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1

[Asthma and allergy due to carmine dye].  

PubMed

Cochineal carmine, or simply carmine (E120), is a red colouring that is obtained from the dried bodies of the female insect Dactylopius coccus Costa (the cochineal insect). We have evaluated the prevalence of sensitization and asthma caused by carmine in a factory using natural colouring, following the diagnosis of two workers with occupational asthma. The accumulated incidence of sensitization and occupational asthma due to carmine in this factory are 48.1% and 18.5% respectively, figures that make the introduction of preventive measures obligatory. Occupational asthma caused by inhaling carmine should be considered as a further example of the capacity of certain protein particles of arthropods (in this case cochineal insects) to act as aeroallergens. Carmine should be added to the list of agents capable of producing occupational asthma, whose mechanism, according to our studies, would be immunological mediated by IgE antibodies in the face of diverse allergens of high molecular weight, which can vary from patient to patient. Nonetheless, given the existence of different components in carmine, it cannot be ruled out that substances of low molecular weight, such as carminic acid, might act as haptenes. Besides, since we are dealing with a colouring that is widely used as a food additive, as a pharmaceutical excipient and in the composition of numerous cosmetics, it is not surprising that allergic reactions can appear both through ingestion and through direct cutaneous contact. We find ourselves facing a new example of an allergen that can act through both inhalation and digestion, giving rise to an allergolical syndrome that can show itself clinically with expressions of both respiratory allergy and alimentary allergy. PMID:13679965

Tabar, A I; Acero, S; Arregui, C; Urdánoz, M; Quirce, S

2003-01-01

2

The history, chemistry and modes of action of carmine and related dyes.  

PubMed

Carmine has been used in biological staining to demonstrate selectively nuclei, chromosomes or mucins, depending on the formulation. Throughout its history in science, complaints and frustrations have been expressed about dye quality. Inconsistencies in dye quality or identity have prevented thorough understanding of staining mechanisms and have caused many stain solutions to behave unsatisfactorily. The aim of this review is to (1) detail causes of these problems, which are rooted in history, geography and production, (2) offer ways to minimize problems and (3) provide modern explanations for stain behavior. Carmine is a "semi-synthetic" dye, i.e., a complex of aluminum and the natural dye cochineal (carminic acid). Carmine shows considerable batch-to-batch variability. Geography, politics, history, agricultural practices and iconography all contribute to the variability of cochineal. In addition, widely divergent manufacturing methods are used to produce carmine. Also, confusion in terminology has led to mislabeling. Pressure from the food industry for a more satisfactory colorant for acidic foods led to the introduction of a new dye, aminocarminic acid, which could enter the biological market inadvertantly. Improved methods of analysis should help the certification process by the Biological Stain Commission. Further standardization could be achieved by replacing most of the methods of solubilizing carmine. The majority of these methods use heat, which is likely to damage the dye molecule. Fortunately, carmine is readily dissolved by raising the pH of the aqueous solvent above 12, and a new form of the dye, now available commercially, is soluble in water without the need for heat or pH adjustment. Chemical structures and physical properties of carminic acid, carmine, aminocarminic acid and kermesic acid are reviewed. A new configuration for carmine is proposed, as well as possible changes to carminic acid and carmine molecules as a result of decomposition caused by heating. Each of the major classes of carmine-based stains is described as are possible mechanisms of attachment to specific substrates. Glycogen binds carmine through hydrogen bonding, and it is here that carmine decomposed by heat could have the greatest detrimental impact. Nuclei and chromosomes are stained via coordination bonds, perhaps supplemented by hydrogen bonds. Finally, acidic mucins react ionically with carmine. Specificity in the latter case may be due to unique polymeric carmine molecules that form in the presence of aluminum chloride. PMID:18074265

Dapson, R W

2007-08-01

3

Indigo Carmine Dye-Polymer Nanocomposite Films For Optical Limiting Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocomposite films of an organic dye-polymer (Indigo Carmine-PVA) system were fabricated and their optical limiting behaviour was investigated under excitation with 532 nm laser pulses of 5 ns temporal width using the open aperture Z-scan technique. The samples displayed optical limiting behavior under the experimental conditions. The Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) analysis of the surface topography revealed homogeneous distribution of nanoclustered aggregates grown within the polymer matrix and an average roughness of ˜2.02 nm for the surface. The estimated values of the effective nonlinear absorption coefficient, ?eff (˜10-7-10-8 cm/W) marked up to the highest reported ones in literature in the nanosecond regime. The results indicate that these nanocomposite films are potential materials for optical limiting devices used for the protection of human eyes and other delicate optical sensors from laser induced optical damage.

Sreeja, S.; Mayadevi, S.; Suresh, S. R.; Frobel, P. G. Louie; Smijesh, N.; Philip, Reji; Muneera, C. I.

2011-10-01

4

Occupational asthma and immunologic responses induced by inhaled carmine among employees at a factory making natural dyes.  

PubMed

Carmine is a natural red dye widely used as a food coloring agent and for cosmetic manufacture. It is extracted from the dried females of the insect Dactylopius coccus var. Costa (cochineal). Although it has been reported that inhalation of carmine may give rise to occupational asthma and extrinsic allergic alveolitis, there is little evidence of its immunogenic capacity. We studied nine current employees at a factory making natural dyes and one former employee who had left this plant after occupational asthma developed. A current employee had work-related symptoms of rhinitis and asthma that were confirmed by bronchial provocation tests, and another worker had rhinitis. Immunologic sensitization to carmine and cochineal was evaluated by means of skin testing and determination of serum-specific IgE and IgG subclass antibodies by RAST and ELISA, respectively. The specificity of the RAST assay was investigated by RAST inhibition with different fractions of carmine. The three workers with respiratory symptoms had positive skin prick test reactions to both carmine and cochineal. An immediate response to the bronchial provocation test with carmine and cochineal was observed in the current employee with asthma. Specific IgE antibodies against carmine and cochineal were found only in this worker. RAST inhibition studies indicated that the main allergen had a molecular weight between 10 and 30 kd. Specific IgG antibodies against carmine and cochineal, mainly the subclasses IgG1, IgG3, and IgG4, were found in the 10 subjects surveyed. These findings suggest that carmine may induce immunologic responses, most likely IgE mediated in workers with symptoms of occupational asthma. PMID:8308181

Quirce, S; Cuevas, M; Olaguibel, J M; Tabar, A I

1994-01-01

5

Rice husk ash as an effective adsorbent: evaluation of adsorptive characteristics for Indigo Carmine dye.  

PubMed

Present study explored the adsorptive characteristics of Indigo Carmine (IC) dye from aqueous solution onto rice husk ash (RHA). Batch experiments were carried out to determine the influence of parameters like initial pH (pH(0)), contact time (t), adsorbent dose (m) and initial concentration (C(0)) on the removal of IC. The optimum conditions were found to be: pH(0)=5.4, t=8h and m=10.0 g/l. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model represented the adsorption kinetics of IC on to RHA. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin and Redlich-Peterson models using a non-linear regression technique. Adsorption of IC on RHA was favorably influenced by an increase in the temperature of the operation. The positive values of the change in entropy (DeltaS(0)) and heat of adsorption (DeltaH(0)); and the negative value of change in Gibbs free energy (DeltaG(0)) indicate feasible and spontaneous adsorption of IC on to RHA. PMID:18289771

Lakshmi, Uma R; Srivastava, Vimal Chandra; Mall, Indra Deo; Lataye, Dilip H

2009-02-01

6

Charge-Transfer Complexation at Carminic Acid–CdS Interface and Its Impact on the Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report for the first time charge-transfer complex formation at the interface of carminic acid and cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles. The complex formation was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were synthesized by the wet chemical method and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Carminic acid, in different concentrations, was chemisorbed on the surface of CdS nanoparticles. Grafting of carminic acid on CdS was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Energy levels of the highest occupied molecular orbitals and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) of both carminic acid and CdS nanoparticles matched well for the injection of electron from LUMO of carminic acid to the conduction band of cadmium sulfide. The photoactive nanohybrid material was used in dye-sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of carminic acid functionalized CdS nanoparticles was found to be double the value obtained for the reference device and remained constant over a certain concentration range owing to the complex formation at the interface. However, raising the concentration of carminic acid beyond 2.5 × 10-5 M resulted in a decrease in efficiency. This was ascribed to charge recombination due to the presence of ungrafted carminic acid molecules.

Shahzad, Naila; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Munir, Shamsa; Hana, Amina; Jabeen, Uzma; Nosheen, Erum; Habib, Banafsha; Khan, Arif Ullah; Hassan, Zubair; Siddiq, Muhammad; Hussain, Hazrat

2015-04-01

7

Charge-Transfer Complexation at Carminic Acid-CdS Interface and Its Impact on the Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report for the first time charge-transfer complex formation at the interface of carminic acid and cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles. The complex formation was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were synthesized by the wet chemical method and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Carminic acid, in different concentrations, was chemisorbed on the surface of CdS nanoparticles. Grafting of carminic acid on CdS was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Energy levels of the highest occupied molecular orbitals and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) of both carminic acid and CdS nanoparticles matched well for the injection of electron from LUMO of carminic acid to the conduction band of cadmium sulfide. The photoactive nanohybrid material was used in dye-sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of carminic acid functionalized CdS nanoparticles was found to be double the value obtained for the reference device and remained constant over a certain concentration range owing to the complex formation at the interface. However, raising the concentration of carminic acid beyond 2.5 × 10-5 M resulted in a decrease in efficiency. This was ascribed to charge recombination due to the presence of ungrafted carminic acid molecules.

Shahzad, Naila; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Munir, Shamsa; Hana, Amina; Jabeen, Uzma; Nosheen, Erum; Habib, Banafsha; Khan, Arif Ullah; Hassan, Zubair; Siddiq, Muhammad; Hussain, Hazrat

2015-02-01

8

Stability of ?-Irradiated Carmine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carmine is a dye used mainly for coloring food products and galenicals but also in inks. As food irradiation is becoming a regular treatment for food preservation, it is desirable to have a proper knowledge about the radiation sensitivity of additives that can be included in the food formula. The aim of this work was to establish the radiation stability of carmine against Co-60 gamma radiation. Samples of 50% pure carmine powder as well as 50%, 10% and 5% aqueous solutions were irradiated in a Gammacell 220, dose rate of about 5.2 kGy/h, with doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 kGy. Spectrophotometric readings at 494 nm show a slight decrease of the absorbance as a function of dose: Samples irradiated with 4 and 32 kGy retained 95% and 90% of absorbance of the unirradiated samples respectively. These results indicate a rather good stability of carmine against ?-irradiation.

