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Sample records for carmine organic dyes

  1. [Asthma and allergy due to carmine dye].

    PubMed

    Tabar, A I; Acero, S; Arregui, C; Urdnoz, M; Quirce, S

    2003-01-01

    Cochineal carmine, or simply carmine (E120), is a red colouring that is obtained from the dried bodies of the female insect Dactylopius coccus Costa (the cochineal insect). We have evaluated the prevalence of sensitization and asthma caused by carmine in a factory using natural colouring, following the diagnosis of two workers with occupational asthma. The accumulated incidence of sensitization and occupational asthma due to carmine in this factory are 48.1% and 18.5% respectively, figures that make the introduction of preventive measures obligatory. Occupational asthma caused by inhaling carmine should be considered as a further example of the capacity of certain protein particles of arthropods (in this case cochineal insects) to act as aeroallergens. Carmine should be added to the list of agents capable of producing occupational asthma, whose mechanism, according to our studies, would be immunological mediated by IgE antibodies in the face of diverse allergens of high molecular weight, which can vary from patient to patient. Nonetheless, given the existence of different components in carmine, it cannot be ruled out that substances of low molecular weight, such as carminic acid, might act as haptenes. Besides, since we are dealing with a colouring that is widely used as a food additive, as a pharmaceutical excipient and in the composition of numerous cosmetics, it is not surprising that allergic reactions can appear both through ingestion and through direct cutaneous contact. We find ourselves facing a new example of an allergen that can act through both inhalation and digestion, giving rise to an allergolical syndrome that can show itself clinically with expressions of both respiratory allergy and alimentary allergy. PMID:13679965

  2. Red cochineal dye (carminic Acid): its role in nature.

    PubMed

    Eisner, T; Nowicki, S; Goetz, M; Meinwald, J

    1980-05-30

    Carminic acid, the well-known red dyestuff from cochineal insects (Dactylopius spp.), is a potent feeding deterrent to ants. This deterrency may be indicative of the natural function of the compound, which may have evolved in cochineals as a chemical weapon against predation. The behavior of an unusual predator is described-the carnivorous caterpillar of a pyralid moth (Laetilia coccidivora)-which is undeterred by carminic acid and feeds on cochineals. The animal has the remarkable habit of utilizing the ingested carminic acid for defensive purposes of its own. PMID:17779027

  3. Indigo Carmine Dye-Polymer Nanocomposite Films For Optical Limiting Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, S.; Mayadevi, S.; Suresh, S. R.; Frobel, P. G. Louie; Smijesh, N.; Philip, Reji; Muneera, C. I.

    2011-10-01

    Nanocomposite films of an organic dye-polymer (Indigo Carmine-PVA) system were fabricated and their optical limiting behaviour was investigated under excitation with 532 nm laser pulses of 5 ns temporal width using the open aperture Z-scan technique. The samples displayed optical limiting behavior under the experimental conditions. The Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) analysis of the surface topography revealed homogeneous distribution of nanoclustered aggregates grown within the polymer matrix and an average roughness of 2.02 nm for the surface. The estimated values of the effective nonlinear absorption coefficient, ?eff (10-7-10-8 cm/W) marked up to the highest reported ones in literature in the nanosecond regime. The results indicate that these nanocomposite films are potential materials for optical limiting devices used for the protection of human eyes and other delicate optical sensors from laser induced optical damage.

  4. Occupational asthma and immunologic responses induced by inhaled carmine among employees at a factory making natural dyes.

    PubMed

    Quirce, S; Cuevas, M; Olaguibel, J M; Tabar, A I

    1994-01-01

    Carmine is a natural red dye widely used as a food coloring agent and for cosmetic manufacture. It is extracted from the dried females of the insect Dactylopius coccus var. Costa (cochineal). Although it has been reported that inhalation of carmine may give rise to occupational asthma and extrinsic allergic alveolitis, there is little evidence of its immunogenic capacity. We studied nine current employees at a factory making natural dyes and one former employee who had left this plant after occupational asthma developed. A current employee had work-related symptoms of rhinitis and asthma that were confirmed by bronchial provocation tests, and another worker had rhinitis. Immunologic sensitization to carmine and cochineal was evaluated by means of skin testing and determination of serum-specific IgE and IgG subclass antibodies by RAST and ELISA, respectively. The specificity of the RAST assay was investigated by RAST inhibition with different fractions of carmine. The three workers with respiratory symptoms had positive skin prick test reactions to both carmine and cochineal. An immediate response to the bronchial provocation test with carmine and cochineal was observed in the current employee with asthma. Specific IgE antibodies against carmine and cochineal were found only in this worker. RAST inhibition studies indicated that the main allergen had a molecular weight between 10 and 30 kd. Specific IgG antibodies against carmine and cochineal, mainly the subclasses IgG1, IgG3, and IgG4, were found in the 10 subjects surveyed. These findings suggest that carmine may induce immunologic responses, most likely IgE mediated in workers with symptoms of occupational asthma. PMID:8308181

  5. An Indigo Carmine-Based Hybrid Nanocomposite with Supramolecular Control of Dye Aggregation and Photobehavior.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana L; Gomes, Ana C; Pillinger, Martyn; Gonalves, Isabel S; de Melo, J Srgio Seixas

    2015-08-17

    Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing solely indigo carmine (IC) or 1-hexanesulfonate (HS) anions, or a mixture of the two with different HS/IC molar ratios, were prepared by the direct synthesis method and characterized by various techniques. Hydrotalcite-type phases were obtained with basal spacings of 17.6? for the LDH intercalated by IC (IC-LDH) and 18.2-18.3? for the other materials containing HS. From the basal spacing for IC-LDH and UV/Vis spectroscopic data, it is proposed that the dye molecules assemble within the interlayer galleries to form a J-type stacking arrangement. A comprehensive electronic spectral and photophysical study was undertaken for IC in solution and all materials, aiming to obtain a detailed characterization of the host-guest and guest-guest interactions. In solution (the solvent surrounded "isolated" molecule), IC presents a fast excited state proton transfer with rate constants of ?1.2-1.410(11) ?s(-1) , which is linked to the very efficient radiationless deactivation channel. In the solid state it is shown that incorporation of IC within the LDH decreases the level of aggregation, and that further addition of HS induces the appearance of isolated IC units within the LDH galleries. The indigo carmine-based nanocomposites reported constitute a step forward in the design of hybrid materials with tunable properties. PMID:26216072

  6. Charge-Transfer Complexation at Carminic Acid-CdS Interface and Its Impact on the Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, Naila; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Munir, Shamsa; Hana, Amina; Jabeen, Uzma; Nosheen, Erum; Habib, Banafsha; Khan, Arif Ullah; Hassan, Zubair; Siddiq, Muhammad; Hussain, Hazrat

    2015-04-01

    We report for the first time charge-transfer complex formation at the interface of carminic acid and cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles. The complex formation was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were synthesized by the wet chemical method and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Carminic acid, in different concentrations, was chemisorbed on the surface of CdS nanoparticles. Grafting of carminic acid on CdS was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Energy levels of the highest occupied molecular orbitals and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) of both carminic acid and CdS nanoparticles matched well for the injection of electron from LUMO of carminic acid to the conduction band of cadmium sulfide. The photoactive nanohybrid material was used in dye-sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of carminic acid functionalized CdS nanoparticles was found to be double the value obtained for the reference device and remained constant over a certain concentration range owing to the complex formation at the interface. However, raising the concentration of carminic acid beyond 2.5 × 10-5 M resulted in a decrease in efficiency. This was ascribed to charge recombination due to the presence of ungrafted carminic acid molecules.

  7. Stability of ?-Irradiated Carmine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Hlio M.; Fontenele, Rinaldo S.; DelMastro, Nlida L.

    2005-01-01

    Carmine is a dye used mainly for coloring food products and galenicals but also in inks. As food irradiation is becoming a regular treatment for food preservation, it is desirable to have a proper knowledge about the radiation sensitivity of additives that can be included in the food formula. The aim of this work was to establish the radiation stability of carmine against Co-60 gamma radiation. Samples of 50% pure carmine powder as well as 50%, 10% and 5% aqueous solutions were irradiated in a Gammacell 220, dose rate of about 5.2 kGy/h, with doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 kGy. Spectrophotometric readings at 494 nm show a slight decrease of the absorbance as a function of dose: Samples irradiated with 4 and 32 kGy retained 95% and 90% of absorbance of the unirradiated samples respectively. These results indicate a rather good stability of carmine against ?-irradiation.

  8. Effective photocatalytic decolorization of indigo carmine dye in Moroccan natural phosphate-TiO2 aqueous suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naciri, Nouâma; Farahi, Abdelfettah; Rafqah, Salah; Nasrellah, Hamid; El Mhammedi, Moulay Abderrahim; Lançar, IbnToumaret; Bakasse, Mina

    2016-02-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a significant green technology for application in water purification. In this study, the photocatalytic activity of NP-TiO2 based on Moroccan natural phosphate (NP) doped by titanium dioxide TiO2 was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of indigo carmine (IC) dye in aqueous solution as a model pollutant under UV light. The NP-TiO2 catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR and surface area. The effect of the calcination temperature of NP-TiO2, catalyst concentration, initial concentration of the IC, initial pH, initial hydrogen peroxide H2O2 concentration and coexisting ions on the photocatalytic decolorization of IC was investigated. The NP-TiO2 showed a significantly higher rate of degradation of IC, when compared to TiO2. After 125 min of irradiation using a low intensity of UV-lamp (15 W ∗ 3 lamps = 45 W), 99% of IC solution (20 mg L-1) was decolorized with 0.5 g L-1 of the NP-TiO2 calcined at 600 °C at pH = 11. Therefore, this process can be developed as an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method to decolorize or treat dye wastewater using sunlight.

  9. Preparation of mesoporous poly (acrylic acid)/SiO2 composite nanofiber membranes having adsorption capacity for indigo carmine dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ran; Jia, Min; Li, Fengting; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Bingru; Qiao, Junlian

    2012-03-01

    Mesoporous poly (acrylic acid)/SiO2 (PAA/SiO2) composite nanofiber membranes functionalized with mercapto groups were fabricated by a sol-gel electrospinning method, and their adsorption capacity for indigo carmine was investigated. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. SEM and TEM observation results showed that the PAA/SiO2 fibers had diameters between 400-800 nm and mesopores with an average pore size of 3.88 nm. The specific surface area of the mesoporous nanofiber membranes was 514.89 m2/g. The characteristic peaks for mercapto group vibration in FTIR and Raman spectra demonstrated that the mercapto groups have been incorporated into the silica skeleton. The adsorption isotherm data of indigo carmine on the membranes fit well with Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity calculated was 523.11 mg/g. It was found that the removal rate of indigo carmine by the membranes reached a maximum of 98% in 90 min and the adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The high adsorption capacity of PAA/SiO2 nanofiber membrane makes it a promising adsorbent for indigo carmine removal from the wastewater.

  10. A method for determining identity and relative purity of carmine, carminic acid and aminocarminic acid.

    PubMed

    Dapson, Rw

    2005-01-01

    Carmine is one of the few dyes currently certified by the Biological Stain Commission that is not assayed for dye content. Existing assay methods are complex and do not differentiate the three cochineal derivatives carmine, carminic acid and aminocarminic acid. The latter dye is relatively new to the food trade as an acid-stable red colorant and may eventually enter the biological stains market. The assay proposed here is a two-step procedure using quantitative spectrophotometric analysis at high pH (12.5-12.6) followed by a qualitative scan of a low pH (1.90-2.10) solution. Carmine is distinct at high pH, and the remaining dyes are easily distinguished at low pH. Four instances of mislabeling are documented from 18 commercial products, but the mislabeled dyes were not certified dyes. Samples from nearly all lots of carmine certified by the Biological Stain Commission from 1920 to 2004 proved to be carmine, but they varied widely in dye content. Batches from 1920 through the 1940s were significantly richer in dye content. Variability has been extreme since 2000, and most of the poorest lots have been submitted since 1990. PMID:16720520

  11. Preparation and characterization of platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) nanoparticle decorated graphene sheets and their utilization for the elimination of basic fuchsin and indigo carmine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurt, Belma Zengin; Durmus, Zehra; Durmus, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this study, graphene nano sheets, prepared with chemical oxidation and reduction routes via modified-Hummer method, were successfully decorated with platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) nanoparticles. Structural and morphological features of resulted graphene-metal nanocomposites were characterized with FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TEM methods. Anti-oxidant activity (AOA) values of nanocomposites were determined. The IC50 values of Pt-graphene and Pd-graphene nanocomposites were found to be 46.1 and 90.2 μg/mL, respectively based on the ABTS method and 80.2 and 143.7 μg/mL according to the DPPH method. It was found that the graphene-metal nanocomposites exhibited superior free radical scavenging activity compared to several types of noble metal nano particles although the nanocomposites consist of much lower amount of active metal sites than the nano-crystalline metal powders. It was consequently reported that the graphene-metal nanocomposites could be successfully used for the photocatalytic elimination of fuchsin and indigo carmine dyes under light irradiation.

  12. Indigo carmine: An organic crystal as a positive-electrode material for rechargeable sodium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Masaru; Kuratani, Kentaro; Kojima, Toshikatsu; Takeichi, Nobuhiko; Senoh, Hiroshi; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu

    2014-01-01

    Using sodium, instead of lithium, in rechargeable batteries is a way to circumvent the lithium's resource problem. The challenge is to find an electrode material that can reversibly undergo redox reactions in a sodium-electrolyte at the desired electrochemical potential. We proved that indigo carmine (IC, 5,5'-indigodisulfonic acid sodium salt) can work as a positive-electrode material in not only a lithium-, but also a sodium-electrolyte. The discharge capacity of the IC-electrode was ~100 mAh g-1 with a good cycle stability in either the Na or Li electrolyte, in which the average voltage was 1.8 V vs. Na+/Na and 2.2 V vs. Li+/Li, respectively. Two Na ions per IC are stored in the electrode during the discharge, testifying to the two-electron redox reaction. An X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a layer structure for the IC powder and the DFT calculation suggested the formation of a band-like structure in the crystal.

  13. Indigo carmine: An organic crystal as a positive-electrode material for rechargeable sodium batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Masaru; Kuratani, Kentaro; Kojima, Toshikatsu; Takeichi, Nobuhiko; Senoh, Hiroshi; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu

    2014-01-01

    Using sodium, instead of lithium, in rechargeable batteries is a way to circumvent the lithium's resource problem. The challenge is to find an electrode material that can reversibly undergo redox reactions in a sodium-electrolyte at the desired electrochemical potential. We proved that indigo carmine (IC, 5,5?-indigodisulfonic acid sodium salt) can work as a positive-electrode material in not only a lithium-, but also a sodium-electrolyte. The discharge capacity of the IC-electrode was ~100?mAh g?1 with a good cycle stability in either the Na or Li electrolyte, in which the average voltage was 1.8?V vs. Na+/Na and 2.2?V vs. Li+/Li, respectively. Two Na ions per IC are stored in the electrode during the discharge, testifying to the two-electron redox reaction. An X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a layer structure for the IC powder and the DFT calculation suggested the formation of a band-like structure in the crystal. PMID:24413423

  14. Arylamine organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mao; Chen, Jun

    2013-04-21

    Arylamine organic dyes with donor (D), ?-bridge (?) and acceptor (A) moieties for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received great attention in the last decade because of their high molar absorption coefficient, low cost and structural variety. In the early stages, the efficiency of DSCs with arylamine organic dyes with D-?-A character was far behind that of DSCs with ruthenium(II) complexes partly due to the lack of information about the relationship between the chemical structures and the photovoltaic performance. However, exciting progress has been recently made, and power conversion efficiencies over 10% were obtained for DSCs with arylamine organic dyes. It is thus that the recent research and development in the field of arylamine organic dyes employing an iodide/triiodide redox couple or polypyridyl cobalt redox shuttles as the electrolytes for either DSCs or solid-state DSCs has been summarized. The cell performance of the arylamine organic dyes are compared, providing a comprehensive overview of arylamine organic dyes, demonstrating the advantages/disadvantages of each class, and pointing out the field that needs to reinforce the research direction in the further application of DSCs. PMID:23396530

  15. Solvent-free fluidic organic dye lasers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Young; Mager, Loic; Cham, Tran Thi; Dorkenoo, Kokou D; Fort, Alain; Wu, Jeong Weon; Barsella, Alberto; Ribierre, Jean-Charles

    2013-05-01

    We report on the demonstration of liquid organic dye lasers based on 9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole (EHCz), so-called liquid carbazole, doped with green- and red-emitting laser dyes. Both waveguide and Fabry-Perot type microcavity fluidic organic dye lasers were prepared by capillary action under solvent-free conditions. Cascade Frster-type energy transfer processes from liquid carbazole to laser dyes were employed to achieve color-variable amplified spontaneous emission and lasing. Overall, this study provides the first step towards the development of solvent-free fluidic organic semiconducting lasers and demonstrates a new kind of optoelectronic applications for liquid organic semiconductors. PMID:23669993

  16. Occupational asthma and food allergy due to carmine.

    PubMed

    Acero, S; Tabar, A I; Alvarez, M J; Garcia, B E; Olaguibel, J M; Moneo, I

    1998-09-01

    Carmine (E120), a natural red dye extracted from the dried females of the insect Dactylopius coccus var. Costa (cochineal), has been reported to cause hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of occupational asthma and food allergy due to carmine in a worker not engaged in dye manufacturing. A 35-year-old nonatopic man, who had worked for 4 years in a spice warehouse, reported asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis for 5 months, related to carmine handling in his work. Two weeks before the visit, he reported one similar episode after the ingestion of a red-colored sweet containing carmine. Peak flow showed drops higher than 25% related to carmine exposure. Prick tests with the cochineal insect and carmine were positive, but negative to common aeroallergens, several mites, foods, and spices. The methacholine test was positive. Specific bronchial challenge test with a cochineal extract was positive with a dual pattern (20% and 24% fall in FEV1). Double-blind oral challenge with E120 was positive. The patient's sera contained specific IgE for various high-molecular-weight proteins from the cochineal extract, as shown by immunoblotting. Carmine proteins can induce IgE-mediated food allergy and occupational asthma in workers using products where its presence could be easily overlooked, as well as in dye manufacture workers. PMID:9788693

  17. ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...

  18. Continuous-wave organic dye lasers and methods

    DOEpatents

    Shapira, Ofer; Chua, Song-Liang; Zhen, Bo; Lee, Jeongwon; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-16

    An organic dye laser produces a continuous-wave (cw) output without any moving parts (e.g., without using flowing dye streams or spinning discs of solid-state dye media to prevent photobleaching) and with a pump beam that is stationary with respect to the organic dye medium. The laser's resonant cavity, organic dye medium, and pump beam are configured to excite a lasing transition over a time scale longer than the associated decay lifetimes in the organic dye medium without photobleaching the organic dye medium. Because the organic dye medium does not photobleach when operating in this manner, it may be pumped continuously so as to emit a cw output beam. In some examples, operation in this manner lowers the lasing threshold (e.g., to only a few Watts per square centimeter), thereby facilitating electrical pumping for cw operation.

  19. Decolorization of indigo carmine by laccase displayed on Bacillus subtilis spores.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-Ah; Seo, Jiyoung; Lee, Dong-Woo; Pan, Jae-Gu

    2011-06-10

    Blue multicopper oxidases, laccases displayed on the surface of Bacillus spores were used to decolorize a widely used textile dyestuff, indigo carmine. The laccase-encoding gene of Bacillus subtilis, cotA, was cloned and expressed in B. subtilis DB104, and the expressed enzyme was spontaneously localized on Bacillus spores. B. subtilis spores expressing laccase exhibited maximal activity for the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) at pH 4.0 and 80C, and for the decolorization of indigo carmine at pH 8.0 and 60C. The displayed enzyme retained 80% of its original activity after pre-treatment with organic solvents such as 50% acetonitrile and n-hexane for 2h at 37C. The apparent K(m) of the enzyme displayed on spores was 443124 ?M for ABTS with a V(max) of 150 16 U/mg spores. Notably, 1mg of spores displaying B. subtilis laccase (3.4 10(2)U for ABTS as a substrate) decolorized 44.6 ?g indigo carmine in 2h. The spore reactor (0.5 g of spores corresponding to 1.710(5)U in 50 mL) in a consecutive batch recycling mode decolorized 223 mg indigo carmine/L to completion within 42 h at pH 8.0 and 60C. These results suggest that laccase displayed on B. subtilis spores can serve as a powerful environmental tool for the treatment of textile dye effluent. PMID:22112278

  20. Influence of pulse width on decolorization efficiency of organic dye by discharge inside bubble in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, S.; Wada, K.; Kakuta, T.; Takaki, K.; Satta, N.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-06-01

    Decolorization of an organic dye by discharge in high conductive water using a pulsed power generator and a discharge reactor was investigated. The discharge reactor consisted of a glass tube and a tungsten wire inserted into the glass tube, which was immersed in the water. Room air was injected into the glass tube to generate bubbles in the water. High voltage pulses were generated by an inductive-energy storage system using semiconductor opening switch (SOS) and by a magnetic pulse compression circuit. Fast recovery diodes were used as SOS diode in the inductive-energy storage system. The pulse width was changed in range from 10 to 1200 ns. The high voltage was applied to the tungsten wire. Indigo carmine was employed as a specimen to evaluate decolorization efficiency. Potassium nitrate was used to adjust the solution conductivity. The dye solution was successfully decolorized at 7 mS/cm conductivity. Energy efficiency for decolorization increased from 0.680 to 55.6 mg/Wh with decreasing the pulse width from 1200 to 10 ns owing to the reduction of ohmic loss.

  1. Can silicon substituted metal-free organic dyes achieve better efficiency compared to silicon free organic dyes? A computational study.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Abul Kalam; Das, Amitava; Ganguly, Bishwajit

    2015-12-14

    The power conversion efficiency of metal-free organic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is now comparable to ruthenium-based polypyridyl and zinc-based porphyrin dyes. We have computationally investigated the structural, electronic and optical properties of a series of metal free organic dyes and their corresponding silicon substituted dyes. The DFT and TD-DFT calculations revealed that silicon substituted organic dyes have higher efficiency than the corresponding silicon free organic dyes. The computational results showed that the presence of silole units as a spacer group can significantly affect the performance of DSSCs compared to typically using thiophene as a spacer unit. These results corroborate the experimental observations reported in the literature. The time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations performed at the CPCMCAM-B3LYP/6-31+G* level of theory showed better agreement with the experimental absorption spectra of some reported metal free organic dyes having silole in the spacer group compared to other functionals and are employed in this study. Indoline donor based dye 5 showed a much shorter absorption spectrum (absorption peak at 425 nm) and smaller electron injection driving force (?Ginjection = -1.77 eV) than the corresponding dye 8 containing silicon substituted indoline as a donor and a silole group as a spacer unit. ?max = 502 nm and ?Ginjection = -1.82 eV calculated for dye 8 are much larger than the corresponding silicon free dye 5. The silicon based dye 8 helps in achieving a much lower ?Gregeneration value than 5, which can facilitate the faster electron injection rate from the dye to the semiconductor TiO2. Dye 8 should also have a higher Voc value compared to other dyes (5-7) due to favourable interaction with the electrolyte (I(-)/I3(-)). The higher planarity and better conjugation in dye 8 facilitate the transfer of electrons from the dye molecules to the semiconductor TiO2. The calculations performed with phenyl protecting groups near the silicon center of the dye molecule 8 to diminish the dimerization process showed very similar optical properties as obtained with the corresponding unprotected dye system. The designed julolidine and pyrrolo-indolizine donor based dyes also showed a similar trend as observed for indoline donor based dyes. PMID:26535472

  2. Molecular design and photovoltaic performance of organic dyes containing phenothiazine for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyo Jeong; Nam, Jung Eun; Sim, Kyoseung; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Jae Hong; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-10-01

    We synthesized novel organic photosensitizers based on fluorine-substituted phenothiazine with thiophene bridge units in the chromophore for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Furthermore, organic dyes with different acceptors exhibited higher molar extinction coefficients, and better light absorption at longer wavelengths. The photovoltaic properties of organic dyes composed of different acceptors in their chromophores were measured to identify their effects on the DSSC performance. The organic dye, PFSCN2 containing multi-cyanoacrylic acid as the electron acceptor, showed a power conversion efficiency of 4.67% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm2). The retarded recombination kinetics from TiO2 electrode to electrolyte enhanced the electron life time of the organic dye, PFSCN2 in the photoanode of the DSSC. This was confirmed with impedance analysis. PMID:25942898

  3. Organic dyes based on fluorene and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdyukova, I. V.; Ishchenko, Aleksandr A.

    2012-03-01

    Data on various types of organic dyes based on fluorene and its derivatives, including polymethine, styryl, triphenylmethane, spiran, merocyanine, porphyrin and polymeric dyes, as well as azo dyes and donor-acceptor polyenes, are described systematically. The key methods for their synthesis are considered. The properties of the dyes are analyzed and summarized. The principles of development of modern functional materials based on these dyes are outlined. The use of these materials in advanced fields of science and technology such as photovoltaics, electroluminescence, nonlinear optics, holography, sensing photodynamic therapy are considered. The bibliography includes 476 references.

  4. Computational study of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based organic dyes for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenjie; Tan, Dazhi; Zhang, Qijian; Wang, Huaxing

    2015-04-01

    Four diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based organic dyes utilizing the donor-π-acceptor motif were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) approaches. The four dyes were composed of different donor groups, i.e. indoline, carbazole, triphenylamine, and coumarin. We investigated the effects of the DPP unit and different donors on the spectra and electrochemical properties of the dyes, respectively. In comparison with the model dye which adopts a phenylene unit as the π-spacer, the DPP dyes all display remarkably enhanced spectral responses in the visible region of the solar spectrum. The key to this increase was the incorporation of electron-deficient DPP moieties to the molecular core, which significantly lowers LUMO levels and therefore reduces the band gap. The dye/(TiO2)46 anatase nanoparticle systems were also simulated to show the electronic structures at the interface. We studied some key properties including absorption spectra, light-harvesting efficiency, molecular orbital distributions, and injection time of electrons from the excited state of dye to the conduction band of TiO2. The dye DPP-I with indoline moiety as the electron donor demonstrates desirable energetic, electronic, and spectroscopic parameters for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications. Our theoretical study is expected to provide valuable insights into the molecular design of novel DPP-based organic dyes for the optimizations of DSSCs. PMID:25662565

  5. 21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and specifications. The color...)(2). (b) Use and restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics... provisions of § 70.25 of this chapter. (2) Cosmetics containing carmine that are not subject to...

  6. 21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and specifications. The color...)(2). (b) Use and restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics... provisions of § 70.25 of this chapter. (2) Cosmetics containing carmine that are not subject to...

  7. 21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and specifications. The color...)(2). (b) Use and restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics... provisions of § 70.25 of this chapter. (2) Cosmetics containing carmine that are not subject to...

  8. 21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and specifications. The color...)(2). (b) Use and restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics... chapter. (2) Cosmetics containing carmine that are not subject to the requirements of § 701.3 of...

  9. 21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and specifications. The color...)(2). (b) Use and restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics... provisions of § 70.25 of this chapter. (2) Cosmetics containing carmine that are not subject to...

  10. Optical properties of organic dyes in nanoporous zeolite crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Irene L.; Tang, Z. K.; Xiao, X. D.; Yang, C. L.; Ge, W. K.

    2003-09-01

    Organic dye molecules of styryl 7 were introduced into the channels of AlPO4-5 single crystals. Polarized absorption and photoluminescence spectra of the dye molecules were investigated. The polarization angle dependence of the absorption and photoluminescence intensity indicates that the dye molecules are highly oriented in the channels. The hexagonal-shaped AlPO4-5 single crystal serves as a natural microcavity for lasing action of the dye molecules. The microcavity modes of the lasing action were also demonstrated.

  11. Geometrical and energetical structural changes in organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells probed using photoelectron spectroscopy and DFT.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Susanna K; Josefsson, Ida; Ellis, Hanna; Amat, Anna; Pastore, Mariachiara; Oscarsson, Johan; Lindblad, Rebecka; Eriksson, Anna I K; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit; Hagfeldt, Anders; Fantacci, Simona; Odelius, Michael; Rensmo, Hkan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alkoxy chain length in triarylamine based donor-acceptor organic dyes are investigated with respect to the electronic and molecular surface structures on the performance of solar cells and the electron lifetime. The dyes were investigated when adsorbed on TiO2 in a configuration that can be used for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Specifically, the two dyes D35 and D45 were compared using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The differences in solar cell characteristics when longer alkoxy chains are introduced in the dye donor unit are attributed to geometrical changes in dye packing while only minor differences were observed in the electronic structure. A higher dye load was observed for D45 on TiO2. However, D35 based solar cells result in higher photocurrent although the dye load is lower. This is explained by different geometrical structures of the dyes on the surface. PMID:26608268

  12. Enhancing the light utilization efficiency of microalgae using organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Lee, Yonghee; Jeon, Duk Young; Han, Jong-In

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation is composed of wide light spectrum including the range which cannot be utilized for microalgae. To enhance the light utilization efficiency, organic dye solutions of rhodamine101 and 9,10-diphenylanthracene were used as wavelength converters. Each dye affected cell growth and lipid accumulation differently, based on the response of each to different light spectrum. Under a light intensity of 50 W/m(2), maximum cell growth (1.5 g/L) was obtained with the red organic dye rhodamine101, whereas best lipid content (30%) with the blue type 9,10-diphenylanthracene. These two separate and complementary traits could be combined by simple mixing, and in so doing optimal growth (1.5 g/L) as well as lipid accumulation (30%) was achieved: lipid productivity was 2.3 times greater than without the organic dye. This study proved that certain organic dye solutions could convert useless wavelengths to be useful for algae cultivation, thereby increasing the productivity of biomass and lipids. PMID:25681096

  13. Comparison of triphenylamine based single and double branched organic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Hee Jin; Thogiti, Suresh; Cho, Jung Min; Jang, Bo Youn; Kim, Jae Hong

    2015-09-01

    A series of single and double branched organic dyes (1-4) utilizing two different acceptor groups, 2-cyanoacetic acid and rhodanine-3-acetic acid as anchoring moieties, were synthesized and characterized for their potential in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The DSSC based on sensitizer 3 has the best power conversion efficiency (3.51%) among all the devices assessed, which was 2 times higher than that of 1 with only one anchoring group. Compared to the 1-2 congeners with only one anchor, the dianchoring dyes 3-4 could suppress charge recombination more effectively and increase the electron injection efficiency, leading to a higher open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Organic polyaromatic hydrocarbons as sensitizing model dyes for semiconductor nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongyi; Galoppini, Elena

    2010-04-26

    The study of interfacial charge-transfer processes (sensitization) of a dye bound to large-bandgap nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors, including TiO(2), ZnO, and SnO(2), is continuing to attract interest in various areas of renewable energy, especially for the development of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The scope of this Review is to describe how selected model sensitizers prepared from organic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have been used over the past 15 years to elucidate, through a variety of techniques, fundamental aspects of heterogeneous charge transfer at the surface of a semiconductor. This Review does not focus on the most recent or efficient dyes, but rather on how model dyes prepared from aromatic hydrocarbons have been used, over time, in key fundamental studies of heterogeneous charge transfer. In particular, we describe model chromophores prepared from anthracene, pyrene, perylene, and azulene. As the level of complexity of the model dye-bridge-anchor group compounds has increased, the understanding of some aspects of very complex charge transfer events has improved. The knowledge acquired from the study of the described model dyes is of importance not only for DSSC development but also to other fields of science for which electronic processes at the molecule/semiconductor interface are relevant. PMID:20135672

  15. Structure-performance correlations of organic dyes with an electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline moiety for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Sie-Rong; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Yang, Po-Fan; Liao, Chia-Wei; Lee, Mandy M; Su, Wei-Lin; Li, Chun-Ting; Lin, Hao-Wu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Sun, Shih-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    The high performances of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on seven new dyes are disclosed. Herein, the synthesis and electrochemical and photophysical properties of a series of intentionally designed dipolar organic dyes and their application in DSSCs are reported. The molecular structures of the seven organic dyes are composed of a triphenylamine group as an electron donor, a cyanoacrylic acid as an electron acceptor, and an electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline moiety integrated in the ?-conjugated spacer between the electron donor and acceptor moieties. The DSSCs based on the dye DJ104 gave the best overall cell performance of 8.06?%; the efficiency of the DSSC based on the standard N719 dye under the same experimental conditions was 8.82?%. The spectral coverage of incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies extends to the onset at the near-infrared region due to strong internal charge-transfer transition as well as the effect of electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline to lower the energy gap in these organic dyes. A combined tetraphenyl segment as a hydrophobic barrier in these organic dyes effectively slows down the charge recombination from TiO2 to the electrolyte and boosts the photovoltage, comparable to their Ru(II) counterparts. Detailed spectroscopic studies have revealed the dye structure-cell performance correlations, to allow future design of efficient light-harvesting organic dyes. PMID:25042065

  16. The degradation of organic dyes by corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Durham, D.E.; Heath, W.O.

    1992-02-01

    Several dyes in water were individually exposed to corona discharge. Light absorbance decreased for all organic dyes with time. Absorbance losses with methylene blue, malachite green, and new coccine were studied. The loss of color was followed using an in situ colorimeter and the effects of varying the current, voltage, gas phase, stirring rates, salinity, and electrode spacing were investigated. The highest reaction rates were observed using the highest current, highest voltage (up to 10kV), highest stirring rate, lowest salinity, smallest electrode spacing, and an environment containing enhanced levels of oxygen. Current was higher in the presence of nitrogen than in the presence of oxygen (for the same voltage), but the reaction of methylene blue did not proceed unless oxygen was present. These results help identify conditions using corona discharge in which dyes, and potentially other organics, can be destroyed. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dvila-Jimnez, Martn M; Elizalde-Gonzlez, Mara P; Garca-Daz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. PMID:25466082

  18. Organic synthetic dye degradation by modified pinhole discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lončarić Božić, A.; Koprivanac, N.; Šunka, P.; Člupek, M.; Babický, V.

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of applying a high voltage pulsed electrical discharges for dye wastewater treatment. Commercial organic monochlorotriazine reactive dye of the anthraquinone type C.I. Reactive Blue 49 (RB49) was chosen as a representative of persistent and recalcitrant wastewater pollutant. The modified pinhole discharge flow-through reactor was used to treat such type of contaminant. Applying HV pulses 30 kV, 3.15 J/pulse, 50 Hz repetition rate, complete decolorisation and partial mineralization of RB49 has been reached and demonstrated by means of UV/VIS absorption, TOC and AOX measurements.

  19. Organic dyes removal using magnetically modified rye straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldikova, Eva; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Rye straw, a very low-cost material, was employed as a biosorbent for two organic water-soluble dyes belonging to different dye classes, namely acridine orange (acridine group) and methyl green (triarylmethane group). The adsorption properties were tested for native and citric acid-NaOH modified rye straw, both in nonmagnetic and magnetic versions. The adsorption equilibrium was reached in 2 h and the adsorption isotherms data were analyzed using the Langmuir model. The highest values of maximum adsorption capacities were 208.3 mg/g for acridine orange and 384.6 mg/g for methyl green.

  20. Theoretical investigation of phenothiazine-triphenylamine-based organic dyes with different ? spacers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ximing; Jia, Chunyang; Wan, Zhongquan; Zhang, Jiaqiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2014-04-01

    Three phenothiazine-triphenylamine-based organic dyes (CD-1, CD-2 and CD-3) are designed based on the dye WD-8. The geometries, electronic structures, and electronic absorption spectra of these dyes before and after binding to TiO2 are studied by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The calculated geometries indicate that these dyes show good steric hindrance effect which is advantage to inhibit the close intermolecular ?-? aggregation effectively. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of these dyes could ensure positive effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. The simulated spectra of CD-1?3 show better absorption than that of WD-8 in the low energy zone. All the calculated results demonstrate that these dyes could be used as potential sensitizers for DSSCs and show better performances than WD-8. PMID:24398472

  1. Organics Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Niewolny, Laurie A.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2006-09-28

    Sinclair and Dyes Inlets near Bremerton, Washington, are on the State of Washington 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue. Because significant cleanup and source control activities have been conducted in the inlets since the data supporting the 1998 303(d) listings were collected, two verification studies were performed to address the 303(d) segments that were listed for metal and organic contaminants in marine sediment. The Metals Verification Study (MVS) was conducted in 2003; the final report, Metals Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington, was published in March 2004 (Kohn et al. 2004). This report describes the Organics Verification Study that was conducted in 2005. The study approach was similar to the MVS in that many surface sediment samples were screened for the major classes of organic contaminants, and then the screening results and other available data were used to select a subset of samples for quantitative chemical analysis. Because the MVS was designed to obtain representative data on concentrations of contaminants in surface sediment throughout Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, and Rich Passage, aliquots of the 160 MVS sediment samples were used in the analysis for the Organics Verification Study. However, unlike metals screening methods, organics screening methods are not specific to individual organic compounds, and are not available for some target organics. Therefore, only the quantitative analytical results were used in the organics verification evaluation. The results of the Organics Verification Study showed that sediment quality outside of Sinclair Inlet is unlikely to be impaired because of organic contaminants. Similar to the results for metals, in Sinclair Inlet, the distribution of residual organic contaminants is generally limited to nearshore areas already within the actively managed Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility Superfund Site, where further source-control actions and monitoring are under way.

  2. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of sixteen red beverages containing carminic acid: identification of degradation products by using principal component analysis/discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Mastroianni, Rita; Marengo, Emilio

    2015-01-15

    The study investigates the sunlight photodegradation process of carminic acid, a natural red colourant used in beverages. For this purpose, both carminic acid aqueous standard solutions and sixteen different commercial beverages, ten containing carminic acid and six containing E120 dye, were subjected to photoirradiation. The results show different patterns of degradation, not only between the standard solutions and the beverages, but also from beverage to beverage. Due to the different beverage recipes, unpredictable reactions take place between the dye and the other ingredients. To identify the dye degradation products in a very complex scenario, a methodology was used, based on the combined use of principal component analysis with discriminant analysis and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high resolution mass spectrometry. The methodology is unaffected by beverage composition and allows the degradation products of carminic acid dye to be identified for each beverage. PMID:25149011

  3. Dynamic Characteristics of Aggregation Effects of Organic Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuai; Li, Quan-Song; Sun, Ping-Ping; Niehaus, Thomas A; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2015-10-14

    Two organic dyes (LS-1 and IQ4) containing identical electron donor and acceptor units but distinct ? units result in significantly different power conversion efficiency of the corresponding dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs): LS-1, 4.4%, and IQ4, 9.2%. Herein, we combine first-principle calculations and molecular dynamics to explore the aggregation effects of LS-1 and IQ4 by comparing their optical properties and intermolecular electronic couplings. The calculated absorption spectra are in good agreement with the experimental observations and reveal them to be evidently affected by the dimerization. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations show that steric hindrance induced by the diphenylquinoxaline unit in IQ4 can elongate the distances between intermolecular ? units or electron donors, which are responsible for the fact that the intermolecular electronic coupling of LS-1 is about 10 times larger than that of IQ4. More importantly, the aggregated IQ4 remains almost perpendicular to the TiO2 surface, whereas LS-1 gradually tilts during the dynamic simulation, impacting electron injection and recombination in several ways, which clarifies why IQ4 leads to larger photocurrent and higher conversion efficiency. The deep understanding of the dye aggregation effects sheds new light on the complex factors determining DSSC function and paves the way for rational design of high-efficiency self-anti-aggregation sensitizers. PMID:26391331

  4. Theoretical design of thiazolothiazole-based organic dyes with different electron donors for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Fitri, Asmae; Benjelloun, Adil Touimi; Benzakour, Mohammed; Mcharfi, Mohammed; Hamidi, Mohammed; Bouachrine, Mohammed

    2014-11-11

    In this study, we have designed four novel organic donor-?-acceptor dyes (D1, D2, D3, D4), used for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The electron acceptor (anchoring) group was 2-cyanoacrylic for all dyes whereas the electron donor unit varied (coumarin, indoline, carbazole, triphenylamine) and the influence was investigated. These dyes, based on thiazolothiazole as ?-spacer, were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and its extensible time dependant DFT (TDDFT) approaches to shed light on how the ?-conjugation order influence the performance of the dyes in the DSSCs. The theoretical results have shown that the LUMO and HOMO energy levels of these dyes can be ensuring positive effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. The trend of the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps nicely compares with the spectral data. Key parameters in close connection with the short-circuit current density (Jsc), including light harvesting efficiency (LHE), injection driving force (?Ginject.) and total reorganization energy (?total), were discussed. The calculated results of these dyes reveal that dye D2, with indoline as electron donor group, can be used as a potential sensitizer for TiO2 nanocrystalline solar cells due to its best electronic and optical properties and good photovoltaic parameters. PMID:24866090

  5. Theoretical design of thiazolothiazole-based organic dyes with different electron donors for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, Asmae; Benjelloun, Adil Touimi; Benzakour, Mohammed; Mcharfi, Mohammed; Hamidi, Mohammed; Bouachrine, Mohammed

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we have designed four novel organic donor-?-acceptor dyes (D1, D2, D3, D4), used for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The electron acceptor (anchoring) group was 2-cyanoacrylic for all dyes whereas the electron donor unit varied (coumarin, indoline, carbazole, triphenylamine) and the influence was investigated. These dyes, based on thiazolothiazole as ?-spacer, were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and its extensible time dependant DFT (TDDFT) approaches to shed light on how the ?-conjugation order influence the performance of the dyes in the DSSCs. The theoretical results have shown that the LUMO and HOMO energy levels of these dyes can be ensuring positive effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. The trend of the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps nicely compares with the spectral data. Key parameters in close connection with the short-circuit current density (Jsc), including light harvesting efficiency (LHE), injection driving force (?Ginject.) and total reorganization energy (?total), were discussed. The calculated results of these dyes reveal that dye D2, with indoline as electron donor group, can be used as a potential sensitizer for TiO2 nanocrystalline solar cells due to its best electronic and optical properties and good photovoltaic parameters.

  6. 21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), not more than 10 parts per million. Arsenic (as As), not more than 1 part per million. Carminic acid...), not more than 10 parts per million. Arsenic (as As), not more than 1 part per million. Carminic...

  7. POTENTIALLY TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN THE INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS AND ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this program were identification of the potential hazards associated with the production and use of industrial organic chemicals (IOC) and organic dyes and pigments (ODP) and determination of the state of the art of the control and treatment of potentially hazard...

  8. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingkui; Vomiero, Alberto; Concina, Isabella; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (τR) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction. PMID:26738698

  9. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingkui; Vomiero, Alberto; Concina, Isabella; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-?-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of ?-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (?R) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction. PMID:26738698

  10. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingkui; Vomiero, Alberto; Concina, Isabella; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (τR) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction.

  11. Interaction of protonated merocyanine dyes with amines in organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Eduardo Alberton; Sidooski, Thiago; Nandi, Leandro Guarezi; Machado, Vanderlei Gageiro

    2011-10-01

    2,6-Diphenyl-4-(2,4,6-triphenylpyridinium-1-yl)phenolate ( 1a) and 4-[(1-methyl-4(1 H)-pyridinylidene)-ethylidene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one ( 2a) were protonated in organic solvents (dichloromethane, acetonitrile, and DMSO) to form 1b and 2b, respectively. The appearance of the solvatochromic bands of 1a and 2a was studied UV-vis spectrophotometrically by deprotonation of 1b and 2b in solution in the presence of the following amines: aniline (AN), N-methylaniline (NMAN), N, N-dimethylaniline (NDAN), n-butylamine (BA), diethylamine (DEA), and triethylamine (TEA). Titrations of 1b and 2b with the amines were carried out and the binding constants were determined from the titration curves in each solvent, using a mathematical model adapted from the literature which considers the simultaneous participation of two dye: amine stoichiometries, 1:1 and 1:2. The data obtained showed the following base order for the two compounds in DMSO: BA > DEA > TEA, while aromatic amines did not cause any effect. In dichloromethane, the following base order for 1b was verified: TEA > DEA > BA ?NDAN, while for 2b the order was: TEA > DEA > BA, suggesting that 1b is more acidic than 2b. The data in acetonitrile indicated for 1b and 2b the following order for the amines: DEA > TEA > BA. The diversity of the experimental data were explained based on a model that considers the level of interaction of the protonated dyes with the amines to be dependent on three aspects: (a) the basicity of the amine, which varies according to their molecular structure and the solvent in which it is dissolved, (b) the molecular structure of the dye, and (c) the solvent used to study the system.

  12. Theoretical investigation of new thiazolothiazole-based D-π-A organic dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Fitri, Asmae; Benjelloun, Adil Touimi; Benzakour, Mohammed; Mcharfi, Mohammed; Hamidi, Mohammed; Bouachrine, Mohammed

    2014-04-24

    Novel ten organic donor-π-acceptor dyes (D-π-A), used for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), based on thiazolothiazole were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and time dependant DFT (TDDFT) approaches to shed light on how the π-conjugation order influence the performance of the dyes. The electron acceptor (anchoring) group was 2-cyanoacrylic for all dyes whereas the electron-donor unit varied and the influence was investigated. The theoretical results have shown that TDDFT calculations using the Coulomb attenuating method CAM-B3LYP with the polarized split-valence 6-31G (d,p) basis sets and the polarizable continuum model (PCM) were reasonably capable of predicting the excitation energies, the absorption and the emission spectra of the molecules. The LUMO and HOMO energy levels of these dyes can ensure a positive effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. The trend of the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps nicely compares with the spectral data. Key parameters in close connection with the short-circuit current density (Jsc), including light-harvesting efficiency (LHE), injection driving force (ΔG(inject)) and total reorganization energy (λtotal), were discussed. In addition, the estimated values of open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) for these dyes were presented. The calculated results of these dyes reveal that the D6 dye can be used as a potential sensitizer for TiO2 nanocrystalline solar cells due to its best electronic and optical properties and good photovoltaic parameters. PMID:24513712

  13. Hexagonal microlasers based on organic dyes in nonoporous crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nöckel, Jens U.; Laeri, Franco

    2000-03-01

    Zeolites such as nanoporous AlPO_4-5 are molecular sieves which can host a wide variety of laser active dyes that fit into the channel pores. The low losses and regular matrix arrangement of the host material make optical applications feasible in which a microscopic order is imposed on the active guest molecules. The morphology of the resulting zeolite crystals is that of a hexagonal microcylinder, provided the size and concentration of the organic dyes (pyridine 2, and a new rhodamine-B derivative) can be accomodated. Lasing at optical wavelengths has been achieved in such crystals of diameters down to 4.5 μm, with the crystal facets forming a self-assembled resonator for whispering-gallery modes. In terms of pump needed to reach lasing threshold, molecular sieve microlasers are comparable to VCSELs. Wave simulations agree with the experimental characterization of the lasing properties. Whereas the spectral structure furthermore agrees with a ray picture, strong diffractive corrections to ray expectations are revealed for the emission directionality. The corners between adjacent facets of the crystal are sharp on the scale of the wavelength, and the resulting deviations from ray optics are discussed.

  14. Catalytic degradation of organic dyes using biosynthesized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vidhu, V K; Philip, Daizy

    2014-01-01

    The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles paved the way to improve and protect the environment by decreasing the use of toxic chemicals and eliminating biological risks in biomedical applications. Plant mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles is gaining more importance owing to its simplicity, rapid rate of synthesis of nanoparticles and eco-friendliness. The present article reports an environmentally benign and unexploited method for the synthesis of silver nanocatalysts using Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, which is a potential source of phytochemicals. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the silver samples exhibited distinct band centered around 400-440 nm. The major phytochemicals present in the seed extract responsible for the formation of silver nanocatalysts are identified using FTIR spectroscopy. The report emphasizes the effect of the size of silver nanoparticles on the degradation rate of hazardous dyes, methyl orange, methylene blue and eosin Y by NaBH4. The efficiency of silver nanoparticles as a promising candidate for the catalysis of organic dyes by NaBH4 through the electron transfer process is established in the present study. PMID:24210247

  15. Organic Dyes with Well-Defined Structures for Highly Efficient Dye-Sensitised Solar Cells Based on a Cobalt Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kang Deuk; Choi, In Tack; Kim, Hwan Kyu

    2015-10-12

    Seven SGT organics dyes, containing bis-dimethylfluoreneyl amino groups with a dialkoxyphenyl unit as an electron donor and a cyanoacrylic acid group as an anchoring group, connected with oligothiophenes, fused thiophenes and benzothiadiazoles as ?-bridges, were designed and synthesised for applications in dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSCs). The photovoltaic performance of DSSCs based on organic dyes with oligothiophenes depends on the molecular structure of the dyes, in terms of the length change of the ?-bridging units. The best performance was found with a ?-bridge length of about 6 . To further enhance the photovoltaic performance associated with this concept, cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophene (CPDT) and benzothiadiazole were introduced into the ?-bridge unit. As a result, the DSSC based on the organic dye containing the CPDT moiety showed the best photovoltaic performance with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc ) of 14.1 mA cm(-2) , an open-circuit voltage (Voc ) of 0.84 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.72, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency (?) of 8.61 % under standard AM 1.5 irradiation. PMID:26332091

  16. Case study on the destruction of organic dyes in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Rice, S.F.

    1994-11-01

    Organic dyes, which were used in Navy shells to mark ships and structures, need to be disposed of without burning. A study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of using supercritical water oxidation to destroy organic dyes. Experimental destruction efficiencies, product analyses, and process configuration are reported.

  17. Fabrication of a high-performance dye-sensitized solar cell with 12.8% conversion efficiency using organic silyl-anchor dyes.

    PubMed

    Kakiage, Kenji; Aoyama, Yohei; Yano, Toru; Oya, Keiji; Kyomen, Toru; Hanaya, Minoru

    2015-04-14

    The co-sensitization of organic silyl-anchor dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using carbazole and coumarin dyes with organosilicon tethers for binding to titanium dioxide has been examined. We have succeeded in fabricating a high-performance DSSC with a light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 12.8% under one sun simulated solar irradiation. PMID:25760960

  18. Benzo[a]carbazole-Based Donor-π-Acceptor Type Organic Dyes for Highly Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xing; Zhu, Yi-Zhou; Chang, Wen-Ying; Song, Jian; Pan, Bin; Lu, Lin; Gao, Huan-Huan; Zheng, Jian-Yu

    2015-05-01

    A novel class of metal-free organic dyes based on benzo[a]carbazole have been designed, synthesized, and used in dye-sensitized solar cells for the first time. These types of dyes consisted of a cyanoacrylic acid moiety as the electron acceptor/anchoring group and different electron-rich spacers such as thiophene (JY21), furan (JY22), and oligothiophene (JY23) as the π-linkers. The photophysical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties, as well as theoretical calculations of these dyes were investigated. The photovoltaic performances of these dyes were found to be highly relevant to the π-conjugated linkers. In particular, dye JY23 exhibited a broad IPCE response with a photocurrent signal up to about 740 nm covering the most region of the UV-visible light. A DSSC based on JY23 showed the best photovoltaic performance with a Jsc of 14.8 mA cm(-2), a Voc of 744 mV, and a FF of 0.68, achieving a power conversion efficiency of 7.54% under standard AM 1.5 G irradiation. PMID:25874363

  19. Selective adsorption and separation of organic dyes from aqueous solution on polydopamine microspheres.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianwei; Xin, Qianqian; Wu, Xuechen; Chen, Zhonghui; Yan, Ya; Liu, Shujun; Wang, Minghuan; Xu, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Polydopamine (PDA) microspheres, synthesized by a facile oxidation polymerization route, were evaluated as a potential adsorbent for selective adsorption and separation of organic dyes. The adsorption processes towards nine water-soluble dyes (anionic dyes: methyl orange (MO), eosin-Y (EY), eosin-B (EB), acid chrome blue K (ACBK), neutral dye: neutral red (NR), and cationic dyes: rhodamine B (RhB), malachite green (MG), methylene blue (MB), safranine T (ST)) were thoroughly investigated. The adsorption selectivity of organic dyes onto PDA microspheres was successfully applied for the separation of dyes mixtures. Various influential factors such as solution pH, temperature, and contact time were employed to ascertain the optimal condition for adsorption of representative organic dyes including MB, MG and NR. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were used to fit the adsorption kinetics process. Five isothermal adsorption models (Langmuir, Dubnin-Radushkevich, Temkin, Freundlich and Harkins-Jura) were used to investigate the adsorption thermodynamics properties. The results showed that the PDA microspheres owned good selective adsorption ability towards cationic dyes. The adsorption kinetics process conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model was more appropriate for tracing the adsorption behavior than other isotherm models. Thus, we can conclude PDA microspheres may be a high-efficiency selective adsorbent towards some cationic dyes. PMID:26407057

  20. Advanced organic dye for high-speed, high-density optical media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, Takuo; Matsuda, Isao; Somei, Hidenori; Tsuzuki, Takeo; Yokoyama, Daizo; Endo, Akihisa; Takeguchi, Kazunobu; Kojo, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Fuyuki; Otsu, Takeshi; Murai, Wakaaki; Hattori, Masashi; Shimomai, Kenichi; Oshita, Junji; Asano, Sho; Shimizu, Atsuo; Fujii, Toru

    2015-09-01

    Advances in organic dye progress are indispensable for high-speed, high-density recording of recordable Blu-ray Disc (BD-R) low-to-high (LTH) discs without a low elastic modulus layer. The optimal physical properties of the organic dyes, i.e., a low decomposition calorific value, a low decomposition temperature, and a large n-value, were determined, and a dye with these properties was synthesized. A BD-R disc using the dye conformed to the BD-R LTH standard at 8 recording and ever higher speeds should be possible. Furthermore, the possibility of 33 GB/layer high-density recording was suggested.

  1. Composite nanofibers for highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes from contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Alaa; El-Sayed, Ramy; Osman, T A; Toprak, M S; Muhammed, M; Uheida, A

    2016-02-01

    In this study highly efficient photocatalyst based on composite nanofibers containing polyacrylonitrile (PAN), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and surface functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles was developed. The composite nanofibers were fabricated using electrospinning technique followed by chemical crosslinking. The surface modification and morphology changes of the fabricated composite nanofibers were examined through SEM, TEM, and FTIR analysis. The photocatalytic performance of the composite nanofibers for the degradation of model molecules, methylene blue and indigo carmine, under UV irradiation in aqueous solutions was investigated. The results demonstrated that high photodegradation efficiency was obtained in a short time and at low power intensity compared to other reported studies. The effective factors on the degradation of the dyes, such as the amount of catalyst, solution pH and irradiation time were investigated. The experimental kinetic data were fitted using pseudo-first order model. The effect of the composite nanofibers as individual components on the degradation efficiency of MB and IC was evaluated in order to understand the overall photodegradation mechanism. The results obtained showed that all the components possess significant effect on the photodegradation activity of the composite nanofibers. The stability studies demonstrated that the photodegradation efficiency can remain constant at the level of 99% after five consecutive cycles. PMID:26615225

  2. Preparation and spectral characterization of polymeric nanocapsules containing DR1 organic dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifimehr, Mohammad Reza; Ghanbari, Khadijeh; Ayoubi, Kazem; Mohajerani, Ezedin

    2015-07-01

    In order to provide necessary degree of freedom for organic dye molecules in optical applications and also for safety improvement, water insoluble Disperse Red 1 (DR1) dye molecules were placed inside the polymeric nanocapsules along with suitable surfactants and using controlled phase-separation method. TEM images were used to investigate the morphology of prepared nanocapsules. Total dye concentration for a solution consist of obtained polymeric nanocapsules was determined using decomposition of nanocapsules and a reference absorption spectrum. Absorption spectrum of a solution containing DR1 and dichloromethane was also compared with prepared nanocapsules at the same dye concentration, thereby a red-shift in absorption spectrum was detected.

  3. Novel organic dyes for multicolor localization-based super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Martin; Lichtner, Gregor; Klenz, Haider; Schmoranzer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Precise multicolor single molecule localization-based microscopy (SMLM) requires bright probes with compatible photo-chemical and spectral properties to resolve distinct molecular species at the nanoscale. The accuracy of multicolor SMLM is further challenged by color channel crosstalk and chromatic alignment errors. These constrains limit the applicability of known reversibly switchable organic dyes for optimized multicolor SMLM. Here, we tested 28 commercially available dyes for their suitability to super-resolve a known cellular nanostructure. We identified eight novel dyes in different spectral regimes that enable high quality dSTORM imaging. Among those, the spectrally close dyes CF647 and CF680 comprise an optimal dye pair for spectral demixing-based, registration free multicolor dSTORM with low crosstalk. Combining this dye pair with the separately excited CF568 we performed 3-color dSTORM to image the relative nanoscale distribution of components of the endocytic machinery and the cytoskeleton. A major limitation of multicolor single molecule localization based super-resolution microscopy (SMLM) is the availability of suitable photo-switchable fluorescent dyes. By screening 28 commercially available dyes, novel dyes in different spectral regimes were identified that are well suited for dual and triple color SMLM with low crosstalk. These novel dyes are employed to image the relative nanoscale distribution of sub-cellular components. PMID:25973835

  4. A New Organic Dye-Based Staining for The Detection of Plant DNA in Agarose Gels.

    PubMed

    Sönmezoğlu, Özlem Ateş; Özkay, Kerime

    2015-01-01

    Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. We investigated N-719, which is a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye, and five fluorescent alternatives for staining plant DNA. For prestaining and poststaining, N-719, GelRed, and SYBR Safe stained both DNA and PCR product bands as clearly as EtBr. SYBR Green I, methylene blue, and crystal violet were effective for poststaining only. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. Consequently, organic dyes can be used as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies. PMID:26158569

  5. Influence of selected fluorescent dyes on small aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowiński, Paweł; Chrzanowski, Marcin

    2011-02-01

    Rhodamine B and Rhodamine WT are fluorescent dyes commonly used as tracers in hydrological investigations. Since introducing intensely red substances into rivers raises understandable doubts of ecological nature, the authors aimed at examining the influence of these dyes on small water fauna using bioindication methods. Quantitative results, calculated with the use of Bliss-Weber probit statistical method, were achieved by means of standardized ecotoxicological tests containing ready-to-hatch resting forms of fairy shrimp (Thamnocephalus platyurus). Qualitative studies included observation of water flea crustacean (Daphnia magna) and horned planorbis snail (Planorbis corneus), both typically present in rivers and representative for temperate climate, as well as guppy fish (Poecilla reticulata), paramecium protozoan (Paramaecium caudatum) and the above-mentioned fairy shrimp. The investigation revealed that both dyes in concentrations used for hydrological purposes are low enough to exert almost no toxic impact on water fauna considered.

  6. The electronic structure engineering of organic dye sensitizers for solar cells: The case of JK derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cai-Rong; Ma, Jin-Gang; Zhe, Jian-Wu; Jin, Neng-Zhi; Shen, Yu-Lin; Wu, You-Zhi; Chen, Yu-Hong; Liu, Zi-Jiang; Chen, Hong-Shan

    2015-11-01

    The design and development of novel dye sensitizers are effective method to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because dye sensitizers have significant influence on photo-to-current conversion efficiency. In the procedure of dye sensitizer design, it is very important to understand how to tune their electronic structures and related properties through the substitution of electronic donors, acceptors, and conjugated bridges in dye sensitizers. Here, the electronic structures and excited-state properties of organic JK dye sensitizers are calculated by using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT methods. Based upon the calculated results, we investigated the role of different electronic donors, acceptors, and ?-conjugated bridges in the modification of electronic structures, absorption properties, as well as the free energy variations for electron injection and dye regeneration. In terms of the analysis of transition configurations and molecular orbitals, the effective chromophores which are favorable for electron injection in DSSCs are addressed. Meanwhile, considering the absorption spectra and free energy variation, the promising electronic donors, ?-conjugated bridges, and acceptors are presented to design dye sensitizers. PMID:26116996

  7. Measurement method for photoluminescent quantum yields of fluorescent organic dyes in polymethyl methacrylate for luminescent solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Wilson, L R; Richards, B S

    2009-01-10

    A method for measuring the photoluminescent quantum yields (PLQY) of luminescent organic dyes is presented. The self-absorption probability calculated at different dye concentrations is used to determine the absolute quantum yield from the observed values. The results for a range of commercially available dyes show high quantum yields, even at high concentrations, and an absence of quenching. The PLQY of several dye mixtures are also presented. The results indicate an absence of any reduction of PLQY in a dye mixture as compared with the individual PLQY of the dyes. PMID:19137031

  8. Molecular interaction of organic dyes in bulk and confined media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Amitabha; Ali, Moazzam; Saha, Swapan K.

