorescence lifetimes. This effect was accepted as evidence for the formation of intercalation complexes between the carminic acid and the DNA. The intercalative binding of the carminic acid to DNA was confirmed by the fluorescence titration experiments resulting to a binding constant of 2 × 10 5 M -1 that is typical for anthracycline-DNA complexes.

Comanici, Radu; Gabel, Bianca; Gustavsson, Thomas; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Cornaggia, Christian; Pommeret, Stanislas; Rusu, Catalin; Kryschi, Carola



Investigation of inorganic–organic hybrid materials containing polyoxometalate cluster anions and organic dye cations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new ionic-pair salts containing an organic dye cation, i.e. New Fuchsin or Pararosaniline cation, with Keggin-type POMs, [SiW12O40] and [BW12O40], have been isolated under hydrothermal conditions. [(C22H24N3)4][SiW12O40] (1) and [(C19H18N3)6][BW12O40] (2) have been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR and single crystal X-ray crystallography. Both of these complexes have strong absorption in the visible-light range due to the involvement of

Jingli Xie



Organic inorganic dye filler for polymer: Blue-coloured layered double hydroxides into polystyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of blue dye molecules, Evans blue (EB), Chicago sky blue (CB), Niagara blue (NB) were incorporated by direct co-precipitation within the galleries of negatively charge layered double hydroxide (LDH). The materials of cation composition Zn\\/Al = 2 lead to well-defined organic inorganic assemblies. The molecular arrangement of the interleaved dye molecule is proposed by 1D electronic density projection

Rafael Marangoni; Christine Taviot-Guého; Abdallah Illaik; Fernando Wypych; Fabrice Leroux



Organic\\/polyoxometalate hybridization dyes: Crystal structure and enhanced two-photon absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structures of four novel organic–inorganic hybrid dyes, namely trans-4-(4?-(N,N-Dialkylaminostyryl))-N-Methyl-pyridinium[Mo6O192?] [alkyl = Et(POM1), Pr(POM2), n-Bu(POM3) and Me, hydroxyethyl(POM4)], were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Hybridization of the organic chromophores with polyoxometalate enhanced their two-photon absorption cross sections and thermal stability. The linear optical properties of the hybrid dyes were investigated using absorption and fluorescence spectra in both the solution and

Jieying Wu; Guiju Hu; Peng Wang; Fuying Hao; Hongping Zhou; Aimin Zhou; Yupeng Tian; Baokang Jin



21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall be pasteurized or otherwise treated to destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other render the carmine and cochineal extract free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, which substances are not food...



Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic\\/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a dye-doped organic\\/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal containing a dye-doped defect layer for defect-mode photonic band gap lasing. The multilayer laser structure consists of alternating layers of titania nanoparticles and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with an active emission layer of organic dyes in PMMA. Low threshold lasing has been demonstrated at a single defect-mode wavelength of the 1D

Jongseung Yoon; Wonmok Lee; Jean-Michel Caruge; Moungi Bawendi; Edwin L. Thomas; Steven Kooi; Paras N. Prasad



The role of rare earth oxide nanoparticles in suppressing the photobleaching of fluorescent organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic dyes are widely used for both industrial as well as in scientific applications such as the fluorescent tagging of materials. However the process of photobleaching can rapidly degrade dye fluorescence rendering the material non-functional. Thus exploring novel methods for preventing photobleaching can have widespread benefits. In this work we show that the addition of minute quantities of rare earth (RE) oxide nanoparticles can significantly suppress the photobleaching of dyes. The fluorescence of Rhodamine and AlexaFluor dyes was measured as a function of time with and without the addition of CeO2 and La2O3 nanoparticle additives (two RE oxides that contain an oxygen vacancy based defect structure), as well as with FeO nanoparticles (which has an oxygen excess stoichiometry). We find that the rare earth oxides significantly prolonged the lifetimes of the dyes. The results allow us to develop a model based upon the presence of oxygen vacancies defects that allow the RE oxides to act as oxygen scavengers. This enables the RE oxide particles to effectively remove reactive oxygen free radicals generated in the dye solutions during the photoabsorption process.

Guha, Anubhav; Basu, Anindita



Diode-pumped distributed-feedback dye laser with an organic inorganic microcavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a diode-pumped microcavity dye laser composed of a top organic reflector and a bottom inorganic reflector. The top organic reflector consists of alternate thin films of cellulose acetate and poly(N-vinylcarbazole) doped with coumarin 540A to construct a distributed-feedback (DFB) resonator. Pumped directly by an InGaN-based blue laser diode (LD) with a pulse duration of 4 ns, the microcavity dye laser exhibited a single-mode oscillation at 563 nm with a threshold pump LD power of 290 mW/pulse. The emission of the microcavity dye laser was measured through an optical fiber, resulting in a peak power of 2.5 mW for a pump LD power of 320 mW.

Sakata, H.; Yamashita, K.; Takeuchi, H.; Tomiki, M.



Voltage-enhancement mechanisms of an organic dye in high open-circuit voltage solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.  


Sensitization of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SSDSSCs) with a new, organic donor-?-acceptor dye with a large molar absorption coefficient led to an open-circuit voltage of over 1 V at AM1.5 solar irradiance (100 mW/cm(2)). Recombination of electrons in the TiO(2) film with the oxidized species in the hole-transfer material (HTM) was significantly slower with the organic dye than with a standard ruthenium complex dye. Density functional theory indicated that steric shielding of the electrons in the TiO(2) by the organic dye was important in reducing recombination. Preventing the loss of photoelectrons resulted in a significant voltage gain. There was no evidence that the organic dye contributed to the high voltage by shifting the band edges to more negative electrode potentials. Compared with an iodide-based liquid electrolyte, however, the more positive redox potential of the solid-state HTM used in the SSDSSCs favored higher voltages. PMID:21932767

Jang, Song-Rim; Zhu, Kai; Ko, Min Jae; Kim, Kyungkon; Kim, Chulhee; Park, Nam-Gyu; Frank, Arthur J



Investigation of interactions between some anionic dyes and cationic surfactants by conductometric method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of cationic surfactants with anionic dyes were studied by conductometric method. Benzyltrimethylammonium chloride (BTMACl), benzyltriethylammonium chloride (BTEACl) and benzyltributylammonium chloride (BTBACl) were used as cationic surfactants and indigo carmine (IC) and amaranth (Amr) were chosen as anionic dyes. The specific conductance of dye–surfactant mixtures was measured at 25, 35 and 45°C. A decrease in measured specific conductance values

Sibel Tunç; Osman Duman



Photocatalytic Destruction of an Organic Dye Using TiO2 and Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a general chemistry experiment that is carried out in sunlight to illustrate the ability of TiO2 to act as a photocatalyst by mineralizing an organic dye into carbon dioxide. Details about the construction of the reactor system used to perform this experiment are included. (DDR)|

Giglio, Kimberly D.; And Others



Optical Properties of Fluorescent Mixtures: Comparing Quantum Dots to Organic Dyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study describes and compares the size-dependent optical properties of organic dyes with those of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs). The analysis shows that mixtures of QDs contain emission colors that are sum of the individual QD components.|

Hutchins, Benjamin M.; Morgan, Thomas T.; Ucak-Astarlioglu, Mine G.; Wlilliams, Mary Elizabeth



Second and first order phase transition analogy in the operation of an organic dye laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

By an extension of the Landau theory of phase transitions for the case of an organic dye laser, it is shown that the threshold behavior of such a laser may be interpreted as an example of a second or first order phase transition. The character of the phase transition primarily depends on the wavelength dependent internal reabsorption of the laser

G. Marowsky; W. Heudorfer



Effect of quenching of molecular triplet states in organic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of quenching of metastable triplet states upon the efficiency of organic dye lasers is considered in detail by solving the coupled differential equations describing the laser process. It is shown that specific quenching agents for excited triplet states can 1) cause a dramatic increase in the laser efficiency, 2) negate the previous requirements of very fast pumping sources,

R. Keller




EPA Science Inventory

The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The organic dyes...


Organization of butadienyl dyes containing benzodithiacrown-ether or dimethoxybenzene in monolayers at the air/aqueous salt solution interface.  


Two amphiphilic butadienyl dyes 1 and 2 form stable monolayers at the air/water interface in the presence of various salts. Dye 1 consists of the basic amphiphilic butadienyl chromophore. In dye 2, the dimethoxybenzene part of dye 1 is substituted by benzodithia-15-crown-5. The monolayers have been characterized by surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms as well as Brewster angle microscopy and reflection spectroscopy. In contrast to dye 1, dye 2 interacts specifically with Hg(2+) and Ag(+) cations forming complexes. No complex formation was observed with alkali and earth alkali metal ions. The nature of the anion (Cl(-) or ClO(4)(-)) influences the monolayer behaviour of both dyes. At the air/water interface, besides monomers of the dyes, two types of associates are coexisting in the pure dye monolayers on aqueous salt solutions, attributed to dimers and aggregates, respectively. Their equilibria depend on the nature of both cations and anions in the subphase, as in the case of dye 2, or only anions, as in the case of dye 1. The dimers may be organized as head-to-tail dimers with the intermolecular distances 0.38 and 0.45nm for dye 1 and dye 2, respectively. According to the extended dipole model, we propose formation of aggregates in which the chromophores are parallel to each other with the same intermolecular distances as in the dimers, and the centers of their transition moments shifted by 0.95nm (dye 1) and 1.2nm (dye 2). PMID:19720508

Sergeeva, T I; Gromov, S P; Zaitsev, S Yu; Möbius, D



Organic dye penetration quantification into a dental composite resin cured by LED system using fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major characteristic of LEDs systems is the lower heat emission related with the kind of light generation and spectral emission band. Material temperature during photoactivation can promote different photocuring performance. Organic dye penetration could be a trace to identify the efficacy of photocured composite resin. A new method using fluorescent spectroscopy through digital image evaluation was developed in this study. In order to understand if there is a real influence of material temperature during the photoactivation procedure of a dental restorative material, a hybrid composite resin (Z250, 3M-Espe, USA) and 3 light sources, halogen lamp (510 mW/cm2) and two LED systems 470+/-10nm (345 and 1000 mW/cm2) under different temperatures and intensities were used. One thousand and five hundred samples under different associations between light sources and temperatures (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100oC were tested and immediately kept in 6G rodamin dye solution. Dye penetration was evaluated through fluorescent spectroscopy recorded by digital image data. Pixels in gray scale showed the percentage penetration of organic dye into the composite resin mass. Time and temperature were statistically significant (p<0.05) through the ANOVA statistical test. The lowest penetration value was with 60 seconds and 25oC. Time and temperature are important factors to promote a homogeneous structure polymerized composite resin more than the light source type, halogen or LEDs system.

Lizarelli, Rosane de Fátima Zanirato; Silva, Maciel E., Jr.; Lins, Emery C. C. C.; Costa, Mardoqueu M.; Pelino, José Eduardo P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.



Electronic structures and optical properties of organic dye sensitizer NKX derivatives for solar cells: a theoretical approach.  


The photon to current conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) can be significantly affected by dye sensitizers. The design of novel dye sensitizers with good performance in DSCs depend on the dye's information about electronic structures and optical properties. Here, the geometries, electronic structures, as well as the dipole moments and polarizabilities of organic dye sensitizers C343 and 20 kinds of NKX derivatives were calculated using density functional theory (DFT), and the computations of the time dependent DFT with different functionals were performed to explore the electronic absorption properties. Based upon the calculated results and the reported experimental work, we analyzed the role of different conjugate bridges, chromophores, and electron acceptor groups in tuning the geometries, electronic structures, optical properties of dye sensitizers, and the effects on the parameters of DSCs were also investigated. PMID:23117291

Zhang, Cai-Rong; Liu, Li; Liu, Zi-Jiang; Shen, Yu-Lin; Sun, Yi-Tong; Wu, You-Zhi; Chen, Yu-Hong; Yuan, Li-Hua; Wang, Wei; Chen, Hong-Shan



New Organic–Inorganic Hybrids with Azo-dye Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five new organic–inorganic hybrids were generated from their corresponding co-polymer structures using thermal cross-linking process. The hybrid structures contain covalently-linked azobenzene units provided by the previous co-polymerization step between 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy-silane and five novel azo-monomers. All structures have been characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and TGA-MS analysis. The soluble co-polymers have also been characterized by SEC, elemental analysis and H-NMR spectroscopy.

Florica Adriana Nicolescu; Valentin Victor Jerca; Izabela Cristina Stancu; Dan Sorin Vasilescu; Dumitru Mircea Vuluga



Blue laser dye spectroscopic properties in solgel inorganic-organic hybrid films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blue solid-state laser material based on 4,4' dibenzyl carbamido stilbene-2,2' disulfonic acid incorporated into solgel zirconia and inorganic-organic hybrid matrices is presented. The absorption maxima of the dye in various matrices are around 339-361 nm, and the broad fluorescence peaks are at 411-413 nm. Optical gain measurements using the variable stripe method show amplified spontaneous emission peaking at 437

Tsiala Saraidarov; Renata Reisfeld; Miri Kazes; Uri Banin



Green decomposition of organic dyes using octahedral molecular sieve manganese oxide catalysts.  


The catalytic degradation of organic dye (methylene blue, MB) has been studied using green oxidation methods (tertiary-butyl hydrogen peroxide, TBHP, as the oxidant with several doped mixed-valent and regular manganese oxide catalysts in water) at room and higher temperatures. These catalysts belong to a class of porous manganese oxides known as octahedral molecular sieves (OMS). The most active catalysts were those of Mo(6+)- and V(5+)-doped OMS. Rates of reaction were found to be first-order with respect to the dye. TBHP has been found to enhance the MB decomposition, whereas H(2)O(2) does not. Reactions were studied at pH 3-11. The optimum pH for these reactions was pH 3. Dye-decomposing activity was proportional to the amount of catalyst used, and a significant increase in catalytic activity was observed with increasing temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies showed that no changes in the catalyst structure occurred after the dye-degradation reaction. The products as analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) showed that MB was successively decomposed through different intermediate species. PMID:19178167

Sriskandakumar, Thamayanthy; Opembe, Naftali; Chen, Chun-Hu; Morey, Aimee; King'ondu, Cecil; Suib, Steven L



Development of Highly Efficient Two-photon Absorption Materials: Organic Dye-Inorganic Nanolayered Silicate Hybrid Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed highly efficient two-photon absorption (TPA) materials, which are consisted of organic TPA dye and inorganic nanolayered silicate (clay). Linear and nonlinear optical characterization for the TPA materials ware carried out.

Y. Tanamura; K. Kamada; H. Misawa



Voltammetric determination of sericin based on its interaction with carmine.  


A simple yet sensitive method is developed for the determination of sericin using voltammetry based on the interaction between sericin and carmine for the first time. In the absence of sericin, carmine has a pair of well-defined redox peaks in a pH 1.81 Britton-Robinson buffer solution. Although no new redox peaks appear upon the addition of sericin into a carmine solution, the peak currents of the old peaks reduce while the peak potentials shift positively. This observation is attributed to the decrease in the diffusion coefficient and electrode reaction rate constant of carmine in the presence of sericin. A binding mechanism is proposed and discussed, and the binding constant and binding ratio are calculated as 2.32 x 10(6) L mol(-1) and 1:1, respectively. Furthermore, the decrease in the peak currents is found proportional to the sericin concentration in the range of 32.0-800.0 microg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 13.52 microg mL(-1). The method is further applied to the determination of sericin in degumming wastewater with satisfied average recoveries from 96.7 to 103.3%. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by the conventional Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 spectrophotometric method. PMID:19782207

Ma, Ming-Ming; Song, Jun-Feng



Diffusion of organic dyes in a niosome immobilized on a glass surface using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.  


Giant multilameller niosomes containing cholesterol and triton X-100 are studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data indicates formation of niosomes of broadly two different sizes (diameter)--~150 nm and ~1300 nm. This is confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and confocal microscopy. The diffusion coefficient (D(t)) of three organic dyes in the niosome immobilized on a glass surface is studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. On addition of the room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) (1-methyl-3-pentylimidazolium bromide, [pmim][Br] and 1-methyl- 3-pentylimidazolium tetra-fluoroborate, [pmim][BF(4)]) the size of the niosome particles increases. The D(t) of all the organic dyes (DCM, C343 and C480) increases on addition of RTILs, indicating faster diffusion. The viscosity calculated from the D(t) of the three dyes exhibits weak probe dependence. Unlike lipid or catanionic vesicle, the D(t) values in a niosome exhibit very narrow distribution. This indicates that the niosomes are fairly homogeneous with small variation of viscosity. PMID:22692627

Ghosh, Shirsendu; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Das, Atanu Kumar; Mondal, Tridib; Bhattacharyya, Kankan



Efficient catalytic effect of CuO nanostructures on the degradation of organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient catalytic effect of petals and flowers like CuO nanostructures (NSs) on the degradation of two organic dyes, methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RB) were investigated. The highest degradation of 95% in CuO petals and 72% in flowers for MB is observed in 24 h. For RB, the degradation was 85% and 80% in petals and flowers, respectively for 5 h. It was observed that CuO petals appeared to be more active than flowers for degradation of both dyes associated to high specific surface area. The petals and flower like CuO NSs were synthesized using the chemical bath method at 90 °C. The grown CuO NSs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

Zaman, S.; Zainelabdin, A.; Amin, G.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.



Organic Dye 25 GB Write-Once Disk with In-Groove Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new write-once disk technology, which is applicable to the Blu-ray disc system. An organic dye was adopted for the recording layer, which was optimized for the recording of the laser diode wavelength of 405 nm. We adopted a concave in-groove for the recording tracks to avoid thermal interference with adjacent recording tracks due to undesired and uneven dye pooling between adjacent tracks, considering the advantage of fabrication by spin-coating. We optimized the in-groove structure for low-to-high modulated recording. A sample disk, which was made by the conventional spin-coat process, showed good recording and readout characteristics with remarkably low cross-talk and cross-writing.

Nishiwaki, Hiroshi; Kitano, Kazutoshi; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Eiji; Taniguchi, Shoji; Inoue, Akiyoshi; Yokogawa, Fumihiko; Horie, Michikazu; Kiyono, Kenjirou; Miyazawa, Takashi; Kurose, Yutaka



A close look at fluorescence quenching of organic dyes by tryptophan.  


Understanding fluorescence quenching processes of organic dyes by biomolecular compounds is of fundamental importance for in-vitro and in-vivo fluorescence studies. It has been reported that the excited singlet state of some oxazine and rhodamine derivatives is efficiently and almost exclusively quenched by the amino acid tryptophan (Trp) and the DNA base guanine via photoinduced electron transfer (PET). We present a detailed analysis of the quenching interactions between the oxazine dye MR121 and Trp in aqueous buffer. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, together with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), reveal three contributing quenching mechanisms: 1) diffusion-limited dynamic quenching with a bimolecular quenching rate constant k(d) of 4.0 x 10(9) s(-1) M(-1), 2) static quenching with a bimolecular association constant K(s) of 61 M(-1), and 3) a sphere-of-action contribution to static quenching described by an exponential factor with a quenching constant lambda of 22 M(-1). The latter two are characterized as nonfluorescent complexes, formed with approximately 30 % efficiency upon encounter, that are stable for tens of nanoseconds. The measured binding energy of 20-30 kJ mol(-1) is consistent with previous estimates from molecular dynamics simulations that proposed stacked complexes due to hydrophobic forces. We further evaluate the influence of glycerol and denaturant (guanidine hydrochloride) on the formation and stability of quenched complexes. Comparative measurements performed with two other dyes, ATTO 655 and Rhodamine 6G show similar results and thus demonstrate the general applicability of utilizing PET between organic dyes and Trp for the study of conformational dynamics of biopolymers on sub-nanometer length and nanosecond time-scales. PMID:16224752

Doose, Sören; Neuweiler, Hannes; Sauer, Markus



Dyeing KDP  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the growth and spectroscopy of well-defined mixed crystals of KH2PO4 (KDP) containing both natural and synthetic organic dyes in the {010} and {101} growth sectors. Our summary reevaluates historical dye inclusions, reveals others discovered in a directed screening, and ultimately describes dyes rationally synthesized for the recognition of KDP surfaces. Absorption and emission spectroscopies with polarized light are

J. Anand Subramony; Sei-Hum Jang; Bart Kahr



Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of anionic dyes onto organo-bentonite from single and multisolute systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performances of polydiallydimethylammonium modified bentonite (PDADMA–bentonite) as an adsorbent to remove anionic dyes, namely Acid Scarlet GR (AS-GR), Acid Turquoise Blue 2G (ATB-2G) and Indigo Carmine (IC), were investigated in single, binary and ternary dye systems. In adsorption from single dye solutions with initial concentration of 100?mol\\/L, the dosage of PDADMA–bentonite needed to remove 95% dye was 0.42, 0.68

Dazhong Shen; Jianxin Fan; Weizhi Zhou; Baoyu Gao; Qinyan Yue; Qi Kang



Laccase-mediator system in the decolorization of diVerent types of recalcitrant dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phloroglucinol, thymol, and violuric acid (VIO) were selected as laccase mediators after screening 14 diVer- ent compounds with indigo carmine (indigoid dye) as a substrate. With the presence of these three mediators, a nearly complete decolorization (90-100%) was attained in 1 h. Thus, these three compounds were used as mediators for the decolorization of other four dyes. The results indi-

Mei Rong Hu; Ya Peng Chao; Guo Qing Zhang; Zhi Quan Xue; Shijun Qian


Ultrafiltration of aqueous solutions containing a mixture of dye and surfactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-pressure membrane process was studied in order to treat aqueous solutions containing both dye and surfactant. The influence of various textile dyes (methyl orange, indigo carmine, amido black, titan yellow or direct black) on separation efficiency of surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS) was analyzed. Intersep Nadir membranes made of polyethersulfone, polysulfone, regenerated cellulose, cellulose acetate and polyamide were chosen.

Katarzyna Majewska-Nowak; Izabela Kowalska; Malgorzata Kabsch-Korbutowicz



Synthesis of Organic Dye-Impregnated Silica Shell-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by a New Method  

PubMed Central

A new method for preparing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated by organic dye-doped silica shell was developed in this article. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first coated with dye-impregnated silica shell by the hydrolysis of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HTMOS) which produced a hydrophobic core for the entrapment of organic dye molecules. Then, the particles were coated with a hydrophilic shell by the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), which enabled water dispersal of the resulting nanoparticles. The final product was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and vibration sample magnetometer. All the characterization results proved the final samples possessed magnetic and fluorescent properties simultaneously. And this new multifunctional nanomaterial possessed high photostability and minimal dye leakage.



Evidences for Ti-N anchoring in organic dyes on TiO2 and its influence on photovoltaic performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New metal-free organic dyes with a novel donor-pi-acceptor design produce efficiencies exceeding 10% for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) applications since 2010. Based on state-of- the-art electronic structure calculations and real time time- dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) simulations, we present consolidated evidences for novel Ti-N anchoring at the interface for such a broad group of new dyes, inferred from energetics, vibrational recognition, and electronic and optical data. This fact is contrary to what people usually believed and assumed in previous experiments and was largely ignored. We further demonstrate that the presence of interface Ti-N bonds largely benefit the electronic level alignment and photoelectron injection dynamics, greatly contributing to the improved efficiencies of DSSC based on cost-effective, environment-friendly organic dyes.

Jiao, Yang; Meng, Sheng



Terpyridine-based smart organic–inorganic hybrid gel as potential dye-adsorbing agent for water purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A terpyridine-based organic–inorganic hybrid gelator possessing triethoxylsilane moiety was synthesized and its adsorption capacity for aromatic dyes in the absence and the presence of metal ions such as Zn2+ and Cu2+ was measured by UV–vis spectroscopy. From aqueous solutions of dyes, the hybrid gel, in the absence of metal ions, adsorbed 97.4% for basic blue 41, 94.2% for crystal violet,

Eun Jin Cho; Il Yun Jeong; Soo Jin Lee; Won Seok Han; Jeong Ku Kang; Jong Hwa Jung



Fluorescence of organic dyes in lipid membranes: Site of solubilization and effects of viscosity and refractive index on lifetimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorescence decay of several organic dye molecules intercalated in egg phosphatidylcholine lipid membrane vesicles is\\u000a consistent with the existence of two or three prominent lifetime components rather than a single continuous distribution of\\u000a lifetimes. The major lifetime components are identified with different sites of solubilization in the membrane. The variation\\u000a of the lifetime of the membrane-bound dye was studied

M. M. G. Krishna; N. Periasamy



Evaluation of new organic pigments as laser-active media for a solid-state dye laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state dye lasers are small, low-cost, simple, and coherent light sources. These lasers can output a laser beam at many wavelengths by changing the organic dyes or pigments. Photodegradation of the laser-active medium, however, is difficult with this type of laser. Research regarding new fluorescent materials that are not easily degraded by exposure to the pump light is therefore important

Makoto Fukuda; Kunihiko Kodama; Hiroshi Yamamoto; Keiichi Mito



Efficient dye-sensitized photovoltaic wires based on an organic redox electrolyte.  


An organic thiolate/disulfide redox couple with low absorption in the visible region was developed for use in fabricating novel dye-sensitized photovoltaic wires with an aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber as the counter electrode. These flexible wire devices achieved a maximal energy conversion efficiency of 7.33%, much higher than the value of 5.97% for the conventional I(-)/I3(-) redox couple. In addition, the aligned CNT fiber also greatly outperforms the conventional Pt counter electrode with a maximal efficiency of 2.06% based on the thiolate/disulfide redox couple. PMID:23848197

Pan, Shaowu; Yang, Zhibin; Li, Houpu; Qiu, Longbin; Sun, Hao; Peng, Huisheng



High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of carminic acid, ?- and ?-bixin, and ?- and ?-norbixin, and the determination of carminic acid in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a study of natural food colours, a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography system was developed for use with cochineal and annato. An isocratic mobile phase, consisting of methanol and 6% aqueous acetic acid, esolved bixin and norbixin, while a gradient system was used to separate carminic acid and the annato compounds. The carminic acid contents of cochineal extract,

Frank E. Lancaster; James F. Lawrence



Photocatalytic destruction of organic dyes in aqueous TiO sub 2 suspensions using concentrated simulated and natural solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic destruction of several classes of organic dyes utilizing highly concentrated solar energy is reported. Several commercial samples of anatase TiOâ varying in particle size and purity were studied to determine catalytic activity with Degussa P25 grade being the most active. When immobilized on glass beads it remained highly active. The rate and extent of decomposition of the organic

P. Reeves; R. Ohlhausen; D. Sloan; K. Pamplin; T. Scoggins; C. Clark; B. Hutchinson; D. Green



Controlling the emission of organic dyes for high sensitivity and super-resolution microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we show that the emission of ordinary organic dyes can be controlled in order to increase photostability or to induce long off-states for superresolution microscopy. We therefore extend a recently introduced concept that utilizes triplet-state quenching via redox-reactions and recovery of the electronic ground-state by complementary redoxreactions: it is shown that different reagents in an oxidizing and reducing system (ROXS) can positively influence the fluorescence properties of organic dyes. In more detail, the effects of Trolox, a ferrocene-based compound, an oxidized quinone derivative of Trolox and nitrobenzoic acid are investigated and compared to the prototypical compounds ascorbic acid and N,N methylviologen. While the redox potential is the most important parameter for the realization of the ROXS concept it is demonstrated that also kinetic aspects have to be taken into account to explain the properties of the specific redox agents. Photostabilization and the induction of off-states are of paramount importance for fluorescence microscopy in general and especially for superresolution microscopy based on "blinking" molecules.

Cordes, Thorben; Stein, Ingo H.; Forthmann, Carsten; Steinhauer, Christian; Walz, Monika; Summerer, Wolfram; Person, Britta; Vogelsang, Jan; Tinnefeld, Philip



Determining the appropriate exchange-correlation functional for time-dependent density functional theory studies of charge-transfer excitations in organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UV-Vis spectra are calculated using time-dependent density functional theory for several organic dyes - 4-(N, N-dimethylamino) benzonitrile, alizarin, squaraine, polyene-linker dyes, oligothiophene-containing coumarin dyes (NKX series) and triphenylamine-donor dyes. Most of these dyes (except, for the first two) or their derivatives are considered to be promising organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells. An accurate description of the photophysics of such dyes is imperative for understanding and creating better dyes. To this end, we studied the dyes within several approximations to the exchange-correlation functional. The chosen functionals - PBE, M06L, B3LYP, M06, CAM-B3LYP, and wB97 - represent the various classes of approximations that are currently being used to study material properties. From amongst the six approximations studied here, CAM-B3LYP outperformed the others in its description of charge-transfer excitations in most (though, not all) of the dyes. This study shows why it is difficult to choose a particular functional a priori, especially when starting out with a new dye for solar cell application. A possible way to judge the fitness of an approximation is used in this work and it is shown to provide a good quantitative guideline for subsequent research in this field.

Dev, Pratibha; Agrawal, Saurabh; English, Niall J.



Determining the appropriate exchange-correlation functional for time-dependent density functional theory studies of charge-transfer excitations in organic dyes.  


UV-Vis spectra are calculated using time-dependent density functional theory for several organic dyes--4-(N, N-dimethylamino) benzonitrile, alizarin, squaraine, polyene-linker dyes, oligothiophene-containing coumarin dyes (NKX series) and triphenylamine-donor dyes. Most of these dyes (except, for the first two) or their derivatives are considered to be promising organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells. An accurate description of the photophysics of such dyes is imperative for understanding and creating better dyes. To this end, we studied the dyes within several approximations to the exchange-correlation functional. The chosen functionals--PBE, M06L, B3LYP, M06, CAM-B3LYP, and wB97--represent the various classes of approximations that are currently being used to study material properties. From amongst the six approximations studied here, CAM-B3LYP outperformed the others in its description of charge-transfer excitations in most (though, not all) of the dyes. This study shows why it is difficult to choose a particular functional a priori, especially when starting out with a new dye for solar cell application. A possible way to judge the fitness of an approximation is used in this work and it is shown to provide a good quantitative guideline for subsequent research in this field. PMID:22713041

Dev, Pratibha; Agrawal, Saurabh; English, Niall J



Charge density dependent mobility of organic hole-transporters and mesoporous TiO? determined by transient mobility spectroscopy: implications to dye-sensitized and organic solar cells.  


Transient mobility spectroscopy (TMS) is presented as a new tool to probe the charge carrier mobility of commonly employed organic and inorganic semiconductors over the relevant range of charge densities. The charge density dependence of the mobility of semiconductors used in hybrid and organic photovoltaics gives new insights into charge transport phenomena in solid state dye sensitized solar cells. PMID:23637046

Leijtens, Tomas; Lim, Jongchul; Teuscher, Joël; Park, Taiho; Snaith, Henry J



Decolorization and decomposition of organic pollutants for reactive and disperse dyes using electron beam technology: Effect of the concentrations of pollutants and irradiation dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyeing wastewater was known to have strong color and refractory organic pollutants. In this study irradiation alone was used for dyes wastewater treatment. This paper studies the effect of the concentrations of pollutants to its removal at various dosages using electron beam technology. Irradiation was effective in removing the highly colored and refractory organic compounds. The color removal for initial

Teo-Ming Ting; Nur’aishikin Jamaludin



Amplified spontaneous emission light source near 640 nm in an organic–inorganic hybrid device based on a dye-filled hollow optical fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source in the visible range is proposed and experimentally demonstrated using a novel dye-filled hollow optical fiber (HOF) with a ring core, where optical guiding is provided by silica fiber while the gain is obtained by organic dye to form an organic–inorganic hybrid active device. The pump and signal light intensity distributions

Seongwoo Yoo; Junki Kim; Kyunghwan Oh



The microwave-assisted photo-catalytic degradation of organic dyes.  


In this study, TiO(2) photo-catalyst balls produced by the chemical vapour deposition method were used for degradation of organic dyes in which simultaneous irradiation of microwave and UV was evaluated. An electrodeless UV lamp that emits UV upon the irradiation of microwave was developed to irradiate microwave and UV simultaneously. The degradation reaction rate was shown to be higher with higher microwave intensity, under stronger acidic or basic conditions, and with a larger amount of O(2) gas or H(2)O(2) addition. The effect of addition of H(2)O(2) was not significant when photo-catalysis was used without additional microwave irradiation or when microwave was irradiated without the use of photo-catalysts. When H(2)O(2) was added under simultaneous use of photo-catalysis and microwave irradiation, however, considerably higher degradation reaction rates were observed. PMID:21508555

Jung, S C



Confinement of pyridinium hemicyanine dye within an anionic metal-organic framework for two-photon-pumped lasing.  


Two-photon-pumped dye lasers are very important because of their applications in wavelength up-conversion, optical data storage, biological imaging and photodynamic therapy. Such lasers are very difficult to realize in the solid state because of the aggregation-caused quenching. Here we demonstrate a new two-photon-pumped micro-laser by encapsulating the cationic pyridinium hemicyanine dye into an anionic metal-organic framework (MOF). The resultant MOF?dye composite exhibits significant two-photon fluorescence because of the large absorption cross-section and the encapsulation-enhanced luminescent efficiency of the dye. Furthermore, the well-faceted MOF crystal serves as a natural Fabry-Perot resonance cavity, leading to lasing around 640?nm when pumped with a 1064-nm pulse laser. This strategy not only combines the crystalline benefit of MOFs and luminescent behaviour of organic dyes but also creates a new synergistic two-photon-pumped lasing functionality, opening a new avenue for the future creation of solid-state photonic materials and devices. PMID:24173352

Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing; Xu, Hui; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong



A highly selective optode for determination of Hg (II) by a modified immobilization of indigo carmine on a triacetylcellulose membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mercury optical sensor was designed with indigo carmine (IC) as a dye indicator. The water-soluble indicator was lipophilized in the form of an ion-pair with N-cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) and dissolved in methanol (70 °C), then immobilized on a triacetylcellulose membrane. This optode exhibits a linear range of 24.0-468.0 ?M of the Hg (II) ion concentration with detection limit of 7.2 ?M at 669.5 nm. Response time was within 8-10 min, depending on the Hg (II) ion concentration. The sensor could readily be regenerated with a hydrochloric acid solution (0.01 M) in a reversible manner and its response was reproducible (RSD = 3.2%). The method was applied to the determination of mercury content of a variety of samples which gave satisfactory results.

Tavallali, Hossein; Shaabanpur, Elham; Vahdati, Parvin



Profound hypotension after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping.  


Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping. PMID:23593094

Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young; Lee, Kyung Cheon



Profound Hypotension after an Intradermal Injection of Indigo Carmine for Sentinel Node Mapping  

PubMed Central

Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.

Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young



Temporal and spectral properties of picosecond two-photon pumped cavity lasing of an organic dye HEASPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The operation of cavity lasing of a two-photon absorption (TPA) organic dye, trans-4-[p-(N-hydroxyethyl-N-ethylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium\\u000a p-toluene sulfonate (abbreviated as HEASPS), by using a picosecond infrared laser as the pump source, is reported. The lifetimes\\u000a of TPA fluorescence of this dye in different solvents were measured. Temporal profiles of cavity lasing show obvious oscillations\\u000a and magnification of the feedback light. By using

G. Zhou; D. Wang; Y. Ren; S. Yang; X. Xu; Z. Shao; X. Cheng; X. Zhao; Q. Fang; M. Jiang



Extraction mechanisms of charged organic dye molecules into silica-surfactant nanochannels in a porous alumina membrane.  


Extraction mechanisms of charged organic dye molecules are examined for an assembly of silica-surfactant nanochannels with a channel diameter of 3.4 nm, which is formed inside the pores of an anodic alumina membrane by a surfactant-template method. Experimental results confirm that the extraction mechanism depends on the sign of a charge of the dye molecules. The extraction of the cationic rhodamine 6G is predominantly caused by an ion-pair extraction process, whereas an anion-exchange process is mainly responsible for the extraction of the anionic sulforhodamine B. These extraction mechanisms are discussed by considering the microstructures of the silica-surfactant nanochannels. PMID:17723343

Yamaguchi, Akira; Watanabe, Jun; Mahmoud, Mekawy M; Fujiwara, Rise; Morita, Kotaro; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Amino, Yosuke; Chen, Yong; Radhakrishnan, Logudurai; Teramae, Norio



Irradiation of Escherichia coli in the visible spectrum with a tunable organic-dye laser energy source.  