Cosentino, Hélio M.; Fontenele, Rinaldo S.; DelMastro, Nélida L.

2005-01-01

9

Matrix-assisted laser desorption and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of carminic acid isolated from cochineal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carminic acid, isolated from cochineal, was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Application of both techniques to the analysis of carminic acid suspended in linseed oil and applied to a piece of canvas, demonstrated the ability of MALDI and ESI-MS to identify this organic dye in a mixture as those used in easel painting.

Maier, Marta S.; Parera, Sara D.; Seldes, Alicia M.

2004-04-01

10

Carmine hypersensitivity masquerading as azithromycin hypersensitivity.  

PubMed

Macrolide hypersensitivity is a rarely reported event. However, carmine dye has become increasingly important as a provocative agent. We present a case of a woman with documented carmine hypersensitivity, who reported anaphylaxis 90 minutes after ingestion of a generic azithromycin. Our investigations revealed that this was an allergy to the carmine dye in the tablet's coating rather than to the antibiotic. Seven extracts were prepared including carmine dye, crushed dried female cochineal insects, crushed tablets of Zithromax (Pfizer Inc.) and generic azithromycin (Teva Pharmaceuticals), and the crushed colored coatings from both tablets. These were suspended in preservative-free normal saline, and then applied as a skin-prick test and read at 30 minutes. The skin-prick skin test results were 4+ to histamine and carmine dye, but negative to cochineal insect extract, Pfizer crushed tablets, and negative control. The patient was 1+ to the Teva crushed tablet, but was 4+ to the Teva brand coating and negative to the Pfizer brand coating, which did not contain carmine. The patient subsequently ingested Pfizer Zithromax without any sequelae. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of carmine anaphylaxis attributed to carmine-containing medication. Careful history and skin-prick testing to the appropriate agents allowed elucidation of the subtlety of the true offending agent without unnecessary avoidance of the medication class. Patients with a carmine hypersensitivity should actively check with their pharmacy or prescribing physician to verify their medications are free of this offending agent. PMID:19331724

Greenhawt, Matthew; McMorris, Marc; Baldwin, James

2009-01-01

11

A method for determining identity and relative purity of carmine, carminic acid and aminocarminic acid.  

PubMed

Carmine is one of the few dyes currently certified by the Biological Stain Commission that is not assayed for dye content. Existing assay methods are complex and do not differentiate the three cochineal derivatives carmine, carminic acid and aminocarminic acid. The latter dye is relatively new to the food trade as an acid-stable red colorant and may eventually enter the biological stains market. The assay proposed here is a two-step procedure using quantitative spectrophotometric analysis at high pH (12.5-12.6) followed by a qualitative scan of a low pH (1.90-2.10) solution. Carmine is distinct at high pH, and the remaining dyes are easily distinguished at low pH. Four instances of mislabeling are documented from 18 commercial products, but the mislabeled dyes were not certified dyes. Samples from nearly all lots of carmine certified by the Biological Stain Commission from 1920 to 2004 proved to be carmine, but they varied widely in dye content. Batches from 1920 through the 1940s were significantly richer in dye content. Variability has been extreme since 2000, and most of the poorest lots have been submitted since 1990. PMID:16720520

Dapson, Rw

2005-01-01

12

Environmentally Friendly Natural Dyeing of Organic Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, organic cotton fabrics were dyed with different natural dye sources (madder root, walnut shell, henna, horse chestnut, pomegranate peel, berberis vulgaris root, thyme, and sage tea). The dyeing was carried out with different mordants (copper sulphate, potassium aluminum sulphate, potassium tartrate, and citric acid), using pre-mordanting dyeing methods. The color of the fabrics was investigated in terms

Mustafa Tutak; N. Ebru Korkmaz

2012-01-01

13

Indigo carmine: An organic crystal as a positive-electrode material for rechargeable sodium batteries  

PubMed Central

Using sodium, instead of lithium, in rechargeable batteries is a way to circumvent the lithium's resource problem. The challenge is to find an electrode material that can reversibly undergo redox reactions in a sodium-electrolyte at the desired electrochemical potential. We proved that indigo carmine (IC, 5,5?-indigodisulfonic acid sodium salt) can work as a positive-electrode material in not only a lithium-, but also a sodium-electrolyte. The discharge capacity of the IC-electrode was ~100?mAh g?1 with a good cycle stability in either the Na or Li electrolyte, in which the average voltage was 1.8?V vs. Na+/Na and 2.2?V vs. Li+/Li, respectively. Two Na ions per IC are stored in the electrode during the discharge, testifying to the two-electron redox reaction. An X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a layer structure for the IC powder and the DFT calculation suggested the formation of a band-like structure in the crystal. PMID:24413423

Yao, Masaru; Kuratani, Kentaro; Kojima, Toshikatsu; Takeichi, Nobuhiko; Senoh, Hiroshi; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu

2014-01-01

14

ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS DATA BASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...

15

Occupational asthma and food allergy due to carmine.  

PubMed

Carmine (E120), a natural red dye extracted from the dried females of the insect Dactylopius coccus var. Costa (cochineal), has been reported to cause hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of occupational asthma and food allergy due to carmine in a worker not engaged in dye manufacturing. A 35-year-old nonatopic man, who had worked for 4 years in a spice warehouse, reported asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis for 5 months, related to carmine handling in his work. Two weeks before the visit, he reported one similar episode after the ingestion of a red-colored sweet containing carmine. Peak flow showed drops higher than 25% related to carmine exposure. Prick tests with the cochineal insect and carmine were positive, but negative to common aeroallergens, several mites, foods, and spices. The methacholine test was positive. Specific bronchial challenge test with a cochineal extract was positive with a dual pattern (20% and 24% fall in FEV1). Double-blind oral challenge with E120 was positive. The patient's sera contained specific IgE for various high-molecular-weight proteins from the cochineal extract, as shown by immunoblotting. Carmine proteins can induce IgE-mediated food allergy and occupational asthma in workers using products where its presence could be easily overlooked, as well as in dye manufacture workers. PMID:9788693

Acero, S; Tabar, A I; Alvarez, M J; Garcia, B E; Olaguibel, J M; Moneo, I

1998-09-01

16

Continuous-wave organic dye lasers and methods  

DOEpatents

An organic dye laser produces a continuous-wave (cw) output without any moving parts (e.g., without using flowing dye streams or spinning discs of solid-state dye media to prevent photobleaching) and with a pump beam that is stationary with respect to the organic dye medium. The laser's resonant cavity, organic dye medium, and pump beam are configured to excite a lasing transition over a time scale longer than the associated decay lifetimes in the organic dye medium without photobleaching the organic dye medium. Because the organic dye medium does not photobleach when operating in this manner, it may be pumped continuously so as to emit a cw output beam. In some examples, operation in this manner lowers the lasing threshold (e.g., to only a few Watts per square centimeter), thereby facilitating electrical pumping for cw operation.

Shapira, Ofer; Chua, Song-Liang; Zhen, Bo; Lee, Jeongwon; Soljacic, Marin

2014-09-16

17

Allergic contact dermatitis from carmine.  

PubMed

A 28-year-old woman developed allergic contact dermatitis within 6 to 24 hours exclusively after using carmine-containing eyeshadows and lipsticks. She had both a positive patch test result and a positive antecubital repeated open application test result with carmine 2.5% in petrolatum. Thirty other patients had negative patch test results. Carmine is a widely used pigment derived from gravid cochineal insects. Carminic acid is the source of its color. Only two previous publications describing allergic contact dermatitis from carmine could be found. The ingredient in carmine causing these delayed hypersensitivity reactions has not been studied. In contrast, there are numerous reports of immediate hypersensitivity reactions from carmine, mostly from its use in foods and beverages but also from cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. These are immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions directed against cochineal proteins. PMID:19808007

Shaw, Daniel W

2009-01-01

18

Optical pumps for organic dye lasers.  

PubMed

Several types of low energy, ultrafast flashlamps systems have been investigated as optical pumps for lasers using fast decaying fluorescent materials, in particular, organic dyes. Of the various systems examined, the coaxial lamp with a spark gap switch proved to be the most useful for pumping the organic dyes. Parameters optimized were gas type, gas pressure, discharge volume, and electrical circuitry. At optimum operation, the annular volume of the coaxial lamp is completely filled with the discharge and the current rise time is determined mainly by the external circuit inductance. The rapidity and uniformity of the discharge is attributed to photoionization of the gas fill. Current rise times are typically 140 nsec for energies up to 100 J. Because of the photoionization process, these coaxial lamps are considered to be a different class of flashlamps from the standard capillary discharge lamp, the sliding spark lamp, and the ablating wall lamp. Less useful systems that were investigated are described, and the reason for their deficiencies are analyzed. PMID:20072486

Furumoto, H W; Ceccon, H L

1969-08-01

19

Computational study of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based organic dyes for dye sensitized solar cell applications.  

PubMed

Four diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based organic dyes utilizing the donor-?-acceptor motif were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) approaches. The four dyes were composed of different donor groups, i.e. indoline, carbazole, triphenylamine, and coumarin. We investigated the effects of the DPP unit and different donors on the spectra and electrochemical properties of the dyes, respectively. In comparison with the model dye which adopts a phenylene unit as the ?-spacer, the DPP dyes all display remarkably enhanced spectral responses in the visible region of the solar spectrum. The key to this increase was the incorporation of electron-deficient DPP moieties to the molecular core, which significantly lowers LUMO levels and therefore reduces the band gap. The dye/(TiO2)46 anatase nanoparticle systems were also simulated to show the electronic structures at the interface. We studied some key properties including absorption spectra, light-harvesting efficiency, molecular orbital distributions, and injection time of electrons from the excited state of dye to the conduction band of TiO2. The dye DPP-I with indoline moiety as the electron donor demonstrates desirable energetic, electronic, and spectroscopic parameters for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications. Our theoretical study is expected to provide valuable insights into the molecular design of novel DPP-based organic dyes for the optimizations of DSSCs. PMID:25662565

Fan, Wenjie; Tan, Dazhi; Zhang, Qijian; Wang, Huaxing

2015-04-01

20

21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and...restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye,...