    2010-05-01

    Molecular interactions of five thiazine dyes with increasing alkyl substitution have been studied in aqueous and microemulsion media at 303 K within a concentration range of (1.35-7.00) 10 -4 M. The dimerization constant ( Kd) values for the five dyes are ranged between 1.761 and 6.258 10 3 l mol -1 in bulk water media, where as in microemulsion media, Kd's are ranged between 1.760 and 4.110 10 3 l mol -1. Thionine (with no methyl substitution) and azure A (with two methyl substitution) displayed slightly larger Kd values in microemulsion water pools compared to bulk water while other dyes recorded significant drop in Kd values. The influence of microemulsion media on the molecular interaction of dyes has been explained in terms of electrostatic and hydrophobic factors. The monomer and the dimer spectra are explained in terms of molecular exciton model and the optical absorption parameters of both the species are reported in bulk and confined media.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Organic Dyes Containing Various Donors and Acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tzi-Yi; Tsao, Ming-Hsiu; Chen, Fu-Lin; Su, Shyh-Gang; Chang, Cheng-Wen; Wang, Hong-Paul; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Ou-Yang, Wen-Chung; Sun, I-Wen

    2010-01-01

    New organic dyes comprising carbazole, iminodibenzyl, or phenothiazine moieties, respectively, as the electron donors, and cyanoacetic acid or acrylic acid moieties as the electron acceptors/anchoring groups were synthesized and characterized. The influence of heteroatoms on carbazole, iminodibenzyl and phenothiazine donors, and cyano-substitution on the acid acceptor is evidenced by spectral, electrochemical, photovoltaic experiments, and density functional theory calculations. The phenothiazine dyes show solar-energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 3.465.53%, whereas carbazole and iminodibenzyl dyes show ? of 2.43% and 3.49%, respectively. PMID:20162019

  10. Spectral transmittance of organic dye-doped glass films obtained by the solgel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, Shojiro; Hirokawa, Naoyuki

    1996-06-01

    The spectral transmittance of colored glass films synthesized by the solgel method is presented. The film was formed on a glass slide by dipping it into an organic dye-doped solution and, thereafter, by putting it into a furnace for solidification. Three dyes, Methylene Blue, Eosin, and Uranine, were used that exhibit transparent blue, pink, and yellow colors, respectively, when they are dissolved in the starting solution. We clarify how the spectral transmittance of the films varies with the solidification temperature. The films doped with two of the three dyes that exhibit violet, orange, and green colors are also synthesized, and their transmittance is measured. Moreover, the chemical durability of the films and the transmittance change caused by aging and illumination are examined. organic dye, solgel method.

  11. Controlling the bleeding of carmine colorant in crabstick.

    PubMed

    Poowakanjana, Samanan; Park, Jae W

    2009-01-01

    Carmine used to color surimi seafood often seeps or bleeds from red-colored meat to white meat when vacuum-packed products go through high-temperature long-time pasteurization. Various physical and chemical treatments were examined to investigate means to inhibit or minimize carmine bleeding in surimi seafood products. Degree of bleeding was analyzed using L* (lightness) and a* (redness) as affected by carmine concentrations, pH, pasteurization conditions, and added calcium compounds. Bleeding was significantly affected by carmine concentrations. Optimum carmine concentration in color paste was 0.1%. Bleeding increased when pasteurization time and/or temperature increased. Color bleeding was also affected by moisture content of surimi paste. Carmine bleeding was minimized as pH of color solution decreased. The degree of bleeding was controlled as calcium compounds were added in color solution in a descending order of calcium chloride, calcium acetate, and calcium hydroxide. Minimal inhibition was obtained when color solutions contained calcium citrate, tricalcium phosphate, and calcium lactate. Practical Application: This manuscript addresses one of the long time problems in the surimi crabstick industry. Various means to control carmine bleeding or color transfer under high temperature for long time pasteurization were demonstrated. However, further study must continue to stop bleeding completely. PMID:20492104

  12. Hierarchical Organization of Organic Dyes and Protein Cages into Photoactive Crystals.

    PubMed

    Mikkilä, Joona; Anaya-Plaza, Eduardo; Liljeström, Ville; Caston, Jose R; Torres, Tomas; Escosura, Andrés de la; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2016-01-26

    Phthalocyanines (Pc) are non-natural organic dyes with wide and deep impact in materials science, based on their intense absorption at the near-infrared (NIR), long-lived fluorescence and high singlet oxygen ((1)O2) quantum yields. However, Pcs tend to stack in buffer solutions, losing their ability to generate singlet oxygen, which limits their scope of application. Furthermore, Pcs are challenging to organize in crystalline structures. Protein cages, on the other hand, are very promising biological building blocks that can be used to organize different materials into crystalline nanostructures. Here, we combine both kinds of components into photoactive biohybrid crystals. Toward this end, a hierarchical organization process has been designed in which (a) a supramolecular complex is formed between octacationic zinc Pc (1) and a tetraanionic pyrene (2) derivatives, driven by electrostatic and π-π interactions, and (b) the resulting tetracationic complex acts as a molecular glue that binds to the outer surface anionic patches of the apoferritin (aFt) protein cage, inducing cocrystallization. The obtained ternary face-centered cubic (fcc) packed cocrystals, with diameters up to 100 μm, retain the optical properties of the pristine dye molecules, such as fluorescence at 695 nm and efficient light-induced (1)O2 production. Considering that (1)O2 is utilized in important technologies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), water treatments, diagnostic arrays and as an oxidant in organic synthesis, our results demonstrate a powerful methodology to create functional biohybrid systems with unprecedented long-range order. This approach should greatly aid the development of nanotechnology and biomedicine. PMID:26691783

  13. Effect of the co-sensitization sequence on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with porphyrin and organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Suhua; Lu, Xuefeng; Sun, Hong; Zhou, Gang; Chang, Yuan Jay; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2015-12-23

    To obtain a broad spectral response in the visible region, TiO2 film is co-sensitized with a porphyrin dye (FNE57 or FNE59) and an organic dye (FNE46). It is found that the stepwise co-sensitization in one single dye solution followed by in another single dye solution is better than the co-sensitization in a cocktail solution in terms of photovoltaic performance. The stepwise co-sensitization first with a porphyrin dye and then with an organic dye outperforms that in a reverse order. DSSC devices based on co-sensitizers FNE57 + FNE46 and FNE59 + FNE46 with a quasi-solid-state gel electrolyte generate power conversion efficiencies of 7.88% and 8.14%, respectively, which exhibits remarkable efficiency improvements of 61% and 35%, as compared with devices sensitized with the porphyrin dyes FNE57 and FNE59, respectively. Co-sensitization brings about a much improved short-circuit photocurrent due to the complementary absorption of the two sensitizers. The observed enhancement of incident monochromatic photon-to-electron conversion efficiency from individual dye sensitization to co-sensitization is attributed to the improved charge collection efficiency rather than to the light harvesting efficiency. Interestingly, the open-circuit photovoltage for the co-sensitization system comes between the higher voltage for the porphyrin dye (FNE57 or FNE59) and the lower voltage for the organic dye (FNE46), which is well correlated with their electron lifetimes. This finding indicates that not only the spectral complementation but also the electron lifetime should be considered to select dyes for co-sensitization. PMID:26651077

  14. Synthesis, linear optical, non-linear optical, thermal and mechanical characterizations of dye-doped semi-organic NLO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesha Bamini, N.; Vidyalakshmy, Y.; Choedak, Tenzin; Kejalakshmy, N.; Muthukrishnan, P.; Ancy, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    Organic laser dyes Coumarin 485, Coumarin 540 and Rhodamine 590 Chloride were used to dope potassium acid phthalate crystals (KAP). Dye-doped KAP crystals with different dye concentrations such as 0.01 mM, 0.03 mM, 0.05 mM, 0.07 mM and 0.09 mM (in the KAP growth solution) were grown. The linear optical, non-linear optical, mechanical and thermal characterizations of dye-doped KAP crystals were studied and compared to understand the effect of dye and dye concentration on the KAP crystal. Absorption and emission studies of KAP and dye-doped KAP single crystals indicated the inclusion of the dye into the KAP crystal lattice. The effect of dye and its concentration on the SHG efficiency of the KAP crystal was studied using the Kurtz and Perry powder technique. It was observed that the absorption maximum wavelength and concentration of the dye used for doping the KAP single crystal decided the SHG efficiency of the dye-doped KAP single crystals. The mechanical hardness of the dye-doped and undoped (pure) KAP single crystals were studied using the Vickners microhardness test. It was observed that doping the KAP crystals with the laser dyes changed them from softer material to harder material. Etching studies showed an improvement in the optical quality of the KAP crystal after doping with laser dyes.

  15. Solubilization of two organic dyes by cationic ester-containing gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Tehrani-Bagha, A R; Singh, R G; Holmberg, K

    2012-06-15

    Solubilization of two different types of organic dyes, Quinizarin with an anthraquinone structure and Sudan I with an azo structure, has been studied in aqueous solutions of a series of cationic gemini surfactants and of a conventional monomeric cationic surfactant, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB). Surfactant concentrations both above and below the critical micelle concentration were used. The concentration of solubilized dye at equilibrium was determined from the absorbance of the solution at ?(max) with the aid of a calibration curve. The solubilization power of the gemini surfactants was higher than that of DTAB and increased with increasing alkyl chain length. An increase in length of the spacer unit resulted in increased solubilization power while a hydroxyl group in the spacer did not have much effect. Ester bonds in the alkyl chains reduced the solubilization power with respect to both dyes. A comparison between the absorbance spectra of the dyes in micellar solution with spectra in a range of solvents of different polarity indicated that the dye is situated in a relatively polar environment. One may therefore assume that the dye is located just below the head group region of the micelle. Attractive ?-cation interactions may play a role for orienting the dye to the outer region of the micelle. PMID:22444485

  16. White-rot fungus Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong ability to decolorize and tolerate the anthraquinone, indigo and triphenylmethane dye with high concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruoying; Ma, Li; He, Feng; Yu, Dong; Fan, Ruozhi; Zhang, Yangming; Long, Zheping; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

    2016-03-01

    The ability of the white-rot fungus Ganoderma sp.En3 to decolorize different kinds of dyes widely applied in the textile and dyeing industry, including the anthraquinone dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), indigo dye indigo carmine and triphenylmethane dye methyl green, was evaluated in this study. Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong capability of decolorizing high concentrations of RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green. Obvious reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demand was observed after decolorization of different dyes. Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong ability to tolerate RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green with high concentrations. High concentrations of RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green could also be efficiently decolorized by the crude enzyme of Ganoderma sp.En3. Different redox mediators such as syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone could enhance the decolorization capability for higher concentration of indigo carmine and methyl green. Different metal ions had little effect on the ability of the crude enzyme to decolorize indigo carmine and methyl green. Our study suggested that Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong capability for decolorizing and tolerating high concentrations of different types of dyes such as RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green. PMID:26684007

  17. Comparative studies on rigid ? linker-based organic dyes: structure-property relationships and photovoltaic performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Hairong; Koh, Teck Ming; Hao, Yan; Zhou, Feng; Abe, Yuichiro; Su, Haibin; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grimsdale, Andrew C

    2014-12-01

    A series of six structurally correlated donor-? bridge-acceptor organic dyes were designed, synthesized, and applied as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most widely studied donor (triarylamine) and cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophene or cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophene[2',1':4,5]thieno[2,3-d]thiophene as ? spacers, their structure-property relationships were investigated in depth by photophysical techniques and theoretical calculations. It was found that the photovoltaic performance of these dyes largely depends on their electronic structures, which requires synergistic interaction between donors and acceptors. Increasing the electron richness of the donor or the elongation of ?-conjugated bridges does not necessarily lead to higher performance. Rather, it is essential to rationally design the dyes by balancing their light-harvesting capability with achieving suitable energy levels to guarantee unimpeded charge separation and transport. PMID:25319943

  18. Laser behavior and photostability characteristics of organic dye doped silicate gel materials.

    PubMed

    Knobbe, E T; Dunn, B; Fuqua, P D; Nishida, F

    1990-06-20

    The solgel process is a solution synthesis technique which provides a low temperature chemical route for the preparation of rigid transparent matrix materials. Luminescent organic dye molecules have been incorporated via the solgel method into organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) polymer host matrices. Optical gain, laser oscillation, and photostability of rhodamine and coumarin dyes doped into ORMOSIL gels are reported. The gel laser materials exhibit peak gain values of 40 cm(-1) and show improved photostability with respect to comparable polymeric host materials. PMID:20567322

  19. Removal of organic dyes by magnetic alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Vincent; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Cabuil, Valrie; Bee, Agns

    2008-02-01

    This study deals with the development of a clean and safe process for water pollution remediation. We have synthesized a magnetic adsorbent in order to develop a solid-phase extraction process assisted by a magnetic field. To follow an 'ecoconception' approach, magnetic beads containing magnetic nanoparticles and activated carbon are prepared with a biopolymer extracted from algae, sodium alginate. The use of renewable bioresources of low cost and those disposable in large amount allows the development of a product with a low impact on the environment. The adsorption properties of activated carbon and magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles are combined to produce an interesting magnetic composite. Synthesis and characterization of the magnetic beads have been reported. Their adsorption capacity was investigated by measuring the removal of two dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) of different charges from aqueous solutions. The efficiency of the beads has been compared with that of non-encapsulated activated carbon. The effects of initial dye concentration, pH and calcium content of the beads have been studied. Adsorption kinetics experiments have been carried out and the data have been well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation. PMID:17980401

  20. Electron transfer dynamics in dye-sensitized solar cells utilizing oligothienylvinylene derivates as organic sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Clifford, John N; Forneli, Amparo; Lpez-Arroyo, Leticia; Caballero, Rubn; de la Cruz, Pilar; Langa, Fernando; Palomares, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    Two new organic dyes have been synthesized and used as efficient light-harvesting materials in molecular photovoltaic devices. These dyes are based on conjugated thienylvinylene units, with FL-4 consisting of a four-unit thienylvinylene oligomer and its homologue FL-7 which additionally incorporates the electron-donating triphenylamine unit (TPA) into its structure. Upon light excitation both dyes show efficient electron injection into the TiO2 conduction band and slow back electron transfer to the oxidized dye. In fact, for FL-7, the back electron transfer dynamics are slower owing to efficient hole transfer to the TPA moiety situated further from the semiconductor surface. However, the electron recombination kinetics with the oxidized electrolyte for both FL-4 and FL-7 in dye-sensitized solar cells are faster than for devices made using the ruthenium dye N719. We believe that this is a serious limiting factor for devices based on oligothiophenes which, despite showing higher molecular extinction coefficients in the vis-NIR region of the solar spectrum, still cannot challenge the light-to-energy conversion efficiency of N719 or other ruthenium polypyridyl complexes. PMID:19338013

  1. Electronic structure measurements of metal-organic solar cell dyes using x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Phillip S.

    The focus of this thesis is twofold: to report the results of X-ray absorption studies of metal-organic dye molecules for dye-sensitized solar cells and to provide a basic training manual on X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques and data analysis. The purpose of our research on solar cell dyes is to work toward an understanding of the factors influencing the electronic structure of the dye: the choice of the metal, its oxidation state, ligands, and cage structure. First we study the effect of replacing Ru in several common dye structures by Fe. First-principles calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the C 1s and N 1s edges are combined to investigate transition metal dyes in octahedral and square planar N cages. Octahedral molecules are found to have a downward shift in the N 1s-to-pi* transition energy and an upward shift in C 1s-to-pi* transition energy when Ru is replaced by Fe, explained by an extra transfer of negative charge from Fe to the N ligands compared to Ru. For the square planar molecules, the behavior is more complex because of the influence of axial ligands and oxidation state. Next the crystal field parameters for a series of phthalocyanine and porphyrins dyes are systematically determined using density functional calculations and atomic multiplet calculations with polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra. The polarization dependence of the spectra provides information on orbital symmetries which ensures the determination of the crystal field parameters is unique. A uniform downward scaling of the calculated crystal field parameters by 5-30% is found to be necessary to best fit the spectra. This work is a part of the ongoing effort to design and test new solar cell dyes. Replacing the rare metal Ru with abundant metals like Fe would be a significant advance for dye-sensitized solar cells. Understanding the effects of changing the metal centers in these dyes in terms of optical absorption, charge transfer, and electronic structure enables the systematic design of new dyes using less expensive materials.

  2. Phosphorescent dyes for organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Chou, Pi-Tai; Chi, Yun

    2007-01-01

    This article presents general concepts that have guided important developments in our recent research progress regarding room-temperature phosphorescent dyes and their potential applications. We first elaborate the theoretical background for emissive metal complexes and the strategic design of the chelating C-linked 2-pyridylazolate ligands, followed by their feasibility in functionalization and modification in an aim to fine-tune the chemical and photophysical properties. Subsequently, incorporation of 2-pyridylazolate chromophores is illustrated in the synthesis of the highly emissive, charge-neutral Os, Ru, Ir, and Pt complexes. Insights into their photophysical properties are gained from spectroscopy, relaxation dynamics, and theoretical approaches, from which the lowest-lying excited states, competitive radiative decay, and radiationless processes are then analyzed in detail. In view of applications, their potentials for OLEDs have been evaluated. The results, in combination with the fundamental basis, give a conceptual design contributed to the future advances in the field of OLEDs. PMID:17146830

  3. Magnetic fluid modified peanut husks as an adsorbent for organic dyes removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Ivo; Safarikova, Mirka

    Magnetically responsive nanocomposite materials, prepared by modification of diamagnetic materials by magnetic fluids (ferrofluids), have already found many important applications in various areas of biosciences, medicine, biotechnology, environmental technology etc. Ferrofluid modified biological waste (peanut husks) has been successfully used for the separation and removal of water soluble organic dyes and thus this low cost adsorbent could be potentially used for waste water treatment.

  4. Photocatalytic Destruction of an Organic Dye Using TiO2 and Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kimberly D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a general chemistry experiment that is carried out in sunlight to illustrate the ability of TiO2 to act as a photocatalyst by mineralizing an organic dye into carbon dioxide. Details about the construction of the reactor system used to perform this experiment are included. (DDR)

  5. Optical Properties of Fluorescent Mixtures: Comparing Quantum Dots to Organic Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Benjamin M.; Morgan, Thomas T.; Ucak-Astarlioglu, Mine G.; Wlilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The study describes and compares the size-dependent optical properties of organic dyes with those of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs). The analysis shows that mixtures of QDs contain emission colors that are sum of the individual QD components.

  6. Effect of electron withdrawing unit for dye-sensitized solar cell based on D-A-π-A organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Dong Yuel; Chang, Dong Min; Kim, Young Sik

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • To gain the red-shifted absorption spectra, withdrawing unit was substituted in dye. • By the introduction of additional withdrawing unit, LUMOs level of dye are decreased. • Decreasing LUMOs level of dye caused the red-shifted absorption spectra of dye. • Novel acceptor, DCRD, showed better photovoltaic properties than cyanoacetic acid. - Abstract: In this work, two novel D-A-π-A dye sensitizers with triarylamine as an electron donor, isoindigo and cyano group as electron withdrawing units and cyanoacetic acid and 2-(1,1-dicyanomethylene) rhodanine as an electron acceptor for an anchoring group (TICC, TICR) were designed and investigated with the ID6 dye as the reference. The difference in HOMO and LUMO levels were compared according to the presence or absence of isoindigo in ID6 (TC and ID6). To gain insight into the factors responsible for photovoltaic performance, we used density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Owing to different LUMO levels for each acceptor, the absorption band and molar extinction coefficient of each dye was different. Among the dyes, TICR showed more red-shifted and broader absorption spectra than other dyes and had a higher molar extinction coefficient than the reference. It is expected that TICR would show better photovoltaic properties than the other dyes, including the reference dye.

  7. Carbazole-dendrimer-based donor-π-acceptor type organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: effect of the size of the carbazole dendritic donor.

    PubMed

    Thongkasee, Pongsathorn; Thangthong, Amonrat; Janthasing, Nittaya; Sudyoadsuk, Taweesak; Namuangruk, Supawadee; Keawin, Tinnagon; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn; Promarak, Vinich

    2014-06-11

    A series of novel D-π-A type organic dyes, namely, GnTA (n = 1-4), containing carbazole dendrons up to fourth generation as a donor, bithiophene as π-linkage, and cyanoacrylic acid as acceptor were synthesized and characterized for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photophysical, thermal, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties of the new dyes as dye sensitizers were investigated, and the effects of the carbazole dendritic donors on these properties were evaluated. Results demonstrated that increasing the size or generation of the carbazole dendritic donor of the dye molecules enhances their total light absorption abilities and unluckily reduces the amount of dye uptake per unit TiO2 area because of their high molecular volumes. The latter was found to have a strong effect on the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs. Importantly, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) revealed that the size or generation of the donor had a significant influence on a charge-transfer resistance for electron recombination at the TiO2/electrolyte interface, causing a difference in open circuit voltage (Voc) of the solar cells. Among them, dye G1TA containing first generation dendron as a donor (having lowest molecular volume) exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 5.16% (Jsc = 9.89 mA cm(-2), Voc = 0.72 V, ff = 0.73) under simulated AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm(-2)). PMID:24878449

  8. Phosphonic anchoring groups in organic dyes for solid-state solar cells.

    PubMed

    Abate, Antonio; Prez-Tejada, Raquel; Wojciechowski, Konrad; Foster, Jamie M; Sadhanala, Aditya; Steiner, Ullrich; Snaith, Henry J; Franco, Santiago; Orduna, Jess

    2015-07-28

    We report the synthesis and the optoelectronic characterization of three new 4H-pyran-4-ylidene and thiazole derivatives (pyt) as metal-free organic dyes for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We investigate the performance and the long-term stability of devices employing pyt dyes functionalized with carboxylic and phosphonic acids as TiO2 anchoring groups. In contrast to reports on liquid electrolyte DSSCs, we show that solid-state DSSCs prepared with phosphoric pyt derivatives can achieve similar power conversion efficiency to their carboxyl analogues. We make use of the Mott-Schottky analysis and equivalent circuit models to demonstrate that a phosphonic group induces a significant increase in built-in voltage at the TiO2-hole transporter interface, which results in a higher open circuit voltage. PMID:26123840

  9. Synthesis of Pt3Ni Microspheres with High Performance for Rapid Degradation of Organic Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Yang, Yushi; Long, Jia; Mao, Zhou; Qiu, Tong; Wu, Qingzhi; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-05-01

    In this study, Pt3Ni microspheres consisted of nanoparticles were synthesized without addition of surfactants via the solvothermal route. The obtained sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Furthermore, the catalytic performance of as-synthesized Pt3Ni microspheres was evaluated on the degradation of different organic dyes (methylene blue, methyl orange, Congo red, and rhodamine B). The results show that different dyes were rapidly decomposed by Pt3Ni microspheres in different pathways. Among different dyes, the formation and further degradation of the intermediates was observed during the degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange, suggesting the indirect degradation process of these dyes. This study provides not only a promising catalyst for the removal of organic contaminants for environment remediation, but also new insights for Pt3Ni alloy as a high-performance catalyst in organic synthesis.

  10. Synthesis of Pt3Ni microspheres with high performance for rapid degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Yang, Yushi; Long, Jia; Mao, Zhou; Qiu, Tong; Wu, Qingzhi; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-12-01

    In this study, Pt3Ni microspheres consisted of nanoparticles were synthesized without addition of surfactants via the solvothermal route. The obtained sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Furthermore, the catalytic performance of as-synthesized Pt3Ni microspheres was evaluated on the degradation of different organic dyes (methylene blue, methyl orange, Congo red, and rhodamine B). The results show that different dyes were rapidly decomposed by Pt3Ni microspheres in different pathways. Among different dyes, the formation and further degradation of the intermediates was observed during the degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange, suggesting the indirect degradation process of these dyes. This study provides not only a promising catalyst for the removal of organic contaminants for environment remediation, but also new insights for Pt3Ni alloy as a high-performance catalyst in organic synthesis. PMID:26058511

  11. Dye-sensitized Solar Cells: New Approaches with Organic Solid-state Hole Conductors.

    PubMed

    Vlachopoulos, Nick; Zhang, Jinbao; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) in which a solid organic charge-transfer medium, or hole conductor (HC), is interposed between a dye-coated mesoporous oxide electrode and a conductive counter electrode, have attracted considerable interest as viable alternatives to the more ubiquitous mediator-electrolyte DSC. Of particular importance to efficient operation are, in addition to the useful processes contributing to current generation (light harvesting, electron injection and current collection), the recombinative deleterious processes. The organic HCs are highly reactive toward electrons in the oxide or the conducting glass support, therefore necessitating the inclusion of a carefully prepared thin blocking oxide underlayer support as well as the molecular design of special dark current-suppressing dyes. Initially (mid-1990s) sDSCs with organic small molecular weight hole conductors have undergone systematic investigation. At the same time the first tests of sDSCs with conducting polymer hole conductors were published, with subsequent emphasis on the in situ generation of the HC inside the pores. For both types of devices a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency, in the 5-10% range for several dye-HC combinations, approaches that of the most efficient DSCs with non-volatile liquid electrolytes, thereby encouraging further efforts for obtaining stable, efficient and inexpensive sDSCs. PMID:26507087

  12. Degradation of cyanoacrylic acid-based organic sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Yang, Xichuan; Cheng, Ming; Zhang, Fuguo; Sun, Licheng

    2013-07-01

    Organic dyes have become widely used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their good performance, flexible structural modifications, and low costs. To increase the photostability of organic dye-based DSSCs, we conducted a full study on the degradation mechanism of cyanoacrylic acid-based organic sensitizers in DSSCs. The results showed that with the synergy between water and UV light, the sensitizer could desorb from the TiO2 surface and the cyanoacrylic acid unit of the sensitizer was transformed into the aldehyde group. It was also observed that the water content had a great effect on the degradation process. Our experiments conducted using (18) O-labeled water demonstrated that the oxygen atom of the aldehyde group identified in the degraded dye came from the solvent water in the DSSCs. Therefore, controlling the water content during DSSC fabrication, good sealing of cells, and filtering the UV light are crucial to produce DSSCs that are more durable and robust. PMID:23775933

  13. Use of jute processing wastes for treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Souvik; Dastidar, M G

    2005-11-01

    A study was conducted to examine the potential of jute processing waste (JPW) for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics generated from various activities associated with jute cultivation and fibre production. Adsorption studies in batch mode have been conducted using dye solution as an adsorbate and JPW as an adsorbent. A comparative adsorption study was made with standard adsorbents such as powdered and granular activated carbon (PAC and GAC, respectively). A maximum removal of 81.7% was obtained with methylene blue dye using JPW as compared to 61% using PAC and 40% using GAC under similar conditions. The adsorption potential of JPW was observed to be dependent on various parameters such as type of dye, initial dye concentration, pH and dosage of adsorbent. The batch sorption data conformed well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. However, lower BOD (33.3%) and COD (13.8%) removal from retting effluent was observed using JPW as compared to 75.6% BOD removal and 71.1% COD removal obtained with GAC. PMID:16084372

  14. The decoloration of organic dyes by pen-like plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Talun; Liu, Chung-Ming; Yan, Gin-Gou; Teii, Shinriki

    2008-03-01

    In this work, the decoloration of organic of dyes (sky blue) by pen-like plasma torch was investigated. The pen-like plasma touch was powered by 13.56 MHz RF. The center stainless steel tube was anode which surrounded by ceramic tube as insulator media. At the end of pen, one cathode was covered by the stainless steel electrode. The argon gas flown the tube was excited into plasma by RF field. Because Ar plasma torch activate the water into OH and O radicals, the dyes was reacted with these radicals and the color bonds were broken by these active species. The decoloration process has been investigated by different power, the volume of dyes solution and time. The decoloration is determined by measuring the absorption of the dye solution with a monocrometer. The percentage of decoloration = (the absorption before plasma treatment -- the absorption after plasma treatment) / (the absorption before plasma treatment -- the absorption of pure water). The experiments have shown that the decoloration is proportional to RF power and treatment time but inversely proportional to the volume of dye solution.

  15. 6H-Indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline-based organic dyes containing different electron-rich conjugated linkers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xing; Gao, Huan-Huan; Zhu, Yi-Zhou; Lu, Lin; Zheng, Jian-Yu

    2015-04-01

    A new class of organic dyes based on 6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline are synthesized and applied as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. Different electron-rich ?-conjugated bridges such as oligothiophene, thienyl carbazole, and furyl carbazole are introduced to cooperate with 6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline and cyanoacrylic acid anchoring group to give the dyes JY01, JY02, and JY03, respectively. Their photophysical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties are further investigated. All three dyes show good performances as photosensitizers. In particular, DSSC based on JY01 shows the best photovoltaic performance with a short-circuit photocurrent density of 16.0 mA cm-2, an open-circuit photovoltage of 708 mV and a fill factor of 0.67, corresponding to an overall power conversion efficiency of 7.62% under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm-2).

  16. Organic dye penetration quantification into a dental composite resin cured by LED system using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarelli, Rosane de Fátima Zanirato; Silva, Maciel E., Jr.; Lins, Emery C. C. C.; Costa, Mardoqueu M.; Pelino, José Eduardo P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2007-02-01

    A major characteristic of LEDs systems is the lower heat emission related with the kind of light generation and spectral emission band. Material temperature during photoactivation can promote different photocuring performance. Organic dye penetration could be a trace to identify the efficacy of photocured composite resin. A new method using fluorescent spectroscopy through digital image evaluation was developed in this study. In order to understand if there is a real influence of material temperature during the photoactivation procedure of a dental restorative material, a hybrid composite resin (Z250, 3M-Espe, USA) and 3 light sources, halogen lamp (510 mW/cm2) and two LED systems 470+/-10nm (345 and 1000 mW/cm2) under different temperatures and intensities were used. One thousand and five hundred samples under different associations between light sources and temperatures (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C were tested and immediately kept in 6G rodamin dye solution. Dye penetration was evaluated through fluorescent spectroscopy recorded by digital image data. Pixels in gray scale showed the percentage penetration of organic dye into the composite resin mass. Time and temperature were statistically significant (p<0.05) through the ANOVA statistical test. The lowest penetration value was with 60 seconds and 25 °C. Time and temperature are important factors to promote a homogeneous structure polymerized composite resin more than the light source type, halogen or LEDs system.

  17. Quantum dynamics simulations of interfacial charge-transfer in organic dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego, Luis G. C.; da Silva, R.; Hoff, D. A.

    2013-03-01

    We describe a novel time-dependent quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics method for studying electron transfer in dye sensitized semiconductor interfaces, that takes into account the interacting electron-hole quantum dynamics, the underlying nuclear fluctuations and solvation dynamics. We provide a comprehensive investigation of the quantum dynamics, the electronic and the structural properties of prototypical D- π-A organic dyes sensitizing the TiO2 anatase surface, both in vacuum and solvated by liquid acetonitrile. The organic dyes are comprised of an electron donating moiety and an anchoring acceptor moiety, conjugated by thiophene bridges. Although interfacial electron transfer is very efficient, it is demonstrated that the coupling between the photoexcited electron and the hole delays the electron injection. Simulations demonstrate that the solvent screens the dye from the surface, narrowing the absorption peaks and delaying the electron injection. We have also studied several aspects that are relevant for the recombination process, such as the role played by surface defects and the interaction of redox species with the TiO2 surface, and the effect of additives. J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 21169 (2012). The authors acknowledge support from CNPq and CAPES, Brazil

  18. Energy-level alignment in organic dye-sensitized TiO2 from GW calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umari, P.; Giacomazzi, L.; De Angelis, F.; Pastore, M.; Baroni, Stefano

    2013-07-01

    The electronic energy levels of some representative isolated and oxide-supported organic dyes, relevant for photovoltaic applications, are investigated using many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation. We consider a set of all-organic dyes (denominated L0, L2, L3, and L4) featuring the same donor and anchor groups and differing for the linker moieties. We first calculate the energy levels of the isolated molecules, thus allowing us to address the effects of the different linker groups, and resulting in good agreement with photo-electron spectroscopic and electrochemical data. We then consider the L0 dye adsorbed on the (101) surface of anatase-TiO2. We find a density of occupied states in agreement with experimental photo-electron data. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap of the L0 dye is found to be reduced by 1 eV upon adsorption. Our results validate the reliability of GW calculations for photovoltaic applications and point to their potential as a powerful tool for the screening and rational design of new components of electrochemical solar cells.

  19. Degradation of organic dyes by Si/SiOx core-shell nanowires: Spontaneous generation of superoxides without light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Gu, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hongkun; Zeng, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Jiang, Suhua; Li, Yuesheng

    2016-02-01

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been proven to be highly active in the photocatalysis of dye degradation. However, the unstable hydrogen-terminated surface and the need for constant light irradiation hinder their extensive use. In this work, a stable silica shell was intentionally formed on the surface of SiNWs to produce Si/SiOx core-shell silicon nanowires (S-SiNWs). Light-illuminated or not, S-SiNWs showed almost identical degradation ability for the degradation of indigo carmine (IC) in both conditions, which meant neither hydrogen termination nor light irradiation was a prerequisite for the degradation activity of S-SiNWs. UV/Vis spectroscopy and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that IC was converted into isatin sulfonic acid in this process. Quenching studies and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that this bleaching ability was highly dependent on superoxides. A possible mechanism was accordingly suggested. In addition, the recently discovered reductase-like activity of SiNWs can be explained by the superoxides generation. PMID:26421622

  20. Absorption spectrum analysis based on singular value decomposition for photoisomerization and photodegradation in organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Toshio; Chida, Toshifumi; Tada, Kazuhiro; Kawamoto, Masuki; Fujihara, Takashi; Sassa, Takafumi; Tsutsumi, Naoto

    2015-10-01

    In order to analyze the spectra of inseparable chemical mixtures, many mathematical methods have been developed to decompose them into the components relevant to species from series of spectral data obtained under different conditions. We formulated a method based on singular value decomposition (SVD) of linear algebra, and applied it to two example systems of organic dyes, being successful in reproducing absorption spectra assignable to cis/trans azocarbazole dyes from the spectral data after photoisomerization and to monomer/dimer of cyanine dyes from those during photodegaradation process. For the example of photoisomerization, polymer films containing the azocarbazole dyes were prepared, which have showed updatable holographic stereogram for real images with high performance. We made continuous monitoring of absorption spectrum after optical excitation and found that their spectral shapes varied slightly after the excitation and during recovery process, of which fact suggested the contribution from a generated photoisomer. Application of the method was successful to identify two spectral components due to trans and cis forms of azocarbazoles. Temporal evolution of their weight factors suggested important roles of long lifetimed cis states in azocarbazole derivatives. We also applied the method to the photodegradation of cyanine dyes doped in DNA-lipid complexes which have shown efficient and durable optical amplification and/or lasing under optical pumping. The same SVD method was successful in the extraction of two spectral components presumably due to monomer and H-type dimer. During the photodegradation process, absorption magnitude gradually decreased due to decomposition of molecules and their decaying rates strongly depended on the spectral components, suggesting that the long persistency of the dyes in DNA-complex related to weak tendency of aggregate formation.

  1. Supramolecular Organization of Dye Molecules in Zeolite L Channels: Synthesis, Properties, and Composite Materials.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengpeng; Khorev, Oleg; Devaux, André; Sägesser, Lucie; Kunzmann, Andreas; Ecker, Achim; Häner, Robert; Brühwiler, Dominik; Calzaferri, Gion; Belser, Peter

    2016-03-14

    Sequential insertion of different dyes into the 1D channels of zeolite L (ZL) leads to supramolecular sandwich structures and allows the formation of sophisticated antenna composites for light harvesting, transport, and trapping. The synthesis and properties of dye molecules, host materials, composites, and composites embedded in polymer matrices, including two- and three-color antenna systems, are described. Perylene diimide (PDI) dyes are an important class of chromophores and are of great interest for the synthesis of artificial antenna systems. They are especially well suited to advancing our understanding of the structure-transport relationship in ZL because their core fits tightly through the 12-ring channel opening. The substituents at both ends of the PDIs can be varied to a large extent without influencing their electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra. The intercalation/insertion of 17 PDIs, 2 terrylenes, and 1 quaterrylene into ZL are compared and their interactions with the inner surface of the ZL nanochannels discussed. ZL crystals of about 500 nm in size have been used because they meet the criteria that must be respected for the preparation of antenna composites for light harvesting, transport, and trapping. The photostability of dyes is considerably improved by inserting them into the ZL channels because the guests are protected by being confined. Plugging the channel entrances, so that the guests cannot escape into the environment is a prerequisite for achieving long-term stability of composites embedded in an organic matrix. Successful methods to achieve this goal are described. Finally, the embedding of dye-ZL composites in polymer matrices, while maintaining optical transparency, is reported. These results facilitate the rational design of advanced dye-zeolite composite materials and provide powerful tools for further developing and understanding artificial antenna systems, which are among the most fascinating subjects of current photochemistry and photophysics. PMID:26864446

  2. Adsorption of organic dyes on TiO2 surfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells: interplay of theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Chiara; Mosconi, Edoardo; Pastore, Mariachiara; Ronca, Enrico; De Angelis, Filippo

    2012-12-14

    First-principles computer simulations can contribute to a deeper understanding of the dye/semiconductor interface lying at the heart of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs). Here, we present the results of simulation of dye adsorption onto TiO(2) surfaces, and of their implications for the functioning of the corresponding solar cells. We propose an integrated strategy which combines FT-IR measurements with DFT calculations to individuate the energetically favorable TiO(2) adsorption mode of acetic acid, as a meaningful model for realistic organic dyes. Although we found a sizable variability in the relative stability of the considered adsorption modes with the model system and the method, a bridged bidentate structure was found to closely match the FT-IR frequency pattern, also being calculated as the most stable adsorption mode by calculations in solution. This adsorption mode was found to be the most stable binding also for realistic organic dyes bearing cyanoacrylic anchoring groups, while for a rhodanine-3-acetic acid anchoring group, an undissociated monodentate adsorption mode was found to be of comparable stability. The structural differences induced by the different anchoring groups were related to the different electron injection/recombination with oxidized dye properties which were experimentally assessed for the two classes of dyes. A stronger coupling and a possibly faster electron injection were also calculated for the bridged bidentate mode. We then investigated the adsorption mode and I(2) binding of prototype organic dyes. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and geometry optimizations were performed for two coumarin dyes differing by the length of the π-bridge separating the donor and acceptor moieties. We related the decreasing distance of the carbonylic oxygen from the titania to an increased I(2) concentration in proximity of the oxide surface, which might account for the different observed photovoltaic performances. The interplay between theory/simulation and experiments appears to be the key to further DSCs progress, both concerning the design of new dye sensitizers and their interaction with the semiconductor and with the solution environment and/or an electrolyte upon adsorption onto the semiconductor. PMID:23108504

  3. A robust organic dye for dye sensitized solar cells based on iodine/iodide electrolytes combining high efficiency and outstanding stability.

    PubMed

    Joly, Damien; Pellejà, Laia; Narbey, Stéphanie; Oswald, Frédéric; Chiron, Julien; Clifford, John N; Palomares, Emilio; Demadrille, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Among the new photovoltaic technologies, the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) is becoming a realistic approach towards energy markets such as BIPV (Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics). In order to improve the performances of DSCs and to increase their commercial attractiveness, cheap, colourful, stable and highly efficient ruthenium-free dyes must be developed. Here we report the synthesis and complete characterization of a new purely organic sensitizer (RK1) that can be prepared and synthetically upscaled rapidly. Solar cells containing this orange dye show a power conversion efficiency of 10.2% under standard conditions (AM 1.5G, 1000 Wm(-2)) using iodine/iodide as the electrolyte redox shuttle in the electrolyte, which is among the few examples of DSC using an organic dyes and iodine/iodide red/ox pair to overcome the 10% efficiency barrier. We demonstrate that the combination of this dye with an ionic liquid electrolyte allows the fabrication of solar cells that show power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.36% that are highly stable with no measurable degradation of initial performances after 2200 h of light soaking at 65°C under standard irradiation conditions. RK1 achieves one of the best output power conversion efficiencies for a solar cell based on the iodine/iodide electrolyte, combining high efficiency and outstanding stability. PMID:24504344

  4. A Robust Organic Dye for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Iodine/Iodide Electrolytes Combining High Efficiency and Outstanding Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Damien; Pellejà, Laia; Narbey, Stéphanie; Oswald, Frédéric; Chiron, Julien; Clifford, John N.; Palomares, Emilio; Demadrille, Renaud

    2014-02-01

    Among the new photovoltaic technologies, the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) is becoming a realistic approach towards energy markets such as BIPV (Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics). In order to improve the performances of DSCs and to increase their commercial attractiveness, cheap, colourful, stable and highly efficient ruthenium-free dyes must be developed. Here we report the synthesis and complete characterization of a new purely organic sensitizer (RK1) that can be prepared and synthetically upscaled rapidly. Solar cells containing this orange dye show a power conversion efficiency of 10.2% under standard conditions (AM 1.5G, 1000 Wm-2) using iodine/iodide as the electrolyte redox shuttle in the electrolyte, which is among the few examples of DSC using an organic dyes and iodine/iodide red/ox pair to overcome the 10% efficiency barrier. We demonstrate that the combination of this dye with an ionic liquid electrolyte allows the fabrication of solar cells that show power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.36% that are highly stable with no measurable degradation of initial performances after 2200 h of light soaking at 65°C under standard irradiation conditions. RK1 achieves one of the best output power conversion efficiencies for a solar cell based on the iodine/iodide electrolyte, combining high efficiency and outstanding stability.

  5. A Robust Organic Dye for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Iodine/Iodide Electrolytes Combining High Efficiency and Outstanding Stability

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Damien; Pellejà, Laia; Narbey, Stéphanie; Oswald, Frédéric; Chiron, Julien; Clifford, John N.; Palomares, Emilio; Demadrille, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Among the new photovoltaic technologies, the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) is becoming a realistic approach towards energy markets such as BIPV (Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics). In order to improve the performances of DSCs and to increase their commercial attractiveness, cheap, colourful, stable and highly efficient ruthenium-free dyes must be developed. Here we report the synthesis and complete characterization of a new purely organic sensitizer (RK1) that can be prepared and synthetically upscaled rapidly. Solar cells containing this orange dye show a power conversion efficiency of 10.2% under standard conditions (AM 1.5G, 1000 Wm−2) using iodine/iodide as the electrolyte redox shuttle in the electrolyte, which is among the few examples of DSC using an organic dyes and iodine/iodide red/ox pair to overcome the 10% efficiency barrier. We demonstrate that the combination of this dye with an ionic liquid electrolyte allows the fabrication of solar cells that show power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.36% that are highly stable with no measurable degradation of initial performances after 2200 h of light soaking at 65°C under standard irradiation conditions. RK1 achieves one of the best output power conversion efficiencies for a solar cell based on the iodine/iodide electrolyte, combining high efficiency and outstanding stability. PMID:24504344

  6. Dimerization of Organic Dyes on Luminescent Gold Nanoparticles for Ratiometric pH Sensing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shasha; Ning, Xuhui; Zhang, Greg; Wang, Yen-Chung; Peng, Chuanqi; Zheng, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Synergistic effects arising from the conjugation of organic dyes onto non-luminescent metal nanoparticles (NPs) have greatly broadened their applications in both imaging and sensing. Herein, we report that conjugation of a well-known pH-insensitive dye, tetramethyl-rhodamine (TAMRA), to pH-insensitive luminescent gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can lead to an ultrasmall nanoindicator that can fluorescently report local pH in a ratiometric way. Such synergy originated from the dimerization of TAMRA on AuNPs, of which geometry was very sensitive to surface charges of the AuNPs and can be reversely modulated through protonation of surrounding glutathione ligands. Not limited to pH-insensitive dyes, this pH-dependent dimerization can also enhance the pH sensitivity of fluorescein, a well-known pH-sensitive dye, within a larger pH range, opening up a new pathway to design ultrasmall fluorescent ratiometric nanoindicators with tunable wavelengths and pH response ranges. PMID:26748538

  7. Selective adsorption and release of cationic organic dye molecules on mesoporous borosilicates.

    PubMed

    Paul, Manidipa; Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim

    2012-08-01

    Mesoporous materials can play a pivotal role as a host material for delivery application to a specific part of a system. In this work we explore the selective adsorption and release of cationic organic dye molecules such as safranine T (ST) and malachite green (MG) on mesoporous borosilicate materials. The mesoporous silica SBA-15 and borosilicate materials (MBS) were prepared using non-ionic surfactant Pluronic P123 as template via evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method. After template removal the materials show high surface areas and in some cases ordered mesopores of dimensions ca. 6-7 nm. High surface area, mesoporosity and the presence of heteroatom (boron) help this mesoporous borosilicate material to adsorb high amount of cationic dye molecules at its surface from the respective aqueous solutions. Furthermore, the mesoporous borosilicate samples containing higher percentage adsorbed dyes show excellent release of ST or MG dye in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution at physiological pH=7.4 and temperature 310 K. The adsorption and release efficiency of mesoporous borosilicate samples are compared with reference boron-free mesoporous pure silica material to understand the nature of adsorbate-adsorbent interaction at the surfaces. PMID:24364946

  8. Optical performance of mesostructured composite silica film loaded with organic dye.

    PubMed

    Guli, Mina; Chen, Shijian; Zhang, Dingke; Li, Xiaotian; Yao, Jianxi; Chen, Lei; Xiao, Li

    2014-01-10

    A mesoporous composite silica film loaded with organic dye has been successfully synthesized by a solgel reaction process and a simple postgrafting method at room temperature. The composite film was characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and laser performance, and the results confirmed the existence of dyes in the channels of the silica film. A blue-shift and fluorescence property in the PL spectrum was observed from the composite film compared with that of dye molecules in C₂H₅OH solution. The spectrum narrowing phenomena has been observed when the composite film is pumped at λp=355  nm by a Nd:YAG pulsed laser. A narrower, higher peak was observed in emission spectra from the mesostructured composite silica film compared with the PL spectrum of dye in C₂H₅OH solution. There is a substantial reduction in the full width at half-maximum of the emitting light, which results in peaks with linewidths of 26 nm or more. This collapse of the emission spectrum is one of the signatures of the presence of amplified spontaneous emission. PMID:24514063

  9. Theoretical analysis of the solvatochromism of organic dyes differing by the conjugation sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhos, Sergei; Komatsu, Makoto; Nakazaki, Jotaro; Segawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Absorption peak maxima of two organic dyes differing by the position of the methine unit differ by 61 nm in dioxane and by up to 139 nm in polar solvents. It was previously reported that the difference is not reproduced by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) using ab initio or hybrid functionals. TDDFT errors are different between the molecules, leading to a qualitative failure of TDDFT to predict relative energetics of the dyes. We focus on the effect of polar solvents (acetonitrile, DMSO, methanol, and 2-propanol) on the absorption spectrum, specifically, on the different between the two molecules sign of the solvatochromic shift versus dioxane. Using the correction due to Peach et al., the absolute TDDFT errors can be brought within acceptable ranges of 0.2 to 0.3 eV, and the blue shift versus dioxane is reproduced, although both dyes are predicted to exhibit positive solvatochromism. The inclusion of explicit solvent molecules did not appreciably change either TDDFT energies or the correction term. These results show that in dye design by changing the conjugation order, computational errors are expected to be more important than in the case of an extension of the size of conjugation, especially when polar solvents are used.

  10. Facile microwave-assisted synthesis of titanium dioxide decorated graphene nanocomposite for photodegradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayathri, Shunmugiah; Kottaisamy, Muniasamy; Ramakrishnan, Veerabahu

    2015-12-01

    An efficient and facile method was adopted to prepare TiO2-graphene (TG) nanocomposites with TiO2 nanoparticles uniformly distributed on graphene. By adjusting the amount of TiO2 precursor, both high and low dense TiO2 nanoparticles on graphene were effectively attained via electrostatic attraction between graphene oxide sheets and TiO2 nanoparticles. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by various characterization techniques. The TG nanocomposite showed an excellent activity for the photodegradation of the organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and rose bengal (RB) under ultra violet (UV) light irradiation. The TG nanocomposite of TG 2.5 showed better photocatalytic performance than bare TiO2 nanoparticles and other composites. The enhanced activity of the composite material is attributed to the reduction in charge recombination and interaction of organic dyes with graphene. The decrease in charge recombination was evidenced from the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The observed results suggest that the synthesized TG composites have a potential application to treat the industrial effluents, which contain organic dyes.

  11. Solution-processed organic photovoltaics based on indoline dye molecules developed in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Ojima, Haruhiko; Hong, Ziruo; Kido, Junji; Tian, Wenjing; Wang, Xiao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    A donor-acceptor (D-A) type indoline dye, D149, was used as an electron donor in solution-processed organic solar cells (OSCs). For bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) type OSCs with PC70BM as electron acceptor, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is sensitive to the amount of D149 in the D149/PC70BM blend film. When the concentration of D149 in the blend film was as low as 5%, the highest PCE of up to 1.29%, together with a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 4.58 mAcm-2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.90 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.31, was achieved. In order to improve the PCE of D149-based OSCs, a bilayer-heterojunction configuration with C70 as electron acceptor has been employed. By optimizing the thickness of the D149 layer and varying the electron- and hole-transport layers, a highest PCE of up to 2.28% with a Jsc of 4.38 mAcm-2, a Voc of 0.77 V, and an FF of 0.62 was achieved under AM 1.5G solar illumination (100 mWcm-2). PMID:23470338

  12. 21 CFR 73.1100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cochineal extract; carmine. 73.1100 Section 73.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... suitable and that are listed in this subpart as safe in color additive mixtures for coloring drugs....

  13. 21 CFR 73.1100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cochineal extract; carmine. 73.1100 Section 73.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... suitable and that are listed in this subpart as safe in color additive mixtures for coloring drugs....

  14. 21 CFR 73.1100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cochineal extract; carmine. 73.1100 Section 73.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... suitable and that are listed in this subpart as safe in color additive mixtures for coloring drugs....

  15. 21 CFR 73.1100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cochineal extract; carmine. 73.1100 Section 73.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... suitable and that are listed in this subpart as safe in color additive mixtures for coloring drugs....

  16. The study of synthetic food dyes by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivtsaev, A. A.; Razov, V. I.

    2015-06-01

    By method of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), substances are food dyes were studied: E-102 (Tartrazine), E-124 (Ponso 4R), E 132 (Indigo carmine), E-133 (Brilliant Blue), E-151 (Black Shiny). They are examined for the presence of carcinogenic properties. The difference between dyes having explicit carcinogenic properties and mutagenic properties (non-explicit carcinogens) is established.

  17. Tailoring of Energy Levels in D-?-A Organic Dyes via Fluorination of Acceptor Units for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min-Woo; Kim, Jae-Yup; Son, Hae Jung; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, BongSoo; Kim, Honggon; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Kyungkon; Lee, Duck-Hyung; Ko, Min Jae

    2015-01-01

    A molecular design is presented for tailoring the energy levels in D-?-A organic dyes through fluorination of their acceptor units, which is aimed at achieving efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This is achieved by exploiting the chemical structure of common D-?-A organic dyes and incorporating one or two fluorine atoms at the ortho-positions of the cyanoacetic acid as additional acceptor units. As the number of incorporated fluorine atoms increases, the LUMO energy level of the organic dye is gradually lowered due to the electron-withdrawing effect of fluorine, which ultimately results in a gradual reduction of the HOMO-LUMO energy gap and an improvement in the spectral response. Systematic investigation of the effects of incorporating fluorine on the photovoltaic properties of DSSCs reveals an upshift in the conduction-band potential of the TiO2 electrode during impedance analysis; however, the incorporation of fluorine also results in an increased electron recombination rate, leading to a decrease in the open-circuit voltage (Voc). Despite this limitation, the conversion efficiency is gradually enhanced as the number of incorporated fluorine atoms is increased, which is attributed to the highly improved spectral response and photocurrent. PMID:25591722

  18. Third-order nonlinear optical response of indigo carmine under 633 nm excitation for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.

    2014-11-01

    We report thermally induced third-order nonlinearity and optical limiting behaviour of Indigo Carmine dye. z-Scan technique was used to determine the sign and magnitude of absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. Continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser operating at 633 nm was used as source of excitation. In open aperture z-scan experiments, samples exhibited reverse saturable absorption (RSA) process. For closed aperture z-scan experiments, samples revealed self-defocusing property. The presence of donor and acceptor groups in the structure increases the conjugation length and in turn increases the optical nonlinearity. Induced self-diffraction rings pattern was recorded for the samples and it is attributed to refractive index change and thermal lensing. Also, optical limiting and clamping studies were carried out for various input power. Optical clamping of about ~1 mW was observed. This endorses that the dye under investigation is a positive candidate for opto-electronic and photonic applications.

  19. Stability of fluorescent labels in PLGA polymeric nanoparticles: Quantum dots versus organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mottaleb, Mona M A; Beduneau, Arnaud; Pellequer, Yann; Lamprecht, Alf

    2015-10-15

    Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) are currently being investigated for various therapeutic, diagnostic and drug delivery applications. The study of their interactions and fate in biological systems is frequently performed via their fluorescent labeling and following them using fluorescent microscopy. Quantum dots are proposed as stable fluorescent label and compared to other organic dyes (Nile red and DiI) in terms of their entrapment, diffusion in different aqueous or lipophilic media and photostability. In vitro transfer to hydrophilic PBS solution showed that after 8h, 4.2±2.2, 15.5±2.0 and 0.9±0.02% was released from the QDs, NR and DiI nanoparticles, respectively. However, higher diffusion rates were observed in the lipophilic medium chain triglyceride and artificial sebum for all the dyes used. Fluorescent intensity of the three different markers was found to be stable over a period of 24h. Continuous illumination with laser beam using a confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated the superior stability of quantum dots compared to the other organic dyes. Skin permeation experiments have shown that QDs were the most representative marker for the polymeric nanoparticles skin penetration. PMID:26307264

  20. Computational characterization of the molecular structure and properties of Dye 7 for organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Baldenebro-López, Jesús; Castorena-González, José; Flores-Holguin, Norma; Calderón-Guillén, Joel; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Organic dyes have great potential for its use in solar cells. In this recent work, the molecular structure and properties of Dye 7 were obtained using density functional theory (DFT) and different levels of calculation. Upon comparing the molecular structure and the ultraviolet visible spectrum with experimental data reported in the literature, it was found that the M05-2X/6-31G(d) level of calculation gave the best approximation. Once the appropriate methodology had been obtained, the molecule was characterized by obtaining the infrared spectrum, dipole moment, total energy, isotropic polarizability, molecular orbital energies, free energy of solvation in different solvents, and the chemical reactivity sites using the condensed Fukui functions. PMID:21597962

  1. Visible light assisted degradation of organic dye using Ag3PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanabal, R.; Velmathi, S.; Bose, A. Chandra

    2015-06-01

    The study of visible light photodegradation of organic dye Methylene Blue (MB) have been investigated using silver phosphate (Ag3PO4) as a photocatalyst which is good efficient material for photocatalytic reaction. The simple ion-exchange method is used to prepare Ag3PO4. The structure of the material have been confirmed using X-ray diffraction which shows cubic structure of Ag3PO4. The functional group of the Ag3PO4 has been verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The bandgap of Ag3PO4 is calculated using kubelka-munk function from the ultra violet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the absorption of Ag3PO4 starts from 470 nm. Under simulated visible light irradiation, Ag3PO4 catalyst exhibits good catalytic ability for degrading MB dye.

  2. Metal-organic frameworks at interfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yafeng; Chen, Caiyun; Sun, Xun; Dou, Jie; Wei, Mingdeng

    2014-09-01

    ZIF-8, a kind of widely studied metal-organic frameworks, was used for the interfacial modification of dye-sensitized solar cells by a facile post-treatment strategy for the first time, which solved the problem of severely decreased short-circuit photocurrent in previous report. After the surface treatment, the performance of cells was obviously improved. The conditions for the deposition of ZIF-8 were optimized. The best photovoltaic property was obtained when the growth time of ZIF-8 was 7?min and the TiO2 photoanode was post-treated for 2 times. Besides the energy barrier effect of ZIF-8 that improved the open-circuit photovoltage and electron lifetime, the dyes adsorbed tightly on TiO2 surface was found to be a key point for the efficient electron injection and improved performance. PMID:24989826

  3. Quantum dot and quantum dot-dye co-sensitized solar cells containing organic thiolate-disulfide redox electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Ke; Surolia, Praveen K.; Byrne, Owen; Thampi, K. Ravindranathan

    2015-02-01

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) require special electrolytes, which are not always compatible with the requirements of dye sensitized solar cells. CdS and PbS quantum dot sensitized solar cells are able to show promising power conversion efficiencies in the presence of an organic thiolate/disulfide redox electrolyte. Also, an appreciable enhancement in performance is noticed when such devices are co-sensitized with a Ru-dye. The measured cell efficiencies of the CdS/dye and PbS/dye co-sensitized solar cells are 3.93% and 4.18%, respectively, which are higher than the sum of the corresponding individual QDSSCs and the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs). The enhancement seen with co-sensitization was investigated and explained by the fact that it suppressed back electron transfer processes in the cell, which was ascertained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results.

  4. Efficient organic sensitizers with pyridine-N-oxide as an anchor group for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Xichuan; Zhao, Jianghua; Zhang, Fuguo; Wang, Xiuna; Sun, Licheng

    2014-09-01

    Five organic dyes with pyridine-N-oxide as the anchor group and electron acceptor have been synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Benzothiadiazole was introduced in the conjugation system to increase the electron withdrawing properties, FTIR spectra showed that the coordination was between the pyridine-N-oxide and the Brnsted acid site on the TiO2 surface. The relationship between different dye structures and the performance of the DSSCs was investigated systematically. The location of the thiophene unit was studied, and the direct linkage of benzothiadiazole with pyridine-N-oxide was beneficial to broaden the absorption. The donor-acceptor-acceptor-configured dye WL307, which has 2-ethylhexyloxy chains in the donor part, showed the best efficiency of 6.08% under 100?mW?cm(-2) light illumination. The dye series showed a fairly good stability during the one month test period. PMID:25066061

  5. Highly sensitive wavelength-dependent nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis for simultaneous screening of various synthetic organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Park, Moonhee; Bahng, Seung-Hoon; Woo, Nain; Kang, Seong Ho

    2016-05-15

    A novel multi-wavelength nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (MW-NACE) technique based on wavelength-dependent laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection was investigated for the simultaneous screening of various synthetic organic dyes. Multi-wavelength excitation light sources were utilized to excite different organic dyes [e.g., 543nm for crystal violet (CV), methyl violet B (MVB), methyl violet B base (MBB), rhodamine 6G (R6G), and rhodamine B base (RBB); 635nm for nile blue A (NBA) and methylene blue (MB)] simultaneously. Using a nonaqueous buffer system composed of 15mM sodium borate and 835mM acetic acid in 100% ethanol (pH=5.4), all dyes were analyzed within 15min with excellent resolution (R≥4.0) under an electric field of 500V/cm. Calibration curves showed excellent linearity with square of correlation coefficients (r(2)) greater than 0.9908 over wide dynamic ranges of 0.4-50μM for CV, 0.8-50μM for MVB, 1.5-50μM for MBB, 0.08-5nM for R6G, 0.06-10μM for MB, 0.02-10μM for NBA, and 0.13-10 pM for RBB. The detection limits (S/N=3) of 40fM to 0.5μM were 10-200,000 times lower than those of previous detection methods. While adjacent peaks were not well distinguished with baseline separation in a single capillary, the devised technique was faster and more sensitive than conventional aqueous and nonaqueous CE approaches, thereby enabling the quantitative analysis of various dyes based on wavelength-dependent fluorescence detection with different excitation wavelengths. PMID:26992516

  6. Rapid Synthesis of Thiophene-Based, Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) by a One-Pot, Four-Component Coupling Approach.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Keisuke; Yoshizaki, Soichi; Maitani, Masato M; Wada, Yuji; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Kaiho, Tatsuo; Fuse, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Takashi

    2015-06-26

    This one-pot, four-component coupling approach (Suzuki-Miyaura coupling/C-H direct arylation/Knoevenagel condensation) was developed for the rapid synthesis of thiophene-based organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Seven thiophene-based, organic dyes of various donor structures with/without the use of a 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) moiety were successfully synthesized in good yields based on a readily available thiophene boronic acid pinacol ester scaffold (one-pot, 3-step, 35-61%). Evaluation of the photovoltaic properties of the solar cells that were prepared using the synthesized dyes revealed that the introduction of an EDOT structure beside a cyanoacrylic acid moiety improved the short-circuit current (Jsc) while decreasing the fill factor (FF). The donor structure significantly influenced the open-circuit voltage (Voc), the FF, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The use of a n-hexyloxyphenyl amine donor, and our originally developed, rigid, and nonplanar donor, both promoted good cell performance (?=5.2-5.6%). PMID:26017569

  7. Influence of the donor size in D-?-A organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiabao; Ganesan, Paramaguru; Teuscher, Jol; Moehl, Thomas; Kim, Yong Joo; Yi, Chenyi; Comte, Pascal; Pei, Kai; Holcombe, Thomas W; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Hua, Jianli; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Tian, He; Grtzel, Michael

    2014-04-16

    We report two new molecularly engineered push-pull dyes, i.e., YA421 and YA422, based on substituted quinoxaline as a ?-conjugating linker and bulky-indoline moiety as donor and compared with reported IQ4 dye. Benefitting from increased steric hindrance with the introduction of bis(2,4-dihexyloxy)benzene substitution on the quinoxaline, the electron recombination between redox electrolyte and the TiO2 surface is reduced, especially in redox electrolyte employing Co(II/III) complexes as redox shuttles. It was found that the open circuit photovoltages of IQ4, YA421, and YA422 devices with cobalt-based electrolyte are higher than those with iodide/triiodide electrolyte by 34, 62, and 135 mV, respectively. Moreover, the cells employing graphene nanoplatelets on top of gold spattered film as a counter electrode (CE) show lower charge-transfer resistance compared to platinum as a CE. Consequently, YA422 devices deliver the best power conversion efficiency due to higher fill factor, reaching 10.65% at AM 1.5 simulated sunlight. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and transient absorption spectroscopy analysis were performed to understand the electrolyte influence on the device performances with different counter electrode materials and donor structures of donor-?-acceptor dyes. Laser flash photolysis experiments indicate that even though the dye regeneration of YA422 is slower than that of the other two dyes, the slower back electron transfer of YA422 contributes to the higher device performance. PMID:24655036

  8. Cosensitization of D-A-?-A quinoxaline organic dye: efficiently filling the absorption valley with high photovoltaic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pei, Kai; Wu, Yongzhen; Li, Hui; Geng, Zhiyuan; Tian, He; Zhu, Wei-Hong

    2015-03-11

    In the efficient cosensitization, the pure organic sensitizers with high molecular extinction coefficients and long wavelength response are highly preferable since the dye loading amount for each dye in cosensitization is decreased with respect to single dye sensitization. A D-A-?-A featured quinoxaline organic sensitizer IQ21 is specifically designed. The high conjugation building block of 4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene (CPDT) is introduced as the ? bridge, instead of the traditional thiophene unit, especially in realizing high molecular extinction coefficients (up to 66?600 M(-1) cm(-1)) and extending the light response wavelength. With respect to the reference dye IQ4, the slightly lower efficiency of IQ21 (9.03%) arises from the decrease of VOC, which offsets the gain in JSC. While cosensitized with a smaller D-?-A dye S2, the efficiency in IQ21 is further improved to 10.41% (JSC = 19.8 mA cm(-2), VOC = 731 mV, FF = 0.72). The large improvement in efficiency is attributed to the well-matched molecular structures and loading amounts of both dyes in the cosensitization system. We also demonstrated that coabsorbent dye S2 can distinctly compensate the inherent drawbacks of IQ21, not only enhancing the response intensity of IPCE, making up the absorption defects around low wavelength region of IPCE, but also repressing the charge recombination rate to some extent. PMID:25710618

  9. Vacuum-thermal-deposited films of organic dyes as sensitive materials in electrodigit visualization processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhenko, J. A.; Agabekov, Vladimir E.; Mikhailovskii, Yu. K.; Kotov, E. V.