Pulsed laser energy was shown to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli. The irradiation source was derived from a tunable organic-dye laser utilizing rhodamine 6G (590 plus or minus 5 nm) solutions as lasing media. The organisms, suspended in nutrient broth, were irradiated both with and without an exogenous photosensitizer. One photosensitizer (toluidine blue) did not appreciably alter the inhibitory effect observed. In the presence of acridine orange, however, some additional growth occurred. PMID:1089163

Takahashi, P K; Toups, H J; Greenberg, D B; Dimopoullos, G T; Rusoff, L L



Organic photosensitizers with a heteroleptic dual donor for dye-sensitized solar cells.  


Using DFT and TDDFT calculations, we investigated the substitution effect in the electronic and optical properties of dye sensitizers with a dual donor composed of triphenylamine and/or indoline moieties. Due to replacement with the dual donor moieties, the HOMO levels were split into HOMO and HOMO - 1 levels, and the bandgaps between the HOMO and LUMO levels decreased, leading to the creation of bathochromically extended absorption spectra. Nearly degenerated splitting of the HOMO levels resulted from the similarity of the electronic structure between the HOMO and the HOMO - 1 levels, delocalized over both dual-donor moieties, when replacing the dual donors. It was shown that the additional electron-donating group creates an additional absorption band and causes a cascading two-electron process aiding the charge separation process. Owing to a more panchromatic attribute, easier energy transfer and feasible retardation of the recombination between the injected electrons and the electrolyte, it is expected that dyeTI will show better performance than the other dyes (dyeT dyeTT and dyeIT) as denoted here in terms of the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This work presents the probable benefits of dye sensitizers with dual-donor moieties and provides insight into the development of more efficient dye sensitizers for DSSCs through modification of the Frontier molecular orbitals. PMID:22849130

Kim, Joo Young; Kim, Young Sik



Removal of organic dyes using Cr-containing activated carbon prepared from leather waste.  


In this work, hydrogen peroxide decomposition and oxidation of organics in aqueous medium were studied in the presence of activated carbon prepared from wet blue leather waste. The wet blue leather waste, after controlled pyrolysis under CO(2) flow, was transformed into chromium-containing activated carbons. The carbon with Cr showed high microporous surface area (up to 889 m(2)g(-1)). Moreover, the obtained carbon was impregnated with nanoparticles of chromium oxide from the wet blue leather. The chromium oxide was nanodispersed on the activated carbon, and the particle size increased with the activation time. It is proposed that these chromium species on the carbon can activate H(2)O(2) to generate HO radicals, which can lead to two competitive reactions, i.e. the hydrogen peroxide decomposition or the oxidation of organics in water. In fact, in this work we observed that activated carbon obtained from leather waste presented high removal of methylene blue dye combining the adsorption and oxidation processes. PMID:21752544

Oliveira, Luiz C A; Coura, Camila Van Zanten; Guimarães, Iara R; Gonçalves, Maraisa



Phenothiazine-sensitized organic solar cells: effect of dye anchor group positioning on the cell performance.  


Effect of positioning of the cyanoacrylic acid anchoring group on ring periphery of phenothiazine dye on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is reported. Two types of dyes, one having substitution on the C-3 aromatic ring (Type 1) and another through the N-terminal (Type 2), have been synthesized for this purpose. Absorption and fluorescence studies have been performed to visualize the effect of substitution pattern on the spectral coverage and electrochemical studies to monitor the tuning of redox levels. B3LYP/6-31G* studies are performed to visualize the frontier orbital location and their significance in charge injection when surface modified on semiconducting TiO?. New DSSCs have been built on nanocrystalline TiO? according to traditional two-electrode Grätzel solar cell setup with a reference cell based on N719 dye for comparison. The lifetime of the adsorbed phenothiazine dye is found to be quenched significantly upon immobilizing on TiO? suggesting charge injection from excited dye to semiconducting TiO?. The performances of the cells are found to be prominent for solar cells made out of Type 1 dyes compared to Type 2 dyes. This trend has been rationalized on the basis of spectral, electrochemical, computational, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results. PMID:23043502

Hart, Aaron S; K C, Chandra Bikram; Subbaiyan, Navaneetha K; Karr, Paul A; D'Souza, Francis



Selective oxidation of olefins within organic dye cation-exchanged zeolites  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports selectivity in the products during single oxygen mediated oxidation of olefins included within dye-exchanged X and Y zeolites. Singlet oxygen is generated within a zeolite by irradiating a thiazine dye exchanged into zeolites. Oxazine and thiazine dye molecules can be readily exchanged for alkali cations present in the interior of faujasite (X and Y) zeolites. Depending on the status of hydration, these dye molecules exist either in monomeric or dimeric forms. We show here that when a thiazine dye molecule is present in its monomeric form within a zeolite, it serves as an excellent singlet oxygen sensitizer. Utilizing zeolite supercages as `active reaction cavities`, we have directed the reactive oxygen toward a particular face of the olefin and obtained a high selectivity in the products of oxidation. 18 refs., 4 figs.

Li, X.; Ramamurthy, V. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)



Order of Photocatalytic Degradation as Ranked by Critical Photonic Times (CPTs) Indicates the Composition of Organic Dye Mixtures: Selectivity of Hydroxyl Radicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple critical photonic time (CPT) ranking method for the simultaneous determination of known organic dyes in the industrial wastewater of different concentrations was developed. A kinetic-measure, CPT theory, was developed to discriminate between the dyes in the textile effluent solution. The CPTs were calculated and ranked 1–4 from the smallest to the largest. The ranks indicate the order in




Molecular engineering of organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.  


Novel unsymmetrical organic sensitizers comprising donor, electron-conducting, and anchoring groups were engineered at a molecular level and synthesized for sensitization of mesoscopic titanium dioxide injection solar cells. The unsymmetrical organic sensitizers 3-(5-(4-(diphenylamino)styryl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid (D5), 3-(5-bis(4-(diphenylamino)styryl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid (D7), 5-(4-(bis(4-methoxyphenylamino)styryl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid (D9), and 3-(5-bis(4,4'-dimethoxydiphenylamino)styryl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid (D11) anchored onto TiO2 and were tested in dye-sensitized solar cell with a volatile electrolyte. The monochromatic incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of these sensitizers is above 80%, and D11-sensitized solar cells yield a short-circuit photocurrent density of 13.90 +/- 0.2 mA/cm(2), an open-circuit voltage of 740 +/- 10 mV, and a fill factor of 0.70 +/- 0.02, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 7.20% under standard AM 1.5 sun light. Detailed investigations of these sensitizers reveal that the long electron lifetime is responsible for differences in observed open-circuit potential of the cell. As an alternative to liquid electrolyte cells, a solid-state organic hole transporter is used in combination with the D9 sensitizer, which exhibited an efficiency of 3.25%. Density functional theory/time-dependent density functional theory calculations have been employed to gain insight into the electronic structure and excited states of the investigated species. PMID:18419124

Hagberg, Daniel P; Yum, Jun-Ho; Lee, Hyojoong; De Angelis, Filippo; Marinado, Tannia; Karlsson, Karl Martin; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Sun, Licheng; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Md K



Synthesis of layered organic–inorganic nanohybrid material: an organic dye, naphthol blue black in magnesium–aluminum layered double hydroxide inorganic lamella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open lamella systems such as layered double hydroxides (LDHs) can be used to generate new nanostructured materials of layered organic–inorganic nanohybrid type. The synthesis of a new nanocomposite material consisting of inorganic layers, Mg–Al-LDH (MAL) as a host and naphthol blue black (NBB), an organic dye as a guest was successfully done. Various concentrations of NBB, ranging from 0.001 to

Mohd Zobir bin Hussein; Zulkarnain Zainal; Asmah Hj Yahaya; Azira binti Abd Aziz



High-performance plastic dye-sensitized solar cells based on low-cost commercial P25 TiO2 and organic dye.  


High-performance plastic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on low-cost commercial Degussa P25 TiO(2) and organic indoline dye D149 have been fabricated using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) with compression post-treatment at room temperature. The pressed EPD electrode outperformed the sintered EPD electrode and as-prepared EPD electrode in short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. About 150% and 180% enhancement in power conversion efficiency have been achieved in DSC devices with sintering and compression post-treatment as compared to the as-prepared electrode, respectively. Several characterizations including intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra have been employed to reveal the nature of improvement with post-treatment. Experimental results indicate that the sintering and compression post-treatment are beneficial to improve the electron transport and thus lead to the enhancement of photocurrent and power conversion efficiency. In addition, the compression post-treatment is more efficient than sintering post-treatment in improving interparticle connection in the as-prepared EPD electrode. Under optimized conditions, the conversion efficiency of plastic devices with D149-sensitized P25 TiO(2) photoanode has reached 5.76% under illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW cm(-2)). This study demonstrates that the EPD combined with compression post-treatment provides a way to fabricate highly efficient plastic photovoltaic devices. PMID:22324725

Yin, Xiong; Xue, Zhaosheng; Wang, Long; Cheng, Yueming; Liu, Bin



Hydrogen evolution by photocatalytic reactions of some organic dyes and semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various organic dyes and powdered semiconductors are illuminated by visible light to bring about methylviologen - MV(2+) - reduction and hydrogen evolution from water, in an effort to study an 'artificial photosynthesis' process. MV(2+) is used as an electron acceptor, EDTA as an electron donor, and photochemical reactions are carried out both in nonaqueous solutions, such as dimethylsulfoxide, methanol, and in their mixtures with water. A 500W Xe lamp and a monochromator are used for monochromatic illumination at the peak wavelength of the visible absorption band of each molecule. The reduced MV(+) is monitored by a spectrophotometer, and a thermopile is used to determine the quantum efficiency of the reaction. Zn-chlorophyl-a and Zn-tetraphenylporphine show quite a high quantum efficiency. The preparation of the TiO2-RuO2 photocatalyst is described. The band gap illumination of TiO2 mixed with RuO2 leads to a continuous, catalytic production of hydrogen and oxygen from gaseous water at room temperature. The rate of hydrogen evolution per 100 mg of TiO2-RuO2, for 20 hours, is 11 micromoles at the stationary state.

Sakata, T.; Kawai, T.; Koiso, T.; Okuyama, M.


Super-Resolution Rewritable Optical Disk Having a Mask Layer Composed of Thermo-Chromic Organic Dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Super-resolution (SR) effects of a thermo-chromic organic dye mask layer are investigated for a rewritable disk with a Ag-In-Sb-Te phase-change recording layer. Clear SR effects were recognized in both linear and radial directions in the rewritable disk, corresponding to a capacity of 10.3 GB in a 120 mm disk. A carrier-to-noise ratio over 35 dB was obtained at a short mark length of 0.2 ?m. Crescent-shaped marks, which are typically recognized in high-density magneto-optical (MO) media, were observed in the phase-change recording layer. The SR effects mainly operate on the reading process, resulting from a large non-linear transmittance change in the organic dye.

Hatakeyama, Masaru; Ando, Toshio; Tsujita, Koji; Oishi, Kenji; Ueno, Ichiro



HPLC determination of carminic acid in foodstuffs and beverages using diode array and fluorescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Carmine extracted from cochineal insects is one of the most used natural colorings for beverages and other foods. Its active\\u000a ingredient is carminic acid (7-?-D-glucopyranosyl-9,10-dihydro-3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1-methyl-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenecarboxylic\\u000a acid). This work describes a rapid HPLC determination of carminic acid and compares diode array and fluorescence detections\\u000a for quantification. Samples with higher protein levels, such as milk and yogurt, are first treated with 1

P. R. N. Carvalho; C. H. Collins



Studies of mechanisms of decay and recovery in organic dye-doped polymers using spatially resolved white light interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several organic dyes have been shown to self heal when doped in a polymer matrix. Most measurements to date use optical absorbance, amplified spontaneous emission, or digital imaging as a probe. Each method determines a subset of the relevant parameters. We have constructed a white light interferometric microscope, which measures the absorption spectrum and change in refractive index during decay and recovery simultaneously at multiple points in the material. We report on preliminary measurements and results concerning the microscopes spatial resolution.

Anderson, Benjamin; Bernhardt, Elizabeth; Kuzyk, Mark



Azo dye removal from aqueous solution by organic-inorganic hybrid dodecanoic acid modified layered Mg-Al hydrotalcite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrotalcite (HTC), a typical layered compound, is a promising adsorbent for removal of organic pollutants. To partition azo\\u000a dye from aqueous solution, Mg-Al HTCs intercalated with dodecanoic acid (DA) modifier, DAHTCs, were prepared by ion exchange\\u000a and calcination-rehydration methods. The structures of HTCs and DAHTCs were characterized by powder XRD and FT-IR techniques.\\u000a The introduction of DA broadened the spacing

Lanping Nong; Chengliang Xiao; Wei Jiang



Electrical characterization and parameters estimation of organic semiconductor, disperse orange dye 25 (OD) film at elevated temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the effect of temperature on electrical properties of organic semiconductor disperse orange dye 25 (OD) have been examined. Thin film of OD were deposited by 10% by wt. solution in distilled water on the cleaned surface of conductive glass (In2O3) substrates by spin coater at room temperature. Current-voltage characteristics (DC) of the samples (In2O3 \\/ OD \\/Al)

S. A. Moiz; Kh. S. Karimov; N. D. Gohar; U. Iqbal



Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Building on work done in Phase I of this study (See AD-748 863), research on near-infrared dye lasers continued along several lines. Eighteen more Kodak organic dyes were screened for laser action using a linear flash lamp for excitation. Six dyes lased b...

B. E. Plourde J. P. Webb



An organic white light-emitting dye: very small molecular architecture displays panchromatic emission.  


The synthesis and photophysical characterization of a new white-light fluorophore is described. The optimization of excitation wavelengths allows the naphthalimide (NI) dyes to display blue, green or white light emission depending on the excitation wavelength. PMID:20871907

Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Heagy, Michael D



Self-Diffraction by Two-Wave Mixing in Organic-Dye-Doped Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-diffraction by nondegenerate two-wave mixing (TWM) in a saturable-dye-doped film is analyzed by means of a model of a three-level system for dyes. The rate equation approximation of a density matrix method leads to the electric polarization for nondegenerate TWM. Under the approximation of a strong pump limit and no pump absorption and depletion, the solution for the self-diffracted probe

Hirofumi Fujiwara; Koji Shio; Shigeki Miyanaga; Kazuo Nakagawa



Improved efficiency of organic dye sensitized solar cells through acid treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have improved the efficiency of the dye sensitization solar cells (DSSCs) by adopting an innovative and simpler methodology of oxalic acid treatment of TiO2. It is observed that the efficiency of the DSSC is improved to 2.3% after treatment. The improvement has been understood in terms of reduced dark current and enhanced dye loading as supported by UV-Visible, electrical and electrochemical impedance measurements.

Jain, Avani; Veerender, P.; Saxena, Vibha; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Chauhan, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.



The hazardous effects of the three natural food dyes on developmental stages and longevity of Drosophila melanogaster.  


Nowadays, food dyes obtained from herbal, animal, microbial and mineral sources are widely used as food additives. In this study, the toxic effects of three different natural food dyes (carmine, turmeric and annatto) on 72 ± 4 h larvae of Oregon-R wild type of Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. For this purpose, four different application doses (50, 75, 100, 125 mg mL(-1)) were chosen by means of preliminary studies. It was determined that larval mortality increased with increasing concentration in the application groups and the toxicity order was carmine > turmeric > annatto. It was observed that the survival rate was highest in the control with 98% and lowest in 125 mg mL(-1) carmine with 16%. In addition, the average lifespan of the adult individuals obtained from third instar larvae was also studied. While the average lifespan was 40.88 ± 1.44 days in the control group, these values were 10.81 ± 0.55-23.90 ± 1.27 days in the carmine group, 15.00 ± 0.80-22.42 ± 1.43 days in the turmeric group and 10.33 ± 1.03-35.68 ± 1.54 days in the annatto group, respectively. According to the obtained results, when both the developmental period from larvae into adults and the lifespan of the developing adults were compared with the control group, the food dyes were found to be toxic and the toxicity order of carmine > turmeric > annatto was identified. PMID:23456813

Uysal, Handan; Semerdoken, Sidika; Colak, Deniz Altun; Ayar, Arif



HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of dyes identified in textiles from Mount Athos.  


Organic colorants contained in 30 textiles (16th to early 20th century) from the monastery of Simonos Petra (Mount Athos) have been investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). The components of natural dyes identified in samples treated by the standard HCl dyestuff extraction method were: alizarin, apigenin, butein, carminic acid, chrysoeriol, dcII, dcIV, dcVII, ellagic acid, emodin, fisetin, flavokermesic acid, fustin, genistein, haematein derivative (Hae'), indigotin, indirubin, isoliquiritigenin, isorhamnetin, kaempferide, kaempferol, kermesic acid, luteolin, naringenin, purpurin, quercetin, rhamnazin, rhamnetin, sulfuretin, and type B and type C compounds (last two are markers for Caesalpinia trees). Early, semi-synthetic dyes, for example indigo carmine, fuchsin components, and rhodamine B were identified in objects dated late 19th to early 20th century. A dyestuff extraction method which involves use of TFA, instead of HCl, was applied to selected historical samples, showing that the mild method enables efficient extraction of weld (Reseda luteola L.) and dyer's broom (Genista tinctoria L.) glycosides. The marker compound (Hae') for logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum L.) identification after treatment with HCl was investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in negative electrospray ionization (LC-MS-ESI(-)) mode. LC-MS in negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC-MS-APCI(-)) mode was used, probably for the first time, to investigate cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) samples. Positive electrospray ionization (LC-MS-ESI(+)) mode was used for identification of fuchsin components. Detailed HPLC-DAD studies were performed on young fustic (Cotinus coggygria Scop.) and Persian berries (Rhamnus trees). PMID:21271239

Mantzouris, Dimitrios; Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Valianou, Lemonia; Panayiotou, Costas



Amino-carminic acid in E120-labeled food additives and beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method was developed for investigating aminocarminic acid occurrence in E120-labeled red-colored-beverages and in E120 additives, with the aim of controlling the purity of the carmine additive in countries where the use of aminocarminic acid is forbidden. The carminic acid and the aminocarminic acid were separated by HPLC-PDA-MS\\/MS. The method was statistically validated. The regression lines, ranging from 10

Leonardo Sabatino; Monica Scordino; Maria Gargano; Francesco Lazzaro; Marco A. Borzì; Pasqualino Traulo; Giacomo Gagliano



A comparative study of non-covalent encapsulation methods for organic dyes into silica nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Numerous luminophores may be encapsulated into silica nanoparticles (< 100 nm) using the reverse microemulsion process. Nevertheless, the behaviour and effect of such luminescent molecules appear to have been much less studied and may possibly prevent the encapsulation process from occurring. Such nanospheres represent attractive nanoplatforms for the development of biotargeted biocompatible luminescent tracers. Physical and chemical properties of the encapsulated molecules may be affected by the nanomatrix. This study examines the synthesis of different types of dispersed silica nanoparticles, the ability of the selected luminophores towards incorporation into the silica matrix of those nanoobjects as well as the photophysical properties of the produced dye-doped silica nanoparticles. The nanoparticles present mean diameters between 40 and 60 nm as shown by TEM analysis. Mainly, the photophysical characteristics of the dyes are retained upon their encapsulation into the silica matrix, leading to fluorescent silica nanoparticles. This feature article surveys recent research progress on the fabrication strategies of these dye-doped silica nanoparticles.



A comparative study of non-covalent encapsulation methods for organic dyes into silica nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous luminophores may be encapsulated into silica nanoparticles (< 100 nm) using the reverse microemulsion process. Nevertheless, the behaviour and effect of such luminescent molecules appear to have been much less studied and may possibly prevent the encapsulation process from occurring. Such nanospheres represent attractive nanoplatforms for the development of biotargeted biocompatible luminescent tracers. Physical and chemical properties of the encapsulated molecules may be affected by the nanomatrix. This study examines the synthesis of different types of dispersed silica nanoparticles, the ability of the selected luminophores towards incorporation into the silica matrix of those nanoobjects as well as the photophysical properties of the produced dye-doped silica nanoparticles. The nanoparticles present mean diameters between 40 and 60 nm as shown by TEM analysis. Mainly, the photophysical characteristics of the dyes are retained upon their encapsulation into the silica matrix, leading to fluorescent silica nanoparticles. This feature article surveys recent research progress on the fabrication strategies of these dye-doped silica nanoparticles.

Auger, Aurélien; Samuel, Jorice; Poncelet, Olivier; Raccurt, Olivier



Laccase-mediator system in the decolorization of different types of recalcitrant dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phloroglucinol, thymol, and violuric acid (VIO) were selected as laccase mediators after screening 14 different compounds\\u000a with indigo carmine (indigoid dye) as a substrate. With the presence of these three mediators, a nearly complete decolorization\\u000a (90–100%) was attained in 1 h. Thus, these three compounds were used as mediators for the decolorization of other four dyes.\\u000a The results indicated that VIO

Mei Rong Hu; Ya Peng Chao; Guo Qing Zhang; Zhi Quan Xue; Shijun Qian



Assessing the fitness of various exchange-correlation functionals for TD-DFT studies of charge-transfer excitations in organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) are a possible alternative to the more expensive silicon-based cells. Theoretical research in this field has highlighted some of the issues with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) that is widely used to study electronic excitations of matter. The situation is complicated by the fact that several classes of approximations to the exchange correlation functional can be employed, however, not one of these strictly outperforms the others in its description of charge-transfer excitations. In this work, UV-Vis spectra are calculated using TD-DFT for several organic dyes -- alizarin, squaraine, 4-(N, N-dimethylamino) benzonitrile, polyene-linker dyes and triphenylamine-donor dyes. We studied the dyes within three approximations (PBE, B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP) to the exchange-correlation functional. In the dyes considered here, a correlation exists between the functional performance and the spatial overlap of the states involved in the excitations. This overlap can be quantified to provide a good guideline for choosing the right functional when studying intramolecular charge transfer in dyes. It will be an invaluable tool when studying these molecules within more challenging systems, such as dye-titania complexes in DSSCs.

Dev, Pratibha; Agrawal, Saurabh; English, Niall



Catalytic spectrophotometric determination of trace aluminium with indigo carmine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new catalytic spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of trace amounts of Al(III). The methods based on catalytic action of Al(III) on the oxidation of indigo carmine (IC) by ammonium persulfate in hexamethylene tetramine-hydrochloric acid ((CH 2) 6N 4-HCl) buffer medium (pH 5.4) and in the presence of surfactant—TritonX-100. The effects of some factors on the reaction speed were investigated. Aluminium concentration is linear for 0-1.2 × 10 -7 g/ml in this method. The detection limit of the proposed method is 1.96 × 10 -8 g/ml. Most of the foreign ions except for Cu(II), Fe(III) do not interfere with the determination, and the interference of Cu(II) and Fe(III) in this method can be removed by extraction with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate-carbon tetrachloride (DDTC-CCl 4). This system is a quasi-zero-order reaction for Al(III), but it is a quasi-first-order reaction for IC. The apparent rate constant is 2.62 × 10 -5 s -1 and the apparent activation energy is 6.60 kJ/mol in the system. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trace aluminium(III) in real samples with satisfactory results.

Zheng, Huai-Li; Xiong, Wen-Qiang; Gong, Ying-Kun; Peng, De-Jun; Li, Ling-Chun



Catalytic activity of iron species in layered clays for photodegradation of organic dyes under visible irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iron species in layered clays are active for catalytically oxidizing synthetic dyes with H2O2 under visible irradiation (?>420nm). Three layered clays, Montmorillonite, Laponite, and Nontronite, in which the iron species exist in different chemical environment, were used to investigate the role of the iron species in the clays. It was found that the reactivity of the iron species greatly

Mingming Cheng; Wenjing Song; Wanhong Ma; Chuncheng Chen; Jincai Zhao; Jun Lin; Huaiyong Zhu



Hair dye use and occupational exposure to organic solvents as risk factors for myelodysplastic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationships of personal hair dye use and environmental factors to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), we conducted a case-control study in Japan. A total of 111 MDS cases and 830 controls randomly selected from the residents in the same prefecture of cases using telephone directories responded to a health questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) for ever having used hair

Chisato Nagata; Hiroyuki Shimizu; Kunitake Hirashima; Eizo Kakishita; Kingo Fujimura; Yoshiyuki Niho; Masamitsu Karasawa; Shigeru Oguma; Yataro Yoshida; Hideaki Mizoguchi



Analytical Methods for the Characterization of Organic Dyes in Artworks and in Historical Textiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes are among the most significant components in works of art and archaeological findings. In the scientific examination of historical artefacts, the identification of natural dyestuffs is a challenging task, due to the complexity of their chemical composition and the possible presence of mixtures of chromophores and degradation products. For this reason, in the last few decades, new analytical procedures

I. Degano; E. Ribechini; F. Modugno; M. P. Colombini



The effect of pH on photobleaching of organic laser dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation of pH affects the quantum efficiency for photobleaching and the rate of aggregation following photobleaching. The adjustment of pH to minimize photobleaching is useful for rhodamine 6G and pyronon B, but not for disodium fluorescein. Some of the operational problems of dye lasers may be interpreted as aggregation effects.

A. Britt; W. Moniz



Optical Second Harmonic Generation and Relaxation Dynamics of Aligned Azo-Dyes in Sol-Gel Derived Organic-Inorganic Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Azo-dye doped organic-inorganic hybrid film was prepared by the sol-gel technique, and optical second-harmonic (SH) nonlinearities were measured as a function of the poling conditions. Azo-dye molecules dispersed in poly-vinylpyrrolidone were complexed with the hydrolyzed silicon-alkoxide. The Maker-fringe pattern composed of a fine oscillating pattern on a broad component, and the highest second-order nonlinear coefficient, d33, was 0.83 pm\\/V

Dai Imaizumi; Tomokatsu Hayakawa; Toshihiro Kasuga; Masayuki Nogami



Watching the coherence of multiple vibrational states in organic dye molecules by using supercontinuum probing photon echo spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified photon echo (PE) technique, the supercontinuum probing photon echo (SCPPE), is introduced and performed to investigate the vibrational coherence in organic dye IR780 perchlorate doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film. The coherences of multiple vibrational states which belong to four vibrational modes create complex oscillations in SCPPE signal. The frequencies of vibrational modes are confirmed from the results of Raman calculation which accord fairly well with the results of Raman scattering experiment. Compared with conventional one-color PE, the SCPPE technique can realize broadband detection and make the experiment about vibrational coherence more efficient.

Yu, Guoyang; Song, Yunfei; Wang, Yang; He, Xing; Liu, Yuqiang; Liu, Weilong; Yang, Yanqiang



Destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater using boron-doped diamond anode.  


Electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater was performed in a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode system. After electrolysis of 12h, the COD was decreased from 532 to 99 mg L(-1) (<100 mg L(-1), the National Discharge Standard of China). More importantly, the destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation process was carefully investigated by molecular weight distribution measurement, resin fractionation, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, HPLC and GC-MS analysis, and toxicity test. As results, most organic pollutants were completely removed by electrochemical oxidation and the rest was primarily degraded to simpler compounds (e.g., carboxylic acids and short-chain alkanes) with less toxicity, which demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater with BDD anode was very effective and safe. Especially, the performance of BDD anode system in degradation of large molecular organics such as humic substances makes it very promising in practical applications as an advanced treatment of biologically-pretreated wastewaters. PMID:21377794

Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Wei, Junjun; Xing, Xuan; Li, Hongna



Comparative study on the process behavior and reaction kinetics in sonocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by powder and nanotubes TiO2.  


Sonocatalytic degradation of various organic dyes (Congo Red, Reactive Blue 4, Methyl Orange, Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue) catalyzed by powder and nanotubes TiO(2) was studied. Both catalysts were characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM), surface analyzer, Raman spectroscope and thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA). Sonocatalytic activity of powder and nanotubes TiO(2) was elucidated based on the degradation of various organic dyes. The former catalyst was favorable for treatment of anionic dyes, while the latter was more beneficial for cationic dyes. Sonocatalytic activity of TiO(2) nanotubes could be up to four times as compared to TiO(2) powder under an ultrasonic power of 100 W and a frequency of 42 kHz. This was associated with the higher surface area and the electrostatic attraction between dye molecules and TiO(2) nanotubes. Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to identify changes that occurred on the functional group in Rhodamine B molecules and TiO(2) nanotubes after the reaction. Sonocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B by TiO(2) nanotubes apparently followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption kinetic model with surface reaction rate of 1.75 mg/L min. TiO(2) nanotubes were proven for their high potential to be applied in sonocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. PMID:22000097

Pang, Yean Ling; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi



An optical nanocavity incorporating a fluorescent organic dye having a high quality factor.  


We have fabricated an L3 optical nanocavity operating at visible wavelengths that is coated with a thin-film of a fluorescent molecular-dye. The cavity was directly fabricated into a pre-etched, free-standing silicon-nitride (SiN) membrane and had a quality factor of Q = 2650. This relatively high Q-factor approaches the theoretical limit that can be expected from an L3 nanocavity using silicon nitride as a dielectric material and is achieved as a result of the solvent-free cavity-fabrication protocol that we have developed. We show that the fluorescence from a red-emitting fluorescent dye coated onto the cavity surface undergoes strong emission intensity enhancement at a series of discrete wavelengths corresponding to the cavity modes. Three dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculations are used to predict the mode structure of the cavities with excellent agreement demonstrated between theory and experiment. PMID:20499907

Adawi, Ali M; Murshidy, Mohamed M; Fry, Paul W; Lidzey, David G



Magnetism and carrier modulation in (Ga,Mn)As/organic-dye hybrid devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the manipulation of magnetic and electrical properties of (Ga,Mn)As via the adsorption of dye-molecules as a step toward the realization of light-controlled magnetic-semiconductor/dye hybrid devices. A significant lowering of the Curie temperature with a corresponding increase in electrical resistance and a higher coercive field is found for the (Ga,Mn)As/fluorescein system with respect to (Ga,Mn)As. Upon exposure to visible light a shift in Curie temperature toward higher values as well as a reduction of the electrical resistance and the coercive field can be achieved. This points toward a hole quenching effect at the molecule-(Ga,Mn)As interface which is susceptible to light exposure.

Herrera Diez, L.; Konuma, M.; Placidi, E.; Arciprete, F.; Rushforth, A. W.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Honolka, J.; Kern, K.



``Fast'' amplifying optical Kerr gate using stimulated emission of organic non-linear dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a ``fast'' optical Kerr gate (OKG) which can act at the same time as light amplifier. As a Kerr medium we used different laser dyes (Cresyl violet, Nile blue, Rhodamine 640). The most efficient at available wavelengths (595 nm and 297 nm) was Cresyl violet dissolved in methanol. With a classical OKG arrangement we obtained a maximum transmission of 4000% at 650 nm (strong amplification of the transmitted signal), this wavelength corresponding to a gain maximum of Cresyl violet. The opening time of the OKG was 15 ps limited by the reorientation time of the dye molecule in methanol solvent. With a special OKG arrangement based on the use of two delayed opening pulses, we obtained 240% transmission at the same wavelength with an opening time of 2.5 ps. Possible improvements of the method are described.

Jonusauskas, G.; Oberlé, J.; Abraham, E.; Rullière, C.



Removal of organic compounds during treating printing and dyeing wastewater of different process units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater in Shaoxing wastewater treatment plant (SWWTP) is composed of more than 90% dyeing and printing wastewater with high pH and sulfate. Through a combination process of anaerobic acidogenic [hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15h], aerobic (HRT of 20h) and flocculation–precipitation, the total COD removal efficiency was up to 91%. But COD removal efficiency in anaerobic acidogenic unit was only

J. Wang; M. C. Long; Z. J. Zhang; L. N. Chi; X. L. Qiao; H. X. Zhu; Z. F. Zhang



Highly efficient and stable doped hybrid organic–inorganic materials for solid-state dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant enhancement on the laser action of Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) has been obtained for solid-state dye lasers based on hybrid matrices obtained by simultaneous polymerisation of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with different weight proportions of tetraethoxysilane or tetramethoxysilane. Lasing efficiencies of up 28% and high stabilities, with no sign of degradation, albeit with some oscillations, in the initial laser output after 100000

Angel Costela; Inmaculada Garc??a-Moreno; Clara Gómez; Olga Garc??a; Leoncio Garrido; Roberto Sastre



Stimulated resonance Raman scattering from organic dyes in a multiple-scattering medium as a potential method for determining their vibrational spectra  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for deriving Raman spectra of organic dyes from their random lasing spectra. The method was tested using Rhodamine 6G. The Raman spectrum obtained for this dye agrees well with the spectra measured by standard techniques but is more structured, which allows unresolved features to be detected. The spectrum provides more detailed information owing to the interference between the Raman scattered light and amplified spontaneous emission of the dye molecules within a photon mean free path. One advantage of the method is that the luminescence of the dye helps to observe Raman lines, which allows one to work in the Stokes region and facilitates the measurement procedure. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

Yashchuk, V P; Tikhonov, E A; Bukatar', A O; Prigodiuk, O A; Smalyuk, A P



Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions.

Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher



The Potential Use of Organically Grown Dye Plants in the Organic Textile Industry: Experiences and Results on Cultivation and Yields of Dyer's Chamomile (Anthemis tinctoria L.), Dyer's Knotweed (Polygonum tinctorium Ait.), and Weld (Reseda luteola L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic cultivation of dye plants for the certified natural textiles industry is an emerging and promising sector of organic farming. In 1999 a field trial was done with different provenances of Dyer's Chamomile (Anthemis tinctoria L.), Dyer's Knotweed (Polygonum tinctorium Ait.), and Weld (Reseda luteola L.) on two organic farms in Lower Austria. Yields, dyestuff content, and quality parameters

Anna Hartl; Christian R. Vogl



Characteristics of organic dye lasers as tunable frequency sources for nanosecond absorption spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of 1, 1' diethyl-?-cyano-2,2'-di-carbocyanine-tetrafluoroborate (DTCDCT)and 1, 1'-diethyl-?-nitro- 4, 4'-di-carbocyanine-tetrafluoroborate (DTNDCT) lasers have been investigated. High-efficiency (25 percent) spectral narrowing of the normal 150-Å-wide, 2-MW output of DTCDCT (around ? 7600 Å) to <0.01 Å, corresponding to a single longitudinal mode, is achieved with a novel longitudinally pumped (by giant pulse ruby laser) dye laser cavity. Beam divergence is

D. J. BRADLEY; A. J. F. DURRrlNT; G. M. GALE; M. Moore; P. D. SMITH



Properties of two-photon fluorescence and superradiance of a new organic dye C46H51N2B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a new organic dye, trans-4-[ p-(N-n-butyl-N-n-butylamino)-styryl] -N-methyl-pyridinium tetraphenylborate solution in dimethyl formamide (DMF) have been studied systematically. When excited with mode-locked picosecond 1 064 nm laser beam, intense upconversion fluorescence and superradiance can be obtained. The temporal behaviors of one-photon absorption and two-photon absorption (TPA) fluorescence and superradiance have been studied. The highest upconversion efficiency was found to be 4.1% at a pump energy of 4 mJ. By using an optical parameter amplifier (OPA) as the pump laser, the nonlinear transmittance and upconversion efficiencies of the dye solution at different wavelengths were measured. The strongest linear absorption was found at a wavelength of 930 nm whereas the highest upconversion efficiency was at 1 030 nm. The 100 nm red-shift for the highest upconversion efficiency wavelength compared with the strongest nonlinear absorption are caused by excited state absorption.

Zhou, G.; Wang, D.; Yang, S.; Ren, Y.; Xu, X.; Shao, Z.; Zhao, X.; Jiang, M.; Tian, Y.; Hao, F.; Li, S.; Shi, P.



Single-molecule studies of diffusion by oligomer-bound dyes in organically modified sol-gel-derived silicate films.  


Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy is used to study dye diffusion within organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) films. ORMOSIL films are prepared from sols containing tetraethoxysilane and isobutyltrimethoxysilane in 2:1 and 1:9 molar ratios. Nile red and a new silanized form of nile red that can be covalently attached to the silicate matrix are used as fluorescent probe molecules. The number and rate of single molecules diffusing through these films increases dramatically with increasing film organic content. Autocorrelation of the fluorescence images yields a quantitative measure of the relative populations of fixed and diffusing species. Surprisingly, both "free" and silicate-bound nile red exhibit relatively facile translational motions. Single-molecule/single-point fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is used to measure the dye diffusion coefficients in submicrometer-scale film regions. The most common diffusion coefficients for "free" and silicate-bound nile red molecules in the 1:9 films are 3.9 x 10(-10) and 1.6 x 10(-10) cm(2)/s, respectively. The unexpectedly rapid diffusion of silicate-bound nile red is attributed to the presence of liquidlike silicate oligomers in the films. A lower bound for the molecular weight of the oligomers is estimated at 2900. Bulk solution-phase FCS experiments performed on "free" and silicate-bound nile red species extracted into chloroform solutions provide valuable support for these conclusions. Comparison of the results derived from experimental and simulated time transients indicates film heterogeneity occurs on sub-100-nm-length scales and likely results from the presence of inorganic- and organic-rich domains. PMID:15649044

Martin-Brown, Skylar A; Fu, Yi; Saroja, Ginagunta; Collinson, Maryanne M; Higgins, Daniel A



Laser dye toxicity, hazards and recommended controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser dyes are complex fluorescent organic compounds which, when in solution with organic solvents, form a lasing medium. The wavelength of a dye laser's output beam can vary with different dyes, concentrations, and solvents, giving it a tunable feature capable of emitting ultraviolet, visible, or infrared radiation. Toxicity information on the approximately 100 commercially available laser dyes is very scarce. Limited animal experimentation has been performed with only a few dyes. This paper summarizes what is known about laser dye toxicity, and offers recommendations for controlling dye hazards. The laser dyes investigated were categorized according to their central chemical structures. Prepared laser dye solutions usually contain very small quantities of dye--typical dye concentrations are 10(+2) to 10(+5) molar. For this reason, the solvent in which the dye is dissolved plays an important role when defining potential hazards. Practically all the solvents used are flammable and toxic by inhalation and skin absorption, and therefore must be controlled properly.

Mosovsky, J. A.


Interaction between an organic dye in water and sand packs in a flume system.  


The sorption kinetics of methylene blue (MB), a standard compound in the American Society for Testing and Materials tests, on natural sand in a batch system at a reciprocal shaking speed of 120 rpm is fast, with equilibrium and surface coverage attained in minutes. When the same experiment is carried out in a recirculating flume, adsorption is much slower, with lifetimes increasing up to several months in the flume. Sorption retardation is dependent on the diffusion coefficient of the dye and on the depth of penetration of the MB layer in sand. The experimental results suggest that, in field experiments, formation of thin films dramatically inhibits the sorption kinetics and, in a closed system, such as a lake or reservoir, contaminants will remain in the water column for long periods, with very slow penetration in the sediment layer. In rivers, the contaminant will travel farther with less penetration into the sediment layer, compared to more static systems. PMID:20862753

Nome, Rene A; Souza, Aloisio J; Nome, Carlos A; Souza, Bruno S; Nome, Faruk; Fiedler, Haidi D



Carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals detected by energy transfer to organic dye molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carrier multiplication describes an interesting optical phenomenon in semiconductors whereby more than one electron-hole pair, or exciton, can be simultaneously generated upon absorption of a single high-energy photon. So far, it has been highly debated whether the carrier multiplication efficiency is enhanced in semiconductor nanocrystals as compared with their bulk counterpart. The controversy arises from the fact that the ultrafast optical methods currently used need to correctly account for the false contribution of charged excitons to the carrier multiplication signals. Here we show that this charged exciton issue can be resolved in an energy transfer system, where biexcitons generated in the donor nanocrystals are transferred to the acceptor dyes, leading to an enhanced fluorescence from the latter. With the biexciton Auger and energy transfer lifetime measurements, an average carrier multiplication efficiency of ~17.1% can be roughly estimated in CdSe nanocrystals when the excitation photon energy is ~2.46 times of their energy gap.

Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ying; Hua, Zheng; Wang, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Chunfeng; Xiao, Min



Addition of Functional Characteristics of Organic Photochromic Dye to Nano-Structures by Selective Doping on a Polymer Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional characteristics of an organic photochromic dye were added to nano-structures of a diblock copolymer by selective doping using the “vapor transportation method” with vacuum technique. The photochromic compound cis-1,2-dicyano-1,2-bis(2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thienyl)ethene (CMTE) was dispersed into polystyrene (PS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and polycarbonate (PC) substrates, and the rates of production of CMTE-containing layers were as follows: PS > PC > PMMA. The differences in formation rate between polymer matrices can lead to selective dispersal of CMTE into the PS nano-domains of a PS-block-PMMA film with a micro phase separation structure, resulting in addition of the photochromic characteristics of CMTE to PS nano-structures of the PS-block-PMMA film.

Mizokuro, Toshiko; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Xiaoliang, Mo; Horiuchi, Shin; Tanaka, Norio; Tanigaki, Nobutaka; Hiraga, Takashi



Modification of current-voltage characteristics of planar organic systems by nm-thick copper phthalocyanine or perylene dye interlayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of a nm-thick interlayer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) or perylene dye (MePTCDI) on currentvoltage characteristics of planar organic systems is discussed in this work. The MePTCDI layer in the ITO/MePTCDI/CuPc/Au system strongly reduces reverse dark current by blocking injection of holes from ITOinto CuPc leading to high values of rectification ratio. The CuPc interlayer in the ITO/CuPc/MePTCDI/Ag system causes a strong reduction in electron injection from ITOand reverses a forward polarity. Modification of current-voltage characteristics of illuminated systems with an interlayer of MePTCDI or CuPc is associated with a strong photovoltaic effect. This results from efficient excition dissociation at the CuPc/MePTCDI interface. Saturation current, determined by this process of charge carrier photogeneration, can be observed at particular voltage polarity.

Signerski, Ryszard; Jarosz, Gra?yna



Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Near infrared laser action has been demonstrated for 9 Kodak organic dyes, using a linear flash lamp for excitation. The spectral region covered by these 9 dyes extends from 850 nm to at least 960 nm, with no tuning attempted so far. Output is in the kilo...

B. E. Plourde J. P. Webb



Reduction in liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry. Comparison of the fission fragment and liquid secondary ion mass spectra of organic dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectral characterlzatlon of the Intact chromophore of organic dyestuffs, frequently prepared as salts, Is relatlvely faclle wlth desorptlon lonlratlon. The mass spectra obtalned, however, may show the presence of chemlcally altered forms of the chromophore. Comparlson of the flsslon fragment (FF) and llquld secondary Ion mass spectra (Ilquld SIMS) of a serles of dyes reveals enhanced (C + 1)'

P. Jane. Gale; Bryan L. Bentz; Brian T. Chait; Frank H. Field; Robert J. Cotter



Comparative study on the process behavior and reaction kinetics in sonocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by powder and nanotubes TiO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sonocatalytic degradation of various organic dyes (Congo Red, Reactive Blue 4, Methyl Orange, Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue) catalyzed by powder and nanotubes TiO2 was studied. Both catalysts were characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM), surface analyzer, Raman spectroscope and thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA). Sonocatalytic activity of powder and nanotubes TiO2 was elucidated based on the degradation of various organic

Yean Ling Pang; Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah


Electrochemical oxidation of bio-refractory dye in a simulated textile industry effluent using DSA electrodes in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor.  


This work presents a study on degradation of indigo carmine dye in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor using Sb2O5-doped Ti/IrO2-SnO2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Micro- and macroelectrolysis studies were carried out using solutions of 0.8 mM indigo carmine in 0.05 M NaCl, which resemble blue denim laundry industrial wastewater. Microelectrolysis results show the behaviour of DSA electrodes in comparison with the behaviour of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. In general, dye degradation reactions are carried out indirectly through active chlorine generated on DSA, whereas in the case of BDD electrodes more oxidizing species are formed, mainly OH radicals, on the electrode surface. The well-characterized geometry, flow pattern and mass transport of the FM01-LC reactor used in macroelectrolysis experiments allowed the evaluation of the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the chlorine-mediated degradation rate. Four values of Reynolds number (Re) (93, 371, 464 and 557) at four current densities (50, 100, 150 and 200 A/m2) were tested. The results show that the degradation rate is independent of Re at low current density (50 A/m2) but becomes dependent on the Re at high current density (200 A/m2). This behaviour shows the central role of mass transport and the reactor parameters and design. The low energy consumption (2.02 and 9.04 kWh/m3 for complete discolouration and chemical oxygen demand elimination at 50 A/m2, respectively) and the low cost of DSA electrodes compared to BDD make DSA electrodes promising for practical application in treating industrial textile effluents. In the present study, chlorinated organic compounds were not detected. PMID:23837306

Rodríguez, Francisca A; Mateo, María N; Aceves, Juan M; Rivero, Eligio P; González, Ignacio


Influence of organic and inorganic compounds on oxidoreductive decolorization of sulfonated azo dye C.I. Reactive Orange 16  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isolated bacterial strain is placed in the branch of the Bacillus genus on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence and biochemical characteristics. It decolorized an individual and mixture of dyes, including reactive, disperse and direct. Bacillus sp. ADR showed 88% decolorization of sulfonated azo dye C.I. Reactive Orange 16 (100mgL?1) with 2.62mg of dye decolorized g?1 dry cells h?1

Amar A. Telke; Dayanand C. Kalyani; Vishal V. Dawkar; Sanjay P. Govindwar



Visible light-driven novel nanocomposite (BiVO4/CuCr2O4) for efficient degradation of organic dye.  


In the present study, BiVO4/CuCr2O4 nanocomposites synthesized via a chemical route are applied as a photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye. The photocatalytic activity results indicated a substantial degradation of MB dye by ~90% over the surface of nanocomposite catalyst under visible light illumination. The nanocomposite showed a photocatalytic activity for MB dye degradation which is three times higher compared to that of BiVO4. This has been attributed to photogenerated electron-hole pair charge separation. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, an oxidizing reagent such as H2O2 was added to the photocatalytic system, which may act as an alternative electron scavenger and resulting in a notably enhanced rate of pollutant destruction. In addition, the effect of polyaniline has also been studied by synthesizing an organic/inorganic hybrid material (BiVO4/CuCr2O4/PANI). It has been observed that 95% photodegradation of organic dye takes place on the nanocomposite surface with visible light. A possible mechanism explaining the origin of enhanced performance of nanocomposite and nanohybrid is proposed. PMID:23385890

Bajaj, Rohit; Sharma, Madhulika; Bahadur, D



Synthesis of a Near-Infrared Emitting Squaraine Dye in an Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Squaraines are a class of organic fluorophores that possess unique photophysical properties, including strong near-infrared absorption and emission. The synthesis of many squaraines involves the condensation of an electron-rich aromatic ring with squaric acid. These reactions are generally refluxed overnight in a benzene-butanol solvent mixture.…

Marks, Patrick; Levine, Mindy



A Sensitive Catalytic Method for the Determination of Copper by Its Catalytic Effect on the Potassium Bromate Indigo Carmine Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for catalytic determination of copper (II) is presented. The method is based on the catalytic effect of copper(II) on the rate of oxidation of indigo carmine by potassium bromate. The method is satisfactory for the determination of copper(II) in the range 1.2 to 38 ng\\/mL. Effect of acidity, indigo carmine, potassium bromate, temperature and tolerance limits of foreign

B. F. Shraydeh; M. A. Abu Eid; N. A. Zatar; A. Abu Obeid; M. Khamis; K. Kanan



Electrochemical oxidation of bio-refractory dye in a simulated textile industry effluent using DSA electrodes in a filter-press type FM01LC reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a study on degradation of indigo carmine dye in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor using Sb2O5-doped Ti\\/IrO2-SnO2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Micro- and macroelectrolysis studies were carried out using solutions of 0.8 mM indigo carmine in 0.05 M NaCl, which resemble blue denim laundry industrial wastewater. Microelectrolysis results show the behaviour of DSA electrodes in comparison with the

Francisca A. Rodríguez; María N. Mateo; Juan M. Aceves; Eligio P. Rivero; Ignacio González



Removal of organic dyes using Cr-containing activated carbon prepared from leather waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, hydrogen peroxide decomposition and oxidation of organics in aqueous medium were studied in the presence of activated carbon prepared from wet blue leather waste. The wet blue leather waste, after controlled pyrolysis under CO2 flow, was transformed into chromium-containing activated carbons. The carbon with Cr showed high microporous surface area (up to 889m2g?1). Moreover, the obtained carbon

Luiz C. A. Oliveira; Camila Van Zanten Coura; Iara R. Guimarães; Maraisa Gonçalves



N-Doped graphene nanoplatelets as superior metal-free counter electrodes for organic dye-sensitized solar cells.  


Highly efficient counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were developed using thin films of scalable and high-quality, nitrogen-doped graphene nanoplatelets (NGnP), which was synthesized by a simple two-step reaction sequence. The resultant NGnP was deposited on fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO)/glass substrates by using electrospray (e-spray) coating, and their electrocatalytic activities were systematically evaluated for Co(bpy)3(3+/2+) redox couple in DSSCs with an organic sensitizer. The e-sprayed NGnP thin films exhibited outstanding performances as CEs for DSSCs. The optimized NGnP electrode showed better electrochemical stability under prolonged cycling potential, and its Rct at the interface of the CE/electrolyte decreased down to 1.73 ? cm(2), a value much lower than that of the Pt electrode (3.15 ? cm(2)). The DSSC with the optimized NGnP-CE had a higher fill factor (FF, 74.2%) and a cell efficiency (9.05%), whereas those of the DSSC using Pt-CE were only 70.6% and 8.43%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the extraordinarily better current-voltage characteristics of the DSSC-NGnP outperforming the DSSC-Pt for the Co(bpy)3(3+/2+) redox couple (in paticular, FF and short circuit current, Jsc) is highlighted for the first time. PMID:23656316

Ju, Myung Jong; Kim, Jae Cheon; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Choi, In Taek; Kim, Sang Gyun; Lim, Kimin; Ko, Jaejung; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jeon, In-Yup; Baek, Jong-Beom; Kim, Hwan Kyu



Photocatalytic property of a keggin-type polyoxometalates-containing bilayer system for degradation organic dye model.  


The photocatalytic activity composite films incorporating the Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POM) K6CoW12O40.-16H2O and K3PW12O40.-nH2O (MW12 (M=P, Co)) and [Cu(II)(1,8-dimethyl-1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 13-hexaazacycloteradecane)](2+)(L) have been prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. The experimental results show that the deposition process is linear and highly reproducible from layer to layer. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the L/MW12 composite films indicate that the film surface is relatively uniform and smooth. In addition, the films show high photocatalytic activity to the degradation of organic dye model (methyl orange (MO)), attributed to the formation of an O-->W charge-transfer excited state at W-O-W bridge bond, resulting in generating highly reactive holes and electrons; The photocatalytic efficiency of the films have little change after several times of photocatalytic cycle, indicating that the composite films are stable, reused and recovered. PMID:19656521

Li, Taohai; Gao, Shuiying; Li, Feng; Cao, Rong



Silica nanoparticle doped organic ionic plastic crystal electrolytes for highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.  


Organic ionic plastic crystal, 1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium iodide (P??I), which possesses a broad plastic phase from -36 to 135 °C, was doped with silica nanoparticles (SiO? NPs) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (EMII), for the preparation of SiO?/EMII/P??I solid-state electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The thermal properties of all the electrolytes, including solid-solid phase transitions and melting temperatures, were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of silica particles on the ionic conductivity, diffusion of I?/I?? redox couple in electrolytes, and photovoltaic performance for solid-state DSSCs were investigated. The fabricated solid-state DSSCs yielded a high power conversion efficiency of 5.25% under simulated air mass 1.5 solar spectrum illuminations at 50 mW cm?². Furthermore, the DSSCs based on SiO?/EMII/P??I solid-state electrolytes show good stability after an accelerating aging test, demonstrating potential practical applications. PMID:23384003

Shi, Chengzhen; Qiu, Lihua; Chen, Xiaojian; Zhang, Haigang; Wang, Lei; Yan, Feng



Three-photon absorption process in organic dyes enhanced by surface plasmon resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-photon absorption processes have received significant attention from the scientific community during the last decade, mainly because of their potential applications in optical limiting, data storage and biomedical fields. Perhaps, one of the most investigated processes studied so far has been two-photon absorption (2PA). These investigations have resulted in successful applications in all the fields mentioned above. However, 2PA present some limitations in the biomedical field when pumping at typical 2PA wavelengths. In order to overcome these limitations, three-photon absorption (3PA) process has been proposed. However, 3PA in organic molecules has a disadvantage, typical values of sigma3' are small (10-81 cm6s 2/photon2), therefore, 3PA excitation requires high irradiances to induce the promotion of electrons from the ground state to the final excited state. To overcome this obstacle, specific molecules that exhibit large 3PA cross-section must be designed. Thus far, there is a lack of systematic studies that correlate 3PA processes with the molecular structure of organic compounds. In order to fill the existent gap in 3PA molecular engineering, in this dissertation we have investigated the structure/property relationship for a new family of fluorene derivatives with very high three-photon absorption cross-sections. We demonstrated that the symmetric intramolecular charge transfer as well as the pi-electron conjugation length enhances the 3PA cross-section of fluorene derivatives. In addition, we showed that the withdrawing electron character of the attractor groups in a pull-pull geometry proved greater 3PA cross-section. After looking for alternative ways to enhance the effective sigma 3' of organic molecules, we investigated the enhancement of two- and three-photon absorption processes by means of Surface Plasmon. We demonstrated an enhancement of the effective two- and three-photon absorption cross-section of an organic compound of 480 and 30 folds, respectively. We proved that the enhancement is a direct consequence of the electric field enhancement at a metal/buffer interface. Next, motivated by the demands for new materials with enhanced nonlinear optical properties, we studied the 3PA of Hematoporphyrin IX and J-aggregate supramolecular systems. As a result, we were able to propose the use of 3PA in photodynamic therapy using Photofrin, the only drug approved by the FDA for PDT.

Cohanoschi, Ion


New type of inorganic–organic hybrid (heteropolytungsticacid–polyepichlorohydrin) polymer electrolyte with TiO 2 nanofiller for solid state dye sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of inorganic–organic hybrid solid state polymer electrolyte consisting of heteropolytungsticacid impregnated polyepichlorohydrin with iodine\\/iodide and TiO2 nanofiller have been prepared for their potential application in dye sensitized solar cells. The prepared polymer electrolytes were well characterized by FT-IR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electrochemical Impedance analysis (EIS) and Thermal analysis (TGA). The prepared polymer electrolyte

Radhakrishnan Sivakumar; Krishnasamy Akila; Sambandam Anandan



Properties of two-photon absorption-induced cavity lasing of an organic dye HEASPI pumped by picosecond infrared laser beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first operation of cavity lasing of a two-photon absorption (TPA) organic dye, trans-4-[p-(N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethylamino) styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (HEASPI), by using picosecond infrared laser as pump source is reported in this paper. Temporal profile of cavity lasing shows obvious oscillations, and magnification of the feedback light can be obtained. By using the difference of re-absorption coefficient at different conditions, we explained the

Guangyong Zhou; Dong Wang; Xiaomei Wang; Xinguang Xu; Xiufeng Cheng; Zongshu Shao; Xian Zhao; Q. Fang; Minhua Jiang



Structure and Optical Properties of Nanocomposites Prepared by the Incorporation of Organic Dyes into a SiO 2 and SiO 2 –PMMA Glassy Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic spectra of nine different types of organic colorants embedded in three different matrices (sol–gel SiO2?, PMMA, and SiO2–PMMA) were studied experimentally with the use of optical absorption, photoluminescence excitation, and emission techniques, as well as fluorescent microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We found a distinct set of energy levels for each type of dye. The type of matrix and

L. L. Díaz-Flores; J. F. Pérez-Robles; P. Vorobiev; P. P. Horley; R. V. Zakharchenko; J. González-Hernández; Yu. V. Vorobiev



A study of the effects of injection mode, on-capillary stacking and off-line concentration on the capillary electrophoresis limits of detection for four structural types of industrial dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limits of detection of four structural types of industrial dyes — Malachite Green (MG), Indigo Carmine (IC), Cibacron Blue 3GA (CB) and Remazol Black B (RB) — by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) were investigated by both hydrodynamic and electrokinetic injection. The LODs obtained using a 30 s hydrodynamic injection were compared to those achieved using a 30 s +

Lorraine Farry; Darren A. Oxspring; W. Franklin Smyth; Roger Marchant



High molar extinction coefficient organic sensitizers for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.  


We have designed and synthesized highly efficient organic sensitizers with a planar thienothiophene-vinylene-thienothiophene linker. Under standard global AM 1.5 solar conditions, the JK-113-sensitized cell gave a short circuit photocurrent density (J(sc)) of 17.61 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.71 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 72%, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency (eta) of 9.1%. The incident monochromatic photo-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of JK-113 exceeds 80% over the spectral region from 400 to 640 nm, reaching its maximum of 93% at 475 nm. The band tails off toward 770 nm, contributing to the broad spectral light harvesting. Solar-cell devices based on the sensitizer JK-113 in conjunction with a volatile electrolyte and a solvent-free ionic liquid electrolyte gave high conversion efficiencies of 9.1% and 7.9%, respectively. The JK-113-based solar cell fabricated using a solvent-free ionic liquid electrolyte showed excellent stability under light soaking at 60 degrees C for 1000 h. PMID:19998435

Choi, Hyunbong; Raabe, Ines; Kim, Duckhyun; Teocoli, Francesca; Kim, Chulwoo; Song, Kihyung; Yum, Jun-Ho; Ko, Jaejung; Nazeeruddin, Md K; Grätzel, Michael



Efficiency enhancement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using conversion dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report recent results on top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using color conversion layers (CCLs) embedded into the electron transport layer of the OLED structure. The method of color conversion provides the possibility to generate a color stable emission with operating lifetime. Due to a constant ratio between absorbed blue emission and converter emission, the spectral shape remains for all time. This guarantees constant color coordinates of the OLED, which is essential for lighting applications. It is shown that OLEDs using conversion layers reach external quantum efficiencies (EQE) which can be higher than the corresponding blue top-emitting OLED. The used conversion layer thickness is below 100 nm, reaching Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.23; 0.27) close to the Planckian locus at a maximum EQE of 3.16% using a blue fluorescent emitter system. Furthermore, we show that the excitation mechanism of the conversion layer is caused by absorption and no parasitic electrical excitation is taking place. Investigations on the emission color over the lifetime show color-stability over a period of up to 2200 h.

Schwab, Tobias; Thomschke, Michael; Hofmann, Simone; Furno, Mauro; Leo, Karl; Lüssem, Björn



Molecular organization and aggregation in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of azo dye/liquid crystal mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of azo dye/liquid crystal mixtures in monolayers formed at air-water (Langmuir films) and air-solid substrate (Langmuir-Blodgett films) interfaces was performed. Three azo dyes with various molecular structure and two liquid crystal materials: 4-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) and trans-4-octyl(4'-cyanophenyl)-cyclohexane (8PCH) were used. The morphology of Langmuir films was monitored by means of a Brewster angle microscope (BAM). Moreover, a surface pressure and electronic absorption spectra of the monolayer spread on the water surface of dye/liquid crystal mixtures as a function of a mean molecular area were simultaneously recorded. In addition, the absorption for Langmuir-Blodgett films deposited on quartz plates was measured. Information about intermolecular interactions in the mixtures of the nonamphiphilic dye and the liquid crystal with polar terminal group was obtained. Conclusions about the formation of self-aggregates between dye molecules have been drawn. The influence of the dye molecular structure and its concentration on aggregates’ geometry was found.

Inglot, K.; Marty?ski, T.; Bauman, D.



Photostability enhancement of anionic natural dye by intercalation into hydrotalcite.  


The aim of this study is the improvement of the photostability of several natural anionic dyes, carmine (CM), carthamus yellow (CY), and annatto dye (ANA), by complexation with hydrotalcite. The composite of the dyes and hydrotalcite is prepared by the coprecipitation method. CM is successfully intercalated in the hydrotalcite layer when the amount of introduced CM is large. The photostability of CM in CM/HT composites is superior to the CM adsorbed on silica surface. The effect of the stability enhancement is larger when the amount of introduced CM exceeds 0.23 g/g-host, or when the layer charge density of the hydrotalcite is larger. CY is also stabilized by complexation with hydrotalcite, whereas ANA is not stabilized by complexation with hydrotalcite. The photostability of an anionic natural dye can be improved by intercalation into the hydrotalcite layer, if the dye has a hydrophilic nature and a rather planar structure. The intercalated dye is stabilized by the protection from the attack of the atmospheric oxygen. In addition, contribution of the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged hydrotalcite layer and the intercalated anionic dye is also proposed. PMID:19477459

Kohno, Yoshiumi; Totsuka, Koichi; Ikoma, Shuji; Yoda, Keiko; Shibata, Masashi; Matsushima, Ryoka; Tomita, Yasumasa; Maeda, Yasuhisa; Kobayashi, Kenkichiro



Influence of synthetic and natural food dyes on activities of CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7.  


Synthetic or natural food dyes are typical xenobiotics, as are drugs and pollutants. After ingestion, part of these dyes may be absorbed and metabolized by phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes and excreted by transporters of phase III enzymes. However, there is little information regarding the metabolism of these dyes. It was investigated whether these dyes are substrates for CYP2A6 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). The in vitro inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes by these dyes was also examined. The synthetic food dyes studied were amaranth (food red no. 2), erythrosine B (food red no. 3), allura red (food red no. 40), new coccine (food red no. 102), acid red (food red no. 106), tartrazine (food Yellow no. 4), sunset yellow FCF (food yellow no. 5), brilliant blue FCF (food blue no. 1), and indigo carmine (food blue no. 2). The natural additive dyes studied were extracts from purple sweet potato, purple corn, cochineal, monascus, grape skin, elderberry, red beet, gardenia, and curthamus. Data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. Only indigo carmine inhibited CYP2A6 in a noncompetitive manner, while erythrosine B inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). In the natural additive dyes just listed, only monascus inhibited UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. PMID:16009655

Kuno, Nayumi; Mizutani, Takaharu



Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Reactive Dyes over MnTiO3 /TiO2 Heterojunction Composites Under UV-Visible Irradiation.  


In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of organic reactive dyes have been investigated using MnTiO3 /TiO2 heterojunction composites in the presence of electron acceptors under UV-Visible light irradiation. This MnTiO3 /TiO2 heterojunction composites were prepared by annealing different mass ratios of pyrophanite MnTiO3 (3-11 wt%) and TiO2 at 300°C. All the MnTiO3 /TiO2 heterojunction composites were characterized by spectral techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and diffused reflectance UV-visible spectroscopic analysis (DRS). Among them, 9 wt% MnTiO3 /TiO2 heterojunction composites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Reactive Blue 4 (RB 4). The photocatalytic efficiency of 9 wt% MnTiO3 /TiO2 heterojunction composites was further enhanced by the addition of substantial amount of electron acceptors like hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and ammonium peroxydisulfate ([NH4 ]2 S2 O8 ). The presence of oxidants (electron acceptors) facilitates the fast degradation of dye solution even in higher concentration upto 200 mg/L. The photocatalytic activity of MnTiO3 /TiO2 heterojunction composites was also studied for the degradation of other four different structured reactive dyes. The extent of mineralization of these organic reactive dyes during photocatalytic degradation was estimated from COD analysis. MnTiO3 /TiO2 heterojunction composites was also found to have good photostability in the presence of oxidants. PMID:23848842

Sivakumar, Santhanam; Selvaraj, Ayyasamy; Ramasamy, Anaipalayam Kandasamy



Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Søsted


First Record of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae, Infesting Withania somnifera in India  

PubMed Central

During April–June 2010, red two—spotted carmine spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) were found on aerial apical parts of Ashwagandha Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants in the Amritsar District of Punjab Province in the North Indian plains. The mites fed on the leaves, making them shiny white in color, which gradually dried off and were later shed. The pest was identified as T. urticae. To best of our knowledge, this is the first record of this pest infesting W. somnifera in India.

Sharma, Ashutosh; Kumar Pati, Pratap



Kinetic isotope effect on the proton-transfer in indigo carmine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have found that photo-excited indigo carmine causes stepwise proton transfer to generate mono-alcohol intermediate, which immediately returns to the parent molecule [I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, T. Kobayashi, Chem. Lett. 38 (2009) 1020]. The kinetic isotope effect in the proton transfer of this system has been studied by direct observation of the real-time molecular vibrational amplitude during the reaction including the transition state using a sub-5-fs laser pulse. The kaH/kaD ratio for the proton transfer after photo-excitation is observed to be 1.5 ± 0.1.

Iwakura, Izumi; Yabushita, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi



Solid state dye sensitized solar cells based on supersonic beam deposition of organic, inorganic cluster assembled, and nanohybrid materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of nanohybrids synthesized by supersonic beam codeposition of metal oxide clusters, produced by microplasma cluster source, and of aerodynamically accelerated molecules has been explored as a novel approach to the preparation of controlled dye sensitized materials for photovoltaic applications. The hybrid nanostructures are formed through deposition via supersonic expansion processes, controlling the kinetic energy of the precursors. With

M. Nardi; T. Toccoli; M. Tonezzer; F. Siviero; V. Micheli; A. C. Mayer; S. Iannotta



Organic Dye-Doped Silica Films by the Liquid Phase Deposition Method as Potential New Hybrid Materials for Photonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica films doped with malachite green (MG) or uranine (UR) were deposited on the surface of a glass slide at 35°C from saturated hydrofluorosilicic acid solution containing these dyes. The steady fluorescence of MG was observed in silica films, which was absent in aqueous solutions. The fluorescence lifetime of MG in silica films was about 60 times longer than that

Toshihiko Nagamura; Hisahiro Shimizu



[Determination of synthetic food dyes in food by capillary electrophoresis].  


A method for the determination of 12 synthetic food dyes (Amaranth, Erythrosine, Allura Red AC, New Coccine, Phloxine, Rose Bengal, Acid Red, Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Fast Green FCF, Brilliant Blue FCF, Indigo Carmine) in food was developed using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with photodiode array detection. The dyes were extracted with water and 0.5% ammonia-ethanol (1:1) mixture, and cleaned up using solid-phase extraction (Sep-Pak Plus tC18). The dyes were eluted with methanol from the cartridge. The dyes were separated by CE on a bubble cell fused-silica capillary (72 cm to the detector, 75 microm i.d.) using 20% acetonitrile in a mixture of 10 mmol/L potassium phosphate, monobasic and 5 mmol/L sodium carbonate (pH 10.0) as the running buffer. Identifications of the dyes were performed on the basis of the migration time and the absorbance spectrum of each peak. The coefficients of variation of the migration times and the peak areas were 0.28-0.62% and 1.84-4.30%, respectively (n = 5). The identification limits using the absorbance spectra of the dyes were 10 microg/mL for Brilliant Blue FCF and Fast Green FCF, and 5 microg/mL for the other 10 dyes. The recoveries of the 12 dyes from pickles, soft drinks and candies at the level of 10 microg/g were 70.0-101.5%. The method was applied to the analysis of dyes in foods. The dyes detected by CE were in agreement with those detected by paper chromatography. PMID:15468935

Ishikawa, Fusako; Oishi, Mitsuo; Kimura, Keisuke; Yasui, Akiko; Saito, Kazuo



Degradation of Dye Wastewater by ns-Pulse DBD Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two plasma reactors have been developed and used to degrade dye wastewater agents. The configuration of one plasma reactor is a comb-like extendable unit module consisting of 5 electrodes covered with a quartz tube and the other one is an array reactor which is extended from the unit module. The decomposition of wastewater by ns pulse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma have been carried out by atomizing the dyeing solutions into the reactors. During experiments, the indigo carmine has been treated as the waste agent. The measurements of UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) are carried out to demonstrate the decomposition effect on the wastewater. It shows that the decoloration rate of 99% and the COD degradation rate of 65% are achieved with 15 min treatment in the unit reactor. The effect of electrical parameters on degradation has been studied in detail. Results from the array reactor indicate that it has a better degradation effect than the unit one. It can not only totally remove the chromogenic bond of the indigo carmine solution, but also effectively degrade unsaturated bonds. The decoloration rate reaches 99% after 10 min treatment, the decomposition rate of the unsaturated bond reaches 83% after 60 min treatment, and the COD degradation rate is nearly 74%.

Gao, Jin; Gu, Pingdao; Yuan, Li; Zhong, Fangchuan



Evaluation of dyes decolourisation by the crude enzyme from Pleurotus sajor-caju grown on sorghum seed media.  


The extracellular enzymes from Pleurotus sajor-caju were studied for lignin degrading enzyme patterns and dye decolourisation potential. Laccases are major ligninolytic enzymes excreted by the fungus. The results from a native-PAGE revealed that there were at least two isoenzymes. The crude enzyme had a pH and a temperature optimum at 6.0 and 40 degrees C, respectively when 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was used as substrate. The pH and thermal stability were at 5.0 and 30 degrees C. The pH optima for decolourisation of Indigo Carmine and Methyl Red were at 5.0 and 6.0, respectively. Indigo Carmine could be decolorized efficiently above 90% within 180 min, whereas Methyl Red could be decolorized only 3.5%. High efficiency decolourisation of Indigo Carmine makes this fungus to be a promise choice in biological treatment of waste water containing Indigo Carmine. PMID:18819594

Sarnthima, R; Khammuang, S



Carminic acid modified anion exchanger for the removal and preconcentration of Mo(VI) from wastewater.  


Removal and preconcentration of Mo(VI) from water and wastewater solutions was investigated using carminic acid modified anion exchanger (IRA743). Various factors influencing the adsorption of Mo(VI), e.g. pH, initial concentration, and coexisting oxyanions were studied. Adsorption reached equilibrium within <10 min and was independent of initial concentration of Mo(VI). Studies were performed at different pH values to find the pH at which maximum adsorption occurred and was determined to be at a pH between 4.0 and 6.0. The Langmuir adsorption capacity (q(max)) was found to be 13.5mg Mo(VI)/g of the adsorbent. The results showed that modification of IRA743 with carminic acid is suitable for the removal of Mo(VI), as molybdate, from water and wastewater samples. The concentration of Mo(VI) was determined spectrophotometrically using bromopyrogallol red as a complexation reagent. This allows the determination of Mo(VI) in the range 1.0-100.0 ?g/mL. The obtained material was subjected to efficient regeneration. PMID:20943315

El-Moselhy, Medhat Mohamed; Sengupta, Arup K; Smith, Ryan



Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study used novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecules, namely BPVPDA, an organic fluorescence color thin film using BPVPDA exhibit deep blue fluorine with CIE coordinates of (0.13,0.16). The developed original Organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness, in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses organic dye dopent in limpid photo resist. With this technology , the following characteristics can be obtained: (1) high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and (2) improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescence thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD and OLED.

Liu, Wei-ting; Huang, Wen-Yao



Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study used the novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecule BPVPDA in an organic fluorescent color thin film to exhibit deep blue color with CIE coordinates of (0.13, 0.16). The developed original organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a TFT LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses an organic dye dopant in a limpid photoresist. With this technology, the following characteristics can be obtained: 1. high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and 2. improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescent thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD or OLED.

Liu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Wen-Yao



Conditions leading to the formation of polymer thin layers with densely dispersed organic dyes using the vapor transportation method with vacuum technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "vapor transportation method" with vacuum technique, developed previsouly in our laboratory, was used to form polymer thin layers with densely dispersed photochromic dyes on polystyrene (PS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and polymcarbonate (PC) substrates. The organic photochrmoic dye cis-1,2-dicyano-1,2-bis(2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thienyl)ethane (CMTE) was used, and the rate of formation of the CMTE-conatining layer was as follows: PS > PC > PMMA. These observations are important for application of the present method to the formation of organic memory media for optical recording etc. These results also indicate that the formation rate is dependent on not only the chemical composition and the structure of the polymer substrate, but also on the treatment temperature. Optical density measurements of the CMTE-dispersed thin polymer films showed maximum values near the glass transition temperature (g) with increases in temperature of film formation. The Tg values of CMTE-dispersed polymers decreased rapidly after CMTE-dispersal into the polymer matrices, indicating that Tg values of the polymers are important parameters for investigation of the mechanism of formation of CMTE-dispersed layers on polymer substrates using the present method.