2012-04-01

21

21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and...restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye,...

2010-04-01

22

21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and...restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye,...

2013-04-01

23

21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and...restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye,...

2011-04-01

24

21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and...restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye,...

2014-04-01

25

Molecular dynamics simulations on the aggregation behavior of indole type organic dye molecules in dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

In Ti0(2) nanostructured dye-sensitized solar cells indole based organic dyes D149, D205 exhibits greater power conversion efficiency. Such organic dye molecules are easily undergone for aggregation. Aggregation in dye molecules leads to reduce electron transfer process in dye-sensitized solar cells. Therefore, anti-aggregating agents such as chenodeoxycholic acid are commonly added to organic dye solution in DSSCs. Studying aggregation of such dye molecules in the absence of semiconductors gives a detailed influence of anti-aggregating agents on dye molecules. Atomistic level of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on aggregation of indole type dye molecules D149, D205 and D205-F with anti-aggregating agent chenodeoxy cholic acid using AMBER program. The trajectories of the MD simulations were analyzed with order parameters such as radial atom pair distribution functions g(r), diffusion coefficients and root mean square deviations values. MD results suggest that addition of chenodeoxy cholic acid to dyes significantly reduces structural arrangement and increases conformational flexibility and mobility of dye molecules. The influence of semi-perfluorinated alkyl chains in indole dye molecules was analyzed. The parameters such as open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) and power conversion efficiency (?) of dye-sensitized solar cells are corroborated with flexibility and diffusion values of dye molecules. PMID:21904812

Selvaraj, Ananda Rama Krishnan; Hayase, Shuji

2012-05-01

26

Enhancing the light utilization efficiency of microalgae using organic dyes.  

PubMed

Solar radiation is composed of wide light spectrum including the range which cannot be utilized for microalgae. To enhance the light utilization efficiency, organic dye solutions of rhodamine101 and 9,10-diphenylanthracene were used as wavelength converters. Each dye affected cell growth and lipid accumulation differently, based on the response of each to different light spectrum. Under a light intensity of 50W/m(2), maximum cell growth (1.5g/L) was obtained with the red organic dye rhodamine101, whereas best lipid content (30%) with the blue type 9,10-diphenylanthracene. These two separate and complementary traits could be combined by simple mixing, and in so doing optimal growth (1.5g/L) as well as lipid accumulation (30%) was achieved: lipid productivity was 2.3 times greater than without the organic dye. This study proved that certain organic dye solutions could convert useless wavelengths to be useful for algae cultivation, thereby increasing the productivity of biomass and lipids. PMID:25681096

Seo, Yeong Hwan; Lee, Yonghee; Jeon, Duk Young; Han, Jong-In

2015-04-01

27

Spectrophotometric determination of vanadium in metallurgical products with carminic acid and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride  

SciTech Connect

According to the authors, there is an increasing demand for sensitive, selective, and rapid methods of determining low levels of vanadium in metallurgical products, and solvent-extraction methods do not meet the requirements. The authors used an anthraquinone dye carminic acid (CA) as a chromophoric organic reagent: 1, 3, 4, 6-tetrahydroxy-2-R-5carboxy-8-methylanthra-9, 10-quinone. The CSA was cetyltrimethylammonium chloride CTA. The three-component system was examined in order to devise a reasonably sensitive and rapid method of determining vanadium in metallurgical products. A study is made of the complexing in the system formed by vanadium (IV) with CA and the CSA. The optimum conditions for the formation of the complex have been established together with the spectrophotometric characteristics. A spectrophotometric method has been devised for determining from 0.05 to 5% of vanadium in metallurgical products with a relative standard deviation of not more than 0.04.

Babenko, N.L.; Blokh, M. Sh.; Guseva, T.D.

1985-11-01

28

A donor-acceptor type organic dye connected with a quinoidal thiophene for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A donor-acceptor type organic dye connected with a quinoidal thiophene as a ?-conjugated chain, cyano-[5'-(4''-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzylidene)-5H-thiophen-2'-ylidene]acetic acid, was synthesized and applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The absorption band of this quinoidal thiophene dye appeared at longer wavelengths than those of dyes with similar ?-conjugation length, indicating the effective ?-conjugation through the quinoidal structure. Although the excited state of the quinoidal thiophene dye is deactivated within several picoseconds even in solution, the DSSCs using the quinoidal thiophene dye showed incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) values of more than 90%, demonstrating the fast and efficient electron injection from the excited dye to TiO(2). By optimizing the fabrication conditions, the DSSC using this dye afforded a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 5.2%, without enlarging the molecular size. PMID:23344693

Komatsu, Makoto; Nakazaki, Jotaro; Uchida, Satoshi; Kubo, Takaya; Segawa, Hiroshi

2013-03-01

29

Osmium(VIII)-Catalyzed Kinetics and Mechanism of Indigo Carmine Oxidation by ChloramineB in Basic Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigo carmine (IC) or sodium indigotin disulfonate is a natural dye that finds applications in clinical diagnosis, chemistry and biology. The osmium(VIII)-catalyzed oxidation of IC by chloramine-B (CAB) in alkaline solutions has been spectrophotometrically monitored at the indigo carmine ?max of 610 nm at 298 K. The reaction stoichiometry has been found to be 1:4 (mol:mol), resulting in the formation

Kishore Cholkar; Gilles K. Kouassi; S. Ananda; M. K. Veeraiah; Netkal M. Made Gowda

2011-01-01

30

The degradation of organic dyes by corona discharge  

SciTech Connect

Several dyes in water were individually exposed to corona discharge. Light absorbance decreased for all organic dyes with time. Absorbance losses with methylene blue, malachite green, and new coccine were studied. The loss of color was followed using an in situ colorimeter and the effects of varying the current, voltage, gas phase, stirring rates, salinity, and electrode spacing were investigated. The highest reaction rates were observed using the highest current, highest voltage (up to 10kV), highest stirring rate, lowest salinity, smallest electrode spacing, and an environment containing enhanced levels of oxygen. Current was higher in the presence of nitrogen than in the presence of oxygen (for the same voltage), but the reaction of methylene blue did not proceed unless oxygen was present. These results help identify conditions using corona discharge in which dyes, and potentially other organics, can be destroyed. 22 refs., 5 figs.

Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Durham, D.E.; Heath, W.O.

1992-02-01

31

Cyanine dyes in solid state organic heterojunction solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today numerous cyanine dyes that are soluble in organic solvents are available, driven by more than a century of research and development of the photographic industry. Several properties specific to cyanine dyes suggest that this material class can be of interest for organic solar cell applications. The main absorption wavelength can be tuned from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared. The unparalleled high absorption coefficients allow using very thin films for harvesting the solar photons. Furthermore, cyanines are cationic polymethine dyes, offering the possibility to modify the materials by defining the counteranion. We here show specifically how counterions can be utilized to tune the bulk morphology when blended with fullerenes. We compare the performance of bilayer heterojunction and bulk heterojunction solar cells for two different dyes absorbing in the visible and the near-infrared. Light-induced Electron Spin Resonance (LESR) was used to study the charge transfers of light induced excitons between cyanine dyes and the archetype fullerene C60. LESR results show good correlation with the cell performance.

Heier, Jakob; Peng, Chuyao; Véron, Anna C.; Hany, Roland; Geiger, Thomas; Nüesch, Frank A.; Vismara, Marcus V. G.; Graeff, Carlos F. O.

2014-10-01

32

Chromatin fluorescence after carmine staining.  

PubMed

After staining with dilute solutions (0.1 mg/ml in distilled water) of commercial carmine, a strong reddish orange fluorescence was observed in nuclei from cell smears and frozen and paraffin tissue sections. Optimal exciting light was 436 nm (violet-blue) or 450-490 nm (blue). Compact chromatin from interphase nuclei, mitotic and meiotic chromosomes and the kinetoplast of Trypanosoma cruzi showed the highest fluorescence, while the basophilic cytoplasm appeared weakly fluorescent. No emission was observed in cartilage matrix, mast cell granules or goblet cell mucin. This selective method could be valuable in microscopic and cytochemical studies on chromatin because the carmine fluorescence is stable and preparations can be dehydrated and mounted permanently without changes in the fluorescence pattern. PMID:2080525

Stockert, J C; Llorente, A R; Del Castillo, P; Gómez, A

1990-01-01

33

[Absolute quantification of carminic acid in cochineal extract by quantitative NMR].  

PubMed

A quantitative NMR (qNMR) method was applied for the determination of carminic acid. Carminic acid is the main component in cochineal dye that is widely used as a natural food colorant. Since several manufacturers only provide reagent-grade carminic acid, there is no reference material of established purity. To improve the reliability of analytical data, we are developing quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR), based on the fact that the intensity of a given NMR resonance is directly proportional to the molar amount of that nucleus in the sample. The purities and contents of carminic acid were calculated from the ratio of the signal intensities of an aromatic proton on carminic acid to nine protons of three methyl groups on DSS-d6 used as the internal standard. The concentration of DSS-d6 itself was corrected using potassium hydrogen phthalate, which is a certified reference material (CRM). The purities of the reagents and the contents of carminic acid in cochineal dye products were determined with SI-traceability as 25.3-92.9% and 4.6-30.5% based on the crystalline formula, carminic acid potassium salt trihydrate, which has been confirmed by X-ray analysis. The qNMR method does not require a reference compound, and is rapid and simple, with an overall analysis time of only 10 min. Our approach thus represents an absolute quantitation method with SI-traceability that should be readily applicable to analysis and quality control of any natural product. PMID:20208405

Sugimoto, Naoki; Tada, Atsuko; Suematsu, Takako; Arifuku, Kazunori; Saito, Takeshi; Ihara, Toshihide; Yoshida, Yuuichi; Kubota, Reiji; Tahara, Maiko; Shimizu, Kumiko; Ito, Sumio; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Kawamura, Yoko; Nishimura, Tetsuji

2010-01-01

34

21 CFR 73.1100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cochineal extract; carmine. 73.1100 Section...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1100 Cochineal extract; carmine. (a) Identity...specifications. (1) The color additives cochineal extract and carmine shall conform...