    1998-04-01

    The method of electrodigit diagnostics is based on registration of a picture luminescence of object, placed in a high-frequency high-voltage field. It lets to reveal surface heterogeneity of a various nature, defects conductor under a layer optical opaque dielectric or in most dielectric. Early it is offered to replace traditionally used in this method halogensilver materials for vacuum thermal deposition (VTD) on dielectric of a substrate by thin layers organic dyes, that will make a method more technological and cheap. In the given work the spectral methods have qualitatively appreciated a role making of (electronic, x-ray, ultraviolet and visible radiations) in formation of the electrodigit image in VTD-films of Rhodamine 6G (R-6G) and dye of a class Oxazine (OX-1). It is established, that: (1) the contribution all making (except UV-radiation) in formation of a drawing in VTD-films of R-6G and OX-1 is insignificant; (2) the visible image in a VTD- film of R-6G will be formed for the account of decomposition of dye by `rigid' UV-radiation; (3) the influence of 1 sec. of the crown discharge on 0,68-micrometers a VTD-film of OX-1 is equivalent of irradiation her 365 nm by a doze 0,8 J/cm2.

  10. Metal-organic gel templated synthesis of magnetic porous carbon for highly efficient removal of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Luhuan; Ke, Fei; Zhu, Junfa

    2016-03-21

    Magnetic porous carbon composites are promising materials in various applications, such as adsorbents, supercapacitors and catalyst supports, due to their high surface area, thermal and chemical stability, and easy separation. However, despite the increasing number of reports of magnetic porous carbon composites, the preparation of these materials with environmentally friendly procedures still remains a great challenge. Herein, we report a facile method to prepare a magnetic porous carbon composite with high surface area from a Fe-based metal-organic gel (MOG) template, an extended structure of a metal-organic framework (MOF). The obtained magnetic porous carbon composite was applied to remove organic dyes from an aqueous solution by selecting methyl orange (MO) as a model molecule. It exhibits excellent adsorption capacity (182.82 mg g(-1)), fast adsorption kinetics (8.13 × 10(-3) g mg(-1) min(-1)), and a perfect magnetic separation performance for the MO removal. This study demonstrates a new way to achieve clean synthesis of magnetic porous carbon materials, and opens a new door for the application of MOGs in organic dye removal. PMID:26842305

  11. Spatial modulation spectroscopy for imaging and quantitative analysis of single dye-doped organic nanoparticles inside cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadas, Mary Sajini; Devkota, Tuphan; Guha, Samit; Shaw, Scott K.; Smith, Bradley D.; Hartland, Gregory V.

    2015-05-01

    Imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticles in complex biological environments, such as the cell cytosol, is a challenging problem. For metal nanoparticles, Rayleigh scattering methods can be used, but for organic nanoparticles, such as dye-doped polymer beads or lipid nanoparticles, light scattering does not provide good contrast. In this paper, spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS) is used to image single organic nanoparticles doped with non-fluorescent, near-IR croconaine dye. SMS is a quantitative imaging technique that yields the absolute extinction cross-section of the nanoparticles, which can be used to determine the number of dye molecules per particle. SMS images were recorded for particles within EMT-6 breast cancer cells. The measurements allowed mapping of the nanoparticle location and the amount of dye in a single cell. The results demonstrate how SMS can facilitate efforts to optimize dye-doped nanoparticles for effective photothermal therapy of cancer.Imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticles in complex biological environments, such as the cell cytosol, is a challenging problem. For metal nanoparticles, Rayleigh scattering methods can be used, but for organic nanoparticles, such as dye-doped polymer beads or lipid nanoparticles, light scattering does not provide good contrast. In this paper, spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS) is used to image single organic nanoparticles doped with non-fluorescent, near-IR croconaine dye. SMS is a quantitative imaging technique that yields the absolute extinction cross-section of the nanoparticles, which can be used to determine the number of dye molecules per particle. SMS images were recorded for particles within EMT-6 breast cancer cells. The measurements allowed mapping of the nanoparticle location and the amount of dye in a single cell. The results demonstrate how SMS can facilitate efforts to optimize dye-doped nanoparticles for effective photothermal therapy of cancer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM imaging, calibration experiments for the SMS instrument with gold nanoparticles, SMS images of dye doped polymer beads from a commercial source, evidence for endosome uptake, and additional SMS images of dye-doped LPNPs in EMT-6 cells, and spectra of SRfluor680/croconaine doped lipid-polymer nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR01614B

  12. Evidences for Ti-N anchoring in organic dyes on TiO2 and its influence on photovoltaic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yang; Meng, Sheng; SEEC Lab Team

    2011-03-01

    New metal-free organic dyes with a novel donor-pi-acceptor design produce efficiencies exceeding 10% for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) applications since 2010. Based on state-of- the-art electronic structure calculations and real time time- dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) simulations, we present consolidated evidences for novel Ti-N anchoring at the interface for such a broad group of new dyes, inferred from energetics, vibrational recognition, and electronic and optical data. This fact is contrary to what people usually believed and assumed in previous experiments and was largely ignored. We further demonstrate that the presence of interface Ti-N bonds largely benefit the electronic level alignment and photoelectron injection dynamics, greatly contributing to the improved efficiencies of DSSC based on cost-effective, environment-friendly organic dyes. We acknowledge supports from NSFC and hundred-talent program of CAS.

  13. Efficient adsorbents of nanoporous aluminosilicate monoliths for organic dyes from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    El-Safty, Sherif A; Shahat, Ahmed; Awual, Md Rabiul

    2011-07-01

    Growing public awareness on the potential risk to humans of toxic chemicals in the environment has generated demand for new and improved methods for toxicity assessment and removal, rational means for health risk estimation. With the aim of controlling nanoscale adsorbents for functionality in molecular sieving of organic pollutants, we fabricated cubic Im3m mesocages with uniform entrance and large cavity pores of aluminosilicates as highly promising candidates for the colorimetric monitoring of organic dyes in an aqueous solution. However, a feasible control over engineering of three-dimensional (3D) mesopore cage structures with uniform entrance (~5 nm) and large cavity (~10 nm) allowed the development of nanoadsorbent membranes as a powerful tool for large-quantity and high-speed (in minutes) adsorption/removal of bulk molecules such as organic dyes. Incorporation of high aluminum contents (Si/Al=1) into 3D cubic Im3m cage mesoporous silica monoliths resulted in small, easy-to-use optical adsorbent strips. In such adsorption systems, natural surfaces of active acid sites of aluminosilicate strips strongly induced both physical adsorption of chemically responsive dyes and intraparticle diffusion into cubic Im3m mesocage monoliths. Results likewise indicated that although aluminosilicate strips with low Si/Al ratios exhibit distortion in pore ordering and decrease in surface area and pore volume, enhancement of both molecular converges and intraparticle diffusion onto the network surfaces and into the pore architectures of adsorbent membranes was achieved. Moreover, 3D mesopore cage adsorbents are reversible, offering potential for multiple adsorption assays. PMID:21514595

  14. Third order optical nonlinearities characteristics of Disperse Red1 organic dye molecules inside of polymeric nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifimehr, Mohammad Reza; Ayoubi, Kazem; Mohajerani, Ezeddin

    2015-11-01

    Measuring nonlinear optical response of a specific material in a mixture, not only leads to investigate the behavior of a particular component in various circumstances, but also can be a way to select suitable combination and optimum concentration of additives and therefore obtaining the maximum nonlinear optical signals. In this work, by using dual-arm Z-scan technique, the nonlinear refractive index of Disperse Red1 (DR1) organic dye molecules inside the core of prepared polymeric nanocapsules was measured among various materials which prepared nanocapsules were made of them. Then the measured value was compared with nonlinear refractive index of DR1 solved in dichloromethane.

  15. Assessment of the ΔSCF density functional theory approach for electronic excitations in organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, T.; Yost, S. R.; Van Voorhis, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the accuracy of the ΔSCF method for computing low-lying HOMO→LUMO transitions in organic dye molecules. For a test set of vertical excitation energies of 16 chromophores, surprisingly similar accuracy is observed for time-dependent density functional theory and for ΔSCF density functional theory. In light of this performance, we reconsider the ad hoc ΔSCF prescription and demonstrate that it formally obtains the exact stationary density within the adiabatic approximation, partially justifying its use. The relative merits and future prospects of ΔSCF for simulating individual excited states are discussed.

  16. Effect of viscosity, basicity and organic content of composite flocculant on the decolorization performance and mechanism for reactive dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanfang; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    A coagulation/flocculation process using the composite flocculant polyaluminum chloride-epichlorohydrin dimethylamine (PAC-EPI-DMA) was employed for the treatment of an anionic azo dye (Reactive Brilliant Red K-2BP dye). The effect of viscosity (eta), basicity (B = [OH]/[Al]) and organic content (W(P)) on the flocculation performance as well as the mechanism of PAC-EPI-DMA flocculant were investigated. The eta was the key factor affecting the dye removal efficiency of PAC-EPI-DMA. PAC-EPI-DMA with an intermediate eta (2400 mPa x sec) gave higher decolorization efficiency by adsorption bridging and charge neutralization due to the co-effect of PAC and EPI-DMA polymers. The W(P) of the composite flocculant was a minor important factor for the flocculation. The adsorption bridging of PAC-EPI-DMA with eta of 300 or 4300 mPa x sec played an important role with the increase of W(P), whereas the charge neutralization of them was weaker with the increase of W(P). There was interaction between W(P) and B on the removal of reactive dye. The composite flocculant with intermediate viscosity and organic content was effective for the treatment of reactive dyeing wastewater, which could achieve high reactive dye removal efficiency with low organic dosage. PMID:22432257

  17. Post-assembly atomic layer deposition of ultrathin metal-oxide coatings enhances the performance of an organic dye-sensitized solar cell by suppressing dye aggregation.

    PubMed

    Son, Ho-Jin; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Nak Cheon; Prasittichai, Chaiya; Luo, Langli; Wu, Jinsong; Farha, Omar K; Wasielewski, Michael R; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-03-11

    Dye aggregation and concomitant reduction of dye excited-state lifetimes and electron-injection yields constitute a significant mechanism for diminution of light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies in many dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). For TiO2-based DSCs prepared with an archetypal donor-acceptor organic dye, (E)-2-cyano-3-(5'-(5''-(p-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-thiophen-2''-yl)thiophen-2'-yl)acrylic acid (OrgD), we find, in part via ultrafast spectroscopy measurements, that postdye-adsorption atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ultrathin layers of either TiO2 or Al2O3 effectively reverses residual aggregation. Notably, the ALD treatment is significantly more effective than the widely used aggregation-inhibiting coadsorbent, chenodeoxycholic acid. Primarily because of reversal of OrgD aggregation, and resulting improved injection yields, ALD post-treatment engenders a 30+% increase in overall energy conversion efficiency. A secondary contributor to increased currents and efficiencies is an ALD-induced attenuation of the rate of interception of injected electrons, resulting in slightly more efficient charge collection. PMID:25695408

  18. Development of a rapid and simple method for detection of protein contaminants in carmine.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Norihisa; Ohtsu, Yutaka; Maezawa-Kase, Daisuke; Sano, Ken-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Protein contaminants in carmine can cause dyspnea and anaphylactic reactions in users and consumers of products containing this pigment. The method generally used for detection of proteins in carmine has low reproducibility and is time-consuming. In this study, a rapid, simple, and highly reproducible method was developed for the detection of protein contaminants in carmine. This method incorporates acidic protein denaturation conditions and ultrafiltration. To prevent protein aggregation, sodium dodecyl sulfate containing gel electrophoresis running buffer was used for dispersing the carmine before filtration. An ultrafiltration device was used to separate the protein contaminants from carminic acid in the carmine solution. Two ultrafiltration devices were compared, and a cylindrical device containing a modified polyethersulfone membrane gave the best results. The method had high reproducibility. PMID:25892994

  19. Development of a Rapid and Simple Method for Detection of Protein Contaminants in Carmine

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Norihisa; Ohtsu, Yutaka; Maezawa-Kase, Daisuke; Sano, Ken-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Protein contaminants in carmine can cause dyspnea and anaphylactic reactions in users and consumers of products containing this pigment. The method generally used for detection of proteins in carmine has low reproducibility and is time-consuming. In this study, a rapid, simple, and highly reproducible method was developed for the detection of protein contaminants in carmine. This method incorporates acidic protein denaturation conditions and ultrafiltration. To prevent protein aggregation, sodium dodecyl sulfate containing gel electrophoresis running buffer was used for dispersing the carmine before filtration. An ultrafiltration device was used to separate the protein contaminants from carminic acid in the carmine solution. Two ultrafiltration devices were compared, and a cylindrical device containing a modified polyethersulfone membrane gave the best results. The method had high reproducibility. PMID:25892994

  20. Hierarchical assembly of metal nanoparticles, quantum dots and organic dyes using DNA origami scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Robert; Do, Jaekwon; Roller, Eva-Maria; Zhang, Tao; Schller, Verena J.; Nickels, Philipp C.; Feldmann, Jochen; Liedl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The self-assembly of nanoscale elements into three-dimensional structures with precise shapes and sizes is important in fields such as nanophotonics, metamaterials and biotechnology. Short molecular linkers have previously been used to create assemblies of nanoparticles, but the approach is limited to small interparticle distances, typically less than 10 nm. Alternatively, DNA origami can precisely organize nanoscale objects over much larger length scales. Here we show that rigid DNA origami scaffolds can be used to assemble metal nanoparticles, quantum dots and organic dyes into hierarchical nanoclusters that have a planet-satellite-type structure. The nanoclusters have a tunable stoichiometry, defined distances of 5-200 nm between components, and controllable overall sizes of up to 500 nm. We also show that the nanoscale components can be positioned along the radial DNA spacers of the nanostructures, which allows short- and long-range interactions between nanoparticles and dyes to be studied in solution. The approach could, in the future, be used to construct efficient energy funnels, complex plasmonic architectures, and porous, nanoengineered scaffolds for catalysis.

  1. Preparation of ZnS-graphene nanocomposites under electric furnace and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae Soo; Ko, Weon Bae

    2014-11-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles were synthesized from zinc nitrate hexahydrate and thiourea under microwave irradiation. The ZnS-graphene nanocomposites were calcined in an electric furnace at 700 degrees C under an inert argon gas atmosphere for 2 hr. The heated ZnS-graphene nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. After heat treatment, ZnS-graphene nanocomposites had a more porous and larger surface area, than the unheated ZnS-graphene nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activity of the heated ZnS-graphene nanocomposites in the degradation of organic dyes, such as methylene blue, methyl orange, and rhodamine B, under ultraviolet light at 254 nm by UV- vis spectrophotometer was evaluated and compared with that of the unheated ZnS nanoparticles, heated ZnS nanoparticles, unheated ZnS-graphene nanocomposites. Among the our experimental results as a photocatalyst, the heated ZnS-graphene nanocomposites exhibited remarkably higher photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes as compared to other nanomaterials such as unheated ZnS nanoparticles and heated ZnS-graphene nanocomposites. PMID:25958578

  2. Preparation of C60 Nanowhiskers-SnO2 Nanocomposites and Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae Soo; Ko, Weon Bae

    2015-10-01

    C60 nanowhiskers were prepared using a liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation (LLIP) method. Tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by a reaction of tin (IV) chloride pentahydrate with ammonium nitrate in an electric furnace. The C60 nanowhiskers-SnO2 nanocomposites were calcined in an electric furnace at 700 C under an inert argon gas atmosphere for 2 h. The crystallinity, morphology and optical properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The photocatalytic activity of the C60 nanowhiskers-SnO2 nanocomposites in the degradation of the organic dyes, such as methylene blue, methyl orange, rhodamine B, and brilliant green, under ultraviolet light at 254 nm by UV-vis spectrophotometry was evaluated and compared with that of C60 nanowhiskers and SnO2 nanoparticles. The experimental results showed that C60 nanowhiskers-SnO2 nanocomposites exhibited remarkably higher photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes compared to C60 nanowhiskers and SnO2 nanoparticles. PMID:26726474

  3. Sol-gel-derived silica films with tailored microstructures for applications requiring organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, M.N.; Prabakar, S.; Brinker, C.J. |

    1994-09-01

    A three-step sol-gel process was developed to prepare organic dye-doped thin films with tailored porosity for applications in chemical sensing and optoelectronics. Varying the acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis steps of sols prepared from tetraethoxysilane with identical final H{sub 2}O/Si ratios, dilution factors and pH resulted in considerably different distributions of the silicate polymers in the sol (determined by {sup 29}Si NMR) and considerably different structures for the polymer clusters (determined by SAXS). During film formation these kinetic effects cause differences in the packing and collapse of the silicate network, leading to thin films with different refractive indices and volume fraction porosities. Under conditions where small pore-plugging species were avoided, the porosities of as-deposited films could be varied by aging the sol prior to film deposition. This strategy, which relies on the growth and aggregation of fractal polymeric clusters, is compatible with the low temperature and near neutral pH requirements of organic dyes.

  4. Nanoscale insight into the exfoliation mechanism of graphene with organic dyes: effect of charge, dipole and molecular structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SchlierfThese Authors Contributed Equally To This Work., Andrea; Yang, Huafeng; Gebremedhn, Elias; Treossi, Emanuele; Ortolani, Luca; Chen, Liping; Minoia, Andrea; Morandi, Vittorio; Samor, Paolo; Casiraghi, Cinzia; Beljonne, David; Palermo, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    We study the mechanism of surface adsorption of organic dyes on graphene, and successive exfoliation in water of these dye-functionalized graphene sheets. A systematic, comparative study is performed on pyrenes functionalized with an increasing number of sulfonic groups. By combining experimental and modeling investigations, we find an unambiguous correlation between the graphene-dye interaction energy, the molecular structure and the amount of graphene flakes solubilized. The results obtained indicate that the molecular dipole is not important per se, but because it facilitates adsorption on graphene by a ``sliding'' mechanism of the molecule into the solvent layer, facilitating the lateral displacement of the water molecules collocated between the aromatic cores of the dye and graphene. While a large dipole and molecular asymmetry promote the adsorption of the molecule on graphene, the stability and pH response of the suspensions obtained depend on colloidal stabilization, with no significant influence of molecular charging and dipole.We study the mechanism of surface adsorption of organic dyes on graphene, and successive exfoliation in water of these dye-functionalized graphene sheets. A systematic, comparative study is performed on pyrenes functionalized with an increasing number of sulfonic groups. By combining experimental and modeling investigations, we find an unambiguous correlation between the graphene-dye interaction energy, the molecular structure and the amount of graphene flakes solubilized. The results obtained indicate that the molecular dipole is not important per se, but because it facilitates adsorption on graphene by a ``sliding'' mechanism of the molecule into the solvent layer, facilitating the lateral displacement of the water molecules collocated between the aromatic cores of the dye and graphene. While a large dipole and molecular asymmetry promote the adsorption of the molecule on graphene, the stability and pH response of the suspensions obtained depend on colloidal stabilization, with no significant influence of molecular charging and dipole. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00258f

  5. Connecting Direct C-H Arylation Reactions with Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Shortcut to D-A-?-A Organic Dyes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Han; Lu, Te-Jui; Cai, Deng-Jhou; Lee, Kun-Mu; Liu, Ching-Yuan

    2015-10-12

    A step-economical synthetic strategy is developed to target thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD)-based D-A-?-A organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Through sequential Pd-catalyzed direct C-H (hetero)arylation reaction, synthesis of the push-pull-type small molecules is reduced from the traditional six steps to two steps. In this report, we focus on the optimization of the key C-H monoarylation of TPD by screening ligands, acid additives, bases, and solvents. The reaction proves versatile toward new D-A-?-A organic dyes with a variety of different donor groups, and several derivatives are efficiently prepared under optimum reaction conditions. The sensitive aldehyde functionality that is a required intermediate for conversion into anchoring groups for TiO2 is well tolerated. Based on our synthetic study, DSSCs are fabricated and characterized using two designed sensitizers. The photovoltaic characterization of the devices affords an open-circuit voltage of 0.60-0.69?V, a short-circuit current density of 10.85-11.07?mA?cm(-2), and a fill factor of 69.9-70.8?%, which corresponds to an overall power conversion efficiency of 4.61-5.33?%. PMID:26347029

  6. Investigation of electrodeposited cobalt sulphide counter electrodes and their application in next-generation dye sensitized solar cells featuring organic dyes and cobalt-based redox electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Chaturvedi, Neha; Kumar, Anuj; Kapoor, Raman; Dutta, Viresh; Frey, Julien; Moehl, Thomas; Grtzel, Michael; Mathew, Simon; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2015-02-01

    Cobalt sulphide (CoS) films are potentiodynamically deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates employing one, three and five sweep cycles (CoS-I, CoS-III and CoS-V respectively). Analysis of the CoS-III film by impedance spectroscopy reveals a lower charge transfer resistance (RCT) than that measured for Pt CE (0.75 ? cm-2 and 0.85 ? cm-2, respectively). The CoS films are used as counter electrodes (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) featuring the combination of a high absorption coefficient organic dye (C218) and the cobalt-based redox electrolyte [Co(bpy)3]2/3+. DSSCs fabricated with the CoS-III CE yield the highest short-circuit current density (JSC) of 12.84 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (VOC) of 805 mV and overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.72% under AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW cm-2). These values are comparable to the performance of an analogous cell fabricated with the Pt CE (PCE = 6.94%). Owing to relative lower cost (due to the inherit earth abundance of Co) and non-toxicity, CoS can be considered as a promising alternative to the more expensive Pt as a CE material for next-generation DSSCs that utilize organic dyes and cobalt-based redox electrolytes.

  7. Tunable organic dye lasers: Physics and technology of high-performance liquid and solid-state narrow-linewidth oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Tunable organic dye lasers, usually referred simply as dye lasers, were the first broadly tunable lasers. Besides this awesome intrinsic feature, dye lasers emit directly in the visible spectrum and in their liquid state are uniquely suited to efficiently generate large pulsed average powers and large single-pulse energies. Other aspects of operational versatility include the ability to lase in the continuous wave (CW) regime and in the femtosecond-pulse regime. Consequently, organic dye lasers have served as pioneering vehicles for the development of essential laser physics. This is particularly true in the areas of tunable narrow-linewidth emission and femtosecond-laser emission. In this review we examine the essentials of cavity dispersion physics that make these emission modes possible, characteristics that have enabled a plethora of very successful and innovative applications. This review also examines developments in highly-efficient tunable single-longitudinal-mode organic solid-state dye lasers. A perspective on possible future trends, including miniature devices, is also provided.

  8. A novel porous anionic metal-organic framework with pillared double-layer structure for selective adsorption of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Shu-Nan; Han, Yi; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Cui; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Min-Jian; Xie, Ya-Bo; Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-01-01

    A novel porous anionic metal-organic framework, (Me2NH2)2[Zn2L1.5bpy]·2DMF (BUT-201; H4L=4,8-disulfonaphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid; bpy=4,4-bipyridine; DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), with pillared double-layer structure has been synthesized through the reaction of a sulfonated carboxylic acid ligand and Zn(NO3)2·6H2O with 4,4-bipyridine as a co-ligand. It is found that BUT-201 can rapidly adsorb cationic dyes with a smaller size such as Methylene Blue (MB) and Acriflavine Hydrochloride (AH) by substitution of guest (CH3)2NH2+, but has no adsorption towards the cationic dyes with a lager size such as Methylene Violet (MV), the anionic dyes like C. I. Acid Yellow 1 (AY1) and neutral dyes like C. I. Solvent Yellow 7 (SY7), respectively. The results show that the adsorption behavior of BUT-201 relates not only to the charge but also to the size/shape of dyes. Furthermore, the adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO3.

  9. The hazardous effects of three natural food dyes on developmental stages and longevity of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Handan; Semerdken, S?d?ka; olak, Deniz Altun; Ayar, Arif

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, food dyes obtained from herbal, animal, microbial and mineral sources are widely used as food additives. In this study, the toxic effects of three different natural food dyes (carmine, turmeric and annatto) on 724h larvae of Oregon-R wild type of Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. For this purpose, four different application doses (50, 75, 100, 125mgmL(-1)) were chosen by means of preliminary studies. It was determined that larval mortality increased with increasing concentration in the application groups and the toxicity order was carmine>turmeric>annatto. It was observed that the survival rate was highest in the control with 98% and lowest in 125mgmL(-1) carmine with 16%. In addition, the average lifespan of the adult individuals obtained from third instar larvae was also studied. While the average lifespan was 40.881.44days in the control group, these values were 10.810.55-23.901.27days in the carmine group, 15.000.80-22.421.43days in the turmeric group and 10.331.03-35.681.54days in the annatto group, respectively. According to the obtained results, when both the developmental period from larvae into adults and the lifespan of the developing adults were compared with the control group, the food dyes were found to be toxic and the toxicity order of carmine>turmeric>annatto was identified. PMID:23456813

  10. Organic Solvent-Free Fluorescence Confocal Imaging of Living Cells Using Pure Nanocrystal Forms of Fluorescent Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Koichi; Kasai, Hitoshi; Masuhara, Akito; Oikawa, Hidetoshi; Nakanishi, Hachiro

    2009-11-01

    In this paper we describe an organic solvent-free method for the in vitro fluorescence confocal imaging of living cells using nanocrystals of the hydrophobic fluorescent dyes 3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (DiO) and perylene, which we obtained separately using the reprecipitation method. Confocal microscopy imaging revealed that cancer cells took up the dye with high avidity. Under similar treatment conditions, the dyes in their nanocrystal forms or as dimethylsulfoxide solutions provided comparable in vitro fluorescence imaging of cells through confocal microscopy. This nanocrystal formulation approach to in vitro bioimaging in cultures eliminates the need for external solubilizing agents (i.e., organic solvent, surfactant), which usually exhibit cytotoxicity. Our developed technique also allowed the double-staining imaging of cancer cells using DiO and perylene nanocrystals.

  11. Molecular engineering of organic dyes with a hole-extending donor tail for efficient all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Hsu-Yang; Wu, Hui-Ping; Cheng, Yibing; Wang, Mingkui; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2015-08-10

    We report a new concept for the design of metal-free organic dyes (OD5-OD9) with an extended donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) molecular framework, in which the donor terminal unit is attached by a hole-extending side chain to retard back electron transfer and charge recombination; the π-bridge component contains varied thiophene-based substituents to enhance the light-harvesting ability of the device. The best dye (OD9) has a D-A-π-A configuration with the hexyloxyphenylthiophene (HPT) side chain as a hole-extension component and a benzothiadiazole (BTD) internal acceptor as a π-extension component. The co-sensitization of OD9 with the new porphyrin dye LW24 enhanced the light-harvesting ability to 800 nm; thus, a power conversion efficiency 5.5 % was achieved. Photoinduced absorption (PIA) and transient absorption spectral (TAS) techniques were applied to account for the observed trend of the open-circuit voltage (VOC ) of the devices. This work provides insights into the molecular design, photovoltaic performance, and kinetics of charge recombination. PMID:26119886

  12. A highly selective optode for determination of Hg (II) by a modified immobilization of indigo carmine on a triacetylcellulose membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavallali, Hossein; Shaabanpur, Elham; Vahdati, Parvin

    2012-04-01

    A new mercury optical sensor was designed with indigo carmine (IC) as a dye indicator. The water-soluble indicator was lipophilized in the form of an ion-pair with N-cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) and dissolved in methanol (70 C), then immobilized on a triacetylcellulose membrane. This optode exhibits a linear range of 24.0-468.0 ?M of the Hg (II) ion concentration with detection limit of 7.2 ?M at 669.5 nm. Response time was within 8-10 min, depending on the Hg (II) ion concentration. The sensor could readily be regenerated with a hydrochloric acid solution (0.01 M) in a reversible manner and its response was reproducible (RSD = 3.2%). The method was applied to the determination of mercury content of a variety of samples which gave satisfactory results.

  13. Preparation of magnetic Ni@graphene nanocomposites and efficient removal organic dye under assistance of ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chuang; Guo, Jianhui; Yang, Qing; Tong, Lei; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Jiwei; Gong, Chunhong; Zhou, Jingfang; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we report a facile one-step synthesis of Ni@graphene nanocomposite microspheres (NGs) in hydrazine hydrate solution under ultrasound conditions. During the ultrasonic process, graphene oxide (GO) was reduced effectively under mild conditions and Ni nanoparticles were simultaneously formed and anchored on graphene sheets, which act as spacers to keep the neighboring sheets separated. The target products exhibit excellent performance for fast and efficient removal of dye contaminants, rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution, under assistance of ultrasound. Finally, the nanocomposites can be easily separated from solution by a magnet. Furthermore, higher content of graphene can be produced under sonication, which facilitates faster and more efficient removal of organic contaminates in the solution. The nanocomposites were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis.

  14. Organic acids enhanced decoloration of azo dye in gas phase surface discharge plasma system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Ren, Jingyu; Sun, Qiuhong; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-01-25

    A gas phase surface discharge plasma combined with organic acids system was developed to enhance active species mass transfer and dye-containing wastewater treatment efficacy, with Acid Orange II (AO7) as the model pollutant. The effects of discharge voltage and various organic acid additives (acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid) on AO7 decoloration efficiency were evaluated. The experimental results showed that an AO7 decoloration efficiency of approximately 69.0% was obtained within 4 min of discharge plasma treatment without organic acid addition, which was improved to 82.8%, 83.5% and 88.6% within the same treatment time with the addition of acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid, respectively. The enhancement effects on AO7 decoloration efficiency could be attributed to the decrease in aqueous surface tension, improvement in bubble distribution and shape, and increase in ozone equivalent concentration. The AO7 wastewater was biodegradable after discharge plasma treatment with the addition of organic acid. AO7 decomposition intermediates were analyzed by UV-vis spectrometry and GC-MS; 2-naphthol, 1,4-benzoquinone, phthalic anhydride, coumarin, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 2-formyl-benzoic acid were detected. A possible pathway for AO7 decomposition in this system was proposed. PMID:26444488

  15. Hierarchically porous silicon-carbon-nitrogen hybrid materials towards highly efficient and selective adsorption of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lala; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tang, Yusheng; Su, Kehe; Kong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchically macro/micro-porous silicon-carbon-nitrogen (Si-C-N) hybrid material was presented with novel functionalities of totally selective and highly efficient adsorption for organic dyes. The hybrid material was conveniently generated by the pyrolysis of commercial polysilazane precursors using polydivinylbenzene microspheres as sacrificial templates. Owing to the Van der Waals force between sp-hybridized carbon domains and triphenyl structure of dyes, and electrostatic interaction between dyes and Si-C-N matrix, it exhibites high adsorption capacity and good regeneration and recycling ability for the dyes with triphenyl structure, such as methyl blue (MB), acid fuchsin (AF), basic fuchsin and malachite green. The adsorption process is determined by both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. According to the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity is 1327.7 mg.g-1 and 1084.5 mg.g-1 for MB and AF, respectively, which is much higher than that of many other adsorbents. On the contrary, the hybrid materials do not adsorb the dyes with azo benzene structures, such as methyl orange, methyl red and congro red. Thus, the hierarchically porous Si-C-N hybrid material from a facile and low cost polymer-derived strategy provides a new perspective and possesses a significant potential in the treatment of wastewater with complex organic pollutants.

  16. Hierarchically porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen hybrid materials towards highly efficient and selective adsorption of organic dyes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lala; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tang, Yusheng; Su, Kehe; Kong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchically macro/micro-porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen (Si–C–N) hybrid material was presented with novel functionalities of totally selective and highly efficient adsorption for organic dyes. The hybrid material was conveniently generated by the pyrolysis of commercial polysilazane precursors using polydivinylbenzene microspheres as sacrificial templates. Owing to the Van der Waals force between sp2-hybridized carbon domains and triphenyl structure of dyes, and electrostatic interaction between dyes and Si-C-N matrix, it exhibites high adsorption capacity and good regeneration and recycling ability for the dyes with triphenyl structure, such as methyl blue (MB), acid fuchsin (AF), basic fuchsin and malachite green. The adsorption process is determined by both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. According to the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity is 1327.7 mg·g−1 and 1084.5 mg·g−1 for MB and AF, respectively, which is much higher than that of many other adsorbents. On the contrary, the hybrid materials do not adsorb the dyes with azo benzene structures, such as methyl orange, methyl red and congro red. Thus, the hierarchically porous Si–C–N hybrid material from a facile and low cost polymer-derived strategy provides a new perspective and possesses a significant potential in the treatment of wastewater with complex organic pollutants. PMID:25604334

  17. Activated carbon doped with biogenic manganese oxides for the removal of indigo carmine.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yichen; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Gejiao; Liao, Shuijiao

    2016-01-15

    Indigo carmine (IC) is one of the oldest, most important, and highly toxic dyes which is released from the effluents of many industries and results in serious pollution in water. In this study, the biogenic Mn oxides were activated by NaOH and then heated for 3h at 350C to produce activated carbon doped with Mn oxide (Bio-MnOx-C), which were produced by culturing Mn (II)-oxidizing bacterial strain MnI7-9 in liquid A medium at 28C with 10mmol/L MnCl2. Bio-MnOx-C was characterized by SEM, TEM, IR, XPS, XRD, etc. It contained C, O, and Mn which comprised Mn (IV) and Mn (III) valence states at a ratio of 3.81:1. It had poorly crystalline ?-MnO2 with a specific surface area of 130.94m(2)/g. A total of 0.1g Bio-MnOx-C could remove 45.95g IC from 500mg/L IC solution after 0.5h contact time. IC removal by Bio-MnOx-C included a rapid oxidation reaction and the removal reaction followed second-order kinetic equation. These results confirmed that Bio-MnOx-C could be a potential material for wastewater remediation. PMID:26595178

  18. Simple metal-free organic D-pi-A dyes with alkoxy- or fluorine substitutions: application in dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharam, M; Chiranjeevi, B; Gupta, K S V; Singh, Surya Prakash; Islam, A; Han, L; Kantam, M Lakshmi

    2012-06-01

    Two new metal-free organic sensitizers with simplest structural variations have been synthesized for application in nanocrystalline TiO2 sensitized solar cells. The donor-pi-bridge-acceptor (D-pi-A) structure dyes, Y2 and Y3 each designed with three parts, an electron donor unit (substituted phenyl), a linker unit (thiophene), and an anchor unit (cyanoacrylic acid) showed maximal monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) in a device reaching upto 67% and 82% respectively. The organic sensitizers with 3,4,5-trimethoxy phenyl (Y3) as donor moieties obtained better solar light to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of 3.30% where as the organic sensitizer with 2,4-difluoro phenyl as donor (Y2) showed comparatively lower efficiency of 1.02%. The efficiency obtained with the reference sensitizer N719 under similar fabrication and evaluation conditions was 5.84%. PMID:22905490

  19. Photoinduced absorption measurement on a microchip equipped with organic dye-doped polymer waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, T.; Nagai, K.; Yamashita, K.

    2013-05-01

    We have fabricated a waveguide-type optical sensing microchip and succeeded in on-chip photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy. The PIA microchip was fabricated with a conventional photolithographic technique and consisted of plastic optical waveguides and microfluidic channels. Furthermore, a serially-cascaded polymer waveguide doped with organic dyes was integrated on this microchip, which was fabricated using a self-written waveguide process. This dye-doped waveguide was pumped by a UV light emitting diode (UV-LED) and used as a probe light source with a broad emission spectrum. At the same time, a solution of test material in the microfluidic channel was synchronously pumped by a UV-LED or UV laser diode. Since the transmission spectrum of the photo-excited test material could be measured, the PIA spectra were obtained easily. In this study, we have demonstrated the on-chip PIA measurements for two classes of test materials, rare-earth complex and chlorophyll molecules. In the measurement for the aqueous solution of Neodymium (III) acetate hydrate, PIA signals attributed to the 4f-4f transition was observed. Furthermore, by varying the modulation frequency of the pulsed optical pumping, lifetime analysis of the excited 4f states was achieved. In the measurements for the ethanol solutions of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, PIA signals were observed at the wavelength near the Q-band absorption peaks. These spectra were very similar to the well-known feature for the photosystem II protein complex observed in a conventional PIA system. From these results, it is expected that the onchip PIA measurement technique is applicable to the transient analyses for the material systems with photoexcited charge transfer.

  20. Theoretical analysis of the absorption spectra of organic dyes differing by the conjugation sequence: illusion of negative solvatochromism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhos, Sergei; Segawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi

    2012-06-01

    Absorption peak maxima of two organic dyes differing by the position of the methine unit differ by 61 nm in dioxane and 128 nm in acetonnitrile. The difference is not reproduced by TDDFT using ab initio or hybrid functionals. TDDFT errors are different between the molecules due to a different albeit small extent of charge transfer, leading to a qualitative failure of TDDFT to predict relative energetics of the dyes. The TDDFT errors in non-polar solvents (such as dioxane) could be corrected based on the approach of Peach et al. (J. Chem. Phy. 128, 044118 (2008)). Here, we focus on the effect on the absorption spectrum of a polar solvent, specifically of the different between the two molecules sign of the solvatochromic shift vs. dioxane. Using the corrrection due to Peach et al, the absolute TDDFT errors can be brought within accetable ranges of 0.2-0.3 eV with the PCM solvent model, and the blue shift vs.dioxane is reporoduced, although both dyes are predicted to exhibit positive solvatochromism. The inclusion of explicit solvent molecules forming hydrogen bonds with the dye did not appreciably change neither TDDFT energies nor the correction term. These results show the importance of a more careful assessment of computational errors in the strategy of computationaly dye design by changing the conjugation order, where they are expected to be more important than in the case of an extension of the size of conjugation, and more so when polar solvents are used.

  1. Photoconductivity of organic polymer films doped with porous silicon nanoparticles and ionic polymethine dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Davidenko, N. A. Skrichevsky, V. A.; Ishchenko, A. A.; Karlash, A. Yu.; Mokrinskaya, E. V.

    2009-05-15

    Features of electrical conductivity and photoconductivity of polyvinylbutyral films containing porous silicon nanoparticles and similar films doped with cationic and anionic polymethine dyes are studied. Sensitization of the photoelectric effect by dyes with different ionicities in films is explained by the possible photogeneration of holes and electrons from dye molecules and the intrinsic bipolar conductivity of porous silicon nanoparticles. It is assumed that the electronic conductivity in porous silicon nanoparticles is higher in comparison with p-type conductivity.

  2. Abatements of reduced sulphur compounds, colour, and organic matter from indigo dyeing effluents by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Tünay, Olcay; Simşeker, Merve; Kabdaşli, Isik; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the treatability of indigo dyeing effluents by the electrocoagulation (EC) process using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The samples used were concentrated with main pollutant parameters of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (1000-1100 mg/L), reduced sulphur species (over 2000 mg SO2-(3)/L), and colour (0.12-0.13 1/cm). The study focused on the effect of main operation parameters on the EC process performance in terms of abatement of reduced sulphur compounds as well as decolourization and organic matter reduction. Results indicated that the performance of EC proved to be high providing total oxidation of the reduced sulphur compounds, almost complete decolourization, and COD removal up to 90%. Increasing applied current density from 22.5 to 45 mA/cm2 appreciably improved abatement of the reduced sulphur compounds for Sample I, but a further increase in the applied current density to 67.5 mA/cm2 did not accelerate the conversion rate to sulphate. The process performance was adversely affected by increasing initial concentration of the reduced sulphur compounds. Decolourization and organic matter removal efficiency enhanced with increasing applied current density. The main removal mechanism of the reduced sulphur compounds by EC was explained as conversion to sulphate via oxidation. Conversion rate to sulphate fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well. PMID:24956747

  3. Energy-Cascaded Upconversion in an Organic Dye-Sensitized Core/Shell Fluoride Nanocrystal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanying; Damasco, Jossana; Qiu, Hailong; Shao, Wei; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y; Valiev, Rashid R; Wu, Xiang; Han, Gang; Wang, Yan; Yang, Chunhui; Ågren, Hans; Prasad, Paras N

    2015-11-11

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles hold promises for bioimaging, solar cells, and volumetric displays. However, their emission brightness and excitation wavelength range are limited by the weak and narrowband absorption of lanthanide ions. Here, we introduce a concept of multistep cascade energy transfer, from broadly infrared-harvesting organic dyes to sensitizer ions in the shell of an epitaxially designed core/shell inorganic nanostructure, with a sequential nonradiative energy transfer to upconverting ion pairs in the core. We show that this concept, when implemented in a core-shell architecture with suppressed surface-related luminescence quenching, yields multiphoton (three-, four-, and five-photon) upconversion quantum efficiency as high as 19% (upconversion energy conversion efficiency of 9.3%, upconversion quantum yield of 4.8%), which is about ~100 times higher than typically reported efficiency of upconversion at 800 nm in lanthanide-based nanostructures, along with a broad spectral range (over 150 nm) of infrared excitation and a large absorption cross-section of 1.47 × 10(-14) cm(2) per single nanoparticle. These features enable unprecedented three-photon upconversion (visible by naked eye as blue light) of an incoherent infrared light excitation with a power density comparable to that of solar irradiation at the Earth surface, having implications for broad applications of these organic-inorganic core/shell nanostructures with energy-cascaded upconversion. PMID:26487489

  4. A metal-organic tetrahedron as a redox vehicle to encapsulate organic dyes for photocatalytic proton reduction.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xu; He, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Duan, Chunying

    2015-03-25

    The design of artificial systems that mimic highly evolved and finely tuned natural photosynthetic systems is a subject of intensive research. We report herein a new approach to constructing supramolecular systems for the photocatalytic generation of hydrogen from water by encapsulating an organic dye molecule into the pocket of a redox-active metal-organic polyhedron. The assembled neutral Co4L4 tetrahedron consists of four ligands and four cobalt ions that connect together in alternating fashion. The cobalt ions are coordinated by three thiosemicarbazone NS chelators and exhibit a redox potential suitable for electrochemical proton reduction. The close proximity between the redox site and the photosensitizer encapsulated in the pocket enables photoinduced electron transfer from the excited state of the photosensitizer to the cobalt-based catalytic sites via a powerful pseudo-intramolecular pathway. The modified supramolecular system exhibits TON values comparable to the highest values reported for related cobalt/fluorescein systems. Control experiments based on a smaller tetrahedral analogue of the vehicle with a filled pocket and a mononuclear compound resembling the cobalt corner of the tetrahedron suggest an enzymatic dynamics behavior. The new, well-elucidated reaction pathways and the increased molarity of the reaction within the confined space render these supramolecular systems superior to other relevant systems. PMID:25738748

  5. Organic Dye Effects on DNAPL Entry Pressure in Water Saturated Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, G.M.

    2001-10-02

    One of three diazo dyes with the same fundamental structure have been used in most studies of DNAPL behavior in porous media to stain the NAPL: Sudan III, Sudan IV, or Oil-Red-O. The dyes are generally implicitly assumed to not influence DNAPL behavior. That assumption was tested using simple entry pressure experiments.

  6. An achievement of over 12 percent efficiency in an organic dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Kakiage, Kenji; Aoyama, Yohei; Yano, Toru; Otsuka, Takahiro; Kyomen, Toru; Unno, Masafumi; Hanaya, Minoru

    2014-06-18

    Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated by using a novel metal-free alkoxysilyl carbazole as a sensitizing dye and a Co(3+/2+)-complex redox electrolyte exhibited light-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies of over 12% with open-circuit photovoltages higher than 1 V by applying a hierarchical multi-capping treatment to the photoanode. PMID:24801395

  7. Synthesis of magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) for efficient removal of organic dyes from water

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuangliu; Tang, Zhi; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Meng, Wei; Wu, Fengchang; Giesy, John P.

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple and efficient strategy for fabricating a magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) as sorbent to remove organic compounds from simulated water samples is presented and tested for removal of methylene blue (MB) as an example. The novel adsorbents combine advantages of MOFs and magnetic nanoparticles and possess large capacity, low cost, rapid removal and easy separation of the solid phase, which makes it an excellent sorbent for treatment of wastewaters. The resulting magnetic MOFs composites (also known as MFCs) have large surface areas (79.52 m2 g−1), excellent magnetic response (14.89 emu g−1), and large mesopore volume (0.09 cm3 g−1), as well as good chemical inertness and mechanical stability. Adsorption was not drastically affected by pH, suggesting π–π stacking interaction and/or hydrophobic interactions between MB and MFCs. Kinetic parameters followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and adsorption was described by the Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption capacity was 84 mg MB g−1 at an initial MB concentration of 30 mg L−1, which increased to 245 mg g−1 when the initial MB concentration was 300 mg L−1. This capacity was much greater than most other adsorbents reported in the literature. In addition, MFC adsorbents possess excellent reusability, being effective after at least five consecutive cycles. PMID:26149818

  8. Synthesis of magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) for efficient removal of organic dyes from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuangliu; Tang, Zhi; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Meng, Wei; Wu, Fengchang; Giesy, John P.

    2015-07-01

    A novel, simple and efficient strategy for fabricating a magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) as sorbent to remove organic compounds from simulated water samples is presented and tested for removal of methylene blue (MB) as an example. The novel adsorbents combine advantages of MOFs and magnetic nanoparticles and possess large capacity, low cost, rapid removal and easy separation of the solid phase, which makes it an excellent sorbent for treatment of wastewaters. The resulting magnetic MOFs composites (also known as MFCs) have large surface areas (79.52?m2 g-1), excellent magnetic response (14.89?emu g-1), and large mesopore volume (0.09?cm3 g-1), as well as good chemical inertness and mechanical stability. Adsorption was not drastically affected by pH, suggesting ?-? stacking interaction and/or hydrophobic interactions between MB and MFCs. Kinetic parameters followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and adsorption was described by the Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption capacity was 84?mg MB g-1 at an initial MB concentration of 30?mg L-1, which increased to 245?mg g-1 when the initial MB concentration was 300?mg L-1. This capacity was much greater than most other adsorbents reported in the literature. In addition, MFC adsorbents possess excellent reusability, being effective after at least five consecutive cycles.

  9. High-performance plastic dye-sensitized solar cells based on low-cost commercial P25 TiO2 and organic dye.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiong; Xue, Zhaosheng; Wang, Long; Cheng, Yueming; Liu, Bin

    2012-03-01

    High-performance plastic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on low-cost commercial Degussa P25 TiO(2) and organic indoline dye D149 have been fabricated using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) with compression post-treatment at room temperature. The pressed EPD electrode outperformed the sintered EPD electrode and as-prepared EPD electrode in short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. About 150% and 180% enhancement in power conversion efficiency have been achieved in DSC devices with sintering and compression post-treatment as compared to the as-prepared electrode, respectively. Several characterizations including intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra have been employed to reveal the nature of improvement with post-treatment. Experimental results indicate that the sintering and compression post-treatment are beneficial to improve the electron transport and thus lead to the enhancement of photocurrent and power conversion efficiency. In addition, the compression post-treatment is more efficient than sintering post-treatment in improving interparticle connection in the as-prepared EPD electrode. Under optimized conditions, the conversion efficiency of plastic devices with D149-sensitized P25 TiO(2) photoanode has reached 5.76% under illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW cm(-2)). This study demonstrates that the EPD combined with compression post-treatment provides a way to fabricate highly efficient plastic photovoltaic devices. PMID:22324725

  10. Novelmetal-organic photocatalysts: Synthesis, characterization and decomposition of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal Reddy, N. B.; Murali Krishna, P.; Kottam, Nagaraju

    2015-02-01

    An efficient method for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in an aqueous medium was developed using metal-organic complexes. Two novel complexes were synthesized using, Schiff base ligand, N?-[(E)-(4-ethylphenyl)methylidene]-4-hydroxybenzohydrazide (HL) and Ni(II) (Complex 1)/Co(II) (Complex 2) chloride respectively. These complexes were characterized using microanalysis, various spectral techniques. Spectral studies reveal that the complexes exhibit square planar geometry with ligand coordination through azomethine nitrogen and enolic oxygen. The effects of catalyst dosage, irradiation time and aqueous pH on the photocatalytic activity were studied systematically. The photocatalytic activity was found to be more efficient in the presence of Ni(II) complexes than the Co(II) complex. Possible mechanistic aspects were discussed.

  11. Novel metal-organic photocatalysts: synthesis, characterization and decomposition of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Gopal Reddy, N B; Murali Krishna, P; Kottam, Nagaraju

    2015-02-25

    An efficient method for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in an aqueous medium was developed using metal-organic complexes. Two novel complexes were synthesized using, Schiff base ligand, N'-[(E)-(4-ethylphenyl)methylidene]-4-hydroxybenzohydrazide (HL) and Ni(II) (Complex 1)/Co(II) (Complex 2) chloride respectively. These complexes were characterized using microanalysis, various spectral techniques. Spectral studies reveal that the complexes exhibit square planar geometry with ligand coordination through azomethine nitrogen and enolic oxygen. The effects of catalyst dosage, irradiation time and aqueous pH on the photocatalytic activity were studied systematically. The photocatalytic activity was found to be more efficient in the presence of Ni(II) complexes than the Co(II) complex. Possible mechanistic aspects were discussed. PMID:25233028

  12. Accurate Diffusion Coefficients of Organosoluble Reference Dyes in Organic Media Measured by Dual-Focus Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Karel; Prior, Mira; Pacheco, Victor; Willbold, Dieter; Mllen, Klaus; Enderlein, Jrg; Hofkens, Johan; Gregor, Ingo

    2015-07-28

    Dual-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (2fFCS) is a versatile method to determine accurate diffusion coefficients of fluorescent species in an absolute, reference-free manner. Whereas (either classical or dual-focus) FCS has been employed primarily in the life sciences and thus in aqueous environments, it is increasingly being used in materials chemistry, as well. These measurements are often performed in nonaqueous media such as organic solvents. However, the diffusion coefficients of reference dyes in organic solvents are not readily available. For this reason we determined the translational diffusion coefficients of several commercially available organosoluble fluorescent dyes by means of 2fFCS. The selected dyes and organic solvents span the visible spectrum and a broad range of refractive indices, respectively. The diffusion coefficients can be used as absolute reference values for the calibration of experimental FCS setups, allowing quantitative measurements to be performed. We show that reliable information about the hydrodynamic dimensions of the fluorescent species (including noncommercial compounds) within organic media can be extracted from the 2fFCS data. PMID:26144863

  13. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of dyes identified in textiles from Mount Athos.

    PubMed

    Mantzouris, Dimitrios; Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Valianou, Lemonia; Panayiotou, Costas

    2011-03-01

    Organic colorants contained in 30 textiles (16th to early 20th century) from the monastery of Simonos Petra (Mount Athos) have been investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). The components of natural dyes identified in samples treated by the standard HCl dyestuff extraction method were: alizarin, apigenin, butein, carminic acid, chrysoeriol, dcII, dcIV, dcVII, ellagic acid, emodin, fisetin, flavokermesic acid, fustin, genistein, haematein derivative (Hae'), indigotin, indirubin, isoliquiritigenin, isorhamnetin, kaempferide, kaempferol, kermesic acid, luteolin, naringenin, purpurin, quercetin, rhamnazin, rhamnetin, sulfuretin, and type B and type C compounds (last two are markers for Caesalpinia trees). Early, semi-synthetic dyes, for example indigo carmine, fuchsin components, and rhodamine B were identified in objects dated late 19th to early 20th century. A dyestuff extraction method which involves use of TFA, instead of HCl, was applied to selected historical samples, showing that the mild method enables efficient extraction of weld (Reseda luteola L.) and dyer's broom (Genista tinctoria L.) glycosides. The marker compound (Hae') for logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum L.) identification after treatment with HCl was investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in negative electrospray ionization (LC-MS-ESI(-)) mode. LC-MS in negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC-MS-APCI(-)) mode was used, probably for the first time, to investigate cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) samples. Positive electrospray ionization (LC-MS-ESI(+)) mode was used for identification of fuchsin components. Detailed HPLC-DAD studies were performed on young fustic (Cotinus coggygria Scop.) and Persian berries (Rhamnus trees). PMID:21271239

  14. Dye-doped silica nanoparticles as luminescent organized systems for nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Montalti, M; Prodi, L; Rampazzo, E; Zaccheroni, N

    2014-06-21

    The ability to find synergic solutions is the core of scientific research and scientific advancement. This is particularly true for medicine, where multimodal imaging and theranostic tools represent the frontier research. Nanotechnology, which by its very nature is multidisciplinary, has opened up the way to the engineering of new organized materials endowed with improved performances. In particular, merging nanoparticles and luminescent signalling can lead to the creation of unique tools for the design of inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic and theranostic kits. In this wide scenario, dye-doped silica nanoparticles constitute very effective nanoplatforms to obtain efficient luminescent, stable, biocompatible and targeted agents for biomedical applications. In this review we discuss the state of the art in the field of luminescent silica-based nanoparticles for medical imaging, starting with an overview of the most common synthetic approaches to these materials. Trying to rationalize the presentation of this extremely multifaceted and complex subject, we have gathered significant examples of systems applied in cancer research, also discussing those that take a multifunctional approach, including theranostic structures. Nanoprobes designed for applications that do not include cancer are a minor part, but interesting achievements have been published and we present a selection of these in the subsequent section. To conclude, we propose a debate on the advantages of creating chemosensors based on luminescent silica nanoparticles. This is far from easy but is a particularly valuable goal in the medical field and therefore subject to extensive research worldwide. PMID:24643354

  15. Optical modeling of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells based on squarine dye as electron donor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitova, S.; Stoyanova, D.; Dikova, J.; Kandinska, M.; Vasilev, A.; Angelova, S.

    2014-12-01

    The potentiality of a squarine dye (Sq1) for using as electron donor component in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ) has been studied from the optical point of view. The soluble n-type fullerene, (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61MB) was chosen as acceptor. Optical modelling based on transfer matrix method was carried out to predict and improve photovoltaic performance of a BHJ device with blended Sq1/PC61MB active layer. The dependence of the absorption and the calculated maximum short circuit photocurrent (Jscmax) on the thickness of the active layer (dact), was investigated for two weight ratios of Sq1 and PC61MB. Thus, the optimal dact was calculated to be about 100 nm, which provides an efficient overlapping of the total absorption with solar spectrum in the range between 580 and 900 nm. Besides, it is found that the insertion of ZnO or C60 spacer layer shifts Jscmax peak to lower dact and significantly enhances Jscmax for active layers with dact < 50 nm, which is mainly due to improved light absorption by a factor of 5 to 10. Simultaneously, for dact <100 nm the optical effect of inserted PEDOT:PSS hole transporting layer is negligible.

  16. Surface Binding and Organization of Sensitizing Dyes on Metal Oxide Single Crystal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, Bruce

    2010-06-04

    Even though investigations of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors in solar cells has dominated research on dye-sensitized semiconductors over the past two decades. Single crystal electrodes represent far simpler model systems for studying the sensitization process with a continuing train of studies dating back more than forty years. Even today single crystal surfaces prove to be more controlled experimental models for the study of dye-sensitized semiconductors than the nanocrystalline substrates. We analyzed the scientific advances in the model sensitized single crystal systems that preceded the introduction of nanocrystalline semiconductor electrodes. It then follows the single crystal research to the present, illustrating both their striking simplicity of use and clarity of interpretation relative to nanocrystalline electrodes. Researchers have employed many electrochemical, photochemical and scanning probe techniques for studying monolayer quantities of sensitizing dyes at specific crystallographic faces of different semiconductors. These methods include photochronocoulometry, electronic spectroscopy and flash photolysis of dyes at potential-controlled semiconductor electrodes and the use of total internal reflection methods. In addition, we describe the preparation of surfaces of single crystal SnS2 and TiO2 electrodes to serve as reproducible model systems for charge separation at dye sensitized solar cells. This process involves cleaving the SnS2 electrodes and a photoelectrochemical surface treatment for TiO2 that produces clean surfaces for sensitization (as verified by AFM) resulting in near unity yields for electron transfer from the molecular excited dyes into the conduction band.

  17. Template-free hydrothermal derived cobalt oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, Mostafa Y.; Ahmed, Ibrahim S.

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the products obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 24 h, and at different [Co{sup 2+}]/[CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}] ratios: (a) 1:6, (b) 1:3, (c) 1:1.5, (d) 1:1, (e) 1:0.5. Highlights: ► Spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal approach. ► The optical characteristics of the as-prepared cobalt oxide revealed the presence of two band gaps. ► Adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated and the percent uptake was found to be >99% in 24 h. -- Abstract: Pure spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared through hydrothermal approach using different counter ions. First, the pure and uniform cobalt carbonate (with particle size of 21.8–29.8 nm) were prepared in high yield (94%) in an autoclave in absence unfriendly organic surfactants or solvents by adjusting different experimental parameters such as: pH, reaction time, temperature, counter ions, and (Co{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}) molar ratios. Thence, the spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (with mean particle size of 30.5–47.35 nm) was produced by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate in air at 500 °C for 3 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis (TA). Also, the optical characteristics of the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles revealed the presence of two band gaps (1.45–1.47, and 1.83–1.93 eV). Additionally, adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated and the uptake% was found to be >99% in 24 h.

  18. Simulation of solid-state dye solar cells based on organic and Perovskite sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, Aldo; Gentilini, Desire; Gagliardi, Alessio

    2015-03-01

    In this work we present a multiscale numerical simulation of solid-state Dye and Perovskite Solar Cells where the real morphology of the mesoporous active layer is taken into account. Band alignment and current densities are computed using the drift-diffusion model. In the case of Dye cells, a portion of the real interface is merged between two regions described using the effective medium approximation, casting light on the role of trapped states at the interface between TiO2 / Dye / hole transporting materials. A second case of study is the simulation of Perovskite Solar Cell where the performances of cells based on Alumina and Titania mesoporous layer are compared.

  19. Preparation of graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposites by heat treatment and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bum Hwi; Ko, Weon Bae

    2013-11-01

    ZrO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by combining a solution containing zinconyl chloride in distilled water with a NH4OH solution under microwave irradiation. Graphene and ZrO2 nanocomposites were synthesized in an electric furnace at 700 degrees C for 2 hours. The heated graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, UV-vis spectrophotometry was used to evaluate the heated graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposites as a catalyst in the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. The photocatalytic effect of the heated graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposites was compared with that of unheated graphene nanoparticles, heated graphene nanoparticles, and unheated graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposites in organic dyes (methylene blue, methyl orange, and rhodamine B) under ultraviolet light at 254 nm. PMID:24245304

  20. Studies on the two-photon pumped upconverted fluorescence and superradiance of a new organic dye material in solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guangyong; Wang, Dong; Yang, Shengjun; Xu, Xinguang; Ren, Yan; Shao, Zongshu; Jiang, Minhua; Tian, Yupeng; Hao, Fuying; Li, Shengli

    2002-10-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of a new organic dye, trans-4-p-(N-ethyl-N-ethylamino)-styryl-N-methyl-pyridinium tris(thiocyanato) cadmates (II), are reported in this paper. When pumped with a picosecond laser at the wavelength range of 850-1200 nm, intense upconversion fluorescence can be obtained. The upconversion efficiencies at different pump energies were measured when pumped with a 1064-nm laser beam from a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. The highest upconversion efficiencies were measured to be 5.8% and 7.6% in dimethyl formamide (DMF) and methanol. The lifetime of the dye in DMF was measured to be 75 ps. The strongest nonlinear absorption was at the wavelength of 940 nm, and the highest upconversion efficiency was at the wavelength of 1030 nm. The difference of the two wavelengths was caused by excited state absorption in the dye at wavelengths shorter than 1000 nm. The dye solution in DMF and methanol show a clear optical power limiting effect.