Mizokuro, Toshiko; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Noritaka; Tanaka, Norio; Horiuchi, Shin; Tanigaki, Nobutaka; Hiraga, Takashi



Decolorization and decomposition of organic pollutants for reactive and disperse dyes using electron beam technology: effect of the concentrations of pollutants and irradiation dose.  


Dyeing wastewater was known to have strong color and refractory organic pollutants. In this study irradiation alone was used for dyes wastewater treatment. This paper studies the effect of the concentrations of pollutants to its removal at various dosages using electron beam technology. Irradiation was effective in removing the highly colored and refractory organic compounds. The color removal for initial concentrations of 255 CU, 520 CU, 990 CU and 1900 CU treated using irradiation at 0.5 kGy were 61%, 48%, 28% and 16%, respectively. However, at the dose of 108 kGy and higher, the color removal between 87% and 96% were recorded with no apparent trend. COD removal also reported similar trend but at relatively lower removal percentage. The COD removal at 0.5 kGy for initial COD concentrations of 57 mg/l and 515 mg/l were 10% and 0%, respectively. At irradiation dose of 108 kGy, the removal for initial COD concentrations of 57 mg/l and 515 mg/l were 37% and 13%, respectively. This showed that concentrations of pollutants and dose of irradiation applied to remove color and COD were dependent to each other. PMID:18571692

Ting, Teo-Ming; Jamaludin, Nur'aishikin



Controlled synthesis of Au-loaded Fe3O4@C composite microspheres with superior SERS detection and catalytic degradation abilities for organic dyes.  


Bifunctional Au-loaded Fe3O4@C composite microspheres were controllably synthesized by coating of Au nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of the poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) functionalized Fe3O4@C microspheres. The amount of Au loading can be effectively tuned by altering the feeding amounts of solution Au NPs or further growth. The obtained Au-loaded Fe3O4@C composite microspheres exhibit both superior surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensitivity and catalytic degradation activity for organic dyes. The SERS signal intensity of methylene blue (MB) distinctly enhances with the increase of Au loading, which endows increased Raman 'hot spots' and provides a significant enhancement of the Raman signal through electromagnetic (EM) field enhancements. Furthermore, the catalytic experiments of the Fe3O4@C@Au composite microspheres with the highest Au loading demonstrate that the model organic dye of MB molecules could be degraded within 10 min and the catalytic activity could be recovered without sharp activity loss in six runs, which indicates their superior catalytic degradation activity. The reason could be mainly ascribed to the synergistic effects of small size of Au NPs, the good adsorption behavior of carbon layers and the excellent dispersivity of the composite microspheres induced by the sandwiched carbon layers. The results indicate that the bifunctional Au-loaded Fe3O4@C composite microspheres could be served as promising materials in wastewater treatment. PMID:23615540

Gan, Zibao; Zhao, Aiwu; Zhang, Maofeng; Tao, Wenyu; Guo, Hongyan; Gao, Qian; Mao, Ranran; Liu, Erhu



75 FR 67669 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA proposed to amend the color additive regulations that permit...require the listing of these color additives. As a result, FDA...carmine.'' The final rule takes effect on January 5, 2011. In light...believes that the use of these color additives in the...



Assessment of Potential Toxic Releases from Leather Industry Dyeing Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study focused on the organic dyes released to the environment in the wastewaters from leather dyeing operations. Basically, three types of dyes--acid, basic, and direct--are used, although the number of different dyes are well over 50, and the number ...

S. B. Radding J. L. Jones W. R. Mabey D. H. Liu N. Bohonos



Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes with Er 3+:YAlO 3\\/ZnO composite under solar light  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Er3+:YAlO3\\/ZnO composite, a new photocatalyst that could effectively utilize visible light, was prepared by ultrasonic dispersion and liquids boiling method in this work. In succession, the Er3+:YAlO3\\/ZnO composite, Er3+:YAlO3 particle and pure ZnO powder were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Acid Red B dye as a model compound was degraded under solar light irradiation to evaluate the photocatalytic

Jun Wang; Yingpeng Xie; Zhaohong Zhang; Jia Li; Xia Chen; Liquan Zhang; Rui Xu; Xiangdong Zhang



Contributions to the Safety of Methods and Factors Affecting the Spectrophotometric Determination of Boron Traces with Carmin in Uranium Compounds; CONTRIBUCION AL ESTUDIO DEL METODO Y FACTORES QUE AFECTAN A LA DETERMINACION ESPECTROFOTOMETRICA DE TRAZAS DE BORO CON CARMIN EN COMPUESTOS DE URANIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is made of some factors affecting the spectrophotometric ; determination of boron traces with carmin The influence of the carmin origin, the ; stability of the canmin-boric acid complex with respect to the sulfuric acid ; concentration the interference produced by nitrate ions, and the effects of ; uranyl ions and light are discussed. (tr-auth);

R. F. Cellini; L. G. Sanchez



Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser in the long-wavelength (700 nm) region in the visible by energy transfer between organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, organic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with single-mode laser output in the long-wavelength region (~700 nm) of the visible were reported based on the energy transfer between dye pairs consisting of pyrromethene 597 (PM597) and rhodamine 700 (LD700). By co-doping PM597 into the polymeric hosts, the fluorescence intensity of LD700 was enhanced by 30-fold and the photophysical parameters of the donor-acceptor pairs were investigated, indicating the involvement of non-radiative resonance energy transfer processes between PM597 and LD700. Active distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) were made by alternately spin-coating dye-doped polyvinylcarbazole and cellulose acetate thin films as the high and low refractive index layers, respectively. By sandwiching the active layer with 2 DBR mirrors, VCSEL emission at 698.9 nm in the biological first window (650-950 nm) was observed under the 532-nm laser pulses. The laser slope efficiency and threshold were also measured.

Liao, Zhifu; Zhou, Yuan; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Qian, Guodong



Adsorption of dyes on Sahara desert sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sahara desert sand (SaDeS) was employed as a mineral sorbent for retaining organic dyes from aqueous solutions. Natural sand has demonstrated a strong affinity for organic dyes but significantly lost its adsorption capacity when it was washed with water. Therefore, characterization of both natural and water washed sand was performed by XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. It was found

Canan Varlikli; Vlasoula Bekiari; Mahmut Kus; Numan Boduroglu; Ilker Oner; Panagiotis Lianos; Gerasimos Lyberatos; Siddik Icli



Intraoperative localization of vascular malformation of small bowel by selective intra-arterial dye injection.  


Angiomatous malformation is the most common vascular abnormality, accounting for 30-40% cases of obscure GI bleeding from small bowel. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice in severe or recurrent hemorrhage requiring multiple blood transfusions. However, the diffuse nature of the lesions poses a challenge to localize them accurately preoperatively, for exact resection. We present a case in which we have used selective mesenteric angiography with selective cannulation and exact localization of the lesion by injecting dye such as methylene blue, indigo carmine, and fluorescein, to localize the angiomatous malformation before surgical resection and also to determine the exact resection to be done. PMID:20871200

Eshpuniyani, Priya B; Kantharia, Chetan V; Prabhu, Ramkrishna Y; Supe, Avinash N


Vibrational spectroscopy to study degradation of natural dyes. Assessment of oxygen-free cassette for safe exposition of artefacts.  


An important issue connected with conservation chemistry is how to improve the storage and exposure conditions in order to suppress the fading and degradation of dyes and other components of paintings. Although the oxygen-free exposure cassettes are commonly known in museums, there is still lack of information in the literature about the effect of anoxic conditions on the degradation of dyes. This study is an attempt to start a database formation on the dyes degradation. Five commercial dyes (indigo, dragon's blood, curcumin, madder, carminic acid) were submitted to accelerated ageing by exposure to intensive light in the visible range in both oxygen-free (anoxia) and -rich conditions. Degradation of the samples was investigated by several analytical techniques (attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and optical microscopy). The conclusions are based on the estimators (derived from the determination of colour differences from Vis spectra and from the changes in FTIR and Raman vibrational bands intensity). According to them, only indigo, dragon's blood and curcumin show greater stability in anoxic conditions in comparison with oxygen-rich ones while madder, carminic acid undergo greater degradation. PMID:21165610

Koperska, Monika; ?ojewski, Tomasz; ?ojewska, Joanna



Use of novel nest boxes by carmine bee-eaters (Merops nubicus) in captivity.  


Carmine bee-eaters make attractive additions to zoo aviaries but breeding programs have had challenges and limited success. The objectives of this study were to document nesting behavior of Carmine bee-eaters in a captive setting and compare reproductive success between a novel nest box (plastic, 17 x 30 x 22 cm) and a PVC pipe model used previously (30 cm long, 8 cm in diameter). Three bee-eater pairs were given access to seven nest chambers (six novel boxes, one PVC model). Behavioral observations occurred during a 15-min period in the morning or afternoon before egg production and continued until chicks fledged for a total of 87 observation periods (21.75 hr). All occurrences by an individual bird entering or exiting a nest tunnel, food provision, and the time (min) spent inside a nest cavity were documented. Additionally, daily temperature within each nest chamber was recorded. Before eggs were produced the average daily temperature (23.02 degrees C) within the nest chambers did not differ, suggesting that nest cavity choice was not influenced by temperature. No differences were detected among pairs in percent of observed time spent inside their nest cavities or number of times a nest tunnel was entered during the incubation or fledging periods. During incubation females spent a greater percent of observed time inside the nest cavity than males (P=0.02). During the fledging period food provision did not differ between the pairs, however males entered their nest tunnels more often per hour than females (P=0.03), and males tended to provide food more often than females (P=0.053). Two pairs nested in novel nest boxes and successfully fledged one chick each. The pair that nested in the PVC model did not fledge a chick. A nest box that aids in keeping eggs intact is essential for breeding bee-eaters in captivity, and maintaining captive populations will provide opportunities for zoo visitors to enjoy these birds and will reduce the need to remove birds from the wild. Zoo Biol 0:1-13, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360559

Elston, Jennifer J; Carney, Jennifer; Quinones, Glorieli; Sky, Christy; Plasse, Chelle; Bettinger, Tammie



Facile fabrication of mesoporous iron modified Al2O3 nanoparticles pillared montmorillonite nanocomposite: a smart photo-Fenton catalyst for quick removal of organic dyes.  


A mesoporous iron modified Al2O3 nanoparticle pillared montmorillonite nanocomposite (mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite) was synthesized by using sodium exchanged montmorillonite by cation-exchange, gallery-templated synthesis and impregnation method. Formation of Al2O3 nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) having average particle size 5.20-6.50 nm within montmorillonite, formation of mesoporous Al2O3 NPs pillared montmorillonite (mesoporous APM) from montmorillonite and formation of a mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite signifies the present investigation. The roles of ammonia, CTAB, octyl amine and calcination temperature for fabrication of mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite were highly significant. Ammonia was used for post-synthesis treatment, which helped in the formation of micellar assemblies in the interlayer space. The materials were characterized by different techniques such as N2 adsorption-desorption study, which demonstrated the mesoporosity of the material. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image proves the morphology and size of the Al2O3 NPs and mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) describes the formation of the pillaring of the Al2O3 NPs within montmorillonite (APM). It has been noted that pure montmorillonite is a micro/mesoporous material. But after pillaring of Al2O3 NPs within the montmorillonite, mesoporosity developed, which is the vital aspect of present investigation. It was observed that the mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite has high photo-Fenton activity towards degradation of organic dyes such as acid blue (AB) and reactive blue (RB). Nearly 100% degradation took place within 30 minutes with high concentration of dye (500 mg L(-1)) by mesoporous 5 Fe/APM nanocomposite under ambient conditions. Small particle sizes of nanocomposite, quick reduction of Fe(iii) and mesoporosity are the key points for proficient degradation of AB and RB. PMID:24002045

Pradhan, Amaresh C; Varadwaj, G Bishwa Bidita; Parida, K M



Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes on visible-light responsive photocatalyst PbBiO{sub 2}Br  

SciTech Connect

The layered compound of lead bismuth oxybromide PbBiO{sub 2}Br, prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method, has an optical band gap of 2.3 eV, and possesses a good visible-light-response ability. The references, PbBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}, TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, BiOBr and BiOI{sub 0.8}Cl{sub 0.2}, which are excellent visible-light-response photocatalysts, were applied to comparatively understand the activity of PbBiO{sub 2}Br. Degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue was used to evaluate photocatalytic activity. The results show that PbBiO{sub 2}Br is more photocatalytically active than PbBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}, TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x} and BiOBr under visible light. - Graphical abstract: The as-prepared layered PbBiO{sub 2}Br with an optical band gap of 2.3 eV possesses a fair visible-light-response ability. The references, PbBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}, TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, BiOBr and BiOI{sub 0.8}Cl{sub 0.2}, were applied to comparatively understand the activity of PbBiO{sub 2}Br. Degradation of dyes was used to evaluate photocatalytic activity. The results show that PbBiO{sub 2}Br is more photocatalytically active than PbBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}, TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x} and BiOBr under visible light.

Shan Zhichao [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wang Wendeng; Lin Xinping [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Ding Hanming [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)], E-mail:; Huang Fuqiang [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)], E-mail:



Large electro-optic effect in sol-gel-processed poled TiO2/SiO2 films doped with organic azo dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly transparent TiO2/SiO2 films prepared using sol-gel technique doped with organic azo dye, Disperse Red 1(DR1) have been investigated. Processing parameters such as spin speed, spin time, and ambient atmosphere, and solution synthesis parameters such as catalysis method, alcohol dilution ratio, and component molar percentages, may affect the film formation. The refractive index increases follow along with the raising of the molar ratio between TiO2 and SiO2. When the molar ratio between TiO2 and SiO2 is zero, i.e. no titania precursor in the initial solution, the refractive index is minimum 1.49 at 1300nm, whereas when there is no TEOS in the initial solution, the refractive index is maximum 1.81 at 1300nm. The sol-gel thin film is spin-coated on ITO glass substrate with better uniformity. The electric-optic coefficient ?33=42pm/V was measured by simple reflection technique at a fundamental wavelength of 1300nm. The hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel film is well balanced material in its simplicity for film formation, nonlinearity, and thermal stability sufficient for device fabrication. Moreover, the measurement system was calibrated and the measured electric-optic coefficient of the gallium arsenide crystal is in excellent agreement with the known value.

Hou, Alin; Liu, Hongfei; Liu, Shaolin; Gao, Weinan; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Daming; Yi, Maobin



Discoloration of Indigo Carmine Using Aqueous Extracts from Vegetables and Vegetable Residues as Enzyme Sources  

PubMed Central

Several vegetables and vegetable residues were used as sources of enzymes capable to discolor indigo carmine (IC), completely or partially. Complete discoloration was achieved with aqueous extracts of green pea seeds and peels of green pea, cucumber, and kohlrabi, as well as spring onion leaves. The source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pH, time, and aeration is fundamental for the discoloration process catalyzed by PPO. The PPO present in the aqueous extract of green pea seeds was able to degrade 3,000?ppm of IC at a pH of 7.6 and magnetic stirring at 1,800?rpm in about 36?h. In addition, at 1,800?rpm and a pH of 7.6, this extract discolored 300?ppm of IC in 1:40?h; in the presence of 10% NaCl, the discoloration was complete in 5:50?h, whereas it was completed in 4:30?h with 5% NaCl and 2% laundry soap.

Solis, A.; Perea, F.; Solis, M.; Manjarrez, N.; Perez, H. I.; Cassani, J.



Dye laser amplifier  


An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

Moses, E.I.



Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of organic pigments using silver and gold nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of pigments used in ancient times represents an interesting task in order to discriminate a production of a precise geographic area or to trace out the ancient commercial networks. Conventional micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS), being a non-destructiveness technique, has been largely used for the analysis of dyes. Nevertheless several pigments, especially of organic origin, show weak Raman activity beside a strong a fluorescence that prevents their identification. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) can address such difficulties. The presence of noble metal nanoparticles induces a giant amplification of the Raman signal beside the fluorescence quenching. In this work we present the use of gold and silver nanoparticles to enhance the Raman signal of some commercial red organic dyes: bazilwood, dragon's blood, carmine and madder lake. The nanoparticles were prepared adopting two approaches: (1) ablating metallic targets in water using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and (2) depositing the nanoparticles on glass substrates by means of a KrF excimer laser ablation process, performed in a controlled argon atmosphere.

Fazio, E.; Trusso, S.; Ponterio, R. C.



Femtosecond to millisecond studies of electron transfer processes in a donor-(?-spacer)-acceptor series of organic dyes for solar cells interacting with titania nanoparticles and ordered nanotube array films.  


Time-resolved emission and absorption spectroscopy are used to study the photoinduced dynamics of forward and back electron transfer processes taking place between a recently synthesized series of donor-(?-spacer)-acceptor organic dyes and semiconductor films. Results are obtained for vertically oriented titania nanotube arrays (inner diameters 36 nm and 70 nm), standard titania nanoparticles (25 nm diameter) and, as a reference, alumina nanoparticle (13 nm diameter) films. The studied dyes contain a triphenylamine group as an electron donor, cyanoacrylic acid part as an electron acceptor, and differ by the substituents in a spacer group that causes a shift of its absorption spectra. Despite a red-shift of the dye absorption band resulting in an improved response to the solar spectrum, smaller electron injection rates and smaller extinction coefficients result in reduced dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) conversion efficiencies. For the most efficient dye, TPC1, electron injection from the hot locally excited state to titania on a time scale of about 100 fs is suggested, while from the relaxed charge transfer state it proceeds in a non-exponential way with time constants from 1 ps to 50 ps. Our results imply that the latter process involves the trap states below the conduction band edge (or the sub-bandgap tail of the acceptor states), localized close to the dye radical cation, and is accompanied by fast electron recombination to the parent dye's ground state. This process should limit the efficiency of DSSCs made using these types of organic dyes. The residual, slower recombination can be described by a stretched exponential decay with a characteristic time of 0.5 ?s and a dispersion parameter of 0.33. Both the electron injection and back electron transfer dynamics are similar in titania nanoparticles and nanotubes. Variations between the two film types are only found in the time resolved emission transients, which are explained in terms of the difference in local electric fields affecting the position of the emission bands. PMID:22258566

Zió?ek, Marcin; Cohen, Boiko; Yang, Xichuan; Sun, Licheng; Paulose, Maggie; Varghese, Oomman K; Grimes, Craig A; Douhal, Abderrazzak



New organic–inorganic hybrid matrices doped with rhodamine 6G as solid-state dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We report on the laser action of rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) incorporated into new hybrid organic–inorganic monolithic materials.\\u000a The synthesis of these materials proceeded via the simultaneous sol-gel process of the inorganic part (tetraethoxysilane or\\u000a tetramethoxysilane) and the free-radical polymerization of an organic monomer part (2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl\\u000a methacrylate and a 1:1?v\\/v copolymer of this monomer with methyl methacrylate). The

A. Costela; I. García-Moreno; C. Gómez; O. García; R. Sastre



Electrodeposition of nanoporous ZnO on Al-doped ZnO leading to a highly organized structure for integration in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we propose an improvement of the anode configuration in Zinc Oxide based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC). Instead of the classical configuration, which is composed by two different metal oxides: one transparent conducting oxide (TCO) for the substrate and one nanostructured metal oxide for supporting the dye, the new approach is to use ZnO as unique

S. Haller; J. Rousset; G. Renou; D. Lincot



Effect of organic solvents on J aggregation of pseudoisocyanine dye at mica/water interfaces: morphological transition from three-dimension to two-dimension.  


Morphological and spectroscopic properties of pseudoisocyanine (PIC) J aggregates produced at mica/solution interfaces have been characterized by absorption/fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Addition of organic solvents (1-propanol (PrOH) or 1,4-dioxane (Dox)) into aqueous solutions of the PIC dye induced a transition of the morphology of the interfacial J aggregates. The characteristic feature of this transition is the thickness (or height) change of the aggregate domain layers from three-dimensions to two-dimensions: The domain area of the J aggregates was dependent on the amount of the organic cosolvent, while the domain thickness was dependent on the type of the cosolvent. In pure aqueous solution, the J aggregates at the mica/water interface had a three-dimensional structure with the height of approximately 3 nm (multilayer structure). In mixed solvents of PrOH/water or Dox/water (5 or 10 vol%), the interfacial aggregates became a bilayer or monolayer structure, respectively, assuming that PIC molecules are adsorbed on their molecular plane perpendicular to the mica surface. Meanwhile, optical properties (band width and peak position) of the J band were invariant upon addition of the organic cosolvents, suggesting that molecular packing in the J aggregates is essentially unchanged. These results revealed that spectroscopic properties of the interfacial PIC J aggregates were determined only by the lateral (two-dimensional) interaction within the adsorbed monolayer of PIC molecules on mica, and interlayer interaction in the multilayered J aggregate was consequently small. PMID:17963780

Yao, Hiroshi; Morita, Yoshinobu; Kimura, Keisaku



Energy Transfer Employing Europium Complex and Blue Phosphorescent Dye and Its Application in White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the energy transfer of a blue phosphorescent molecule, bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2'] (picolinate) iridium(III) (FIrpic), and a red europium complex of tris(dibenzoylmethane)-mono(4,7-dimethyphenanthroline) europium(III) [Eu(dbm)3phen] doped in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK). The photoluminescence (PL) spectral intensity of a PVK:Eu(dbm)3phen film was increased by FIrpic doping. Additionally, we demonstrated white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) employing the energy transfer from a host to dopants, showing the

Yuichi Hino; Hirotake Kajii; Yutaka Ohmori



Langmuir-Schaeffer films from a pi-pi stacking perylenediimide dye: organization and charge transfer properties.  


The organization of pi-pi stacking perylenediimide (PDI) derivative, PDI12, was studied in solution and in thin films. Films were prepared with the Langmuir-Schaeffer (LS) method and characterized by means of AFM, optical profilometry, steady-state absorption, emission, fluorescence lifetime, and transient photovoltage measurements. The columnar aggregates observed previously in PDI12 solutions and in spin-coated films persist also in LS films. Because of the specific conditions during the preparation of the LS film, i.e., hydrophobic interactions and lateral compression, the columnar aggregates seem to organize with their long axis perpendicular to the layer plane whereas in spin-coated films the columns were oriented parallel to the layer plane. According to AFM and profilometer results, the thickness of LS monolayer of PDI12 is 10 nm, indicating that it consists mainly of aggregates, each containing approximately 30 monomers. Intermolecular photoinduced energy and electron transfer processes in C(60)|PDI12 double layer junction were studied. The fluorescence lifetime of PDI12 film is exceptionally long, but the quenching is very efficient in the presence of C(60). In charge transfer studies, long-lived photovoltage signal was observed for the double layer. Results of this work indicate that PDI12 acts as an electron acceptor and fullerene C(60) as an electron donor. PMID:20025208

Tolkki, Antti; Vuorimaa, Elina; Chukharev, Vladimir; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Ihalainen, Petri; Peltonen, Jouko; Dehm, Volker; Würthner, Frank



Dye-adsorption-induced gelation of suspensions of spherical and rodlike zinc oxide nanoparticles in organic solvents.  


The adsorption of amphiphilic Ru(II) complex Z907 onto the surface of ZnO nanospheres and nanorods causes the gelation of organic solvents, such as THF and acetone. The gels are thermally stable at very low concentration (nanoparticle volume fraction phi = 0.009) but mechanically fragile, with the behavior being dependent on the nature of the solvent, nanoparticle concentration, and the Z907/ZnO mole/weight ratio. Rheological experiments confirmed that the solid component built up a network to give a viscoelastic gel-phase material with a weak value of storage modulus G'. However, TEM and SEM experiments did not give evidence that nanoparticle long-range ordering occurred under the experimental conditions investigated. Moreover, time-dependent SAXS measurements pointed to a decrease in the nanoparticle aggregate size upon gelation. All together, the data obtained might be rationalized in terms of the aggregate-to-aggregate transition in solution, with the primitive large aggregates giving rise to smaller ones upon reaction with Z907. The resulting smaller hybrid aggregates could be the active species that act as self-assembling components in the gelation process. Given the interesting electronic and photonic properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles, such hybrid organic-inorganic gels could open new directions in materials science, low-cost electronics, and photovoltaics. PMID:19301838

Martini, Cyril; Stadler, Florian J; Said, Aurore; Heresanu, Vasile; Ferry, Daniel; Bailly, Christian; Ackermann, Jörg; Fages, Frédéric



Evaluation of some fluorescent dyes for water tracing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight fluorescent dyes were compared in the laboratory and in field experiments to assess their utility in quantitative tracing work. The properties considered included sensitivity and minimum detectability, the effect of water chemistry on dye fluorescence, photochemical and biological decay rates, adsorption losses on equipment and sediments, toxicity to man and aquatic organisms, and cost. Orange dyes are more useful

P. L. Smart; I. M. S. Laidlaw



Layer-by-layer-assembled multilayer films of polyelectrolyte-stabilized surfactant micelles for the incorporation of noncharged organic dyes.  


Noncharged pyrene molecules were incorporated into multilayer films by first loading pyrene into poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-stabilized cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles (noted as PAA&(Py@CTAB)) and then layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). The stable incorporation of pyrene into multilayer films was confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The resultant PAA&(Py@CTAB)/PDDA multilayer films show an exponential growth behavior because of the increased surface roughness with increasing number of film deposition cycles. The present study will open a general and cost-effective avenue for the incorporation of noncharged species, such as organic molecules, nanoparticles, and so forth, into LbL-assembled multilayer films by using polyelectrolyte-stabilized surfactant micelles as carriers. PMID:18928306

Liu, Xiaokong; Zhou, Lu; Geng, Wei; Sun, Junqi



Computational dye design by changing the conjugation order: Failure of LR-TDDFT to predict relative excitation energies in organic dyes differing by the position of the methine unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dye design by changing the conjugation order, computational errors behave differently and are more important than when changing the size of conjugation. A different position of the methine unit in dyes 2-Cyano-3-[5?-(4?-(N,N-dimethylamino) phenyl) thiophen-2?-yl]-acrylic acid and Cyano-[5-(4?-(N,N-dimethylamino) benzylidene)-5H-thiophen-2-ylidene]-acetic acid induces an uncommonly large difference in absorption spectrum. Long-range effects cause a failure of TDDFT using ab initio and hybrid functionals to predict even relative transition energies in spite of a small degree of charge transfer. Orbital energies remain good predictors of the relative energetics and are used to compute the effect of nuclear motions on absorption spectrum.

Manzhos, Sergei; Segawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi



Application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the identification of anthraquinone dyes used in works of art  

SciTech Connect

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was investigated for applications in the analysis of anthraquinone dyes used in works of art. Two SERS procedures were developed and evaluated with three frequently used anthraquinone dyes, alizarin, carminic acid and lac dye. The first procedure involves coating a layer of silver nanoparticles directly on pieces of filter paper stained with the dyes of interest by thermal evaporation to induce SERS effect. In the second procedure, a SERS-active Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate was prepared by spin-coating an alumina-nanoparticle layer onto a glass slide to provide the nanostructure of the substrate, followed by thermally evaporating a layer of silver nanoparticles on top of the alumina layer. Aliquots of dye solutions were delivered onto this substrate to be analyzed. Intense SERS spectra characteristic of alizarin, carminic acid and lac dye were obtained using both SERS procedures. The effects of two parameters, the concentration of the alumina suspension and the thickness of the silver nanoparticle layer on the performance of the Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate were examined with alizarin as the model compound. Comparative studies were conducted between the Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate and the SERS substrate prepared using Tollens reaction. The Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate was shown to offer larger enhancement and improved reproducibility than the Tollens substrates. Finally, the potential applicability of the Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate for the analysis of real artifact objects was illustrated by the identification of alizarin extracted from a small piece of textile dyed using traditional methods and materials. The limit of detection for alizarin was estimated to be 7 x 10{sup -15} g from tests performed on solutions of known concentration.

Chen, Kui [ORNL; Leona, Marco [ORNL; Yan, Fei [ORNL; Wabuyele, Musundi B [ORNL; Vo Dinh, Tuan [ORNL



Removal of acidic dye from aqueous solutions using poly(DMAEMA–AMPS–HEMA) terpolymer\\/MMT nanocomposite hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, poly(DMAEMA–AMPS–HEMA) terpolymer\\/montmorillonite nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by in situ polymerization\\u000a technique using 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), 2-acrylamido-2-methlypropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate\\u000a (HEMA) monomers in clay suspension media. N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (NMBA) was used as crosslinker and potassium persulfate\\/potassium bisulfide were used as initiator\\u000a and accelerator pair. The water absorption capacities and acidic dye (indigo carmine) adsorption properties of the

Mert Dalaran; Serkan Emik; Gamze Güçlü; Tülin Banu ?yim; Saadet Özgümü?



Atomic level resolution of dye regeneration in the dye-sensitized solar cell.  


Two donor-acceptor organic dyes have been synthesized that differ only by a two-heteroatom change from oxygen to sulfur within the donor unit. The two dyes, (E)-3-(5-(4-(bis(4-(hexyloxy)phenyl)amino)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoprop-2-enoic acid (Dye-O) and (E)-3-(5-(4-(bis(4-(hexylthio)phenyl)amino)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoprop-2-enoic acid) (Dye-S), were tested in solar cell devices employing both I(3)(-)/I(-)-based and [Co(bpy)(3)](3+/2+) redox mediators. Power conversion efficiencies over 6% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination (1 Sun) were achieved in both electrolytes. Despite similar optical and redox properties for the two dyes, a consistently higher open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) was measured for Dye-S relative to Dye-O. The improved efficiency observed with Dye-S in an iodide redox mediator is against the commonly held view that sulfur atoms promote charge recombination attributed to inner-sphere interactions. Detailed mechanistic studies revealed that this is a consequence of a 25-fold enhancement of the regeneration rate constant that enhances the regeneration yield under open circuit conditions. The data show that a high short circuit photocurrent does not imply optimal regeneration efficiency as is often assumed. PMID:23305253

Robson, Kiyoshi C D; Hu, Ke; Meyer, Gerald J; Berlinguette, Curtis P



Patterns of dye coupling involving serotonergic neurons provide insights into the cellular organization of a central complex lineage of the embryonic grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

All eight neuroblasts from the pars intercerebralis of one protocerebral hemisphere whose progeny contribute fibers to the\\u000a central complex in the embryonic brain of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria generate serotonergic cells at stereotypic locations in their lineages. The pattern of dye coupling involving these neuroblasts\\u000a and their progeny was investigated during embryogenesis by injecting fluorescent dye intracellularly into the neuroblast

George Boyan; Bertram Niederleitner



Suitability of Polymeric Media In Solid State Dye Lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid hosts doped with organic dyes are suitable for tunable solid state lasers because of large band width in visible region. Moreover they also overcome the problems of toxicity and limited tunability due to liquid solutions of the dyes. We report fluorescence spectra of different rhodamine dyes in different solid hosts which can be quite helpful in choosing the proper solid host for solid state dye lasers.

Sharma, Amit; Saini, G. S. S.



Synthesis, Photophysics, Electrochemistry and Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of PEG-Modified BODIPY dyes in Organic and Aqueous Solutions.  


A set polyethylene glycol (PEG) appended BODIPY architectures (BOPEG1 - BOPEG3) have been prepared and studied in CH2Cl2, H2O:CH3CN (1:1) and aqueous solutions. BOPEG1 and BOPEG2 both contain a short PEG chain and differ in substitution about the BODIPY framework. BOPEG3 is comprised of a fully substituted BODIPY moiety linked to a PEG polymer that is roughly 13 units in length. The photophysics and electrochemical properties of these compounds have been thoroughly characterized in CH2Cl2 and aqueous CH3CN solutions. The behavior of BOPEG1 - BOPEG3 correlates with established rules of BODIPY stability based on substitution about the BODIPY moiety. ECL for each of these compounds was also monitored. BOPEG1, which is unsubstituted at the 2- and 6-positions dimerized upon electrochemical oxidation while BOPEG2, which contains ethyl groups at the 2- and 6-positions, was much more robust and served as an excellent ECL luminophore. BOPEG3 is highly soluble in water due to the long PEG tether and demonstrated modest ECL activity in aqueous solutions using tri-n-propylamine (TPrA) as a coreactant. As such, BOPEG3 represents the first BODIPY derivative that has been shown to display ECL in water without the need for an organic cosolvent, and marks an important step in the development of BODIPY based ECL probes for various biosensing applications. PMID:23626863

Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B; Pistner, Allen J; Bard, Allen J; Rosenthal, Joel



Predicting azo dye toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature regrading azo dye carcinogenicity was examined to establish, if possible, guidelines to predict the human health risks of new azo dyes. Three different mechanisms for azo dye carcinogenicity were identified, all involving metabolic activation to reactive electrophilic intermediates that covalently bind DNA. In the order of decreasing number of published references, these mechanisms are 1. Azo dyes that are

Mark A. Brown; Stephen C. De Vito



Tetrachlorinated tetraazaperopyrenes (TAPPs): highly fluorescent dyes and semiconductors for air-stable organic n-channel transistors and complementary circuits.  


A range of 2,9-perfluoroalkyl-substituted tetraazaperopyrene (TAPP) derivatives (1-5) was synthesised by reacting 4,9-diamino-3,10-perylenequinone diimine (DPDI) with the corresponding carboxylic acid chloride or anhydride in the presence of a base. The reaction of compounds 1-4 with dichloroisocyanuric acid (DIC) in concentrated sulphuric acid resulted in the fourfold substitution of the tetraazaperopyrene core, yielding the 2,9-bisperfluoroalkyl-4,7,11,14-tetrachloro-1,3,8,10-tetraazaperopyrenes 6-9, respectively. The optical and electrochemical data demonstrate the drastic influence of the core substitution on the properties. All compounds are highly luminescent (fluorescence quantum yields of up to ?=0.8). The LUMO energies of the tetrachlorinated TAPP derivatives (determined by cyclic voltammetry and computed by DFT calulations) were found to be below -4?eV. In the course of this work the performance of TAPP derivatives in organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) was investigated, and their n-channel characteristics with field-effect mobilities of up to 0.14?cm(2) ?V(-1) ?s(-1) and an on/off current ratio of >10(6) were confirmed. Long-term stabilities of 3-4 months under ambient conditions of the devices were established. Complementary inverters and ring oscillators with n-channel TFTs based on compound 8 and p-channel TFTs based on dinaphtho-[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) were fabricated on a glass substrate. PMID:22354835

Martens, Susanne C; Zschieschang, Ute; Wadepohl, Hubert; Klauk, Hagen; Gade, Lutz H



Accurate simulation of optical properties in dyes.  


Since Antiquity, humans have produced and commercialized dyes. To this day, extraction of natural dyes often requires lengthy and costly procedures. In the 19th century, global markets and new industrial products drove a significant effort to synthesize artificial dyes, characterized by low production costs, huge quantities, and new optical properties (colors). Dyes that encompass classes of molecules absorbing in the UV-visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum now have a wider range of applications, including coloring (textiles, food, paintings), energy production (photovoltaic cells, OLEDs), or pharmaceuticals (diagnostics, drugs). Parallel to the growth in dye applications, researchers have increased their efforts to design and synthesize new dyes to customize absorption and emission properties. In particular, dyes containing one or more metallic centers allow for the construction of fairly sophisticated systems capable of selectively reacting to light of a given wavelength and behaving as molecular devices (photochemical molecular devices, PMDs).Theoretical tools able to predict and interpret the excited-state properties of organic and inorganic dyes allow for an efficient screening of photochemical centers. In this Account, we report recent developments defining a quantitative ab initio protocol (based on time-dependent density functional theory) for modeling dye spectral properties. In particular, we discuss the importance of several parameters, such as the methods used for electronic structure calculations, solvent effects, and statistical treatments. In addition, we illustrate the performance of such simulation tools through case studies. We also comment on current weak points of these methods and ways to improve them. PMID:19113946

Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A; Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo



Coloring and habit modification of dyed KDP crystals as functions of supersaturation and dye concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo-organic dyes as additives were examined to make colored KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) crystals. The dyes used here were amaranth and sunset-yellow FCF. Influences of supersaturation and dye concentration in the solution were observed on the color and crystal habit of KDP. Amaranth colored the pyramidal section (101) of the crystals in the solution at low supersaturation and high dye

Shouji Hirota; Hideo Miki; Keisuke Fukui; Kouji Maeda



Effect of vital dyes on retinal pigmented epithelial cell viability and apoptosis: implications for chromovitrectomy.  