2010-04-01

35

Theoretical investigation of phenothiazine-triphenylamine-based organic dyes with different ? spacers for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Three phenothiazine-triphenylamine-based organic dyes (CD-1, CD-2 and CD-3) are designed based on the dye WD-8. The geometries, electronic structures, and electronic absorption spectra of these dyes before and after binding to TiO2 are studied by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The calculated geometries indicate that these dyes show good steric hindrance effect which is advantage to inhibit the close intermolecular ?-? aggregation effectively. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of these dyes could ensure positive effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. The simulated spectra of CD-1?3 show better absorption than that of WD-8 in the low energy zone. All the calculated results demonstrate that these dyes could be used as potential sensitizers for DSSCs and show better performances than WD-8. PMID:24398472

Chen, Ximing; Jia, Chunyang; Wan, Zhongquan; Zhang, Jiaqiang; Yao, Xiaojun

2014-04-01

36

Anaphylactic reactions to ingested carmine (E120).  

PubMed

We report five cases of anaphylactic reaction to carmine (cochineal, E120) after patients drank an alcoholic beverage. By means of positive skin prick tests (SPT) and positive RAST to carmine. IgE-mediated sensitization could be established. One nonatopic patient showed also a great amount of serum IgE antibodies to the carmine acid-albumin conjugate. Due to its widespread use in the food and cosmetic industry, carmine should be tested in the allergy work-up in case of allergic reactions after a drink or a meal. PMID:9404569

Wüthrich, B; Kägi, M K; Stücker, W

1997-11-01

37

Fine-tuning the electronic structure of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A series of metal-free organic dyes exploiting different combinations of (hetero)cyclic linkers (benzene, thiophene, and thiazole) and bridges (4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene (CPDT) and benzodithiophene (BDT)) as the central ?-spacers were synthesized and characterized. Among them, the sensitizer containing the thiophene and CPDT showed the most broad incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra, resulting in a solar energy conversion efficiency (?) of 6.6%. PMID:22882164

Gao, Peng; Tsao, Hoi Nok; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K

2012-09-01

38

An organic hydrophilic dye for water-based dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

In this study we report the first organic hydrophilic dye employed for 100% water-based electrolyte DSSCs. We show that the replacement of alkyl by glycolic chains in the dye structure is able to provide excellent wettability, resulting in an efficient system with remarkably reduced desorption problems that allowed us to perform tests over a wide pH range. By changing the electrolyte composition, employing chenodeoxycholic acid as a co-adsorbent and using PEDOT counter-electrodes, 3% power conversion efficiency under 1-sun illumination was obtained. We show that chenodeoxycholic acid does not significantly increase the wettability, and we provide new insights into the higher performance resulting from its co-adsorption. PMID:25119775

Leandri, V; Ellis, H; Gabrielsson, E; Sun, L; Boschloo, G; Hagfeldt, A

2014-10-01

39

Toward rational design of organic dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs): an application to the TA-St-CA dye.  

PubMed

A computer aided rational design has been performed on TA-St-CA dye sensitizer in order to improve the desirable properties for new organic dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A number of electron-donating (ED) and electron-withdrawing (EW) units based on Dewar's rules are substituted into the ?-conjugated oligo-phenylenevinylene bridge of the reference TA-St-CA dye. The effects of these alternations on the molecular structures and the electron absorption spectra are calculated using time-dependant density functional theory (TDDFT). It is found that chemical modifications using electron donating (ED) substitutions exhibit advantages over the electron withdrawing (EW) substitutes to reduce the HOMO-LUMO energy gap as well as the electron distribution of the frontier orbitals of the new dyes. Dewar's rule is a useful guideline for rational design of new dye sensitizers with desired HOMO-LUMO gap. The impact on the optical spectra of new dyes are, however, less significant. PMID:23353583

Mohammadi, Narges; Mahon, Peter J; Wang, Feng

2013-03-01

40

Self-healing organic-dye-based random lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary difficulties in the implementation of organic-dye-based random lasers is the tendency of organic dyes to irreversibly photodecay. In this letter we report the observation of "reversible" photodegradation in a Rhodamine 6G and ZrO$_2$ nanoparticle doped polyurethane random laser. We find that during degradation the emission broadens, redshifts, and decreases in intensity. After degradation the system is observed to self-heal leading to the emission returning to its pristine intensity, giving a recovery efficiency of 100%. While the peak intensity fully recovers, the process is not strictly "reversible" as the emission after recovery is still found to be broadened and redshifted. The combination of the peak emission fully recovering and the broadening of the emission leads to a remarkable result: the random laser cycled through degradation and recovery has a greater integrated emission intensity than the pristine system.

Anderson, Benjamin R.; Gunawidjaja, Ray; Eilers, Hergen

2015-02-01

41

Self-healing organic-dye-based random lasers  

E-print Network

One of the primary difficulties in the implementation of organic-dye-based random lasers is the tendency of organic dyes to irreversibly photodecay. In this letter we report the observation of "reversible" photodegradation in a Rhodamine 6G and ZrO$_2$ nanoparticle doped polyurethane random laser. We find that during degradation the emission broadens, redshifts, and decreases in intensity. After degradation the system is observed to self-heal leading to the emission returning to its pristine intensity, giving a recovery efficiency of 100%. While the peak intensity fully recovers, the process is not strictly "reversible" as the emission after recovery is still found to be broadened and redshifted. The combination of the peak emission fully recovering and the broadening of the emission leads to a remarkable result: the random laser cycled through degradation and recovery has a greater integrated emission intensity than the pristine system.

Anderson, Benjamin R; Eilers, Hergen

2015-01-01

42

Self-healing organic-dye-based random lasers.  

PubMed

One of the primary difficulties in the implementation of organic-dye-based random lasers is the tendency of organic dyes to irreversibly photodecay. In this Letter, we report the observation of "reversible" photodegradation in a Rhodamine 6G and ZrO2 nanoparticle-doped polyurethane random laser. We find that during degradation, the emission broadens, redshifts, and decreases in intensity. After degradation, the system is observed to self-heal leading to the emission returning to its pristine intensity, giving a recovery efficiency of 100%. While the peak intensity fully recovers, the process is not strictly "reversible", as the emission after recovery is still found to be broadened and redshifted. The combination of the peak emission fully recovering and the broadening of the emission leads to a remarkable result: the random laser cycled through degradation, and recovery has a greater integrated emission intensity than the pristine system. PMID:25680154

Anderson, Benjamin R; Gunawidjaja, Ray; Eilers, Hergen

2015-02-15

43

Organically modified sol–gel films incorporating an infrared dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady-state absorption and emission measurements for an infrared (IR) dye have been reported. Measurements in liquid solutions and in hybrid organic\\/inorganic zirconia-based thin films synthesized with a sol–gel technique have been carried out. The optical properties of films as a function of the densification temperature have also been investigated. The results are discussed in terms of the presence of monomer

P. Prosposito; M Casalboni; F De Matteis; R Pizzoferrato

2000-01-01

44

Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.  

PubMed

Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. PMID:25466082

Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

2015-04-15

45

Theoretical design of thiazolothiazole-based organic dyes with different electron donors for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

In this study, we have designed four novel organic donor-?-acceptor dyes (D1, D2, D3, D4), used for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The electron acceptor (anchoring) group was 2-cyanoacrylic for all dyes whereas the electron donor unit varied (coumarin, indoline, carbazole, triphenylamine) and the influence was investigated. These dyes, based on thiazolothiazole as ?-spacer, were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and its extensible time dependant DFT (TDDFT) approaches to shed light on how the ?-conjugation order influence the performance of the dyes in the DSSCs. The theoretical results have shown that the LUMO and HOMO energy levels of these dyes can be ensuring positive effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. The trend of the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps nicely compares with the spectral data. Key parameters in close connection with the short-circuit current density (Jsc), including light harvesting efficiency (LHE), injection driving force (?Ginject.) and total reorganization energy (?total), were discussed. The calculated results of these dyes reveal that dye D2, with indoline as electron donor group, can be used as a potential sensitizer for TiO2 nanocrystalline solar cells due to its best electronic and optical properties and good photovoltaic parameters. PMID:24866090

Fitri, Asmae; Benjelloun, Adil Touimi; Benzakour, Mohammed; Mcharfi, Mohammed; Hamidi, Mohammed; Bouachrine, Mohammed

2014-11-11

46

Theoretical investigation of new thiazolothiazole-based D-?-A organic dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell.  

PubMed

Novel ten organic donor-?-acceptor dyes (D-?-A), used for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), based on thiazolothiazole were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and time dependant DFT (TDDFT) approaches to shed light on how the ?-conjugation order influence the performance of the dyes. The electron acceptor (anchoring) group was 2-cyanoacrylic for all dyes whereas the electron-donor unit varied and the influence was investigated. The theoretical results have shown that TDDFT calculations using the Coulomb attenuating method CAM-B3LYP with the polarized split-valence 6-31G (d,p) basis sets and the polarizable continuum model (PCM) were reasonably capable of predicting the excitation energies, the absorption and the emission spectra of the molecules. The LUMO and HOMO energy levels of these dyes can ensure a positive effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. The trend of the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps nicely compares with the spectral data. Key parameters in close connection with the short-circuit current density (Jsc), including light-harvesting efficiency (LHE), injection driving force (?G(inject)) and total reorganization energy (?total), were discussed. In addition, the estimated values of open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) for these dyes were presented. The calculated results of these dyes reveal that the D6 dye can be used as a potential sensitizer for TiO2 nanocrystalline solar cells due to its best electronic and optical properties and good photovoltaic parameters. PMID:24513712

Fitri, Asmae; Benjelloun, Adil Touimi; Benzakour, Mohammed; Mcharfi, Mohammed; Hamidi, Mohammed; Bouachrine, Mohammed

2014-04-24

47

Theoretical design of thiazolothiazole-based organic dyes with different electron donors for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we have designed four novel organic donor-?-acceptor dyes (D1, D2, D3, D4), used for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The electron acceptor (anchoring) group was 2-cyanoacrylic for all dyes whereas the electron donor unit varied (coumarin, indoline, carbazole, triphenylamine) and the influence was investigated. These dyes, based on thiazolothiazole as ?-spacer, were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and its extensible time dependant DFT (TDDFT) approaches to shed light on how the ?-conjugation order influence the performance of the dyes in the DSSCs. The theoretical results have shown that the LUMO and HOMO energy levels of these dyes can be ensuring positive effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. The trend of the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps nicely compares with the spectral data. Key parameters in close connection with the short-circuit current density (Jsc), including light harvesting efficiency (LHE), injection driving force (?Ginject.) and total reorganization energy (?total), were discussed. The calculated results of these dyes reveal that dye D2, with indoline as electron donor group, can be used as a potential sensitizer for TiO2 nanocrystalline solar cells due to its best electronic and optical properties and good photovoltaic parameters.