  1. Studies on the two-photon pumped upconverted fluorescence and superradiance of a new organic dye material in solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangyong; Wang, Dong; Yang, Shengjun; Xu, Xinguang; Ren, Yan; Shao, Zongshu; Jiang, Minhua; Tian, Yupeng; Hao, Fuying; Li, Shengli; Shi, Pengfei

    2002-10-20

    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of a new organic dye, trans-4-[p-(N-ethyl-N-ethylamino)-styryl]-N-methyl-pyridinium tris(thiocyanato) cadmates (II), are reported in this paper. When pumped with a picosecond laser at the wavelength range of 850-1200 nm, intense upconversion fluorescence can be obtained. The upconversion efficiencies at different pump energies were measured when pumped with a 1064-nm laser beam from a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. The highest upconversion efficiencies were measured to be 5.8% and 7.6% in dimethyl formamide (DMF) and methanol. The lifetime of the dye in DMF was measured to be 75 ps. The strongest nonlinear absorption was at the wavelength of 940 nm, and the highest upconversion efficiency was at the wavelength of 1030 nm. The difference of the two wavelengths was caused by excited state absorption in the dye at wavelengths shorter than 1000 nm. The dye solution in DMF and methanol show a clear optical power limiting effect. PMID:12396187

  2. High-efficiency orange and tandem white organic light-emitting diodes using phosphorescent dyes with horizontally oriented emitting dipoles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunghun; Shin, Hyun; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2014-09-01

    Tandem white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) using horizontally oriented phosphorescent dyes in an exciplex-forming co-host are presented, along with an orange OLED. A high external quantum efficiency of 32% is achieved for the orange OLED at 1000 cd m(-2) and the tandem WOLEDs exhibit a high maximum EQE of 54.3% (PE of 63 lm W(-1)). PMID:24923483

  3. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Hierarchical ZnO Nanoflowers and Photocatalytic Activities for Organic Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian; Shi, Fengqiong

    2014-11-01

    We have successfully synthesized three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical ZnO nanostructure through a simple hydrothermal synthetic approach, namely nanoflowers. We have also studied the growth process of nanoflowers based on a series of experiments. In addition, the comparative photocatalytic studies showed the photocatalytic activities of the nanoflowers are obviously over two times than that of nanorods in the photodegradation of organic dyes.

  4. Photostabilizing effects of lidocaine and tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminum on organic fluorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisk, Wade N.

    2003-07-01

    The photostabilization efficacy of lidocaine and tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminum (Alq3) was determined for methanol solutions of the fluorescent laser dyes 1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-2,6-diethylpyrromethene-difluoroborate complex (PM-567) and rhodamine 590 (R590) by evaluation with the , rose bengal (RB). The photostability was measured by noting the decrease in fluorescence with accumulated 532 nm Nd:YAG laser pulses. Rose bengal demonstrated dramatic photostability enhancement upon lidocaine or Alq3 addition; whereas nominal photostability enhancement was observed for PM-567 and R590 upon lidocaine or Alq3 addition. A geminate dye-singlet oxygen complex is proposed to explain the disparity in dye photostability enhancement between rose bengal and the laser dyes.

  5. Immobilization of papaya laccase in chitosan led to improved multipronged stability and dye discoloration.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Nivedita; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2016-05-01

    A purified papaya laccase was immobilized in chitosan beads using entrapment approach and its physico-chemical properties were investigated and compared with that of free enzyme. Increase in properties of the laccase such as optimum temperature (by 10°C), thermostability (by 3-folds) and optimum pH (from 8.0 to 10.0) was observed after immobilization. Immobilization led to increased tolerance of enzyme to a number of metal ions (including heavy metals) and organic solvents namely, ethanol, isopropanol, methanol, benzene and DMF. The catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km) of the immobilized enzyme was found to increase more than ten folds, in comparison to that of the free enzyme, with hydroquinone as substrate. Immobilization of laccase also led to improvement in dye decolorization such that the synthetic dye indigo carmine (50μg/ml) was completely decolorized within 8h of incubation as compared to that of the free laccase which decolorized the same dye to only 56% under similar conditions. Thus, immobilization of laccase into chitosan beads led to tremendous improvement in various useful attributes of this enzyme thereby making it more versatile for its industrial exploitation. PMID:26812115

  6. Induction, purification and characterization of a novel manganese peroxidase from Irpex lacteus CD2 and its application in the decolorization of different types of dye.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xing; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is the one of the important ligninolytic enzymes produced by lignin-degrading fungi which has the great application value in the field of environmental biotechnology. Searching for new MnP with stronger tolerance to metal ions and organic solvents is important for the maximization of potential of MnP in the biodegradation of recalcitrant xenobiotics. In this study, it was found that oxalic acid, veratryl alcohol and 2,6-Dimehoxyphenol could stimulate the synthesis of MnP in the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2. A novel manganese peroxidase named as CD2-MnP was purified and characterized from this fungus. CD2-MnP had a strong capability for tolerating different metal ions such as Ca2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ as well as organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, DMSO, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, butanediol and glycerin. The different types of dyes including the azo dye (Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R, Direct Red 5B), anthraquinone dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue R), indigo dye (Indigo Carmine) and triphenylmethane dye (Methyl Green) as well as simulated textile wastewater could be efficiently decolorized by CD2-MnP. CD2-MnP also had a strong ability of decolorizing different dyes with the coexistence of metal ions and organic solvents. In summary, CD2-MnP from Irpex lacteus CD2 could effectively degrade a broad range of synthetic dyes and exhibit a great potential for environmental biotechnology. PMID:25412169

  7. Induction, Purification and Characterization of a Novel Manganese Peroxidase from Irpex lacteus CD2 and Its Application in the Decolorization of Different Types of Dye

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xing; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is the one of the important ligninolytic enzymes produced by lignin-degrading fungi which has the great application value in the field of environmental biotechnology. Searching for new MnP with stronger tolerance to metal ions and organic solvents is important for the maximization of potential of MnP in the biodegradation of recalcitrant xenobiotics. In this study, it was found that oxalic acid, veratryl alcohol and 2,6-Dimehoxyphenol could stimulate the synthesis of MnP in the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2. A novel manganese peroxidase named as CD2-MnP was purified and characterized from this fungus. CD2-MnP had a strong capability for tolerating different metal ions such as Ca2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ as well as organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, DMSO, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, butanediol and glycerin. The different types of dyes including the azo dye (Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R, Direct Red 5B), anthraquinone dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue R), indigo dye (Indigo Carmine) and triphenylmethane dye (Methyl Green) as well as simulated textile wastewater could be efficiently decolorized by CD2-MnP. CD2-MnP also had a strong ability of decolorizing different dyes with the coexistence of metal ions and organic solvents. In summary, CD2-MnP from Irpex lacteus CD2 could effectively degrade a broad range of synthetic dyes and exhibit a great potential for environmental biotechnology. PMID:25412169

  8. Removal of malachite green dye from wastewater by different organic acid-modified natural adsorbent: kinetics, equilibriums, mechanisms, practical application, and disposal of dye-loaded adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hou; Yuan, Xingzhong; Zeng, Guangming; Leng, Lijian; Peng, Xin; Liao, Kailingli; Peng, Lijuan; Xiao, Zhihua

    2014-10-01

    Natural adsorbent (Cinnamomum camphora sawdust) modified by organic acid (oxalic acid, citric acid, and tartaric acid) was investigated as a potential adsorbent for the removal of hazardous malachite green (MG) dye in aqueous media in a batch process. The extent of MG adsorption onto modified sawdust increased with increasing organic acid concentrations, pH, contact time, and temperature but decreased with increasing adsorbent dosage and ionic strength. Kinetic study indicated that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model could best describe the adsorption kinetics of MG. Equilibrium data were found to fit well with the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of the three kinds of organic acid-modified sawdust was 280.3, 222.8, and 157.5 mg/g, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that the sorption of MG was an endothermic process. The adsorption mechanism, the application of adsorbents in practical wastewater, the prediction of single-stage batch adsorption system, and the disposal of depleted adsorbents were also discussed. PMID:25028314

  9. The mitochondrial fluorescent dye rhodamine 123 is a high-affinity substrate for organic cation transporters (OCTs) 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Jouan, Elodie; Le Vee, Marc; Denizot, Claire; Da Violante, Georges; Fardel, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    Rhodamine 123 is a fluorescent cationic dye commonly used as a mitochondrial probe and known or suspected to be transported by certain drug membrane transporters. The present study was designed to characterize the putative interactions of rhodamine 123 with human organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and OCT2. Intracellular uptake of the dye was demonstrated to be enhanced in both hOCT1- and hOCT2-overexpressing HEK293 cells when compared with control HEK293 cells. This increase of rhodamine 123 influxes was found to be a saturable carrier-mediated process, with low K(m) values (K(m) = 0.54 ?m and K(m) = 0.61 ?m for transport of the dye in hOCT1- and hOCT2-positive HEK293 cells, respectively). Known inhibitors of hOCT1 and hOCT2 activities such as verapamil, amitriptyline, prazosin, and quinine were next demonstrated to decrease rhodamine 123 accumulation in hOCT1- and hOCT2-overexpressing HEK293 cells. In addition, the dye was found to inhibit hOCT1- and hOCT2-mediated uptake of tetraethylammonium (TEA), a model substrate for both hOCT1 and hOCT2; rhodamine 123 appeared nevertheless to be a more potent inhibitor of hOCT1-mediated TEA transport (IC?? = 0.37 ?m) than of that mediated by hOCT2 (IC?? = 61.5 ?m). Taken together, these data demonstrate that rhodamine 123 is a high-affinity substrate for both hOCT1 and hOCT2. This dye may be therefore useful for fluorimetrically investigating cellular hOCT1 or hOCT2 activity, knowing, however, that other factors potentially contributing to cellular accumulation of rhodamine 123, including mitochondrial membrane potential or expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, have also to be considered. PMID:22913740

  10. Microscopy of hierarchically organized TiO2 photoelectrode for dye solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandar, A.; Mohamed, N. M.

    2015-07-01

    Research on improving the performance of dye solar cells has various aspects of the device being investigated. This paper analyzes the deliberately hierarchized photoelectrode configuration for DSC applications to improve the performance of DSCs. Multiple layers of differently composed TiO2 particle types namely aggregates and nanoparticles were deposited to form a photoelectrode with thickness of about 12 m. The photoelectrodes were assembled into working DSCs with an active area of 1 cm2. Measurement for solar power conversion performance was measured under 1 sun at AM1.5 spectrum simulated sunlight. Electron microscopy for photoelectrode analysis was conducted using Field Emission Scattering Electron Microscopy with enhanced resolution. External Quantum Efficiency was measured using a purpose built instrument. Kinetics were investigated using the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement with a potentiostat. The best performing DSC is of the hierarchically organized photoelectrode with a photoconversion efficiency of 4.58%, an increase of 14% in comparison to the reference samples with fully aggregates configuration. Short circuit current density, Jsc increases by about 2.223 mA cm-2 relative to the blanks. The electron microscopy confirmed expected thickness at around 10 m and layers forming the photoelectrode being hierarchically deposited with 20 nm TiO2 nanoparticles and 450 nm TiO2 aggregates mixture composition. EQE improved especially for visible region of 500-550 nm light wavelengths with 12 % increase in the response of in that region. Improvement to the diffusion coefficient as measured by the EIS contributed to the performance increase of the photoelectrode configuration under investigation.

  11. Analysis of interaction between the organic dye methylene blue and the surface of AgCl(I) microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, O. V.; Chernykh, S. V.; Smirnov, M. S.; Alpatova, D. V.; Vorob'eva, R. P.; Latyshev, A. N.; Evlev, A. B.; Utekhin, A. N.; Lukin, A. N.

    2007-11-01

    We have used IR spectroscopy to study the nature of interaction between molecules of the organic dye methylene blue (MB) and the surface of AgCl(I) microcrystals. We recorded the IR absorption spectra of the organic dye methylene blue in the gas phase, adsorbed on the surface of AgCl(I) microcrystals, and also in the form of crystal hydrates. The results obtained allowed us to hypothesize that unsaturated dimethylamino groups and the sulfur atom in the heterocycle of this dye are the most active in the interaction between methylene blue molecules and the surface of AgCl(I) microcrystals. With the help of IR spectra of methylene blue crystal hydrates, we confirmed the significant role of OH groups during adsorption of molecules on the surface of AgCl(I) microcrystals. We suggest the possibility of formation of hydrogen bonds between the anions of the crystal lattice and the unsaturated dimethylamino groups as well as the sulfur atoms in the heterocycle, by formation of hydrogen bonds with the OH groups.

  12. Organic solar cells with a multicharge separation structure consisting of a thin rubrene fluorescent dye for open circuit voltage enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng; Wang, Wan; Jiang, Yadong

    2011-01-01

    Organic solar cells were fabricated by inserting a thin rubrene fluorescent dye between pentacene and fullerene heterojunction with a multicharge separation (MCS) structure, which was adopted to inherently further improve maximum open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency. The morphology of organic films showed that a more surface roughness of pentacene film could be beneficial for an effective MCS interface, exciton dissociation, and charge carrier transportation. Moreover, a slight improvement of short-circuit current density when adding a 1 or 2 nm rubrene layer was also analyzed in detail based on external quantum efficiency spectra and optical transfer matrix theory.

  13. Two-photon induced optical-power limiting and upconverted superradiance properties of a new organic dye HEASPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Guangyong; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Dong; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Xian; Shao, Zongshu; Jiang, Minhua

    2001-06-01

    A new organic dye trans-4-[ p-( N-ethyl- N-hydroxyethylamino)styryl]- N-methylpyridinium iodide (abbreviated as HEASPI hereafter) with large two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section and excellent upconverted superradiance properties was synthesized in our group recently. The TPA cross section was measured to be ? 2'=7.010 -48 cm4 s/ photon by using an open aperture Z-scan system. Linear absorption, single-photon induced fluorescence, two-photon induced fluorescence and two-photon pumped (TPP) upconverted superradiance properties were systematically studied. The highest net upconversion efficiency from the absorbed pump energy to the output upconverted superradiance energy is as high as 19.6% at the pump energy of 2.07 mJ from a mode-locked Nd : YAG picosecond laser. The dye solution also shows a clear optical power limiting effect.

  14. Carmine red (E-120)-induced occupational respiratory allergy in a screen-printing worker: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cox, C E; Ebo, D G

    2012-01-01

    Here we present a case report of a patient suffering from occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to IgE-mediated carmine red allergy. This is the first description of carmine red allergy in a screen-printing worker in which the diagnosis was documented by quantification of specific IgE antibodies, by skin tests, by a flow-assisted basophil activation test, and by a carmine red challenge test. PMID:23113389

  15. Synthesis and characterization of organic dyes with various electron-accepting substituents for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Weidelener, Martin; Powar, Satvasheel; Kast, Hannelore; Yu, Ze; Boix, Pablo P; Li, Chen; Mllen, Klaus; Geiger, Thomas; Kuster, Simon; Nesch, Frank; Bach, Udo; Mishra, Amaresh; Buerle, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Four new donor-?-acceptor dyes differing in their acceptor group have been synthesized and employed as model systems to study the influence of the acceptor groups on the photophysical properties and in NiO-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. UV/Vis absorption spectra showed a broad range of absorption coverage with maxima between 331 and 653?nm. Redox potentials as well as HOMO and LUMO energies of the dyes were determined from cyclic voltammetry measurements and evaluated concerning their potential use as sensitizers in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs). Quantum-chemical density functional theory calculations gave further insight into the frontier orbital distributions, which are relevant for the electronic processes in p-DSCs. In p-DSCs using an iodide/triiodide-based electrolyte, the polycyclic 9,10-dicyano-acenaphtho[1,2-b]quinoxaline (DCANQ) acceptor-containing dye gave the highest power conversion efficiency of 0.08%, which is comparable to that obtained with the perylenemonoimide (PMI)-containing dye. Interestingly, devices containing the DCANQ-based dye achieve a higher V(OC) of 163?mV compared to 158?mV for the PMI-containing dye. The result was further confirmed by impedance spectroscopic analysis showing higher recombination resistance and thus a lower recombination rate for devices containing the DCANQ dye than for PMI dye-based devices. However, the use of the strong electron-accepting tricyanofurane (TCF) group played a negative role in the device performance, yielding an efficiency of only 0.01% due to a low-lying LUMO energy level, thus resulting in an insufficient driving force for efficient dye regeneration. The results demonstrate that a careful molecular design with a proper choice of the acceptor unit is essential for development of sensitizers for p-DSCs. PMID:25234556

  16. Filling the Green Gap of a Megadalton Photosystem I Complex by Conjugation of Organic Dyes.

    PubMed

    Gordiichuk, Pavlo I; Rimmerman, Dolev; Paul, Avishek; Gautier, Daniel A; Gruszka, Agnieszka; Saller, Manfred; de Vries, Jan Willem; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A H; Manca, Marianna; Gomulya, Widianta; Matmor, Maayan; Gloukhikh, Ekaterina; Loznik, Mark; Ashkenasy, Nurit; Blom, Paul W M; Rögner, Matthias; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Richter, Shachar; Herrmann, Andreas

    2016-01-20

    Photosynthesis is Nature's major process for converting solar into chemical energy. One of the key players in this process is the multiprotein complex photosystem I (PSI) that through absorption of incident photons enables electron transfer, which makes this protein attractive for applications in bioinspired photoactive hybrid materials. However, the efficiency of PSI is still limited by its poor absorption in the green part of the solar spectrum. Inspired by the existence of natural phycobilisome light-harvesting antennae, we have widened the absorption spectrum of PSI by covalent attachment of synthetic dyes to the protein backbone. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence reveal that energy transfer occurs from these dyes to PSI. It is shown by oxygen-consumption measurements that subsequent charge generation is substantially enhanced under broad and narrow band excitation. Ultimately, surface photovoltage (SPV) experiments prove the enhanced activity of dye-modified PSI even in the solid state. PMID:26619248

  17. Thermoresponsive cellulose ether and its flocculation behavior for organic dye removal.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Ju, Benzhi; Zhang, Shufen; Hou, Linan

    2016-01-20

    A thermoresponsive polymer, 2-hydroxy-3-butoxypropyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (HBPEC), was prepared by grafting butyl glycidyl ether (BGE) onto hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC). The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and critical flocculation temperature (CFT) of HBPEC were varied by changing the molar substitution (MS) and salt concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that HBPEC can assemble into micelles. Additionally, using Nile Red as a model dye, the performance of HBPEC for the removing Nile Red from aqueous solutions via cloud point extraction procedures was investigated in detail. The encapsulation behavior of dye in the aqueous solution of HBPEC was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microscope. The experimental results indicated that 99.4% of dye was removed from the aqueous solutions, and the HBPEC was recycled and reused easily, Furthermore, the recycle efficiency (RE) and maximum loading capacity portrayed little loss with the number of cycles. PMID:26572464

  18. Tailoring of organic dyes with oxidoreductive compounds to obtain photocyclic radical generator systems exhibiting photocatalytic behavior

    PubMed Central

    Christmann, Julien; Ibrahim, Ahmad; Stefano, Luciano H Di; Allonas, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Summary The combination of a dye which absorbs the photon, an electron acceptor and an electron donor leading to energy conversion through electron transfer, was the basis of the so called three-component systems. In this paper, an experimental work combining Rose bengal dye with a triazine derivative as electron acceptor and ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate as electron donor, will underline the benefit of the photocyclic behavior of three-component systems leading to the dye regeneration. A thermodynamic approach of the photocycle is presented, followed by a mechanistic and computational study of ideal photocycles, in order to outline the specific kinetics occuring in so called photocatalytic systems. The simple kinetic model used is enough to outline the benefit of the cyclic system and to give the basic requirements in term of chemical combination needed to be fulfilled in order to obtain a photocatalytic behavior. PMID:24991243

  19. Preparation of cube micrometer potassium niobate (KNbO3) by hydrothermal method and sonocatalytic degradation of organic dye.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbo; Wei, Chunsheng; Huang, Yingying; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Cube micrometer potassium niobate (KNbO3) powder, as a high effective sonocatalyst, was prepared using hydrothermal method, and then, was characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). In order to evaluate the sonocatalytic activity of prepared KNbO3 powder, the sonocatalytic degradation of some organic dyes was studied. In addition, some influencing factors such as heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time on the sonocatalytic activity of prepared KNbO3 powder and catalyst added amount and ultrasonic irradiation time on the sonocatalytic degradation efficiency were examined by using UV-visible spectrophotometer and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) determination. The experimental results showed that the best sonocatalytic degradation ratio (69.23%) of organic dyes could be obtained when the conditions of 5.00mg/L initial concentration, 1.00g/L prepared KNbO3 powder (heat-treated at 400°C for 60min) added amount, 5.00h ultrasonic irradiation (40kHz frequency and 300W output power), 100mL total volume and 25-28°C temperature were adopted. Therefore, the micrometer KNbO3 powder could be considered as an effective sonocatalyst for treating non- or low-transparent organic wastewaters. PMID:26597541

  20. Facile synthesis of PbWO4: applications in photoluminescence and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes under visible light.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Rohit; Shivakumara, C; Behera, Sukanti; Nagabhushana, H; Dhananjaya, N

    2015-02-01

    Stolzite polymorph of PbWO4 catalyst was prepared by the facile room temperature precipitation method. Structural parameters were refined by the Rietveld analysis using powder X-ray data. PbWO4 was crystallized in the scheelite-type tetragonal structure with space group I41/a (No. 88). Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed leaf like morphology. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit broad blue emission (425 nm) under the excitation of 356 nm. The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue, Rhodamine B and Methyl orange dyes were measured under visible illumination. The 100% dye degradation was observed for MB and RhB dyes within 60 and 105 min. The rate constant was found to be in the decreasing order of MB>RhB>MO which followed the 1st order kinetic mechanism. Therefore, PbWO4 can be a potential candidate for blue component in white LEDs and also acts as a catalyst for the treatment of toxic and non-biodegradable organic pollutants in water. PMID:25448939

  1. Response Characterization of a Fiber Optic Sensor Array with Dye-Coated Planar Waveguide for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Sung; Yoon, Na-Rae; Kang, Byoung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Won; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Lee, Seung-Ha; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a multi-array side-polished optical-fiber gas sensor for the detection of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases. The side-polished optical-fiber coupled with a polymer planar waveguide (PWG) provides high sensitivity to alterations in refractive index. The PWG was fabricated by coating a solvatochromic dye with poly(vinylpyrrolidone). To confirm the effectiveness of the sensor, five different sensing membranes were fabricated by coating the side-polished optical-fiber using the solvatochromic dyes Reinhardt's dye, Nile red, 4-aminophthalimide, 4-amino-N-methylphthalimide, and 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde, which have different polarities that cause changes in the effective refractive index of the sensing membrane owing to evanescent field coupling. The fabricated gas detection system was tested with five types of VOC gases, namely acetic acid, benzene, dimethylamine, ethanol, and toluene at concentrations of 1, 2,…,10 ppb. Second-regression and principal component analyses showed that the response properties of the proposed VOC gas sensor were linearly shifted bathochromically, and each gas showed different response characteristics. PMID:24988381

  2. Facile synthesis of PbWO4: Applications in photoluminescence and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraf, Rohit; Shivakumara, C.; Behera, Sukanti; Nagabhushana, H.; Dhananjaya, N.

    2015-02-01

    Stolzite polymorph of PbWO4 catalyst was prepared by the facile room temperature precipitation method. Structural parameters were refined by the Rietveld analysis using powder X-ray data. PbWO4 was crystallized in the scheelite-type tetragonal structure with space group I41/a (No. 88). Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed leaf like morphology. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit broad blue emission (425 nm) under the excitation of 356 nm. The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue, Rhodamine B and Methyl orange dyes were measured under visible illumination. The 100% dye degradation was observed for MB and RhB dyes within 60 and 105 min. The rate constant was found to be in the decreasing order of MB > RhB > MO which followed the 1st order kinetic mechanism. Therefore, PbWO4 can be a potential candidate for blue component in white LEDs and also acts as a catalyst for the treatment of toxic and non-biodegradable organic pollutants in water.

  3. Polyethyleneimine as a novel desorbent for anionic organic dyes on layered double hydroxide surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siming; Li, Zenghe; Lu, Chao

    2015-11-15

    Polyethyleneimine (PEI) is a positively charged polymer with hydrogen-bonding sites and hydrophobic chains. Therefore, it has been clearly established as an efficient adsorbent by means of these native properties in the literatures. However, there is apparently no good reason to disregard the use of PEI as a desired desorbent. Herein, using methyl orange as a model anionic dye, we investigated the desorption performances of PEI toward anionic dyes adsorbed on the surface of CO3-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in a wide range of pH values. The experiment results showed that the positively charged PEI had very strong desorption capacity for anionic dyes at low pH values (<9.5) through electrostatic attraction between PEI and methyl orange because of the high degree of protonation of PEI. At high pH values (>9.5), PEI existed as neutral molecule, it could desorb methyl orange via hydrogen bonding between the amino groups of it and sulfonate group of methyl orange; simultaneously, the anion-exchange process occurred between abundant hydroxyl anions and anionic methyl orange. The adsorption capacity of the used LDH adsorbent was about 80% after five cycles of adsorption-desorption-regeneration, which was much higher than that conducted by 0.1M NaOH solution. These findings suggested that PEI could be regarded as a promising desorbent for enriching anionic dyes in wastewater and regenerating LDHs through surface adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:26255712

  4. Catalytic spectrophotometric determination of trace aluminium with indigo carmine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huai-Li; Xiong, Wen-Qiang; Gong, Ying-Kun; Peng, De-Jun; Li, Ling-Chun

    2007-04-01

    A new catalytic spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of trace amounts of Al(III). The methods based on catalytic action of Al(III) on the oxidation of indigo carmine (IC) by ammonium persulfate in hexamethylene tetramine-hydrochloric acid ((CH 2) 6N 4-HCl) buffer medium (pH 5.4) and in the presence of surfactantTritonX-100. The effects of some factors on the reaction speed were investigated. Aluminium concentration is linear for 0-1.2 10 -7 g/ml in this method. The detection limit of the proposed method is 1.96 10 -8 g/ml. Most of the foreign ions except for Cu(II), Fe(III) do not interfere with the determination, and the interference of Cu(II) and Fe(III) in this method can be removed by extraction with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate-carbon tetrachloride (DDTC-CCl 4). This system is a quasi-zero-order reaction for Al(III), but it is a quasi-first-order reaction for IC. The apparent rate constant is 2.62 10 -5 s -1 and the apparent activation energy is 6.60 kJ/mol in the system. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trace aluminium(III) in real samples with satisfactory results.

  5. Rational Molecular Engineering of Indoline-Based D-A-π-A Organic Sensitizers for Long-Wavelength-Responsive Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Wu, Yongzhen; Zhu, Haibo; Chai, Qipeng; Liu, Jingchuan; Li, Hui; Song, Xiongrong; Zhu, Wei-Hong

    2015-12-01

    Indoline-based D-A-π-A organic sensitizers are promising candidates for highly efficient and long-term stable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In order to further broaden the spectral response of the known indoline dye WS-2, we rationally engineer the molecular structure through enhancing the electron donor and extending the π-bridge, resulting in two novel indoline-based D-A-π-A organic sensitizers WS-92 and WS-95. By replacing the 4-methylphenyl group on the indoline donor of WS-2 with a more electron-rich carbazole unit, the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) absorption band of dye WS-92 is slightly red-shifted from 550 nm (WS-2) to 554 nm (WS-92). In comparison, the incorporation of a larger π-bridge of cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT) unit in dye WS-95 not only greatly bathochromatically tunes the absorption band to 574 nm but also largely enhances the molar extinction coefficients (ε), thus dramatically improving the light-harvesting capability. Under the standard global AM 1.5 solar light condition, the photovoltaic performances of both organic dyes have been evaluated in DSSCs on the basis of the iodide/triiodide electrolyte without any coadsorbent or cosensitizer. The DSSCs based on WS-95 display better device performance with power conversion efficiency (η) of 7.69%. The additional coadsorbent in the dye bath of WS-95 does not improve the photovoltaic performance, indicative of its negligible dye aggregation, which can be rationalized by the grafted dioctyl chains on the CPDT unit. The cosensitization of WS-95 with a short absorption wavelength dye S2 enhances the IPCE and improves the η to 9.18%. Our results indicate that extending the π-spacer is more rational than enhancing the electron donor in terms of broadening the spectral response of indoline-based D-A-π-A organic sensitizers. PMID:26552499

  6. Synthesis of fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets with ultrafast adsorption capacities toward organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, HaoJie; You, Shengsheng; Jia, XiaoHua

    2015-11-01

    Fungus-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets with a thickness of a few nanometers have been successfully synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method. The as-prepared MoS2 nanosheets with a high surface area of 106.989 m2 g-1 exhibited excellent wastewater treatment performance with high removal capacities toward organic dyes. In addition, the fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets can absorb Congo red completely within 2 min. Successful access to high quality fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets will make it possible for their potential application in catalysis and other fields.

  7. Superiority of D-A-D over D-A type of organic dyes for the application in dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Santu; Pramanik, Anup; Ahmed, Tasnim; Sahoo, Suman Kalyan; Sarkar, Pranab

    2016-04-01

    We study the optoelectronic properties of some recently synthesized D-A-D chromophores which are susceptible for superior intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) property. Our first principle calculations reveal that, the chromophores have enhanced charge transfer probability in the excited state in comparison to their corresponding ground states indicating faster electron injection at the interface of dye-semiconductor composites. We compute the photovoltaic properties of the dyes with and without substitution and way out a root for optimizing the device performance. Finally, dye-TiO2 QD composite systems are studied as a model for realistic photovoltaic device.

  8. Inorganic-organic hybrid nonlinear optical films containing bulky alkoxysilane dyes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lujian; Qian, Guodong; Jin, Xuefeng; Cui, Yuanjing; Gao, Junkuo; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Minquan

    2007-03-29

    Two bulky alkoxysilane dyes based on nonlinear optical (NLO)-active triphenylamino derivatives possessing high thermal stabilities, without and with a cyano group substitution on the vinylene moiety (TPAH and TPACN, respectively), were synthesized, characterized, and copolymerized with tetraalkoxysilane (TEOS) with the ratio of 1:5. After a poling and curing process, the resulting side-chain-type sol-gel films with excellent optical qualities were achieved. Second-order NLO coefficients, d33, of 10-20 pm/V have been obtained in the films incorporated with different types of NLO-active dyes. The variation of chromophoric structures on NLO properties was investigated, indicating that the cyano substitution on the vinylene bridge of the chromophore would greatly enhance the temporal stability. This work provides a potential design strategy based on molecular engineering which would lead to more stable dipole orientation. PMID:17388461

  9. Random lasing in liquid and solid solutions oversaturated with organic laser dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sznitko, Lech; Cyprych, Konrad; Szukalski, Adam; Miniewicz, Andrzej; Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of studies carried out for oversaturated solutions with common laser dye 4- (Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) and 3-(1,1-Dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5- dihydro-1H-pyrazole (DCNP) nonlinear chromophore. We show that oversaturating the solution leads to formation of crystals suspension resulting in strong Mie scattering and thus random laser operation can be observed. The formation of aggregates can be induced be oversaturating the solution or by injection of non-solvent to the dye solution, leading to reduction of solubility limit. Similar situation can be obtained for polymeric matrices for which small crystals are precipitated during layer formation (solvent evaporation) when film is casted from the solution.

  10. ``Fast'' amplifying optical Kerr gate using stimulated emission of organic non-linear dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonusauskas, G.; Oberl, J.; Abraham, E.; Rullire, C.

    1997-02-01

    We describe a "fast" optical Kerr gate (OKG) which can act at the same time as light amplifier. As a Kerr medium we used different laser dyes (Cresyl violet, Nile blue, Rhodamine 640). The most efficient at available wavelengths (595 nm and 297 nm) was Cresyl violet dissolved in methanol. With a classical OKG arrangement we obtained a maximum transmission of 4000% at 650 nm (strong amplification of the tramsmitted signal), this wavelength corresponding to a gain maximum of Cresyl violet. The opening time of the OKG was 15 ps limited by the reorientation time of the dye molecule in methanol solvent. With a special OKG arrangement based on the use of two delayed opening pulses, we obtained 240% transmission at the same wavelength with an opening time of 2.5 ps. Possible improvements of the method are described.

  11. Organic Dyes Incorporating the Dithieno[3,2-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline Moiety for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jen-Shyang; Kao, Wei-Siang; Chou, Hao-Ju; Lin, Jiann T

    2015-09-01

    New donor-acceptor'-acceptor-type sensitizers (QBT dyes), comprising arylamine as the electron donor, dithieno[3,2-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline as the internal acceptor, and 2-cyanoacrylic acid as both the acceptor and anchor, have been synthesized. The QBT dyes have broad absorption spectra covering the range of ?=368-487?nm with a highest molar extinction coefficient of up to approximately 40?000?M(-1) ?cm(-1) . The light-to-electricity conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated from the dyes range from 6.11 to 7.59?% under simulated AM?1.5?G illumination. Upon addition of a threefold concentration of chenodeoxycholic acid as the co-adsorbent, the best performance cell has a power-conversion efficiency of 8.41?%, which is higher than that of the N719-based standard DSSC (8.27?%). PMID:25853981

  12. Organic dyes incorporating the dithieno[3',2':3,4;2?,3?:5,6]benzo[1,2-c]furazan moiety for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jen-Shyang; You, Jian-Hao; Hung, Wei-I; Kao, Wei-Siang; Chou, Hsien-Hsin; Lin, Jiann T

    2014-12-24

    New D-?-A'-?-A type sensitizers (JH dyes), comprised arylamine as the electron donor, dithieno[3',2':3,4;2?,3?:5,6]benzo[1,2-c]furazan (DTBF) in the conjugated spacer, and 2-cyanoacrylic acid as both the acceptor and anchor, have been synthesized. The JH dyes have broad absorption spectra covering the range of 350 to 600 nm with the highest molar extinction coefficient up to >40?000 M(-1) cm(-1). The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated from the dyes exhibited light-to-electricity conversions ranging from 1.42 to 6.18% under simulated AM 1.5 G illumination. Upon adding 10 mM CDCA as the coadsorbent, the best performance cell has the power conversion efficiency of 7.33%, which is close to that of N719-based standard DSSC (7.56%). PMID:25470385

  13. Genotoxicity studies in vitro and in vivo on carminic acid (natural red 4).

    PubMed

    Loprieno, G; Boncristiani, G; Loprieno, N

    1992-09-01

    The potential genotoxic activity of carminic acid (CAS no. 1260-17-9; EINECS no. 215-023-3; C.I. no. 75410), a component of natural red colouring products (cochineal: CAS no. 1343-78-8; EINECS no. 215-680-6; C.I. no. 75470), used in food, cosmetics and drugs, has been evaluated by means of a series of short-term tests in vitro and in vivo, namely Salmonella reverse mutation, chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in vitro on Chinese hamster ovary cells, and the mouse micronucleus test. All studies have produced negative results. The data obtained strongly support the non-mutagenic/non-carcinogenic activity of this compound. Genotoxicity data previously obtained for carminic acid, concerning the induction of a series of other genetic endpoints in different test systems, have also been considered, as have recent findings that indicate lack of carcinogenic activity in the cochineal preparation containing 29.8% carminic acid. PMID:1385283

  14. Stimulated resonance Raman scattering from organic dyes in a multiple-scattering medium as a potential method for determining their vibrational spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, V P; Tikhonov, E A; Bukatar', A O; Prigodiuk, O A; Smalyuk, A P

    2011-10-31

    A method is described for deriving Raman spectra of organic dyes from their random lasing spectra. The method was tested using Rhodamine 6G. The Raman spectrum obtained for this dye agrees well with the spectra measured by standard techniques but is more structured, which allows unresolved features to be detected. The spectrum provides more detailed information owing to the interference between the Raman scattered light and amplified spontaneous emission of the dye molecules within a photon mean free path. One advantage of the method is that the luminescence of the dye helps to observe Raman lines, which allows one to work in the Stokes region and facilitates the measurement procedure. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  15. Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions. PMID:23058993

  16. Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions.

  17. Smectite clays of Serbia and their application in adsorption of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, Maja; Logar, Mihovil

    2014-05-01

    Colorants and dyes are currently available in over a 100.000 different species and several biggest industries are using them daily in their manufacture processes (textile, cosmetics, food industry, etc.). Since colorants are easily dissoluble in water they pass through filter membranes without further decomposing and in that manner they end up in the environment. The main goal of this work is to apply certain methods in determining the suitability of individual clay in adsorbing and removing colorants from polluted waters. For this study we have chosen four different raw clays from three regions in Serbia: Svrljig (B), Bogovina (Bo) and Slatina-Ub (C and V) and as colorant - methylene blue dye (MB (MERCK, for analytical purposes)). Experiments where carried out to determine the sample structure (XRD and IR), grain size (granulometry), cationic exchange capacity (CEC via spectrophotometry using MB) and adsorption capabilities (spectrophotometry and fluorimetry using MB). XRD and IR data are showing that the samples are smectite clays where samples B i Bo are mainly montmorillonite while C and V are montmorillonite-illite clays. Granulometric distribution results indicate that samples B i Bo have smaller grain size, less that 1μ (over 60%) whereas the samples C and V are more coarse grained (40% over 20μ). This grain distribution is affecting their specific surface area in the manner that those coarse grained samples have smaller specific surface area. Cationic exchange capacity determined with methylene blue indicate that montmorillonite samples have larger CEC (B = 37 meq/100g, Bo = 50 meq/100g) and montmorillonite-illite samples smaller CEC (V = 5 meq/100g, V = 3 meq/100g). Fluorimetry measurement results gave us a clear distinction between those with higher and smaller adsorption capability. Montmorillonite samples (B and Bo) with higher CEC values and smaller grain size are adsorbing large amounts of methylene blue witch is visible by absence of fluorimetric band corresponding to methylene blue. Montmorillonite-illite samples with smaller CEC values and coarser grain size are adsorbing very small amounts of methylene blue from the suspension which is visible by appearance of the methylene blue band. Untreated, raw smectite clays of Serbia are efficient adsorbent material for removal of dyes from polluted waters. Samples from two regions especially, Bogovina and Svrljig, are showing favorable adsorption results and they are representing good raw materials for purification of waste-waters containing dyes. References: - Jović-Jovičić, N., Milutinović-Nikolić, A., Gržetić, I., Jovanović, D.; Organobentonite as efficient textile dye sorbent; Chem. Eng. Technol. 2008, 31, No. 4, 567-574 - Žunić, M.J., Milutinović-Nikolić, A.D., Jović-Jovičić, N.P., Banković, P.T., Mojović, Z.D., Manojlović, D.D., Jovanović, D.M.; Modified bentonite as adsorbent and catalyst for purification of wastewaters containing dyes; Hem. ind. 2010, 64 ,No. 3, 193-199

  18. Photophysical characterization of pyrromethene 597 laser dye in cross-linked silicon-containing organic copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, A.; del Agua, D.; Penzkofer, A.; García, O.; Sastre, R.; Costela, A.; García-Moreno, I.

    2007-12-01

    Samples of the dipyrromethene-BF 2 dye PM597 incorporated in copolymers of 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl 2-methylprop-2-enoate (TMSPMA, number of polymerizable CC double bonds: κ = 1) with 2-(2-methylprop-2-enoyloxy)ethyl 2-methylprop-2-enoate (EGDMA, κ = 2), [2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-prop-2-(prop-2-enoyloxymethyl)propyl] prop-2-enoate (PETA, κ = 3), and [3-prop-2-enoyloxy-2,2-bis(prop-2-2-enoyloxymethyl)propyl]prop-2-enoate (PETRA, κ = 4) are characterized. The fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, degrees of fluorescence polarization, and fluorescence lifetimes are measured. The radiative lifetimes are calculated from fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield. Absorption coefficient spectra are determined from transmission measurements. Absolute absorption cross-section spectra and dye concentrations are obtained by calibration to the radiative lifetimes and to saturable absorptions. Excited-state absorption cross-sections at 527 nm are determined by saturable absorption measurements. The photo-degradation is studied under cw laser excitation conditions and quantum yields of photo-degradation are extracted. The excited-state absorption cross-sections were found to be rather small, and the photo-stability turned out to be high (up to 3 million excitation cycles before degradation) making this class of dipyrromethene dye-doped polymers attractive active laser media. Structural and thermo-mechanical properties of the materials have been determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, densitometry, and refractometry. They improve with increasing inter-crossing (copolymerization of TMSPMA with PETA and PETRA). The laser properties of the PM597 doped copolymers were evaluated by transverse pumping with 6 ns laser pulses at 532 nm. The best laser materials resulted to be the 7:3 and 9:1 TMSPMA-monomer copolymers.

  19. Experimental and numerical investigation of the effect of liquid temperature on the sonolytic degradation of some organic dyes in water.

    PubMed

    Merouani, Slimane; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Boutamine, Zineb; Rezgui, Yacine; Guemini, Miloud

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive experimental and numerical investigation of the effects of liquid temperature on the sonochemical degradation of three organic dyes, Rhodamine B (RhB), Acid orange 7 (AO7) and Malachite green (MG), largely used in the textile industry. The experiments have been carried out for an ultrasonic frequency of 300 kHz. The obtained experimental results were discussed using a new approach combining the results of single-bubble event and the number of active bubbles. The single-bubble event was predicted using a model that combines the bubble dynamics with chemical kinetics occurring inside a bubble during the strong collapse. The number of active bubbles was predicted using a method developed in our previous work. The experiments showed that the degradation rate of the three dyes increased significantly with increasing liquid temperature in the range 25-55°C. It was predicted that the main pathway of pollutants degradation is the attack by OH radicals. The simulations showed that there exists an optimum liquid temperature of about 35°C for the production of OH inside a bubble whereas the number of active bubbles increased sharply with the rise of the liquid temperature. It was predicted that the overall production rate of OH increased with increasing liquid temperature in the range 25-55°C. Finally, it was concluded that the effect of liquid temperature on the sonochemical degradation of the three dyes in aqueous phase was controlled by the number of active bubbles in the range 35-55°C and by both the number of bubbles and the single bubble yield in the range 25-35°C. PMID:26384922

  20. UV light induced photodegradation of organic dye by ZnO nanocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sumesh, C. K.; Patel, Bhavin; Parekh, Kinnari

    2013-06-03

    Ultraviolet light induced photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanocatalyst prepared using a wet chemical precipitation route and mineralization of the methyl orange (MO) dye has been carried out in a photocatalytic reactor. The degradation of the MO was monitored spectrophotometrically and showed a decolorization efficiency of 92% after nine hours of irradiation in the MO-ZnO/UV light system. The blue shifting of maximum peak position of the MO and the formation of extra peak at 247 nm during irradiation time advances revealed that MO degrades in the form of intermediates during the photocatalytic process.

  1. UV light induced photodegradation of organic dye by ZnO nanocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumesh, C. K.; Patel, Bhavin; Parekh, Kinnari

    2013-06-01

    Ultraviolet light induced photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanocatalyst prepared using a wet chemical precipitation route and mineralization of the methyl orange (MO) dye has been carried out in a photocatalytic reactor. The degradation of the MO was monitored spectrophotometrically and showed a decolorization efficiency of 92% after nine hours of irradiation in the MO-ZnO/UV light system. The blue shifting of maximum peak position of the MO and the formation of extra peak at 247 nm during irradiation time advances revealed that MO degrades in the form of intermediates during the photocatalytic process.

  2. Photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine by hydrothermally synthesized Bi?MoO ? in presence of EDTA.

    PubMed

    Snchez Trinidad, C; Martnez-de la Cruz, A; Lpez Cullar, E

    2015-01-01

    Bi2MoO6 oxide was synthesized by hydrothermal reaction in the presence of EDTA under different experimental conditions (time of reaction and EDTA concentration) in order to obtain materials with specific textural properties. It was determined that the addition of EDTA influences the final physical properties of Bi2MoO6. The photocatalytic activity of Bi2MoO6 samples was evaluated in the degradation reaction of indigo carmine (IC) in aqueous solution under solar radiation type. The best results as photocatalyst were obtained with the sample hydrothermally synthesized at 150 C for 4h in presence of a 0.031 M EDTA solution. This sample was able to whiten a solution of IC in a 94% after 120 min of lamp irradiation with t 1/2?=?31 min. In general, the samples prepared with lower concentrations of EDTA were the best photocatalysts. A gradual decrease in the activity was observed in the samples prepared with the same EDTA concentration as was increased in the reaction time. Beyond differences in morphology and textural properties of the samples prepared, the presence of EDTA by-products on the samples and the decomposition degree of it were important factors in determining the activity of the photocatalysts. Analysis of total organic carbon (TOC) of samples irradiated for 100 h confirmed that Bi2MoO6 oxide is able to mineralize the complex organic molecule of IC to CO2 and H2O in 55 %. PMID:24865501

  3. Hybrid functional calculated optical and electronic structures of thin anatase TiO2 nanowires with organic dye adsorbates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    nal, Hatice; Gunceler, Deniz; Glseren, O?uz; Ellialt?o?lu, ?inasi; Mete, Ersen

    2015-11-01

    The electronic and optical properties of thin anatase TiO2 (1 0 1) and (0 0 1) nanowires have been investigated using the screened Coulomb hybrid density functional calculations. For the bare nanowires with sub-nanometer diameters, the calculated band gaps are larger relative to the bulk values due to size effects. The role of organic light harvesting sensitizers on the absorption characteristics of the anatase nanowires has been examined using the hybrid density functional method incorporating partial exact exchange with range separation. For the lowest lying excitations, directional charge redistribution of tetrahydroquinoline (C2-1) dye shows a remarkably different profile in comparison to a simple molecule which is chosen as the coumarin skeleton. The binding modes and the adsorption energies of C2-1 dye and coumarin core on the anatase nanowires have been studied including non-linear solvation effetcs. The calculated optical and electronic properties of the nanowires with these two different types of sensitizers have been interpreted in terms of their electron-hole generation, charge carrier injection and recombination characteristics.

  4. Facile and Scalable Preparation of Graphene Oxide-Based Magnetic Hybrids for Fast and Highly Efficient Removal of Organic Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Tifeng; Liu, Yazhou; Wu, Yitian; Zhang, Qingrui; Yan, Xuehai; Gao, Faming; Bauer, Adam J. P.; Liu, Jianzhao; Zeng, Tingying; Li, Bingbing

    2015-07-01

    This study reports the facile preparation and the dye removal efficiency of nanohybrids composed of graphene oxide (GO) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles with various geometrical structures. In comparison to previously reported GO/Fe3O4 composites prepared through the one-pot, in situ deposition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the GO/Fe3O4 nanohybrids reported here were obtained by taking advantage of the physical affinities between sulfonated GO and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which allows tuning the dimensions and geometries of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in order to decrease their contact area with GO, while still maintaining the magnetic properties of the nanohybrids for easy separation and adsorbent recycling. Both the as-prepared and regenerated nanohybrids demonstrate a nearly 100% removal rate for methylene blue and an impressively high removal rate for Rhodamine B. This study provides new insights into the facile and controllable industrial scale fabrication of safe and highly efficient GO-based adsorbents for dye or other organic pollutants in a wide range of environmental-related applications.

  5. Tunable synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated zero-valent iron nanoparticles for degradation of organic dyes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A series of nanocomposites consisting of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a successive two-step method, i.e., the wet chemical reduction by borohydride followed by a modified Stöber method. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. The catalytic performance of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI nanocomposites for the degradation of organic dyes was investigated using methylene blue (MB) as the model dye in the presence of H2O2. The results showed that the degradation efficiency and apparent rate constant of the degradation reaction were significantly enhanced with increased ZVI NPs encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres, whereas the dosage of H2O2 remarkably promoted degradation rate without affecting degradation efficiency. The content-dependent magnetic property ensured the excellent magnetic separation of degradation products under an external magnet. This strategy for the synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI NPs nanocomposites was low cost and easy to scale-up for industrial production, thereby enabling promising applications in environmental remediation. PMID:25258615

  6. Facile and Scalable Preparation of Graphene Oxide-Based Magnetic Hybrids for Fast and Highly Efficient Removal of Organic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Tifeng; Liu, Yazhou; Wu, Yitian; Zhang, Qingrui; Yan, Xuehai; Gao, Faming; Bauer, Adam J. P.; Liu, Jianzhao; Zeng, Tingying; Li, Bingbing

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the facile preparation and the dye removal efficiency of nanohybrids composed of graphene oxide (GO) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles with various geometrical structures. In comparison to previously reported GO/Fe3O4 composites prepared through the one-pot, in situ deposition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the GO/Fe3O4 nanohybrids reported here were obtained by taking advantage of the physical affinities between sulfonated GO and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which allows tuning the dimensions and geometries of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in order to decrease their contact area with GO, while still maintaining the magnetic properties of the nanohybrids for easy separation and adsorbent recycling. Both the as-prepared and regenerated nanohybrids demonstrate a nearly 100% removal rate for methylene blue and an impressively high removal rate for Rhodamine B. This study provides new insights into the facile and controllable industrial scale fabrication of safe and highly efficient GO-based adsorbents for dye or other organic pollutants in a wide range of environmental-related applications. PMID:26220847

  7. High-performance organic thin-film transistors of J-stacked squaraine dyes.

    PubMed

    Gsnger, Marcel; Kirchner, Eva; Stolte, Matthias; Burschka, Christian; Stepanenko, Vladimir; Pflaum, Jens; Wrthner, Frank

    2014-02-12

    We have synthesized a series of dipolar squaraine dyes that contain dicyanovinyl groups as acceptor and benzannulated five-membered ring heterocycles with alkyl chains of varied length as donor moieties. Based on these squaraines, thin-film transistors (TFT) were fabricated by spin coating and solution shearing. Moreover, with one of these squaraine derivatives vacuum-deposited TFTs were prepared as well. Our detailed studies revealed that the transistor performance of the present series of squaraines is strongly dependent on their structural features as well as on the processing method of thin films. Thus, solution-sheared OTFTs of selenium squaraine bearing dodecyl substituents (denoted as Se-SQ-C12) performed best with a maximum hole mobility of 0.45 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which is by far the highest value yet reported for OTFTs based on squaraines. This value was even surpassed by vacuum-deposited thin films of n-butyl-substituted selenium squaraine Se-SQ-C4, the only sublimable compound in this series, exhibiting a record hole mobility of 1.3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Furthermore, we have investigated the morphology of the thin films and the molecular packing of these squaraine dyes by optical spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. These studies revealed a relationship between the molecular structure, packing motif, thin-film morphology, and transistor performance of the squaraine dyes. From the supramolecular point of view two packing features discovered in the single crystal structure of Se-SQ-C8 are of particular interest with regard to the structure-functionality relationship: The first is the slipped and antiparallel ?-stacking motif which ensures cancellation of the molecules' dipole moments and J-type absorption band formation in thin films. The second is the presence of CNSe noncovalent bonds which show similarities to the more common halogen-bonding interactions and which interconnect the individual one-dimensional slipped ?-stacks, thus leading to two-dimensional percolation pathways along the source-drain direction. PMID:24432873

  8. Hydrothermal fabrication of selectively doped organic assisted advanced ZnO nanomaterial for solar driven photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Namratha, K; Byrappa, K; Byrappa, S; Venkateswarlu, P; Rajasekhar, D; Deepthi, B K

    2015-08-01

    Hydrothermal fabrication of selectively doped (Ag(+)+Pd(3+)) advanced ZnO nanomaterial has been carried out under mild pressure temperature conditions (autogeneous; 150°C). Gluconic acid has been used as a surface modifier to effectively control the particle size and morphology of these ZnO nanoparticles. The experimental parameters were tuned to achieve optimum conditions for the synthesis of selectively doped ZnO nanomaterials with an experimental duration of 4 hr. These selectively doped ZnO nanoparticles were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The solar driven photocatalytic studies have been carried out for organic dyes, i.e., Procion MX-5B dye, Cibacron Brilliant Yellow dye, Indigo Carmine dye, separately and all three mixed, by using gluconic acid modified selectively doped advanced ZnO nanomaterial. The influence of catalyst, its concentration and initial dye concentration resulted in the photocatalytic efficiency of 89% under daylight. PMID:26257367

  9. Polariton-mediated energy transfer between organic dyes in a strongly coupled optical microcavity.

    PubMed

    Coles, David M; Somaschi, Niccolo; Michetti, Paolo; Clark, Caspar; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G; Savvidis, Pavlos G; Lidzey, David G

    2014-07-01

    Strongly coupled optical microcavities containing different exciton states permit the creation of hybrid-polariton modes that can be described in terms of a linear admixture of cavity-photon and the constituent excitons. Such hybrid states have been predicted to have optical properties that are different from their constituent parts, making them a test bed for the exploration of light-matter coupling. Here, we use strong coupling in an optical microcavity to mix the electronic transitions of two J-aggregated molecular dyes and use both non-resonant photoluminescence emission and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy to show that hybrid-polariton states act as an efficient and ultrafast energy-transfer pathway between the two exciton states. We argue that this type of structure may act as a model system to study energy-transfer processes in biological light-harvesting complexes. PMID:24793357

  10. Metal-free organic sensitizers for use in water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Swierk, John R; Mndez-Hernndez, Dalvin D; McCool, Nicholas S; Liddell, Paul; Terazono, Yuichi; Pahk, Ian; Tomlin, John J; Oster, Nolan V; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L; Gust, Devens; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2015-02-10

    Solar fuel generation requires the efficient capture and conversion of visible light. In both natural and artificial systems, molecular sensitizers can be tuned to capture, convert, and transfer visible light energy. We demonstrate that a series of metal-free porphyrins can drive photoelectrochemical water splitting under broadband and red light (? > 590 nm) illumination in a dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. We report the synthesis, spectral, and electrochemical properties of the sensitizers. Despite slow recombination of photoinjected electrons with oxidized porphyrins, photocurrents are low because of low injection yields and slow electron self-exchange between oxidized porphyrins. The free-base porphyrins are stable under conditions of water photoelectrolysis and in some cases photovoltages in excess of 1 V are observed. PMID:25583488

  11. An organic redox electrolyte to rival triiodide/iodide in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingkui; Chamberland, Nathalie; Breau, Livain; Moser, Jacques-E; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Marsan, Benot; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grtzel, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have achieved impressive conversion efficiencies for solar energy of over 11% with an electrolyte that contains triiodide/iodide as a redox couple. Although triiodide/iodide redox couples work efficiently in DSCs, they suffer from two major disadvantages: electrolytes that contain triiodide/iodide corrode electrical contacts made of silver (which reduces the options for the scale up of DSCs to module size) and triiodide partially absorbs visible light. Here, we present a new disulfide/thiolate redox couple that has negligible absorption in the visible spectral range, a very attractive feature for flexible DSCs that use transparent conductors as current collectors. Using this novel, iodide-free redox electrolyte in conjunction with a sensitized heterojunction, we achieved an unprecedented efficiency of 6.4% under standard illumination test conditions. This novel redox couple offers a viable pathway to develop efficient DSCs with attractive properties for scale up and practical applications. PMID:20414239

  12. Metal-free organic sensitizers for use in water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells

    PubMed Central

    Swierk, John R.; Mndez-Hernndez, Dalvin D.; McCool, Nicholas S.; Liddell, Paul; Terazono, Yuichi; Pahk, Ian; Tomlin, John J.; Oster, Nolan V.; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens; Mallouk, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Solar fuel generation requires the efficient capture and conversion of visible light. In both natural and artificial systems, molecular sensitizers can be tuned to capture, convert, and transfer visible light energy. We demonstrate that a series of metal-free porphyrins can drive photoelectrochemical water splitting under broadband and red light (? > 590 nm) illumination in a dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. We report the synthesis, spectral, and electrochemical properties of the sensitizers. Despite slow recombination of photoinjected electrons with oxidized porphyrins, photocurrents are low because of low injection yields and slow electron self-exchange between oxidized porphyrins. The free-base porphyrins are stable under conditions of water photoelectrolysis and in some cases photovoltages in excess of 1 V are observed. PMID:25583488

  13. Room temperature synthesis of a Zn(II) metal-organic coordination polymer for dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Alireza; Gharib, Maniya; Najafi, Mahnaz; Janczak, Jan

    2016-03-01

    A new one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymer, [Zn(4,4‧-bpy)(H2O)4](ADC)·4H2O (1) (4,4‧-bpy=4,4‧-bipyridine and H2ADC=acetylenedicarboxylic acid), was synthesized at room temperature. The crystal structure of the coordination polymer was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 was also characterized by FT-IR, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic activity of 1 was evaluated in the color removal of Bismarck brown as a representative of dye pollutant in water under mild conditions. Coordination polymer 1 exhibited good catalytic activity and stability in the decolorization of Bismarck brown and could be easily recovered and reused for at least three cycles.

  14. Aqueous synthesis of hierarchical bismuth nanobundles with high catalytic activity to organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dechong; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Jingzhe; Li, Yawen; Lu, Yan; Zhao, Duijia

    2015-07-01

    Bundle-like bismuth (Bi) nanoarchitectures were successfully prepared on a large scale by an aqueous reducing strategy with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as directing agent at 90 C for 55 min. The bundle-like Bi nanoarchitectures have a length of 4-5 ?m and diameter of 0.5-1 ?m with fairly uniform construction. Catalytic activities of the as-prepared hierarchical Bi nanobundles were investigated for degrading Rhodamine B (RhB) dye solution under visible-light irradiation. The Bi nanostructures extended excellent catalytic activity and good cycling performance toward photodegradation of RhB. Possible mechanism was proposed for Bi-assisted photocatalytic degradation of RhB under visible-light.

  15. Two-Photon-Absorption Induced Superradiance of a New Organic Dye PSPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guang-Yong; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xiao-Mei; Yang, Sheng-Jun; Xu, Xin-Guang; Zhao, Xian; Shao, Zong-Shu; Jiang, Min-Hua

    2002-05-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of a new two-photon absorption (TPA) dye, trans-4-(4'-pyrrolidinyl styryl)-N-methyl pyridinium methyl sulfate (abbreviated as PSPS) is reported. Intense red superradiance with a peak located at 625nm can be observed from PSPS solution in benzyl alcohol when pumped by a focused picosecond laser beam operated at 1064nm. The lifetimes of one-photon absorption (OPA) and TPA fluorescence were measured to be 370 and 384ps, respectively. The pulse widths of OPA and TPA superradiance were 60 and 58 ps, respectively. The highest net upconversion efficiency from the absorbed pump laser to the upconverted superradiance is 8.3% at the pump energy of 0.6 mJ.

  16. Threshold optimization of polymeric opal photonic crystal cavity as organic solid-state dye-doped laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lan-Ting; Jin, Feng; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2011-02-01

    The authors have demonstrated the optimization of the active layer thickness on the threshold of organic solid-state dye-doped laser (SSDL), which was fabricated by three-dimensional polymeric opal photonic crystal and tert-butyl Rhodamine B (t-Bu-RhB) doped polymer film. Gain media were produced by incorporating t-Bu-RhB into polymer film at 3.0 wt %. The sandwiched laser resonator cavities with different active layer thickness displayed single-mode lasing oscillations in the reflection band gap of the resonator structure. The lasing threshold as low as 1.13 μJ/pulse was achieved. The optimization of active layer would provide an opportunity to accelerate the development of low threshold polymeric SSDLs.

  17. The energy transfer mechanism of a photoexcited and electroluminescent organic hybrid thin film of blue, green, and red laser dyes.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiling; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Yanqiong; Chen, Guo; Cai, Miao; Wei, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Though optically pumped lasing has been realized for years, electrically pumped lasing has not yet been achieved in organic semiconductor devices. In order to make a better understanding of the laser mechanisms of the organic materials, we prepared organic thin films consisting of three efficient laser dyes of a blue emitter, 4″,4″'-N,N-diphenylamine-4,4'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl (BN), a green emitter, 1,4-bis[2-[4-[N,N-di(p-tolyl)amino] phenyl]vinyl]benzene (DSB), and a red emitter, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidy-l-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) with different doping concentrations for the first time to investigate the cascade energy transfer process. The energy transfer schemes in the co-doped thin films in photoluminescence and electroluminescence have been investigated. The results indicated that the DSB molecules acted as a bridge to deliver energy more effectively from the host (BN) to the guest (DCJTB). Meanwhile, the maximum current efficiency (C E) and power efficiency (P E) of the organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with the emitting layer of lower doping concentration were 13.5 cd/A and 14.1 lm/W, respectively. PMID:25977665

  18. The energy transfer mechanism of a photoexcited and electroluminescent organic hybrid thin film of blue, green, and red laser dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiling; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Yanqiong; Chen, Guo; Cai, Miao; Wei, Bin

    2015-04-01

    Though optically pumped lasing has been realized for years, electrically pumped lasing has not yet been achieved in organic semiconductor devices. In order to make a better understanding of the laser mechanisms of the organic materials, we prepared organic thin films consisting of three efficient laser dyes of a blue emitter, 4″,4″'-N,N-diphenylamine-4,4'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl (BN), a green emitter, 1,4-bis[2-[4-[N,N-di(p-tolyl)amino] phenyl]vinyl]benzene (DSB), and a red emitter, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidy-l-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) with different doping concentrations for the first time to investigate the cascade energy transfer process. The energy transfer schemes in the co-doped thin films in photoluminescence and electroluminescence have been investigated. The results indicated that the DSB molecules acted as a bridge to deliver energy more effectively from the host (BN) to the guest (DCJTB). Meanwhile, the maximum current efficiency ( C E) and power efficiency ( P E) of the organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with the emitting layer of lower doping concentration were 13.5 cd/A and 14.1 lm/W, respectively.

  19. Selective adsorption of cationic dyes from aqueous solution by polyoxometalate-based metal-organic framework composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Gong, Wenpeng; Luo, Jing; Zou, Chentao; Yang, Yun; Yang, Shuijin

    2016-01-01

    A novel environmental friendly adsorbent H6P2W18O62/MOF-5 was synthesized by a simple one-step reaction under solvothermal conditions and characterized by XRD, FTIR, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The removal rate of H6P2W18O62/MOF-5 was quite greater (85%) than that of MOF-5 (almost zero), showing that the adsorption performance of porous MOF-5 can be improved through the modification of H6P2W18O62. Further study revealed that H6P2W18O62/MOF-5 exhibited a fast adsorption rate and selective adsorption ability towards the cationic dyes in aqueous solution. The removal rate was up to 97% for cationic dyes methylene blue (MB) and 68% for rhodamine B(Rhb) within 10 min. However, anionicdye methyl orange(MO) can only reach to 10%. The influences including initial concentration, contact time, initial solution pH and temperature of MB adsorption onto H6P2W18O62/MOF-5 were investigated in detail. The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption of MB onto H6P2W18O62/MOF-5 followed the pseudo second-order model well. The isotherm obtained from experimental data fitted the Langmuir model, yielding maximum adsorption capacity of 51.81 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters analysis illustrated that the MB adsorption onto H6P2W18O62 immobilized MOF-5 was spontaneous and endothermic process. Besides, these results implied that designing a novel material polyoxometalate-based metal-organic frameworks is great potential for removing cationic organic pollutants and even extended to improve other specific application.