Purpose: To investigate the in vitro effect of vital dyes on toxicity and apoptosis in a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line. Methods: ARPE-19 cells were exposed to brilliant blue (BBG), Evans Blue (EB), bromophenol blue (BroB), indocyanine green (ICG), infracyanine green (IfCG), light green (LG), fast green (FG), indigo carmine (IC) and Congo red (CR). Balanced salt solution was used as the control. Five different concentrations and 2 exposure times were tested. Cell viability was determined by the MTS (1-solution methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium) assay and apoptosis by Bax expression on Western blot. Results: All dyes significantly reduced cell viability after 3 min of exposure at all concentrations (p < 0.01), except for BBG that was safe at concentrations up to 0.25 mg/ml and CR up to 0.05 mg/ml, while LG was safe at all concentrations. Toxicity was higher after 30 min of exposure. Expression of Bax was upregulated after all dye exposures, except BBG; ICG had the highest Bax expression (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Overall the safest dye was BBG followed by LG, IfCG, FG, CR, IC, BroB, EB and ICG. ICG was toxic at all concentrations and exposure times tested. Moreover, BBG was the only dye that did not induce apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24022718

Penha, Fernando M; Pons, Marianne; de Paula Fiod Costa, Elaine; Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Maia, Mauricio; Marin-Castaño, Maria E; Farah, Michel Eid



Electronic and optical properties of the triphenylamine-based organic dye sensitized TiO2 semiconductor: insight from first principles calculations.  


Plausible mechanisms of the ultrafast electron injection and the significant dependence of the power conversion efficiency on the anchor group for the triphenylamine-based dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells have been explored by the density functional calculations. Calculations show that the ultrafast charge recombination on the surface trap state of the dye-sensitized TiO2 system can be ascribed to the lack of electron density on the carboxyl group of the A3 dye with the rhodanine group anchor. Predicted electronic and optical properties of the A1-3-adsorbed TiO2 system reveal that the direct electron injection arises from the electronic excitation from HOMO-1 of the dye to the conduction band bottom of TiO2. On the basis of the calculations, the electron density distributions of related frontier orbitals and energy bands of dyes and their adsorbed systems have been discussed, which play an important role in electron injection and charge recombination. PMID:23698651

Liang, Jinxia; Zhu, Chun; Cao, Zexing



Influence of physicochemical-electronic properties of transition metal ion doped polycrystalline titania on the photocatalytic degradation of Indigo Carmine and 4-nitrophenol under UV/solar light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the role of dopant inside TiO 2 matrix, anatase TiO 2 was doped with transition metal ions like Mn 2+, Fe 3+, Ru 3+ and Os 3+ having unique half filled electronic configuration and their photocatalytic activity was probed in the degradation of Indigo Carmine (IC) and 4-nitrophenol (NP) under UV/solar light. For comparison, TiO 2 was also doped with V 5+, Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ metal ions having d 0, d 8 and d 10 electronic configuration respectively. Irrespective of excitation source UV/solar light and nature of the organic pollutant, photocatalytic activities of doped photocatalysts followed the order: Mn 2+-TiO 2 > Fe 3+-TiO 2 > Ru 3+-TiO 2 ? Os 3+-TiO 2 > Zn 2+-TiO 2 > V 5+-TiO 2 > Ni 2+-TiO 2 at an optimum concentration of dopant. Based on the experimental results obtained, it is proposed that the existence of dopant with half filled electronic configuration in TiO 2 matrix which is known to enhance the photocatalytic activity is not universal! Rather it is a complex function of several physicochemical-electronic properties of doped titania. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Mn 2+ (0.06 at.%)-TiO 2 was attributed to the combined factors of high positive reduction potential of Mn 2+/Mn 3+ pairs, synergistic effects in the mixed polymorphs of anatase and rutile, smaller crystallite size with high intimate contact between two phases and favorable surface structure of the photocatalyst. Despite the intense research devoted to transition metal ion doped TiO 2, it is rather difficult to make unifying conclusion which is highlighted in this study.

Devi, L. Gomathi; Kumar, S. Girish


Enhanced photocatalytic and adsorptive degradation of organic dyes by mesoporous Cu/Al2O3-MCM-41: intra-particle mesoporosity, electron transfer and OH radical generation under visible light.  


Mesoporous Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite was synthesized by two step processes; in situ incorporation of high surface area mesoporous Al(2)O(3) (MA) into the framework of MCM-41 (in situ method) followed by impregnation of Cu(II) by incipient wetness method. The interesting thing is that starch was used for the first time as template for the preparation of high surface area MA. To evaluate the structural and electronic properties, these catalysts were characterized by low angle X-ray diffraction (LXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis DRS, FTIR and photoluminescent (PL) spectra. The various cationic dye such as methylene blue (MB), methyl violet (MV), malachite green (MG) and rhodamine 6G (Rd 6G) of high concentration 500 mg L(-1) were degraded and adsorbed very efficiently (100%) using the 5 Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite within 30 and 60 min, respectively. The high and quick removal of such concerted cationic organic dyes and also mixed dyes (MB+MV+MG+Rd 6G) by means of photocatalysis/adsorption is basically due to the combined effect three characteristics of synthesized mesoporous 5 Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite. These characteristics are intra-particle mesoporosity, electron transfer and ?OH radical generation under solar light. PMID:21681290

Pradhan, Amaresh C; Parida, K M; Nanda, Binita



Method of dye removal for the textile industry  

SciTech Connect

The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

Stone, M.L.



Method of dye removal for the textile industry  


The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)



A multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid structure based on Mn(III)-porphyrin and polyoxometalate as a highly effective dye scavenger and heterogenous catalyst.  


A two-step synthesis strategy has led to a unique layered polyoxometalate-Mn(III)-metalloporphyrin-based hybrid material. The hybrid solid demonstrates remarkable capability for scavenging of dyes and for heterogeneous selective oxidation of alkylbenzenes with excellent product yields and 100% selectivity. PMID:22148189

Zou, Chao; Zhang, Zhijuan; Xu, Xuan; Gong, Qihan; Li, Jing; Wu, Chuan-De



Microencapsulated Fluorescent Dye Penetrant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microencapsulated fluorescent dye pentrant materials were evaluated for feasibility as a technique to detect cracks on metal surfaces when applied as a free flowing dry powder. Various flourescent dye solutions in addition to a commercial penetrant (Zyglo...

S. Allinikov



Adsorption–desorption characteristics and pollution behavior of reactive X-3B red dye in four Chinese typical soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Organic dyes have been turned into an important emerging type of chemical pollutants with the development of rural textiles,\\u000a synthetic dye, printing, and dyeing industries and the continuous release from washing fabrics and clothes in recent decades.\\u000a In order to assess ecological risk of reactive X-3B red dye as a typical dye, the adsorptive and desorptive traits of the\\u000a dye

Qixing Zhou; Meie Wang



Optofluidic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optofluidic dye lasers are microfabricated liquid dye lasers enabled by the microfluidics technology. The integration of dye\\u000a lasers with microfluidics not only facilitates the implementation of complete “lab-on-a-chip” systems, but also allows the\\u000a dynamical control of the laser properties which is not achievable with solid-state optical components. We review the recent\\u000a demonstrations of on-chip liquid dye lasers and some of

Zhenyu Li; Demetri Psaltis



Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes by bacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts, and fungi are discussed in detail. The disadvantages of physical and chemical treatment processes of dye wastewater are also discussed. Biological treatment processes have many advantages over the chemical and physical treatment processes such as possibility of degradation of dye molecules to carbon dioxide and water and formation of less sludge in

Wamik Azmi; Rajesh Kumar Sani; Uttam Chand Banerjee



Plasma induced degradation of Indigo Carmine by bipolar pulsed dielectric barrier discharge(DBD) in the water-air mixture.  


Degradation of the Indigo Carmine (IC) by the bipolar pulsed DBD in water-air mixture was studied. Effects of various parameters such as gas flow rate, solution conductivity, pulse repetitive rate and ect., on color removal efficiency of dying wastewater were investigated. Concentrations of gas phase o3 and aqueous phase H2O2 under various conditions were measured. Experimental results showed that air bubbling facilitates the breakdown of water and promotes generation of chemically active species. Color removal efficiency of IC solution can be greatly improved by the air aeration under various solution conductivities. Decolorization efficiency increases with the increase of the gas flow rate, and decreases with the increase of the initial solution conductivity. A higher pulse repetitive rate and a larger pulse capacitor C(p) are favorable for the decolorization process. Ozone and hydrogen peroxide formed decreases with the increase of initial solution conductivity. In addition, preliminary analysis of the decolorization mechanisms is given. PMID:15559817

Zhang, Ruo-Bing; Wu, Yan; Li, Guo-Feng; Wang, Ning-Hui; Li, Jie



Radiation Synthesis of Poly(Acrylamide-Acrylic Acid-Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate) Resin and Its Use for Binding of Some Anionic Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) P(AAm-AA-DMAEMA) resin was prepared by the template copolymerization.\\u000a PAAm was used as a template for the copolymerization of DMAEMA and AA in aqueous solution using gamma rays. The adsorption\\u000a of indigo carmine and eriochrome black-T anionic dyes from aqueous media on P(AAm-AA-DMAEMA) has been investigated. The adsorption\\u000a behavior of this resin has been studied under different adsorption

H. M. Abdel-Aziz; T. Siyam



Evaluation of potential genotoxicity of five food dyes using the somatic mutation and recombination test.  


In this study, different concentrations of five food dyes (amaranth, patent blue, carminic acid, indigotine and erythrosine) have been evaluated for genotoxicity in the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) of Drosophila melanogaster. Standard cross was used in the experiment. Larvae including two linked recessive wing hair mutations were chronically fed at different concentrations of the test compounds in standard Drosophila Instant Medium. Feeding ended with pupation of the surviving larvae. Wings of the emerging adult flies were scored for the presence of spots of mutant cells which can result from either somatic mutation or somatic recombination. For the evaluation of genotoxic effects, the frequencies of spots per wing in the treated series were compared to the control group, which was distilled water. The present study shows that carminic acid and indigotine demonstrated negative results while erythrosine demonstrated inconclusive results. In addition 25 mg mL(-1) concentration of patent blue and 12.5, 25 and 50 mg mL(-1) concentrations of amaranth demonstrated positive results in the SMART. PMID:22482698

Sar?kaya, Rabia; Selvi, Mahmut; Erkoç, Figen



Improving the decolorization for textile dyes of a metagenome-derived alkaline laccase by directed evolution.  


To obtain better performing laccases for textile dyes decolorization, random mutagenesis of Lac591, a metagenome-derived alkaline laccase, was carried out. After three rounds of error-prone PCR and high-throughput screening by assaying enzymatic activity toward the phenolic substrate 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP), a mutant (Lac3T93) with remarkably improved enzymatic activity was obtained. Sequence analysis revealed that four amino acid substitutions (N40S, V55A, F62L, and E316V) were accumulated in the Lac3T93. Compared to the wild-type enzyme, the specific activity of Lac3T93 toward 2,6-DMP was increased to 4.8-fold (61.22 U/mg), and its optimal temperature and pH were changed to 60°C and 8.0 from 55°C and 7.5 of the wild-type enzyme, respectively. Furthermore, the degradation ability of Lac3T93 for textile dyes was investigated, and the new variant represented improved decolorization percentage for four industrial dyes with complex phenyl structure (Basic Blue 3, Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Crystal Violet) and higher decolorization efficiency for Indigo Carmine than that of the parent enzyme. Furthermore, the decolorization percentage of Lac3T93 for five dyes in the absence of hydroxybenzotrizole (HBT) is clearly higher than those of the wild-type enzyme with 1 mM HBT, and HBT can further improve its decolorization ability. PMID:21523474

Liu, Yu Huan; Ye, Mao; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Xia; Li, Gang



Simple method for the analysis of food dyes on reversed-phase thin-layer plates.  


A technique for the determination of food dyes using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography on octadecyl-modified silica is described. A solvent system containing 5.0% aqueous sodium sulphate solution enables good separation of the food dyes. Their separation is dependent on the pH of the solvent system, good separation among all dyes being obtained between pH 6.0 and 7.0. The determination of thirteen dyes can be achieved by a combination of methanol-acetonitrile-5.0% aqueous sodium sulphate solution (3:3:10) (solvent system A) and methanol-methyl ethyl ketone-5.0% aqueous sodium sulphate solution (1:1:1) (solvent system B). Solvent system A was used for the determination of Tartrazine, Amaranth, Indigo Carmine, New Coccine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Allura Red AC, Fast Green FCF and Brilliant Blue FCF and for the screening of Acid Red (R-106), Eosin (R-103), Erythrosin (R-3), Rose Bengale (R-105) and Phloxine (R-104). When the spots of R-3, R-103, R-104, R-105 and R-106 appear on the plate, their determination can be achieved by using solvent system B. Each calibration graph was linear between 0.2 and 1.0 micrograms. PMID:3443633

Oka, H; Ikai, Y; Kawamura, N; Yamada, M; Inoue, H; Ohno, T; Inagaki, K; Kuno, A; Yamamoto, N



NIR Dyes for Bioimaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances Fluorescent dyes based on small organic molecules that function in the near infra red (NIR) region are of great current interest in chemical biology. They allow for imaging with minimal autofluorescence from biological samples, reduced light scattering and high tissue penetration. Herein, examples of ongoing NIR fluorophore design strategies as well as their properties and anticipated applications relevant to the bioimaging are presented.

Escobedo, Jorge O.; Rusin, Oleksandr; Lim, Soojin



Isolation, characterization and decolorization of textile dyes by a mixed bacterial consortium JW-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples collected from dye contaminated sites of Jetpur, Gujarat were exploited for isolation of dye decolorizing organism. A microbial consortium JW-2 was selected based on its efficiency, showing maximum and faster decolorization of textile dyes. The consortium consisted of three isolates. Identification of isolates by 16SrRNA technique revealed that the organisms were Paenibacillus polymyxa, Micrococcus luteus and Micrococcus sp.

Safia Moosvi; Xama Kher; Datta Madamwar



Effect of mercerization and gamma irradiation on the dyeing behaviour of cotton using stilbene based direct dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dyeing behaviour of mercerized and gamma irradiated cotton fabric using stilbene based direct dye has been investigated. The fabric was treated with different concentrations of alkali to optimize the mercerization. The optimum mercerized cotton fabric was irradiated to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature, time of dyeing, pH of dyeing solutions and salt concentration were optimized. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It was found that mercerized and irradiated cotton have not only improved the colour strength but enhanced the rating of fastness properties also.

Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Adeel, Shahid; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Irshad, Misbah; Abbas, Muhammad



Potential Health Hazards of Organic Pigments and Dyes Used in the Manufacture of Paints and Surface Coatings. Appendix I: Scientific Basis for the Proposed Regulation of Dyes Derived from the Chemical Substances Benzidine, 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine, and 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scientific bases for regulating dyes derived from benzidine (92875), 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (119937), and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine (119904) are presented. Studies of these compounds have demonstrated that benzidine type dyes undergo nearly complete cle...

C. L. Jenkins



A novel extractant-impregnated resin containing carminic acid for selective separation and pre-concentration of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work proposes the use of a novel extractant-impregnated resin (EIR) as an adsorbent in trace separation and pre-concentration of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions. The new EIR was prepared by impregnating carminic acid onto Amberlite XAD-16 resin beads. The morphology of new EIR was studied by BET surface area measurements and SEM micrographs. A column packed with CA\\/XAD-16 was

Ahmad Hosseini-Bandegharaei; Mohammad Saeid Hosseini; Yousef Jalalabadi; Mehdi Nedaie; Masoud Sarwghadi; Akram Taherian; Esmat Hosseini



Application of response surface methodology to optimize decolourization of dyes by the laccase-mediator system.  


Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the decolourization of 3 dyes belonging to 3 dye families such as reactive black 5 (diazoic), indigo carmine (indigoid) and aniline blue (anthraquinonic). Crude laccase from Trametes trogii and the laccase-mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) were used in this study. Box-Behnken design using RSM with six variables namely pH, temperature, enzyme concentration, HBT concentration, dye concentration and incubation time was used in this study to optimize significant correlation between the effects of these variables on the decolourization of reactive black 5 (RB5), indigo carmine (IC) and aniline blue (AB). The optimum of pH, temperature, laccase, HBT, RB5 and reaction time were 4.5, 0.5 U ml(-1), 0.5 mM, 100 mg ml(-1) and 150 min respectively, for a maximum decolourization of RB5 (about 92.92% ± 7.21). Whereas, the optimum decolourization conditions of both IC (99.76% ± 7.75) and AB (98.44% ± 10) were: pH 4.5, temperature of 45 °C, enzyme concentration of 0.1 U ml(-1) and 0.5 U ml(-1), HBT concentration of 0.9 mM and 0.5 mM, dye concentration of 60 mg l(-1) and reaction time of 150 and 90 min, respectively. The experimental values were in good agreement with the predicted ones and the models were highly significant, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) being 0.864, 0.663 and 0.776 for RB5, IC and AB, respectively. In addition, when the kinetic parameters for the three dyes decolourization were calculated according to Hannes-Wolf plot, the following values were obtained: Km of 268.4, 47.94 and 44.64 mg l(-1) then V(max) of 35.58, 10.43 and 9.23 mg l(-1) min for the RB5, IC and AB decolourizations by laccase, respectively. PMID:22659603

Daâssi, Dalel; Frikha, Fakher; Zouari-Mechichi, Hela; Belbahri, Lassaad; Woodward, Steve; Mechichi, Tahar



Upconverting organic dye doped core-shell nano-composites for dual-modality NIR imaging and photo-thermal therapy.  


Nanotechnology approaches offer the potential for creating new optical imaging agents with unique properties that enable uses such as combined molecular imaging and photo-thermal therapy. Ideal preparations should fluoresce in the near-infrared (NIR) region to ensure maximal tissue penetration depth along with minimal scattering and light absorption. Due to their unique photophysical properties, upconverting ceramics such as NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ nanoparticles have become promising optical materials for biological imaging. In this work, the design and synthesis of NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+@SiO2 core-shell nano-composites, which contain highly absorbing NIR carbocyanine dyes in their outer silica shell, are described. These materials combine optical emission (from the upconverting core nanoparticle) with strong NIR absorption (from the carbocyanine dyes incorporated into the shell) to enable both optical imaging and photo-thermal treatment, respectively. Ultimately, this hybrid composite nanomaterial approach imparts the ability to both visualize, via upconversion imaging, and treat, via photo-thermal heating, using two distinct optical channels. Proof-of-principle in vitro experiments are presented to demonstrate the combined imaging and photo-thermal properties of this new functional nano-composite. PMID:23606913

Shan, Guobin; Weissleder, Ralph; Hilderbrand, Scott A



Upconverting Organic Dye Doped Core-Shell Nano-Composites for Dual-Modality NIR Imaging and Photo-Thermal Therapy  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology approaches offer the potential for creating new optical imaging agents with unique properties that enable uses such as combined molecular imaging and photo-thermal therapy. Ideal preparations should fluoresce in the near-infrared (NIR) region to ensure maximal tissue penetration depth along with minimal scattering and light absorption. Due to their unique photophysical properties, upconverting ceramics such as NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ nanoparticles have become promising optical materials for biological imaging. In this work, the design and synthesis of NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+@SiO2 core-shell nano-composites, which contain highly absorbing NIR carbocyanine dyes in their outer silica shell, are described. These materials combine optical emission (from the upconverting core nanoparticle) with strong NIR absorption (from the carbocyanine dyes incorporated into the shell) to enable both optical imaging and photo-thermal treatment, respectively. Ultimately, this hybrid composite nanomaterial approach imparts the ability to both visualize, via upconversion imaging, and treat, via photo-thermal heating, using two distinct optical channels. Proof-of-principle in vitro experiments are presented to demonstrate the combined imaging and photo-thermal properties of this new functional nano-composite.

Shan, Guobin; Weissleder, Ralph; Hilderbrand, Scott A.



Essential oil constituents of different organs of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil constituents of different organs of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare). The fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.var. vulgare) is an annual herbaceous plant, whose seeds are very used in the homemade medicine and pharmaceutical industry. The fennel seeds produce yellow-clear aromatic essential oil, used in the production of several licorous drinks and of perfumery, with action carminative and stimulant. Therefore,

R. Facanali; S. P. Brazil


Quinoid conjugated dye designed for efficient sensitizer in dye sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paraquinoid rings are introduced in the ?-conjugation of all-organic donor-?-acceptor dyes as sensitizer in dye sensitized solar cells, to drastically shift optical response from violet-blue to near-infrared and to significantly enhance photoabsorption. Taking Y1 as a model, real time electron dynamics simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory confirm that paraquinoid conjugation maintains high thermal stability and ultrafast electron-hole separation at ambient temperature.

Jiao, Yang; Ma, Wei; Meng, Sheng



Kinetics of dye decolorization in an air–solid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic decolorization of adsorbed organic dyes (Acid Blue 9, Acid Orange 7, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Blue 19) in air was examined, applicable to self-cleaning surfaces and catalyst characterization. Dye-coated Degussa P25 titanium dioxide (TiO2) and dye-coated photo-inert aluminum oxide (Al2O3) particles, both of sub-monolayer initial dye coverage, were illuminated with 1.3mWcm?2 of near-UV light. Visual evidence of

Alison J. Julson; David F. Ollis



Correlation of anaerobic biodegradability and the electrochemicalcharacteristic of azo dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some experiments were conducted to study some electrochemical factors affecting the bacterial reduction (cleavage) of azo dyes, knowledge of which will be useful in the wastewater treatments of azo dyes. A common mixed culture was used as a test organism and the reductions of Acid Yellow 4, 11, 17 and Acid Yellow BIS were studied. It was found that the

Jianbo Guo; Jiti Zhou; Dong Wang; Xueming Xiang; Hui Yu; Cunping Tian; Zhiyong Song



Radiation induced degradation of dyes—An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic dyes are a major part of our life. Products ranging from clothes to leather accessories to furniture all depend on extensive use of organic dyes. An unfortunate side effect of extensive use of these chemicals is that huge amounts of these potentially carcinogenic compounds enter our water supplies. Various advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including the use of high-energy radiation

M. A. Rauf; S. Salman Ashraf



Femtosecond Excited State Relaxation of Dye Molecules in Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bleaching dynamics of organic dye molecules in solution have been investigated using 70 fs pulses from a colliding pulse mode-locked ring dye laser. In addition to ground state relaxation on a nanosecond time scale, a fast partial recovery is observed...

A. M. Weiner E. P. Ippen



Oxazine laser dyes  


New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)



Toxicity of xanthene food dyes by inhibition of human drug-metabolizing enzymes in a noncompetitive manner.  


The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC(50) values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC(50) values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of (1)O(2) originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by (1)O(2) quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin. PMID:20041016

Mizutani, Takaharu



Toxicity of Xanthene Food Dyes by Inhibition of Human Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in a Noncompetitive Manner  

PubMed Central

The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC50 values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC50 values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of 1O2 originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by 1O2 quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin.

Mizutani, Takaharu



Fluorescent Dyes for Luminescent Solar Concentrators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dyes were developed, for application in luminescent solar concentrators. Most suitable are perylen dyes and perylimid dyes, boron complexes of naphtholactam dyes and polycarbocyclic dyes. These compounds cover the whole color range from yellow to blue. In...

R. Iden G. Seybold A. Stange H. Eilingsfeld



Sheaf-like-ZnO@Ag nanocomposite materials modified photoanode for low-cost metal-free organic dye-sensitized solid-state solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sheaf-like-ZnO-Ag nanocomposite material (sheaf-like-(ZnO@Ag)NCM) was prepared and used as photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cell. Eosin-Y adsorbed photoanode was employed, and the overall efficiency (?) was found to be 1.39% under standard AM 1.5G simulated solar irradiation (100 mWcm-2) which is ~2-fold higher than that of ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs), owing to the presence of an effective interfacial charge transfer processes through the Ag from the excited state of eosin-Y to ZnO. The obtained efficiency is also compared to the sensitized with N719, whose efficiency (1.8%) is ~30% higher than that of the cells sensitized with eosin-Y.

Pandikumar, A.; Saranya, K. M.; Ramaraj, R.



Low temperature preparation of ?-FeOOH/reduced graphene oxide and its catalytic activity for the photodegradation of an organic dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to prepare ?-FeOOH/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) at room temperature has been developed. Instead of reducing graphene oxide (GO) with the most commonly used reagents, which are highly toxic or explosive, Fe2+ was used as the reducing reagent. Fe2+ efficiently reduced GO under mild conditions to form ?-FeOOH/RGO via spontaneous in situ deposition of ?-FeOOH nanorods onto the RGO surfaces. The resulting ?-FeOOH/RGO was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The ?-FeOOH/RGO was then applied as a photocatalyst for the degradation of the azo dye, methyl orange.

Huang, Guanbo; Zhang, Congcong; Long, Ying; Wynn, Jeanne; Liu, Yu; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jianping



Effects of DNA on the optical properties of cyanine dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions with double strand structure of DNA enhance or modify the optical characteristics of organic dyes through its influences on electronic and structural properties. We investigated the absorption and emission spectra of several types of water soluble cyanine dyes, showing that the quite low concentration of DNA has large effects on the aggregate behaviors of the dyes in solutions and complex films. This effect was applied to control the J-aggregate formation of pseudo-isocyanine dye, demonstrating the J-aggregate spectra in solutions and polymer films with rather low concentration of the dyes. These results were important for realization of novel optical devices such as solid state dye laser and nonlinear optical switches incorporating DNA and other relating materials.

Kawabe, Yutaka; Kato, Sho; Honda, Mayuko; Yoshida, Junichi



Tris(2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine)cobalt(III) as p-type dopant for organic semiconductors and its application in highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.  


Chemical doping is an important strategy to alter the charge-transport properties of both molecular and polymeric organic semiconductors that find widespread application in organic electronic devices. We report on the use of a new class of Co(III) complexes as p-type dopants for triarylamine-based hole conductors such as spiro-MeOTAD and their application in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs). We show that the proposed compounds fulfill the requirements for this application and that the discussed strategy is promising for tuning the conductivity of spiro-MeOTAD in ssDSCs, without having to rely on the commonly employed photo-doping. By using a recently developed high molar extinction coefficient organic D-?-A sensitizer and p-doped spiro-MeOTAD as hole conductor, we achieved a record power conversion efficiency of 7.2%, measured under standard solar conditions (AM1.5G, 100 mW cm(-2)). We expect these promising new dopants to find widespread applications in organic electronics in general and photovoltaics in particular. PMID:21972850

Burschka, Julian; Dualeh, Amalie; Kessler, Florian; Baranoff, Etienne; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Lê; Yi, Chenyi; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Grätzel, Michael



Blue-green lasing dyes. I. Selection of class of dyes. Technical publication Dec 1972--Jun 1973  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye lasers operating in the blue-green region are strong candidates for underwater communication, illumination and surveillance purposes on account of their properties of tunability, collimation, beam coherence and high peak powers. This project was undertaken to provide organic dyes of higher efficiency, lower laser action threshold and particularly higher photochemical stability than the few presently available commercially. The problem was





EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...


Dye system for dye laser applications  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dye of the DCM family, (2-methyl-6-(2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl)-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

Hammond, P.R.



Dye system for dye laser applications  


A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)



Evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties of some food dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural dyes find use in the coloring of textiles, drugs, cosmetics, etc. Owing to their nontoxic effects, they are also used\\u000a for coloring various food products. In the present study antimicrobial properties of 8 food dyes against 10 bacteria and 5\\u000a fungal organisms were investigated. It was observed that red dyes showed best antibacterial activity while yellow dyes showed\\u000a better

Ramamoorthy Siva; Meera George Palackan; Lubaina Maimoon; T. Geetha; Dipita Bhakta; P. Balamurugan; S. Rajanarayanan



Percutaneous penetration of hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalp penetration of 7 hair dyes (oxidative and direct) that occurs under conditions of hair dye usage was evaluated for both rhesus monkey and man using 14C labeled materials by quantifying their absorbtion via urine assays. Both species showed a remarkably similar pattern of dye penetration. The extent of scalp penetratoon is slightly higher for direct dyes but in neither

L. J. Wolfram; H. I. Maibach



Heat treatment effects on the characteristics and sonocatalytic performance of TiO2 in the degradation of organic dyes in aqueous solution.  


The ambient sonocatalytic degradation of congo red, methyl orange, and methylene blue by titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) catalyst at initial concentrations between 10 and 50mg/L, catalyst loadings between 1.0 and 3.0mg/L and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) concentrations up to 600 mg/L is reported. A 20 kHz ultrasonic processor at 50 W was used to accelerate the reaction. The catalysts were exposed to heat treatments between 400 and 1000 degrees C for up to 4h to induce phase change. Sonocatalysts with small amount of rutile phase showed better sonocatalytic activity but excessive rutile phase should be avoided. TiO(2) heated to 800 degrees C for 2h showed the highest sonocatalytic activity and the degradation of dyes was influenced by their chemical structures, chemical phases and characteristics of the catalysts. Congo red exhibited the highest degradation rate, attributed to multiple labile azo bonds to cause highest reactivity with the free radicals generated. An initial concentration of 10mg/L, 1.5 g/L of catalyst loading and 450 ppm of H(2)O(2) gave the best congo red removal efficiency of above 80% in 180 min. Rate coefficients for the sonocatalytic process was successfully established and the reused catalyst showed an activity drop by merely 10%. PMID:19740600

Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Ling, Pang Yean



Improvement of sonocatalytic activity of TiO2 by using Yb, N and F-doped Er(3+):Y3Al5O12 for degradation of organic dyes.  


In this study, several up-conversion luminescence agents (Er(3+):Y3Al5O12, Er(3+):Yb0.2Y2.79Al5O12, Er(3+):Yb0.2Y2.79Al5N0.01O11.99, Er(3+):Yb0.2Y2.79Al5F0.01O11.99 and Er(3+):Yb0.2Y2.79Al5N0.01F0.01O11.98) were synthesized using sol-gel method. And then, the corresponding sonocatalyst (Er(3+):Y3Al5O12/TiO2, Er(3+):Yb0.2Y2.79Al5O12/TiO2, Er(3+):Yb0.2Y2.79Al5N0.01O11.99/TiO2, Er(3+):Yb0.2Y2.79Al5F0.01O11.99/TiO2 and Er(3+):Yb0.2Y2.79Al5N0.01F0.01O11.98/TiO2 coated composites) were prepared by sol-gel coating process. The synthesized up-conversion luminescence agents and their coated composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). And that, the sonocatalytic activities were detected through the degradation of Azo Fuchsine (AF) dye in aqueous solution by UV-vis spectroscopy. Some key influences such as heat-treated temperature and heat-treated time on the sonocatalytic activity of Er(3+):YbaY2.99-aNxFyAl5O12-x-y/TiO2 coated composite, as well as ultrasonic irradiation time and initial dye concentration on the sonocatalytic degradation were studied. The results showed that the doping of Yb, N and F into Er(3+):Y3Al5O12/TiO2 significantly enhanced the sonocatalytic activity of Er(3+):Y3Al5O12/TiO2 coated composite in the degradation of organic dyes. Particularly, Er(3+):Yb0.2Y2.79Al5N0.01F0.01O11.98/TiO2 coated composites with 3:7M ratio heat-treated at 550°C for 60min showed the highest sonocatalytic activity. At last, the experiments also indicated that the Er(3+):Yb0.2Y2.79Al5N0.01F0.01O11.98/TiO2 coated composites has a good sonocatalytic activity to degrade other organic dyes under ultrasonic irradiation. PMID:23735891

Wang, Jian; Zhou, Songying; Wang, Jun; Li, Shuguang; Gao, Jingqun; Wang, Baoxin; Fan, Ping



Solar light induced degradation of reactive dye using photocatalysis.  


Outdoors experiment with natural solar light instead of using artificial UV light was also conducted to investigate alternative energy source applicability on organics degradation. The results of this study were as follows. Degradation of the reactive dye, Red 120, with TiO2/solar light was enhanced by augmentation in TiO2 loading, and UV light intensity but was inhibited by increase in initial dye concentration. With both solar light illumination and TiO2 present, reactive dye was more effectively eliminated than with either solar light or TiO, alone. Photocatalytic removal efficiency of reactive dye increased with increasing TiO2 dosage. However, over 1.5 gL(-1) of TiO2 dosage, the efficiency reached a plateau. The degradation rate of reactive dye, Red 120, was strongly dependent on initial dye concentration, and all the experimental data were fit to the first-order rate equation. Photocatalytic degradation of reactive dye increased linearly with increasing UV light intensity. It is found that the presence of thick clouds in the sky markedly increased the time required for degradation of reactive dye. On the basis of these experimental observations, the photo-oxidation degradation of reactive dye using TiO2 under solar light irradiation can be feasible application of the advanced oxidation process. PMID:15030149

Park, Jae-Hong; Cho, Il-Hyoung; Kim, Young-Gyu



Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult if not impossible to determine when mankind first systematically applied color to a textile substrate. The first colored fabrics were probably nonwoven felts painted in imitation of animal skins. The first dyeings were probably actually little more than stains from the juice of berries. Ancient Greek writers described painted fabrics worn by the tribes of Asia Minor. But just where did the ancient craft have its origins? Was there one original birthplace or were there a number of simultaneous beginnings around the world?

Freeman, H. S.; Mock, G. N.


Substituted -6,7,8,9-Tetrahydro-Pyrido-and 2H-Pyrano (2,3-b) (1,8) Naphthyridines, Stable, Efficient Laser Dyes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1966 researchers first noted stimulated emissions from organic dye materials. Since that time, a wide array of organic dyes have been investigated and developed for use in what are now known as dye lasers, wherein an organic compound in solution replac...

P. R. Hammond R. A. Henry J. A. Trias E. J. Schimitschek



INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Limitation of high-power optical radiation by organic molecules: I. Substituted pyranes and cyanine dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photophysical processes proceeding in polyatomic organic molecules (pyran derivatives and cyanines) excited by high-power laser radiation at 532 nm are studied. Some properties of their changes depending on the structure, solvent, and excitation conditions are determined. The effect of limitation of high-power exciting radiation by the organic molecules is found. The maximum limitation (Kmax = 15.0 at the initial transmission equal to 70%) was observed for the cyanine derivative and is comparable to this effect for fullerenes C60, which are widely used as radiation limiters.

Kopylova, T. N.; Svetlichnyi, Valerii A.; Mayer, G. V.; Reznichenko, A. V.; Podgaetskii, Vitalii M.; Ponomareva, O. V.; Samsonova, L. G.; Filinov, D. N.; Pomogaev, V. A.; Tel'minov, E. N.; Lapin, I. N.; Svetlichnaya, N. N.; Sinchenko, E. I.



Comparative performance evaluation of Aspergillus lentulus for dye removal through bioaccumulation and biosorption.  


Dyes used in various industries are discharged into the environment and pose major environmental concern. In the present study, fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulus was utilized for the treatment of various dyes, dye mixtures and dye containing effluent in dual modes, bioaccumulation (employing growing biomass) and biosorption (employing pre-cultivated biomass). The effect of dye toxicity on the growth of the fungal isolate was studied through phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Dye biosorption was studied using first and second-order kinetic models. Effects of factors influencing adsorption and isotherm studies were also conducted. During bioaccumulation, good removal was obtained for anionic dyes (100 mg/l), viz. Acid Navy Blue, Fast Red A and Orange-HF dye (99.4 %, 98.8 % and 98.7 %, respectively) in 48 h. Cationic dyes (10 mg/l), viz. Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue, had low removal efficiency (80.3 % [48 h] and 92.7 % [144 h], respectively) as compared to anionic dyes. In addition to this, fungal isolate showed toxicity response towards Methylene Blue by producing larger aggregates of fungal pellets. To overcome the limitations of bioaccumulation, dye removal in biosorption mode was studied. In this mode, significant removal was observed for anionic (96.7-94.3 %) and cationic (35.4-90.9 %) dyes in 24 h. The removal of three anionic dyes and Rhodamine B followed first-order kinetic model whereas removal of Methylene Blue followed second-order kinetic model. Overall, fungal isolate could remove more than 90 % dye from different dye mixtures in bioaccumulation mode and more than 70 % dye in biosorption mode. Moreover, significant color removal from handmade paper unit effluent in bioaccumulation mode (86.4 %) as well as in biosorption mode (77.1 %) was obtained within 24 h. This study validates the potential of fungal isolate, A. lentulus, to be used as the primary organism for treating dye containing wastewater. PMID:22996821

Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree



Embedding an electron donor or acceptor into naphtho[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene based organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.  