Fitri, Asmae; Benjelloun, Adil Touimi; Benzakour, Mohammed; Mcharfi, Mohammed; Hamidi, Mohammed; Bouachrine, Mohammed

2014-11-01

48

Triphenylamine-based organic dyes with julolidine as the secondary electron donor for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two novel donor-donor-?-conjugated-acceptor (D-D-?-A) metal-free organic dyes (JTPA1 and JTPA2) with a julolidine moiety as the secondary electron donor for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are synthesized. Their absorption spectra, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties are extensively investigated and compared with TPA2 dye. Transient absorption measurements show that both sensitizers are quickly regenerated and the dye cations are efficiently intercepted by the redox mediator. Both dyes show good performance as DSSC photosensitizers. In particular, a DSSC using JTPA2 with rhodanine-3-acetic acid shows better photovoltaic performance with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 9.30 mA cm-2, an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 509 mV and a fill factor (FF) of 0.68, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency (?) of 3.2% under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm-2). Under similar test conditions, ruthenium-based N719 dye gives an efficiency of 6.7%. Compared to TPA2, the dye regeneration rate, the short-circuit photocurrent density and the conversion efficiency of JTPA2 are doubled by introducing a julolidine unit. Our findings show that the julolidine unit may be an excellent electron donor system for organic dyes harvesting solar irradiation.

Wu, Guohua; Kong, Fantai; Li, Jingzhe; Fang, Xiaqin; Li, Yi; Dai, Songyuan; Chen, Qianqian; Zhang, Xianxi

2013-12-01

49

Efficient degradation of organic dyes by BiAgxOy.  

PubMed

A novel, simple and efficient approach for degrading organic dye, based on BiAg(x)O(y) (bismuth silver oxide, BSO), is reported for the first time. The oxidative powder BSO was prepared by simple coprecipitation of NaBiO(3)·2H(2)O and AgNO(3). The technique was evaluated for the decolorization and oxidative decomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB). The results demonstrated that mixing BSO with an aqueous solution of RhB (20 mg/L) resulted in rapid decolorization (pseudo-first-order kinetic constant k=0.5594 min(-1)) and formation of several small molecular weight products. Significant reduction in TOC (32% TOC removal in 10 min) also occurred via mineralization of RhB to CO(2)/CO(3)(2-). The reaction proceeds at ambient temperature and pressure, and requires no external energy sources or light. An advantage of the technique is that BSO can be used to degrade sequential additions of dye without significant fouling or loss of activity. The characterization of BSO and its corrosion products by XRD, FTIR, TEM, EDX and XPS revealed that Ag species were reduced to metallic silver and NaBiO(3)·2H(2)O was transformed into the Bi(2)O(2)CO(3) during the reaction process. Singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) was identified as the major reactive species generated by BSO for the degradation of RhB and several other dyes. This novel approach could be used as a highly efficient and green technology for organic dye degradation. PMID:22018868

Yu, Kai; Yang, Shaogui; Boyd, Stephen A; Chen, Hongzhe; Sun, Cheng

2011-12-15

50

QSPR study of absorption maxima of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells based on 3D descriptors.  

PubMed

A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study was performed for the prediction of the absorption maxima (lambda(max)) of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The entire set of 70 dyes was divided into a training set of 53 dyes and a test set of 17 dyes according to Kennard and Stones algorithm. Three-dimensional (3D) descriptors were calculated to represent the dye molecules. A ten-descriptor model, with a squared correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9543 and a standard error of estimation (s) of 14.7 nm, was produced by using the stepwise multilinear regression analysis (MLRA) on the training set. The reliability of the proposed model was further illustrated using various evaluation techniques: leave-one-out cross-validation procedure, randomization tests, and validation through the external test set. All descriptors involved in the model were derived solely from the chemical structure of the dye molecules, which makes the model very useful to estimate the lambda(max) of dyes before they are actually synthesized. PMID:20381412

Xu, Jie; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Liang, Guijie; Wang, Luoxin; Shen, Xiaolin; Xu, Weilin

2010-07-01

51

Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of sixteen red beverages containing carminic acid: identification of degradation products by using principal component analysis/discriminant analysis.  

PubMed

The study investigates the sunlight photodegradation process of carminic acid, a natural red colourant used in beverages. For this purpose, both carminic acid aqueous standard solutions and sixteen different commercial beverages, ten containing carminic acid and six containing E120 dye, were subjected to photoirradiation. The results show different patterns of degradation, not only between the standard solutions and the beverages, but also from beverage to beverage. Due to the different beverage recipes, unpredictable reactions take place between the dye and the other ingredients. To identify the dye degradation products in a very complex scenario, a methodology was used, based on the combined use of principal component analysis with discriminant analysis and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high resolution mass spectrometry. The methodology is unaffected by beverage composition and allows the degradation products of carminic acid dye to be identified for each beverage. PMID:25149011

Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Mastroianni, Rita; Marengo, Emilio

2015-01-15

52

Probing the regeneration process of triphenylamine-based organic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regeneration processes of triphenylamine (TPA)-based dyes with cobalt redox mediator in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been investigated using density functional theory combined with the Marcus theory of electron transfer. Our results show that with the extension or rigidification of the oligothiophene conjugation linker the absorption spectra of TPA dyes exhibit observable red-shift in the maximum absorbance that favors light-harvesting, while the electron transfer rates for dye regeneration decrease in some degrees due to the increased activation free energies and the reduced electronic coupling energies which hampers the dye regeneration. Importantly, the undesirable influences on dye regeneration by extending the linker moiety are more significant than that by the way of rigidification. Thus, the rigidification is a better choice than the extension of the conjugated moiety for the design of D-?-A type dyes based on the properties of light-harvesting and the kinetics of dye regeneration.

Sun, Zhu-Zhu; Li, Quan-Song; Sun, Ping-Ping; Li, Ze-Sheng

2015-02-01

53

Interaction of protonated merocyanine dyes with amines in organic solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2,6-Diphenyl-4-(2,4,6-triphenylpyridinium-1-yl)phenolate ( 1a) and 4-[(1-methyl-4(1 H)-pyridinylidene)-ethylidene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one ( 2a) were protonated in organic solvents (dichloromethane, acetonitrile, and DMSO) to form 1b and 2b, respectively. The appearance of the solvatochromic bands of 1a and 2a was studied UV-vis spectrophotometrically by deprotonation of 1b and 2b in solution in the presence of the following amines: aniline (AN), N-methylaniline (NMAN), N, N-dimethylaniline (NDAN), n-butylamine (BA), diethylamine (DEA), and triethylamine (TEA). Titrations of 1b and 2b with the amines were carried out and the binding constants were determined from the titration curves in each solvent, using a mathematical model adapted from the literature which considers the simultaneous participation of two dye: amine stoichiometries, 1:1 and 1:2. The data obtained showed the following base order for the two compounds in DMSO: BA > DEA > TEA, while aromatic amines did not cause any effect. In dichloromethane, the following base order for 1b was verified: TEA > DEA > BA ?NDAN, while for 2b the order was: TEA > DEA > BA, suggesting that 1b is more acidic than 2b. The data in acetonitrile indicated for 1b and 2b the following order for the amines: DEA > TEA > BA. The diversity of the experimental data were explained based on a model that considers the level of interaction of the protonated dyes with the amines to be dependent on three aspects: (a) the basicity of the amine, which varies according to their molecular structure and the solvent in which it is dissolved, (b) the molecular structure of the dye, and (c) the solvent used to study the system.

Ribeiro, Eduardo Alberton; Sidooski, Thiago; Nandi, Leandro Guarezi; Machado, Vanderlei Gageiro

2011-10-01

54

Insights into aggregation effects on optical property and electronic coupling of organic dyes in dye sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining density functional theory (DFT), time-dependent DFT, and density functional tight binding (DFTB) methods, we present a computational investigation on the aggregation effects of two organic dyes, WS-2 and WS-6, which are used as sensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The calculated absorption and emission spectra in solution and on TiO2 agree well with the experimental observations, which demonstrate WS-6 is less prone to aggregation due to a hexyl substituent on the thiophene ring compared to WS-2. Importantly, our results predict strong aggregation interactions inducing larger electronic coupling between the stacking dimers, which may be detrimental for electronic injection from dye to TiO2 and partly responsible for the loss of photo-voltaic efficiency. The deeper understanding of the dye aggregation effects shed lights on a better knowledge about the complex factors determining the function of DSSC and rational design of high efficiency sensitizers.

Feng, Shuai; Li, Quan-Song; Yang, Li-Na; Sun, Zhu-Zhu; Niehaus, Thomas A.; Li, Ze-Sheng

2015-01-01

55

Laser behavior and photostability characteristics of organic dye doped silicate gel materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solgel process is a solution synthesis technique which provides a low temperature chemical route for the preparation of rigid transparent matrix materials. Luminescent organic dye molecules have been incorporated via the solgel method into organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) polymer host matrices. Optical gain, laser oscillation, and photostability of rhodamine and coumarin dyes doped into ORMOSIL gels are reported. The

Edward T. Knobbe; Bruce Dunn; Peter D. Fuqua; Fumito Nishida

1990-01-01

56

Case study on the destruction of organic dyes in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Organic dyes, which were used in Navy shells to mark ships and structures, need to be disposed of without burning. A study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of using supercritical water oxidation to destroy organic dyes. Experimental destruction efficiencies, product analyses, and process configuration are reported.

LaJeunesse, C.A.; Rice, S.F.

1994-11-01

57

Fabrication of a high-performance dye-sensitized solar cell with 12.8% conversion efficiency using organic silyl-anchor dyes.  

PubMed

The co-sensitization of organic silyl-anchor dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using carbazole and coumarin dyes with organosilicon tethers for binding to titanium dioxide has been examined. We have succeeded in fabricating a high-performance DSSC with a light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 12.8% under one sun simulated solar irradiation. PMID:25760960

Kakiage, Kenji; Aoyama, Yohei; Yano, Toru; Oya, Keiji; Kyomen, Toru; Hanaya, Minoru

2015-03-26

58

21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cochineal extract; carmine. 73.100 Section...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.100 Cochineal extract; carmine. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive cochineal extract is the concentrated...