  20. Amphiphilic block-graft copolymer templates for organized mesoporous TiO2 films in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jung Yup; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jung Min; Ahn, Joonmo; Cho, Hyung Hee; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-01-01

    Amphiphilic block-graft copolymers composed of poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS) backbone and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) side chains are synthesized and combined with hydrophilically preformed TiO2 (Pre-TiO2), which works as a structural binder as well as titania source. This results in the formation of crack free, 6-μm-thick, organized mesoporous TiO2 (OM-TiO2) films via one-step doctor-blading based on self-assembly of SBS-g-POEM as well as preferential interaction of POEM chains with Pre-TiO2. SBS-g-POEM with different numbers of ethylene oxide repeating units, SBS-g-POEM(500) and SBS-g-POEM(950), are used to form OM-TiO2(500) and OM-TiO2(950), respectively. The efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with a quasi-solid-state polymer electrolyte reach 5.7% and 5.8% at 100 mW/cm2 for OM-TiO2(500) and OM-TiO2(950), respectively. The surface area of OM-TiO2(950) was greater than that of OM-TiO2(500) but the light reflectance was lower in the former, which is responsible for similar efficiency. Both DSSCs exhibit much higher efficiency than one (4.8%) with randomly-organized particulate TiO2 (Ran-TiO2), which is attributed to the higher dye loading, reduced charge recombination and improved pore infiltration of OM-TiO2. When utilizing poly((1-(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl)-3-butyl-imidazolium iodide) (PEBII) and mesoporous TiO2 spheres as the solid electrolyte and the scattering layer, the efficiency increases up to 7.5%, one of the highest values for N719-based solid-state DSSCs.

  1. Dye lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, F.P. )

    1990-01-01

    This book includes chapters on continuous-wave dye lasers and properties of dye lasers and a chapter on continuous-wave dye lasers. There is also a chapter on wavemeters. This book provides an introduction to dye lasers and contains information for scientists and engineers who deal with their applications.

  2. Fabrication of highly hydrophobic organic-inorganic hybrid magnetic polysulfone microcapsules: A lab-scale feasibility study for removal of oil and organic dyes from environmental aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yanan; Wang, Jiaojiao; Sun, Caiyun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-05-15

    In this work, three kinds of organic-inorganic hybrid materials (vinyl benzene linear polymer modified SBA-15, attapulgite and halloysite nanotubes) in the shape of powder and the corresponding magnetic polysulfone microcapsules were developed for removal of oil and dyes from environmental aqueous samples, respectively. As determined from the oil and dye adsorption studies, the developed magnetic polysulfone microcapsules exhibited high adsorption capacity of 13.8-17.3g/g for oil. The prepared functionalized materials and the corresponding microcapsules can remove 85.0-91.6% and 81.8-87.8% Sudan I in 80min and 7.6h, respectively. The results showed a significant improvement in their adsorption capacities and removal efficiencies compared to the parent matrices, indicating that the introducing of the vinyl benzene linear polymer was a major factor in the removal of the hydrophobic pollutants. At the same time, the adsorption capacity for the investigated pollutants also depended on the textural feature of matrix itself. In view of the utilization of low-cost clay minerals (attapulgite and halloysite nanotubes), these proposed functionalized materials and the corresponding magnetic polysulfone microcapsules had a great promise to be used as an efficient sorbent for removal of pollutants from environmental aqueous samples. PMID:26874312

  3. Dissolved organic matter removal using magnetic anion exchange resin treatment on biological effluent of textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Li, Haibo; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Wentao; Li, Aimin

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from real dyeing bio-treatment effluents (DBEs) with the use of a novel magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP). DOMs in two typical DBEs were fractionized using DAX-8/XAD-4 resin and ultrafiltration membranes. The hydrophilic fractions and the low molecular weight (MW) (<3kDa) DOM fractions constituted a major portion (>50%) of DOMs for the two effluents. The hydrophilic and low MW fractions of both effluents were the greatest contributors of specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254), and the SUVA254 of DOM fractions decreased with hydrophobicity and MW. Two DBEs exhibited acute and chronic biotoxicities. Both acute and chronic toxicities of DOM fractions increased linearly with the increase of SUVA254 value. Kinetics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal via NDMP treatment was performed by comparing it with that of particle active carbon (PAC). Results indicated that the removal of DOC from DBEs via NDMP was 60%, whereas DOC removals by PAC were lower than 15%. Acidic organics could be significantly removed with the use of NDMP. DOM with large MW in DBE could be removed significantly by using the same means. Removal efficiency of NDMP for DOM decreased with the decrease of MW. Compared with PAC, NDMP could significantly reduce the acute and chronic bio-toxicities of DBEs. NaCl/NaOH mixture regenerants, with selected concentrations of 10% NaCl (m/m)/1% NaOH (m/m), could improve desorption efficiency. PMID:25108712

  4. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on nanostructured organic dyes/DNA/polyelectrolyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Evtugyn, Gennady A; Stepanova, Veronika B; Porfireva, Anna V; Zamaleeva, Alsu I; Fakhrullin, Rawil R

    2014-09-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexes based on electropolymerized phenothiazine dyes (Methylene Blue and Methylene Green), poly(allylamine hydrochloride), polystyrene sulfonate and native DNA from salmon sperm have been for the first time obtained by self-assembling on the glassy carbon electrode using the layer-by-layer assembly and characterized using direct current voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The changes in the charge transfer resistance and capacitance are attributed to the charge separation and the regularity of the layers depending on the number of layers and the position of DNA within the complex. Fenton reagent increases the resistance of the outer interface of the modifier with the maximal effect for the coatings including polymeric form of Methylene Green based coatings and direct contact of the DNA and polyphenothiazines. Meanwhile the selectivity of the response was found higher for the coatings based on poly(Methylene Blue). The difference in the behavior of the polyelectrolyte complex including different components makes it possible to distinguish the response related to the DNA damage and changes in the redox status of polyphenothiazines. PMID:25924325

  5. Highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by Cu doped ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Sini; Satpati, Biswarup; Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2015-10-14

    Copper doped ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by a facile wet chemical method. Structural properties of as-synthesized nanomaterials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, while UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to study their optical properties. Sunlight driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) dyes in water was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of Cu doped ZnO nanostructures using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that there is an optimum Cu doping level which leads to the highly enhanced photocatalytic activity of Cu doped ZnO nanostructures, as compared to pure ZnO nanostructures. A mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of Cu-ZnO nanostructures is tentatively proposed. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Cu-ZnO nanostructures is attributed to the combined effects of improved separation of photogenerated charge carriers due to optimal Cu doping in ZnO nanostructures and the formation of ZnO-CuO nanoheterojunctions. PMID:26352866

  6. Stark effect and spectral hole-burning: solvation of organic dyes in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauthey, Eric; Holliday, Keith; Wei, Changjiang; Renn, Alois; Wild, Urs P.

    1993-04-01

    Spectral hole-burning studies of nile red and cresyl violet in polyvinylbutyral and polyvinylformal films have been performed. From the shape of spectral holes under the influence of an electric field, the dipole moment difference between the ground and excited state of both dyes has been determined. The Stark effect was investigated at different positions in the inhomogeneously broadened absorption band of the guest molecules. The observed dipole moment difference decreases with increasing wavelength. This variation is caused by the matrix induced dipole moment. For nile red, which is a neutral and polar molecule, the distribution of induced dipole moments is strongly correlated with the orientation of its ground state dipole moment. In the case of cresyl violet perchlorate, which is a salt, this distribution is anisotropic for guests absorbing in the blue part of the inhomogeneous band but becomes more isotropic as the absorption wavelength increases. The wavelength dependence of the observed dipole moment is much stronger and is ascribed to the existence of the cresyl violet perchlorate salt in different states of solvation.

  7. Effects of surface modification on dye-sensitized solar cell based on an organic dye with naphtho[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene as the conjugated linker.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxu; Guo, Lei; Xia, Ping Fang; Zheng, Fan; Wong, Man Shing; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2014-02-12

    We have investigated the effects of surface modification on the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on a donor-(π-spacer)-acceptor organic dye. A major challenge for donor-(π-spacer)--acceptor molecules as sensitizers in DSSCs is the fast recombination reactions that occur at both the photoanode (e.g., TiO2) surface and the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode, which presents unfavorable effects on the DSSC performance. The two interfaces of TiO2/electrolyte and FTO/electrolyte are passivated selectively in a DSSC using an organic dye with Naphtho[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene as the conjugated linker and the I(-)/I3(-) electrolyte. The current density-voltage characteristics, the dark current analysis, the open circuit voltage-light intensity dependence, and the transient photovoltage/photocurrent results indicate that the recombination processes are affected strongly by surface passivation under variable light intensity. At high light intensity, the recombination reaction at the TiO2 surface is dominant. In this case, silane passivation of the TiO2 surface can suppress recombination significantly, while the c-TiO2 layer makes little contribution to the reduction of the recombination. At low illumination intensity, the recombination at FTO becomes significant, and the recombination can be reduced by applying a c-TiO2 layer. PMID:24377275

  8. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiO{sub x} nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Yuan, Yu-Peng E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Xue, Can E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiO{sub x} particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H{sub 2} generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H{sub 2} production rate of 125 μmol h{sup −1} was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiO{sub x} catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H{sub 2} generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiO{sub x} particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation.

  9. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiOx nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Yuan, Yu-Peng; Xue, Can

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiOx particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H2 generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H2 production rate of 125 ?mol h-1 was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiOx catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H2 generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiOx particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H2 generation.

  10. Relationship between temperature-induced changes in internal microscopic structures of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels and organic dye uptake behavior.

    PubMed

    Kureha, Takuma; Sato, Takaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke

    2014-07-29

    Temperature-induced changes in the internal structures of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAm) microgels were evaluated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and the results were used to explain organic dye uptake by the microgels. The dye uptake experiments were conducted using two organic dyes: cationic rhodamine 6G (R6G) and anionic erythrosine. In the SAXS investigation, the internal structures of the microgels were characterized in terms of the correlation length, ξ, and the distance, d*, which originated from the local packing of the isopropyl groups of two neighboring chains. With increasing temperature up to the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the microgels, the correlation length, ξ, was increased and the distance, d*, was decreased. At the same time, the amounts of the dyes taken up by the pNIPAm microgels were increased, despite a decrease in the volume of the microgels. The results indicated that the pNIPAm chains were closer to each other due to the hydrophobic association of isopropyl groups, which resulted in the growth of the hydrophobic domains. Thus, the hydrophobic interactions between the dyes and pNIPAm were probably accompanied by the domain formation. With a further increase of temperature above the VPTT, the correlation length, ξ, was decreased and then not defined because the Ornstein-Zernike type contribution disappeared, and the distance, d*, was not largely changed. At the same time, the uptake amounts of the dyes per unit volume of the microgels were also not largely changed, which behaved similar to the distance, d*. It was probably due to the fact that the internal structures of the microgels were not largely changed because the isopropyl groups were in contact with each other. The view was supported by the result of the uptake study of the nonthermoresponsive microgels which did not have the hydrophobic isopropyl groups. PMID:25003512

  11. Organic dopant added polyvinylidene fluoride based solid polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R. A.; Theerthagiri, J.; Madhavan, J.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of phenothiazine (PTZ) as dopant on PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte was studied for the fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The different weight percentage (wt%) ratios (0, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) of PTZ doped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte films were prepared by solution casting method using DMF as a solvent. The following techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and AC-impedance analysis have been employed to characterize the prepared polymer electrolyte films. The FT-IR studies revealed the complex formation between PVDF/KI/I2 and PTZ. The crystalline and amorphous nature of polymer electrolytes were confirmed by DSC and XRD analysis respectively. The ionic conductivities of polymer electrolyte films were calculated from the AC-impedance analysis. The undoped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte exhibited the ionic conductivity of 4.68×10-6 S cm-1 and this value was increased to 7.43×10-5 S cm-1 when PTZ was added to PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte. On comparison with different wt% ratios, the maximum ionic conductivity was observed for 20% PTZ-PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte. A DSSC assembled with the optimized wt % of PTZ doped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.92%, than the undoped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte (1.41%) at similar conditions. Hence, the 20% PTZ-PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte was found to be optimal for DSSC applications.

  12. Enhancing dye-sensitized solar cell performances by molecular engineering: highly efficient π-extended organic sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Grisorio, Roberto; De Marco, Luisa; Agosta, Rita; Iacobellis, Rosabianca; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Manca, Michele; Mastrorilli, Piero; Gigli, Giuseppe; Suranna, Gian Paolo

    2014-09-01

    This study deals with the synthesis and characterization of two π-extended organic sensitizers (G1 and G2) for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. The materials are designed with a D-A-π-A structure constituted by i) a triarylamine group as the donor part, ii) a dithienyl-benzothiadiazole chromophore followed by iii) a further ethynylene-thiophene (G1) or ethynylene-benzene (G2) π-spacer and iv) a cyano-acrylic moiety as acceptor and anchoring part. An unusual structural extension of the π-bridge characterizes these structures. The so-configured sensitizers exhibit a broad absorption profile, the origin of which is supported by density functional theory. The absence of hypsochromic shifts as a consequence of deprotonation as well as notable optical and electrochemical stabilities are also observed. Concerning the performances in devices, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicates that the structural modification of the π-spacer mainly increases the electron lifetime of G2 with respect to G1. In devices, this feature translates into a superior power conversion efficiency of G2, reaching 8.1%. These results are comparable to those recorded for N719 and are higher with respect to literature congeners, supporting further structural engineering of the π-bridge extension in the search for better performing π-extended organic sensitizers. PMID:25056642

  13. Straightforward fabrication of stable white LEDs by embedding of inorganic UV-LEDs into bulk polymerized polymethyl-methacrylate doped with organic dyes

    PubMed Central

    Di Martino, Daniela; Beverina, Luca; Sassi, Mauro; Brovelli, Sergio; Tubino, Riccardo; Meinardi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Stable white-emitting down-converted LEDs are straightforwardly prepared by bulk polymerization of an organic dye doped polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) shell directly on top of a highly efficient commercial blue-emitting InGaN LED. Our optimized polymerization procedure allows for extending the form factor of achievable luminescence converter (LUCO) material beyond the conventional thin film form and to directly produce devices with light bulb design. The selected organic dyes, the blue-emitting Coumarin 30 and a red-emitting diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative, exhibit high compatibility with the free radical polymerization reaction of the PMMA matrix and ensure high stability of the final hybrid device. The control of both the thickness of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the dopant dyes allow for fine tuning of the emission color of the LUCO LED and to obtain white light with CIE chromatic coordinates x = 0.32 and y = 0.33, with rendering index as high as 80. This simple and versatile procedure is not dye-exclusive and is therefore extendable to other molecular systems for color-tunable efficient solid-state lighting sources. PMID:24638041

  14. Theoretica Study of Asymmetric Double D-?-A Organic Sensitizers for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Dong Yuel; Lee, Gun Hyung; Kim, Young Sik

    2015-03-01

    Three novel dye sensitizers that were based on asymmetric double D-?-A chains with phenoxazine (POZ) and diphenylamine (DPA) as electron donors and cyanoacetic acid (CA) and 2-(1,1- dicyanomethylene) rhodanine (RD) as electron acceptors (DCPR, DRPC, DRPR) were designed, theoretically investigated, and compared with the reference dye based on asymmetric double D-?-A chains (DCPC). Using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, we gained insight into the factors responsible for the photovoltaic properties of the dye sensitizers. Due to the different HOMO levels of each donor and the different LUMO levels of each acceptor, the absorption spectrum of each dye showed different shapes. Among the dyes, DRPR showed a broader and more bathochromically shifted absorption band than the other dies. It also showed a higher molar extinction coefficient than that of the reference dye (DCPC). This work suggests optimizing the chain of electron donors and acceptors in dye sensitizers based on asymmetric double D-?-A chains would produce good photovoltaic properties for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). PMID:26413690

  15. Transparent organic photodetector using a near-infrared absorbing cyanine dye.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Jenatsch, Sandra; De Jonghe, Jelissa; Nesch, Frank; Steim, Roland; Vron, Anna C; Hany, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Organic photodetectors are interesting for low cost, large area optical sensing applications. Combining organic semiconductors with discrete absorption bands outside the visible wavelength range with transparent and conductive electrodes allows for the fabrication of visibly transparent photodetectors. Visibly transparent photodetectors can have far reaching impact in a number of areas including smart displays, window-integrated electronic circuits and sensors. Here, we demonstrate a near-infrared sensitive, visibly transparent organic photodetector with a very high average visible transmittance of 68.9%. The transmitted light of the photodetector under solar irradiation exhibits excellent transparency colour perception and rendering capabilities. At a wavelength of 850?nm and at -1?V bias, the photoconversion efficiency is 17% and the specific detectivity is 10(12) Jones. Large area photodetectors with an area of 1.6?cm(2) are demonstrated. PMID:25803320

  16. Transparent Organic Photodetector using a Near-Infrared Absorbing Cyanine Dye

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Jenatsch, Sandra; De Jonghe, Jelissa; Nüesch, Frank; Steim, Roland; Véron, Anna C.; Hany, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Organic photodetectors are interesting for low cost, large area optical sensing applications. Combining organic semiconductors with discrete absorption bands outside the visible wavelength range with transparent and conductive electrodes allows for the fabrication of visibly transparent photodetectors. Visibly transparent photodetectors can have far reaching impact in a number of areas including smart displays, window-integrated electronic circuits and sensors. Here, we demonstrate a near-infrared sensitive, visibly transparent organic photodetector with a very high average visible transmittance of 68.9%. The transmitted light of the photodetector under solar irradiation exhibits excellent transparency colour perception and rendering capabilities. At a wavelength of 850 nm and at −1 V bias, the photoconversion efficiency is 17% and the specific detectivity is 1012 Jones. Large area photodetectors with an area of 1.6 cm2 are demonstrated. PMID:25803320

  17. Detection of volatile organic compounds through a sensing film of TiO II doped with organic dyes deposited on an optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muoz A., S.; Ramos M., J.; Martnez H., C.; Castillo M., J.; Beltrn P., G.; Palomino M., R.

    2007-03-01

    The necessity of detection and recognition of different types of gases, such as volatile organic compounds, which are frequently found in food and beverage industries among others, requires the development of different types of sensors. In this work, an application of optical fiber for the detection of volatile organic compounds, particularly ethanol is presented. The sensor was constructed removing a portion of the cladding and depositing instead a sensing titanium dioxide (TiO II) film doped with an organic dye (rhodamine 6G) by the sol-gel method. The sensor response was measured in a Teflon chamber where the sample to be measured was injected. A He-Ne laser beam was coupled to the fiber and the variation in the output power was measured which indicates the gas presence. The difference between the output power with and without gas gives a measure of the concentration that exists in the chamber. The experimental results showed that for an ethanol concentration range from 0 to 10500 ppm, the response of the sensor was approximately linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9924.

  18. Film Properties and Polycrystallization of Organic Dyes on ITOs with Surface Treatment for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwama, Yuki; Mori, Tatsuo; Mizutani, Teruyoshi

    ITO(Indium-Tin-Oxide) has been now widely used as the transparent anode for organic light-emitting devices(OLEDs). We used various methods of ITO surface treatment and examined the effects of them by measuring contact angle and calculating surface energy. We also prepared OLEDs with ITO treated by each method, and estimated their characteristics. The surface of ITO treated by UV-O3 or O2-plasma was more hydrophilic than that treated by only organic rinse or no treatment, and consequently the characteristic of the OLED was improved. We suppose these treatments affect the hole injection from ITO into organic layer, due to ionization potential or surface cleanness. We also investigated time degradation of NPD films on the ITO substrates. The films deposited with high deposition rate porycrystallized faster.

  19. Synthesis of a Near-Infrared Emitting Squaraine Dye in an Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Patrick; Levine, Mindy

    2012-01-01

    Squaraines are a class of organic fluorophores that possess unique photophysical properties, including strong near-infrared absorption and emission. The synthesis of many squaraines involves the condensation of an electron-rich aromatic ring with squaric acid. These reactions are generally refluxed overnight in a benzene-butanol solvent mixture.

  20. Synthesis of a Near-Infrared Emitting Squaraine Dye in an Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Patrick; Levine, Mindy

    2012-01-01

    Squaraines are a class of organic fluorophores that possess unique photophysical properties, including strong near-infrared absorption and emission. The synthesis of many squaraines involves the condensation of an electron-rich aromatic ring with squaric acid. These reactions are generally refluxed overnight in a benzene-butanol solvent mixture.…

  1. Dye Painting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This

  2. Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Lee, Sunghun; Moon, Chang-Ki; Kim, Sei-Yong; Park, Young-Seo; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Woo Lee, Jin; Huh, June; You, Youngmin; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are among the most promising organic semiconductor devices. The recently reported external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 29-30% for green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are considered to be near the limit for isotropically oriented iridium complexes. The preferred orientation of transition dipole moments has not been thoroughly considered for phosphorescent OLEDs because of the lack of an apparent driving force for a molecular arrangement in all but a few cases, even though horizontally oriented transition dipoles can result in efficiencies of over 30%. Here we use quantum chemical calculations to show that the preferred orientation of the transition dipole moments of heteroleptic iridium complexes (HICs) in OLEDs originates from the preferred direction of the HIC triplet transition dipole moments and the strong supramolecular arrangement within the co-host environment. We also demonstrate an unprecedentedly high EQE of 35.6% when using HICs with phosphorescent transition dipole moments oriented in the horizontal direction. PMID:25204981

  3. Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Lee, Sunghun; Moon, Chang-Ki; Kim, Sei-Yong; Park, Young-Seo; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Woo Lee, Jin; Huh, June; You, Youngmin; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2014-09-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are among the most promising organic semiconductor devices. The recently reported external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 29-30% for green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are considered to be near the limit for isotropically oriented iridium complexes. The preferred orientation of transition dipole moments has not been thoroughly considered for phosphorescent OLEDs because of the lack of an apparent driving force for a molecular arrangement in all but a few cases, even though horizontally oriented transition dipoles can result in efficiencies of over 30%. Here we use quantum chemical calculations to show that the preferred orientation of the transition dipole moments of heteroleptic iridium complexes (HICs) in OLEDs originates from the preferred direction of the HIC triplet transition dipole moments and the strong supramolecular arrangement within the co-host environment. We also demonstrate an unprecedentedly high EQE of 35.6% when using HICs with phosphorescent transition dipole moments oriented in the horizontal direction.

  4. New photocatalysts based on MIL-53 metal-organic frameworks for the decolorization of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Yu-Peng; Sun, Jia-Xin; Peng, Fu-Min; Jiang, Xia; Qiu, Ling-Guang; Xie, An-Jian; Shen, Yu-Hua; Zhu, Jun-Fa

    2011-06-15

    The photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue dye in aqueous solution using a novel photocatalyst MIL-53(Fe) metal-organic frameworks was investigated under UV-vis light and visible light irradiation. The effect of electron acceptor H(2)O(2), KBrO(3) and (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8) addition on the photocatalytic performance of MIL-53(Fe) was also evaluated. The results show that MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst exhibited photocatalytic activity for MB decolorization both under UV-vis light and visible light irradiation, and the MB decolorization over MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst followed the first-order kinetics. The addition of different electron acceptors all enhances the photocatalytic performance of MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst, and the enhanced rate follows the order of H(2)O(2)>(NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8)>KBrO(3) under UV-vis light irradiation, while in the order of (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8)>H(2)O(2)>KBrO(3) under visible light irradiation. Moreover, MIL-53(Fe) did not exhibit any obvious loss of the activity for MB decolorization during five repeated usages. The photocatalytic activities over MIL-53(M) (M=Al, Fe), the isostructure to MIL-53(Fe), indicate that the metal centers show nil effect on the photocatalytic activity of MIL-53(M) photocatalysts. PMID:21531507

  5. Three-photon absorption process in organic dyes enhanced by surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohanoschi, Ion

    2006-07-01

    Multi-photon absorption processes have received significant attention from the scientific community during the last decade, mainly because of their potential applications in optical limiting, data storage and biomedical fields. Perhaps, one of the most investigated processes studied so far has been two-photon absorption (2PA). These investigations have resulted in successful applications in all the fields mentioned above. However, 2PA present some limitations in the biomedical field when pumping at typical 2PA wavelengths. In order to overcome these limitations, three-photon absorption (3PA) process has been proposed. However, 3PA in organic molecules has a disadvantage, typical values of sigma3' are small (10-81 cm6s 2/photon2), therefore, 3PA excitation requires high irradiances to induce the promotion of electrons from the ground state to the final excited state. To overcome this obstacle, specific molecules that exhibit large 3PA cross-section must be designed. Thus far, there is a lack of systematic studies that correlate 3PA processes with the molecular structure of organic compounds. In order to fill the existent gap in 3PA molecular engineering, in this dissertation we have investigated the structure/property relationship for a new family of fluorene derivatives with very high three-photon absorption cross-sections. We demonstrated that the symmetric intramolecular charge transfer as well as the pi-electron conjugation length enhances the 3PA cross-section of fluorene derivatives. In addition, we showed that the withdrawing electron character of the attractor groups in a pull-pull geometry proved greater 3PA cross-section. After looking for alternative ways to enhance the effective sigma 3' of organic molecules, we investigated the enhancement of two- and three-photon absorption processes by means of Surface Plasmon. We demonstrated an enhancement of the effective two- and three-photon absorption cross-section of an organic compound of 480 and 30 folds, respectively. We proved that the enhancement is a direct consequence of the electric field enhancement at a metal/buffer interface. Next, motivated by the demands for new materials with enhanced nonlinear optical properties, we studied the 3PA of Hematoporphyrin IX and J-aggregate supramolecular systems. As a result, we were able to propose the use of 3PA in photodynamic therapy using Photofrin, the only drug approved by the FDA for PDT.

  6. Understanding flocculation mechanism of graphene oxide for organic dyes from water: Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Peng; Xiao, Hang; Zhang, Yayun; Shi, Xiaoyang; Lü, Xiaomeng; Chen, Xi

    2015-11-01

    Flocculation treatment processes play an important role in water and wastewater pretreatment. Here we investigate experimentally and theoretically the possibility of using graphene oxide (GO) as a flocculant to remove methylene blue (MB) from water. Experimental results show that GO can remove almost all MB from aqueous solutions at its optimal dosages and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that MB cations quickly congregate around GO in water. Furthermore, PIXEL energy contribution analysis reveals that most of the strong interactions between GO and MB are of a van der Waals (London dispersion) character. These results offer new insights for shedding light on the molecular mechanism of interaction between GO and organic pollutants.

  7. Influence of synthetic and natural food dyes on activities of CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Nayumi; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2005-08-27

    Synthetic or natural food dyes are typical xenobiotics, as are drugs and pollutants. After ingestion, part of these dyes may be absorbed and metabolized by phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes and excreted by transporters of phase III enzymes. However, there is little information regarding the metabolism of these dyes. It was investigated whether these dyes are substrates for CYP2A6 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). The in vitro inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes by these dyes was also examined. The synthetic food dyes studied were amaranth (food red no. 2), erythrosine B (food red no. 3), allura red (food red no. 40), new coccine (food red no. 102), acid red (food red no. 106), tartrazine (food Yellow no. 4), sunset yellow FCF (food yellow no. 5), brilliant blue FCF (food blue no. 1), and indigo carmine (food blue no. 2). The natural additive dyes studied were extracts from purple sweet potato, purple corn, cochineal, monascus, grape skin, elderberry, red beet, gardenia, and curthamus. Data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. Only indigo carmine inhibited CYP2A6 in a noncompetitive manner, while erythrosine B inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). In the natural additive dyes just listed, only monascus inhibited UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. PMID:16009655

  8. Modeling materials and processes in hybrid/organic photovoltaics: from dye-sensitized to perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Over the last 2 decades, researchers have invested enormous research effort into hybrid/organic photovoltaics, leading to the recent launch of the first commercial products that use this technology. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have shown clear advantages over competing technologies. The top certified efficiency of DSCs exceeds 11%, and the laboratory-cell efficiency is greater than 13%. In 2012, the first reports of high efficiency solid-state DSCs based on organohalide lead perovskites completely revolutionized the field. These materials are used as light absorbers in DSCs and as light-harvesting materials and electron conductors in meso-superstructured and flat heterojunction solar cells and show certified efficiencies that exceed 17%. To effectively compete with conventional photovoltaics, emerging technologies such as DSCs need to achieve higher efficiency and stability, while maintaining low production costs. Many of the advances in the DSC field have relied on the computational design and screening of new materials, with researchers examining material characteristics that can improve device performance or stability. Suitable modeling strategies allow researchers to observe the otherwise inaccessible but crucial heterointerfaces that control the operation of DSCs, offering the opportunity to develop new and more efficient materials and optimize processes. In this Account, we present a unified view of recent computational modeling research examining DSCs, illustrating how the principles and simulation tools used for these systems can also be adapted to study the emerging field of perovskite solar cells. Researchers have widely applied first-principles modeling to the DSC field and, more recently, to perovskite-based solar cells. DFT/TDDFT methods provide the basic framework to describe most of the desired materials and interfacial properties, and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics allow researchers the further ability to sample local minima and dynamical fluctuations at finite temperatures. However, conventional DFT/TDDFT has some limitations, which can be overcome in part by tailored solutions or using many body perturbation theory within the GW approach, which is however more computationally intensive. Relativistic effects, such as spin-orbit coupling, are also included in simulations since they are fundamental for addressing systems that contain heavy atoms. We illustrate the performance of the proposed simulation toolbox along with the fundamental modeling strategies using selected examples of relevant isolated device constituents, including dye and perovskite absorbers, metal-oxide surfaces and nanoparticles, and hole transporters. We critically assess the accuracy of various computational approaches against the related experimental data. We analyze the representative interfaces that control the operational mechanism of the devices, including dye-sensitized TiO2/hole transporter and organohalide lead perovskite/TiO2, and the results reveal fundamental aspects of the device's operational mechanism. Although the modeling of DSCs is relatively mature, the recent "perovskite storm" has presented new problems and new modeling challenges, such as understanding exciton formation and dissociation at interfaces and carrier recombination in these materials. PMID:24856085

  9. Potassium induced stitching of a flexible tripodal ligand into a bi-metallic two-dimensional coordination polymer for photo-degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Vimal K

    2015-05-21

    A novel strategy for the stitching of a tripodal ligand into a bi-metallic two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymer has been reported. The reaction of 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde based ligand H3L with nickel acetate resulted in the metal functionalized 2D extended network via potassium induced activation of the nitro group of the ligand. The compound is highly active towards photo-degradation of organic dyes. PMID:25900142

  10. Dye sensitization of photoconductivity of polycrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryaev, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The DC photoconductivity of powder silicon samples with organic dyes applied to the surface of microcrystals was studied. Effective sensitization of photoconductivity in the absorption band of the dyes in the visible part of the spectrum was found.

  11. Keggin-Type Polyoxometalate-Based Metal-Organic Networks for Photocatalytic Dye Degradation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Hong-Fang; Zhou, Wen-Zhe; Zang, Hong-Ying; Tan, Hua-Qiao; Qi, Yan-Fei; Wang, Yong-Hui; Li, Yang-Guang

    2015-08-01

    The reaction of Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) units, transition-metal (TM) ions, and a rigid bis(imidazole) ligand (1,4-bis(1-imidazolyl)benzene (bimb)) in a hydrothermal environment led to the isolation of four new POM-based metal-organic networks, [H2 L][CuL][SiW12 O40 ]?2?H2 O (1), [H2 L]2 [Co(H2 O)3 L][SiW11 CoO39 ]?6?H2 O (2), KH[CuL]2 [SiW11 CoO39 (H2 O)]?2?H2 O (3), and [CuL]4 [GeW12 O40 ]?H2 O (4; L=bimb). All four compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds?1 and 3 are new 3D networks with 1D channels. Compounds?2 and 4 contain 2D networks, which further stack into 3D supramolecular networks. The contributions of pH value, the negative charge of the POM, and the TM coordination modes to the construction of 3D networks were elucidated by comparing the synthetic conditions and structures of compounds?1-4. The photocatalytic properties of compounds?1-4 were investigated using methylene blue (MB) degradation under UV light. All compounds showed good catalytic activity and structural stability. The possible catalytic mechanism was discussed on the basis of active-species trapping experiments. The different photocatalytic activities of compounds?1-4 were explained by comparison of the band gaps of different POM species and different packing modes of POM units in these hybrid compounds. PMID:26033779

  12. Dye lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.

    1984-04-03

    A dye laser (FIG. 1, 5 or 6) includes a pumping laser source (e.g. 11), an optical resonator (e.g. 13-15), and a dye solution or dye cell (e.g. 12) disposed in the path of the pumping laser light in the resonator. The dye cell disclosed herein comprises a pair of closely spaced transparent discs (21). A motor (26) serves to spin the discs at a high rate of speed. The pumping laser light in the resonator is focused on the discs at a predetermined angle (i.e. the Brewster angle). New, unbleached dye is injected axially with respect to the discs so that the spin force causes a radial flow of the dye solution between the spinning discs and, of course, past the pumping laser light spot.

  13. A simple method for determination of carmine in food samples based on cloud point extraction and spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Rouhollah; Hosseini, Mohammad; Zarabi, Sanaz

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a simple and cost effective method was developed for extraction and pre-concentration of carmine in food samples by using cloud point extraction (CPE) prior to its spectrophotometric determination. Carmine was extracted from aqueous solution using Triton X-100 as extracting solvent. The effects of main parameters such as solution pH, surfactant and salt concentrations, incubation time and temperature were investigated and optimized. Calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.04-5.0 μg mL(-1) of carmine in the initial solution with regression coefficient of 0.9995. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification were 0.012 and 0.04 μg mL(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (RSD) at low concentration level (0.05 μg mL(-1)) of carmine was 4.8% (n=7). Recovery values in different concentration levels were in the range of 93.7-105.8%. The obtained results demonstrate the proposed method can be applied satisfactory to determine the carmine in food samples. PMID:26103432

  14. Advanced treatment of textile dyeing secondary effluent using magnetic anion exchange resin and its effect on organic fouling in subsequent RO membrane.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Li, Li; Shi, Jialu; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    Strict regulations are forcing dyeing factory to upgrade existing waste treatment system. In this study, advanced treatment of dyeing secondary effluent by magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP) was investigated and compared with ultrafiltration (UF); NDMP as a pre-treatment of reverse osmosis (RO) was also studied. NDMP resin (20 mL/L) gave higher removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (83.9%) and colority (94.9%) than UF with a cut-off of 10 kDa (only 48.6% and 44.1%, respectively), showing that NDMP treatment was effective to meet the stringent discharge limit of DOC and colority. Besides, NDMP resin (20 mL/L) as a pretreatment of RO increased the permeate flux by 12.5% and reduced irreversible membrane fouling by 6.6%, but UF pretreatment did not mitigate RO membrane fouling. The results of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra and resin fractions showed that NDMP had more efficient removal than UF for transphilic acid and hydrophilic fraction, such as protein-like organic matters and soluble microbial products, which contributed to a significant proportion of RO membrane fouling. In sum, NDMP resin treatment not only gave effective removal of DOC and colority of dyeing secondary effluent, but exhibited some improvement for RO membrane flux and irreversible fouling. PMID:25463217

  15. X-ray photoelectron and optical absorption spectroscopic studies on the dye chlorodiane blue, used as a carrier generation molecule in organic photoconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Pacansky, J.; Waltman, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    The dye chlorodiane blue, used as a carrier generation molecule in organic photoconductors, is characterized via optical absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the results are interpreted on the basis of ab initio quantum mechanical molecular models. These data indicate that chlorodiane blue exists as azo-enol and hydrazone-quinone chemical structures and it is the hydrazone-quinone form that provides the higher xerographic gain in electrophotographic applications. Optimized geometries, atomic charges, and molecular orbital plots and energies are reported for both the azo-enol and hydrazone-quinone forms of chlorodiane blue. The two structural forms of the dye are experimentally distinguishable via both optical absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the wavelength and chemical shifts, respectively, are interpreted via the theoretical results. 29 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. [Case of urticaria due to cochineal dye in red-colored diet].

    PubMed

    Kotobuki, Yorihisa; Azukizawa, Hiroaki; Nishida, Youko; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro; Yoshikawa, Kunihiko

    2007-12-01

    We herein describe a 33-year-old female who recurrently exhibited urticaria accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea and dyspnea after taking red-colored food. From her history, we suspected the cochineal dye, the commonly used natural red dye in red-colored food and beverage, to be the cause of her symptoms. Oral provocation test using cochineal dye-stained red-colored boiled-fish-paste induced urticaria and respiratory symptoms. Furthermore the prick tests and the scratch tests with cochineal dye and carminic acid, the major ingredient of cochineal dye, were also positive. These results indicate that type 1 allergy to cochineal dye caused urticaria in this patient. Thereafter, she avoided the foods containing a cochineal dye and showed a complete clinical remission. Recently, the number of literatures described about increased incidence of type 1 allergy to cochineal dye. As the usage of cochineal dye is increasing in the Japanese market, we should keep in mind that cochineal dye can be a cause of urticaria in daily practice. PMID:18195555

  17. A cascaded QSAR model for efficient prediction of overall power conversion efficiency of all-organic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhi; Zhong, Ziyan; Li, Lin; Gao, Rui; Cui, Jingxia; Gao, Ting; Hu, Li Hong; Lu, Yinghua; Su, Zhong-Min; Li, Hui

    2015-05-30

    A cascaded model is proposed to establish the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) between the overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) and quantum chemical molecular descriptors of all-organic dye sensitizers. The cascaded model is a two-level network in which the outputs of the first level (JSC, VOC, and FF) are the inputs of the second level, and the ultimate end-point is the overall PCE of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The model combines quantum chemical methods and machine learning methods, further including quantum chemical calculations, data division, feature selection, regression, and validation steps. To improve the efficiency of the model and reduce the redundancy and noise of the molecular descriptors, six feature selection methods (multiple linear regression, genetic algorithms, mean impact value, forward selection, backward elimination, and +n-m algorithm) are used with the support vector machine. The best established cascaded model predicts the PCE values of DSSCs with a MAE of 0.57 (%), which is about 10% of the mean value PCE (5.62%). The validation parameters according to the OECD principles are R(2) (0.75), Q(2) (0.77), and Qcv2 (0.76), which demonstrate the great goodness-of-fit, predictivity, and robustness of the model. Additionally, the applicability domain of the cascaded QSAR model is defined for further application. This study demonstrates that the established cascaded model is able to effectively predict the PCE for organic dye sensitizers with very low cost and relatively high accuracy, providing a useful tool for the design of dye sensitizers with high PCE. PMID:25773984

  18. Evaluation of dyes decolourisation by the crude enzyme from Pleurotus sajor-caju grown on sorghum seed media.

    PubMed

    Sarnthima, R; Khammuang, S

    2008-01-01

    The extracellular enzymes from Pleurotus sajor-caju were studied for lignin degrading enzyme patterns and dye decolourisation potential. Laccases are major ligninolytic enzymes excreted by the fungus. The results from a native-PAGE revealed that there were at least two isoenzymes. The crude enzyme had a pH and a temperature optimum at 6.0 and 40 degrees C, respectively when 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was used as substrate. The pH and thermal stability were at 5.0 and 30 degrees C. The pH optima for decolourisation of Indigo Carmine and Methyl Red were at 5.0 and 6.0, respectively. Indigo Carmine could be decolorized efficiently above 90% within 180 min, whereas Methyl Red could be decolorized only 3.5%. High efficiency decolourisation of Indigo Carmine makes this fungus to be a promise choice in biological treatment of waste water containing Indigo Carmine. PMID:18819594

  19. [Determination of synthetic food dyes in food by capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Fusako; Oishi, Mitsuo; Kimura, Keisuke; Yasui, Akiko; Saito, Kazuo

    2004-06-01

    A method for the determination of 12 synthetic food dyes (Amaranth, Erythrosine, Allura Red AC, New Coccine, Phloxine, Rose Bengal, Acid Red, Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Fast Green FCF, Brilliant Blue FCF, Indigo Carmine) in food was developed using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with photodiode array detection. The dyes were extracted with water and 0.5% ammonia-ethanol (1:1) mixture, and cleaned up using solid-phase extraction (Sep-Pak Plus tC18). The dyes were eluted with methanol from the cartridge. The dyes were separated by CE on a bubble cell fused-silica capillary (72 cm to the detector, 75 microm i.d.) using 20% acetonitrile in a mixture of 10 mmol/L potassium phosphate, monobasic and 5 mmol/L sodium carbonate (pH 10.0) as the running buffer. Identifications of the dyes were performed on the basis of the migration time and the absorbance spectrum of each peak. The coefficients of variation of the migration times and the peak areas were 0.28-0.62% and 1.84-4.30%, respectively (n = 5). The identification limits using the absorbance spectra of the dyes were 10 microg/mL for Brilliant Blue FCF and Fast Green FCF, and 5 microg/mL for the other 10 dyes. The recoveries of the 12 dyes from pickles, soft drinks and candies at the level of 10 microg/g were 70.0-101.5%. The method was applied to the analysis of dyes in foods. The dyes detected by CE were in agreement with those detected by paper chromatography. PMID:15468935

  20. Degradation of Dye Wastewater by ns-Pulse DBD Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jin; Gu, Pingdao; Yuan, Li; Zhong, Fangchuan

    2013-09-01

    Two plasma reactors have been developed and used to degrade dye wastewater agents. The configuration of one plasma reactor is a comb-like extendable unit module consisting of 5 electrodes covered with a quartz tube and the other one is an array reactor which is extended from the unit module. The decomposition of wastewater by ns pulse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma have been carried out by atomizing the dyeing solutions into the reactors. During experiments, the indigo carmine has been treated as the waste agent. The measurements of UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) are carried out to demonstrate the decomposition effect on the wastewater. It shows that the decoloration rate of 99% and the COD degradation rate of 65% are achieved with 15 min treatment in the unit reactor. The effect of electrical parameters on degradation has been studied in detail. Results from the array reactor indicate that it has a better degradation effect than the unit one. It can not only totally remove the chromogenic bond of the indigo carmine solution, but also effectively degrade unsaturated bonds. The decoloration rate reaches 99% after 10 min treatment, the decomposition rate of the unsaturated bond reaches 83% after 60 min treatment, and the COD degradation rate is nearly 74%.

  1. High-performance aqueous/organic dye-sensitized solar cells based on sensitizers containing triethylene oxide methyl ether.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ryan Yeh-Yung; Wu, Feng-Ling; Li, Chun-Ting; Chen, Pei-Yu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Lin, Jiann T

    2015-08-10

    Metal-free dyes (EO1 to EO4) containing the hydrophilic triethylene oxide methyl ether (TEOME) unit in the spacer have been synthesized and used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Efficient lithium-ion trapping by TEOME results in improved open-circuit voltage (VOC ), leading to excellent conversion efficiency of the cells, ranging from 9.02 to 9.98?% with I(-) /I3 (-) electrolyte in acetonitrile under AM?1.5 illumination. The TEOME unit also enhances the wettability of the dye molecules for application in aqueous-based DSSCs. Aqueous-based DSSCs with a dual TEMPO/iodide electrolyte exhibit high VOC values (0.80-0.88?V) and very promising cell performances of up to 5.97?%. PMID:26098636

  2. Real-time histological imaging of kidneys stained with food dyes using multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Yasuaki; Kimura, Kazushi; Wang, Shujie; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2015-10-01

    We have developed a real-time imaging technique for diagnosis of kidney diseases which is composed of two steps, staining renal cells safely with food dyes and optical sectioning of living renal tissue to obtain histological images by multiphoton microscopy (MPM). Here, we demonstrated that the MPM imaging with food dyes, including erythrosine and indigo carmine, could be used as fluorescent agents to visualize renal functions and structures such as glomerular bloodstreams, glomerular filtration, and morphology of glomeruli and renal tubules. We also showed that the kidneys of IgA nephropathy model-mice stained with the food dyes presented histopathological characteristics different from those observed in normal kidneys. The use of the food dyes enhances the quality of tissue images obtained by MPM and offers the potential to contribute to a clinical real-time diagnosis of kidney diseases. PMID:26260138

  3. TiO2 Immobilized on Manihot Carbon: Optimal Preparation and Evaluation of Its Activity in the Decomposition of Indigo Carmine

    PubMed Central

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M.; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M.; Elizalde-González, María P.; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-01-01

    Applications of carbon-TiO2 materials have attracted attention in nanotechnology due to their synergic effects. We report the immobilization of TiO2 on carbon prepared from residues of the plant Manihot, commercial TiO2 and glycerol. The objective was to obtain a moderate loading of the anatase phase by preserving the carbonaceous external surface and micropores of the composite. Two preparation methods were compared, including mixing dry precursors and immobilization using a glycerol slurry. The evaluation of the micropore blocking was performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that it was possible to use Manihot residues and glycerol to prepare an anatase-containing material with a basic surface and a significant SBET value. The activities of the prepared materials were tested in a decomposition assay of indigo carmine. The TiO2/carbon eliminated nearly 100% of the dye under UV irradiation using the optimal conditions found by a Taguchi L4 orthogonal array considering the specific surface, temperature and initial concentration. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS, enabling the identification of some intermediates. No isatin-5-sulfonic acid was detected after a 60 min photocatalytic reaction, and three sulfonated aromatic amines, including 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2-(2-amino-5-sulfophenyl)-2-oxoacetic acid and 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid, were present in the reaction mixture. PMID:25588214

  4. TiO2 immobilized on Manihot carbon: optimal preparation and evaluation of its activity in the decomposition of indigo carmine.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dvila-Jimnez, Martn M; Elizalde-Gonzlez, Mara P; Garca-Daz, Esmeralda

    2015-01-01

    Applications of carbon-TiO2 materials have attracted attention in nanotechnology due to their synergic effects. We report the immobilization of TiO2 on carbon prepared from residues of the plant Manihot, commercial TiO2 and glycerol. The objective was to obtain a moderate loading of the anatase phase by preserving the carbonaceous external surface and micropores of the composite. Two preparation methods were compared, including mixing dry precursors and immobilization using a glycerol slurry. The evaluation of the micropore blocking was performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that it was possible to use Manihot residues and glycerol to prepare an anatase-containing material with a basic surface and a significant SBET value. The activities of the prepared materials were tested in a decomposition assay of indigo carmine. The TiO2/carbon eliminated nearly 100% of the dye under UV irradiation using the optimal conditions found by a Taguchi L4 orthogonal array considering the specific surface, temperature and initial concentration. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS, enabling the identification of some intermediates. No isatin-5-sulfonic acid was detected after a 60 min photocatalytic reaction, and three sulfonated aromatic amines, including 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2-(2-amino-5-sulfophenyl)-2-oxoacetic acid and 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid, were present in the reaction mixture. PMID:25588214

  5. Kinetic isotope effect on the proton-transfer in indigo carmine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakura, Izumi; Yabushita, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2010-01-01

    We have found that photo-excited indigo carmine causes stepwise proton transfer to generate mono-alcohol intermediate, which immediately returns to the parent molecule [I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, T. Kobayashi, Chem. Lett. 38 (2009) 1020]. The kinetic isotope effect in the proton transfer of this system has been studied by direct observation of the real-time molecular vibrational amplitude during the reaction including the transition state using a sub-5-fs laser pulse. The kaH/kaD ratio for the proton transfer after photo-excitation is observed to be 1.5 0.1.

  6. First record of the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, infesting Withania somnifera in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kumar Pati, Pratap

    2012-01-01

    During April-June 2010, red two-spotted carmine spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) were found on aerial apical parts of Ashwagandha Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants in the Amritsar District of Punjab Province in the North Indian plains. The mites fed on the leaves, making them shiny white in color, which gradually dried off and were later shed. The pest was identified as T. urticae. To best of our knowledge, this is the first record of this pest infesting W. somnifera in India. PMID:22970740

  7. Dye lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuder, J.E.; McGinnis, J.L.; Goldberg, H.A.; Hart, T.R.; Che, T.M.

    1989-10-31

    This patent describes a dye laser. It consists of a composite composition of an inorganic oxide glass monolith with a microporous structure containing an incorporated solution comprising a solvent component and a lasable dye component. Wherein the glass monolith has sealed outer surfaces.

  8. Microwave synthesis of cyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Winstead, Angela J; Williams, Richard; Zhang, Yongchao; McLean, Charlee; Oyaghire, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Heptamethine cyanine dyes are a class of near infrared (NIR) dyes that have captured the interest of the scientific community. Although applications that utilize NIR fluorescence technology are rapidly expanding, progress is limited by the lack of availability and cost of suitable compounds that can be utilized as labels and/or probes. Herein, we report the use of microwave assisted organic synthesis of five NIR cyanine dyes in yields ranging from 64-83% with a significant reduction in solvent use. Spectra characteristics including absorbance and emission spectra, molar absorptivity, quantum yield, fluorescence lifetime, and redox potentials were determined for each synthesized NIR cyanine dye. PMID:21721469

  9. Catalytic ozonation of organic pollutants from bio-treated dyeing and finishing wastewater using recycled waste iron shavings as a catalyst: Removal and pathways.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Ma, Luming; Chen, Yunlu; Cheng, Yunqin; Liu, Yan; Zha, Xiaosong

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic ozonation of organic pollutants from actual bio-treated dyeing and finishing wastewater (BDFW) with iron shavings was investigated. Catalytic ozonation effectively removed organic pollutants at initial pH values of 7.18-7.52, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) level decreased from 142 to 70 mg·L(-1) with a discharge limitation of 80 mg·L(-1). A total of 100% and 42% of the proteins and polysaccharides, respectively, were removed with a decrease in their contribution to the soluble COD from 76% to 41%. Among the 218 organic species detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, 58, 77, 79 and 4 species were completely removed, partially removed, increased and newly generated, respectively. Species including textile auxiliaries and dye intermediates were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The inhibitory effect decreased from 51% to 33%, suggesting a reduction in the acute toxicity. The enhanced effect was due to hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation, co-precipitation and oxidation by other oxidants. The proteins were removed by OH oxidation (6%), by direct ozonation, co-precipitation and oxidation by other oxidants (94%). The corresponding values for polysaccharides were 21% and 21%, respectively. In addition, the iron shavings behaved well in successive runs. These results indicated that the process was favorable for engineering applications for removal of organic pollutants from BDFW. PMID:26849317

  10. In situ generation of hydroxyl radical by cobalt oxide supported porous carbon enhance removal of refractory organics in tannery dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, S; Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

    2015-06-15

    In this study, cobalt oxide doped nanoporous activated carbon (Co-NPAC) was synthesized and used as a heterogeneous catalyst for the Fenton oxidation of organic dye chemicals used in tannery process. The nanoporous activated carbon (NPAC) was prepared from rice husk by precarbonization followed by chemical activation at elevated temperature (600 C). The cobalt oxide was impregnated onto NPAC and characterized for UV-visible, Fluorescence spectroscopy, FT-IR, HR-TEM, XRD, BET surface area and XPS analyses. The hydroxyl radical generation potential of Co-NPAC from hydrogen peroxide decomposition was identified (?(exi), 320 nm; ?(emi), 450 nm) by Excitation Emission Spectra (EES) analysis. The conditions for the degradation of tannery dyeing wastewater such as, Co-NPAC dose, concentration of H2O2, and temperature were optimized in heterogeneous Fenton oxidation process and the maximum percentage of COD removal was found to be 77%. The treatment of dyes in wastewater was confirmed through UV-Visible spectra, EES and FT-IR spectra analyses. PMID:25733392

  11. Two novel POM-based inorganic-organic hybrid compounds: synthesis, structures, magnetic properties, photodegradation and selective absorption of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Dui, Xue-Jing; Yang, Wen-Bin; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Kuang, Xiaofei; Liao, Jian-Zhen; Yu, Rongmin; Lu, Can-Zhong

    2015-05-28

    The hydrothermal reactions of a mixture of (NH4)6Mo7O244H2O, Cu(Ac)2H2O and 3-bpo ligands at different temperatures result in the isolation of two novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials containing different but related isopolymolybdate units, [Cu(3-bpo)(H2O)(Mo4O13)]3H2O () and [Cu2(3-bpo)2(Mo6O20)] (). The {Mo4O13}n chains in and unprecedented [Mo6O20](4-) isopolyhexamolybdate anions in are linked by octahedral Cu(2+) ions into two-dimensional hybrid layers. Interestingly, 3-bpo ligands in both and are located on either side of these hybrid layers and serve as arched footbridges to link Cu(ii) ions in the layer via pyridyl N-donors, and at the same time connect these hybrid layers into 3D supramolecular frameworks via weak MoNoxadiazole bonds. Another important point for is that water clusters are filled in the 1D channels surrounded by isopolytetramolybdate units. In addition, dye adsorption and photocatalytic properties of and magnetic properties of have been investigated. The results indicated that complex is not only a good heterogeneous photocatalyst in the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB), but also has high absorption capacity of MB at room temperature and can selectively capture MB molecules from binary mixtures of MB/MO or MB/RhB. All MB molecules absorbed on can be completely released and photodegraded in the presence of adequate peroxide. The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility revealed that complex exhibits antiferromagnetic ordering at about 5 K, and a spin-flop transition was observed at about 5.8 T at 2 K, indicating metamagnetic-like behaviour from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phases. PMID:25915167

  12. Ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal synthesis of activated carbon-HKUST-1-MOF hybrid for efficient simultaneous ultrasound-assisted removal of ternary organic dyes and antibacterial investigation: Taguchi optimization.

    PubMed

    Azad, F Nasiri; Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K; Hajati, S; Pezeshkpour, V

    2016-07-01

    Activated carbon (AC) composite with HKUST-1 metal organic framework (AC-HKUST-1 MOF) was prepared by ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal method and characterized by FTIR, SEM and XRD analysis and laterally was applied for the simultaneous ultrasound-assisted removal of crystal violet (CV), disulfine blue (DSB) and quinoline yellow (QY) dyes in their ternary solution. In addition, this material, was screened in vitro for their antibacterial actively against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) bacteria. In dyes removal process, the effects of important variables such as initial concentration of dyes, adsorbent mass, pH and sonication time on adsorption process optimized by Taguchi approach. Optimum values of 4, 0.02g, 4min, 10mgL(-1) were obtained for pH, AC-HKUST-1 MOF mass, sonication time and the concentration of each dye, respectively. At the optimized condition, the removal percentages of CV, DSB and QY were found to be 99.76%, 91.10%, and 90.75%, respectively, with desirability of 0.989. Kinetics of adsorption processes follow pseudo-second-order model. The Langmuir model as best method with high applicability for representation of experimental data, while maximum mono layer adsorption capacity for CV, DSB and QY on AC-HKUST-1 estimated to be 133.33, 129.87 and 65.37mgg(-1) which significantly were higher than HKUST-1 as sole material with Qm to equate 59.45, 57.14 and 38.80mgg(-1), respectively. PMID:26964963

  13. Determination of boron in produced water using the carminic acid assay.

    PubMed

    Floquet, Cedric F A; Sieben, Vincent J; MacKay, Bruce A; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-04-01

    Using the carminic acid assay, we determined the concentration of boron in oilfield waters. We investigated the effect of high concentrations of salts and dissolved metals on the assay performance. The influence of temperature, development time, reagent concentration, and water volume was studied. Ten produced and flowback water samples of different origins were measured, and the method was successfully validated against ICP-MS measurements. In water-stressed regions, produced water is a potential source of fresh water for irrigation, industrial applications, or consumption. Therefore, boron concentration must be determined and controlled to match the envisaged waste water reuse. Fast, precise, and onsite measurements are needed to minimize errors introduced by sample transportation to laboratories. We found that the optimum conditions for our application were a 5:1 mixing volume ratio (reagent to sample), a 1gL(-1) carminic acid concentration in 99.99% sulfuric acid, and a 30min reaction time at ambient temperature (20°C to 23°C). Absorption values were best measured at 610nm and 630nm and baseline corrected at 865nm. Under these conditions, the sensitivity of the assay to boron was maximized while its cross-sensitivity to dissolved titanium, iron, barium and zirconium was minimized, alleviating the need for masking agents and extraction methods. PMID:26838405

  14. Molecular Design, Characterization, and Application of Multiinformation Dyes for Multidimensional Optical Chemical Sensings. 2. Preparation of the Optical Sensing Membranes for the Simultaneous Measurements of pH and Water Content in Organic Media.

    PubMed

    Hisamoto, H; Manabe, Y; Yanai, H; Tohma, H; Yamada, T; Suzuki, K

    1998-04-01

    Optical chemical sensing of pH and water content in organic solvents is proposed, using multiinformation dyes (MIDs) based on the support matrixes for the dyes. In this investigation, four kinds of merocyanine-type dyes having a polymerizable olefin unit as the MIDs were synthesized. These dyes were copolymerized with hydrophilic monomer molecules to obtain dye-immobilized optical chemical sensor (optode) membranes. In this case, selection of the monomer molecule gave optode membranes having different color change properties, because different monomer molecules provided different chemical environments around the immobilized dye. These optode membranes were used for the measurement of pH and water content in organic solvents. These membranes offered two-dimensional sensing information in one spectrum when they were employed for water content sensing in organic solvents, in which the maximum wavelength represents the water content and the absorbance at this wavelength represents the pH of the water present. These polymer membranes have a long lifetime, which can be adequate for practical use. PMID:21644721

  15. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of anionic dyes onto organo-bentonite from single and multisolute systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dazhong; Fan, Jianxin; Zhou, Weizhi; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Kang, Qi

    2009-12-15

    The performances of polydiallydimethylammonium modified bentonite (PDADMA-bentonite) as an adsorbent to remove anionic dyes, namely Acid Scarlet GR (AS-GR), Acid Turquoise Blue 2G (ATB-2G) and Indigo Carmine (IC), were investigated in single, binary and ternary dye systems. In adsorption from single dye solutions with initial concentration of 100 micromol/L, the dosage of PDADMA-bentonite needed to remove 95% dye was 0.42, 0.68 and 0.75 g/L for AS-GR, ATB-2G and IC, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of the three dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model with the equilibrium constants of 0.372, 0.629 and 4.31 L/micromol, the saturation adsorption amount of 176.3, 149.2 and 228.7 micromol/g for ATB-2G, IC and AS-GR, respectively. In adsorption from mixed dye solutions, the isotherm of each individual dye followed an expanded Langmuir isotherm model and the relationship between the total amount of dyes adsorbed and the total equilibrium dye concentration was interpreted well by Langmuir isotherm model. In the region of insufficient dosage of PDADMA-bentonite, the dye with a larger affinity was preferentially removed by adsorption. Desorption was observed in the kinetic curve of the dye with lower affinity on PDADMA-bentonite surface by the competitive adsorption. The kinetics in single dye solution and the total adsorption of dyes in binary and ternary dye systems nicely followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:19631461

  16. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-06-01

    This study used novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecules, namely BPVPDA, an organic fluorescence color thin film using BPVPDA exhibit deep blue fluorine with CIE coordinates of (0.13,0.16). The developed original Organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness, in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses organic dye dopent in limpid photo resist. With this technology , the following characteristics can be obtained: (1) high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and (2) improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescence thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD and OLED.

  17. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-10-01

    This study used the novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecule BPVPDA in an organic fluorescent color thin film to exhibit deep blue color with CIE coordinates of (0.13, 0.16). The developed original organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a TFT LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses an organic dye dopant in a limpid photoresist. With this technology, the following characteristics can be obtained: 1. high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and 2. improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescent thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD or OLED.

  18. Enhancement of a solar photo-Fenton reaction with ferric-organic ligands for the treatment of acrylic-textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Soares, Petrick A; Batalha, Mauro; Souza, Selene M A Guelli U; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-04-01

    Literature describes a kinetic mineralization profile for most of acrylic-textile dyeing wastewaters using a photo-Fenton reaction characterized by a slow degradation process and high reactants consumption. This work tries to elucidate that the slow decay on DOC concentration is associated with the formation of stable complexes between Fe(3+) and textile auxiliary products, limiting the photoreduction of Fe(3+). This work also evaluates the enhancement of a solar photo-Fenton reaction through the use of different ferric-organic ligands applied to the treatment of a simulated acrylic-textile dyeing wastewater, as a pre-oxidation step to enhance its biodegradability. The photo-Fenton reaction was negatively affected by two dyeing auxiliary products: i) Sera(®) Tard A-AS, a surfactant mainly composed of alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride and ii) Sera(®) Sperse M-IW, a dispersing agent composed of polyglycol solvents. The catalytic activity of the organic ligands toward the ferrous-catalysed system followed this order: Fe(III)-Oxalate > Fe(III)-Citrate > Fe(III)-EDDS, and all were better than the traditional photo-Fenton reaction. Different design parameters such as iron concentration, pH, temperature, flow conditions, UV irradiance and H2O2 addition strategy and dose were evaluated. The ferrioxalate induced photo-Fenton process presented the best results, achieving 87% mineralization after 9.3 kJUV L(-1) and allowing to work until near neutral pH values. As expected, the biodegradability of the textile wastewater was significantly enhanced during the photo-Fenton treatment, achieving a value of 73%, consuming 32.4 mM of H2O2 and 5.7 kJUV L(-1). PMID:25618444

  19. 76 FR 3584 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Parts 5 RIN 1513-AB79 Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages Correction In proposed...

  20. Nickel Nanoparticle-Decorated Porous Carbons for Highly Active Catalytic Reduction of Organic Dyes and Sensitive Detection of Hg(II) Ions.