An electron donor and acceptor, respectively, is embedded into naphtho[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene based organic sensitizers to tune their optoelectronic properties. The DSSC based on FNE52 containing an auxiliary electron acceptor displays a maximum power conversion efficiency of 8.2% and good long-term stability. PMID:23860539

Feng, Quanyou; Jia, Xiaowei; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Zhong-Sheng



The Comparative Nucleophilicity of Naphthoxide Derivatives in Reactions with a Fast-Red TR Dye: A Discovery-Oriented Capstone Project for the Second-Year Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this experiment, organic chemistry students perform reactions between three naphthyl acetate derivatives and the diazonium salt Fast-Red TR, under basic conditions. The three naphthyl acetate derivatives used in this study are 2-naphthyl acetate (1a), 6-bromo-2-naphthyl acetate (1b) and 1,6-dibromo-2-naphthyl acetate (1c). The two-step,…

Mascarenhas, Cheryl M.



Dye Removal from Textile Dye Wastewater Using Recycled Alum Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of dyes from textile dying wastewater by recycled alum sludge (RAS) generated by the coagulation process itself was studied and optimized. One hydrophobic and one hydrophilic dye were used as probes to examine the performance of this process. It was found that RAS is a good way of removing hydrophobic dye in wastewater, while simultaneously reducing the fresh

W Chu



Capturing the Potential of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-sensitized solar cells are a continually developing type of low-cost solar cells that have commercial efficiency around 6-10%. The proposed research here will be focusing on the photo-bleaching and improving techniques for electron transport. Nature has given us a goal to reach towards with proven techniques for converting light into energy with around 30-40% efficiency, however, chlorophyll, the light absorber in plants, is expensive and it is not practical to make solar cells with only chlorophyll as the absorber. One such alternative to chlorophyll is phthalocyanines which is a common industrial dye used in many applications. This dye has a common similar ring without the long phytol chain that chlorophyll has. Previous research has shown that encapsulating organic dyes can magnify the properties of dye from the increased concentration with a possible benefit of stabilizing the dye allowing it to slow down the photo bleaching significantly. Likewise, such encapsulation may help with thermal stability since many dye-sensitized solar cells require a liquid or gel solution that is sensitive to thermal expansion. Many researchers are also finding new ways to encapsulate the dyes or dope the p-n layers with nano and meso tubes to help with electron transport or build the p-n layers right in the tubes. This allows for countless layers and an overall more efficient design.

Benson, James



Laser dye technology  

SciTech Connect

The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

Hammond, P R



Synthesis of hierarchically organized nanostructured TiO2 by pulsed laser deposition and its application to dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchically organized TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized on fluorine-doped SnO2(FTO)\\/glass substrate at room temperature under various oxygen pressures using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The microstructures of the obtained TiO2 nanostructures were changed sensitively as oxygen pressure. A fully dense structure could be achieved below oxygen pressure of 50 mTorr. However, ultrafine nanoparticles (5~15 nm) were produced over 50 mTorr and they

Jun Hong Noh; Jong Hun Park; Hyun Soo Han; Sangwook Lee; Dong Hoe Kim; Hyun Suk Jung; Kung Sun Hong



Studies on the oxygen sensitivity and microstructure of sol–gel based organic–inorganic hybrid coatings doped with platinum porphyrin dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid organic–inorganic nanocomposite coatings were prepared by copolymerizing tetraethylorthosilicate with ethyltriethoxysilane\\u000a with an acid catalysis process. Oxygen sensor coatings were fabricated by doping the hybrid sol with platinum meso-tetra(pentfluorophenyl)\\u000a porphyrin. Photophysical properties and oxygen sensitivity of the sensor coatings were studied. The microstructure of the\\u000a coatings was examined using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of sol–gel process

Bharathibai J. Basu; Jeevan Kamble



Contact dermatitis from textile dyes.  


6 female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from textile dyes are described. Lesions were confined to areas in direct contact with the offending garment, mainly where friction and/or pressure occurred. Patch tests were positive to 2 or more disperse dyes. Thin-layer chromatography was carried out on the dyes extracted from fabrics of 3 patients, for the identification of textile dyes. PMID:7924308

Lisboa, C; Barros, M A; Azenha, A



Synthetic dye decolourization, textile dye and paper industrial effluent treatment using white rot fungi Lentines edodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laccase producing fungi Lentines edodes was screened for laccase production using various indicator compounds like guaiacol, tannic acid and the polymeric dyes such as Remazol brilliant blue R and Poly R-478. The organism Lentines edodes that produce laccase was cultivated on basal medium. Potato dextrose agar medium (PDA) and malt extract agar medium (MEA) were used for the first

S. Shanmugama; Pa Rajasekaran; Joseph. V. Thanikal



Synthetic dye decolourization, textile dye and paper industrial effluent treatment using white rot fungi Lentines edodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laccase producing fungi Lentines edodes was screened for laccase production using various indicator compounds like guaiacol, tannic acid and the polymeric dyes such as Remazol brilliant blue R and Poly R-478. The organism Lentines edodes that produce laccase was cultivated on basal medium. Potato dextrose agar medium (PDA) and malt extract agar medium (MEA) were used for the first

S. Shanmugam; P. Rajasekaran; Joseph V. Thanikalb


Removal of plant poisoning dyes by adsorption on Tomato Plant Root and green carbon from aqueous solution and its recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic dyes directly pollute the soil, water, plants and all living systems in the environment. The dyes like cationic Methylene blue (MB) and Crystal violet (CV) adsorption has been studied on Tomato Plant Root powder (TPR) and green carbon from aqueous solution for identifying the plant poisoning nature of cationic dyes. TPR powder is a cellulose material and green

Chellapandian Kannan; Natesan Buvaneswari; Thayumanavan Palvannan



Color of cyanine dyes and polariz a bilities of the groupings entering into the composition of the heterocyclic residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time the theory of the chromaticity of organic dyes, particularly dyes of the cyanine series, has succeeded in the solution of a number of problems. The effect of the length of the chromophore on the color of dyes has been elucidated [1-3]. The role of auxochromic atoms or groups and the relationship between the electronic character of

N. S. Spasokukotskii; A. F. Vompe



Tye Dye Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, make a colorful "tye dye" animal like a butterfly using markers, water, and a coffee filter. Use this activity to explore how liquids behave and how molecules in the marker ink spread when covered with water. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.



Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of a flash lamp pumped, near infrared dye laser operating at a moderate repetition rate was shown. The laser produced output pulses of 17 kw peak power at a rate of 4 pulses per minute. The flow system that is essential for multiflash oper...



Improved Lasing Dyes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application concerns a dye comprising a 7-amino coumarin compound having a trifluoromethyl group in the 4-position which is dissolved in a liquid solvent for use as a lasing material. The compound may take the form of 7-diethylamino-4-trifluoro...

E. J. Schimitschek



Cardiac Dye Injector Synchronizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In radiographic diagnosis of heart disease, it is necessary to synchronize accurately the injection of radio-opaque dye into the circulation with the diastolic portion of the cardiac cycle. Because of the high-energy electrostatic and electromagnetic fields associated with radiographic apparatus, it was decided to make a photosensitive transducer to be clamped on the ear lobe to give an electric signal

L. David Pengelly



Alzheimer's Dye Test?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

Science Teacher, 2005



Formation of shaped barium sulfate-dye hybrids: waste dye utilization for eco-friendly treatment of wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Owing to the present complexity and difficulty of concentrated dye wastewater treatment, this work aimed to synthesize a reproducible\\u000a waste-sorbing material for the treatment of wastewater by forming the dye-conjugating complex hybrid.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The inorganic\\/organic hybridization was applied to prepare the objective material by immobilizing waster dye-Mordant blue\\u000a 9 (MB) with barium sulfate (BaSO4). The composition and pattern of the formed

Hong-Wen Gao; Jing Lin; Wei-Ying Li; Zhang-Jun Hu; Ya-Lei Zhang



Dye for dye-sensitized solar cell and dye-sensitized solar cell including the same  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A dye for a dye-sensitized solar cell according to embodiments of the present invention includes a compound having a silane group. The dye according to embodiments of the present invention may be used in a light absorption layer to improve photovoltaic efficiency and increase open-circuit voltage.



Photodegradation of an azo dye of the textile industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced oxidation treatment, UV\\/H2O2, was applied to an azo dye, Hispamin Black CA, widely used in the Peruvian textile industry. Rates of color removal and degradation of the dye have been evaluated. A strongly absorbing solution was completely decolorized after 35 min of treatment, and after 60 min an 82% reduction of the total organic carbon (TOC) was obtained.

Rosario López Cisneros; Abel Gutarra Espinoza; Marta I. Litter



Photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes  

SciTech Connect

Coumarin laser dyes are widely used in dye lasers for the generation of tunable laser light in the blue-green spectral region. As in the case with most laser dyes, coumarin dyes undergo photochemical reactions that interfere with simulated emission and result in loss of laser power output. This thesis describes the photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions and some attempts to extend the useful lifetime of several dyes in dye lasers. Irradiation of Coumarin 311, 7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-coumarin (15), in oxygen-free ethanol solution results in the inefficient dye destruction. Products formed absorb light at the lasing wavelength of the dye, interfere with stimulated emission, and decrease the power output of the dye laser. Addition of the sulfur free radical chain transfer agents ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide retard the rate of formation of photoproducts absorbing at the lasing wavelengths. Deuterium incorporation, from the irradiation of Coumarin 311 in the presence of ethanethiol-S-d and ethyl disulfide, indicates that photoproducts most likely result from the reactions of free radicals which are generated in a bimolecular reaction between excited Coumarin 311 and ground state Coumarin 311. Ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide are shown to decrease the rate of power loss from a Coumarin 1 (3) dye laser. The naturally occurring amino acid cysteine acts similarly.

von Trebra, R.J.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts.. The Organic topic focuses on the basics of organic chemistry that are taught in general chemistry.



Systematic Prediction of Dyes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Data-mining via Molecular Charge-Transfer Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph theoretical algorithms and classification tests are combined with data-mining tools to present successful predictions of high-performance dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The construction of molecular charge-transfer algorithms is described, featuring recursive depth-first, back-tracking, graph traversal algorithms with classification test formalisms. These algorithms are employed to search through a representative set of organic chemical space (120,000 chemical molecules) to

Jacqueline M. Cole



Solution-processed bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells based on dendritic and star-shaped D-pi-A organic dyes.  


A series of D-pi-A organic dendritic and star-shaped molecules based on three various chromophores (i.e., the truxene nodes, triphenylamine moieties as the donor, and benzothiadiazole chromophore as the acceptor) and their corresponding model compounds are facilely developed. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties are investigated in detail by UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescent spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. By changing the various conjugated spacers (i.e., single bond, double bond, and triple bond) among the three chromophores of dendritic series, their photophysical properties (that is, the one-photon absorption range and two-photon absorption cross-section values) are effectively modulated. All D-pi-A conjugated oligomers show a broad and strong absorption band from 250 to 700 nm in thin films. Solution-processed bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic devices using our oligomer as donor and PCBM as acceptor are fabricated and measured. The power conversion efficiency of the devices based on our oligomers continuously increases from DBTTr to TrTD2A as a result of an increasing relative absorption intensity in longer wavelength region by changing the donor-acceptor ratio and conjugated spacers between the donor and acceptor. The power conversion efficiency of the devices based on TrTD2A was 0.54% under the illumination of AM 1.5 and 100 mW cm(-2), which is the highest value recorded based on D-pi-A conjugated oligomers containing triphenylamine moieties and benzothiadiazole chromophores with truxene to date. PMID:20449865

Wang, Jin-Liang; He, Zhicai; Wu, Hongbin; Cui, Haibo; Li, Yan; Gong, Qihuang; Cao, Yong; Pei, Jian




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on organization provides an annotated listing of Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and other resources related to organization to be used with K-8 students. Sidebars discuss being organized to be a good student, organizational identities, and organizing an election. Suggests student activities relating to…

Online-Offline, 1999




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This theme issue on organization provides an annotated listing of Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and other resources related to organization to be used with K-8 students. Sidebars discuss being organized to be a good student, organizational identities, and organizing an election. Suggests student activities relating to…

Online-Offline, 1999



Radiation induced degradation of dyes--an overview.  


Synthetic dyes are a major part of our life. Products ranging from clothes to leather accessories to furniture all depend on extensive use of organic dyes. An unfortunate side effect of extensive use of these chemicals is that huge amounts of these potentially carcinogenic compounds enter our water supplies. Various advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including the use of high-energy radiation have been developed to degrade these compounds. In this review, dye decoloration and degradation as a result of its exposure to high energy radiation such as gamma radiation and pulsed electron beam are discussed in detail. The role of various transient species such as H, OH and e(aq)(-) are taken into account as reported by various researchers. Literature citations in this area show that e(aq)(-) is very effective in decolorization but is less active in the further degradation of the products formed. The degradation of the dyes is initiated exclusively by OH attack on electron-rich sites of the dye molecules. Additionally, various parameters that affect the efficiency of radiation induced degradation of dyes, such as effect of radiation dose, oxygen, pH, hydrogen peroxide, added ions and dye classes are also reviewed and summarized. Lastly, pilot plant application of radiation for wastewater treatment is briefly discussed. PMID:19128875

Rauf, M A; Ashraf, S Salman



Disulfide dyes, composition comprising them and method of dyeing hair  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Formula (I) wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently from each other are a residue of an organic dye: Y.sub.1 and Y.sub.2 each independently from each other are unsubstituted or substituted, straightchain or branched, interrupted or uninterrupted --C.sub.1-C.sub.10alkylene-; --C.sub.5-C.sub.10cycloalkylene-; C.sub.5-C.sub.10arylene; or --C.sub.5-C.sub.10arylene-(C.sub.1-C.sub.10alkylene)-; Z.sub.1 and Z.sub.2 independently from each other are Formula (II) are each independently from each other hydrogen; or unsubstituted or substituted, straight-chain or branched, mono-cyclic or polycyclic, interrupted or uninterrupted C.sub.1-C.sub.14alkyl; C.sub.2-C.sub.14alkenyl; C.sub.6-C.sub.10aryl; C.sub.6-C.sub.10aryl-C.sub.1-C.sub.10alkyl; or C.sub.5-C.sub.10alkyl(C.sub.5-C.sub.10aryl); r, q and n independently from each other are 0 or 1, if n is 0, Z.sub.3 is hydrogen; and if n is 1, Z.sub.3 is --S--: with the proviso that the method does not comprise treating the fiber with an enzyme of the type of a protein disulfidisomerase (EC Further, the present invention relates to novel disulfid compounds, compositions thereof, especially comprising other dyes, and to processes for their preparation.

Eliu; Victor Paul (Lorrach, DE); Frohling; Beate (Steinen, DE); Kauffmann; Dominique (Illzach, FR)



Painting With Natural Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)



Retinal tolerance to dyes  

PubMed Central

Background: Dye solutions for intraoperative staining of epiretinal membranes and the internal limiting membrane improve the visualisation of these thin structures and facilitate their removal. In the present study the authors investigated the effects of indocyanine green 0.05%, trypan blue 0.15%, and patent blue 0.48% on bovine retinal function. Methods: Bovine retina preparations were perfused with a standard solution and the electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded repeatedly. After recording of stable ERG amplitudes the nutrient solution was substituted by one of the dye solutions. The duration of retinal exposure to a dye solution was varied between 10 seconds and 2 minutes. Thereupon, the preparation was reperfused with standard solution for at least 115 minutes. The percentage of b-wave reduction after exposition was calculated. Results: Reductions of the b-wave amplitude were found for each dye solution tested. The effects after application of patent blue and indocyanine green were completely reversible within the recovery time for an exposure period of 60 and 30 seconds, respectively. The application of trypan blue lead to a loss of the b-wave when the retina was exposed for 15 seconds or longer. This effect was only partly reversible within the recovery time. Conclusion: The ERG showed toxic effects of trypan blue after a short period of retinal exposure. The intraocular application of trypan blue should be limited to selected cases. However, intraocular application of indocyanine green and patent blue in a sufficient concentration and taking account of a short period of retinal exposure seems possible.

Luke, C; Luke, M; Dietlein, T S; Hueber, A; Jordan, J; Sickel, W; Kirchhof, B



Microwave assisted dyeing of polyester fabrics with disperse dyes.  


Dyeing of polyester fabrics with thienobenzochromene disperse dyes under conventional and microwave heating conditions was studied in order to determine whether microwave heating could be used to enhance the dyeability of polyester fabrics. Fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. All samples dyed with or without microwave heating displayed excellent washing and perspiration fastness. The biological activities of the synthesized dyes against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, yeast and fungus were also evaluated. PMID:24022764

Al-Mousawi, Saleh Mohammed; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed; Elnagdi, Mohamed Hilmy



Systematic Prediction of Dyes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Data-mining via Molecular Charge-Transfer Algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graph theoretical algorithms and classification tests are combined with data-mining tools to present successful predictions of high-performance dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The construction of molecular charge-transfer algorithms is described, featuring recursive depth-first, back-tracking, graph traversal algorithms with classification test formalisms. These algorithms are employed to search through a representative set of organic chemical space (120,000 chemical molecules) to identify compounds that have the required structural attributes to act as high-performance dyes for DSCs. The first results of these predictions are validated by comparison of the predicted structural motifs to existing well-known dyes that are currently in use for DSC device application. Three chemical motifs are shown to form the chemical back-bone of three popular dyes, thereby validating the predictions. Further work is described which includes the DSC fabrication and testing of the new classes of unknown dye; this pertains to the ultimate goal of systematic design of new dyes for DSC device application.

Cole, Jacqueline M.



Excitation Energy Migration in a Photonic Dye-Zeolite Antenna: Computational Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excitation energy migration between dyes embedded in hexagonal crystals of cylinder morphology is an attractive phenomenon for the construction of photonic anten- nae (1, 2). Detailed knowledge of the zeolite structure, the organization and the spectro- scopic properties of the dyes and the nature and strength of the host-guest interactions is required to optimize energy migration (EnM). Whether a dye-zeolite

Marc Meyer; Mikalai M. Yatskou; Michel Pfenninger; Stefan Huber; Anatoli Digris; Victor Skakun; Eugene Barsukov; Vladimir V. Apanasovich



Research on Facilitation of Biodegradation of Azo Dye Wastewater by Bioelectrochemical Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active brilliant red X-3B is a kind of azo dye which is difficult to biodegrade. The wastewater with azo dye is of chromaticity depth, high content of organic compounds, water quality changing great, and seriously impacts environment. Bioelectrochemical hydrolysis coupled with biological contact oxidation (BEH-BCO) was used to treat azo dye active brilliant red X-3B simulation wastewater. In this experiment,

Yuhua Zhao; Xiaoyi Cang; Decai Jin; Ruijiao Dong



Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.  


Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ?E (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. PMID:21550289

Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin



Extraction of Henna Leaf Dye and its Dyeing Effects on Textile Fibre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Henna plant leaves (Lawsonia inermis) contains dye along with other ingredients. The dye component was extracted and applied on silk fibre in order to investigate the dyeing characteristics, e.g. dyeability, fastness etc. It is found that the dye up take by silk fibre was decreased with the increase of dye concentration. Similarly the absorp- tion of dye was increased with

M. M Alam; M. L. Rahman; M. Z. Haque



Decoloration and degradation of Reactive Red-120 dye by electron beam irradiation in aqueous solution.  


The decoloration and degradation of aqueous solution of the reactive azo dye viz. Reactive Red-120 (RR-120) was carried out by electron beam irradiation. The change in decoloration percentage, removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC), solution pH and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) were investigated with respect to the applied dose. However, the concentration of the dye in the solution showed a great influence on all these observables. During the radiolysis process, it was found that the decoloration of dye was caused by the destruction of the chromophore group of the dye molecule, whereas COD and TOC removal were depended on the extent of mineralization of the dye. The decrease in pH during the radiolysis process indicated the fragmentation of the large dye molecule into smaller organic components mostly like smaller organic acids. The BOD(5)/COD ratio of the unirradiated dye solution was in the range of 0.1-0.2, which could be classified as non-biodegradable wastewater. However, the BOD(5)/COD ratio increased upon irradiation and it indicated the transformation of non-biodegradable dye solution into biodegradable solution. This study showed that electron beam irradiation could be a promising method for treatment of textile wastewater containing RR-120 dye. PMID:21463947

Paul, Jhimli; Rawat, K P; Sarma, K S S; Sabharwal, S



Synthesis and application of H-Bonded cross-linking polymers containing a conjugated pyridyl H-Acceptor side-chain polymer and various carbazole-based H-Donor dyes bearing symmetrical cyanoacrylic acids for organic solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of novel hydrogen-bonded (H-bonded) cross-linking polymers were generated by complexing various proton-donor (H-donor) solar cell dyes containing 3,6- and 2,7-functionalized electron-donating carbazole cores bearing symmetrical thiophene linkers and cyanoacrylic acid termini with a proton-acceptor (H-acceptor) side-chain homopolymer carrying pyridyl pendants (with 1\\/2 M ratio of H-donor\\/H-acceptor). The supramolecular H-bonded structures between H-donor dyes and the H-acceptor side-chain polymer were

Duryodhan Sahu; Harihara Padhy; Dhananjaya Patra; Dhananjay Kekuda; Chih-Wei Chu; I.-Hung Chiang; Hong-Cheu Lin



The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)|

Sequin-Frey, Margareta



Solid state dye laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer filled porous glass impregnates with dye molecules is used as an active medium. The most important feature of this medium is that its thermo-optical and mechanical parameters are determined by a matrix of silica which thermo-optical constants are better by two orders of magnitude then those of polymers. The investigation of generation characteristics of solid state dye laser on basis of Rhodamine 6G has shown the feasibility of its application in pulse coherent pumping laser systems. The generation thresholds are practically the same for solid state and ethanol solution. The yield of conversion of pumping energy into generation energy for solid state active element is up to 50%. The advantages of solid state active element based on polymer filled porous glass matrix realize at high temperature operation mode, for instance at frequency mode. The step refraction index temperature dependence for polymers results in increase of optical with increase of pumping energy. In the reported medium this effect does not occur nonuniformity up to pumping energy values exceeding the generation threshold by 40-50 times. Polymer based active media are destructed at the exposition of 50 ns pulses with energy of 1 J/cm2 while porous glass + polymer + Rhodamine 6G composition is not destructed at the exposition of energy up to 7-10 J/cm2. The introduced solid state dye laser is intended to be used in on-board systems, including vacuum under low temperature, where the application of flow systems operation is problematic. It should be emphasized, that using the synthesized compositions, the generation mode with microsecond pulse pumping becomes available. It opens the possibility for application of flashlamp for pumping.

Meshkovskii, Igor K.; Zemskii, Vladimir I.; Kolesnikov, Yuri L.



Dye Sensitized Solar Cells  

PubMed Central

Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

Wei, Di



Ultrasound for low temperature dyeing of wool with acid dye.  


The possibility of reducing the temperature of conventional wool dyeing with an acid levelling dye using ultrasound was studied in order to reach exhaustion values comparable to those obtained with the standard procedure at 98 °C, obtaining dyed samples of good quality. The aim was to develop a laboratory method that could be transferred at industrial level, reducing both the energy consumption and fiber damage caused by the prolonged exposure to high temperature without the use of polluting auxiliary agents. Dyeings of wool fabrics were carried out in the temperature range between 60 °C and 80 °C using either mechanical or ultrasound agitation of the bath and coupling the two methods to compare the results. For each dyeing, the exhaustion curves of the dye bath were determined and the better results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical stirring. Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasonic efficiency were calculated in comparison with mechanical stirring alone. In the presence of ultrasound the absorption rate constants increased by at least 50%, at each temperature, confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound was ascribed to the pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation. It was also shown that the effect of ultrasound at 60 °C was just on the dye bath, practically unaffecting the wool fiber surface, as confirmed by the results of SEM analysis. Finally, fastness tests to rubbing and domestic laundering yielded good values for samples dyed in ultrasound assisted process even at the lower temperature. These results suggest the possibility, thanks to the use of ultrasound, to obtain a well equalized dyeing on wool working yet at 60°C, a temperature process strongly lower than 98°C, currently used in industry, which damages the mechanical properties of the fibers. PMID:22055328

Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M



Removal of Anionic and Cationic Dyes From Water by FeAl Binary Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al was incorporated in iron oxide to enhance dye removal capacity (Fe-Al binary oxide). Oxides with different Fe:Al ratios(10:0, 9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, 1:9 and 0:10) were synthesized and applied for removal of organic dyes. Increase of incorporated Al expanded effective surface area that could contact with dye. The highest dye removal efficiency was achieved by 5:5 and 3:7 Fe:Al

Hye-Jin Hong; Jungmin Kim; Jung-Seok Yang; Eun Jung Kim; Ji-Won Yang



Hafnium (IV) and zirconium (IV) porphyrinoid diacetate complexes as new dyes for solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

New concepts in the design and function of organic dyes as sensitizers for solar energy harvesting are needed. Simple porphyrin dyes offer cost effective synthesis and long-term stability, but new modes of incorporation into devices are needed to increase the efficiency of charge separation that drives any photonic device designed to harvest light. We are developing a new strategy to

Ivana Radivojevic; M. Sfeir; Chang-Yong Nam; Benjamin P. Burton-Pye; Alexander Falber; Charles T. Black; Charles Michael Drain



Degradation of reactive dyes I. A comparative study of ozonation, enzymatic and photochemical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental problems associated with textile activities are represented mainly by the extensive use of organic dyes. A great number of these compounds are recalcitrant and shown carcinogenic or mutagenic character. In this work three processes were studied for degradation of an anthraquinone dye (C.I. reactive blue-19). The ozonation process leads to complete decolorization with a very short reaction time;

Patricio Peralta-Zamora; Airton Kunz; Sandra Games de Moraes; Ronaldo Pelegrini; Patricia de Campos Moleiro; Juan Reyes; Nelson Duran



Stable high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells based on a cobalt polymer gel electrolyte.  


A tris(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(II)/(III) based polymer gel electrolyte has been successfully applied in conjunction with an organic carbazole dye in the construction of stable dye-sensitized solar cells with an energy conversion efficiencies of 8.7% and 10% at 1 sun and 0.1 sun light intensity. PMID:23963095

Xiang, Wanchun; Huang, Wenchao; Bach, Udo; Spiccia, Leone



Decolorization of diazo dye Direct Red 81 by a novel bacterial consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Samples collected from various effluent-contaminated soils in the vicinities of dyestuff manufacturing units of Ahmedabad, India, were studied for screening and isolation of organisms capable of decolorizing textile dyes. A novel bacterial consortium was selected on the basis of rapid decolorization of Direct Red 81 (DR 81), which was used as model dye. The bacterial consortium exhibited 90% decolorization ability

Nishant Junnarkar; D. Srinivas Murty; Nikhil S. Bhatt; Datta Madamwar



Electrochemical oxidation of a textile dye and finishing wastewater using a Pt\\/Ti electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile Dye and Finishing Wastewater (TDFW) from a reactive cellulosic azo dyeing and finishing process was treated by an electrochemical oxidation method using Ti\\/Pt as anode and Stainless Steel 304 as cathode. The strong oxidizing potential of the chemicals produced when the wastewater was passed through the electrolytic cell resulted in the oxidation of organic pollutants to carbon dioxide and

A. G. Vlyssides; C. J. Israilides



Simulation and modeling of laser-tissue interactions based on a liposome-dye system.  


This work presents an overview of the use of liposomes for targeted delivery of photosensitizers to tumors for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). It assesses the results of a quantitative model to explain the interaction of short-pulsed lasers (in the nanosecond and picosecond domains) with a liposome-dye complex in terms of a localized photo-induced thermal mechanism. Incorporation of an organic dye (sulforhodamine) within lipid vesicles has been investigated in conjunction with the effect of laser irradiation on the integrity of the liposome-dye complex. The variation of the absorption coefficient as a function of wavelength for dye-encapsulated liposomes before and after laser-induced release of dye was studied and modeled. The commercial software Mathematica was used to develop a Gaussian model for the energy absorption by the liposome-dye complex. Dye release from 3 microm - liposome encapsulating 25 mM aqueous solution of sulforhodamine dye was studied using 8 ns laser pulses at the second harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser (at 532 nm) and compared with dye release employing 25 ps - laser pulses. In addition, the temperature-dependence of the dye release has been included in the photo-thermal model. PMID:21141674

Mensah, F E; Sridhar, R; Misra, P



Powder Dyeing Method for Cosmetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A powder dyeing method for cosmetics is described that is characterized in that dyes or pigments are dispersed in water or alcohol, the solution or dispersion is mixed with porous adsorbant such as silicon dioxide or alumina powder and dried, and the drie...

S. Iwao



Dye-coated europium monosulfide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye.

Kar, Srotoswini; Dollahon, Norman R.; Stoll, Sarah L.




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)|

Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.



Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E. D.; Kilpatrick, F. A.



Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F. A.



Investigation of red natural dyes used in historical objects by HPLC-DAD-MS.  


High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-Vis Diode Array Detection (DAD) and electrospray mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) method was utilized for the identification of coloring components of madder, Armenian and Mexican cochineal, lac dye, brazilwood, safflower and dragon blood--probably the most important red natural dyestuffs found in objects of the cultural heritage. UV-Vis detection limits in the range of 0.2-0.6 ng for carminic acid, alizarin and purpurin were achieved using a gradient elution of H2O-0.01% TFA and CH3CN-0.01% TFA. ESI mass spectrometer was also used, as a supportive detection method to the standard DAD, for further analysis of the tested materials, with the ability to analyze dyestuffs as small as one milligram. The presence of madder was revealed in two historical (Hellenistic and Roman period) samples, found in the Mediterranean area, by identifying purpurin in both of them. Munjistin was also identified in one of the samples (Hellenistic period) while alizarin was not detected, raising questions regarding the exact madder type, utilized in the historical samples. PMID:16736555

Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Chryssoulakis, Yannis


Importance of dye host on absorption, propagation losses, and amplified spontaneous emission for dye-doped polymer thin films.  


The absorption spectra of dye-doped polymer thin films made from a variety of five dyes and six matrices, either organic or organomineral, are analyzed to evaluate the residual absorption in the red wavelength tail and in particular at amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) wavelengths. An absorption cutoff wavelength is defined as the extrapolated wavelength at which the absorption losses are expected to become negligible compared to the structure losses. Such absorption-spectrum-extrapolated wavelengths are compared to the ASE wavelengths and found to correlate for most of the dye-matrix couples. The propagation losses of PM597-doped organic polymers are also measured and accordingly found to increase with the glass transition temperature of the host matrix. PMID:17068612

Goudket, Hélène; Nhung, Tran Hong; Ea-Kim, Buntha; Roger, Gisèle; Canva, Michael



Importance of dye host on absorption, propagation losses, and amplified spontaneous emission for dye-doped polymer thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption spectra of dye-doped polymer thin films made from a variety of five dyes and six matrices, either organic or organomineral, are analyzed to evaluate the residual absorption in the red wavelength tail and in particular at amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) wavelengths. An absorption cutoff wavelength is defined as the extrapolated wavelength at which the absorption losses are expected to become negligible compared to the structure losses. Such absorption-spectrum-extrapolated wavelengths are compared to the ASE wavelengths and found to correlate for most of the dye-matrix couples. The propagation losses of PM597-doped organic polymers are also measured and accordingly found to increase with the glass transition temperature of the host matrix.

Goudket, Hélène; Nhung, Tran Hong; Ea-Kim, Buntha; Roger, Gisèle; Canva, Michael



Organic \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents for the first time a 4-bit microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) phase shifter fabricated on, integrated, and packaged into an organic flexible low-permittivity material. A microstrip switched-line phase shifter has been optimized at 14 GHz for small size and excellent performance. In addition, the MEMS phase shifter was packaged in an all-organic flexible low-permittivity liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) package. The

Nickolas Kingsley; John Papapolymerou



Never say dye  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen a remarkable increase in the number of publications dealing with the application of epifluorescence microscopy in cell biology. This can be widely attributed to the development of state-of-the-art image processing programs, as well as the development of new reagents/probes, which allow the labeling of most cell structures, organelles and metabolites with high specificity. However, the use of a specific fluorescent dye, 3,3?-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6), has been recently revisited and several new application potentials have emerged. The goal of this mini-review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the multiple roles of this multifaceted probe.



Super vasomol hair dye poisoning  

PubMed Central

Hair dye poisoning is not rare but is an emerging poisoning in India. The main component of hair dye causing toxicity is paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angioedema of the upper airway accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard, and protruding tongue. Systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF). PPD consumption is an uncommon cause of ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment is mainly supportive. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that presented with cervicofascial edema and later developed rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Our patient improved with dialysis and symptomatic management.

Kumar, Praveen A. S.; Talari, Keerthi; Dutta, T. K.



Suitable Reference Gene Selection for Different Strains and Developmental Stages of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, using Quantitative Real-Time PCR  

PubMed Central

Reference genes are used as internal controls in gene expression studies, but their expression levels vary according to tissue types and experimental treatments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the most sensitive technique for transcript quantification provided that gene transcription patterns are normalized to an evaluated reference gene. In this study, the suitability of eight commonly used genes (??-actin, 5.8SrRNA, ??-TUB, GAPDH, RPL13a, RPS18, TBP, SDHA) were cloned and investigated to find the most stable candidates for normalizing real-time PCR data generated from the four different strains (abamectin-resistant, fenpropathrin-resistant, omethoate-resistant, and susceptible strains) and different developmental stages (eggs, protonymphs, nymphs, and adults) of carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acarina: Tetranychidae). The stability of gene expression was assessed using two different analysis programs, geNorm and NormFinder. Using these analyses, RPS18 and 5.8SrRNA had the most stable expression regardless of the four different strains, whereas RPS18 and ??-TUB were expressed most stably in different developmental stages.

Sun, W.; Jin, Y.; He, L; Lu, W-C.; Li, M.



Convenient Microscale Synthesis of a Coumarin Laser Dye Analog  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Coumarin (2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) and its derivatives constitute a fascinating class of organic substances that are utilized industrially in areas such as cosmetics, food preservatives, insecticides and fluorescent laser dyes. The product can be synthesized, purified, and characterized within two hours with benefits of microscale reactivity being…

Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Dicks, Andrew P.



Dye-sensitized anodic TiO2 nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we report on dye-sensitization of self-organized TiO 2 nanotubes and the photoelectrochemical response of this system. The tubes were grown by Ti anodization in fluoride containing electrolytes in two different forms as \\

Jan M. Macák; Hiroaki Tsuchiya; Andrej Ghicov; Patrik Schmuki



Radiation damage in biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant obstacle to organic photovoltaics is radiation damage, either directly by photochemical reactions or indirectly via hot electrons. Such effects are investigated for biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells (phthalocyanines) and for a biological analog (the charge transfer protein cytochrome c). Both feature a central transition metal atom (or H2) surrounded by nitrogen atoms. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and

Peter L. Cook; Phillip S. Johnson; Xiaosong Liu; An-Li Chin; F. J. Himpsel



Optical properties of lanthanide dyes for spectral conversion encapsulated in porous silica nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lanthanide based dyes belong to one of the most promising fields of photovoltaic research, combining high quantum yields and large spectral shift. However, many challenges are faced when working with lanthanide dyes for spectral conversion: their thermal and chemical stability, which can greatly influence the shelf-life of the dyes; the absorption band position, which depends on the organic part of the dye, the so called "antenna"; self-quenching mechanisms, which lead to a photoluminescence emission loss. The chemical composition of the surrounding environment of the dyes has a fundamental role in their properties. In this paper, the optical and PLQY (photoluminescence quantum yield) properties of an europium-based dye embedded in a silica matrix are reported. The in-house synthesized dye consists of a bis(2- (diphenylphosphino)phenyl)ether oxide (DPEPO) ligand and three hexafluoroacetylacetonate (hfac) co-ligands coordinating a central europium ion. The dye has been included in porous core-shell particles, to study its optical properties once embedded in a solid dielectric matrix. The optical properties of the resulting samples have been characterized by photoluminescence emission and PLQY measurements. The results have been compared with data obtained from a commercially available dye (BASF Lumogen family) in similar conditions.