2010-04-01

59

High-definition vs. standard-definition endoscopy with indigo carmine for the in vivo diagnosis of colonic polyps  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence that indigo carmine chromoendoscopy is effective for the in vivo diagnosis of colonic polyps. However, the impact of colonoscope resolution on diagnostic accuracy has not been investigated. Objective We aimed to compare the effectiveness of in vivo diagnosis of small colonic polyps using indigo carmine dye spray with standard-definition and high-definition colonoscopes. Methods Procedures were performed using Fujinon colonoscopes and EPX 4400 processor. Fujinon standard-definition (SD) and high-definition (HD) colonoscopes were used, with the endoscopist blinded to colonoscope definition. Polyps <10?mm were assessed using 0.2% indigo carmine dye spray, with the predicted diagnosis recorded. In each case the kind of colonoscope (SD or HD) was recorded. Polyps were removed and sent for histological analysis, with the pathologist blinded to the diagnosis made by the endoscopist. The predicted diagnosis was compared with the true histology to calculate the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of in vivo assessment using either SD or HD scopes. Results In total 237 polyps <10?mm in size were examined. There was no statistically significant difference for any of the measured parameters between SD and HD assessments, with an accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 89%, 91% and 87% with SD colonoscopes and 92%, 96% and 84% with HD colonoscopes. Conclusions The accuracy of in vivo assessment of small colonic polyps with indigo carmine dye spray is excellent with standard-definition colonoscopes and is not improved with high-definition colonoscopes. PMID:24917993

Longcroft-Wheaton, Gaius; Brown, James; Cowlishaw, David; Higgins, Bernard

2013-01-01

60

Ultrafast Phenomena in Organic Dyes, Semiconductor Microcrystals, and Superconductors.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation covers a small part of the vast field of "Ultrafast Phenomena", e.g. phase relaxation, which represents the very first and one of the most fundamental steps in light-matter interaction. In particular, we have adopted approaches somewhat different from the commonly used ones, which have proven to be as applicable and sometimes even superior in many ways. Based on the fact that in correlation-type experiments the temporal resolution is determined by the correlation time (tau_{rm c}) of the electric field of the laser pulses, rather than the pulse duration, we have taken advantage of a broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from a nitrogen laser -pumped dye oscillator-amplifier system and achieved a resolution as good as 40fs. Various organic dyes, Rhodamine 560, 575, 590, 640 and Cresyl Violet 670 have been studied systematically. Besides the observations of different phase relaxation behaviors for different dye molecules, interesting molecular vibrations in Rhodamine 560 and 575 have also been observed. In addition, we have measured the T_2 of semiconductor microcrystals in a few semiconductor doped glasses (SDG), Hoya Y-52, O-54 and O-56, which are unique in many ways. The temperature dependence of T_2 has been studied in detail and it has been concluded that phonon scattering and absorption are the dominant mechanisms for the temperature-dependence of the exciton phase relaxation. The optical response of high T_ {rm c} superconducting rm Y_1Ba_2Cu_3O_7 thin films has been investigated using a novel autocorrelation -like double-bridge technique, which eliminates the need for a fast oscilloscope, and the temporal resolution is limited only by the duration of the excitation pulses. This study examines the voltage pulses generated in current -biase thin films by short laser pulse excitation and their dependence on laser fluence, bias current, temperature, and especially film thickness. Voltage pulses as short as 40ps, one of the fastest reported so far, have been observed. It has been concluded that phonon escaping is the bottleneck process in the relaxation of the nonequilibrium system of quasiparticles and phonons.

Huang, Guolin

61

Sonochemical degradation of chlorinated organic compounds, phenolic compounds and organic dyes - a review.  

PubMed

Sonochemical processes have been widely used in chemistry and chemical engineering field. Recently, these processes have found new applications in the environmental field, because of advantages in terms of operational simplicity, secondary pollutant formation and safety. Several studies have reported on sonochemical degradation of organic compounds that are toxic in nature. The objective of this review was to identify and examine some of the studies on sonochemical degradation of chlorinated organic compounds, phenolic compounds and organic dyes. This review also examines the basic theory of sonochemical reactions and the use of sonochemical reactors for environmental applications. PMID:19200588

Chowdhury, Pankaj; Viraraghavan, T

2009-04-01

62

Degradation of wastewaters containing organic dyes photocatalysed by zinc oxide: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants discharged into wastewaters from textile and other industrial processes. Owing to the potential toxicity of the dyes and their visibility in surface waters, removal and degradation of them have attracted considerable attention worldwide. A wide range of approaches have been developed, amongst which the heterogeneous photocatalysis involving zinc oxide (ZnO)

Sze-Mun Lam; Jin-Chung Sin; Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

2012-01-01

63

Donor/Acceptor indenoperylene dye for highly efficient organic dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

An N-annulated indenoperylene electron-donor decorated with photochemically inactive segments is synthesized and further conjugated via triple bond with electron-acceptor benzothiadiazolylbenzoic acid for a metal-free donor/acceptor dye. Without use of any coadsorbate, the judiciously tailored indenoperylene dye achieves a high-power conversion efficiency of 12.5% under irradiance of 100 mW cm(-2) AM1.5G sunlight. PMID:25742441

Yao, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Min; Wu, Heng; Yang, Lin; Li, Renzhi; Wang, Peng

2015-03-25

64

Combined photoacoustic and fluorescent quenching studies on organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of deconvolution techniques in pulsed-laser, time-resolved photoacoustics has opened the possibility of accurately distinguishing between processes occurring on different time scales, and has given photoacoustics better resolution in determining reaction enthalpies and quantum yields. While fluorescent signals are usually generated by a single de- excitation pathway in the fluorophore, photoacoustic signals usually arise from different sources, such as excited singlet and triplet deactivation, occurring on well-distinguished time scales. The understanding of the effect of quenching on photoacoustic signals therefore requires careful analysis of the data. In this work, a model is developed to describe the effect of fluorescence quenching on photoacoustic signals. The model takes advantage of the time resolution in pulsed-laser photoacoustics. Both static and dynamic quenching are taken into account. Important photophysical parameters (fluorescence and intersystem crossing quantum yields, the bimolecular quenching rate constant, and the volume of the sphere of action) appear in the expressions describing the dependence of photoacoustic signal on quencher concentration. Data from both steady-state fluorescence and time-resolved photoacoustic quenching measurements are analyzed simultaneously using a set of equations containing common parameters. Experimental data on the quenching of organic dyes are presented which support the validity of the model.

Viappiani, Cristiano; Small, Jeanne R.

1992-04-01

65

Assessment of the ?SCF-DFT approach for electronic excitations in organic dyes  

E-print Network

This paper assesses the accuracy of the ?SCF method for computing low-lying HOMO?LUMO transitions in organic dye molecules. For a test set of vertical excitation energies of 16 chromophores, surprisingly similar accuracy ...

Kowalczyk, Timothy Daniel

66

Influence of selected fluorescent dyes on small aquatic organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhodamine B and Rhodamine WT are fluorescent dyes commonly used as tracers in hydrological investigations. Since introducing intensely red substances into rivers raises understandable doubts of ecological nature, the authors aimed at examining the influence of these dyes on small water fauna using bioindication methods. Quantitative results, calculated with the use of Bliss-Weber probit statistical method, were achieved by means of standardized ecotoxicological tests containing ready-to-hatch resting forms of fairy shrimp ( Thamnocephalus platyurus). Qualitative studies included observation of water flea crustacean ( Daphnia magna) and horned planorbis snail ( Planorbis corneus), both typically present in rivers and representative for temperate climate, as well as guppy fish ( Poecilla reticulata), paramecium protozoan ( Paramaecium caudatum) and the above-mentioned fairy shrimp. The investigation revealed that both dyes in concentrations used for hydrological purposes are low enough to exert almost no toxic impact on water fauna considered.

Rowi?ski, Pawe? M.; Chrzanowski, Marcin M.

2011-02-01

67

Fluorescence decay dynamics of organic dye molecules in solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A picosecond laser system consisting of two tuneable dye lasers pumped synchronously by a mode locked argon-ion laser has been used for studying the relaxation of the S 1 excited states of dye molecules Nile Blue and Oxazine 720. The dependence of the excited state lifetimes on the solvent and on the temperature are discussed. Both intramolecular and intermolecular decay channels contribute to the radiationaless de-excitation. The mechanism of intramolecular decay is different, while that of intermolecular decay is very similar for the two molecules.

Grofcsik, A.; Kubinyi, M.; Jones, W. J.

1995-03-01

68

Synthesis and Characterization of Organic Dyes Containing Various Donors and Acceptors  

PubMed Central

New organic dyes comprising carbazole, iminodibenzyl, or phenothiazine moieties, respectively, as the electron donors, and cyanoacetic acid or acrylic acid moieties as the electron acceptors/anchoring groups were synthesized and characterized. The influence of heteroatoms on carbazole, iminodibenzyl and phenothiazine donors, and cyano-substitution on the acid acceptor is evidenced by spectral, electrochemical, photovoltaic experiments, and density functional theory calculations. The phenothiazine dyes show solar-energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 3.46–5.53%, whereas carbazole and iminodibenzyl dyes show ? of 2.43% and 3.49%, respectively. PMID:20162019

Wu, Tzi-Yi; Tsao, Ming-Hsiu; Chen, Fu-Lin; Su, Shyh-Gang; Chang, Cheng-Wen; Wang, Hong-Paul; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Ou-Yang, Wen-Chung; Sun, I-Wen

2010-01-01

69

Allergic contact dermatitis from carmine in cosmetic blush.  