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Pitchaimani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Madhu, Rajesh; Veeramani, Vediyappan; Hung, Chin-Te; Liu, Shang-Bin

    2015-11-11

    High surface area carbon porous materials (CPMs) synthesized by the direct template method via self-assembly of polymerized phloroglucinol-formaldehyde resol around a triblock copolymer template were used as supports for nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs). The Ni/CPM materials fabricated through a microwave-assisted heating procedure have been characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, field emission transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, gas physisorption/chemisorption, thermogravimetric analysis, and Raman, Fourier-transform infrared, and X-ray photon spectroscopies. Results obtained from ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy demonstrated that the supported Ni/CPM catalysts exhibit superior activity for catalytic reduction of organic dyes, such as methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). Further electrochemical measurements by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) also revealed that the Ni/CPM-modified electrodes showed excellent sensitivity (59.6 ?A ?M(-1) cm(-2)) and a relatively low detection limit (2.1 nM) toward the detection of Hg(II) ion. The system has also been successfully applied for the detection of mercuric ion in real sea fish samples. The Ni/CPM nanocomposite represents a robust, user-friendly, and highly effective system with prospective practical applications for catalytic reduction of organic dyes as well as trace level detection of heavy metals. PMID:26479076

  1. Organic Fluorescent Dyes Supported on Activated Boron Nitride: A Promising Blue Light Excited Phosphors for High-Performance White Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2015-01-01

    We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (αBN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500–650 nm under the 466 nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36 W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6 lm·W−1. Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs. PMID:25682730

  2. Organic fluorescent dyes supported on activated boron nitride: a promising blue light excited phosphors for high-performance white light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2015-01-01

    We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (?BN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Frster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500-650?nm under the 466?nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36?W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6?lmW(-1). Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs. PMID:25682730

  3. Green synthesis of AgI-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites: Toward enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity for organic dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Lee, Seunghee; Choi, Jiha; Park, Seonhwa; Ma, Rory; Yang, Haesik; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2015-06-01

    Novel reduced graphene oxide (RGO) enwrapped AgI nanocomposites were successfully fabricated by a facile template-free ultrasound-assisted method at room temperature. The structural, morphological, and optical studies demonstrate that the obtained nanostructures have good crystallinity and that the graphene nanosheets are decorated densely with AgI nanostructures. The photocatalytic activity of the composite was evaluated by the degradation of an organic dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), under visible-light irradiation. The results indicate that AgI with incorporated graphene exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than the pure AgI due to the improved separation efficiency of the photogenerated carriers and that it prolonged the lifetime of the electron-hole pairs due to the chemical bonding between AgI and graphene. AgI (0.4 mg mL-1 of graphene oxide) nanocomposites displayed the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency and the corresponding catalytic efficiencies within 70 min were ∼96%. Moreover, with the assistance of H2O2 the photocatalytic ability of the as-obtained AgI-RGO nanocomposites was enhanced. The corresponding catalytic efficiencies within 30 min were ∼96.8% (for 1 mL H2O2) under the same irradiation conditions. The excellent visible-light photocatalytic efficiency and luminescence properties make the AgI-RGO nanocomposites promising candidates for the removal of organic dyes for water purification and enable their application in near-UV white LEDs.

  4. An Anion Metal-Organic Framework with Lewis Basic Sites-Rich toward Charge-Exclusive Cationic Dyes Separation and Size-Selective Catalytic Reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-Sheng; Liang, Jun; Li, Lan; Lin, Zu-Jin; Bag, Partha Pratim; Gao, Shui-Ying; Huang, Yuan-Biao; Cao, Rong

    2016-03-01

    Organic dye pollutants become a big headache due to their toxic nature to the environment, and it should be one of the best solutions if we can separate and reuse them. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a microporous anion metal-organic framework (MOF) with Lewis basic sites-rich based on TDPAT (2,4,6-tris(3,5-dicarboxylphenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine) ligand, FJI-C2, which shows high adsorption and separation of cationic dye based on the charge-exclusive effect. Compared to other MOF materials, FJI-C2 shows the largest adsorption amount of methylene blue (1323 mg/g) at room temperature due to the nature of the anion frameworks and high surface area/pore volume. Furthermore, motivated by the adsorption properties of large guest molecules, we proceeded to investigate the catalytic behaviors of FJI-C2, not only because the large pore facilitates the mass transfer of guest molecules but also because the high density of Lewis basic sites can act as effective catalytic sites. As expected, FJI-C2 exhibits excellent catalytic performance for size-selective Knoevenagel condensation under mild conditions and can be reused several times without a significant decrease of the activity. PMID:26886437

  5. Quantum dots-based double imaging combined with organic dye imaging to establish an automatic computerized method for cancer Ki67 measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Wei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Wen-Lou; Chen, Jia-Mei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Wu, Han; Li, Yan; Liu, Juan

    2016-02-01

    As a widely used proliferative marker, Ki67 has important impacts on cancer prognosis, especially for breast cancer (BC). However, variations in analytical practice make it difficult for pathologists to manually measure Ki67 index. This study is to establish quantum dots (QDs)-based double imaging of nuclear Ki67 as red signal by QDs-655, cytoplasmic cytokeratin (CK) as yellow signal by QDs-585, and organic dye imaging of cell nucleus as blue signal by 4‧,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and to develop a computer-aided automatic method for Ki67 index measurement. The newly developed automatic computerized Ki67 measurement could efficiently recognize and count Ki67-positive cancer cell nuclei with red signals and cancer cell nuclei with blue signals within cancer cell cytoplasmic with yellow signals. Comparisons of computerized Ki67 index, visual Ki67 index, and marked Ki67 index for 30 patients of 90 images with Ki67 ≤ 10% (low grade), 10% < Ki67 < 50% (moderate grade), and Ki67 ≥ 50% (high grade) showed computerized Ki67 counting is better than visual Ki67 counting, especially for Ki67 low and moderate grades. Based on QDs-based double imaging and organic dye imaging on BC tissues, this study successfully developed an automatic computerized Ki67 counting method to measure Ki67 index.

  6. Quantum dots-based double imaging combined with organic dye imaging to establish an automatic computerized method for cancer Ki67 measurement

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin-Wei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Wen-Lou; Chen, Jia-Mei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Wu, Han; Li, Yan; Liu, Juan

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used proliferative marker, Ki67 has important impacts on cancer prognosis, especially for breast cancer (BC). However, variations in analytical practice make it difficult for pathologists to manually measure Ki67 index. This study is to establish quantum dots (QDs)-based double imaging of nuclear Ki67 as red signal by QDs-655, cytoplasmic cytokeratin (CK) as yellow signal by QDs-585, and organic dye imaging of cell nucleus as blue signal by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and to develop a computer-aided automatic method for Ki67 index measurement. The newly developed automatic computerized Ki67 measurement could efficiently recognize and count Ki67-positive cancer cell nuclei with red signals and cancer cell nuclei with blue signals within cancer cell cytoplasmic with yellow signals. Comparisons of computerized Ki67 index, visual Ki67 index, and marked Ki67 index for 30 patients of 90 images with Ki67 ≤ 10% (low grade), 10% < Ki67 < 50% (moderate grade), and Ki67 ≥ 50% (high grade) showed computerized Ki67 counting is better than visual Ki67 counting, especially for Ki67 low and moderate grades. Based on QDs-based double imaging and organic dye imaging on BC tissues, this study successfully developed an automatic computerized Ki67 counting method to measure Ki67 index. PMID:26839163

  7. Quantum dots-based double imaging combined with organic dye imaging to establish an automatic computerized method for cancer Ki67 measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Wei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Wen-Lou; Chen, Jia-Mei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Wu, Han; Li, Yan; Liu, Juan

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used proliferative marker, Ki67 has important impacts on cancer prognosis, especially for breast cancer (BC). However, variations in analytical practice make it difficult for pathologists to manually measure Ki67 index. This study is to establish quantum dots (QDs)-based double imaging of nuclear Ki67 as red signal by QDs-655, cytoplasmic cytokeratin (CK) as yellow signal by QDs-585, and organic dye imaging of cell nucleus as blue signal by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and to develop a computer-aided automatic method for Ki67 index measurement. The newly developed automatic computerized Ki67 measurement could efficiently recognize and count Ki67-positive cancer cell nuclei with red signals and cancer cell nuclei with blue signals within cancer cell cytoplasmic with yellow signals. Comparisons of computerized Ki67 index, visual Ki67 index, and marked Ki67 index for 30 patients of 90 images with Ki67???10% (low grade), 10%?organic dye imaging on BC tissues, this study successfully developed an automatic computerized Ki67 counting method to measure Ki67 index. PMID:26839163

  8. Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

    1977-01-01

    In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a

  9. ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL TOXIC RELEASES FROM LEATHER INDUSTRY DYEING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study focused on the organic dyes released to the environment in the wastewaters from leather dyeing operations. Basically, three types of dyes--acid, basic, and direct--are used, although the number of different dyes are well over 50, and the number of formulations used at a...

  10. Solution-processable, photo-stable, low-threshold, and broadly tunable thin film organic lasers based on novel high-performing laser dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daz-Garca, Mara. A.; Morales-Vidal, Marta; Ramrez, Manuel G.; Villalvilla, Jos M.; Boj, Pedro G.; Quintana, Jos A.; Retolaza, A.; Merino, S.

    2015-09-01

    Thin film organic lasers (TFOLs) represent a new generation of inexpensive, mechanically flexible devices with demonstrated applicability in numerous applications in the fields of spectroscopy, optical communications and sensing requiring an organic, efficient, stable, wavelength-tunable and solution-processable laser material. A distributed feedback (DFB) laser is a particularly attractive TFOL because it shows single mode emission, low pump energy, easy integration with other devices, mechanical flexibility and potentially low production cost. Here, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and DFB laser applications of novel high performing perylene dyes and p-phenylenevinylene (PV) oligomers, both dispersed in thermoplastic polymers, used as passive matrixes, are reported. Second-order DFB lasers based on these materials show single mode emission, wavelength tunability across the visible spectrum, operational lifetimes of >105 pump pulses, larger than previously reported PV oligomers or polymers, and thresholds close to pumping requirements with light-emitting diodes.

  11. Study of nonlinear refraction of organic dye by Z-scan technique using He-Ne laser

    SciTech Connect

    Medhekar, S.; Kumar, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Choubey, R. K.

    2013-02-05

    Laser induced third-order nonlinear optical responses of Brilliant Green solution has been investigated by utilizing single beam Z-scan technique with a continuous-wave He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It was observed that the material exhibits self-defocusing type optical nonlinearity. The measurements of nonlinear refraction were carried out at different dye concentrations and found that the increase in solution concentration leads to the linear increase of the nonlinear refractive index. The experimental results confirm great potential of the Brilliant Green for the application in nonlinear optical devices.

  12. Dye molecule bonded titanium alkoxide: a possible new type of dye for sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Hu-Chao; Wu, Yin-Yin; Hou, Jin-Le; Zhang, Guang-Ling; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Dai, Jie

    2016-03-01

    An organic dye coordinated titanium iso-propoxide compound is designed and synthesized. Taking advantage of the hydrolysis of the titanium alkoxide moiety on the surface of TiO2 electrode, the dye-semiconductor surface properties, including anchoring and dispersivity, are improved, which opens a new perspective to explore dyes for DSSCs. PMID:26898850

  13. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated. PMID:21552764

  14. Layered double hydroxide-carbon dot composite: high-performance adsorbent for removal of anionic organic dye.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Manlin; Yao, Qingfeng; Lu, Chao; Li, Zenghe; Wang, Wenxing

    2014-11-26

    It would be of significance to design a green composite for efficient removal of contaminants. Herein, we fabricated a facile and environmentally friendly composite via direct assembly of surface passivated carbon dots with abundant oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of the positively charged layered double hydroxide (LDH). The resulting LDH-carbon dot composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2 adsorption-desorption technique. The adsorption performances of the resulting LDH-carbon dot composites were evaluated for the removal of anionic methyl blue dye. Taking advantage of the combined benefits of LDH and carbon dots, the as-prepared composites exhibited high uptake capability of methyl blue (185 mg/g). The adsorption behavior of this new adsorbent fitted well with Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The reasons for the excellent adsorption capacity of methyl blue on the surface of the LDH-carbon dot hybrid were further discussed. A probable mechanism was speculated to involve the cooperative contributions of hydrogen bonding between methyl blue and carbon dots and electrostatic attraction between methyl blue and LDH, in the adsorption process. This work is anticipated to open up new possibilities in fabricating LDH-carbon dot materials in dealing with anionic dye pollutants. PMID:25313875

  15. J-aggregates of organic dye molecules complexed with iron oxide nanoparticles for imaging-guided photothermal therapy under 915-nm light.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuejiao; Gong, Hua; Liu, Teng; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Chao; Sun, Xiaoqi; Liang, Chao; Liu, Zhuang

    2014-11-12

    Recently, the development of nano-theranostic agents aiming at imaging guided therapy has received great attention. In this work, a near-infrared (NIR) heptamethine indocyanine dye, IR825, in the presence of cationic polymer, polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH), forms J-aggregates with red-shifted and significantly enhanced absorbance. After further complexing with ultra-small iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and the followed functionalization with polyethylene glycol (PEG), the obtained IR825@PAH-IONP-PEG composite nanoparticles are highly stable in different physiological media. With a sharp absorbance peak, IR825@PAH-IONP-PEG can serve as an effective photothermal agent under laser irradiation at 915 nm, which appears to be optimal in photothermal therapy application considering its improved tissue penetration compared with 808-nm light and much lower water heating in comparison to 980-nm light. As revealed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, those nanoparticles after intravenous injection exhibit high tumor accumulation, which is then harnessed for in vivo photothermal ablation of tumors, achieving excellent therapeutic efficacy in a mouse tumor model. This study demonstrates for the first time that J-aggregates of organic dye molecules are an interesting class of photothermal material, which when combined with other imageable nanoprobes could serve as a theranostic agent for imaging-guided photothermal therapy of cancer. PMID:24976309

  16. Evaluation of the treatment performance of lab-scaled vertical flow constructed wetlands in removal of organic compounds, color and nutrients in azo dye-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dogdu, Gamze; Yalcuk, Arda

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the treatment performance of vertical flow intermittent feeding constructed wetland (VFCW) in removal of organic pollution, nutrients and color in azo-dye containing wastewater. The systems consisted of PVC reactors, some filling materials such as gravel, sand and zeolite and wetland plants including Typha angustifolia and Canna indica. The average treatment efficiency of the systems for COD, color, sulphate, NH4-N, and PO4-P were in the range of 57-63%, 94-99%, 44-48%, 39-44%, and 84-88%, respectively among the VFCW reactors. It is concluded that VFCW reactor system can effectively be used in the treatment of dye-rich wastewater, especially for the removal of color and in the reduction of COD. Biofilm formation and cleavage of azo bonds could be observed by SEM and FTIR results, respectively. Almost similar NH4-N and PO4-P removal were obtained in all reactors by using same amount of zeolite media. PMID:26248021

  17. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser in the long-wavelength (700 nm) region in the visible by energy transfer between organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhifu; Zhou, Yuan; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Qian, Guodong

    2014-06-01

    In this work, organic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with single-mode laser output in the long-wavelength region (~700 nm) of the visible were reported based on the energy transfer between dye pairs consisting of pyrromethene 597 (PM597) and rhodamine 700 (LD700). By co-doping PM597 into the polymeric hosts, the fluorescence intensity of LD700 was enhanced by 30-fold and the photophysical parameters of the donor-acceptor pairs were investigated, indicating the involvement of non-radiative resonance energy transfer processes between PM597 and LD700. Active distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) were made by alternately spin-coating dye-doped polyvinylcarbazole and cellulose acetate thin films as the high and low refractive index layers, respectively. By sandwiching the active layer with 2 DBR mirrors, VCSEL emission at 698.9 nm in the biological first window (650-950 nm) was observed under the 532-nm laser pulses. The laser slope efficiency and threshold were also measured.

  18. Organic-free Anatase TiO? Paste for Efficient Plastic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Low Temperature Processed Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Nianqing; Huang, Chun; Liu, Yan; Li, Xing; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Limin; Peng, Feng; Liu, Yanchun; Huang, Haitao

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the synthesis of fine TiO2 paste with organic-free binder emerged as an indispensable technique for plastic photovoltaics due to the low temperature processing requirement. In this study, pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles and organic-free TiO2-sol were successfully synthesized individually in organic-free solution. By mixing the pure anatase TiO2 with the newly developed TiO2-sol binder, mechanically robust and well-interconnected TiO2 films were prepared via UV-irradiation at low temperature for applications in plastic dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSCs). The structural, electrical, and photovoltaic properties of the films as well as the devices were investigated by various techniques. The dye-loading amount of the obtained film is 2.6 times that of the P25 electrodes. As revealed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results, the film derived from the as-prepared anatase TiO2 paste (A-TiO2) exhibits much smaller charge transport resistance and lower electron recombination rate than the P25 film, while the introduction of TiO2-sol into the paste can further remarkably decrease the resistance of the produced film (AS-TiO2). The p-DSSCs employing AS-TiO2 photoanode yield a high efficiency up to 7.51%, which is 86% higher than the P25 reference cells and also 31% higher than the A-TiO2 cell. As a proof of concept, the newly developed AS-TiO2 paste was also applied to low temperature processed perovskite solar cells (PSCs), and a promising high efficiency up to 9.95% was achieved. PMID:26284590

  19. A hydrazone covalent organic polymer based micro-solid phase extraction for online analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengjiang; Li, Gongke; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2015-11-01

    Covalent organic polymers (COPs) connected by covalent bonds are a new class of porous network materials with large surface area and potential superiority in sample pretreatment. In this study, a new hydrazone linked covalent organic polymer (HL-COP) adsorbent was well-designed and synthesized based on a simple Schiff-base reaction. The condensation of 1,4-phthalaldehyde and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbohydrazide as organic building blocks led to the synthesis of HL-COP with uniform particle size and good adsorption performance. This HL-COP adsorbent with high hydrophobic property and rich stacking π electrons contained abundant phenyl rings and imine (CN) groups throughout the entire molecular framework. The adsorption mechanism was explored and discussed based on π-π affinity, hydrophobic effect, hydrogen bonding and electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction, which contributed to its strong recognition affinity to target compounds. Enrichment factors were 305-757 for six Sudan dyes by HL-COP micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE), indicating its remarkable preconcentration ability. Furthermore, the adsorption amounts by HL-COP μ-SPE were 1.0-11.0 folds as those by three commonly used commercial adsorbents. Then, HL-COP was applied as adsorbent of online μ-SPE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for enrichment and analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples with detection limit of 0.03-0.15μg/L. The method was successfully applied for online analysis of chilli powder and sausage samples. Sudan II and Sudan III in one positive chilli powder sample were actually found and determined with concentrations of 8.3 and 6.8μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of chilli powder and sausage samples were in range of 75.8-108.2% and 73.8-112.6% with relative standard deviations of 1.2-8.5% and 1.9-9.4% (n=5), respectively. The proposed method was accurate, reliable and convenient for the online simultaneous analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples. PMID:26456513

  20. Naphtho[2,3-c][1,2,5]thiadiazole and 2H-Naphtho[2,3-d][1,2,3]triazole-Containing D-A-π-A Conjugated Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yung-Sheng; Ni, Jen-Shyang; Hung, Wei-I; Hsu, Chih-Yu; Chou, Hsien-Hsin; Lin, Jiann-T Suen

    2016-03-01

    Dipolar dyes comprising an arylamine as the electron donor, a cyanoacrylic acid as electron acceptor, and an electron deficient naphtho[2,3-c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (NTD) or naphtho[2,3-d][1,2,3]triazole (NTz) entity in the conjugated spacer, were developed and used as the sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The introduction of the NTD unit into the molecular frame distinctly narrows the HOMO/LUMO gap with electronic absorption extending to >650 nm. However, significant charge trapping and dye aggregation were found in these dyes. Under standard global AM 1.5 G illumination, the best cell photovoltaic performance achieved 6.37 and 7.53% (∼94% relative to N719-based standard cell) without and with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) coadsorbent, respectively. Without CDCA, the NTz dyes have higher power conversion efficiency (7.23%) than NTD dyes due to less charge trapping, dye aggregation, and better dark current suppression. PMID:26891701

  1. Towards modeling of random lasing in dye doped bio-organic based systems: ray-tracing and cellular automaton analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitus, A. C.; Stopa, P.; Zaklukiewicz, W.; Pawlik, G.; Mysliwiec, J.; Kajzar, F.; Rau, I.

    2015-08-01

    One of many photonic applications of biopolymers as functional materials is random lasing resulting from an incorporation of highly luminescent dyes into biopolymeric matrix, which leads to a random but coherent light scattering in amplifying medium. In spite of numerous theoretical and experimental studies the origin of the coherence is still not clear and various scenarios are discussed. In particular, inhomogeneity of biopolymeric layers can hypothetically promote the feedback in the scattering of the emitted light resulting in coherent and incoherent random lasing. In this paper we analyze the light scattering in a model system of scattering centers of circular shapes and various dimensions using ray-tracing techniques. In the second part, which has mostly a tutorial character, we present the approach to the study of random lasing using a cellular automaton model of Wiersma et al.

  2. Influence of the Terminal Electron Donor in D-D-π-A Organic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole versus Bis(amine).

    PubMed

    Dai, Panpan; Yang, Lin; Liang, Mao; Dong, Huanhuan; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Chunyao; Sun, Zhe; Xue, Song

    2015-10-14

    With respect to the electron-withdrawing acceptors of D-A-π-A organic dyes, reports on the second electron-donating donors for D-D-π-A organic dyes are very limited. Both of the dyes have attracted significant attention in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). In this work, four new D-D-π-A organic dyes with dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole (DTP) or bis(amine) donor have been designed and synthesized for a investigation of the influence of the terminal electron donor in D-D-π-A organic dye-sensitized solar cells. It is found that DTP is a promising building block as the terminal electron donor when introduced in the dithiophenepyrrole direction, but not just a good bridge, which exhibits several characteristics: (i) efficiently increasing the maximum molar absorption coefficient and extending the absorption bands; (ii) showing stronger charge transfer interaction as compared with the pyrrole direction; (iii) beneficial to photocurrent generation of DSCs employing cobalt electrolytes. DSCs based on M45 with the Co-phen electrolyte exhibit good light-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies as high as 9.02%, with a short circuit current density (JSC) of 15.3 mA cm(-2), open circuit voltage (VOC) of 867 mV and fill factor (FF) of 0.68 under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm(-2)). The results demonstrate that N,S-heterocycles such as DTP unit could be promising candidates for application in highly efficient DSCs employing cobalt electrolyte. PMID:26394089

  3. CTAB-assisted synthesis of novel ultrathin MoSe2 nanosheets perpendicular to graphene for the adsorption and photodegradation of organic dyes under visible light.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuxin; Xu, Mingquan; Chen, Xi; Yang, Shuanglei; Wu, Hanshuo; Pan, Jun; Xiong, Xiang

    2015-12-17

    A novel nanostructure of perpendicular ultrathin MoSe2 nanosheets directly grown on graphene was produced by a facile hydrothermal method in the presence of CTAB. The vertically-oriented and ultrathin MoSe2 nanosheets distribute uniformly on the surface of graphene, and the nanosheets are typically 2-3 layers, which is confirmed by TEM and red shift of the A1g Raman peak. In comparison with pure MoSe2 and MoSe2 nanospheres on graphene, vertically oriented MoSe2 nanosheets on graphene show enhanced organic dye adsorption ability and photocatalytic performance in the degradation of MB, RhB and MO under dark conditions and visible light irradiation. The excellent photocatalytic activity may be contributed by the unique perpendicular MoSe2 nanosheets with fully exposed active edges and hybridized with graphene for reduced electron-hole pair recombination. PMID:26627597

  4. CTAB-assisted synthesis of novel ultrathin MoSe2 nanosheets perpendicular to graphene for the adsorption and photodegradation of organic dyes under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuxin; Xu, Mingquan; Chen, Xi; Yang, Shuanglei; Wu, Hanshuo; Pan, Jun; Xiong, Xiang

    2015-12-01

    A novel nanostructure of perpendicular ultrathin MoSe2 nanosheets directly grown on graphene was produced by a facile hydrothermal method in the presence of CTAB. The vertically-oriented and ultrathin MoSe2 nanosheets distribute uniformly on the surface of graphene, and the nanosheets are typically 2-3 layers, which is confirmed by TEM and red shift of the A1g Raman peak. In comparison with pure MoSe2 and MoSe2 nanospheres on graphene, vertically oriented MoSe2 nanosheets on graphene show enhanced organic dye adsorption ability and photocatalytic performance in the degradation of MB, RhB and MO under dark conditions and visible light irradiation. The excellent photocatalytic activity may be contributed by the unique perpendicular MoSe2 nanosheets with fully exposed active edges and hybridized with graphene for reduced electron-hole pair recombination.A novel nanostructure of perpendicular ultrathin MoSe2 nanosheets directly grown on graphene was produced by a facile hydrothermal method in the presence of CTAB. The vertically-oriented and ultrathin MoSe2 nanosheets distribute uniformly on the surface of graphene, and the nanosheets are typically 2-3 layers, which is confirmed by TEM and red shift of the A1g Raman peak. In comparison with pure MoSe2 and MoSe2 nanospheres on graphene, vertically oriented MoSe2 nanosheets on graphene show enhanced organic dye adsorption ability and photocatalytic performance in the degradation of MB, RhB and MO under dark conditions and visible light irradiation. The excellent photocatalytic activity may be contributed by the unique perpendicular MoSe2 nanosheets with fully exposed active edges and hybridized with graphene for reduced electron-hole pair recombination. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05748e

  5. Identification and characterization of artists' red dyes and their mixtures by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Alyson V; Casadio, Francesca; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2007-09-01

    Silver film over nanospheres (AgFONs) were successfully employed as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates to characterize several artists' red dyes including: alizarin, purpurin, carminic acid, cochineal, and lac dye. Spectra were collected on sample volumes (1 x 10(-6) M or 15 ng/microL) similar to those that would be found in a museum setting and were found to be higher in resolution and consistency than those collected on silver island films (AgIFs). In fact, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this work presents the highest resolution spectrum of the artists' material cochineal to date. In order to determine an optimized SERS system for dye identification, experiments were conducted in which laser excitation wavelengths were matched with correlating AgFON localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) maxima. Enhancements of approximately two orders of magnitude were seen when resonance SERS conditions were met in comparison to non-resonance SERS conditions. Finally, because most samples collected in a museum contain multiple dyestuffs, AgFONs were employed to simultaneously identify individual dyes within several dye mixtures. These results indicate that AgFONs have great potential to be used to identify not only real artwork samples containing a single dye but also samples containing dyes mixtures. PMID:17910797

  6. Enhanced Electron Lifetimes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Dichromophoric Porphyrin: The Utility of Intermolecular Forces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long; Wagner, Pawel; van der Salm, Holly; Gordon, Keith C; Mori, Shogo; Mozer, Attila J

    2015-10-01

    Electron lifetimes in dye-sensitized solar cells employing a porphyrin dye, an organic dye, a 1:1 mixture of the two dyes, and a dichromophoric dye design consisting of the two dyes using a nonconjugated linker were measured, suggesting that the dispersion force of the organic dyes has a significant detrimental effect on the electron lifetime and that the dichromophoric design can be utilized to control the effect of the dispersion force. PMID:26375165

  7. [Determination of carmine in carbonated beverages using 3-D fluorescence spectra coupled with second-order calibration algorithm].

    PubMed

    Li, Run; Chen, Guo-qing; Zhu, Chun; Kong, Fan-biao; Hu, Yang-jun

    2014-12-01

    Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra combined with second-order calibration algorithm based on alternate a weighted residual (ANWE) was applied to the direct concentration determination of carmine in carbonated beverages. Firstly, 3-D fluorescence spectra of carmine and sunset yellow mixed solutions with different concentrations were obtained by employing spectrometer, and analyzed by using ANWE, the correlation coefficient between calibration concentration and the actual concentration was 0.9917, and the average recovery was 100.92%2.71%. The results show that the ANWE algorithm is reliable. Then, the commercial carbonated soft drinks in 8, 9, 12 and 13 times diluted concentration were detected by using ANWE algorithm, the correlation coefficient between relative concentration and the actual concentration were 0.9930, 0.9930, 0.9932 and 0.7932, respectively, and the contents of carmine in beverage were 38.88, 37.71, 37.68 and 39.65 ?g mL(-1), respectively. The average concentration was (38.480.96) ?g mL(-1). Finally, the standard addition method was applied to estimate the prediction accuracy between calibration concentration and the actual concentration was 0.9935, and the average recovery was 102.99%2.15%. The results can provide a new idea for the rapid content determination of food pigments in commercial beverages. PMID:25881429

  8. In vivo and in vitro decolorization of synthetic dyes by laccase from solid state fermentation with Trametes sp. SYBC-L4.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Xing; Zhang, Rui-Jing; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic decolorization of dyes through solid cassava residue substrate fermentation with Trametes sp. SYBC-L4 via in vivo and in vitro processes was investigated in this study. Effects of pH and mediator (1-hydroxybenzotriazole, HBT) concentration on dyes decolorization were evaluated. In vitro, decolorization ratios of dyes differed considerably in pH and increased with the increasing of HBT concentration. Crude laccase (50 U/L) derived from Trametes sp. SYBC-L4 decolorized 67.911.25% Congo red (100mg/L), 94.581.05% aniline blue (100mg/L) and 99.020.54% indigo carmine (100mg/L) with 2.5mM HBT at pH 4.5 in 36h of incubation. In vivo, decolorization ratios of dyes were not enhanced by usage of the mediator. After 10days of fermentation, decolorization ratio of Congo red (1,000mg/kg), aniline blue (1,000mg/kg) and indigo carmine (1,000mg/kg) was 57.820.84, 92.531.12 and 97.261.92% without the usage of mediator at pH 4.5, respectively. Moreover, there was no obvious difference between the in vivo decolorization of aniline blue and indigo carmine in the pH range of 3.0-9.0. Results showed that Trametes sp. SYBC-L4 had great potential to be used for dyes decolorization via in vivo and in vitro processes. Moreover, in terms of pH range and mediator, in vivo decolorization with Trametes sp. SYBC-L4 was more advantageous since laccase mediator was needless and the applicable range of pH was broader. PMID:24951916

  9. Aegle marmelos Mediated Green Synthesis of Different Nanostructured Metal Hexacyanoferrates: Activity against Photodegradation of Harmful Organic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Jassal, Vidhisha; Kaith, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Prussian blue analogue potassium metal hexacyanoferrate (KMHCF) nanoparticles Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 (FeHCF), K2Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 (KCuHCF), K2Ni[Fe(CN)6]·3H2O (KNiHCF), and K2Co[Fe(CN)6] (KCoHCF) have been synthesized using plant based biosurfactant Aegle marmelos (Bael) and water as a green solvent. It must be emphasized here that no harmful reagent or solvent was used throughout the study. Plant extracts are easily biodegradable and therefore do not cause any harm to the environment. Hence, the proposed method of synthesis of various KMHCF nanoparticles followed a green path. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). MHCF nanoparticles were used for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic dyes like Malachite Green (MG), Eriochrome Black T (EBT), Methyl Orange (MO), and Methylene Blue (MB). Under optimized reaction conditions, maximum photocatalytic degradation was achieved in case of KCuHCF nanoparticles mediated degradation process (MG: 96.06%, EBT: 83.03%, MB: 94.72%, and MO: 63.71%) followed by KNiHCF (MG: 95%, EBT: 80.32%, MB: 91.35%, and MO: 59.42%), KCoHCF (MG: 91.45%, EBT: 78.84%, MB: 89.28%, and MO: 58.20%).

  10. Rattle-type carbon-alumina core-shell spheres: synthesis and application for adsorption of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiabin; Tang, Chuan; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2012-04-01

    Porous micro- and nanostructured materials with desired morphologies and tunable pore sizes are of great interests because of their potential applications in environmental remediation. In this study, novel rattle-type carbon-alumina core-shell spheres were prepared by using glucose and metal salt as precursors via a simple one-pot hydrothermal synthesis followed by calcination. The microstructure, morphology, and chemical composition of the resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and N(2) adsorption-desorption techniques. These rattle-type spheres are composed of a porous Al(2)O(3) shell (thickness ? 80 nm) and a solid carbon core (diameter ? 200 nm) with variable space between the core and shell. Furthermore, adsorption experiments indicate that the resulting carbon-alumina particles are powerful adsorbents for the removal of Orange-II dye from water with maximum adsorption capacity of ~210 mg/g. It is envisioned that these rattle-type composite particles with high surface area and large cavities are of particular interest for adsorption of pollutants, separation, and water purification. PMID:22458371

  11. Novel polymer gel electrolyte with organic solvents for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sheng-Yen; Dong, Rui-Xuan; Shih, Po-Ta; Ramamurthy, Vittal; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2014-11-12

    A cross-linked copolymer was previously synthesized from poly(oxyethylene) diamine (POE-amine) and an aromatic anhydride and cured to generate an amide-imide cross-linking structure. The copolymer containing several chemical groups such as POE, amido acids, and imide, enabled to absorb liquid electrolytes in methoxypropionitrile (MPN) for suitable uses in dye-sensitized solar cells. To establish the advantages of polymer gel electrolytes (PGE), the same copolymer was studied by using different electrolyte solvents including propylene carbonate (PC), dimethylformamide, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and shown their long-term stability. The morphology of the copolymer after absorbing liquid electrolytes in these solvents was proven the same as a 3D interconnected nanochannels, evidenced field emission-scanning electron microscopy. Among these solvents, PC was selected as the optimized PGE, which demostrated a higher power conversion efficiency (8.31%) than that of the liquid electrolyte (7.89%). In particular, the long-term stability of only a 5% decrease in the cell efficiency after 1000 h of testing was achieved. It was proven the developed copolymer as PGE was versatile for different solvents showing high efficiency and long-term durability. PMID:25296883

  12. THERMOSPRAY IONIZATION AND TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY OF DYES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sixteen commercial dye samples and three liquid wastes from organic pigment and dye manufacture have been characterized without prior chromatography by thermospray ionization and low energy collision-activated dissociation of protonated molecules using a triple quadrupole mass sp...

  13. Use of novel nest boxes by carmine bee-eaters (Merops nubicus) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Elston, Jennifer J; Carney, Jennifer; Quinones, Glorieli; Sky, Christy; Plasse, Chelle; Bettinger, Tammie

    2007-01-01

    Carmine bee-eaters make attractive additions to zoo aviaries but breeding programs have had challenges and limited success. The objectives of this study were to document nesting behavior of Carmine bee-eaters in a captive setting and compare reproductive success between a novel nest box (plastic, 17 x 30 x 22 cm) and a PVC pipe model used previously (30 cm long, 8 cm in diameter). Three bee-eater pairs were given access to seven nest chambers (six novel boxes, one PVC model). Behavioral observations occurred during a 15-min period in the morning or afternoon before egg production and continued until chicks fledged for a total of 87 observation periods (21.75 hr). All occurrences by an individual bird entering or exiting a nest tunnel, food provision, and the time (min) spent inside a nest cavity were documented. Additionally, daily temperature within each nest chamber was recorded. Before eggs were produced the average daily temperature (23.02 degrees C) within the nest chambers did not differ, suggesting that nest cavity choice was not influenced by temperature. No differences were detected among pairs in percent of observed time spent inside their nest cavities or number of times a nest tunnel was entered during the incubation or fledging periods. During incubation females spent a greater percent of observed time inside the nest cavity than males (P=0.02). During the fledging period food provision did not differ between the pairs, however males entered their nest tunnels more often per hour than females (P=0.03), and males tended to provide food more often than females (P=0.053). Two pairs nested in novel nest boxes and successfully fledged one chick each. The pair that nested in the PVC model did not fledge a chick. A nest box that aids in keeping eggs intact is essential for breeding bee-eaters in captivity, and maintaining captive populations will provide opportunities for zoo visitors to enjoy these birds and will reduce the need to remove birds from the wild. Zoo Biol 0:1-13, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360559

  14. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  15. Analysis of organic colouring and binding components in colour layer of art works.

    PubMed

    Kuckova, S; Nemec, I; Hynek, R; Hradilova, J; Grygar, T

    2005-05-01

    Two methods of analysis of organic components of colour layers of art works have been tested: IR microspectroscopy of indigo, Cu-phthalocyanine, and Prussian blue, and MALDI-TOF-MS of proteinaceous binders and a protein-containing red dye. The IR spectra distortion common for smooth outer surfaces and polished cross sections of colour layer of art works is suppressed by reflectance measurement of microtome slices. The detection limit of the three blue pigments examined is approximately 0.3 wt% in reference colour layers in linseed oil binder with calcite as extender and lead white as a drying agent. The sensitivity has been sufficient to identify Prussian blue in repaints on a Gothic painting. MALDI-TOF-MS has been used to identify proteinaceous binders in two historical paintings, namely isinglass (fish glue) and rabbit glue. MALDI-TOF-MS has also been proposed for identification of an insect red dye, cochineal carmine, according to its specific protein component. The enzymatic cleavage with trypsin before MALDI-TOF-MS seems to be a very gentle and specific way of dissolution of the colour layers highly polymerised due to very long aging of old, e.g. medieval, samples. PMID:15800763

  16. Organic dyes with a fused segment comprising benzotriazole and thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole entities as the conjugated spacer for high performance dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jen-Shyang; Yen, Yi-Chi; Lin, Jiann T

    2015-12-14

    Sensitizers with a fused segment comprising electron deficient benzotriazole () and electron rich thiophene or thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole entities as the conjugated spacer have been synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) increases with elongation of the conjugated spacer, and the dye with the dithieno[3,2-b]pyrrolobenzotriazole spacer has the best efficiency of 8.14%, which is comparable with that of an -based DSSC (8.03%). After coadsorbed with 1 mM CDCA, the efficiency was improved to 8.4%. The J-aggregation of the dye results in light harvesting at a longer wavelength spectral region and increasing the photocurrent of the cell. PMID:26452205

  17. Hierarchical Heteroaggregation of Binary Metal-Organic Gels with Tunable Porosity and Mixed Valence Metal Sites for Removal of Dyes in Water

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Asif; Xia, Wei; Mahmood, Nasir; Wang, Qingfei; Zou, Ruqiang

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical heteronuclear metal-organic gels (MOGs) based on iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) metal-organic framework (MOF) backbones bridged by tri-carboxylate ligands have firstly been synthesized by simple solvothermal method. Monometallic MOGs based on Fe or Al give homogenous monoliths, which have been tuned by introduction of heterogeneity in the system (mismatched growth). The developed gels demonstrate that surface areas, pore volumes and pore sizes can be readily tuned by optimizing heterogeneity. The work also elaborates effect of heterogeneity on size of MOG particles which increase substantially with increasing heterogeneity as well as obtaining mixed valence sites in the gels. High surface areas (1861 m2/g) and pore volumes (9.737 cc/g) were obtained for heterogeneous gels (0.5Fe-0.5Al). The large uptakes of dye molecules (290 mg/g rhodamine B and 265 mg/g methyl orange) with fast sorption kinetics in both neutral and acidic mediums show good stability and accessibility of MOG channels (micro and meso-/macropores), further demonstrating their potential applications in catalysis and sorption of large molecules. PMID:26014755

  18. Discoloration of Indigo Carmine Using Aqueous Extracts from Vegetables and Vegetable Residues as Enzyme Sources

    PubMed Central

    Sols, A.; Perea, F.; Sols, M.; Manjarrez, N.; Prez, H. I.; Cassani, J.

    2013-01-01

    Several vegetables and vegetable residues were used as sources of enzymes capable to discolor indigo carmine (IC), completely or partially. Complete discoloration was achieved with aqueous extracts of green pea seeds and peels of green pea, cucumber, and kohlrabi, as well as spring onion leaves. The source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pH, time, and aeration is fundamental for the discoloration process catalyzed by PPO. The PPO present in the aqueous extract of green pea seeds was able to degrade 3,000?ppm of IC at a pH of 7.6 and magnetic stirring at 1,800?rpm in about 36?h. In addition, at 1,800?rpm and a pH of 7.6, this extract discolored 300?ppm of IC in 1:40?h; in the presence of 10% NaCl, the discoloration was complete in 5:50?h, whereas it was completed in 4:30?h with 5% NaCl and 2% laundry soap. PMID:24151588

  19. Discoloration of indigo carmine using aqueous extracts from vegetables and vegetable residues as enzyme sources.

    PubMed

    Sols, A; Perea, F; Sols, M; Manjarrez, N; Prez, H I; Cassani, J

    2013-01-01

    Several vegetables and vegetable residues were used as sources of enzymes capable to discolor indigo carmine (IC), completely or partially. Complete discoloration was achieved with aqueous extracts of green pea seeds and peels of green pea, cucumber, and kohlrabi, as well as spring onion leaves. The source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pH, time, and aeration is fundamental for the discoloration process catalyzed by PPO. The PPO present in the aqueous extract of green pea seeds was able to degrade 3,000?ppm of IC at a pH of 7.6 and magnetic stirring at 1,800?rpm in about 36?h. In addition, at 1,800?rpm and a pH of 7.6, this extract discolored 300?ppm of IC in 1:40?h; in the presence of 10% NaCl, the discoloration was complete in 5:50?h, whereas it was completed in 4:30?h with 5% NaCl and 2% laundry soap. PMID:24151588

  20. A recyclable and highly active Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles/titanate nanowire catalyst for organic dyes degradation with peroxymonosulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhili; Chen, Shihua; Li, Yonghe; Si, Xiaolei; Huang, Jun; Massey, Sylvain; Chen, Guangliang

    2014-09-15

    Sodium ions of TNWs were exchanged with hydrogen ions, and this protocol was very suitable for capturing high density of cobalt ions. Meanwhile, the fabricated Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TNWs nano-material presented a highly catalytic and stable activity for dye degradation. - Highlights: • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were deposited on the pretreated TNWs surface. • The TNWs treated by hydrogen ions captures higher density of cobalt ions. • The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TNWs catalyst possesses highly efficiency for dyes degradation with oxone. - Abstract: In this paper, we reported a recyclable and highly active porous catalyst of titanate nanowires (TNWs) coated with well-distributed Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (NPs) (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TNWs). Sodium ions of TNWs were exchanged with hydrogen ions in the dilute nitric acid, and this protocol was very suitable for capturing cobalt ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated the existence of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase with unique lattice planes, such as (2 2 0), (3 1 1) and (5 1 1). Electron microscopes (FE-SEM and TEM) indicated that the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs with an average diameter of 22 ± 3 nm were coated uniformly on TNWs surface (average diameter: 37 ± 5.5 nm), and the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs mainly exposed their (2 2 0) and (2 2 2) active planes. XPS analysis confirms the formation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase by the presence of Co 2p peaks at 780.1 eV (2p 3/2) and 795.5 eV (2p 1/2). Methylene blue (MB) and other organic dyes (rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO)) were chosen as target compounds for catalytic degradation under indoor scattering light. Compared to the original Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TNWs catalyst, the catalytic efficiency of nanoscaled catalyst with oxone for MB was about 15 times higher, and the MB solution (10 mg L{sup −1}) was completely degraded within 8 min. The catalytic activity of recycled catalyst used in the sixth run still remained very active, and the degradation time for MB was only 16 min. The nanosized catalyst also had a high activity for dyes of RhB (10 mg L{sup −1}) and MO (10 mg L{sup −1}), as the degradation efficiencies of RhB and MO after 10 min of contact time were about 90.2% and 92.6%, respectively.

  1. Zeolite-Dye Microlasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vietze, U.; Krauß, O.; Laeri, F.; Ihlein, G.; Schüth, F.; Limburg, B.; Abraham, M.

    1998-11-01

    We present a new class of micro lasers based on nanoporous molecular sieve host-guest systems. Organic dye guest molecules of 1-ethyl-4-[4-( p-dimethylaminophenyl)-1,3-butadienyl]-pyridinium Perchlorat were inserted into the 0.73-nm-wide channel pores of a zeolite AlPO 4-5 host. The zeolitic microcrystal compounds were hydrothermally synthesized according to a particular host-guest chemical process. The dye molecules are found not only to be aligned along the host channel axis, but to be oriented as well. Single mode laser emission at 687 nm was obtained from a whispering gallery mode oscillating in a 8-μm-diameter monolithic microresonator, in which the field is confined by total internal reflection at the natural hexagonal boundaries inside the zeolitic microcrystals.

  2. In-tube electro-membrane extraction with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption as an efficient technique for synthetic food dyes determination in foodstuff samples.

    PubMed

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza; Abdossalami asl, Yousef

    2015-09-01

    A simple and efficient extraction technique with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption termed as in-tube electro-membrane extraction (IEME) is introduced. This method is based upon the electro-kinetic migration of ionized compounds by the application of an electrical potential difference. For this purpose, a thin polypropylene (PP) sheet placed inside a tube acts as a support for the membrane solvent, and 30?L of an aqueous acceptor solution is separated by this solvent from 1.2mL of an aqueous donor solution. This method yielded high extraction recoveries (63-81%), and the consumption of the organic solvent used was only 0.5?L. By performing this method, the purification is high, and the utilization of the organic solvent, used as a mediator, is very simple and repeatable. The proposed method was evaluated by extraction of four synthetic food dyes (Amaranth, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red, and Carmoisine) as the model analytes. Optimization of variables affecting the method was carried out in order to achieve the best extraction efficiency. These variables were the type of membrane solvent, applied extraction voltage, extraction time, pH range, and concentration of salt added. Under the optimized conditions, IEME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 1.00-800ngmL(-1), low limits of detection (0.3-1ngmL(-1)), and good extraction repeatabilities (RSDs below 5.2%, n=5). It seems that this design is a proper one for the automation of the method. Also the consumption of the organic solvent in a sub-microliter scale, and its simplicity, high efficiency, and high purification can help one getting closer to the objectives of the green chemistry. PMID:26256917

  3. Ultrasonic enhancement of the simultaneous removal of quaternary toxic organic dyes by CuO nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: Central composite design, kinetic and isotherm study.

    PubMed

    Dashamiri, Somayeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar; Rahimi, Mahmood Reza; Goudarzi, Alireza; Jannesar, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (CuO-NPs-AC) were prepared and fully analyzed and characterized with FE-SEM, XRD and FT-IR. Subsequently, this novel material was used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted adsorption of brilliant green (BG), auramine O (AO), methylene blue (MB) and eosin yellow (EY) dyes. Problems regard to dyes spectra overlap in quaternary solution of this dyes were omitted by derivative spectrophotometric method. The best pH in quaternary system was studied by using one at a time method to achieved maximum dyes removal percentage. Subsequently, sonication time, adsorbent dosage and initial dyes concentrations influence on dyes removal was optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function approach (DFA). Desirability score of 0.978 show optimum conditions set at sonication time (4.2min), adsorbent mass (0.029g), initial dyes concentration (4.5mgL(-1)). Under this optimum condition the removal percentage for MB, AO, EY and BG dyes 97.58, 94.66, 96.22 and 94.93, respectively. The adsorption rate well fitted by pseudo second-order while adsorption capacity according to the Langmuir model as best equilibrium isotherm model for BG, MB, AO and EY was 20.48, 21.26, 22.34 and 21.29mgg(-1), respectively. PMID:26964982

  4. Application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the identification of anthraquinone dyes used in works of art

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kui; Leona, Marco; Yan, Fei; Wabuyele, Musundi B; Vo Dinh, Tuan

    2006-04-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was investigated for applications in the analysis of anthraquinone dyes used in works of art. Two SERS procedures were developed and evaluated with three frequently used anthraquinone dyes, alizarin, carminic acid and lac dye. The first procedure involves coating a layer of silver nanoparticles directly on pieces of filter paper stained with the dyes of interest by thermal evaporation to induce SERS effect. In the second procedure, a SERS-active Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate was prepared by spin-coating an alumina-nanoparticle layer onto a glass slide to provide the nanostructure of the substrate, followed by thermally evaporating a layer of silver nanoparticles on top of the alumina layer. Aliquots of dye solutions were delivered onto this substrate to be analyzed. Intense SERS spectra characteristic of alizarin, carminic acid and lac dye were obtained using both SERS procedures. The effects of two parameters, the concentration of the alumina suspension and the thickness of the silver nanoparticle layer on the performance of the Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate were examined with alizarin as the model compound. Comparative studies were conducted between the Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate and the SERS substrate prepared using Tollens reaction. The Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate was shown to offer larger enhancement and improved reproducibility than the Tollens substrates. Finally, the potential applicability of the Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate for the analysis of real artifact objects was illustrated by the identification of alizarin extracted from a small piece of textile dyed using traditional methods and materials. The limit of detection for alizarin was estimated to be 7 x 10{sup -15} g from tests performed on solutions of known concentration.

  5. Dye laser principles, with applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, F.J. . Dept. of Physics); Hillman, L.W. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers which explain dye laser principles. Topics covered include: laser dynamics, femtosecond dye lasers, CW dye lasers, technology of pulsed dye lases, photochemistry of laser dyes, and laser applications.

  6. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  7. Sorption of dyes from aqueous solutions onto fly ash.

    PubMed

    Janos, Pavel; Buchtov, Hana; Rznarov, Milena

    2003-12-01

    Brown coal fly ashes were tested as potentially low-cost sorbents for the removal of synthetic dyes from waters. It was shown that both basic (cationic) as well as acid (anionic) dyes can be sorbed onto the fly ash. The adsorption can be described by the multi-site Langmuir isotherm. The sorption capacities were in the range of 10(-1)-10(-3)mmol/g and did not differ significantly for basic and acid dyes. The dye sorption decreased in the presence of organic solvents (methanol, acetone). The presence of oppositely charged surfactants exhibited a pronounced effect on the dye sorption-low concentrations of the surfactant enhanced sorption, whereas high concentrations solubilized the dyes and kept them in solution. Inorganic salts exhibited only a minor effect on the dye sorption. The sorption of basic dyes increased at high pH values, whereas the opposite was true for acid dyes. PMID:14604640

  8. An efficient photocatalyst for degradation of various organic dyes: Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu-Yang; Lu, Yi; Liu, Jin-Ku

    2016-04-15

    The Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite was prepared by a facile in-situ anion-exchange method, then the Ag nanoparticles were coated on this composite through photodeposition route to form a novel Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite. The in-situ Br(-) replacement in a crystal lattice node position of Ag2MoO4 crystal allows for overcoming the resistance of electron transition effectively. Meanwhile silver nano-particles on the surface of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite could act as electron traps to intensify the photogeneration electron-hole separation and the subsequent transfer of the trapped electron to the adsorbed O2 as an electron acceptor. As an efficient visible light catalyst, the Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic dyes. The experimental results demonstrated superior photocatalytic rate of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite compared to pure AgBr and Ag2MoO4 crystals (37.6% and 348.4% enhancement respectively). The Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite cloud degraded Rhodamin B, bromophenol blue, and amino black 10b completed in 7min. PMID:26775100

  9. The Enhanced Catalytic Activities of Asymmetric Au-Ni Nanoparticle Decorated Halloysite-Based Nanocomposite for the Degradation of Organic Dyes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lei; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Jun; Li, Xiaohui; Dong, Kun; Huang, Jiancui; Xu, Zhouqing

    2016-12-01

    Janus particles (JPs) are unique among the nano-/microobjects because they provide asymmetry and can thus impart drastically different chemical or physical properties. In this work, we have fabricated the magnetic halloysite nanotube (HNT)-based HNTs@Fe3O4 nanocomposite (NCs) and then anchored the Janus Au-Ni or isotropic Au nanoparticles (NPs) to the surface of external wall of sulfydryl modified magnetic nanotubes. The characterization by physical methods authenticates the successful fabrication of two different magnetic HNTs@Fe3O4@Au and HNTs@Fe3O4@Au-Ni NCs. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the two NCs have been evaluated considering the degradation of Congo red (CR) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) using sodium borohydride as a model reaction. The results reveal that the symmetric Au NPs participated NCs display low activity in the degradation of the above organic dyes. However, a detailed kinetic study demonstrates that the employ of bimetallic Janus Au-Ni NPs in the NCs indicates enhanced catalytic activity, owing to the structurally specific nature. Furthermore, the magnetic functional NCs reported here can be used as recyclable catalyst which can be recovered simply by magnet. PMID:26852228

  10. The Enhanced Catalytic Activities of Asymmetric Au-Ni Nanoparticle Decorated Halloysite-Based Nanocomposite for the Degradation of Organic Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lei; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Jun; Li, Xiaohui; Dong, Kun; Huang, Jiancui; Xu, Zhouqing

    2016-02-01

    Janus particles (JPs) are unique among the nano-/microobjects because they provide asymmetry and can thus impart drastically different chemical or physical properties. In this work, we have fabricated the magnetic halloysite nanotube (HNT)-based HNTs@Fe3O4 nanocomposite (NCs) and then anchored the Janus Au-Ni or isotropic Au nanoparticles (NPs) to the surface of external wall of sulfydryl modified magnetic nanotubes. The characterization by physical methods authenticates the successful fabrication of two different magnetic HNTs@Fe3O4@Au and HNTs@Fe3O4@Au-Ni NCs. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the two NCs have been evaluated considering the degradation of Congo red (CR) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) using sodium borohydride as a model reaction. The results reveal that the symmetric Au NPs participated NCs display low activity in the degradation of the above organic dyes. However, a detailed kinetic study demonstrates that the employ of bimetallic Janus Au-Ni NPs in the NCs indicates enhanced catalytic activity, owing to the structurally specific nature. Furthermore, the magnetic functional NCs reported here can be used as recyclable catalyst which can be recovered simply by magnet.

  11. Introduction of double amidoxime group by double post surface modification on poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) beads for higher amounts of organic dyes, As (V) and Cr (VI) removal.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, Muhammad; Demirci, Sahin; Uzun, Yusuf; Siddiq, Mohammad; Aktas, Nahit; Sahiner, Nurettin

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the synthesis of micron-sized poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (p(VBC)) beads and subsequent conversion of the reactive chloromethyl groups to double amidoxime group containing moieties by post modification is reported. The prepared beads were characterized by SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. The amidoximated p(VBC) beads were used as adsorbent for the removal of organic dyes, such as eosin y (EY) and methyl orange (MO), and heavy metals containing complex ions such as dichromate (Cr2O7(2-)) and arsenate (HAsO4(2)(-)) from aqueous media. The effect of the adsorbent dose on the percent removal, the effect of initial concentration of adsorbates on the adsorption rate and their amounts were also investigated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were applied to the adsorption processes. The results indicated that the adsorption of both dichromate and arsenate ions obeyed the Langmuir adsorption model. Interestingly, it was found that the prepared beads were capable of removing significant amounts of arsenate and dichromate ions from tap and river (Sarıcay, Canakkale-Turkey) water. PMID:26930538

  12. Platinum-Free Counter Electrode Comprised of Metal-Organic-Framework (MOF)-Derived Cobalt Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shao-Hui; Li, Chun-Ting; Chien, Heng-Ta; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wu, Kevin C.-W.

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated a highly efficient (with a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 8.1%) Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The counter electrode was made of cobalt sulfide (CoS) nanoparticles synthesized via surfactant-assisted preparation of a metal organic framework, ZIF-67, with controllable particle sizes (50 to 320 nm) and subsequent oxidation and sulfide conversion. In contrast to conventional Pt counter electrodes, the synthesized CoS nanoparticles exhibited higher external surface areas and roughness factors, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) element mapping, and electrochemical analysis. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results showed an increase in the open circuit voltage (VOC) and a decrease in the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) for CoS-based DSSCs compared to Pt-based DSSCs, resulting in a similar power conversion efficiency. The CoS-based DSSC fabricated in the study show great potential for economically friendly production of Pt-free DSSCs. PMID:25382139

  13. Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) versus excimer formation in supramolecular p/n-heterojunctions of perylene bisimide dyes and implications for organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Krl, Agnieszka; Fimmel, Benjamin; Son, Minjung; Kim, Dongho; Wrthner, Frank

    2015-12-22

    Foldamer systems comprised of two perylene bisimide (PBI) dyes attached to the conjugated backbones of 1,2-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene and phenylethynyl-bis(phenylene)indane, respectively, were synthesized and investigated with regard to their solvent-dependent properties. UV/Vis absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra show that both foldamers exist predominantly in a folded H-aggregated state consisting of ?-?-stacked PBIs in THF and in more random conformations with weaker excitonic coupling between the PBIs in chloroform. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and transient absorption spectroscopy reveal entirely different relaxation pathways for the photoexcited molecules in the given solvents, i.e. photoinduced electron transfer leading to charge separated states for the open conformations (in chloroform) and relaxation into excimer states with red-shifted emission for the stacked conformations (in THF). Supported by redox data from cyclic voltammetry and Rehm-Weller analysis we could relate the processes occurring in these solution-phase model systems to the elementary processes in organic solar cells. Accordingly, only if relaxation pathways such as excimer formation are strictly avoided in molecular semiconductor materials, excitons may diffuse over larger distances to the heterojunction interface and produce photocurrent via the formation of electron/hole pairs by photoinduced electron transfer. PMID:26399996

  14. New organic donor-acceptor-?-acceptor sensitizers for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Cui, Shicong; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Ying; Zhou, Hao; Hu, Yue; Liu, Jin-Gang; Long, Yitao; Wu, Wenjun; Hua, Jianli; Tian, He

    2014-10-01

    Two organic donor-acceptor-?-acceptor (D-A-?-A) sensitizers (AQ and AP), containing quinoxaline/pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine as the auxiliary acceptor, have been. Through fine-tuning of the auxiliary acceptor, a higher designed and synthesized photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.02% for the AQ-based dye-sensitized solar cells under standard global AM1.5 solar conditions was achieved. Also, it was found that AQ-Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts displayed a better rate of H2 evolution under visible-light irradiation (420 nm

  15. Characterization of anthocyanin based dye-sensitized organic solar cells (DSSC) and modifications based on bio-inspired ion mobility improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawyin, Jose Amador

    The worldwide electrical energy consumption will increase from currently 10 terawatts to 30 terawatts by 2050. To decrease the current atmospheric CO2 would require our civilization to develop a 20 terawatts non-greenhouse emitting (renewable) electrical power generation capability. Solar photovoltaic electric power generation is thought to be a major component of proposed renewable energy-based economy. One approach to less costly, easily manufactured solar cells is the Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) introduced by Greatzel and others. This dissertation describes the work focused on improving the performance of DSSC type solar cells. In particular parameters affecting dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on anthocyanin pigments extracted from California blackberries (Rubus ursinus) and bio-inspired modifications were analyzed and solar cell designs optimized. Using off-the-shelf materials DSSC were constructed and tested using a custom made solar spectrum simulator and photoelectric property characterization. This equipment facilitated the taking of automated I-V curve plots and the experimental determination of parameters such as open circuit voltage (V OC), short circuit current (JSC), fill factor (FF), etc. This equipment was used to probe the effect of various modifications such as changes in the annealing time and composition of the of the electrode counter-electrode. Solar cell optimization schemes included novel schemes such as solar spectrum manipulation to increase the percentage of the solar spectrum capable of generating power in the DSSC. Solar manipulation included light scattering and photon upconversion. Techniques examined here focused on affordable materials such as silica nanoparticles embedded inside a TiO2 matrix. Such materials were examined for controlled scattering of visible light and optimize light trapping within the matrix as well as a means to achieve photon up-energy-conversion using the Raman effect in silica nano-particles (due to a strong Raman anti-Stoke scattering probability). Finally, solutions to the mobility problem of organic photovoltaics were explored. The solutions examined here were based on the bio-inspired neural ionic conduction were nature has overcome the poor ionic mobility in solutions (D 10-5cm2/ s) to achieve amazingly fast ionic conduction using non-electric field energy gradients. Electric-permeability-graded layers with possibility to create an energy gradient that helps the diffusion DSSC electrolyte diffusion were explored in this work.

  16. Synergistic inhibition behavior between indigo carmine and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide on carbon steel corroded in a 0.5 M HCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Tian, Ningchen; Li, Xiuying; Zhang, Lingzhi; Wu, Ling; Huang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    This work reports on a newly observed synergistic inhibition between indigo carmine and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) on 1045 carbon steel (CS) corroded in a 0.5 M HCl solution. The results of electrochemical measurements showed that CTAB could change indigo carmine in a manner that would accelerate corrosion and produce an effective inhibitor. The maximal protection efficiency was significantly greater than 0.985, with the concentration of the combination inhibitors reaching approximately 5 × 10-5 M. The microstructure of the CS corrosion surface demonstrated that the indigo disulfonate anions and cetyltrimethylammonium cations were adsorbed simultaneously on the CS surface to protect it from corrosion. Diffusion coefficient analysis and the surface concentration profiles of the corrosive species were used to investigate the synergistic effect of the indigo carmine/CTAB combination inhibitors, and the results demonstrate the existence of synergy.

  17. Coordination compounds of manganese(II) with polyamines - catalysts of the oxidation of organic dyes by hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Batyr, D.G.; Isak, V.G.; Kirienko, A.A.; Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.

    1987-02-01

    The peroxidase activity of complexes of manganese(II) with polyamines has been characterized. A comparison of the original and literature data has led to the conclusion that the oxidation of organic substrates having some complexing ability with respect to Manganese(II) in Mn(II)-ligand-H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-S systems takes place according to an inner-sphere ion-molecule mechanism. In cases in which the substrate does not have any complexing ability with respect to Manganese(II), the oxidation process takes place according to an outer-sphere mechanism.