Pizzol, Paolo; Marques-Hueso, Jose; Robertson, Neil; Freris, Isidora; Bellotto, Luca; Meyer, Thomas J. J.; Richards, Bryce S.



Degradation of Acid Blue 40 dye solution and dye house wastewater from textile industry by photo-assisted electrochemical process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, electrochemical and photo-assisted electrochemical processes are used for color, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation of one of the most abundant and strongly colored industrial wastewaters, which results from the dyeing of fibers and fabrics in the textile industry. The experiments were carried out in an 18 L pilot-scale tubular flow reactor with

Peterson B. Moraes; Rosangela R. L. Pelegrino; Rodnei Bertazzoli



Photocatalytic degradation of textile dyes.  


The photocatalytic degradation of commonly used textile dyes, namely, Reactive Black-5 (RB-5), Red (ME4BL), Golden Yellow (MERL), Blue-222, Methylene Blue, and Malachite Green, has been studied, using TiO2 (P25) as a photocatalyst. All the dye solutions could be decolorized. Kinetics of RB-5 oxidation reaction has been studied and was found to be of first order in dye concentration. Effects of different parameters such as catalyst amount, initial concentration of the dyes, and pH of solution along with biological parameters (TOC and COD) on the rate of degradation were studied. Experimental results showed that photocatalytic degradation of commonly used RB-5 was very effective at the optimum catalyst quantity of 2.5 g/L. PMID:21391388

Mahadwad, O K; Jasra, R V; Parikh, P A; Tayade, R J



Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  


... hair dye you use, follow directions carefully. Pay attention to all “Caution” or “Warning” statements. What problems ... safely? • Follow the directions in the package. Pay attention to all “Caution” and “Warning” statements. • Do a ...


Photodegradation of an azo dye of the textile industry.  


An advanced oxidation treatment, UV/H2O2, was applied to an azo dye, Hispamin Black CA, widely used in the Peruvian textile industry. Rates of color removal and degradation of the dye have been evaluated. A strongly absorbing solution was completely decolorized after 35 min of treatment, and after 60 min an 82% reduction of the total organic carbon (TOC) was obtained. It has been found that the degradation rate increased until an optimum value, beyond which the reagent exerted an inhibitory effect. The degradation rate was also function of pH. PMID:12152740

Cisneros, Rosario López; Espinoza, Abel Gutarra; Litter, Marta I



Paraphenylene diamine hair dye poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1883, paraphenylene diamine (PPD) has traditionally been used for dyeing (dark color) hair in Europe [1-2] as a fresh\\u000a preparation mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) [3]. In Sudan PPD is used by women to color their hair and as a body dye when added to henna ( Lawasonia alba). Henna on it’s own need to be applied two or

Mohamed I. Hamdouk; Mohamed B. Abdelraheem; Ahbab A. Taha; Mohamed Benghanem; Marc E. Broe


High power cw dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependance of the output power of cw dye lasers on the pump power and the system-and stream parameters is calculated and\\u000a experimentally tested. It was found that the pump power for a given system is limited to a critical value due to the influence\\u000a of thermal inhomogeneities. This critical pump power is predominantly dependant on the dye solvent, the

B. Wellegehausen; L. Laepple; H. Welling



Dye molecules in electrolytes: new approach for suppression of dye-desorption in dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells remains limited because of the poor long-term stability. We report on the influence of dye-molecules added in liquid electrolyte on long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. Dye-desorption from the TiO2 surface during long-term cycling is one of the decisive factors that degrade photocurrent densities of devices which in turn determine the efficiencies of the devices. For the first time, desorption of dye from the TiO2 surface could be suppressed by controlling thermodynamic equilibrium; by addition of dye molecules in the electrolyte. The dye molecules in the electrolyte can suppress the driving forces for the adsorbed dye molecules to be desorbed from TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, highly enhanced device stabilities were achieved due to the reduction of dye-desorption although there was a little decrease in the initial efficiencies.

Heo, Nansra; Jun, Yongseok; Park, Jong Hyeok



The Behavior of Oxonol Dyes in Phospholipid Dispersions  

PubMed Central

The interaction of a class of oxonol dyes with sonicated phospholipid vesicles was followed optically. The spectra of vesicle-associated dyes resemble those found for the dyes in organic solvents, indicating that the oxonols occupy a hydrophobic region of the membrane. At equilibrium the affinity of the oxonols for the vesicles depends on the structure of the dye, the physical and chemical composition of the vesicles, and the ionic strength of the medium. The oxonols occupy soybean lipid vesicles to a level of 147.9 ± 17.1 nmol/mg lipid with a dye membrane dissociation constant of 3.33 ± 0.54 ?M. The interaction of the oxonols with soybean lipid vesicles is biphasic. The fast phase has a second order rate constant of 9.04 ± 0.36 × 106M-1 s-1 and the number of “fast” binding sites, 68 ± 8 nmol/mg lipid, was determined from the ratio of the second order rate constants obtained with lipid and with dye in excess. The dissociation of oxonols from soybean lipid vesicles is also biphasic, and the fast process has a rate constant of 17 ± 2 s-1, yielding a dissociation constant for the fast sites (k-1/k2) of 1.88 ± 0.15 ?M. The slow phases of oxonol association with, and release from, soybean lipid vesicles are not second order and have half times of between 0.2 and 5 min, depending on the physical and chemical composition of the membrane lipids. The amplitudes of the slow phases are sensitive to the composition of the aqueous media on each side of the vesicle membranes, which suggests that the slow processes represent the permeation of the membrane by the oxonols. The importance of the properties of the oxonol dyes in the interpretation of their behavior in natural membranes is discussed.

Bashford, C. Lindsay; Chance, Britton; Smith, Jerry C.; Yoshida, Tatsuro




Microsoft Academic Search

The fitness of any evolutionary unit can be understood in terms of its two basic com- ponents: fecundity (reproduction) and viability (survival). Trade-offs between these fitness com- ponents drive the evolution of life-history traits in extant multicellular organisms. We argue that these trade-offs gain special significance during the transition from unicellular to multicellular life. In particular, the evolution of germ-soma



Broadband dye-sensitized upconversion of near-infrared light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon upconversion of near-infrared photons is a promising way to overcome the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit of 32% of a single-junction solar cell. However, the practical applicability of the most efficient known upconversion materials at moderate light intensities is limited by their extremely weak and narrowband near-infrared absorption. Here, we introduce the concept of an upconversion material where an organic near-infrared dye is used as an antenna for the ?-NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles in which the upconversion occurs. The overall upconversion by the dye-sensitized nanoparticles is dramatically enhanced (by a factor of ~3,300) as a result of increased absorptivity and overall broadening of the absorption spectrum of the upconverter. The proposed concept can be extended to cover any part of the solar spectrum by using a set of dye molecules with overlapping absorption spectra acting as an extremely broadband antenna system, connected to suitable upconverters.

Zou, Wenqiang; Visser, Cindy; Maduro, Jeremio A.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Hummelen, Jan C.



Organic and hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance and limitations of the world's best organic and dye sensitized solar cells will be presented along with plans to increase the energy conversion efficiency to 15%. Topics of more detailed discussion could include the formation of polymer-fullerene co-crystals and their implications for recombination, the use of energy transfer to improve light harvesting in dye sensitized solar cells, solution

Michael McGehee



Dye laser solutions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a composition of matter, a cyclodextrin inclusion compound of a fluorescent dye and an {alpha}- or {beta}-chclodextrin having a substituent bonded to an oxygen atom in a glucose unit in the cyclodextrin. The substituent is selected from the class consisting of: alkyl radicals having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, radicals having the formula {bond}CH{bond}CHR{sup 1}{bond}O{sub {ital n}}H wherein R{sup 1} is selected from hydrogen and alkyl radicals having up to about six carbon atoms, and n is equal to a small whole number up to six, and radicals having the formula {bond}CHR{sup 1}{bond}CHOH{bond}CHR{sup 1}{bond} wherein R{sup 1} has the same definition as above, such that the radicals bridge two cyclodextrin rings, and the number of the rings so bridged per molecule is from two to about six; the substituted cyclodextrin having not ore than two substituents per glucose unit.

Herkstroeter, W.G.



Dye/water separation through supported liquid membrane extraction.  


The separation of synthetic dye Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and water was investigated using blended organic liquids in a supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction system. Liquid membrane (LM) components include octyl alcohol (OcOH) as the dye extractant and a polysiloxane liquid as the stabilizing agent. Initial permeation results revealed the suitability of poly (phenyl methyl) siloxane (PPMS) over poly (octyl methyl) siloxane as the blending agent. The most acceptable condition for dye extraction was determined at feed solution pH congruent with 1, wherein highest distribution coefficient, K(D) (OcOH/H(2)O)=18, was attained. Though permeability decreased at optimal blending condition of 1:1 (w/w) OcOH/PPMS, SLM longevity was exhibited with>98% LM retention after 15 h operation in contrast to pure OcOH SLM system (>60% LM loss). Equilibrium experiments reveal that dye extraction followed Langmuir adsorption principle. The dye transport was elucidated using mass transfer analysis wherein it showed a decrease in overall coefficient (k(o)) at increasing feed concentrations. This was a direct consequence of K(D) decline, which becomes more apparent at higher concentrations when SLM saturation point is approached. At varied hydrodynamic conditions, improved k(o) values were observed up to Re(omega)=10,000 when minimal variation in film resistance is attained. Beyond this condition, k(o) becomes independent from stirring rate effect nonetheless SLM stability is compromised due to shear-induced LM losses. PMID:20553932

Nisola, Grace M; Cho, Eulsaeng; Beltran, Arnel B; Han, Mideok; Kim, Younghee; Chung, Wook-Jin



Electrochemical Oxidation of Synthetic Dyes in Simulated Wastewaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electrochemical oxidation method for the degradation of synthetic reactive azodyes found in textile wastewaters is discussed. Four commercial synthetic dyes (black, blue, red and yellow) commonly used in dying operations were studied in single, binary and ternary mixtures. Low (100 mg/L) and high (500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/L) initial dye concentrations were studied. The effect of various sodium chloride concentrations (as supporting electrolyte) on the effectiveness of electrochemical oxidation was examined. The effect of current intensity (1.5, 2.5 and 3.0 A) and pH (vales 3, 5, 7 and 10) was studied as well. The kinetics of the electrochemical oxidation for each dye were studied and compared. The conditions for effective dye degradation even from 2,000 mg/L initial concentration were established. The method was proved very effective even with binary and ternary mixtures of basic synthetic dyes. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) were reduced by 60% and 25% respectively, meaning that the treated solutions were friendlier to the environment.

Gallios, G.; Violintzis, X.; Voinovskii, I.; Voulgaropoulos, A.


Direct identification of early synthetic dyes: FT-Raman study of the illustrated broadside prints of José Gaudalupe Posada (1852-1913)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy was used for the non-invasive, direct identification of colorants used to dye historical printed papers, overcoming obstacles such as low concentration of the dye, faded colors and fluorescence interference of the aged paper substrate. Based on a newly created FT-Raman reference database of 20 widely used dyes in the 19th century paper industry, the detectability of these dyes on aged biomaterials was determined by studying dyed paper samples from contemporary dye manuals, and identifying diagnostic peaks detectable on those substrates. Lastly, the method was applied to analyze the colorants used to dye the papers of a group of prints illustrated by the influential Mexico City artist José Guadalupe Posada, active 1876-1913. Unambiguous identification of the synthetic organic colorants Malachite Green (a triarylmethane dye), Orange II and Metanil Yellow (two acid monoazo dyes), Cotton Scarlet (an acid diazo dye), Phloxine (a xanthene dye) and Victoria Blue (a triarylmethane dye) in several of Posada’s prints challenged previous art-historical assumptions that these artworks were colored with natural dyes. The acquired knowledge has important conservation implications given that aniline dyes are sensitive to light and to aqueous treatments otherwise commonly carried out on works of art on paper.

Casadio, F.; Mauck, K.; Chefitz, M.; Freeman, R.



Cobalt electrolyte/dye interactions in dye-sensitized solar cells: a combined computational and experimental study.  


We report a combined experimental and computational investigation to understand the nature of the interactions between cobalt redox mediators and TiO(2) surfaces sensitized by ruthenium and organic dyes, and their impact on the performance of the corresponding dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We focus on different ruthenium dyes and fully organic dyes, to understand the dramatic loss of efficiency observed for the prototype Ru(II) N719 dye in conjunction with cobalt electrolytes. Both N719- and Z907-based DSSCs showed an increased lifetime in iodine-based electrolyte compared to the cobalt-based redox shuttle, while the organic D21L6 and D25L6 dyes, endowed with long alkoxy chains, show no significant change in the electron lifetime regardless of employed electrolyte and deliver a high photovoltaic efficiency of 6.5% with a cobalt electrolyte. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show the formation of a complex between the cobalt electrolyte and the surface-adsorbed ruthenium dye, which brings the [Co(bpy)(3)](3+) species into contact with the TiO(2) surface. This translates into a high probability of intercepting TiO(2)-injected electrons by the oxidized [Co(bpy)(3)](3+) species, lying close to the N719-sensitized TiO(2) surface. Investigation of the dye regeneration mechanism by the cobalt electrolyte in the Marcus theory framework led to substantially different reorganization energies for the high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) reaction pathways. Our calculated reorganization energies for the LS pathways are in excellent agreement with recent data for a series of cobalt complexes, lending support to the proposed regeneration pathway. Finally, we systematically investigate a series of Co(II)/Co(III) complexes to gauge the impact of ligand substitution and of metal coordination (tris-bidentate vs bis-tridentate) on the HS/LS energy difference and reorganization energies. Our results allow us to trace structure/property relations required for further development of cobalt electrolytes for DSSCs. PMID:23113640

Mosconi, Edoardo; Yum, Jun-Ho; Kessler, Florian; Gómez García, Carlos J; Zuccaccia, Cristiano; Cinti, Antonio; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Grätzel, Michael; De Angelis, Filippo



Decolorization and degradation of reactive dye during the dyed cotton fabric rinsing process.  


Dyeing process of textile consumes large quantities of water, which results in huge amounts of colored wastewater. Most of the dye wastewater treating methods focused on the treatment of wastewater after the rinsing process of dyed textile. In this paper, tetraacetylethylenediamine/hydrogen peroxide (TAED/H?O?) active oxidation (AO) system was developed to rinse dyed textile and decolorize the rinsing wastewater simultaneously. The results indicated that the decolorization ratio of the rinse effluent obtained by AO method were in the range of 51.72%-84.15% according to different dyes and the COD value decreased more than 30% compared with that of traditional rinsing process. The decolorization kinetics investigation showed that the decolorization of dyes during AO rinsing process followed the law of pseudo-first order kinetics. The result of UV-Vis and UPLC-MS analysis demonstrated that the dye was degraded into colorless organic molecular fragments and partly mineralized during the AO rinsing process. PMID:20729577

Luo, Deng-Hong; Zheng, Qing-Kang; Chen, Sheng; Liu, Qing-Shu; Wang, Xiu-Xing; Guan, Yu; Pu, Zong-Yao



Dyes as tracers for vadose zone hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dyes are important tracers to investigate subsurface water movement. For more than a century, dye tracers have provided clues about the hydrological cycle as well as flow and transport processes in the subsurface. Groundwater contamination often originates in the vadose zone. Agrochemicals applied to the soil surface, toxic compounds accidentally spilled by human activities, and contaminants released from waste repositories leach through the vadose zone and can ultimately pollute groundwater resources. Dyes are an important tool to assess flow pathways of such contaminants. This review compiles information on dyes used as hydrological tracers, with particular emphasis on vadose zone hydrology. We summarize briefly different human-applied tracers, including nondye tracers. We then provide a historical sketch of the use of dyes as tracers and describe newer developments in visualization and quantification of tracer experiments. Relevant chemical properties of dyes used as tracers are discussed and illustrated with dye intermediates and selected dye tracers. The types of dyes used as tracers in subsurface hydrology are summarized, and recommendations are made regarding the use of dye tracers. The review concludes with a toxicological assessment of dyes used as hydrological tracers. Many different dyes have been proposed as tracers for water movement in the subsurface. All of these compounds, however, are to some degree retarded by the subsurface medium. Nevertheless, dyes are useful tracers to visualize flow pathways.

Flury, Markus; Wai, Nu Nu



Structure and dynamics of ultrathin organic films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing and newly developed nonlinear optical methods have been used to characterize molecular structure, orientation and dynamics at interfaces. Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) studies have been conducted on molecular films of the organic dyes, rhodamine 6G and malachite green, adsorbed at the fused silica\\/air interface. The second harmonic response from the organic dye films was found to be a

Tatyana A. Kiktyeva



Comparison of textile dye treatment by biosorption and membrane bioreactor.  


The Cassulfon CMR is a sulphuric textile dye mainly used to colour "jeans". It has a dark black-blue colour, with high intensity of colour and high mineral compounds (71% of dry matter). Direct filtration experiments were carried out to quantity the capacity of macro porous membranes (1.2, 0.2 or 0.1 microm) to separate organic matter and colour from the effluent. The results show that no direct membrane filtration was efficient. To evaluate the capacity of a biological way for the elimination of this dye, batch experiments were performed to quantify the dye sorption capacity on activated sludge. Results show the high capacity of the biomass to adsorb colour (more than 4gCOD gMLVSS(-1)) while 15% of COD remain in the soluble fraction. To evaluate the biodegradability potential of the sludge, continuous operations were carried out in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Results confirm the very high MBR potential to treat such dye effluents. During operations, the organic load was progressively increased from 0.33 to 1.33 kg m(-3) d(-1) and the permeate quality was always free of suspended solids or turbidity. Moreover, the permeate COD values were always lower than 60 mg l(-1) and small permeate coloration only appeared during malfunctioning periods. PMID:18341143

Chamam, B; Heran, M; Amar, R Ben; Grasmick, A



Toward ultra-stable fluorescent dyes for single-molecule spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wide-spread use of fluorescent dyes in molecular diagnostics and fluorescence microscopy together with new developments such as single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy provide researchers from various disciplines with an ever expanding toolbox. Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy relies to a large extent on extraordinary bright and photostable organic fluorescent dyes such as rhodamine- or cyanine- derivatives. While in the last decade singlemolecule equipment and methodology have significantly advanced and in some cases reached theoretical limits (e.g. detectors approaching unity quantum yields), instable emission ("blinking") and photobleaching become more and more the bottleneck of further development and spreading of single-molecule fluorescence studies. In recent years, agents and recipes have been developed to increase the photostability of conventional fluorescent dyes. Here, we investigate some of these strategies at the single-molecule level. In particular, we focus on the dye selection criteria for multi-color applications. We investigate fluorescent dyes from the rhodamine, carborhodamine, cyanine, and oxazine family and show that within one dye class the photophysical properties are very similar but that dyes from different classes show strikingly different properties. These findings facilitate dye selection and provide improved chemical environment for demanding fluorescence microscopic applications.

Kasper, Robert; Heilemann, Mike; Tinnefeld, Philip; Sauer, Markus



Textile dye removal from wastewater effluents using bioflocculants produced by indigenous bacterial isolates.  


Bioflocculant-producing bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant located in Durban, South Africa, and identified using standard biochemical tests as well as the analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The bioflocculants produced by these organisms were ethanol precipitated, purified using 2% (w/v) cetylpyridinium chloride solution and evaluated for removal of wastewater dyes under different pH, temperature and nutritional conditions. Bioflocculants from these indigenous bacteria were very effective for decolourizing the different dyes tested in this study, with a removal rate of up to 97.04%. The decolourization efficiency was largely influenced by the type of dye, pH, temperature, and flocculant concentration. A pH of 7 was found to be optimum for the removal of both whale and mediblue dyes, while the optimum pH for fawn and mixed dye removal was found to be between 9 and 10. Optimum temperature for whale and mediblue dye removal was 35 °C, and that for fawn and mixed dye varied between 40–45 °C and 35–40 °C, respectively. These bacterial bioflocculants may provide an economical and cleaner alternative to replace or supplement present treatment processes for the removal of dyes from wastewater effluents, since they are biodegradable and easily sustainable. PMID:23201644

Buthelezi, Simphiwe P; Olaniran, Ademola O; Pillay, Balakrishna



Tuning the electrical and optical properties of diketopyrrolopyrrole complexes for panchromatic dye-sensitized solar cells.  


A series of metal-free organic dyes that were bridged by a diketopyrrolopyrrole moiety and were composed of indoline and triphenylamine as donor groups and furan and benzene as conjugated spacer groups were designed and synthesized for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The photophysical properties, electrochemical properties, and performance of the DSCs were related to the structure of their corresponding dyes. Their absorption spectra broadened upon the introduction of the indoline and heterocyclic furan moieties through fine-tuning of their molecular configuration. The overall conversion efficiencies of DSCs that were based on these dyes ranged from 5.14-6.53%. Among the four dyes that were tested, indoline-based ID01 and ID02 showed higher efficiencies (6.35% and 6.53%) as a result of their improved light-harvesting efficiency and larger electron driving force. The ID01 dye, which contained an indoline moiety as an electron donor and a furan group as a ?-conjugated linker, showed an excellent monochromatic incident-photon-to-current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectrum (350-650?nm) with a maximum value of 78% in the high plateau region and an onset value close to 800?nm. Intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) revealed that dyes that contained benzene conjugation spacers suppressed the charge-recombination rate more efficiently than dyes that contained furan spacers, thereby resulting in improved photovoltage. PMID:23015395

Qu, Sanyin; Qin, Chuanjiang; Islam, Ashraful; Hua, Jianli; Chen, Han; Tian, He; Han, Liyuan



Anaerobic degradation of monoazo dyes  

SciTech Connect

The anaerobic degradation of two monoazo dyes, acid red 88 (AR88) and acid orange 7, was studied utilizing serum bottle assays. When either dye was present between .05 and 50 mg/L as the sole substrate, inhibition was demonstrated, with no mineralization occurring. However, when a supplemental carbon and energy source was available no inhibition was evidence with mineralization occurring at intermediate concentrations. The degradation of AR88 and metabolite formation was examined utilizing laboratory-scale semi-continuous anaerobic reactors. Addition of 50 mg/L of dye resulted in >98% removal, although mineralization was not achieved. Metabolites identified were naphthionic acid, 2-naphthol, 1,2-naphthoquinone, isoquinoline, and quinacridone. The presence of the metabolites, some of which were products of complexation and polymerization, exerted a slight inhibitory effect on the non-methanogens. The availability of a supplemental carbon source demonstrated an effect on the metabolites that are evolved and the rate at which they are formed.

Kremer, F.V.



Treatment of textile dyeing wastewater using two-phase pilot plant UASB reactor with sago wastewater as co-substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dyeing industry is considered as one of the largest generators of toxic chemical wastewater in India. Wastewaters from textile dyeing industries were studied for the decolourization and removal of degradable organics with tapioca sago wastewater as a co-substrate in a pilot scale two-phase Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was inoculated with seed sludge from the

M. Senthilkumar; G. Gnanapragasam; V. Arutchelvan; S. Nagarajan



Ecofriendly biodegradation and detoxification of Reactive Red 2 textile dye by newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. SUK1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to evaluate textile dyes degradation by novel bacterial strain isolated from the waste disposal sites of local textile industries. Detailed taxonomic studies identified the organisms as Pseudomonas species and designated as strain Pseudomonas sp. SUK1. The isolate was able to decolorize sulfonated azo dye (Reactive Red 2) in a wide range (up to 5gl?1),

D. C. Kalyani; A. A. Telke; R. S. Dhanve; J. P. Jadhav




EPA Science Inventory

Kinetics of disappearance of seven different disperse dyes were determined in compacted sediments at room temperature. he commercial dyes (in dispersed solid form) were representative of nitroazo, anthraquinone, and quinoline structures that are widely used. eaction rates were fo...


Fate of Commercial Disperse Dyes in Sediments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kinetics of disappearance of seven different disperse dyes were determined in compacted sediments at room temperature. The commercial dyes (in dispersed solid form) were representative of nitroazo, anthraquinone, and quinoline structures that are widely u...

C. P. C. Yen T. A. Perenich G. L. Baughman



Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator  


A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

Hackel, R.P.



Optofluidic ring resonator dye lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We overview the recent progress on optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers developed in our research group. The fluidics and laser cavity design can be divided into three categories: capillary optofluidic ring resonator (COFRR), integrated cylindrical optofluidic ring resonator (ICOFRR), and coupled optofluidic ring resonator (CpOFRR). The COFRR dye laser is based on a micro-sized glass capillary with a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The capillary circular cross-section forms the ring resonator and supports the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) that interact evanescently with the gain medium in the core. The laser cavity structure is versatile to adapt to the gain medium of any refractive index. Owing to the high Q-factor (>109), the lasing threshold of 25 nJ/mm2 is achieved. Besides directly pump the dye molecules, lasing through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the donor and acceptor dye molecules is also studied in COFRR laser. The energy transfer process can be further controlled by designed DNA scaffold labeled with donor/acceptor molecules. The ICOFRR dye laser is based on a cylindrical ring resonator fused onto the inner surface of a thick walled glass capillary. The structure has robust mechanical strength to sustain rapid gain medium circulation. The CpOFRR utilizes a cylindrical ring resonator fused on the inner surface of the COFRR capillary. Since the capillary wall is thin, the individual WGMs of the cylindrical ring resonator and the COFRR couples strongly and forms Vernier effect, which provides a way to generate a single mode dye laser.

Sun, Yuze; Suter, Jonathan D.; Fan, Xudong



Preventing rapid decomposition of rhodamine dyes in excimer-pumped pulsed dye lasers  

SciTech Connect

A simple and effective method of preventing rapid decomposition of rhodamine dyes in Lambda-Physik excimer-pumped pulsed dye lasers is presented. Teflon coating the internal metal surfaces of the dye cell greatly increases the useful lifetime of the dye solution.

Arias, P.D.; Dai, H. (Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (US))



Effectiveness of Dye Setting Treatments on Cotton Fabrics Dyed with Direct, Reactive, and Vat Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight treatments were evaluated for their effectiveness in the setting of dyes in new cotton fabrics. Dyes representing three application classes (direct, reactive, and vat) widely used on cotton fabrics were selected. Because of the perceived problems of red dyes bleeding during laundering, five of the eight dyes selected for evaluation were red. Color and staining evaluations were made after

Patricia Cox Crews



The light stability of azo dyes and azo dyeings II. Perspiration–Light stability of dyeings with reactive and non-Reactive derivatives, respectively, of two selected azochromophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perspiration–light stability of RC-dyed (conventional reactive dyeing) and N-dyed (substantive dyed without subsequent rinsing) cotton fabric dyeings produced with the members of ‘A’-dye and ‘B’-dye groups, respectively, have been studied. Three main factors influence the perspiration-light stability of the studied dyeings: the nature of the dye–fibre bond, the light stability of the released hydrolysed dye molecules and the action

Zs Csepregi; P Aranyosi; I Rusznák; L Töke; A V??g



Anaerobic\\/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass

S. Seshadri; P. L. Bishop; A. M. Agha



Electrochemical-assisted photodegradation of mixed dye and textile effluents using TiO2 thin films.  


Mixed dye consists of six commercial dyes and textile effluents from cotton dyeing process were treated by electrochemical-assisted photodegradation under halogen lamp illumination. Two types of effluents were collected which are samples before and after undergone pre-treatment at the factory wastewater treatment plant. The photodegradation process was studied by evaluating the changes in concentration employing UV-vis spectrophotometer (UV-vis) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. The photoelectrochemical degradation of mixed dye was found to follow the Langmuir Hinshelwood pseudo-first order kinetic while pseudo-second order kinetic model for effluents by using TOC analyses. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values of mixed dye and raw effluents were reported. Photoelectrochemical characteristic of pollutants was studied using the cyclic voltammetry technique. Raw effluent was found to exhibit stronger reduction behaviour at cathodic bias potential but slightly less photoresponse at anodic bias than mixed dye. PMID:17196740

Zainal, Zulkarnain; Lee, Chong Yong; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Kassim, Anuar; Yusof, Nor Azah



Dye-modified nanochannel materials for photoelectronic and optical devices.  


Artificial photonic antenna systems have been realised by incorporating organic dyes into zeolite L. The size and aspect ratio of the cylindrically shaped zeolite crystals can be tuned over a wide range, adding to the versatility of this host material. A 600 nm sized crystal, for example, consists of about 96 000 one-dimensional channels oriented parallel to the cylinder axis. Geometrical constraints imposed by the host structure lead to supramolecular organisation of the guests, allowing high concentrations of non- or only very weakly interacting dye molecules. A special twist is added to these systems by plugging the channel openings with a second type of fluorescent dye, a so-called stopcock molecule. The two types of molecules are precisely tuned to each other; the stopcocks are able to accept excitation energy from the dyes in the channels, but cannot pass it back. The supramolecular organisation of dyes in the zeolite channels corresponds to a first stage of organisation, allowing light-harvesting within the volume of a cylindrical crystal and radiationless energy transport to either the cylinder ends or centre. The second stage of organisation represents the coupling to an external acceptor or donor stopcock fluorophore at the channel entrances, which can then trap or inject electronic excitation energy. The third stage of organisation is realised by interfacing the material to an external device through a stopcock intermediate. We observed that electronic-excitation-energy transfer in dye-zeolite L materials occurs mainly along the channel axis and we have shown that macroscopically organised materials can be prepared. The new materials offer unique possibilities as building blocks for optical, electro-optical and sensing devices. PMID:18626875

Calzaferri, Gion; Li, Huanrong; Brühwiler, Dominik



Chaos in a good-cavity single-mode dye laser due to turbulent dye flow  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that the light intensity of a good-cavity single-mode standing-wave dye laser can exhibit chaotic behavior. The governing attractor is of dimensionality 6.5 and entropy 50 kbits/sec. An examination of the pump-laser beam before and after its interaction with the dye indicates that the chaos is probably due to the turbulent flow of dye within the dye cell. This interpretation is confirmed by the absence of chaos in two similar dye lasers that use a dye jet rather than a dye cell.

Chyba, T.H.; Gage, E.C.; Ghosh, R.; Lett, P.; Mandel, L.; McMackin, I.



Removal of dyes and industrial dye wastes by magnesium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium chloride, as compared to alum and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) is a less commonly used coagulant in the field of wastewater treatment, with a cost in between alum and PAC. It has been used in this study as a coagulant to investigate the effectiveness in the chemical precipitation method for the removal of colouring matters. The colour concentration of dye

Boon Hai Tan; Tjoon Tow Teng; A. K. Mohd Omar



Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation  

PubMed Central

Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women) and indigo dye (fabric whitener) are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. Objective: To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Materials and Methods: Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+), fair (+), and poor (-) and statistically evaluated. Results: The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints.

Singh, Narendra Nath; Brave, V R; Khanna, Shally



Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration  


A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

Davin, J.



FY 1980 Report on Dye Laser Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten commercially available rhodamine dyes have been examined for their stability in dye lasers. Except for rhodamine 101 and sulforhodamine 101, the output of the dye laser showed a time dependence in addition to the dependence upon total input energy per...

A. N. Fletcher




EPA Science Inventory

Photolysis of an azo, a quinophthalone, and several anthraquinone smoke dyes was studied on soil surfaces. nitially, rapid photodegradation of each dye occurred, followed by a period of much slower rate of loss, indicating that the remaining fraction of the dye was photochemicall...


Kinetics of anaerobic biodecolourisation of azo dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of anaerobic biodecolourisation (methanogenic environment) of four azo dyes (Acid Orange 6, Acid Orange 7, Methyl Orange and Methyl Red) was investigated with regard to their electrochemical properties as well as under variation of dye and sludge concentrations, pH and temperature. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a correlation between the potential of irreversible reduction peak of the dye and its first-order

S. Kalyuzhnyi; N. Yemashova; V. Fedorovich



A study of the dyeing of cotton with commerical dichlorotriazinyl reactive dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of fixation of six dichlorotriazinyl dyes on cotton, achieved using four commercially recommended dyeing methods, was determined. The extent of dye fixation was enhanced by modifying one of the four recommended dyeing methods, this being achieved using either pH 8 or pH 9 buffer, instead of NaHCO3 used in the particular (all-in bicarbonate) recommended dyeing method.

Z. Bahrini; S. M. Burkinshaw



Organic Chemicals: Angels or Goblins?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses some of the controversial organic chemical substances such as DDT, Red Dye No. 2, DES, Tris, Laetrile, cyclamate, and saccharin. Concludes that the use of some has to be considered on a benefit/risk ratio. (GA)|

Ferguson, Lloyd N.



Dye film leaky waveguide laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a dye-doped polymer film with a refractive index less than that of the glass substrate, a leaky waveguide laser device has been investigated. The film is made from a polyurethane based commercial epoxy which is doped with a newly synthesized dye material: trans-4-[P-(N-ethyl-N-hydroxylethylamino) styryl]-N-methylpyridinium tetraphenylborate. The key element of the laser device is a flint-glass made equilateral prism on one surface of which the dye doped film forms a leaky waveguide structure. By combining this prism with a lateral linear pump source and two cavity mirrors, the quasiwaveguide lasing can be obtained. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the new dye doped film, and the spatial, spectral and temporal behavior of the lasing output from the device are presented. Under pump conditions of 532 nm wavelength, 10 ns pulsewidth and 5 Hz repetition rate, this device provides the peak lasing wavelength at ~ 590nm, a lasing efficiency of ~ 12%, and a lasing lifetime >= 3 X 104 pulses.

He, Guang S.; Zhao, Chan F.; Park, Chi-Kyun; Prasad, Paras N.; Burzynski, Ryszard



Aggregation Equilibria of Zanthene Dyes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The adsorption spectra of the laser-active dyes rhodamine B, rhodamine 6G and acridine red in aqueous, ethanolic and EPA solutions were studied as a function of concentration and temperature. The observed absorbance of the aqueous solutions of rhodamine B...

J. E. Selwyn J. I. Steinfeld



Photocatalytic degradation of triazine-containing azo dyes in aqueous TiO 2 suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic degradation of triazine-containing azo dyes, Procion Red MX-5B and Reactive Brilliant Red K-2G, in aqueous TiO2 dispersions was investigated. Total organic carbon (TOC), ion chromatography (IC), HPLC, UV-Vis, FTIR and GC-MS analyses were employed to obtain the details of the photodegradation of the selected dyes. The results verified that decolorization and desulfuration occurred at almost the same rate

Chun Hu; Jimmy C. Yu; Zhengping Hao; Po Keung Wong



Time-dependent density functional theory study of squaraine dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ time-dependent density functional theory to study the optical properties of a squaraine sensitized TiO2 system, as a model for the corresponding dye-sensitized solar cell. The all-organic squaraine dye is particularly promising for light absorption in the red spectral region. We compute the photoabsorption spectrum of a periodic TiO2 slab exposing anatase (101) surfaces, both for the clean slab

Dario Rocca; Ralph Gebauer; Filippo De Angelis; Mohammad K. Nazeeruddin; Stefano Baroni



Investigation on rate — Determining factors in the microbial reduction of azo dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations on the effects of pH, temperature, type and concentration of respiration substrates and oxygen tension on the reduction rate of derivatives of 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol and of a variety of textile dyes served as a basis for establishing a bioassay for strictly reproducible measurements of the microbial reduction rate of azo dyes. Standard organism was a strain of Bacillus cereus isolated

K. Wuhrmann; Kl. Mechsner; Th. Kappeler



TiO 2-mediated photocatalytic degradation of a triphenylmethane dye (gentian violet), in aqueous suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiO2-mediated photocatalytic degradation of a triphenylmethane dye (gentian violet, 1), was investigated in aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide under a variety of conditions. The degradation was studied by monitoring the change in substrate concentration employing UV-spectroscopic analysis and decrease in total organic carbon (TOC) content as a function of irradiation time. The degradation of dye was studied under a variety

M. Saquib; M. Muneer



Decolorization and transformation of anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 19 by ozonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decolorization and transformation of the anthraquinone dye, Reactive Blue 19 (RB?19), by ozonation with a semi?batch reactor were investigated. The effects of different operating parameters, such as the initial RB?19 concentrations, ozone feed rates and initial pH, on the performance of color, dye and total organic carbon (TOC) removal were also evaluated based on their pseudo?first?order rate constants and



Flow visualization using photochromic dyes: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

class="author" This paper reviews the evolution of a flow visualization technique called the photochromic dye method. This technique uses a photochromic dye in solution. The dye is activated along narrow lines by passing sharply focused UV light through the solution. The movement of the dye traces are recorded, and velocities are determined from the resulting pictures. The use of various dyes in fluid flow experiments is discussed, and a tabulated summary of the application of the technique to various flows is presented.