PubMed

Although there are many reported cases of immediate allergy after ingestion of foods containing cochineal, there are few reports of allergic contact dermatitis from carmine. We present a rare case of allergic contact dermatitis due to carmine. A 52-year-old female presented with an itchy erythema on her cheeks at the site where blush had been applied. Patch-tested with her cosmetics, she showed a positive reaction to the blush (30% in petrolatum) and to 0.2% (but not 0.1%) carmine in petrolatum. In this case, the optimum patch-test concentration of carmine was 0.2% in petrolatum. PMID:22653009

Suzuki, Kayoko; Hirokawa, Keiko; Yagami, Akiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

2011-01-01

70

Determination of textile dyes in organs of Oncorhynchus mykiss W. after in vitro exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative determination in organs of Oncorhynchus mykiss W. of a premetallized dye (C.I. Acid Violet 66) and the azoic base (C.I. Acid Red 217), used in wool dyeing, is studied in this paper. UV-VIS Spectrophotometry was used for the chromatic quantification and atomic absorption spectrophotometry for the detection of the metal. The method described here is as satisfactory for

M. C. Riva; R. Flos; M. Crespi; M. Pepió

1992-01-01

71

Degradation of Organic Substances and Reactive Dye in an Immobilized-Cell Sequencing Batch Reactor Operation on Simulated Textile Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile wastewater generally consists of high organic substances and is strongly colored. Reactive dye has been used extensively in the textile industries. It is water soluble and difficult to remove by chemical coagulation. Removal of organic substances simultaneously with dye can be achieved by a biological process. This study aims to investigate the treatability of the organic substances and reactive

N. Pasukphun; S. Vinitnantharat

2003-01-01

72

Electrophoretic deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles using organic dyes.  

PubMed

Electrophoretic deposition method has been developed for the deposition of TiO(2) nanoparticles modified with organic dyes. Alizarin red, alizarin yellow and pyrocatechol violet dyes were used for the dispersion and charging of TiO(2) in ethanol and anodic electrophoretic deposition of TiO(2) films. The deposition yield was varied by the variation of dye concentration in suspensions and deposition time. Aurintricarboxylic acid dye was used for the deposition of TiO(2) from aqueous suspensions. It was found that thin films of pure aurintricarboxylic acid and composite aurintricarboxylic acid TiO(2) films can be obtained. The deposition yield was studied by quartz crystal microbalance. Dye film thickness was varied in the range of 0.1-2 ?m by variation in the deposition time at a constant voltage. The composition of the films and the amount of the deposited material can be varied by the variation of TiO(2) and dye concentration in suspensions and deposition time. The films were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The deposition mechanisms were discussed. The electrophoretic deposition method offers advantages for the fabrication of dye-sensitized TiO(2) films. PMID:22204967

Sun, Y; Ata, M S; Zhitomirsky, I

2012-03-01

73

Comparative studies on rigid ? linker-based organic dyes: structure-property relationships and photovoltaic performance.  

PubMed

A series of six structurally correlated donor-? bridge-acceptor organic dyes were designed, synthesized, and applied as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most widely studied donor (triarylamine) and cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophene or cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophene[2',1':4,5]thieno[2,3-d]thiophene as ? spacers, their structure-property relationships were investigated in depth by photophysical techniques and theoretical calculations. It was found that the photovoltaic performance of these dyes largely depends on their electronic structures, which requires synergistic interaction between donors and acceptors. Increasing the electron richness of the donor or the elongation of ?-conjugated bridges does not necessarily lead to higher performance. Rather, it is essential to rationally design the dyes by balancing their light-harvesting capability with achieving suitable energy levels to guarantee unimpeded charge separation and transport. PMID:25319943

Li, Hairong; Koh, Teck Ming; Hao, Yan; Zhou, Feng; Abe, Yuichiro; Su, Haibin; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grimsdale, Andrew C

2014-12-01

74

Application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the identification of anthraquinone dyes used in works of art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was investigated for applications in the analysis of anthraquinone dyes used in works of art. Two SERS procedures were developed and evaluated with three frequently used anthraquinone dyes, alizarin, carminic acid and lac dye. The first procedure involves coating a layer of silver nanoparticles directly on pieces of filter paper stained with the dyes of interest

Kui Chen; Marco Leona; Kim-Chi Vo-Dinh; Fei Yan; Musundi B. Wabuyele; Tuan Vo-Dinh

2006-01-01

75

Effects of Indigo Carmine on Human Chondrocytes In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Joint infections following or accompanying superficious soft tissue infections are severe complication in orthopedic surgery. The use of intra-articular blue staining is a helpful method to visualize a fistula and to differentiate between superficial and intra-articular infections. Regarding this clinical implication data about the effects of indigo carmine, a frequently used blue staining substance, on cartilage is missing. The hypothesis of this study was that indigo carmine damages human chondrocytes in a time and concentration dependent manner. Human chondrocytes were isolated from donors with osteoarthritis who were treated with TKA. Cells were cultivated and treated with different concentrations of indigo carmine for 5 and 10 minutes. Morphologic damage was examined by light microscopy. Toxicity was quantified by counting vital cell number and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression. Analysis by light microscopy showed defected cell structure and loss of cell number after treatment with 100% indigo carmine for 10 minutes. Treatment with 10% and 1% indigo carmine showed no significant cell defects and loss of cells. Counting vital cell number showed loss of vital cells after treatment with 100% and 10% indigo carmine for 10 minutes. LDH expression was significantly increased after treatment with 100% indigo carmine. Toxic effects were shown after treatment with indigo carmine. Therefore, it should be used in 1:100 dilution. This is both, sufficient for visualizing a fistula in a possible clinical application and could be protective for chondrocytes. PMID:23341851

Zippelius, Timo; Hoburg, Arnd; Preininger, Bernd; Vörös, Pauline; Perka, Carsten; Matziolis, Georg; Röhner, Eric

2013-01-01

76

Diode-pumped distributed-feedback dye laser with an organic–inorganic microcavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a diode-pumped microcavity dye laser composed of a top organic reflector and a bottom inorganic reflector. The\\u000a top organic reflector consists of alternate thin films of cellulose acetate and poly(N-vinylcarbazole) doped with coumarin\\u000a 540A to construct a distributed-feedback (DFB) resonator. Pumped directly by an InGaN-based blue laser diode (LD) with a pulse\\u000a duration of 4 ns, the microcavity dye

H. Sakata; K. Yamashita; H. Takeuchi; M. Tomiki

2008-01-01

77

Active polymer fibres doped with organic dyes: Generation and amplification of coherent radiation  

SciTech Connect

The technology is developed for manufacturing active polymer optical fibres doped with organic dyes. Stimulated emission and amplification in the long-wavelength part of the visible spectrum is studied for rhodamine 11B, phenalemine 512 and substituted DCM pyran in polymer optical fibres. Lasing was observed upon longitudinal and transverse pumping by the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. The gain in polymer fibres was estimated by measuring the intensity ratio of radiation of a master oscillator (dye laser) propagated through the excited (pumped) and unexcited (not pumped) fibre pieces doped with organic dyes. It is shown that the lasing efficiency of rhodamine 11B in a transversely pumped polymer fibre can achieve 36%. The maximum gain (25 dB m{sup -1}) is obtained in fibres doped with phenalemine 512. (lasers)

Maier, G V; Kopylova, T N; Svetlichnyi, Valerii A [V.D. Kuznetsov Siberian Physical-Technical Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Podgaetskii, Vitalii M [Moscow Institute of Electronic Engineering (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Dolotov, S M; Ponomareva, O V [Deltacor Limited Liability Company, Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Monich, A E; Monich, E A [Impulse Scientific and Technical Center, Krasnodarskii krai, Apsheronsk (Russian Federation)

2007-01-31

78

Development and validation of a quantitative method for determination of carmine (E120) in foodstuffs by liquid chromatography: NMKL Collaborative Study.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatographic method for quantitative determination of carmine (E120) in different foodstuffs is described. Qualitative and semiquantitative methods for analysis of carmine and other related dyes are well established. However, quantitative methods available are based mainly on enzymatic reactions that are time-consuming or specific for analysis of carminic acid in yoghurt. In the method developed and validated here, carminic acid is extracted by boiling the sample with HCl, purified on a solid-phase extraction cartridge, and injected on a C18 analytical column. The method was evaluated by an internal analytical quality control and a collaborative study in which 11 laboratories from the Nordic countries participated. The food samples analyzed were fruit jelly, liqueur, juice, yoghurt, and ice cream. Materials were distributed to participants as uniform level and split level. Validation showed that the proposed method is well suited for quantitative determination of carmine. The detection limit is 0.1 mg/L. The mean relative standard deviation for reproducibility varies from 7.9 to 11.7%. The proposed method is simple and relatively fast compared with previously published methods. PMID:9325582

Merino, L; Edberg, U; Tidriks, H

1997-01-01

79

Optical Properties of Fluorescent Mixtures: Comparing Quantum Dots to Organic Dyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study describes and compares the size-dependent optical properties of organic dyes with those of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs). The analysis shows that mixtures of QDs contain emission colors that are sum of the individual QD components.

Hutchins, Benjamin M.; Morgan, Thomas T.; Ucak-Astarlioglu, Mine G.; Wlilliams, Mary Elizabeth

2007-01-01

80

New D-A-?-A organic sensitizers for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Four novel metal-free D-A-?-A organic sensitizers () based on N-annulated perylene (NP) derivatives as efficient electron donors for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are designed. Among them, featuring bulky 4-methoxyphenyl as the additional electron-donating substituents on the NP unit shows a power conversion efficiency as high as 8.30%. PMID:25633152

Li, Xiangguang; Zheng, Zhiwei; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Wenjun; Wang, Zhaohui; Tian, He

2015-02-12

81

Suspended-core optical fibres for organic dye absorption spectroscopy Barbara Wajncholda  

E-print Network

Suspended-core optical fibres for organic dye absorption spectroscopy Barbara Wajncholda , Ada report on our study of UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy in suspended-core optical fibres (SCFs) filled for the development of chemical sensors based on SCFs. Keywords: suspended-core optical fibre, absorption spectroscopy

82

Photocatalytic Destruction of an Organic Dye Using TiO2 and Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a general chemistry experiment that is carried out in sunlight to illustrate the ability of TiO2 to act as a photocatalyst by mineralizing an organic dye into carbon dioxide. Details about the construction of the reactor system used to perform this experiment are included. (DDR)

Giglio, Kimberly D.; And Others

1995-01-01

83

Organic fluorescent thermometers based on borylated arylisoquinoline dyes.  