  18. First-principles study of Carbz-PAHTDDT dye sensitizer and two Carbz-derived dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Narges; Wang, Feng

    2014-03-01

    Two new carbazole-based organic dye sensitizers are designed and investigated in silico. These dyes are designed through chemical modifications of the ?-conjugated bridge of a reference organic sensitizer known as Carbz-PAHTDDT (S9) dye. The aim of designing these dyes was to reduce the energy gap between their highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and to red-shift their absorption response compared to those of the reference S9 dye sensitizer. This reference dye has a reported promising efficiency when coupled with ferrocene-based electrolyte composition. To investigate geometric and electronic structure, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were conducted on the new dyes as well as the reference dye. The present study indicated that the long-range correction to the theoretical model in the TD-DFT simulation is important to produce accurate absorption wavelengths. The theoretical studies have shown a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap and red-shifted absorption spectra for both of the new candidate dyes. In particular, the new S9-D1 dye is found to have significant reduced HOMO-LUMO energy gap, greater push-pull character and higher wavelengths of absorption when compared to the reference dye. Such findings suggest that the new dyes are promising and suitable for optoelectronic applications. PMID:24595721

  19. Highly-efficient dye-sensitized solar cells with collaborative sensitization by silyl-anchor and carboxy-anchor dyes.

    PubMed

    Kakiage, Kenji; Aoyama, Yohei; Yano, Toru; Oya, Keiji; Fujisawa, Jun-Ichi; Hanaya, Minoru

    2015-11-14

    In dye-sensitized solar cells co-photosensitized with an alkoxysilyl-anchor dye ADEKA-1 and a carboxy-anchor organic dye LEG4, LEG4 was revealed to work collaboratively by enhancing the electron injection from the light-excited dyes to the TiO2 electrodes, and the cells exhibited a high conversion efficiency of over 14% under one sun illumination. PMID:26393334

  20. Accurate simulation of optical properties in dyes.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A; Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo

    2009-02-17

    Since Antiquity, humans have produced and commercialized dyes. To this day, extraction of natural dyes often requires lengthy and costly procedures. In the 19th century, global markets and new industrial products drove a significant effort to synthesize artificial dyes, characterized by low production costs, huge quantities, and new optical properties (colors). Dyes that encompass classes of molecules absorbing in the UV-visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum now have a wider range of applications, including coloring (textiles, food, paintings), energy production (photovoltaic cells, OLEDs), or pharmaceuticals (diagnostics, drugs). Parallel to the growth in dye applications, researchers have increased their efforts to design and synthesize new dyes to customize absorption and emission properties. In particular, dyes containing one or more metallic centers allow for the construction of fairly sophisticated systems capable of selectively reacting to light of a given wavelength and behaving as molecular devices (photochemical molecular devices, PMDs).Theoretical tools able to predict and interpret the excited-state properties of organic and inorganic dyes allow for an efficient screening of photochemical centers. In this Account, we report recent developments defining a quantitative ab initio protocol (based on time-dependent density functional theory) for modeling dye spectral properties. In particular, we discuss the importance of several parameters, such as the methods used for electronic structure calculations, solvent effects, and statistical treatments. In addition, we illustrate the performance of such simulation tools through case studies. We also comment on current weak points of these methods and ways to improve them. PMID:19113946

  1. Adsorption of dyes on Sahara desert sand.

    PubMed

    Varlikli, Canan; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Kus, Mahmut; Boduroglu, Numan; Oner, Ilker; Lianos, Panagiotis; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Icli, Siddik

    2009-10-15

    Sahara desert sand (SaDeS) was employed as a mineral sorbent for retaining organic dyes from aqueous solutions. Natural sand has demonstrated a strong affinity for organic dyes but significantly lost its adsorption capacity when it was washed with water. Therefore, characterization of both natural and water washed sand was performed by XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. It was found that water-soluble kyanite, which is detected in natural sand, is the dominant factor affecting adsorbance of cationic dyes. The sand adsorbs over 75% of cationic dyes but less than 21% for anionic ones. Among the dyes studied, Methylene Blue (MB) demonstrated the strongest affinity for Sahara desert sand (Q(e)=11.98 mg/g, for initial dye solution concentration 3.5 x 10(-5)mol/L). The effects of initial dye concentration, the amount of the adsorbent, the temperature and the pH of the solution on adsorption capacity were tested by using Methylene Blue as model dye. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were applied. It was concluded that adsorption of Methylene Blue on Sahara desert sand followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Gibbs free energy, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and found -6411 J/mol, -30360 J/mol and -76.58 J/mol K, respectively. These values indicate that the adsorption is an exothermic process and has a spontaneous nature at low temperatures. PMID:19515485

  2. Low temperature (150?C) fabrication of high-performance TiO{sub 2} films for dye-sensitized solar cells using ultraviolet light and plasma treatments of TiO{sub 2} paste containing organic binder

    SciTech Connect

    Zen, Shungo Ono, Ryo; Inoue, Yuki

    2015-03-14

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require annealing of TiO{sub 2} photoelectrodes at 450?C to 550?C. However, such high-temperature annealing is unfavorable because it limits the use of materials that cannot withstand high temperatures, such as plastic substrates. In our previous paper, a low-temperature annealing technique of TiO{sub 2} photoelectrodes using ultraviolet light and dielectric barrier discharge treatments was proposed to reduce the annealing temperature from 450?C to 150?C for a TiO{sub 2} paste containing an organic binder. Here, we measure the electron diffusion length in the TiO{sub 2} film, the amount of dye adsorption on the TiO{sub 2} film, and the sheet resistance of a glass substrate of samples manufactured with the 150?C annealing method, and we discuss the effect that the 150?C annealing method has on those properties of DSSCs.

  3. Low temperature (150 C) fabrication of high-performance TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells using ultraviolet light and plasma treatments of TiO2 paste containing organic binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, Shungo; Inoue, Yuki; Ono, Ryo

    2015-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require annealing of TiO2 photoelectrodes at 450 C to 550 C. However, such high-temperature annealing is unfavorable because it limits the use of materials that cannot withstand high temperatures, such as plastic substrates. In our previous paper, a low-temperature annealing technique of TiO2 photoelectrodes using ultraviolet light and dielectric barrier discharge treatments was proposed to reduce the annealing temperature from 450 C to 150 C for a TiO2 paste containing an organic binder. Here, we measure the electron diffusion length in the TiO2 film, the amount of dye adsorption on the TiO2 film, and the sheet resistance of a glass substrate of samples manufactured with the 150 C annealing method, and we discuss the effect that the 150 C annealing method has on those properties of DSSCs.

  4. Squaraine dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: recent advances and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chuanjiang; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Han, Liyuan

    2013-08-01

    In the past few years, squaraine dyes have received increasing attention as a sensitizer for application in dye-sensitized solar cells. This class of dyes not only leaves open a good opportunity to afford conventional high performance dyes but also holds great promise for applications in transparent solar cells due to its low absorption intensity in the eye-sensitive region. This review provides a summary of the developments on squaraine dyes in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells and the opportunities used to improve their overall energy conversion efficiency. In particular, the main factors responsible for the low values of open-circuit voltage, short-circuit photocurrent and fill factor are discussed in detail. Future directions in research and development of near-infrared (NIR) organic materials and their applications are proposed from a personal perspective. PMID:23596145

  5. The Development and Application of Novel IR and NMR-Based Model for the Evaluation of Carminative Effect of Artemisia judaica L. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alzweiri, Muhammed; Alrawashdeh, Ibrahim M.; Bardaweel, Sanaa K.

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia judaica L. is a medicinal plant that is traditionally used to relieve abdominal pains through its carminative activity. In this study, spectroscopic analysis was employed to investigate the carminative activity associated with A. judaica. Using infrared spectroscopy, the carminative activity was evaluated based on the first derivative of IR-characteristic stretching signal of CO2. Our results indicate that A. judaica oil effectively reduced the response of CO2 signal equivalent to thymol standard. Additionally, 1H-NMR spectroscopy was utilized to assess surface activity of A. judaica crude oil through the reduction of interfacial tension in a D2O/CDCl3 system. Apparently, 10 mg of the oil was able to solubilize water in a chloroform layer up to 4.3% (w/w). In order to correlate the observed surface activity of the oil to its actual composition, GC-MS and GC-FID structural analysis were undertaken. The results revealed that the oil composition consists of oxygenated terpenes which might be responsible for the carminative effect. Furthermore, owing to its sensitivity, our model provides a fundamental basis for the pharmacological assessment of trace amounts of oils with high precision and accuracy. PMID:25614741

  6. Anthracene/phenothiazine ?-conjugated sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells using redox mediator in organic and water-based solvents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ryan Yeh-Yung; Chuang, Tzu-Man; Wu, Feng-Ling; Chen, Pei-Yu; Chu, Te-Chun; Ni, Jen-Shyang; Fan, Miao-Syuan; Lo, Yih-Hsing; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Lin, Jiann T

    2015-01-01

    Metal-free dyes (MD1 to MD5) containing an anthracene/phenothiazine unit in the spacer have been synthesized. The conversion efficiency (7.13?%) of the dye-sensitized solar cell using MD3 as the sensitizer reached approximately 85?% of the N719-based standard cell (8.47?%). The cell efficiency (8.42?%) of MD3-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with addition of chenodeoxycholic acid is comparable with that of N719-based standard cell. The MD3 water-based DSSCs using a dual-TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl)/iodide electrolyte exhibited very promising cell performance of 4.96?% with an excellent Voc of 0.77?V. PMID:25404282

  7. Influence of physicochemical-electronic properties of transition metal ion doped polycrystalline titania on the photocatalytic degradation of Indigo Carmine and 4-nitrophenol under UV/solar light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, L. Gomathi; Kumar, S. Girish

    2011-01-01

    To understand the role of dopant inside TiO2 matrix, anatase TiO2 was doped with transition metal ions like Mn2+, Fe3+, Ru3+ and Os3+ having unique half filled electronic configuration and their photocatalytic activity was probed in the degradation of Indigo Carmine (IC) and 4-nitrophenol (NP) under UV/solar light. For comparison, TiO2 was also doped with V5+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ metal ions having d0, d8 and d10 electronic configuration respectively. Irrespective of excitation source UV/solar light and nature of the organic pollutant, photocatalytic activities of doped photocatalysts followed the order: Mn2+-TiO2 > Fe3+-TiO2 > Ru3+-TiO2 ? Os3+-TiO2 > Zn2+-TiO2 > V5+-TiO2 > Ni2+-TiO2 at an optimum concentration of dopant. Based on the experimental results obtained, it is proposed that the existence of dopant with half filled electronic configuration in TiO2 matrix which is known to enhance the photocatalytic activity is not universal! Rather it is a complex function of several physicochemical-electronic properties of doped titania. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Mn2+ (0.06 at.%)-TiO2 was attributed to the combined factors of high positive reduction potential of Mn2+/Mn3+ pairs, synergistic effects in the mixed polymorphs of anatase and rutile, smaller crystallite size with high intimate contact between two phases and favorable surface structure of the photocatalyst. Despite the intense research devoted to transition metal ion doped TiO2, it is rather difficult to make unifying conclusion which is highlighted in this study.

  8. Identification of anthraquinone coloring matters in natural red dyes by electrospray mass spectrometry coupled to capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Puchalska, Maria; Orli?ska, Magdalena; Ackacha, Mohamed A; Po?e?-Pawlak, Kasia; Jarosz, Maciej

    2003-12-01

    Capillary electrophoresis with UV/visible diode-array detection (DAD) and electrospray mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) detection were used for the identification of anthraquinone color components of cochineal, lac-dye and madder, natural red dyestuffs often used by ancient painters. For the purpose of such analysis, ESI-MS was found to be a much more appropriate detection technique than DAD one owing to its higher sensitivity (detection limits in the range 0.1-0.5 micro g ml(-1)) and selectivity. The method developed made it possible to identify unequivocally carminic acid and laccaic acids A, B and E as coloring matters in the examined preparations of cochineal and lac-dye, respectively. In madder, European Rubia tinctorum, alizarin and purpurin were found. The method allows the rapid, direct and straightforward identification and quantification of components of natural products used in art and could be very helpful in restoration and conservation procedures. PMID:14696204

  9. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  10. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.L.

    2000-07-25

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic and adsorptive degradation of organic dyes by mesoporous Cu/Al2O3-MCM-41: intra-particle mesoporosity, electron transfer and OH radical generation under visible light.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Amaresh C; Parida, K M; Nanda, Binita

    2011-07-28

    Mesoporous Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite was synthesized by two step processes; in situ incorporation of high surface area mesoporous Al(2)O(3) (MA) into the framework of MCM-41 (in situ method) followed by impregnation of Cu(II) by incipient wetness method. The interesting thing is that starch was used for the first time as template for the preparation of high surface area MA. To evaluate the structural and electronic properties, these catalysts were characterized by low angle X-ray diffraction (LXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis DRS, FTIR and photoluminescent (PL) spectra. The various cationic dye such as methylene blue (MB), methyl violet (MV), malachite green (MG) and rhodamine 6G (Rd 6G) of high concentration 500 mg L(-1) were degraded and adsorbed very efficiently (100%) using the 5 Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite within 30 and 60 min, respectively. The high and quick removal of such concerted cationic organic dyes and also mixed dyes (MB+MV+MG+Rd 6G) by means of photocatalysis/adsorption is basically due to the combined effect three characteristics of synthesized mesoporous 5 Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite. These characteristics are intra-particle mesoporosity, electron transfer and ?OH radical generation under solar light. PMID:21681290

  12. Development of efficiency improved polymer-modified TiO2 for the photocatalytic degradation of an organic dye from wastewater environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangareswari, Murugan; Meenakshi Sundaram, Mariappan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the photocatalytic activity of polypyrrole-TiO2 nanocomposite was studied experimentally for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under simulating solar light irradiation. To improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under sunlight irradiation, conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) and its derivatives are generally used as photosensitizers. The PPy-TiO2 nanocomposite was prepared by the chemical oxidative polymerization method. The prepared nanocomposite showed better photocatalytic activity than bare TiO2 under sunlight irradiation for the degradation of MB dye. The prepared nanocomposite was subjected to characterization techniques such as SEM-EDAX, FT-IR, UV-DRS, XRD, TGA and PL spectral analysis. Different influencing operating parameters like initial concentration of dye, irradiation time, pH and amount of PPy-TiO2 nanocomposite used have also been studied. The optical density of the dye degradation was measured by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The repeatability of photocatalytic activity was also tested. A plausible mechanism was proposed and discussed on the basis of experimental results.

  13. Analysis of dimeric cyanine-nucleic acid dyes by capillary zone electrophoresis in N,N-dimethylacetamide as non-aqueous organic solvent.

    PubMed

    Muzikar, Jan; Rozing, Gerard; van de Goor, Tom; Eberwein, Christine; Kenndler, Ernst

    2002-03-15

    A method based on capillary zone electrophoresis is presented for the determination of the purity of commercial dimeric cyanine dyes (TOTO, YOYO, BOBO, all -1 and -3 species, LOLO-1, POPO-1) that are common as fluorescent probes for nucleic acid staining. These dyes are tetracharged cations, and have a strong tendency to interact with negatively charged centres, where they are rapidly adsorbed, especially from aqueous solutions. Thus anionic sites at the capillary wall must be avoided, and aqueous buffers are not suitable. The method introduced here avoids both complications, using non-aqueous N,N-dimethylacetamide as solvent, and suppressing the dissociation of silanol groups at the capillary surface due to selection of acidic separation conditions (20 mmol/l perchloric acid as background electrolyte). The present method enables the determination of the purity of all 10 dyes in less than 15 min. The selectivity of the method allows separation of at least five main and differentiating a number of unresolved minor contaminants as demonstrated in detail for TOTO-3 as an example. Quantitation (with 100% normalisation of the peak areas) of nine lots of this dye results in a purity between 33 and 87%. PMID:11990999

  14. Seeking effective dyes for a mediated glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eustis, Ross; Tsang, Tsz Ming; Yang, Brigham; Scott, Daniel; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2014-02-01

    A significant level of power generation from an abiotic, air breathing, mediated reducing sugar-air alkaline battery/fuel cell has been achieved in our laboratories at room temperature without complicated catalysis or membrane separation in the reaction chamber. Our prior studies suggested that mass transport limitation by the mediator is a limiting factor in power generation. New and effective mediators were sought here to improve charge transfer and power density. Forty-five redox dyes were studied to identify if any can facilitate mass transport in alkaline electrolyte solution; namely, by increasing the solubility and mobility of the dye, and the valence charge carried per molecule. Indigo dyes were studied more closely to understand the complexity involved in mass transport. The viability of water-miscible co-solvents was also explored to understand their effect on solubility and mass transport of the dyes. Using a 2.0 mL solution, 20% methanol by volume, with 100 mM indigo carmine, 1.0 M glucose and 2.5 M sodium hydroxide, the glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell attained 8 mA cm-2 at short-circuit and 800 ?W cm-2 at the maximum power point. This work shall aid future optimization of mediated charge transfer mechanism in batteries or fuel cells.

  15. Simple method for the analysis of food dyes on reversed-phase thin-layer plates.

    PubMed

    Oka, H; Ikai, Y; Kawamura, N; Yamada, M; Inoue, H; Ohno, T; Inagaki, K; Kuno, A; Yamamoto, N

    1987-12-18

    A technique for the determination of food dyes using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography on octadecyl-modified silica is described. A solvent system containing 5.0% aqueous sodium sulphate solution enables good separation of the food dyes. Their separation is dependent on the pH of the solvent system, good separation among all dyes being obtained between pH 6.0 and 7.0. The determination of thirteen dyes can be achieved by a combination of methanol-acetonitrile-5.0% aqueous sodium sulphate solution (3:3:10) (solvent system A) and methanol-methyl ethyl ketone-5.0% aqueous sodium sulphate solution (1:1:1) (solvent system B). Solvent system A was used for the determination of Tartrazine, Amaranth, Indigo Carmine, New Coccine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Allura Red AC, Fast Green FCF and Brilliant Blue FCF and for the screening of Acid Red (R-106), Eosin (R-103), Erythrosin (R-3), Rose Bengale (R-105) and Phloxine (R-104). When the spots of R-3, R-103, R-104, R-105 and R-106 appear on the plate, their determination can be achieved by using solvent system B. Each calibration graph was linear between 0.2 and 1.0 micrograms. PMID:3443633

  16. Organic solvent-free air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction for optimized extraction of illegal azo-based dyes and their main metabolite from spices, cosmetics and human bio-fluid samples in one step.

    PubMed

    Barfi, Behruz; Asghari, Alireza; Rajabi, Maryam; Sabzalian, Sedigheh

    2015-08-15

    Air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME) has unique capabilities to develop as an organic solvent-free and one-step microextraction method, applying ionic-liquids as extraction solvent and avoiding centrifugation step. Herein, a novel and simple eco-friendly method, termed one-step air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (OS-AALLME), was developed to extract some illegal azo-based dyes (including Sudan I to IV, and Orange G) from food and cosmetic products. A series of experiments were investigated to achieve the most favorable conditions (including extraction solvent: 77μL of 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate; sample pH 6.3, without salt addition; and extraction cycles: 25 during 100s of sonication) using a central composite design strategy. Under these conditions, limits of detection, linear dynamic ranges, enrichment factors and consumptive indices were in the range of 3.9-84.8ngmL(-1), 0.013-3.1μgmL(-1), 33-39, and 0.13-0.15, respectively. The results showed that -as well as its simplicity, fastness, and use of no hazardous disperser and extraction solvents- OS-AALLME is an enough sensitive and efficient method for the extraction of these dyes from complex matrices. After optimization and validation, OS-AALLME was applied to estimate the concentration of 1-amino-2-naphthol in human bio-fluids as a main reductive metabolite of selected dyes. Levels of 1-amino-2-naphthol in plasma and urinary excretion suggested that this compound may be used as a new potential biomarker of these dyes in human body. PMID:26149246

  17. Electron transfer mediation by aqueous C60 aggregates in H2O2/UV advanced oxidation of indigo carmine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ling; Moor, Kyle; Zhang, Bo; He, Yiliang; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2014-10-01

    C60 fullerene has long been known to exhibit favorable electron accepting and shuttling properties, but little is known about the possibility of electron transfer mediation by fullerene aggregates (nC60) in water. In this study, we investigated the electron shuttling capabilities of nC60 using UV/H2O2 as a model oxidation process in the presence of an electron donor, indigo carmine (IC). nC60 addition to the IC/H2O2 system was found to drastically increase IC degradation and shift the reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance, favoring the formation of superoxide and perhydroxyl radical species compared to hydroxyl radicals. Results indicate that nC60 can act as an electron mediator, where the adsorbed IC donates an electron to nC60, which is subsequently transferred to H2O2 or perhydroxyl radical.C60 fullerene has long been known to exhibit favorable electron accepting and shuttling properties, but little is known about the possibility of electron transfer mediation by fullerene aggregates (nC60) in water. In this study, we investigated the electron shuttling capabilities of nC60 using UV/H2O2 as a model oxidation process in the presence of an electron donor, indigo carmine (IC). nC60 addition to the IC/H2O2 system was found to drastically increase IC degradation and shift the reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance, favoring the formation of superoxide and perhydroxyl radical species compared to hydroxyl radicals. Results indicate that nC60 can act as an electron mediator, where the adsorbed IC donates an electron to nC60, which is subsequently transferred to H2O2 or perhydroxyl radical. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03647f

  18. Synthesis of azoimidazolium dyes with nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Tskhovrebov, Alexander G; Naested, Lara C E; Solari, Euro; Scopelliti, Rosario; Severin, Kay

    2015-01-19

    A new method for the synthesis of industrially important azoimidazolium dyes is presented. The procedure is based on a reagent which is rarely used in the context of synthetic organic chemistry: nitrous oxide ("laughing gas"). N2O is first coupled to N-heterocyclic carbenes. Subsequent reaction with aromatic compounds through an AlCl3-induced C-H activation process provides azoimidazolium dyes in good yields. PMID:25420599

  19. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Various Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliarto, Brian; Fanani, Fahiem; Fuadi, M. Kasyful; Nugraha

    2010-10-01

    This article reports the development of organic dyes as an attempt to reduce material costs of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Indonesia, a country with variety and considerable number of botanical resources, is suitable to perform the research. Indonesian black rice, curcuma, papaya leaf, and the combination were chosen as organic dyes source. Dyes were extracted using organic solvent and adsorbed on mesoporous Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) which has been optimized in our laboratory. The best dyes light absorbance and performance obtained from papaya leaf as chlorophyll dyes that gives two peaks at 432 nm and 664 nm from UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and performance under 100 mW/cm2 Xenon light solar simulator gives VOC = 0.566 Volt, JSC = 0.24 mA/cm2, Fill Factor = 0.33, and efficiency of energy conversion 0,045%.

  20. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing. PMID:26964959

  1. Optimization of Luminescent Solar Concentrators Using a Triple Dye System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmershaus, Bruce P.; Bailey, Sheldon T.; Lokey, Gretchen E.; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2004-03-01

    A possible alternative to the expensive photovoltaic cell (PVC) is the Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC). A LSC is a flat, translucent plate that absorbs sunlight through embedded, highly fluorescent chromophores. About 74 percent of the fluorescence is concentrated via total internal reflection at the edges of the LSC where PVCs convert it to electricity. Cost savings are realized through the reduced area of PVC material. A typical LSC employs a single organic dye, limiting the amount of light absorbed. A multiple dye LSC absorbs more light resulting in greater optical efficiency. We report on the performance of LSCs made with one, two, or three dyes in a 20 micron thick polymer layer on a glass substrate. By varying the relative concentrations of the dyes contained within the film, fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the dyes was optimized. The triple dye LSC showed a 36 percent increase in power over that of our best single dye LSC.

  2. Theoretical study of the origin of the large difference in the visible absorption spectra of organic dyes containing a thienylmethine unit and differing by the methine unit position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhos, Sergei; Komatsu, Makoto; Nakazaki, Jotaro; Segawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi

    2011-10-01

    We analyze the origin of the large (about 128 nm) difference in the maximum of the visible absorption spectrum of dyes 2-Cyano-3-[5'-(4''-(N,N-dimethylamino) phenyl) thiophen-2'-yl] acrylic acid and Cyano-[5-(4-(N,Ndimethyl-amino) benzylidene)-5H-thiophen -2-ylidene]-acetic acid which differ by the position of the methine unit that was observed in an acetonitrile solution. We perform an ab initio analysis of possible factors such as (non-)planarity of the molecule, isomerization, and solvent effects as well as of the influence of computational parameters. Ground state calculations failed to account for the difference in transition energies, but excited state optimization of deprotonated dyes in solution resulted in values comparable to the experiment. We conclude that the most likely explanation for the difference is different stabilization of the LUMO by the polar solvent.

  3. The influence of Yb, B, and Ga-doped Er3+:Y3Al5O12 on solar light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 in degradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Zhang, L.; Gao, J. Q.; Wang, B. X.; Yang, Q.; Fan, P.

    2014-01-01

    Five up-conversion luminescence agents (Er3+:Y3Al5O12, Er3+:Yb n Y3 - n Al5O12, Er3+:Y3B a Al5 - a O12, Er3+:Y3Ga b Al5 - b O12, and Er3+:Yb n Y3 - n B a Ga b Al5 - a - b O12) were synthesized using sol-gel method and then the corresponding coated composites (Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2, Er3+:Yb n Y3- n Al5O12/TiO2, Er3+:Y3B a Al5 - a O12/TiO2, Er3+:Y3Ga b Al5 - b O12/TiO2, and Er3+:Yb n Y3 - n B a Ga b Al5 - a - b O12/TiO2) as photocatalysts were prepared by sol-gel coating process. The XRD and SEM were used to confirm the crystalline phase and surface morphology. The UV-vis absorption and fluorescence-emission spectra were used to research the effect of doping category and amount on the up-conversion emission ability. The photocatalytic activities were detected through the degradation of Acid Red B dye in aqueous solution. Some key parameters of catalyst amount and initial concentration of organic dye on solar light photocatalytic degradation were also examined. The extensive feasibility of prepared photocatalysts in solar light degradation was detected by other organic dyes. The results suggest that the photocatalysts can be widely used in sewage treatment.

  4. Making cancer visible - Dyes in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Yap, Kiryu K; Neuhaus, Susan J

    2016-03-01

    Dyes share an intricate relationship with oncology. Dyes can cause cancer as chemical carcinogens, but can also be harnessed against cancer when used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Histopathology, imaging, and newer molecular diagnostics all rely on dyes, and their use in sentinel lymph node biopsies and intra-operative imaging has helped drive a paradigm shift in cancer surgery towards minimally-invasive and organ sparing approaches with enhanced resection accuracy. As therapeutic agents, the cytotoxicity of specific dyes can be employed in direct chemo-ablation or in photodynamic therapy. The same agent can have dual functionalities in cancer detection and treatment, in a novel field known as theranostics. This is facilitated by newer generation dyes conjugated with tumour-targeting probes such as antibodies, and these bio-conjugate agents can also incorporate nanotechnology or radio-isotopes. Further advances will be closely aligned with our increasing understanding of molecular oncology, and will form a new generation of cancer detection and treatment agents that promote precision medicine for cancer. Dyes and their roles have evolved and been reinvented, but they remain relevant as ever. This review explores the fascinating history of dyes, and their place in the state-of-the-art of oncology. PMID:26979638

  5. Efficiency Records in Mesoscopic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Albero, Josep; Atienzar, Pedro; Corma, Avelino; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present review article is to show the progress achieved in the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by evolution in the structure and composition of the dye. After an initial brief description of DSSCs and the operating mechanism the major part of the present article is organized according to the type of dye, trying to show the logic in the variation of the dye structure in order to achieve strong binding on the surface of the layer of nanoparticulate TiO2 , efficient interfacial electron injection between the excited dye and the semiconductor, and minimization of the unwanted dark current processes. Besides metal complexes, including polypyridyls and nitrogenated macro rings, organic dyes and inorganic light harvesters such as quantum dots and perovskites have also been included in the review. The last section summarizes the current state of the art and provides an overview on future developments in the field. PMID:26183911

  6. Femtosecond excited state relaxation of dye molecules in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, A. M.; Ippen, E. P.

    1985-03-01

    The bleaching dynamics of organic dye molecules in solution have been investigated using 70 fs pulses from a colliding pulse mode-locked ring dye laser. In addition to ground state relaxation on a nanosecond time scale, a fast partial recovery is observed. For the dyes Nile blue, oxazine 720, cresyl violet and rhodamine 640, this recovery is exponential, with relaxation times in the range 190-480 fs.

  7. Enhancement of solar light photocatalytic activity of TiO2-CeO2 composite by Er3+:Y3Al5O12 in organic dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Li, S. G.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Ma, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Er3+:Y3Al5O12, as an upconversion luminescence agent which is able to transform the visible part of the solar light to ultraviolet light, was prepared by nitrate-citrate sol-gel method. A novel solar light photocatalyst, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite was synthesized using ultrasonic treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning election microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structural morphology of the Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite. In order to evaluate the solar light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite, the Azo Fuchsine dye was used as a model organic pollutant. The progress of the degradation reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and ion chromatography. The key influences on the solar light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 were studied, such as Ti/Ce molar ratio, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time. Otherwise, the effects of initial dye concentration, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 amount, solar light irradiation time and the nature of the dye on the solar light photocatalytic degradation process were investigated. It was found that the solar light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite was superior to Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 and Er3+:Y3Al5O12/CeO2 powder in the similar conditions.

  8. Resistance status of the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus and the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae to selected acaricides on strawberries.

    PubMed

    Bi, Jian-Long; Niu, Zi-Mian; Yu, Lu; Toscano, Nick C

    2016-02-01

    The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) and the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, are serious pests of strawberries and many other horticultural crops. Control of these pests has been heavily dependent upon chemical acaricides. Objectives of this study were to determine the resistance status of these two pest species to commonly used acaricides on strawberries in a year-round intensive horticultural production region. LC90 of abamectin for adult carmine spider mites was 4% whereas that for adult twospotted spider mites was 24% of the top label rate. LC90s of spiromesifen, etoxazole, hexythiazox and bifenazate were 0.5%, 0.5%, 1.4% and 83% of their respective highest label rates for carmine spider mite eggs, 0.7%, 2.7%, 12.1% and 347% of their respective highest label rates for the nymphs. LC90s of spiromesifen, etoxazole, hexythiazox and bifenazate were 4.6%, 11.1%, 310% and 62% of their respective highest label rates for twospotted spider mite eggs, 3%, 13%, 432,214% and 15% of their respective highest label rates for the nymphs. Our results suggest that T. cinnabarinus have developed resistance to bifenazate and that the T. urticae have developed resistance to hexythiazox. These results strongly emphasize the need to develop resistance management strategies in the region. PMID:25409919

  9. Rational design of hyperbranched 3D heteroarrays of SrS/CdS: synthesis, characterization and evaluation of photocatalytic properties for efficient hydrogen generation and organic dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ziyauddin; Chetia, Tridip Ranjan; Qureshi, Mohammad

    2012-05-01

    Hyperbranched 3D SrS/CdS nanostructures were synthesized using a one pot hydrothermal method. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis showed the formation of flower-like structure and the crystalline phase was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The prepared 3D SrS/CdS exhibited improved photocatalytic activity for water splitting leading to H2 generation (AQY 10%) and nearly complete degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye. The dye degradation followed first order kinetics and the apparent reaction rate constant (kapp) was 0.136 min-1. The present 3D SrS/CdS structure promise to be efficient photocatalysts due to (i) the facile intersystem charge transfer resulting from their band alignment (ii) enhanced specific surface area and (iii) crystallinity.Hyperbranched 3D SrS/CdS nanostructures were synthesized using a one pot hydrothermal method. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis showed the formation of flower-like structure and the crystalline phase was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The prepared 3D SrS/CdS exhibited improved photocatalytic activity for water splitting leading to H2 generation (AQY 10%) and nearly complete degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye. The dye degradation followed first order kinetics and the apparent reaction rate constant (kapp) was 0.136 min-1. The present 3D SrS/CdS structure promise to be efficient photocatalysts due to (i) the facile intersystem charge transfer resulting from their band alignment (ii) enhanced specific surface area and (iii) crystallinity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Schematic experimental setup for photocatalytic hydrogen generation, TEM of CdS NWs and SrS NPs, FESEM images of 3D SrS/CdS, Low resolution TEM images for 3D SrS/CdS, EDX and SAED, SEM of SrS/CdS at different ratios, progress of hydrogen production at different time interval, different UV-Vis absorption spectra of MO. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30666b

  10. Toxicity of xanthene food dyes by inhibition of human drug-metabolizing enzymes in a noncompetitive manner.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC(50) values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC(50) values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of (1)O(2) originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by (1)O(2) quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin. PMID:20041016

  11. Toxicity of Xanthene Food Dyes by Inhibition of Human Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in a Noncompetitive Manner

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC50 values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC50 values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of 1O2 originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by 1O2 quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin. PMID:20041016

  12. Upconverting Organic Dye Doped Core-Shell Nano-Composites for Dual-Modality NIR Imaging and Photo-Thermal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Guobin; Weissleder, Ralph; Hilderbrand, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology approaches offer the potential for creating new optical imaging agents with unique properties that enable uses such as combined molecular imaging and photo-thermal therapy. Ideal preparations should fluoresce in the near-infrared (NIR) region to ensure maximal tissue penetration depth along with minimal scattering and light absorption. Due to their unique photophysical properties, upconverting ceramics such as NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ nanoparticles have become promising optical materials for biological imaging. In this work, the design and synthesis of NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+@SiO2 core-shell nano-composites, which contain highly absorbing NIR carbocyanine dyes in their outer silica shell, are described. These materials combine optical emission (from the upconverting core nanoparticle) with strong NIR absorption (from the carbocyanine dyes incorporated into the shell) to enable both optical imaging and photo-thermal treatment, respectively. Ultimately, this hybrid composite nanomaterial approach imparts the ability to both visualize, via upconversion imaging, and treat, via photo-thermal heating, using two distinct optical channels. Proof-of-principle in vitro experiments are presented to demonstrate the combined imaging and photo-thermal properties of this new functional nano-composite. PMID:23606913

  13. Two-photon Absorption and Nonlinear Optical Properties of a New Organic Dye Trans-4-[p-(N-hydroxyethyl-N-methylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium p-toluene Sulfonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guangyong; Ren, Yan; Wang, Chun; Wang, Dong; Zhao, Xian; Shao, Zongshu; Jiang, Minhua

    2001-03-01

    Trans-4-[p-(N-hydroxyethyl-N-methylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium p-toluene sulfonate (abbreviated as HMASPS) is a newly synthesized dye that possesses a much greater two-photon-absorption (TPA) cross-section and much stronger upconversion fluorescence emission than common dyes (such as rhodamine) when excited with near infrared laser radiation. TPA induced upconverted lasing has been obtained in HMASPS solution in dim eth ylformamide (abbreviated as DMF) pumped by near infrared laser beam from 900 to 1150 nm. The central wavelength and bandwidth of the lasing are 626 nm and 26 nm. The upconversion efficiencies of 1cm-path HMASPS solution in DMF at 0.05 mol/l concentration at different wavelengths from 900 to 1150 nm were measured. The net upconversion efficiency from the absorbed pump energy to the upconverted lasing output was 14% at the pump energy level of 2.04 mJ when the pump laser beam was provided by Nd:YAG laser. The molecular TPA cross-section at 1064 nm was ?2=6.010-48 cm4{\\cdot}s/photon measured by using an open aperture Z-scan system. The linear absorption, single-photon induced fluorescence, two-photon induced fluorescence and two-photon induced upconverted lasing properties have also been studied in this paper.

  14. Doping nano-Co3O4 surface with bigger nanosized Ag and its photocatalytic properties for visible light photodegradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangliang; Si, Xiaolei; Yu, Jinsong; Bai, Huiyu; Zhang, Xianhui

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of nanosized Ag/Co3O4 composite catalysts using a silver-mirror reaction and the calibration of their catalytic activities towards methyl blue (MB) dye degradation with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) under visible light. The nanosized Ag/Co3O4 composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The experimental evidence indicated that the hydrothermal synthesis approach lead to the exposure of the {1 1 2} facets of the Co3O4 nanoflakes. Compared to Co3O4 nanoflakes, Co3O4 doped with Ag nanoparticle (average diameters of 10-15 nm) presented lower band gap energy and photoluminescent (PL) intensity. Meanwhile, the Ag/Co3O4 exhibited high stability and excellent dispersion property in dye solution. Experimental data suggested that 3.06 wt% Ag nanoparticle-doped Ag/Co3O4 nanocomposite catalyst possessed the highest catalytic activity towards MB degradation in aqueous solution at the tested concentration level of 15 mg/L, about 2.4 times higher than that of pure Co3O4. Complete decolorization of the 15 mg/L MB solution can be achieved by 3.06 wt% Ag-doped Ag/Co3O4 nanocomposite within 20 min of visible light irradiation.

  15. Theoretical study of acene-bridged dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Minjie; Kou, Li; Diao, Ling; Zhang, Qing; Li, Zhonggao; Wu, Qiang; Lu, Wencong; Pan, Dengyu

    2015-04-01

    The electronic structures and absorption spectra for a series of acene-based organic dyes and the adsorption energy and optical properties for these dyes adsorbed on (TiO2)38 have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. The effects of acene units and different substitution positions of electron donors on the optoelectronic properties of the acene-modified dyes are demonstrated. The photophysical properties of tetracene- and pentacene-based dyes are found to be tuned by changing the size of acene and the substitution position of the donor. The donor sites have a significant influence on the absorption wavelength mainly because of different molecular orbital (MO) contributions of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) on the bridging acene units, and the increasing MO contribution would lead to the red shift in the absorption spectra. Meanwhile, the donor is located close to the center of the π-conjugated bridge, and the absorption spectra are extended. The adsorption energy and optical properties of tetracene- and pentacene-based dyes adsorbed on (TiO2)38 suggest that acene-bridged dyes could be adsorbed on the TiO2 surface and inject electrons into semiconductors effectively. Then the results obtained from the hexacene-based dyes confirm the conclusions proposed from the tetracene- and pentence-based dyes. This study will provide a useful reference to the future design and optimization of acene dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications. PMID:25756752

  16. Bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)₂ comprising thiophene-2-acetonitrile as π-spacer and malonic acid as electron acceptor for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gachumale Saritha; Ramkumar, Sekar; Asiri, Abdullah M; Anandan, Sambandam

    2015-06-15

    Two new bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)2 comprising the identical π-spacer (thiophene-2-acetonitrile) and electron acceptor (malonic acid) but different aryl amine as electron donors (diphenylamine and carbazole) were synthesized, characterized and fabricated metal free dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The intra molecular charge transfer property and electrochemical property of these dyes were investigated by molecular absorption, emission, cyclic voltammetric experiments and in addition, quantum chemical calculation studies were performed to provide sufficient driving force for the electron injection into the conduction band of TiO2 which leads to efficient charge collection. Among the fabricated devices, carbazole based device exhibits high current conversion efficiency (η=4.7%) with a short circuit current density (JSC) 15.3 mA/cm(2), an open circuit photo voltage (VOC) of 0.59 V and a fill factor of 0.44 under AM 1.5 illumination (85 mW/cm(2)) compared to diphenylamine based device. PMID:25801442

  17. Bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)2 comprising thiophene-2-acetonitrile as π-spacer and malonic acid as electron acceptor for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Gachumale Saritha; Ramkumar, Sekar; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Anandan, Sambandam

    2015-06-01

    Two new bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)2 comprising the identical π-spacer (thiophene-2-acetonitrile) and electron acceptor (malonic acid) but different aryl amine as electron donors (diphenylamine and carbazole) were synthesized, characterized and fabricated metal free dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The intra molecular charge transfer property and electrochemical property of these dyes were investigated by molecular absorption, emission, cyclic voltammetric experiments and in addition, quantum chemical calculation studies were performed to provide sufficient driving force for the electron injection into the conduction band of TiO2 which leads to efficient charge collection. Among the fabricated devices, carbazole based device exhibits high current conversion efficiency (η = 4.7%) with a short circuit current density (JSC) 15.3 mA/cm2, an open circuit photo voltage (VOC) of 0.59 V and a fill factor of 0.44 under AM 1.5 illumination (85 mW/cm2) compared to diphenylamine based device.

  18. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  19. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  20. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  1. Influence of Exposure to Imidacloprid on Survivorship, Reproduction and Vitellin Content of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chun-Xiang; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Occasional reports linking neonicotinoid insecticide applications to field population outbreaks of the spider mite have been a topic of concern for integrated pest management programs. To elucidate the impacts of a neonicotinoid insecticide on the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisduval (Acari: Tetranychidae), the survivorship, reproduction, and vitellin contents of the mite were investigated after exposure to various concentrations of imidacloprid on the V. unguiculata leaf discs at 25°C, 80% RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) in the laboratory. The results showed that the field-relevant dose of imidacloprid did not significantly affect the hatch rate of eggs or pre-imaginal survivorship of the mite, while sublethal doses of imidacloprid, previously determined for Myzus persicae, led to a significant increase in the hatch rate of eggs and pre-imaginal survivorship of the mite compared to the untreated control. Adult longevity and fecundity of T. cinnabarinus for imidacloprid-treated populations were slightly prolonged and increased, respectively, but the difference from the untreated control was not significant. The vitellin content in eggs increased significantly after exposure to imidacloprid. Imidacloprid may be one of the major reasons for the outbreak of T. cinnabarinus in the field. PMID:20578884

  2. Molecular design of the diketopyrrolopyrrole-based dyes with varied donor units for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xu-Feng; Huang, Zu-Sheng; Wu, Han-Lun; Iqbal, Zafar; Wang, Lingyun; Meier, Herbert; Cao, Derong

    2014-12-01

    Three types of novel diketopyrrolopyrrole-based organic dyes (Type 1-3) with phenyl unit as an additional π-bridge and triphenylamine or phenothiazine as the donors are designed and synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Type 1 dyes incorporating the donor segment directly to the diketopyrrolopyrrole core lead to a better electron communication between the donor and acceptor, allowing an efficient charge transfer process. Type 2 and Type 3 dyes with a phenyl unit between the donor and diketopyrrolopyrrole unit show lower delocalization of the excited state. Compared with Type 3 dyes, Type 1 dyes exhibit higher conjugated skeleton co planarity and shorter electron transfer distance from the donor to TiO2, resulting in the red-shifts of absorption and promotion of electron injection, respectively. Moreover, the dyes with triphenylamine as the donor display better UV performance and lower trend of aggregation than the dyes with phenothiazine as the donor. Finally, a power conversion efficiency of 8% with chenodeoxycholic acid as the co-absorbant for the DSSC based on Type 1 dyes with triphenylamine is achieved. The results reveal that the donors, the position and number of phenyl unit of the dyes significantly influence the photovoltaic performance of their DSSCs.

  3. TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

  4. A green-chemical synthetic route to fabricate a lamellar-structured Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite exhibiting a high removal ability for organic dye.

    PubMed

    Wu, Longyun; Liu, Yuhua; Zhang, Lishu; Zhao, Lijun

    2014-04-14

    A novel lamellar-structured Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite was synthesized with a room-temperature solution-phase reduction method. A possible reaction mechanism and shape evolutionary process for the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite were supposed. The Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite shows a ferromagnetic behavior. Congo red (CR) was used to evaluate the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite wastewater treatment capability. It was found that 150 ppm of CR could be removed from an aqueous solution within 10 min using the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite, and the adsorption maximum is 2058 mg g(-1) which is higher than all previously reported values. The significantly reduced treatment time required to remove the CR and the simple, low-cost and pollution-free preparation method make the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite promising for use in the highly efficient removal of dyes from wastewater. PMID:24519445

  5. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  6. Decolorization and removal of textile and non-textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent by using potato (Solanum tuberosum) soluble and immobilized polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amjad Ali; Husain, Qayyum

    2007-03-01

    Celite bound potato polyphenol oxidase preparation was employed for the treatment of wastewater/dye effluent contaminated with reactive textile and non-textile dyes, Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86. The maximum decolorization was found at pH 3.0 and 4.0 in case of Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86, respectively. Immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase was significantly more effective in decolorizing the individual dye and complex mixtures of dyes as compared to soluble enzyme. The absorption spectra of the treated and untreated dye mixture and dyeing effluent exhibited a marked difference in the absorption value at various wavelengths. The polluted water contaminated with an individual dye or mixtures of dyes treated with soluble and immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase resulted in the remarkable loss in total organic carbon. PMID:16765044

  7. Green synthesis of the reduced graphene oxide-CuI quasi-shell-core nanocomposite: A highly efficient and stable solar-light-induced catalyst for organic dye degradation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jiha; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Islam, M. Jahurul; Seo, Bora; Joo, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2015-12-01

    Surfactant-free, reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-CuI quasi-shell-core nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using ultra-sonication assisted chemical method at room temperature. The morphologies, structures and optical properties of the CuI and CuI-RGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Morphological and structural analyses indicated that the CuI-RGO core-shell nanocomposites comprise single-crystalline face-centered cubic phase CuI nanostructures, coated with a thin RGO quasi-shell. Photocatalysis experiments revealed that the as-synthesized CuI-RGO nanocomposites exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities and stabilities for photo degradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) organic dye under simulated solar light irradiation. The photo degradation ability is strongly affected by the concentration of RGO in the nanocomposites; the highest photodegradation rate was obtained at a graphene loading content of 2 mg mL-1 nanocomposite. The remarkable photocatalytic performance of the CuI-RGO nanocomposites mainly originates from their unique adsorption and electron-accepting and electron-transporting properties of RGO. The present work provides a novel green synthetic route to producing CuI-RGO nanocomposites without toxic solvents or reducing agents, thereby providing highly efficient and stable solar light-induced RGO-CuI quasi-shell-core nanocomposites for organic dye photo degradation in water.

  8. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells: comparison of in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization in aqueous micellar and organic media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbao; Ellis, Hanna; Yang, Lei; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hagfeldt, Anders; Bergquist, Jonas; Shevchenko, Denys

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) are devoid of such issues as electrolyte evaporation or leakage and electrode corrosion, which are typical for traditional liquid electrolyte-based DSCs. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is one of the most popular and efficient p-type conducting polymers that are used in sDSCs as a solid-state hole-transporting material. The most convenient way to deposit this insoluble polymer into the dye-sensitized mesoporous working electrode is in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization. Apparently, the structure and the physicochemical properties of the generated conducting polymer, which determine the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding solar cell, can be significantly affected by the preparation conditions. Therefore, a simple and fast analytical method that can reveal information on polymer chain length, possible chemical modifications, and impurities is strongly required for the rapid development of efficient solar energy-converting devices. In this contribution, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) for the analysis of PEDOT directly on sDSCs. It was found that the PEDOT generated in aqueous micellar medium possesses relatively shorter polymeric chains than the PEDOT deposited from an organic medium. Furthermore, the micellar electrolyte promotes a transformation of one of the thiophene terminal units to thiophenone. The introduction of a carbonyl group into the PEDOT molecule impedes the growth of the polymer chain and reduces the conductivity of the final polymer film. Both the simplicity of sample preparation (only application of the organic matrix onto the solar cell is needed) and the rapidity of analysis hold the promise of making MALDI MS an essential tool for the physicochemical characterization of conducting polymer-based sDSCs. PMID:25751409

  9. Evaluation of the simulated solar light photocatalytic activity of N, Ir co-doped TiO2 for organic dye removal from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvarega, Alex T.; Krause, Rui W. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2015-02-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of eosin yellow over N, Ir co-doped TiO2 was studied over an Ir loading concentration range of 0-1%. The synthesised materials were characterised by FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, DRUV-vis, SEM, EDS and TEM. All the samples existed mainly in the anatase phase except for the N, Ir TiO2 (1.0% Ir) which showed presence of some rutile phase. There was a gradual decrease in band gaps with increasing amount of Ir in all the samples which did not correlate with the visible light photoactivity. The materials consisted of nearly spherical particles of 20-30 nm in size. The photodegradation kinetic data were explained using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model with most of the samples giving best fit in the first 90 min of the experiment. Initial rate constants were a function of Ir loadings as well as the phase composition of the samples. The N doped TiO2 showed superior photoactivity with near complete dye degradation (99.6%) being realised in about 150 min. The N, Ir TiO (0.8% Ir) was the least effective.

  10. DFT study of the effect of different metals on structures and electronic spectra of some organic-metal compounds as sensitizing dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guodong; Li, Rongqing; Kou, Shanshan; Tang, Tingling; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yiwei

    2014-02-01

    Ruthenium polypyridined-derivative complexes are used in dye-sensitized solar cell [DSSC] as a light to current conversion sensitizer. In order to lower the cost of the DSSC the normal transition metals were used to replace the noble metal ruthenium, and some compounds [ML2L'] (M = Pt, Fe, Ni, Zn; L = isonicotinic acid, L' = maleonitriledithiolate, I = PtL2L', II = FeL2L', III = NiL2L', IV = ZnL2L') were selected as the replacement. The geometries, electronic structures and optical absorption spectra of these compounds have been studied by using density functional theory (DFT) calculation at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ, B3P86/LANL2DZ, B3LYP/GEN level of theory. All the geometric parameters are close to the experimental values. The HOMOs are mainly on the maleonitriledithiolate groups mixed with fewer characters of the metal atom, the LUMOs are mainly on the two pyridine ligands. This means that the electron transition is attributed to the LLCT. The maximum absorptions of complexes are found to be at 351 nm, 806 nm for compound I, and 542 nm for compound II. The maximum absorptions of complexes are found to be at 884 nm for compound III, and 560 nm for compound IV. This means that those compounds may be as a suitable sensitizer for solar energy conversion applications.

  11. Application of video recording technology to improve husbandry and reproduction in the carmine bee-eater (Merops n. nubicus).

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Gina M; Sky, Christy; Schutz, Paul J; Quinones, Glorieli; Breeding, Shawnlei; Plasse, Chelle; Leighty, Katherine A; Bettinger, Tammie L

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating technology with research is becoming increasingly important to enhance animal welfare in zoological settings. Video technology is used in the management of avian populations to facilitate efficient information collection on aspects of avian reproduction that are impractical or impossible to obtain through direct observation. Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) maintains a successful breeding colony of Northern carmine bee-eaters. This African species is a cavity nester, making their nesting behavior difficult to study and manage in an ex situ setting. After initial research focused on developing a suitable nesting environment, our goal was to continue developing methods to improve reproductive success and increase likelihood of chicks fledging. We installed infrared bullet cameras in five nest boxes and connected them to a digital video recording system, with data recorded continuously through the breeding season. We then scored and summarized nesting behaviors. Using remote video methods of observation provided much insight into the behavior of the birds in the colony's nest boxes. We observed aggression between birds during the egg-laying period, and therefore immediately removed all of the eggs for artificial incubation which completely eliminated egg breakage. We also used observations of adult feeding behavior to refine chick hand-rearing diet and practices. Although many video recording configurations have been summarized and evaluated in various reviews, we found success with the digital video recorder and infrared cameras described here. Applying emerging technologies to cavity nesting avian species is a necessary addition to improving management in and sustainability of zoo avian populations. Zoo Biol. 35:76-82, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26661620

  12. Unexpected radiation hazard in dyes of textiles.

    PubMed

    Abdel Ghany, Hayam A; Ibrahim, Eman M

    2014-01-01

    Textile dyes are among the most problematic pollutants because of their toxicity on several organisms and ecosystems. Many of the chemicals used in the textile industry may represent some health concerns. The determination of the radioactivity in textile dyes is therefore very important for both human health and environment. The study was designated to determine, for the first time, the values of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in nine different dyes employed in the textile industry using gamma spectrometry with a Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were 29.37 ± 4.48, 1.15 ± 0.13 and 565 ± 4 Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated radium equivalents for all samples were lower than the maximum admissible value (370 Bq/kg). The absorbed dose rates due to the natural radioactivity of the investigated samples ranged from 2.94 ± 0.05 to 166 ± 3 nGy/h. So, the absorbed dose rates for all samples of textile dyes were lower than the international recommended value (55 nGy/h) except the yellow dye (166 ± 3 nGy/h), which recorded a significant radiological hazard. The external hazard index was also calculated. Conclusively, the results have indicated that the textile dyes may possess a measurable amount of radioactivity that should be taken into account. Therefore, safety rules and precautions should be applied for dyes used in the textile industry and for people working in this field. PMID:25322918

  13. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-22

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  14. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  15. One-pot synthesis of C??-functionalized core-shell magnetic mesoporous silica composite as efficient sorbent for organic dye.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaole; Zeng, Tao; Wang, Saihua; Niu, Hongyun; Wang, Xiaoke; Cai, Yaqi

    2015-06-15

    In this work, a facile one-pot strategy was proposed for the synthesis of C18-functionalized core-shell magnetic mesoporous silica composite (Fe3O4/mSiO2-C18). The Fe3O4/mSiO2-C18 composite, with an average size of 80 nm and a functionalized mesoporous silica shell of about 30 nm in thickness, has excellent adsorption ability toward methylene blue dye (MB) due to the large surface area (303 m(2) g(-1)) and the abundant hydrophobic C18 groups. The adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 20 min and the adsorption behavior of MB on Fe3O4/mSiO2-C18 composite fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well (k2=1.2910(-2) g mg(-1) min(-1), q(e)=144.72 mg g(-1), h(o)=270.27 mg g(-1) min(-1) under 25 C and an initial MB concentration of 10 mg L(-1)). Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal adsorption models can both be used to describe the adsorption process and the maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity of MB on Fe3O4/mSiO2-C18 at 25 C and pH 7.5 is 363.64 mg g(-1). Thermodynamic parameters show that the adsorption reaction is exothermic and spontaneous (?H(0)=-63.49 kJ mol(-1), ?G(0)=-7.80 kJ mol(-1)). Ionic strength and pH affected the adsorption slightly. In addition, the MB adsorbed sorbent can be readily separated from water solution by an external magnet because of the high magnetic saturation value (22.62 emu g(-1)). After being regenerated by treatment with acidic methanol, the sorbent could be reused for at least 5 cycles with a little decrease in adsorption capacity. PMID:25734221

  16. Simultaneous determination of dyes in wines by HPLC coupled to quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Ling, Yun; Huang, Junrong; Lin, Yuanhui; Chang, James

    2014-04-01

    A new method combining the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and ESI quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution MS was developed for the highly accurate and sensitive screening of 69dyes in wines. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the QuEChERS sample preparation method for the determination of 69 different analytes in wines for the first time. After optimization, the maximum predicted recovery was 99.48% rate for canacert indigo carmine under the optimized conditions of 10 mL acetonitrile, 1.45 g sodium acetate, 107mg primary secondary amine, and 96 mg C18 . For the matrices studied, the recovery rates of the other 68 compounds ranged from 87.2-107.4%, with coefficient of variation <6.4%. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 1.6 ppm and only needed to be calibrated once a week. The LODs for the analytes are in the range 1-1000 ?g/kg. This method has been successfully applied on screening of dyes in commercial wines, and it is very useful for the fast screening of different food additives. PMID:24478185

  17. Degradation of environment pollutant dyes using phytosynthesized metal nanocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MeenaKumari, M.; Philip, Daizy

    2015-01-01

    We present for the first time biogenic reduction and stabilization of gold and silver ions at room temperature using fruit juice of Punica granatum. The formation, morphology and crystalline structure of the synthesized nanoparticles are determined using UV-Visible, XRD and TEM. An attempt to reveal the partial role of phenolic hydroxyls in the reduction of Au3+ and Ag+ is done through FTIR analysis. The synthesized nanoparticles are used as potential catalysts in the degradation of a cationic phenothiazine dye, an anionic mono azo dye and a cationic fluorescent dye. The calculated values of percentage removal of dyes and the rate constants from pseudo first order kinetic data fit give a comparative study on degradation of organic dyes in presence of prepared gold and silver nanoparticles.

  18. Comparative performance evaluation of Aspergillus lentulus for dye removal through bioaccumulation and biosorption.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree

    2013-05-01

    Dyes used in various industries are discharged into the environment and pose major environmental concern. In the present study, fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulus was utilized for the treatment of various dyes, dye mixtures and dye containing effluent in dual modes, bioaccumulation (employing growing biomass) and biosorption (employing pre-cultivated biomass). The effect of dye toxicity on the growth of the fungal isolate was studied through phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Dye biosorption was studied using first and second-order kinetic models. Effects of factors influencing adsorption and isotherm studies were also conducted. During bioaccumulation, good removal was obtained for anionic dyes (100 mg/l), viz. Acid Navy Blue, Fast Red A and Orange-HF dye (99.4 %, 98.8 % and 98.7 %, respectively) in 48 h. Cationic dyes (10 mg/l), viz. Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue, had low removal efficiency (80.3 % [48 h] and 92.7 % [144 h], respectively) as compared to anionic dyes. In addition to this, fungal isolate showed toxicity response towards Methylene Blue by producing larger aggregates of fungal pellets. To overcome the limitations of bioaccumulation, dye removal in biosorption mode was studied. In this mode, significant removal was observed for anionic (96.7-94.3 %) and cationic (35.4-90.9 %) dyes in 24 h. The removal of three anionic dyes and Rhodamine B followed first-order kinetic model whereas removal of Methylene Blue followed second-order kinetic model. Overall, fungal isolate could remove more than 90 % dye from different dye mixtures in bioaccumulation mode and more than 70 % dye in biosorption mode. Moreover, significant color removal from handmade paper unit effluent in bioaccumulation mode (86.4 %) as well as in biosorption mode (77.1 %) was obtained within 24 h. This study validates the potential of fungal isolate, A. lentulus, to be used as the primary organism for treating dye containing wastewater. PMID:22996821

  19. Pigment violet 19 - a test case to define a simple method to simulate the vibronic structure of absorption spectra of organic pigments and dyes in solution.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Benot; Ligeois, Vincent; Zutterman, Freddy

    2015-02-01

    A typical quinacridone pigment, PV19, has been used to analyze the impact of several computational parameters on the UV/vis absorption band shape in solution, simulated using density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory levels of approximation. These encompass, (i) the choice of exchange-correlation functional, (ii) the basis set, (iii) the method for non-equilibrium optimization of the excited state geometry, (iv) the approach for evaluating the vibronic band structure, (v) the peak broadening, and (vi) the scaling of the harmonic vibrational frequencies. Among these, the choice of exchange-correlation functional is certainly of the most importance because it can drastically modify the spectral shape. In the case of PV19, the M05-2X and to a lesser extent CAM-B3LYP XC functionals are the most efficient to reproduce the vibronic structure, confirming the important role of exact Hartree-Fock exchange. Still, these functionals are not the most reliable to predict the excitation energies and oscillator strengths, for which M05, a functional with less HF exchange, performs better. For evaluating the vibronic structure, the simple gradient method, where only one step of geometry optimization of the excited state is carried out and the gradients are used to evaluate the Huang-Rhys factors as well as to determine the excited state geometries produces a spectrum that is very similar to the ones obtained with the more involved Duschinsky and geometry methods, opening the way to a fast simulation of the UV/vis absorption spectra of pigments and dyes. Then, the effect of scaling the calculated vibrational frequencies to account for anharmonicity effects as well as for limitation of the method also impacts the shape of the vibronic spectrum and this effect depends on the method used to determine the Huang-Rhys factors. Indeed, scaling the vibrational frequencies by a factor which is typically smaller than 1.0 results in a relative decrease of the 0-1 peak intensity with respect to the 0-0 band when optimizing the geometry of the excited state whereas the effect is opposite and magnified if using the gradient method. PMID:25501947

  20. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  1. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. PMID:24656996

  2. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  3. Enhanced chemiluminescence of carminic acid-permanganate by CdS quantum dots and its application for sensitive quenchometric flow injection assays of cloxacillin.

    PubMed

    Khataee, Alireza; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Lotfi, Roya; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-05-15

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) system is introduced based on the oxidation of carminic acid by KMnO4 in acidic conditions. CdS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method which efficiently enhanced the intensity of the CL system. A possible mechanism for the proposed system is presented using the kinetic curves, CL spectra, photoluminescence (PL), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) analysis. The emission intensity of the KMnO4-carminic acid-CdS QDs system was quenched in the presence of a trace level of cloxacillin. Based on this quenching effect, a novel and sensitive flow injection CL method was developed for determining cloxacillin concentrations. At optimal experimental conditions, the decreased CL intensity had a good linear relation with the cloxacillin concentration in the range of 0.008 to 22.0mgL(-1). The detection limit (3σ) was 5.8µgL(-1). The precision of the method was calculated by analyzing samples containing 4.0mgL(-1) of cloxacillin (n=11), and the relative standard deviations (RSD%) were 2.08%. The feasibility of the method is also demonstrated for determining cloxacillin concentrations in environmental water samples and a pharmaceutical formulation. PMID:26992508

  4. Indirect determination of alkaline phosphatase based on the amperometric detection of indigo carmine at a screen-printed electrode in a flow system.

    PubMed

    Daz-Gonzlez, Mara; Fernndez-Snchez, Csar; Costa-Garca, Agustn

    2002-11-01

    Amperometric analysis of indigo carmine at a bare screen-printed electrode placed in an FIA system is reported. This compound is easily detected at a potential of -0.3 V (vs. Ag pseudo-reference electrode) without observing any fouling of the electrode surface, thus allowing the repetitive use of the same electrode in a reproducible manner (coefficients of variation down to 7% for more than 20 consecutive determinations). A linear range of three orders of magnitude and a limit of detection in the sub-micromolar range were attained for this molecule. Based on these studies, indirect amperometric measurements of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in solution were easily carried out using 3-indoxyl phosphate substrate. Its hydrolysis catalyzed by ALP gave rise to indigo product. This product is insoluble in aqueous solutions but it was easily converted into its soluble parent compound, indigo carmine, by addition of fuming sulfuric acid to the reaction media. Using this approach, we achieved a linear range of more than one order of magnitude and a limit of detection of 1 U/l ALP, for an enzymatic reaction time of 60 min. PMID:12458705

  5. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  6. Capturing the Potential of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, James

    2010-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are a continually developing type of low-cost solar cells that have commercial efficiency around 6-10%. The proposed research here will be focusing on the photo-bleaching and improving techniques for electron transport. Nature has given us a goal to reach towards with proven techniques for converting light into energy with around 30-40% efficiency, however, chlorophyll, the light absorber in plants, is expensive and it is not practical to make solar cells with only chlorophyll as the absorber. One such alternative to chlorophyll is phthalocyanines which is a common industrial dye used in many applications. This dye has a common similar ring without the long phytol chain that chlorophyll has. Previous research has shown that encapsulating organic dyes can magnify the properties of dye from the increased concentration with a possible benefit of stabilizing the dye allowing it to slow down the photo bleaching significantly. Likewise, such encapsulation may help with thermal stability since many dye-sensitized solar cells require a liquid or gel solution that is sensitive to thermal expansion. Many researchers are also finding new ways to encapsulate the dyes or dope the p-n layers with nano and meso tubes to help with electron transport or build the p-n layers right in the tubes. This allows for countless layers and an overall more efficient design.