Kurada, S.; Rankin, G. W.; Sridhar, K.


Control of the fluorescence of dye-antibody conjugates by (2-hydroxypropyl)-?-cyclodextrin in fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry.  


When proteins are conjugated to fluorescent organic dyes, fluorescence emission of the dye molecules is usually decreased, sometimes up to 50-70%. This quenching phenomenon has been acknowledged for decades, but as yet, there are no simple, practical methods to control the fluorescence of dyes conjugated to proteins, especially for dyes conjugated to immunoglobulins. Here, we report that the addition of (2-hydroxypropyl)-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) to dye-antibody conjugates can increase fluorescence up to 2.5-fold in cell imaging and flow analysis. This method may be an effective way to increase the sensitivity of detection of fluorescent organic labels used in immunology, histochemistry, and cell biology. PMID:21846137

Guryev, Oleg; Abrams, Barny; Lomas, Chip; Nasraty, Qudrat; Park, Emily; Dubrovsky, Tim



Solvatochromogenic flavone dyes for the detection of water in acetone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two flavone dyes, 3-hydroxy-4?-N,N-dimethylaminoflavone (HMAF) and 4?-N,N-dimethylaminoflavone-3-yl methacrylate (DMAFMA), have been investigated as solvatochromogenic fluorophores for the determination of water in acetone. The solvent-dependent absorption and fluorescence spectral characteristics of HMAF and DMAFMA have been studied in a series of organic solvents and water\\/acetone binary mixtures. Spectral shifts of the compounds were observed in these solvents and their mixtures. DMAFMA

Wanhui Liu; Ying Wang; Weijun Jin; Guoli Shen; Ruqin Yu



Mechanistic study of a diazo dye degradation by Soybean Peroxidase  

PubMed Central

Background Enzyme based remediation of wastewater is emerging as a novel, efficient and environmentally-friendlier approach. However, studies showing detailed mechanisms of enzyme mediated degradation of organic pollutants are not widely published. Results The present report describes a detailed study on the use of Soybean Peroxidase to efficiently degrade Trypan Blue, a diazo dye. In addition to examining various parameters that can affect the dye degradation ability of the enzyme, such as enzyme and H2O2 concentration, reaction pH and temperature, we carried out a detailed mechanistic study of Trypan Blue degradation. HPLC-DAD and LC-MS/MS studies were carried out to confirm dye degradation and analyze the intermediate metabolites and develop a detailed mechanistic dye degradation pathway. Conclusion We report that Soybean peroxidase causes Trypan Blue degradation via symmetrical azo bond cleavage and subsequent radical-initiated ring opening of the metabolites. Interestingly, our results also show that no high molecular weight polymers were produced during the peroxidase-H2O2 mediated degradation of the phenolic Trypan Blue.



Is dye mixture more suitable rather than single dye to fabricate dye sensitized solar cell?  


The steady state and time resolved spectroscopic studies reveal that two xanthene dyes Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and Rhodamine B (RB), used in the present investigations, form ground state hydrogen -bonded complexes with meso-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (TCPP). However, it is apparent that upon photoexcitation the H-bonding complexes formed in the ground state decompose into the individual reacting components. This presumption was confirmed from the observation of the presence of only static quenching mode in the steady state fluorescence of the dyes in presence of porphyrin. The photoelectrochemical properties of the free dyes and the mixtures of each dye with porphyrin are investigated by measuring incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) using ZnO electrode and also with TiO2 electrode. It is seen that Rhodamine B-porphyrin mixture has attained maximum IPCE among the four samples studied at approximately 550 nm using ZnO electrode. Using TiO2 electrode, slight improvement in the value of IPCE was found for the same mixture. Therefore Rhodamine B-porphyrin mixture may act as a good sensitizer for converting solar energy to electrical energy. PMID:22097481

Bhattacharya, Sudeshna; Mandal, Gopa; Dutta, Mrinal; Basak, Durga; Ganguly, Tapan



Multimodal dyes: toward correlative two-photon and electron microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, many crucial biological questions involve the observation of biological samples at different scales. Thus, optical microscopy can be associated to magnetic nuclear imaging allowing access to data from the cellular to the organ level, or can be associated to electron microscopy to reach the sub cellular level. We will describe here the design, synthesis and characterization of new bimodal probes, which can be used as dye in two-photon excited microscopy (TPEM) and electron dense markers in scanning and transmission electron microscopy (EM). In a first part, we will describe new molecular dyes with small organic systems grafted on metal atoms (Pt, Au). Such systems show good twophoton induced fluorescence and two-photon images of HeLa cells will be presented. In a second part, we will present hybrid organic-inorganic fluorescent systems with diketopyrrolopyrole-based dye grafted on iron oxide-silica core shell nanoparticles by peptide bond. Such systems present high two-photon absorption cross sections and good fluorescence quantum yields. These nanoparticles are rapidly internalized in HeLa cells and high quality two-photon images were performed with low laser power. Then we will present our results on correlative light-electron microscopy were twophoton and electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission) images were obtained on the same biological sample.

Bolze, Frédéric; Ftouni, Hussein; Nicoud, Jean-François; Leoni, Piero; Schwab, Yannick; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Mafouana, Rodrigues R.



Treatment of Azo Dye-Containing Wastewater Using Integrated Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Azo dyes are the most widely used dyes in textile industry. During the dyeing process, the degree of exhaustion of dyes is\\u000a never complete, resulting in azo dye-containing effluents. The biodegradation of azo dyes is difficult due to their complex\\u000a structure and synthetic nature. The removal of azo dyes from industry effluents is desirable not only for aesthetic reasons\\u000a but

Xujie Lu; Rongrong Liu


Decolorization of reactive textile dyes using water falling film dielectric barrier discharge.  


Decolorization of reactive textile dyes Reactive Black 5, Reactive Blue 52, Reactive Yellow 125 and Reactive Green 15 was studied using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in a non-thermal plasma reactor, based on coaxial water falling film dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Used initial dye concentrations in the solution were 40.0 and 80.0mg/L. The effects of different initial pH of dye solutions, and addition of homogeneous catalysts (H(2)O(2), Fe(2+) and Cu(2+)) on the decolorization during subsequent recirculation of dye solution through the DBD reactor, i.e. applied energy density (45-315kJ/L) were studied. Influence of residence time was investigated over a period of 24h. Change of pH values and effect of pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation on the decolorization was also tested. It was found that the initial pH of dye solutions and pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation did not influence the decolorization. The most effective decolorization of 97% was obtained with addition of 10mM H(2)O(2) in a system of 80.0mg/L Reactive Black 5 with applied energy density of 45kJ/L, after residence time of 24h from plasma treatment. Toxicity was evaluated using the brine shrimp Artemia salina as a test organism. PMID:21703757

Doj?inovi?, Biljana P; Rogli?, Goran M; Obradovi?, Bratislav M; Kuraica, Milorad M; Kosti?, Mirjana M; Neši?, Jelena; Manojlovi?, Dragan D



Investigation of natural dyes and ancient textiles from korea using TOF-SIMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of the colorants used on ancient textiles provides a historical pathway to the understanding of the processes associated with one of the oldest of chemical technologies, namely textile dyeing. In this paper, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was used to detect dyes on textiles avoiding the time-consuming and destructive extraction procedures necessary for the spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods previously used. The plant dyes investigated belong to a variety of chemical groups, which include curcumin, crocin, carthamin, purpurin, alizarin, brazilin, shikonin, and indigo. Reference textile samples were prepared with dye extracts of plants and were characterized by TOF-SIMS. TOF-SIMS spectra for the dyed textiles showed element ions from metallic mordants, specific fragment ions, and molecular ions from organic dyes. Remnant dyes on excavated textiles have also been identified using TOF-SIMS. The ancient textile sample showed the presence of indigo clearly, although the fiber itself had degraded badly. From the results, it was concluded that most of plant dyes can be identified with TOF-SIMS and it is a very promising technique for the archaeology field.

Lee, Yeonhee; Lee, Jihye; Kim, Youngsoo; Choi, Seokchan; Ham, Seung Wook; Kim, Kang-Jin



Counterion-dye staining for DNA in electrophoresed gels using indoine blue and methyl orange.  


In this study, we describe a sensitive staining method for DNA in agarose and polyacrylamide gels using organic visible dyes, indoine blue (IB) and methyl orange (MO). The counterion-dye staining method uses two oppositely charged dyes to form a hydrophobic ion pair complex in the staining solution. A decrease in the number of free forms of dyes in staining solution can enhance the selectivity of binding between the dye and DNA, and can reduce nonspecific background staining. As a result, the sensitivity of counterion-dye staining was significantly improved compared with other dye-based staining. This method uses a staining solution consisting of 0.008% IB, 0.002% MO, 10% ethanol and 0.2 M sodium acetate at pH 4.7, and can detect 5 ng of lambda DNA/HindIII within 60 min in agarose gels and 10 ng of PhiX174 DNA/HaeIII within 20 min in polyacrylamide gels. PMID:16568503

Hwang, Sun-Young; Jin, Li-Tai; Yoo, Gyurng-Soo; Choi, Jung-Kap



Parallel Combinatorial Synthesis of Azo Dyes: A Combinatorial Experiment Suitable for Undergraduate Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experiment in the parallel synthesis of azo dyes that demonstrates the concepts of structure-activity relationships and chemical diversity with vivid colors is described. It is seen that this experiment is suitable for the second-semester organic chemistry laboratory and also for the one-semester organic laboratory.|

Gung, Benjamin W.; Taylor, Richard T.



New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of harmful organic solvents in classrooms has become a critical issue of concern in the field of chemistry education. This article describes a classroom activity at a high school in which an acrylic fabric was used as the extraction medium in the analysis of the detergent concentration in water instead of organic solvents. Dyes were used…

Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko



New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of harmful organic solvents in classrooms has become a critical issue of concern in the field of chemistry education. This article describes a classroom activity at a high school in which an acrylic fabric was used as the extraction medium in the analysis of the detergent concentration in water instead of organic solvents. Dyes were used…

Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko



Methods of dyeing ceramic brick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a study of the possibility of bulk dyeing of ceramic brick by incorporating manganese and iron ore and metallic\\u000a slags and sludges from electroplating plants in the pastes are reported. It was found that low-melting clays should first\\u000a be bleached with chalk or fireclay or kaolin impregnated with solutions of transition metal salts in order to attain

I. V. Pishch; G. N. Maslennikova; N. A. Gvozdeva; Yu. A. Klimosh; E. I. Baranovskaya



Ultrafast distributed feedback dye lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A distributed feedback dye laser (DFDL) was experimentally studied to determine the utmost lower limit on ultrafast pulse generation. The ultimate aim was to determine its suitability as a cheaper high peak power laser source. The dye cell was excited by the second harmonic of a laboratory built cavity dumped passively q switched and modelocked Nd:YAG Laser to induce temperature phase grating in dye solution. Different features studied include threshold conditions, pulse shortening, by reducing cavity length, polymerization limitations, simultaneous induction of multiple superimposed gratings, line narrowing, polarization, temporal and spectral characteristics. The pump polarization affect on dynamic gratings and threshold conditions indicated the number of lasing lines (maximum nine) or intensity of a single line depends upon the state of pump polarization (SOP). Various types of tuning methods such as Bragg index, refractive index, half angle and state of pump polarization were tested for improved divergence, bandwidth, line-width and wider spectral ranges. The combined effect of coherence length and SOP of excitation laser on emission of multiple lines was studied without using external gratings. The results of this critical and contemporary work on DFDL is in agreement with most of the published results and opens a new era for their potential suitability in optical communication, sensing and photonic devices.

Khan, Nasrullah



Some properties of a granular activated carbon-sequencing batch reactor (GAC-SBR) system for treatment of textile wastewater containing direct dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resting (living) bio-sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant was used as an adsorbent of both direct dyes and organic matter in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system. The dye adsorption capacity of the bio-sludge was not increased by acclimatization with direct dyes. The adsorption of Direct Red 23 and Direct Blue 201 onto the bio-sludge was almost the same.

Suntud Sirianuntapiboon; Ohmomo Sadahiro; Paneeta Salee



Designing dye-nanochannel antenna hybrid materials for light harvesting, transport and trapping.  


We discuss artificial photonic antenna systems that are built by incorporating chromophores into one-dimensional nanochannel materials and by organizing the latter in specific ways. Zeolite L (ZL) is an excellent host for the supramolecular organization of different kinds of molecules and complexes. The range of possibilities for filling its one-dimensional channels with suitable guests has been shown to be much larger than one might expect. Geometrical constraints imposed by the host structure lead to supramolecular organization of the guests in the channels. The arrangement of dyes inside the ZL channels is what we call the first stage of organization. It allows light harvesting within the volume of a dye-loaded ZL crystal and also the radiationless transport of energy to either the channel ends or center. One-dimensional FRET transport can be realized in these guest-host materials. The second stage of organization is realized by coupling either an external acceptor or donor stopcock fluorophore at the ends of the ZL channels, which can then trap or inject electronic excitation energy. The third stage of organization is obtained by interfacing the material to an external device via a stopcock intermediate. A possibility to achieve higher levels of organization is by controlled assembly of the host into ordered structures and preparation of monodirectional materials. The usually strong light scattering of ZL can be suppressed by refractive-index matching and avoidance of microphase separation in hybrid polymer/dye-ZL materials. The concepts are illustrated and discussed in detail on a bidirectional dye antenna system. Experimental results of two materials with a donor-to-acceptor ratio of 33:1 and 52:1, respectively, and a three-dye system illustrate the validity and challenges of this approach for synthesizing dye-nanochannel hybrid materials for light harvesting, transport, and trapping. PMID:21337487

Calzaferri, Gion; Méallet-Renault, Rachel; Brühwiler, Dominik; Pansu, Robert; Dolamic, Igor; Dienel, Thomas; Adler, Pauline; Li, Huanrong; Kunzmann, Andreas



Molecular design and performance of hydroxylpyridium sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.  


Four hydroxylpyridium organic dyes were synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Hydroxylpyridium was introduced as an electron acceptor in donor-?-conjugated bridge-acceptor (D-?-A) system. The traditional anchoring groups, such as the carboxyl group, were replaced by hydroxyl group. It was found that the existence of the hydroxylpyridium exhibits a large effect on the absorption spectra of dyes JH401-JH404. For JH series of dyes, hexylthiophene was employed as the ?-conjugated bridge, and triphenylamine, phenothiazine, and their derivatives were used as the electron donor. The performances of the dyes with different structure were investigated by photophysical, photovoltaic, and electrochemical methods. When applied in the DSSCs, the sensitizer JH401 yields the best efficiency, 2.6% (Jsc = 6.35 mA/cm(2), Voc = 605 mV, FF = 67.6%) under 100 mW/cm(2) light illumination. Its maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) is 80% at 440 nm light wavelength, which is the highest IPCE value achieved with hydroxyl group adsorbent organic dyes so far. PMID:23692189

Zhao, Jianghua; Yang, Xichuan; Cheng, Ming; Li, Shifeng; Sun, Licheng



Spontaneous formation of dye-functionalized gold nanoparticles using reverse micellar systems.  


Detailed exploratory and mechanistic investigations on spontaneous formation of dye-functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using dye-based reverse micellar systems are described in this publication. The accumulated results from spectroscopic and microscopic investigations demonstrated that water molecules confined within nanoscopic enclosure of the self-assembled reverse micelles played critical role in the redox processes of aurate ions to produce GNPs, which are assumed to have approximately constant size distributions. The resulting dye-functionalized GNPs were found to offer their absorption and fluorescence emission tunability by changing the medium polarity as well as to exhibit excellent film-forming properties to give optically homogeneous polystyrene thin films. These key findings in addition to broad applicability of the self-assembling process with a variety of dye analogues have led to a conclusion that the protocol presented here serves as a versatile synthetic method to provide a potential convenience for future development of new organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials. PMID:21296360

Takahashi, Masaki; Ohno, Shuhei; Fujita, Norifumi; Sengoku, Tetsuya; Yoda, Hidemi



Further Development of Selective Dyeing Method for Detecting Chrysotile Asbestos in Building Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive usage of chrysotile asbestos has resulted in the remains of large numbers of chrysotile asbestos-containing buildings to be surveyed. We have recently developed a simple dyeing method for detecting chrysotile asbestos in building materials, which involves pretreatment with calcium-chelating agent and dyeing treatment with magnesium-chelating organic dyes. In this study, we further developed a method which eliminates dyed asbestos substitutes containing magnesium, potentially present in building materials. In the new method, post-treatment with formic acid was conducted to dissolve the non-chrysotile asbestos materials in order to delineate dyed chrysotile asbestos. The calcium-masking process was also shown to be an essential process even when the post-treatment was conducted. It was shown that the new method developed in this study may enable us to dye chrysotile asbestos only without detecting asbestos substitutes in building materials.

Oke, Y.; Yamasaki, N.; Maeta, N.; Fujimaki, H.; Hashida, T.



Evaluation of Polymethine Dyes as Potential Probes for Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Tumors: Part - 1  

PubMed Central

Near-infrared (NIR) organic dyes have become important for many biomedical applications, including in vivo optical imaging. Conjugation of NIR fluorescent dyes to photosensitizing molecules (photosensitizers) holds strong potential for NIR fluorescence image guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Therefore, we were interested in investigating the photophysical properties, in vivo tumor-affinity and fluorescence imaging potential of a series of heterocyclic polymethine dyes, which could then be conjugated to certain PDT agents. For our present study, we selected a series of symmetrical polymethine dyes containing a variety of bis-N-substituted indole or benzindole moieties linked by linear conjugation with and without a fused substituted cyclohexene ring. The N-alkyl side chain at the C-terminal position was functionalized with sulfonic, carboxylic acid, methyl ester or hydroxyl groups. Although, among the parent cyanine dyes investigated, the commercially available, cyanine dye IR783 (3) (bis-indole-N-butylsulfonate)-polymethine dye with a cyclic chloro-cyclohexene moiety showed best fluorescence-imaging ability, based on its spectral properties (?Abs=782 nm, ?Fl=810 nm, ? = 261,000 M-1cm-1, ?Fl?0.08) and tumor affinity. In addition to 3, parent dyes IR820 and Cypate (6) were also selected and subjected to further modifications by introducing desired functional groups, which could enable further conjugation of the cyanine dyes to an effective photosensitizer HPPH developed in our laboratory. The synthesis and biological studies (tumor-imaging and PDT) of the resulting bifunctional conjugates are discussed in succeeding paper (Part-2 of this study).

James, Nadine S.; Chen, Yihui; Joshi, Penny; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Henary, Maged; Strekowsk, Lucjan; Pandey, Ravindra K



Photocatalytic Degradation of Textile Dye and Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of commercial azo dye (Remazol Red 133) in the presence of titanium dioxide\\u000a (TiO2) suspensions as photocatalyst was investigated. The effect of various operational parameters, such as pH of dye solution\\u000a and catalyst concentration on the photocatalytic degradation process, was examined. The mineralization of dye was also evaluated\\u000a by measuring the chemical oxygen demand

Dilek Gümü?; Feryal Akbal



Laccase-assisted dyeing of cotton.  


Cotton cellulose was dyed "in situ" with a polymeric dye generated by oxidative coupling of colourless 2,5-diaminobenzenesulfonic acid and 1-hydroxyphenol (catechol) with laccase. Up to 70% dye fixation was obtained increasing the concentration of catechol less soluble upon oxidation from 1 to 10 mmol, while 1 mmol of diamine was used. Dye fixation was not achieved using equal molar concentrations of the reagents. PMID:16791731

Hadzhiyska, Hristina; Calafell, Margarita; Gibert, Josep M; Dagà, Josep M; Tzanov, Tzanko



Azo dye decolourisation by anaerobic granular sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decolourisation of 20 selected azo dyes by granular sludge from an upward-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was assayed. Complete reduction was found for all azo dyes tested, generally yielding colourless products. The reactions followed first-order kinetics and reaction rates varied greatly between dyes: half-life times ranged from 1 to about 100 h. The slowest reaction rates were found

Frank P. van der Zee; Gatze Lettinga; Jim A. Field



An evaluation of the dyeing behavior of sol–gel silica doped with direct dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new dyeing process of sol–gel silica doped with direct dyes is investigated for improving color strength (K\\/S value) and dyeing fastness. Cotton fabrics are dyed in this direct dye silica solution. The results indicate that the K\\/S value of C.I. Direct Blue 86 and C.I. Direct Red 23 are enhanced by 12.8% and 16.8%, respectively. For C.I. Direct Blue

Yunjie Yin; Chaoxia Wang; Chunying Wang



Synthesis and characterisation of a new series of pyridinone azo dyes for dyeing of synthetic fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of azo dye systems, namely, 5-arylazo-pyridin-2-one dye systems (5a-k), was synthesised and characterised. The effects of the structural configuration of the pyridinone dye systems on the shifts of the ultraviolet-visible absorption maxima were investigated. The structural effects of the polyfunctionally substituted pyridinone dye systems on the intensity of colour and fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were also

M. H. Helal



Effect of confined radiation field on spontaneous-emission lifetime in vacuum-deposited fluorescent dye films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous emission lifetimes of fluorescent dye layers in front of a metallic mirror were observed using a picosecond time-resolved fluorescence measurement system. Multilayer thin-film samples composed of glass substrate/indium—tinoxide layer/organic spacer layer/emission dye layer/organic spacer layer/MgAg mirror were prepared with vacuum-vapor deposition. The distance between an MgAg mirror and an emission dye layer was varied from 25 to 180 nm. The emission lifetime of the fluorescent dye layer largely depended on the MgAg mirror—emission layer distance and assumed a maximum at around 150 nm. A promising application of organic multilayer structures for the study on optical microcavity was suggested.

Tsutsui, T.; Adachi, C.; Saito, S.; Watanabe, M.; Koishi, M.



Concrete embedded dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell.  


This work presents the concept of a monolithic concrete-integrated dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell for optical-to-electrical energy conversion and on-site power generation. The transport measurements carried out in the dark revealed the presence of VOC of ~190?mV and ISC of ~9??A, induced by the electrochemical conversion of concrete-supplied ionic impurities at the electrodes. The current-voltage measurements performed under illumination at incident optical powers of ~46?mW confirmed the generation of electrical power of ~0.64??W with almost half generated via battery effect. This work presents a first step towards realizing the additional pathways to low-cost electrical power production in urban environments based on a combined use of organic dyes, nanotitania and concrete technology. PMID:24067664

Hosseini, T; Flores-Vivian, I; Sobolev, K; Kouklin, N



Concrete Embedded Dye-Synthesized Photovoltaic Solar Cell  

PubMed Central

This work presents the concept of a monolithic concrete-integrated dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell for optical-to-electrical energy conversion and on-site power generation. The transport measurements carried out in the dark revealed the presence of VOC of ~190?mV and ISC of ~9??A, induced by the electrochemical conversion of concrete-supplied ionic impurities at the electrodes. The current-voltage measurements performed under illumination at incident optical powers of ~46?mW confirmed the generation of electrical power of ~0.64??W with almost half generated via battery effect. This work presents a first step towards realizing the additional pathways to low-cost electrical power production in urban environments based on a combined use of organic dyes, nanotitania and concrete technology.

Hosseini, T.; Flores-Vivian, I.; Sobolev, K.; Kouklin, N.



Compact high flow dye cell for laser-pumped dye lasers  

SciTech Connect

The rotor of a split-pole asynchronous motor is used to circulate a dye solution in a cylindrical dye cell. A compact high flow dye cell which is suitable for high repetition rate (>100 Hz ) pumping has been thus developed.

Stankov, K.A.



Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k = 1.6, 2.1 and 1.9 × 10-3 min-1 for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (?) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100 mW cm-2, reveals highly stable DSSCs.

Abdou, E. M.; Hafez, H. S.; Bakir, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.



Study on TiO2 film for dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, natural raw dyes extracted from dragon fruit (Hylocereus costaricensis) and blueberry fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum) are been used to analyze the dye characterization and absorption properties. In addition, the combination between TiO2 film and natural dyes are investigated for DSSC application.

M. A. Riyaz Ahmad; N. Nafarizal



Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes.  


This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k=1.6, 2.1 and 1.9×10(-3)min(-1) for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (?) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100mWcm(-2), reveals highly stable DSSCs. PMID:23832227

Abdou, E M; Hafez, H S; Bakir, E; Abdel-Mottaleb, M S A



Template-free synthesis of nanostructured Cd(x)Zn(1-x)S with tunable band structure for H2 production and organic dye degradation using solar light.  


We have demonstrated a template-free large-scale synthesis of nanostructured Cd(x)Zn(1-x)S by a simple and a low-temperature solid-state method. Cadmium oxide, zinc oxide, and thiourea in various concentration ratios are homogenized at moderate temperature to obtain nanostructured Cd(x)Zn(1-x)S. We have also demonstrated that phase purity of the sample can be controlled with a simple adjustment of the amount of Zn content and nanocrystalline Cd(x)Zn(1-x)S(x = 0.5 and 0.9) of the hexagonal phase with 6-8 nm sized and 4-5 nm sized Cd(0.1)Zn(0.9)S of cubic phase can be easily obtained using this simple approach. UV-vis and PL spectrum indicate that the optical properties of as synthesized nanostructures can also be modulated by tuning their compositions. Considering the band gap of the nanostructured Cd(x)Zn(1-x)S well within the visible region, the photocatalytic activity for H2 generation using H2S and methylene blue dye degradation is performed under visible-light irradiation. The maximum H2 evolution of 8320 ?mol h(-1)g(-1) is obtained using nanostructured Cd(0.1)Zn(0.9)S, which is four times higher than that of bulk CdS (2020 ?mol h(-1) g(-1)) and the reported nanostructured CdS (5890 ?mol h(-1)g(-1)). As synthesized Cd(0.9)Zn(0.1)S shows 2-fold enhancement in degradation of methylene blue as compared to the bulk CdS. It is noteworthy that the synthesis method adapted provides an easy, inexpensive, and pollution-free way to synthesize very tiny nanoparticles of Cd(x)Zn(1-x)S with a tunnable band structure on a large scale, which is quite difficult to obtain by other methods. More significantly, environmental benign enhanced H2 production from hazardous H2S using Cd(x)Zn(1-x)S is demonstrated for the first time. PMID:23672184

Garaje, Sunil N; Apte, Sanjay K; Naik, Sonali D; Ambekar, Jalindar D; Sonawane, Ravindra S; Kulkarni, Milind V; Vinu, Ajayan; Kale, Bharat B



21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section 864.1850 Food...HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...



21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section 864.1850 Food...HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...



40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. 721.9717 Section...Substances § 721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical...identified generically as an azo monochloro triazine reactive dye (PMN...



40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. 721.9717 Section...Substances § 721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical...identified generically as an azo monochloro triazine reactive dye (PMN...



Dye lasers. Citations from the NTIS data base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on dye laser theory, design, components, optical systems, and frequency range are presented in approximately 96 citations. Abstracts on lasing dyes, pumping, tuning, excitation, molecular structure, and modulation are included. Studies on dye laser use in spectroscopy are covered.

Cavagnaro, D. M.



Enhanced electronic contacts in SnO2-dye-P3HT based solid state dye sensitized solar cells.  


We present an investigation on the optimisation of solid-state dye sensitized solar cells (SDSCs) comprising mesoporous tin oxide photoanodes infiltrated with poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) hole conductor and sensitized with an organic dye. We chose both the SnO(2) and P3HT for their high charge carrier mobilities and conductivities, but as a result preclude conventional device configurations because of high leakage current and low shunt-resistance. To minimize the "hole leakage current" through the FTO anode, we employed a double compact layer structure, and to minimize "electron leakage current" at the silver cathode, we developed a protocol for depositing an optimal P3HT "capping layer". After optimisation of cell fabrication, the electron lifetime is increased considerably and the solar cells exhibited simulated AM1.5 full sun solar power conversion efficiencies in excess of 1%. PMID:23288145

Sadoughi, Golnaz; Sivaram, Varun; Gunning, Robbert; Docampo, Pablo; Bruder, Ingmar; Pschirer, Neil; Irajizad, Azam; Snaith, Henry J



Organic and hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance and limitations of the world's best organic and dye sensitized solar cells will be presented along with plans to increase the energy conversion efficiency to 15%. Topics of more detailed discussion could include the formation of polymer-fullerene co-crystals and their implications for recombination, the use of energy transfer to improve light harvesting in dye sensitized solar cells, solution deposited transparent electrodes or the use of plasmonics to improve light absorption.

McGehee, Michael



Tencel Dyeing by Natural Indigo Prepared from Dyer's Knotweed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural indigo dye in powder form was prepared by modifying traditional Niram method, using Ca(OH)2 instead of baked oyster powder for precipitating indigo dye. The prepared dye was applied to dyeing Tencel fabrics to investigate the effect of experimental conditions for the optimization of dyeing process. The indigo dye powder contained 15.2%(w\\/w) of indigo content and 0.757%(w\\/w) of indirubin content

Kyunghee Son; Dong Il Yoo


Incorporating multiple energy relay dyes in liquid dye-sensitized solar cells.  


Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse from 400-590 nm matching the optical window of the zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer was observed due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the two energy relay dyes to the sensitizing dye. The complementary absorption spectra of the energy relay dyes and high excitation transfer efficiencies result in a 35% increase in photovoltaic performance. PMID:21344598

Yum, Jun-Ho; Hardin, Brian E; Hoke, Eric T; Baranoff, Etienne; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Torres, Tomas; McGehee, Michael D; Grätzel, Michael



Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.  


Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse from 400-590?nm matching the optical window of the zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer was observed due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the two energy relay dyes to the sensitizing dye. The complementary absorption spectra of the energy relay dyes and high excitation transfer efficiencies result in a 35?% increase in photovoltaic performance. PMID:21210404

Yum, Jun-Ho; Hardin, Brian E; Hoke, Eric T; Baranoff, Etienne; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Torres, Tomas; McGehee, Michael D; Grätzel, Michael



Theoretical evidence of multiple dye regeneration mechanisms in dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multiple regeneration mechanisms in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), with N3 (Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2) as dye and I-/I3- as redox shuttle, have been studied by DFT methods. Our results show that different reaction pathways are possible within the same dye and the actual mechanism is controlled by the initial geometry of the dyeI complex. By considering the rapid interconversion between different N3I geometries, the reaction mechanism where N3I dissociates into neutral dye and Irad radical is preferred to the mechanism where N3I reacts with a second iodide.

Liu, Tao; Troisi, Alessandro



Highly soluble perylene diimide and oligomeric diimide dyes combining perylene and hexa(ethylene glycol) units: Synthesis, characterization, optical and electrochemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, soluble, perylene oligomeric diimide dye, termed EOPPI was synthesized in high yield; for comparison, a small dye molecule, termed EOPDI, was also synthesized; both products readily dissolved in a wide range of organic solvents. The compounds were characterized using NMR, IR, MS, UV–vis, MS, GC–MS, HRMS, DSC, TGA, elemental analysis and cyclic voltammetry. The average molecular mass of

Jagadeesh B. Bodapati; Huriye Icil



A comparative study on growth, structural, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of undoped and dye doped bis glycine cadmium chloride single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye inclusion crystals have attracted researchers in the context of crystal growth for applications in solid state lasers. Attempt to grow tris glycine cadmium chloride (TGCC) crystals yielded bis glycine cadmium chloride crystals. Single crystals of bis glycine cadmium chloride (BGCC) and organic dye, namely xylenol orange tetra sodium salt (XO) doped BGCC crystals, were grown from aqueous solutions by

B. Raju; A. Saritha; G. Bhagavannarayana; K. A Hussain



Integration of nanosized zero-valent iron particles addition with UV\\/H 2O 2 process for purification of azo dye Acid Black 24 solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenging national effluent standards for color and organic concentration enforce the industrial concern most the techniques providing fast and efficient solution for the strenuous dye wastewater treatment before outflow. The best remediation technique pursuit is urgently demand for the industrial, government, academia and community. In this study, a di-azo dye, C.I. Acid Black 24, synthesized wastewater was successfully removed

Hung-Yee Shu; Ming-Chin Chang; Chi-Chen Chang



High excitation transfer efficiency from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells.  


The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (ETE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO(2) films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM in an acetonitrile based electrolyte. This demonstration shows that energy relay dyes can be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. PMID:20617816

Hardin, Brian E; Yum, Jun-Ho; Hoke, Eric T; Jun, Young Chul; Péchy, Peter; Torres, Tomás; Brongersma, Mark L; Nazeeruddin, Md Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D



Development of Hair Dye from Herbal Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The developments of hair dyes from herbal extracts are studied. Seven herbs, such as Jackfruit core, Sappan wood, Lac, Henna, Mangosteen, Amla and Turmeric were ex- tracted and used as pigment for hair dyes. The dyed hair conditions, which comprised concentrations of a developer (hydrogen peroxide), concentrations of crude herbal ex- tracts, and dyed hair treatment process were compared

Kongtun Janphuk Sumonthip; Suracherdkaiti Wichai



Fungal decolorization of dye wastewaters: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been an intensive research on fungal decolorization of dye wastewater. It is becoming a promising alternative to replace or supplement present treatment processes. This paper examines various fungi, living or dead cells, which are capable of decolorizing dye wastewaters; discusses various mechanisms involved; reports some elution and regeneration methods for fungal biomass; summarizes the present

Yuzhu Fu; T Viraraghavan



High Efficiency Flashlamps for Pulsed Dye Lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the possibilities of pulsed high pressure mercury capillary lamps as efficient pumping sources for dye lasers. Spectral measurements show that a spectral efficiency as high as 24 per cent may be reached for a typical blue lasing dye. Laser action has been obtained with Rhodamine 6G with a repetition rate of up to 100 p.p.s., and an

P. dal Pozzo; R. Polloni; F. Zaraga



Photocatalytic degradation of commercial azo dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven azo dyes were photocatalytically degraded in TiO2 suspension. Their degradation rates were compared with disappearance and TOC elimination rates. It was demonstrated that diazo dye is less degradable than monoazo and the order of photocatalytic degradation rates was in approximate agreement with that of ozonation rates cited from literature. Major intermediates identified are aromatic amine, phenolic compounds and several

Keiichi Tanaka; Kanjana Padermpole; Teruaki Hisanaga



Bacterial decolorization and degradation of azo dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo compounds constitute the largest and the most diverse group of synthetic dyes and are widely used in a number of industries such as textile, food, cosmetics and paper printing. They are generally recalcitrant to biodegradation due to their xenobiotic nature. However microorganisms, being highly versatile, have developed enzyme systems for the decolorization and mineralization of azo dyes under certain

Anjali Pandey; Poonam Singh; Leela Iyengar



Hair Dye Poisoning in a Paediatric Patient  

PubMed Central

Hair dye ingestion with suicidal intention has increased among rural Indian population and is associated with significant mortality. We report a teenager who presented with cervicofacial edema, respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis, and myocarditis after ingesting the hair dye Super Vasmol 33. Early and supportive treatment can prevent morbidity and mortality.

Chandran, Jolly; Manners, Rimi; Agarwal, Indira; Ebenezer, Kala