  7. Thermally stable water insoluble azo-azomethine dyes: Synthesis, characterization and solvatochromic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanmohammadi, Hamid; Rezaeian, Khatereh

    2012-11-01

    Six new water insoluble azo-azomethine dyes have been synthesized via condensation reaction of α,α'-bis(o-aminophenylthio)-1,2-xylene with substituted azo-coupled salicylaldehyde. The condensation reaction provides the expected bis-iminated azo-azomethine dyes in good yields, ranging from 59% to 90%. The dyes have been characterized by IR, UV-Vis and 1H NMR spectroscopic methods as well as elemental analysis. The thermal behavior of the prepared dyes has been determined using thermogravimetry technique. Furthermore, the effect of various organic solvents with different polarities on the UV-Vis spectra of the dyes has been also studied.

  8. Thermally stable water insoluble azo-azomethine dyes: synthesis, characterization and solvatochromic properties.

    PubMed

    Khanmohammadi, Hamid; Rezaeian, Khatereh

    2012-11-01

    Six new water insoluble azo-azomethine dyes have been synthesized via condensation reaction of α,α'-bis(o-aminophenylthio)-1,2-xylene with substituted azo-coupled salicylaldehyde. The condensation reaction provides the expected bis-iminated azo-azomethine dyes in good yields, ranging from 59% to 90%. The dyes have been characterized by IR, UV-Vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopic methods as well as elemental analysis. The thermal behavior of the prepared dyes has been determined using thermogravimetry technique. Furthermore, the effect of various organic solvents with different polarities on the UV-Vis spectra of the dyes has been also studied. PMID:22858613

  9. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W.

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  10. Hair care and dyeing.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient. PMID:26370650

  11. The Comparative Nucleophilicity of Naphthoxide Derivatives in Reactions with a Fast-Red TR Dye: A Discovery-Oriented Capstone Project for the Second-Year Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascarenhas, Cheryl M.

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, organic chemistry students perform reactions between three naphthyl acetate derivatives and the diazonium salt Fast-Red TR, under basic conditions. The three naphthyl acetate derivatives used in this study are 2-naphthyl acetate (1a), 6-bromo-2-naphthyl acetate (1b) and 1,6-dibromo-2-naphthyl acetate (1c). The two-step, one-pot…

  12. The Comparative Nucleophilicity of Naphthoxide Derivatives in Reactions with a Fast-Red TR Dye: A Discovery-Oriented Capstone Project for the Second-Year Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascarenhas, Cheryl M.

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, organic chemistry students perform reactions between three naphthyl acetate derivatives and the diazonium salt Fast-Red TR, under basic conditions. The three naphthyl acetate derivatives used in this study are 2-naphthyl acetate (1a), 6-bromo-2-naphthyl acetate (1b) and 1,6-dibromo-2-naphthyl acetate (1c). The two-step, one-pot

  13. Modulation of Electron Injection Dynamics of Ru-Based Dye/TiO2 System in the Presence of Three Different Organic Solvents: Role of Solvent Dipole Moment and Donor Number.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Subrata; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Takurou N; Katoh, Ryuzi; Matsumoto, Hajime; Furube, Akihiro

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (fs-TAS) has been employed to investigate the electron injection efficiency (EIE) both from the singlet and triplet excited states of a well-known ruthenium dye (N719) to the conduction band (CB) of nanostructured TiO(2) in presence of three different organic solvents [γ-butylactone (GBL), 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN), and dimethylformamide (DMF)] with different donor numbers (DNs) and dipole moments (DMs). The DM and DN of a solvent modulates the CB edge energy of TiO(2), and this effect reflects well in the fs-TAS results, which shows an EIE trend following the order GBL≥MPN≫DMF, that is, highest in GBL and lowest in DMF solvent environments. Fs-TAS results indicate a lower contribution of electron injection from both the singlet and triplet states in DMF, for which the dominant adsorption of DMF molecules on the TiO(2) surface seems to play an important role in the mechanism. PMID:25832779

  14. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only

  15. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  16. Electrochemical removal of synthetic textile dyes from aqueous solutions using Ti/Pt anode: role of dye structure.

    PubMed

    Arajo, Cynthia K C; Oliveira, Gustavo R; Fernandes, Nedja S; Zanta, Carmem L P S; Castro, Suely Souza Leal; da Silva, Djalma R; Martnez-Huitle, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the efficiency of electrochemical oxidation (EO) was investigated for removing a dye mixture containing Novacron Yellow (NY) and Remazol Red (RR) in aqueous solutions using platinum supported on titanium (Ti/Pt) as anode. Different current densities (20, 40 and 60 mA cm(-2)) and temperatures (25, 40 and 60 C) were studied during electrochemical treatment. After that, the EO of each of these dyes was separately investigated. The EO of each of these dyes was performed, varying only the current density and keeping the same temperature (25 C). The elimination of colour was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, and the degradation of organic compounds was analysed by means of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Data obtained from the analysis of the dye mixture showed that the EO process was effective in colour removal, in which more than 90% was removed. In the case of COD removal, the application of a current density greater than 40 mA cm(-2) favoured the oxygen evolution reaction, and no complete oxidation was achieved. Regarding the analysis of individual anodic oxidation dyes, it was appreciated that the data for the NY were very close to the results obtained for the oxidation of the dye mixture while the RR dye achieved higher colour removal but lower COD elimination. These results suggest that the oxidation efficiency is dependent on the nature of the organic molecule, and it was confirmed by the intermediates identified. PMID:24801286

  17. Chalcogenopyrylium Dyes with Anchors to Nanoparticle and Semiconductor Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedics, Matthew Allen

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has gained widespread attention as a biomedical imaging technique due to its multiplexing capabilities and the low limits of detection (LODs) of SERS-nanoprobes. The library of available reporter molecules, which are used to generate unique SERS spectra, was previously limited to commercially available dyes or a small group of cyanine reporters. Herein, the design and synthesis of a novel group of chalcogenopyrylium SERS reporters is described. These dyes have a high affinity for Au and absorption maxima that range into the NIR region. These reporter molecules enabled the use of the 1280 nm laser, which was previously incompatible with SERS imaging. Also, nanoprobe LODs using these dyes as reporters are lower than any previously documented systems, with a 100 aM LOD using a 785 nm excitation and multiple examples of fM to pM LODs using a 1064 nm or 1280 nm excitation source. Nanoprobes functionalized with these compounds have also been successfully utilized in vivo, and produce more intense SERS spectra as compared to a commonly used cyanine reporter. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have produced considerable interest as an alternative to conventionally used Si-based solar cells. Specifically, DSSCs that use metal-free organic dyes as sensitizers are important due to the lower cost and the use of earth abundant materials as starting materials. Herein, a group of chalcogenopyrylium dyes were appended with an anchoring group to TiO2, which enables the use of these dyes as sensitizers. Structural modifications were used to extend absorption maxima into the near-infrared region of the light spectrum and to evaluate the effect that dye aggregation has on device performance. The monomethine dyes successfully produced a photocurrent, with incident photon to current efficiency values as high as 20%. Aggregation was found to benefit these systems due to the spectral broadening of aggregated dyes, and consequent increased range of wavelengths that produce a photocurrent.

  18. Compact rigid dye laser construction

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.C.; Wolgast, S.C.

    1989-01-03

    This patent describes a dye laser of rigid and simplified construction is described having dye pumping means and excitation means, and having a folded resonator cavity with three cavity mirrors, comprising: a solid laser resonator block of integral, rigid material having three non-collinear cavity mirror mount locations in a folded-cavity configuration, defined by a folding mirror mount location and two end mirror locations, openings in the block for passage of a lasing beam in a folded resonating path among the three mirror mount locations, three resonator mirrors at the three mirror mount locations, at least one being fixed rigidly, directly and nonadjustably to the block at the respective mirror mount location, dye nozzle means supported by the block for producing a dye jet positioned to extend across the laser resonator cavity between two of the three mirrors, the dye nozzle means having means for connection to a dye circulation system, pumping beam directing means for receiving and directing a pumping beam to intersect the dye jet where the dye jet crosses the beam resonating path, and dye jet adjustment means for adjusting the position and orientation of the dye nozzle means and the dye jet with respect to the resonator cavity and the pumping beam.

  19. [Allergy to dyes in stockings].

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Schulz, K H

    1984-09-28

    Skin allergies caused by the wearing of stockings and hose have received little attention. Findings in patients of an allergy department, enquiries at stocking counters of stores and recent publications indicate, however, that probably many more persons have an allergy to stocking dyes than is generally thought. Skin tests with isolated stocking dyes indicate that azo dye dispersion yellow 3, dispersion orange 3 and dispersion red 1 are the most important contact allergens. They were demonstrated in 18-21 of the 23 hose examined. In textile materials, azo dye dispersion blue 124 is predominant among allergens. Cross-reactions may occur to other dispersion azo dyes, used in cosmetics, textiles, toiletries and hygenic articles, permitted food additives and hair dyes. It is suggested that in persons who have dye allergy or intolerance, decolouration followed by colouring with natural colours be undertaken. PMID:6479046

  20. Planar amine-based dye features the rigidified O-bridged dithiophene π-spacer: A potential high-efficiency sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Bai, Fu-Quan; Chen, Jie; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hong-Xing

    2015-02-01

    This work reports a systematically theoretical study concerning the design of D-π-A organic dyes for DSSC. Two elaborate strategies, namely the rigidity of dithiophene and introduction of strong electron rich/deficient moieties, are proposed. By using the state-of-the-art theoretical calculations, the general influences of fastening atoms (C, N, and O) for π-spacer rigidification in planar amine-based organic dyes are firstly investigated and elucidated. The properties of isolated dye, dye/(TiO2)38, and dye-I2 interaction are discussed in detail. The results show that, compared with the P2T dye containing dithiophene π-spacer, its three counterparts with rigidified dithiophene π-spacers would present the improved absorption properties. We further demonstrate that incorporation of O-bridged dithiophene moiety into the π-spacer was promising to challenge the photoelectric conversion efficiency 8.29% of P2T. Furthermore, benzothiadiazole (BTD) and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) moieties are the well-known π-skeletons that can effectively tune the electronic structure properties and the light-harvesting ability. Subsequently, a series of dyes are designed through introducing the BTD and EDOT groups into π-spacer. The calculated results reveal that the dye with the incorporation of EDOT moiety would be more beneficial for photocurrent and photovoltage performance. The current theoretical studies are expected to be very relevant for the molecular design of D-π-A organic dyes in DSSC.

  1. Eco- and genotoxicological assessments of two reactive textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues de; Meireles, Gabriela; Brito, Lara Barroso; Rodrigues, Laís de Brito; Palma de Oliveira, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of natural waters has been one of the major problems of modern society and the textile industry is rated as an important polluting source, due to the generation of large amounts of wastewaters. The aim of this study was to assess textile dyes Reactive Blue 19 (RB19, anthraquinone dye) and Reactive Red 120 (RR120, azo dye) in terms of the potential to induce adverse effects on aquatic organisms and humans. Thus, these dyes were tested using the following assays: Microtox assay (Vibrio fischeri); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); Daphnia similis; and Comet with normal human dermal fibroblasts as well as Ames test (TA98, TA100, YG1041, YG1042--with and without S9). RB19 was relatively nontoxic to all aquatic bioindicators analyzed with an EC50 of more than 100 mg/L, whereas RR120 was only moderately toxic to A. salina with a EC50-48h of 81.89 mg/L. Mutagenicity through base pair substitution was observed with RB19 in the presence of S9 (Ames-positive). The comet assay did not demonstrate any apparent genotoxic effects for any tested dye. Although mutagenicity was detected with RB19, the mutagenic effect observed may be considered weak compared to the ability to induce DNA damage by other classes of dyes such as disperse dyes. Therefore, these dyes may be classified as nonmutagens (RR120) or weak mutagens (RB19) and relatively nontoxic for aquatic organisms. However, it is noteworthy that the weak acute toxicity to A. salina induced by RR120 is sufficient to suggest potential damage to the aquatic ecosystem and emphasizes the need for biomonitoring dye levels in wastewater systems. PMID:25734625

  2. A review of NIR dyes in cancer targeting and imaging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shenglin; Zhang, Erlong; Su, Yongping; Cheng, Tianmin; Shi, Chunmeng

    2011-10-01

    The development of multifunctional agents for simultaneous tumor targeting and near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is expected to have significant impact on future personalized oncology owing to the very low tissue autofluorescence and high tissue penetration depth in the NIR spectrum window. Cancer NIR molecular imaging relies greatly on the development of stable, highly specific and sensitive molecular probes. Organic dyes have shown promising clinical implications as non-targeting agents for optical imaging in which indocyanine green has long been implemented in clinical use. Recently, significant progress has been made on the development of unique NIR dyes with tumor targeting properties. Current ongoing design strategies have overcome some of the limitations of conventional NIR organic dyes, such as poor hydrophilicity and photostability, low quantum yield, insufficient stability in biological system, low detection sensitivity, etc. This potential is further realized with the use of these NIR dyes or NIR dye-encapsulated nanoparticles by conjugation with tumor specific ligands (such as small molecules, peptides, proteins and antibodies) for tumor targeted imaging. Very recently, natively multifunctional NIR dyes that can preferentially accumulate in tumor cells without the need of chemical conjugation to tumor targeting ligands have been developed and these dyes have shown unique optical and pharmaceutical properties for biomedical imaging with superior signal-to-background contrast index. The main focus of this article is to provide a concise overview of newly developed NIR dyes and their potential applications in cancer targeting and imaging. The development of future multifunctional agents by combining targeting, imaging and even therapeutic routes will also be discussed. We believe these newly developed multifunctional NIR dyes will broaden current concept of tumor targeted imaging and hold promise to make an important contribution to the diagnosis and therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. PMID:21724249

  3. Evidence for photo-induced charge separation between dye molecules adsorbed to aluminium oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cappel, Ute B; Moia, Davide; Bruno, Annalisa; Vaissier, Valerie; Haque, Saif A; Barnes, Piers R F

    2016-01-01

    Excited state dynamics and photo-induced charge transfer of dye molecules have been widely studied due to their relevance for organic and dye-sensitised solar cells. Herein, we present a femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy study of the indolene dye D131 when adsorbed to inert Al2O3 substrates for different surface concentration of the dye. Surprisingly, we find that at high surface concentrations, the first singlet excited state of the dye is converted into a new state with an efficiency of about 80%. We assign the absorption features of this state to the oxidised dye and discuss the possibility of photo-induced charge separation between neighboring dye molecules. Our study is the first to show that this process can be highly efficient without the use of donor and acceptor molecules of different chemical structures. PMID:26891851

  4. Evidence for photo-induced charge separation between dye molecules adsorbed to aluminium oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappel, Ute B.; Moia, Davide; Bruno, Annalisa; Vaissier, Valerie; Haque, Saif A.; Barnes, Piers R. F.

    2016-02-01

    Excited state dynamics and photo-induced charge transfer of dye molecules have been widely studied due to their relevance for organic and dye-sensitised solar cells. Herein, we present a femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy study of the indolene dye D131 when adsorbed to inert Al2O3 substrates for different surface concentration of the dye. Surprisingly, we find that at high surface concentrations, the first singlet excited state of the dye is converted into a new state with an efficiency of about 80%. We assign the absorption features of this state to the oxidised dye and discuss the possibility of photo-induced charge separation between neighboring dye molecules. Our study is the first to show that this process can be highly efficient without the use of donor and acceptor molecules of different chemical structures.

  5. Evidence for photo-induced charge separation between dye molecules adsorbed to aluminium oxide surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cappel, Ute B.; Moia, Davide; Bruno, Annalisa; Vaissier, Valerie; Haque, Saif A.; Barnes, Piers R. F.

    2016-01-01

    Excited state dynamics and photo-induced charge transfer of dye molecules have been widely studied due to their relevance for organic and dye-sensitised solar cells. Herein, we present a femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy study of the indolene dye D131 when adsorbed to inert Al2O3 substrates for different surface concentration of the dye. Surprisingly, we find that at high surface concentrations, the first singlet excited state of the dye is converted into a new state with an efficiency of about 80%. We assign the absorption features of this state to the oxidised dye and discuss the possibility of photo-induced charge separation between neighboring dye molecules. Our study is the first to show that this process can be highly efficient without the use of donor and acceptor molecules of different chemical structures. PMID:26891851

  6. Reuse of reactive dyes for dyeing of jute fabric.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, S N; Pan, N C; Day, A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the work was to find out suitable method of dyeing so that costly reactive dye can be reused without draining them. The bleached jute fabric was dyed with four different class of reactive dyes namely, cold brand, hot brand, vinyl sulphone and high exhaustion (HE) brand. It is found that the two-step two-bath method of reactive dyeing, where exhaustion and fixation step is separated, is most ideal for reuse of dye bath. Separate original samples produced K/S value same as that of original sample and the K/S value of separate reuse sample varied from 50% to 80% of the original sample depending on the class of dye. In case of same bath method, colour yield of original reuse samples varies from only 10% to maximum 30% of the original samples depending on the class of dyes. Reuse of reactive dyes following separate bath method is particularly suitable for higher depth of shade (4% and above). This process not only utilises costly reactive dyes to the maximum extent but it also produces low water pollution as the effluent contain minimum amount of dye. So the process is economic and eco-friendly as well. PMID:16154505

  7. Indanthrone dye revisited after sixty years.

    PubMed

    Kotwica, Kamil; Bujak, Piotr; Wamil, Damian; Materna, Mariusz; Skorka, Lukasz; Gunka, Piotr A; Nowakowski, Robert; Golec, Barbara; Luszczynska, Beata; Zagorska, Malgorzata; Pron, Adam

    2014-10-01

    Indanthrone, an old, insoluble dye can be converted into a solution processable, self-assembling and electroluminescent organic semiconductor, namely tetraoctyloxydinaptho[2,3-a:2',3'-h]phenazine (P-C8), in a simple one-pot process consisting of the reduction of the carbonyl group by sodium dithionite followed by the substitution with solubility inducing groups under phase transfer catalysis conditions. PMID:25133516

  8. Sonophotolytic degradation of azo dye reactive black 5 in an ultrasound/UV/ferric system and the roles of different organic ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Lim, Teik-Thye; Wu, Xiaohui

    2011-04-01

    The sonophotolytic advance oxidation system (US/UV/Fe(3+)) could achieve synergistic degradation of reactive black 5 (RB5), as compared to UV/Fe(3+) and US/Fe(3+) systems. A synergy factor of 2.5 based on the pseudo-first-order degradation rate constant (k(obs)) was found, along with enhancements in organic detoxification and mineralization. The presence of organic ligands could affect the US/UV/Fe(3+) system differently. Oxalate, citrate, tartrate and succinate could enhance the RB5 degradation, while NTA and EDTA exhibited strong inhibitions. The influence of these ligands on k(obs)(RB5) in the US/UV/Fe(III)-ligand systems followed the sequence of oxalate > tartrate > succinate > citrate > without ligand > NTA > EDTA, while they could be degraded simultaneously with the k(obs)(ligand) order of oxalate > citrate > tartrate > succinate > NTA > EDTA. Monitoring of iron species and the generated H(2)O(2) and •OH revealed that the ligands in the US/UV/Fe(III)-ligand system could play different mechanistic roles: (1) promoting H(2)O(2) production, (2) accelerating Fenton reaction, and (3) competing with RB5 for reacting with •OH. Among the ligands, oxalate exhibited the most significant enhancement of RB5 oxidation in the sonophotolytic system, and the process was pH-dependent. An initial reaction lag in RB5 degradation was observed when Fe(2+) was used in lieu of Fe(3+) as the catalyst in the sonophotolytic system. PMID:21444101

  9. Fluorescence properties of organic dyes: quantum chemical studies on the green/blue neutral and protonated DMA-DPH emitters in polymer matrices.

    PubMed

    Kerkines, Ioannis S K; Petsalakis, Ioannis D; Argitis, Panagiotis; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula

    2011-12-28

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the green emitter DMA-DPH {1-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-6-phenylhexa-1,3,5-triene} and its protonated blue-emitter form have been studied theoretically through time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and resolution-of-identity 2nd order perturbative coupled cluster (RI-CC2) calculations with basis sets up to augmented triple-? quality, in the gas phase and in solvents of different polarity. These systems dispersed in a polymer matrix are of interest for applications in organic light emitting diode devices (OLEDs). Calculations show that the observed absorption and emission spectra correspond to transitions between the S(0) and S(1) states, in both systems. The nature and characteristics of these transitions are discussed. Excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained, both for absorption and emission, provided that the state-specific polarized continuum model (SS-PCM) method is employed for the inclusion of the solvent. PMID:22025129

  10. Dye removal from textile dye wastewater using recycled alum sludge.

    PubMed

    Chu, W

    2001-09-01

    The removal of dyes from textile dying wastewater by recycled alum sludge (RAS) generated by the coagulation process itself was studied and optimized. One hydrophobic and one hydrophilic dye were used as probes to examine the performance of this process. It was found that RAS is a good way of removing hydrophobic dye in wastewater, while simultaneously reducing the fresh alum dosage, of which one third of the fresh alum can be saved. The back-diffusion of residued dye from the recycling sludge is detected but is easily controlled as long as a small amount of fresh alum is added to the system. The use of RAS is not recommended for the removal of hydrophilic dyes, since the high solubility characteristics of such dyes can cause deterioration in the water quality during recycling. PMID:11487111

  11. Fiberized fluorescent dye microtubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladev, Veselin; Eftimov, Tinko

    2013-03-01

    In the present work we study the effect of the length of fluorescent dye-filled micro-capillaries on the fluorescence spectra. Two types of micro-capillaries have been studied: a 100 ?m inner diameter fused silica capillary with a transparent coating and one of the holes of a fiber optic glass ferrule with 125 ?m inner diameter. The tubes were filled with solutions of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol and then in glycerin. Experimental data show that the maximum fluorescence and the largest spectral widths are observed for a sample length of about 0.25 mm for the used concentration. This results show that miniature tunable fiberized dye lasers can be developed using available standard micro-and fibre-optic components.

  12. Dyeing fabrics with metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivas, Georgia

    2002-06-01

    Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

  13. Enhancement of the photoproperties of solid-state TiO2|dye|CuI cells by coupling of two dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirimanne, P. M.; Senevirathna, M. K. I.; Premalal, E. V. A.; Pitigala, P. K. D. D. P.

    2006-06-01

    The electronic coupling of a natural pigment extracted from pomegranate fruits (rich with cyanin and exist as flavylium at natural PH) with an organic dye mercurochrome enhanced the performance of solid-state TiO2|dye|CuI-type photovoltaic cells sensitized from pomegranate pigments or mercurochrome individually.

  14. Substituent effects on the croconate dyes in dye sensitized solar cell applications: a density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Chitumalla, Ramesh Kumar; Lim, Manho; Gao, Xingfa; Jang, Joonkyung

    2015-11-01

    Using the density functional theory (DFT), we studied two model croconate dyes, one with an electron-donating substituent (CR1) and the other with an electron-withdrawing group (CR2). The geometric, electronic, and optical properties of these dyes were compared. Upon switching from CR1 to CR2, a considerable bathochromic shift was observed in the electronic absorption spectrum. We also investigated the adsorption behavior of the two dyes on a TiO2 (101) anatase surface by employing periodic DFT simulations. The periodic electronic-structure calculations revealed that the diketo group of CR1 bound more strongly to the TiO2 surface than that of CR2, with a binding strength comparable to that of a typical organic D-π-A dye. In this work we evaluate in particular the effect of the electron withdrawing/donating nature of the substituent on the electronic, optical, and adsorption properties of the croconate dyes. Finally, we hope that the present study will help in the design of highly efficient dyes for dye sensitized solar cells by considering substituent effects. Graphical abstract Effect of substituent on binding energy and charge transfer. PMID:26518689

  15. High performance electrocatalyst consisting of CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 film: its use as a counter electrode for Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung Tae; Lee, Chang Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2014-12-01

    High energy conversion efficiencies of 6.6% and 7.5% are demonstrated in solid and liquid states, Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), respectively, based on CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 (om-SnO2) counter electrode. These results correspond to improvements of 14% and 9%, respectively, compared to a conventional Pt counter electrode and are among the highest values reported for Pt-free DSSCs. The om-SnO2 layer plays a pivotal role as a platform to deposit a large amount of highly electrocatalytically active CoS nanoparticles via a facile solvothermal reaction. The om-SnO2 platform with a high porosity, larger pores, and good interconnectivity is derived from a poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) graft copolymer template, which provides not only improved interaction sites for the formation of CoS nanoparticles but also enhanced electron transport. The structural, morphological, chemical, and electrochemical properties of CoS on the om-SnO2 platform are investigated using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The performance enhancement results from the excellent electron transport at the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/counter electrode/electrolyte interface, reduced resistance at the FTO/CoS interface, and better catalytic reduction at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface.High energy conversion efficiencies of 6.6% and 7.5% are demonstrated in solid and liquid states, Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), respectively, based on CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 (om-SnO2) counter electrode. These results correspond to improvements of 14% and 9%, respectively, compared to a conventional Pt counter electrode and are among the highest values reported for Pt-free DSSCs. The om-SnO2 layer plays a pivotal role as a platform to deposit a large amount of highly electrocatalytically active CoS nanoparticles via a facile solvothermal reaction. The om-SnO2 platform with a high porosity, larger pores, and good interconnectivity is derived from a poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) graft copolymer template, which provides not only improved interaction sites for the formation of CoS nanoparticles but also enhanced electron transport. The structural, morphological, chemical, and electrochemical properties of CoS on the om-SnO2 platform are investigated using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The performance enhancement results from the excellent electron transport at the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/counter electrode/electrolyte interface, reduced resistance at the FTO/CoS interface, and better catalytic reduction at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05779a

  16. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. PMID:21550289

  17. Dye-coated europium monosulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Srotoswini; Dollahon, Norman R.; Stoll, Sarah L.

    2011-05-15

    Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

  18. Spectral properties and biological applications of solvatochromic Dapoxyl dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwu, Zhenjun; Lu, Yixin; Zhang, Cailan; Klaubert, Dieter H.; Haugland, Richard P.

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescent molecules, whose spectra or quantum yields are sensitive to their surrounding environments, are valuable in the study of heterogeneous media, organized media and biological media, and many fluorescent solvatochromic dyes have been developed for these applications. However, the existing fluorescent solvatochromic dyes either have short absorption and emission wavelengths, low extinction coefficients, low quantum yields or small Stokes shift. We have recently developed solvatochromic DapoxylTM dyes, whose fluorescence maximum shifts to longer wavelengths, and fluorescence quantum yield decreases with increasing solvent polarity. In these molecules, there is a 'push-pull' electron transfer system from the 5-phenyl moiety to the 2-phenyl ring. The compounds show strong solvent-dependent fluorescence that is well correlated with the empirical solvent polarity parameter ET(30). These dyes have also shown long emission wavelengths, high extinction coefficients, high quantum yields and large Stokes shifts. Their biological applications will also be discussed.

  19. The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequin-Frey, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

  20. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  1. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  2. Investigation of red natural dyes used in historical objects by HPLC-DAD-MS.

    PubMed

    Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Chryssoulakis, Yannis

    2006-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-Vis Diode Array Detection (DAD) and electrospray mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) method was utilized for the identification of coloring components of madder, Armenian and Mexican cochineal, lac dye, brazilwood, safflower and dragon blood--probably the most important red natural dyestuffs found in objects of the cultural heritage. UV-Vis detection limits in the range of 0.2-0.6 ng for carminic acid, alizarin and purpurin were achieved using a gradient elution of H2O-0.01% TFA and CH3CN-0.01% TFA. ESI mass spectrometer was also used, as a supportive detection method to the standard DAD, for further analysis of the tested materials, with the ability to analyze dyestuffs as small as one milligram. The presence of madder was revealed in two historical (Hellenistic and Roman period) samples, found in the Mediterranean area, by identifying purpurin in both of them. Munjistin was also identified in one of the samples (Hellenistic period) while alizarin was not detected, raising questions regarding the exact madder type, utilized in the historical samples. PMID:16736555

  3. New efficient laser dyes for the red region: γ-pyrone derivatives and phenalemines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komlev, I. V.; Mezentseva, G. A.; Ponomareva, O. V.; Reznichenko, A. V.; Savvina, L. P.; Khrolova, O. R.; Petukhov, V. A.; Zhukovsky, K. V.

    1995-08-01

    A number of new fluorescence compounds suitable as efficient laser dyes for the red spectral region have been synthesized and investigated. The new dyes are distinguished by good solubility in common organic solvents and high photostability. The laser effect of the dyes has been studied by the second harmonic of YAG:Nd3+ laser ((lambda) equals 532 nm) as a pump source. Some of the prepared DCM derivatives and pyridine analogues are efficient laser dyes. Two compounds from a new class of phenalemines possessing good photostability and excellent laser characteristics for the 600-690 nm spectral region are reported for the first time.

  4. Spectroscopic and photoelectrochemical studies of metal-free dyes for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulhern, Kacie Ryan

    In this dissertation, we present a series of novel chalcogenorhodamine dyes bearing phosphonic acids and carboxylic acids for sensitizers of nanocrystalline TiO2 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). We studied the effect of surface-attachment functionality and aggregation on the persistence, electron transfer reactivity, and overall photoelectrochemical performance of the dyes on TiO2 for DSCs. The dyes were constructed around a 3,6-bis(dimethylamino)chalcogenoxanthylium core and varied in the 9-substituent: 5-carboxythien-2-yl in dyes 1-E (E = O, Se), 2-carboxythien-3-yl in dyes 2-E (E = Se), 5-phosphonothien-2-yl in dyes 3-E (E = O, Se), 4-carboxyphenyl in dyes 4-E (E = O, S), and 4-phosphonophenyl in dyes 5-E (E = O, Se). Monolayers of 1-E, 3-E, 4-E, and 5-E on nanocrystalline TiO2 films consisted of both H-aggregated and non-aggregated dyes, whereas 2-E underwent little or no aggregation upon adsorption. With the exception of 2-E, surface coverages of dyes and the extent of H-aggregation varied minimally with surface-attachment functionality, structure of the 9-aryl group, and identity of the chalcogen heteroatom. Carboxylic acid-functionalized dyes 1-E and 4-E desorbed rapidly and completely from TiO2 into acidified CH3CN, but phosphonic acid-functionalized dyes 3-E and 5-E persisted on TiO2 for days. We used transient absorption spectroscopy to characterize excited-state electron injection from a 1-Se, 2-Se, and 3-Se to TiO2. Injection of electrons from photoexcited dyes into TiO2 yielded the dication radical (1-Se +, 2-Se+, and 3-Se +) and an associated transient absorption at wavelengths shorter than 540 nm, the amplitude of which was proportional to the quantum yield of electron injection (Qinj). Our data reveal the Qinj for H-aggregated 1-Se was approximately 2-fold greater than Q inj for non-aggregated 1-Se and approximately 3-fold greater than Qinj for non-aggregated 2-Se. Additionally, the Qinj from H-aggregated 3-Se was (2.0 +/- 1.3)-fold greater than from monomeric 3-Se. Therefore, H-aggregation increased the efficiencies of both light-harvesting and electron injection. Comparison of the analogous carboxylic acid-functionalized dye (1-Se) and phosphonic acid-functionalized dye (3-Se) revealed that Q inj via the carboxylate linkage was (2.3 +/- 1.1)-fold greater than via the phosphonate linkage. Thus, electron-injection reactivity is sensitive to both the aggregation state and the surface-anchoring mode of these chalcogenorhodamine dyes. Short-circuit photocurrent action spectra of DSCs corresponded closely to absorptance spectra of dye-functionalized films; thus, H-aggregation did not decrease the electron-injection yield or charge-collection efficiency. Maximum monochromatic incident photon-to-current efficiencies (IPCEs) of DSCs ranged from 53% to 95% and were slightly higher for carboxylic acid-functionalized dyes 1-E and 4-E. The photoelectrochemical performance (under monochromatic or white-light illumination) of 1-E and 4-E decayed significantly within 20-80 min of assembly of DSCs, due primarily to desorption of the dyes. In contrast, the performance of phosphonic acid-functionalized dyes (3-E and 5-E) remained stable or improved slightly on similar time scales. Power-conversion efficiencies of DSCs under white-light illumination were low (<1%), suggesting that dye regeneration was inefficient at high light intensities. Preliminary transient photovoltage results support this proposition. Our findings suggest that controlled aggregation of organic dyes may represent an attractive strategy for improving the global energy-conversion efficiencies of organic dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalysts. In addition, replacing carboxylic acids with phosphonic acids increased the inertness of chalcogenorhodamine-TiO2 interfaces without greatly impacting aggregation of dyes or the interfacial electron-transfer reactivity. The decrease of Qinj for phosphonic acid-bearing dyes is offset by its enhanced stability and persistence on TiO2, rendering the phosphonic acid-functionalized and H-aggregating dyes particularly attractive sensitizers.

  5. Simulation and modeling of laser-tissue interactions based on a liposome-dye system.

    PubMed

    Mensah, F E; Sridhar, R; Misra, P

    2010-12-01

    This work presents an overview of the use of liposomes for targeted delivery of photosensitizers to tumors for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). It assesses the results of a quantitative model to explain the interaction of short-pulsed lasers (in the nanosecond and picosecond domains) with a liposome-dye complex in terms of a localized photo-induced thermal mechanism. Incorporation of an organic dye (sulforhodamine) within lipid vesicles has been investigated in conjunction with the effect of laser irradiation on the integrity of the liposome-dye complex. The variation of the absorption coefficient as a function of wavelength for dye-encapsulated liposomes before and after laser-induced release of dye was studied and modeled. The commercial software Mathematica was used to develop a Gaussian model for the energy absorption by the liposome-dye complex. Dye release from 3 microm - liposome encapsulating 25 mM aqueous solution of sulforhodamine dye was studied using 8 ns laser pulses at the second harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser (at 532 nm) and compared with dye release employing 25 ps - laser pulses. In addition, the temperature-dependence of the dye release has been included in the photo-thermal model. PMID:21141674

  6. Effects of Dye Structure in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, Anna R.

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are photovoltaic devices that may compete with standard silicon solar cells due to their ease of construction and lower cost [32]. Ruthenium dye structures, such as N3 (Ru -- (4,4' -- dicarboxylic acid -- 2,2' -- bipyridine)2(NCS)2), have shown promise for collection efficiencies near silicon photovoltaic levels [20, 33]. DSSCs have not achieved the reproducibility and maximum efficiency of silicon solar cells [33, 34]. Altering ligands on the dye molecules may affect the energies of light that are absorbed by the DSSC. Photovoltaic testing, including current versus voltage tests, of DSSCs with both narrow band monochromated light sources and broadband (AM1.5 solar simulator) allows comparison between maximum efficiency, short-circuit current, open circuit voltage, and spectral response (SR) for the dye molecules. By studying how the efficiency and power output change with different dye structures, the nature of how to increase efficiency of the DSSC can be addressed. Conjugation length of the ligands in ruthenium dye molecules can be shown, through square-well and Huckel theory calculations, to have a role in changing the HOMO-LUMO gap of the molecules and the absorption of specific wavelengths of light by the DSSC. The efficiency, max power, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and SR were all measured for the DSSCs at wavelengths from 350 nm to 690 nm using a monochromated light source. Measurements taken at 20 nm steps reveal trends in the photon acceptance for dye molecules that can be linked to the conjugation length of the ligands in the dye through the SR. The change in the SR centroid and UV-VIS measurements indicate a trend toward increasing optimal wavelength with increasing conjugation length in the dye molecules; however these trends are not as pronounced as theoretical calculations for the dyes. This difference in wavelength shift occurs due to the theoretical calculations accounting for only the ligands rather than for the entire dye structure and DSSC construct. While the wavelength shift is small for the dyes in this study, the measured values indicate that increasing dye conjugation lengths may be a method for extension of photon acceptance into the IR region of the solar spectrum.

  7. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  8. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E.D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

  9. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  10. Triphenylamine-based indoline derivatives for dye-sensitized solar cells: a density functional theory investigation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xue-Feng; Kang, Guo-Jun; He, Qiong-Qiong

    2016-01-01

    A new series of triphenylamine-based indoline dye sensitizers were molecularly designed and investigated for their potential use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Theoretical calculations revealed that modifying donor part of D149 by triphenylamine significantly altered the electronic structures, MO energies, and intramolecular chargetransfer (ICT) absorption band. Key parameters associated with the light-harvesting efficiency at a given wavelength LHE(?), the driving force ?G inject, and the open-circuit photovoltage V oc were characterized. More importantly, these designed (dimeric) dye sensitizers were found to have similar broad absorption spectra to their corresponding monomers, indicating that modifying the donor part with triphenylamine may stop unfavorable dye aggregation. Further analyses of the dye-(TiO2)9 cluster interaction confirmed that there was strong electronic coupling at the interface. These results are expected to provide useful guidance in the molecular design of new highly efficient metal-free organic dyes. PMID:26659403

  11. Contact urticaria to cosmetic and industrial dyes.

    PubMed

    Davari, P; Maibach, H I

    2011-01-01

    Contact urticaria (CU) defines the weal-and-flare reaction that occurs after external cutaneous contact with a causative agent. These reactions often cause discomfort for patients, affect their quality of life, and in severe cases may be life-threatening. Some dyes are known to be urticariogens. Many people have daily exposure to these urticariogens, because of the widespread use of dyes, for example in textiles, cosmetics and foods. We reviewed industrial and cosmetic dyes such as hair dyes, basic blue 99 dye, patent blue dyes, henna, red dyes, curcumin and reactive dyes, which can potentially cause CU. Overall, the reported cases of CU lacked appropriate controls. Hair-dye constituents such as preservatives and intensifiers may play an important role as causative agents of CU. We recommend appropriate protection guidelines to reduce the incidence of CU in high-risk groups such as hairdressers, dye-factory workers or workers in dye-related industries. PMID:20456377

  12. A benzothiadiazole-cyclopentadithiophene [corrected] bridged D-A-?-A sensitizer with enhanced light absorption for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingzhu; Yang, Jing; Yu, Hao; Li, Feng; Fan, Li; Sun, Wen; Liu, Yeru; Koh, Zhen Yu; Pan, Jiahong; Yim, Wai-Leung; Yan, Lei; Wang, Qing

    2014-04-18

    We demonstrate an efficient D-A-?-A sensitizer with a benzothiadiazole-cyclopentadithiophene [corrected] moiety as the spacer in a triphenylamine organic dye for dye-sensitized solar cells. The dye has a broad visible light absorption range up to 800 nm. A power conversion efficiency >9% has been achieved using a [Co(bpy)3](2+/3+)-based electrolyte. PMID:24608405

  13. Recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization of synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes. PMID:25054183

  14. Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes. PMID:25054183

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  17. [Electrochemical sensors based on carbon nanotubes and their use in biomedical research. Part 2: Sensors manufactured by dispersion of carbon nanotubes by means of polyethyleneimine, organic dyes, cyclodextrins, chitosan, proteins, room-temperature ionic liquids, gels, and thiols. Sensors manufactured by dispersion of carbon nanotubes by electropolymerization process. sensors manufactured by dispersion of carbon nanotubes by layer-by-layer deposition].

    PubMed

    Buzanovski?, V A

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors based on carbon nanotubes are widely distributed in biomedical researches. One group of these sensors contains the sensors manufactured by dispersion of carbon nanotubes on an electrode surface by means of polyethyleneimine, organic dyes, cyclodextrins, chitosan, proteins, room-temperature ionic liquids, gels, thiols, by electropolymerization process, and by layer-by-layer deposition. The development directions of such sensors are analyzed. The general information on manufacturing techniques of these sensors is submitted. The opportunities of these sensors for carrying out biomedical researches are demonstrated. PMID:22724355

  18. Removal of Acid Black 194 dye from water by electrocoagulation with aluminum anode.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Jorge; Villegas, Loreto; Peralta-Hernández, Juan M; Salazar González, Ricardo

    2016-03-20

    Application of an electrocoagulation process (EC) for the elimination of AB194 textile dye from synthetic and textile wastewater (effluent) contaminated with AB194 dye, was carried out using aluminum anodes at two different initial pH values. Tafel studies in the presence and absence of the dye were performed. The aluminum species formed during the electrolysis were quantified by atomic absorption, and the flocs formed in the process were analyzed by HPLC-MS. Complete removal of AB194 from 1.0 L of solution was achieved applying low densities current at initial pH values of 4.0 and 8.0. The removal of AB194 by EC was possible with a short electrolysis time, removing practically 100% of the total organic carbon content and chemical oxygen demand. The final result was completely discolored water lacking dye and organic matter. An effluent contaminated with 126 mg L(-1) AB194 dye from a Chilean textile industry was also treated by EC under optimized experimental conditions, yielding discolored water and considerably decreasing the presence of organic compounds (dye + dyeing additives), with very low concentrations of dissolved Al(3+). Analysis of flocs showed the presence of the original dye without changes in its chemical structure. PMID:26745322

  19. Hair dye poisoning and rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Bokutz, Munira; Nasir, Nosheen; Mahmood, Faisal; Sajid, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Hair dye ingestion is a rare cause of toxicity in Pakistan. We are presenting the case report of a 55 year old male who presented with accidental hair dye ingestion and developed laryngeal oedema requiring emergent tracheostomy. He had also developed aspiration pneumonitis and chemical oesophagitis. However, the most alarming manifestation was rhabdomyolysis. Hair dye toxicity can be fatal if not recognized early. There is no antidote available. Rhabdomyolysis is a complication and needs to be managed aggressively in order to prevent long term morbidity. PMID:25976581

  20. Fluorescence properties of dye doped mesoporous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonaro, Carlo M. Corpino, Riccardo Ricci, Pier Carlo Chiriu, Daniele; Cannas, Carla

    2014-10-21

    In this paper we present a review of the main results we obtained studying the emission properties of organic-inorganic hybrids obtained combining mesoporous silica and Xantene dyes, in particular the standard reference Rhodamine 6G. The purpose of the review is to show the possibility to efficiently 'dope' the transparent inorganic porous matrix to obtain promising systems for photonic and biomedical applications. The strategies to solve the concentration effect and the leaching phenomenon are discussed within the framework of the single exciton theory.

  1. Preparation of Graphene Oxide-Based Hydrogels as Efficient Dye Adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haiying; Jiao, Tifeng; Zhang, Qingrui; Guo, Wenfeng; Peng, Qiuming; Yan, Xuehai

    2015-06-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets exhibit superior adsorption capacity for removing organic dye pollutants from an aqueous environment. In this paper, the facile preparation of GO/polyethylenimine (PEI) hydrogels as efficient dye adsorbents has been reported. The GO/PEI hydrogels were achieved through both hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between amine-rich PEI and GO sheets. For both methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB), the as-prepared hydrogels exhibit removal rates within about 4 h in accordance with the pseudo-second-order model. The dye adsorption capacity of the hydrogel is mainly attributed to the GO sheets, whereas the PEI was incorporated to facilitate the gelation process of GO sheets. More importantly, the dye-adsorbed hydrogels can be conveniently separated from an aqueous environment, suggesting potential large-scale applications of the GO-based hydrogels for organic dye removal and wastewater treatment.

  2. Convenient Microscale Synthesis of a Coumarin Laser Dye Analog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2006-01-01

    Coumarin (2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) and its derivatives constitute a fascinating class of organic substances that are utilized industrially in areas such as cosmetics, food preservatives, insecticides and fluorescent laser dyes. The product can be synthesized, purified, and characterized within two hours with benefits of microscale reactivity being

  3. Convenient Microscale Synthesis of a Coumarin Laser Dye Analog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2006-01-01

    Coumarin (2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) and its derivatives constitute a fascinating class of organic substances that are utilized industrially in areas such as cosmetics, food preservatives, insecticides and fluorescent laser dyes. The product can be synthesized, purified, and characterized within two hours with benefits of microscale reactivity being…

  4. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed in carminic acid for the development of catalase based biosensor for selective amperometric determination of H(2)O(2) and iodate.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Ho, Ya-Hui; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2011-11-15

    We report the preparation of stable dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using carminic acid (CA) as a dispersing agent. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results confirmed that MWCNT is well dispersed in CA aqueous solution and CA has been well adsorbed at MWCNT walls. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-vis absorption spectra results also confirmed the adsorption of CA at MWCNT. To develop a highly selective amperometric biosensor for H(2)O(2) and iodate, the model enzyme catalase (CAT) was immobilized at CACNT modified glassy carbon electrode surface. The immobilized CAT exhibits well defined quasi reversible redox peaks at a formal potential (E') of -0.559V in 0.05M pH 7 phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The proposed CAT/CACNT biosensor exhibits excellent amperometric response towards H(2)O(2) and iodate in the linear concentration range between 10?M to 3.2mM and 0.01-2.16mM. The sensitivity values are 287.98?AmM(-1)cm(-2) and 0.253mAmM(-1)cm(-2), respectively. Moreover, the developed CAT biosensor exhibits high affinity for H(2)O(2) and iodate with good selectivity. PMID:21900003

  5. Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on sorption of uranium and thorium from aqueous solutions by a selective impregnated resin containing carminic acid.

    PubMed

    Rahmani-Sani, Abolfazl; Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Ahmad; Hosseini, Seyyed-Hossein; Kharghani, Keivan; Zarei, Hossein; Rastegar, Ayoob

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the removal of uranium and thorium ions from aqueous solutions was studied by solid-liquid extraction using an advantageous extractant-impregnated resin (EIR) prepared by loading carminic acid (CA) onto Amberlite XAD-16 resin beads. Batch sorption experiments using CA/XAD-16 beads for the removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions were carried out as a function of several parameters, like equilibration time, metal ion concentration, etc. The equilibrium data obtained from the sorption experiments were adjusted to the Langmuir isotherm model and the calculated maximum sorption capacities in terms of monolayer sorption were in agreement with those obtained from the experiments. The experimental data on the sorption behavior of both metal ions onto the EIR beads fitted well in both Bangham and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models, indicating that the intra-particle diffusion is the rate-controlling step. The thermodynamic studies at different temperatures revealed the feasibility and the spontaneous nature of the sorption process for both uranium and thorium ions. PMID:25576783

  6. Decolorization and Detoxification of Textile Dyes with a Laccase from Trametes hirsuta

    PubMed Central

    Abadulla, Elias; Tzanov, Tzanko; Costa, Silgia; Robra, Karl-Heinz; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Gbitz, Georg M.

    2000-01-01

    Trametes hirsuta and a purified laccase from this organism were able to degrade triarylmethane, indigoid, azo, and anthraquinonic dyes. Initial decolorization velocities depended on the substituents on the phenolic rings of the dyes. Immobilization of the T. hirsuta laccase on alumina enhanced the thermal stabilities of the enzyme and its tolerance against some enzyme inhibitors, such as halides, copper chelators, and dyeing additives. The laccase lost 50% of its activity at 50 mM NaCl while the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the immobilized enzyme was 85 mM. Treatment of dyes with the immobilized laccase reduced their toxicities (based on the oxygen consumption rate of Pseudomonas putida) by up to 80% (anthraquinonic dyes). Textile effluents decolorized with T. hirsuta or the laccase were used for dyeing. Metabolites and/or enzyme protein strongly interacted with the dyeing process indicated by lower staining levels (K/S) values than obtained with a blank using water. However, when the effluents were decolorized with immobilized laccase, they could be used for dyeing and acceptable color differences (?E*) below 1.1 were measured for most dyes. PMID:10919791

  7. Optical properties of lanthanide dyes for spectral conversion encapsulated in porous silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzol, Paolo; Marques-Hueso, Jose; Robertson, Neil; Freris, Isidora; Bellotto, Luca; Meyer, Thomas J. J.; Richards, Bryce S.

    2012-06-01

    Lanthanide based dyes belong to one of the most promising fields of photovoltaic research, combining high quantum yields and large spectral shift. However, many challenges are faced when working with lanthanide dyes for spectral conversion: their thermal and chemical stability, which can greatly influence the shelf-life of the dyes; the absorption band position, which depends on the organic part of the dye, the so called "antenna" self-quenching mechanisms, which lead to a photoluminescence emission loss. The chemical composition of the surrounding environment of the dyes has a fundamental role in their properties. In this paper, the optical and PLQY (photoluminescence quantum yield) properties of an europium-based dye embedded in a silica matrix are reported. The in-house synthesized dye consists of a bis(2- (diphenylphosphino)phenyl)ether oxide (DPEPO) ligand and three hexafluoroacetylacetonate (hfac) co-ligands coordinating a central europium ion. The dye has been included in porous core-shell particles, to study its optical properties once embedded in a solid dielectric matrix. The optical properties of the resulting samples have been characterized by photoluminescence emission and PLQY measurements. The results have been compared with data obtained from a commercially available dye (BASF Lumogen family) in similar conditions.

  8. Decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes with a laccase from Trametes hirsuta.

    PubMed

    Abadulla, E; Tzanov, T; Costa, S; Robra, K H; Cavaco-Paulo, A; Gbitz, G M

    2000-08-01

    Trametes hirsuta and a purified laccase from this organism were able to degrade triarylmethane, indigoid, azo, and anthraquinonic dyes. Initial decolorization velocities depended on the substituents on the phenolic rings of the dyes. Immobilization of the T. hirsuta laccase on alumina enhanced the thermal stabilities of the enzyme and its tolerance against some enzyme inhibitors, such as halides, copper chelators, and dyeing additives. The laccase lost 50% of its activity at 50 mM NaCl while the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the immobilized enzyme was 85 mM. Treatment of dyes with the immobilized laccase reduced their toxicities (based on the oxygen consumption rate of Pseudomonas putida) by up to 80% (anthraquinonic dyes). Textile effluents decolorized with T. hirsuta or the laccase were used for dyeing. Metabolites and/or enzyme protein strongly interacted with the dyeing process indicated by lower staining levels (K/S) values than obtained with a blank using water. However, when the effluents were decolorized with immobilized laccase, they could be used for dyeing and acceptable color differences (DeltaE*) below 1.1 were measured for most dyes. PMID:10919791

  9. Ultrasound for low temperature dyeing of wool with acid dye.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2012-05-01

    The possibility of reducing the temperature of conventional wool dyeing with an acid levelling dye using ultrasound was studied in order to reach exhaustion values comparable to those obtained with the standard procedure at 98 °C, obtaining dyed samples of good quality. The aim was to develop a laboratory method that could be transferred at industrial level, reducing both the energy consumption and fiber damage caused by the prolonged exposure to high temperature without the use of polluting auxiliary agents. Dyeings of wool fabrics were carried out in the temperature range between 60 °C and 80 °C using either mechanical or ultrasound agitation of the bath and coupling the two methods to compare the results. For each dyeing, the exhaustion curves of the dye bath were determined and the better results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical stirring. Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasonic efficiency were calculated in comparison with mechanical stirring alone. In the presence of ultrasound the absorption rate constants increased by at least 50%, at each temperature, confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound was ascribed to the pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation. It was also shown that the effect of ultrasound at 60 °C was just on the dye bath, practically unaffecting the wool fiber surface, as confirmed by the results of SEM analysis. Finally, fastness tests to rubbing and domestic laundering yielded good values for samples dyed in ultrasound assisted process even at the lower temperature. These results suggest the possibility, thanks to the use of ultrasound, to obtain a well equalized dyeing on wool working yet at 60°C, a temperature process strongly lower than 98°C, currently used in industry, which damages the mechanical properties of the fibers. PMID:22055328

  10. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Enzymatic biotransformation of synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Couto, S

    2009-11-01

    Environmental pollution by discharge of dye-containing effluents represents a serious ecological concern in many countries. Public demands for colour-free discharges to receiving waters have made decolouration of a variety of industrial wastewater a top priority. The current existing techniques for dye removal have several drawbacks such as high cost, low efficiency, use of large amounts of chemicals and formation of toxic sub-products. This has impelled the search for alternative methods such as those based on oxidative enzymes. This approach is believed to be a promising technology since it is cost-effective, environmentally friendly and does not produce sludge. Enzymatic transformation of synthetic dyes can be described as the conversion of dye molecules by enzymes into simpler and generally colourless molecules. Detailed characterisation of the metabolites produced during enzymatic transformation of synthetic dyes as well as ecotoxicity studies is of great importance to assess the effectiveness of the biodegradation process. However, most reports on the biotreatment of dyes mainly deal with decolouration and there are few reports on the reduction in toxicity or on the identification of the biodegradation products. This implies a limitation to assess their true technical potential. PMID:20214593

  12. Dye removal by immobilised fungi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Couto, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Dyes are widely used within the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, printing, textile and leather industries. This has resulted in the discharge of highly coloured effluents that affect water transparency and gas solubility in water bodies. Furthermore, they pose a problem because of their carcinogenicity and toxicity. Therefore, removal of such dyes before discharging them into natural water streams is essential. For this, appropriate treatment technologies are required. The treatment of recalcitrant and toxic dyes with traditional technologies is not always effective or may not be environmentally friendly. This has impelled the search for alternative technologies such as biodegradation with fungi. In particular, ligninolytic fungi and their non-specific oxidative enzymes have been reported to be responsible for the decolouration of different synthetic dyes. Thus, the use of such fungi is becoming a promising alternative to replace or complement the current technologies for dye removal. Processes using immobilised growing cells seem to be more promising than those with free cells, since the immobilisation allows using the microbial cells repeatedly and continuously. This paper reviews the application of fungal immobilisation to dye removal. PMID:19211032

  13. Dye molecules in electrolytes: new approach for suppression of dye-desorption in dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Nansra; Jun, Yongseok; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-01-01

    The widespread commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells remains limited because of the poor long-term stability. We report on the influence of dye-molecules added in liquid electrolyte on long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. Dye-desorption from the TiO2 surface during long-term cycling is one of the decisive factors that degrade photocurrent densities of devices which in turn determine the efficiencies of the devices. For the first time, desorption of dye from the TiO2 surface could be suppressed by controlling thermodynamic equilibrium; by addition of dye molecules in the electrolyte. The dye molecules in the electrolyte can suppress the driving forces for the adsorbed dye molecules to be desorbed from TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, highly enhanced device stabilities were achieved due to the reduction of dye-desorption although there was a little decrease in the initial efficiencies.

  14. Design and synthesis of a noncentrosymmetric Dipyrromethene Dye

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhardt, M.B.; Cahill, P.A.; Kowalczyk, T.C.; Singer, K.D.

    1994-12-31

    Semiempirical methods were applied to the design of a new second order nonlinear optical (NLO) dye through noncentrosymmetric modifications to the symmetric dipyrromethene boron difluoride chromophore. Computational evaluations of candidate structures suggested that a synthetically accessible methoxyindole modification would have second order NLO properties. This new dye consists of 4 fused rings, is soluble in polar organic solvents and has a large molar extinction coefficient (86 {times} 103). Its measured hyperpolarizability, {beta}, is -44 {times} 10{sup {minus}30} esu at 1367 nm. The methoxyindole therefore induces moderate asymmetry to the chromophore.

  15. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell. 6 figs.

  16. A NIR-remote controlled upconverting nanoparticle: an improved tool for living cell dye-labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Gong, Xiaoqun; Wang, Hanjie; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Huiquan; Li, Wei; Tan, Jian; Chang, Jin

    2015-10-01

    In living cells, due to the selective permeability and complicated cellular environment, the uptake efficiency and fluorescence decay of organic dyes during dye-labeling may be influenced, which may eventually result in poor fluorescent imaging. In this work, a protocol of UCNs@mSiO2-(FA and Azo) core-shell nanocarriers was designed and prepared successfully. The core-shell nanocarriers were assembled from two parts, including a mesoporous silica shell surface modified by folate (FA) and azobenzene (Azo), and an upconverting nanocrystal (UCN) core. The mesoporous silica shell is used for loading organic dyes and conjugating folate which helps to enhance the cellular uptake of nanocarriers. The UCN core works as a transducer to convert near infrared (NIR) light to local UV and visible light to activate a back-and-forth wagging motion of azobenzene molecules on the surface, while the azobenzene acts as a molecular impeller for propelling the release of organic dyes. The nanocarriers of loading organic dyes can maintain the stability of the fluorescent imaging effect better than free organic dyes. The experimental results show that with the help of the nanoparticle, cell uptake efficiency of the model dyes of rhodamine and 4‧, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) was significantly improved. The release of dyes can only be triggered by NIR light exposure and their quantity is highly dependent on the duration of NIR light exposure, thus realizing NIR-regulated dye release spatiotemporally. Our work may open a novel avenue for precisely controlling UCN-based living cell imaging in biotechnology and diagnostics, as well as studying cell dynamics, cell-cell interactions, and tissue morphogenesis.

  17. A NIR-remote controlled upconverting nanoparticle: an improved tool for living cell dye-labeling.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bin; Gong, Xiaoqun; Wang, Hanjie; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Huiquan; Li, Wei; Tan, Jian; Chang, Jin

    2015-10-23

    In living cells, due to the selective permeability and complicated cellular environment, the uptake efficiency and fluorescence decay of organic dyes during dye-labeling may be influenced, which may eventually result in poor fluorescent imaging. In this work, a protocol of UCNs@mSiO2-(FA and Azo) core-shell nanocarriers was designed and prepared successfully. The core-shell nanocarriers were assembled from two parts, including a mesoporous silica shell surface modified by folate (FA) and azobenzene (Azo), and an upconverting nanocrystal (UCN) core. The mesoporous silica shell is used for loading organic dyes and conjugating folate which helps to enhance the cellular uptake of nanocarriers. The UCN core works as a transducer to convert near infrared (NIR) light to local UV and visible light to activate a back-and-forth wagging motion of azobenzene molecules on the surface, while the azobenzene acts as a molecular impeller for propelling the release of organic dyes. The nanocarriers of loading organic dyes can maintain the stability of the fluorescent imaging effect better than free organic dyes. The experimental results show that with the help of the nanoparticle, cell uptake efficiency of the model dyes of rhodamine and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) was significantly improved. The release of dyes can only be triggered by NIR light exposure and their quantity is highly dependent on the duration of NIR light exposure, thus realizing NIR-regulated dye release spatiotemporally. Our work may open a novel avenue for precisely controlling UCN-based living cell imaging in biotechnology and diagnostics, as well as studying cell dynamics, cell-cell interactions, and tissue morphogenesis. PMID:26422130

  18. Electrochemical Oxidation of Synthetic Dyes in Simulated Wastewaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallios, G.; Violintzis, X.; Voinovskii, I.; Voulgaropoulos, A.

    An electrochemical oxidation method for the degradation of synthetic reactive azodyes found in textile wastewaters is discussed. Four commercial synthetic dyes (black, blue, red and yellow) commonly used in dying operations were studied in single, binary and ternary mixtures. Low (100 mg/L) and high (500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/L) initial dye concentrations were studied. The effect of various sodium chloride concentrations (as supporting electrolyte) on the effectiveness of electrochemical oxidation was examined. The effect of current intensity (1.5, 2.5 and 3.0 A) and pH (vales 3, 5, 7 and 10) was studied as well. The kinetics of the electrochemical oxidation for each dye were studied and compared. The conditions for effective dye degradation even from 2,000 mg/L initial concentration were established. The method was proved very effective even with binary and ternary mixtures of basic synthetic dyes. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) were reduced by 60% and 25% respectively, meaning that the treated solutions were friendlier to the environment.

  19. Azo dye reduction by mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic consortia.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Andr B; de Madrid, Marta P; Stams, Alfons J M; van Lier, Jules B; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2005-01-01

    The reduction of the azo dye model compounds Reactive Red 2 (RR2) and Reactive Orange 14 (RO14) by mesophilic (30 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic consortia was studied in batch assays. The contribution of fermentative and methanogenic microorganisms in both temperatures was evaluated in the presence of the fermentative substrate glucose and the methanogenic substrates acetate, H2/CO2, methanol, and formate. Additionally, the effect of the redox mediator riboflavin on electron shuttling was assessed. We concluded that the application of thermophilic anaerobic treatment is an interesting option for the reductive decolorization of azo dyes compared to mesophilic conditions. The use of high temperature may decrease or even take the place of the need for continuous redox mediator dosage in bioreactors, contrarily to the evident effect of those compounds on dye reduction under mesophilic conditions. Both fermenters and methanogens may play an important role during reductive decolorization of dyes, in which mediators are important not only for allowing the different microbes to participate more effectively in this complex reductive biochemistry but also for assisting in the competition for electrons between dyes and other organic and inorganic electron acceptors. PMID:16080694

  20. Single-beam Z-scan measurement of the third-order optical nonlinearities of azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, C; Ramalingam, A

    2007-11-01

    Organic dyes are very attractive optical materials for photonics and biophotonic applications. To quantitatively characterize their third-order nonlinear coefficients we have performed the experiments on two different azo dyes using a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm. The |chi(3)| is of the order of 10(-6) esu. The relative contributions from nonlinear absorption (NLA) and nonlinear refraction (NLR) are dependent on the chemical structure and linear absorption of the dyes. PMID:17324613