PubMed

Borylated arylisoquinolines with redshifted internal charge-transfer (ICT) emission were prepared and characterized. Upon heating, significant fluorescence quenching was observed, which forms the basis for a molecular thermometer. In the investigated temperature range (283-323?K) an average sensitivity of -1.2 to -1.8%?K(-1) was found for the variations in fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime. In the physiological temperature window (298-318?K) the average sensitivity even reaches values of up to -2.4%?K(-1). The thermometer function is interpreted as the interplay between excited ICT states of different geometry. In addition, the formation of an intramolecular Lewis pair can be followed by (11)B?NMR spectroscopy. This provides a handle to monitor temperature-dependent ground-state geometry changes of the dyes. The role of steric hindrance is addressed by the inclusion of a derivative that lacks the Lewis pair formation. PMID:24861774

Pais, Vânia F; Lassaletta, José M; Fernández, Rosario; El-Sheshtawy, Hamdy S; Ros, Abel; Pischel, Uwe

2014-06-16

84

Library of UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectra of modern organic dyes from historic pattern-card coloured papers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate characterisation of the organic dyes used in artworks, especially those made of paper, is an important factor in designing safe conservation treatments. In the case of synthetic organic dyes used in modern works of art, for example, one frequently encountered difficulty is that some of these dyes are not still commercially available. Recognizing this problem, the authors of this paper present the results of an analysis of UV-Vis-NIR fibre optic reflectance spectra of 82 samples of dyed paper prepared with 41 dyes. The samples come from a historic book, The Dyeing of Paper in the Pulp, which was published by Interessen-Gemeinschaft (I.G.) Farbenindustrie in 1925. The dyes used in the paper pulp belong to the azo compounds, acridine, anthraquinone, azine, diphenylmethane, indigoid, methine, nitro, quinoline, thiazine, triphenylmethane, sulphur and xanthene classes.

Montagner, Cristina; Bacci, Mauro; Bracci, Susanna; Freeman, Rachel; Picollo, Marcello

2011-09-01

85

Library of UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectra of modern organic dyes from historic pattern-card coloured papers.  

PubMed

An accurate characterisation of the organic dyes used in artworks, especially those made of paper, is an important factor in designing safe conservation treatments. In the case of synthetic organic dyes used in modern works of art, for example, one frequently encountered difficulty is that some of these dyes are not still commercially available. Recognizing this problem, the authors of this paper present the results of an analysis of UV-Vis-NIR fibre optic reflectance spectra of 82 samples of dyed paper prepared with 41 dyes. The samples come from a historic book, The Dyeing of Paper in the Pulp, which was published by Interessen-Gemeinschaft (I.G.) Farbenindustrie in 1925. The dyes used in the paper pulp belong to the azo compounds, acridine, anthraquinone, azine, diphenylmethane, indigoid, methine, nitro, quinoline, thiazine, triphenylmethane, sulphur and xanthene classes. PMID:21715217

Montagner, Cristina; Bacci, Mauro; Bracci, Susanna; Freeman, Rachel; Picollo, Marcello

2011-09-01

86

LDS dye-doped zirconia-organically modified silicate distributed feedback planar waveguide lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LDS dye-doped pure zirconia and zirconia-organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) thin film waveguides were prepared on glass substrates by a low-temperature sol-gel technique. The absorption, fluorescence and amplified spontaneous emission properties of the waveguides were investigated. Near infrared distributed feedback laser action was induced in the LDS dye-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL waveguides. Tunable narrow linewidth lasing output from 670 up to 930 nm in a transmission grating geometry was realized in the zirconia-ORMOSIL films.

Chen, Fei; Wang, Jun

2013-11-01

87

Energy transfer studies in binary laser dye mixtures in organically modified silicates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy transfer of binary dye mixture (Rhodamine110, as donor, and Oxizine1and/or Nile blue as acceptors) doped in organically modified silicates (ORMOSILs) matrix has been studied. The energy transfer process from donor molecules to acceptor molecules in the final bulk samples has been observed spectrally. Some of energy transfer parameters have been determined as a function of acceptor concentration. Stern-Volmer relation of energy transfer has been proved and the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer of dye mixture doped in such matrices has been determined. The results show that the emission properties of acceptor molecules (Ox1 and Nb) can be enhanced using the dye mixing recipe in sol-gel matrices.

Al-Maliki, Firas J.

2014-08-01

88

Evaluation of thermodynamic and photophysical properties of tricarbocyanine near-IR dyes in organized media using single-molecule monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of single NIR fluorescent dye molecules in the organized media sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and triton X-100 surfactnts above their critical micelle concentrations was used to determine partition coefficients and photophysical properties of dye molecules resident within the micelle aggregate. Inspection of the filtered data showed evidence of large amplitude photon bursts arising from single molecular events in these

Steven A. Soper; Benjamin L. Legendre; Jiping Huang

1995-01-01

89

Electronic structures and optical properties of organic dye sensitizer NKX derivatives for solar cells: a theoretical approach.  

PubMed

The photon to current conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) can be significantly affected by dye sensitizers. The design of novel dye sensitizers with good performance in DSCs depend on the dye's information about electronic structures and optical properties. Here, the geometries, electronic structures, as well as the dipole moments and polarizabilities of organic dye sensitizers C343 and 20 kinds of NKX derivatives were calculated using density functional theory (DFT), and the computations of the time dependent DFT with different functionals were performed to explore the electronic absorption properties. Based upon the calculated results and the reported experimental work, we analyzed the role of different conjugate bridges, chromophores, and electron acceptor groups in tuning the geometries, electronic structures, optical properties of dye sensitizers, and the effects on the parameters of DSCs were also investigated. PMID:23117291

Zhang, Cai-Rong; Liu, Li; Liu, Zi-Jiang; Shen, Yu-Lin; Sun, Yi-Tong; Wu, You-Zhi; Chen, Yu-Hong; Yuan, Li-Hua; Wang, Wei; Chen, Hong-Shan

2012-09-01

90

Chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study of carmine of cochineal in the rat.  

PubMed

Carmine was fed continuously to groups of 54 males and 54 females at dietary levels providing 50, 150 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day for up to 109 wk. As a control, groups of 90 males and 90 females were fed the basal diet for the same period. The rats were derived from parents fed the same dietary levels for 60 days before mating and throughout pregnancy and were thus potentially exposed in utero. There were no adverse effects upon survival, growth or intakes of food and water. No changes associated with treatment were found during the periodic measurement of haematology or renal function, or in the serum chemistry or organ weights at the end of the study. Tumour incidence was not affected, and variations in the distribution of the non-tumour pathology were not considered to be due to treatment. It was concluded that carmine administered to rats in utero and for up to 109 wk is not carcinogenic and that the no-untoward-effect level is 500 mg carmine/kg body weight/day. PMID:3692396

Ford, G P; Gopal, T; Grant, D; Gaunt, I F; Evans, J G; Butler, W H

1987-12-01

91

Three-generation reproduction study on carmine of cochineal in the rat.  

PubMed

Carmine was fed continuously to male and female rats over three generations at dietary concentrations that provided intakes of 50, 150 or 500 mg carmine/kg body weight/day. In adult animals of all generations there were no effects of treatment on body-weight gain, food and water intakes or fertility. At autopsy the weights and the gross and microscopic appearance of the organs were normal. In the teratological investigations, examination of the foetal skeletons of the F3 generation revealed a slightly more advanced stage of ossification in all treated groups compared to those of the control. Survival, growth and development of offspring were similar in each group apart from a slight delay in the time of tooth eruption in the 150- and 500-mg/kg groups of the first and second generations. This was not seen in the final generation. It is concluded that carmine had no untoward effects on the growth and fertility of adult rats, or on the ante- and postnatal development of their offspring when given continuously at doses of up to 500 mg/kg body weight/day in the diet throughout all phases of mating, gestation, lactation, weaning and adult life over three successive generations. PMID:3692397

Grant, D; Gaunt, I F

1987-12-01

92

Organic dyes containing pyrenylamine-based cascade donor systems with different aromatic ? linkers for dye-sensitized solar cells: optical, electrochemical, and device characteristics.  

PubMed

New organic dyes containing pyrenylamine donors in a cascade arrangement and cyanoacrylic acid acceptors have been synthesized and characterized by optical, electrochemical, and theoretical studies. The dyes inherit a D-?(1)-D-?(2)-A (D=donor, A=acceptor) molecular architecture where the ? linkers ?(1) are changed from phenyl to biphenyl and fluorene, whereas the ? linker ?(2) that connects the donor fragment with the acceptor is a phenyl unit. The conjugation pathway linking the two donor segments has been found to play a major role in the optical and electrochemical properties. Shorter ? linkers such as phenyl groups facilitate the donor-acceptor interaction while the nonplanar biphenyl spacer decreases the electronic communication between the donors and enhances the oxidation propensity of the corresponding dye. All the dyes display an intense longer wavelength electronic transition,which is attributable to the amine-to-cyanoacrylic acid charge transfer. The extinction coefficient of this peak grows dramatically on increasing the conjugation pathway length between the two donor segments. The dyes were used as sensitizers in nanocrystalline TiO(2)-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and the cascade donor system contributed to the enhancement in the device efficiency due to favorable absorption and redox properties. PMID:22298333

Thomas, K R Justin; Kapoor, Neha; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

2012-04-01

93

A Robust Organic Dye for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Iodine/Iodide Electrolytes Combining High Efficiency and Outstanding Stability  

PubMed Central

Among the new photovoltaic technologies, the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) is becoming a realistic approach towards energy markets such as BIPV (Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics). In order to improve the performances of DSCs and to increase their commercial attractiveness, cheap, colourful, stable and highly efficient ruthenium-free dyes must be developed. Here we report the synthesis and complete characterization of a new purely organic sensitizer (RK1) that can be prepared and synthetically upscaled rapidly. Solar cells containing this orange dye show a power conversion efficiency of 10.2% under standard conditions (AM 1.5G, 1000?Wm?2) using iodine/iodide as the electrolyte redox shuttle in the electrolyte, which is among the few examples of DSC using an organic dyes and iodine/iodide red/ox pair to overcome the 10% efficiency barrier. We demonstrate that the combination of this dye with an ionic liquid electrolyte allows the fabrication of solar cells that show power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.36% that are highly stable with no measurable degradation of initial performances after 2200?h of light soaking at 65°C under standard irradiation conditions. RK1 achieves one of the best output power conversion efficiencies for a solar cell based on the iodine/iodide electrolyte, combining high efficiency and outstanding stability. PMID:24504344

Joly, Damien; Pellejà, Laia; Narbey, Stéphanie; Oswald, Frédéric; Chiron, Julien; Clifford, John N.; Palomares, Emilio; Demadrille, Renaud

2014-01-01

94

A Robust Organic Dye for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Iodine/Iodide Electrolytes Combining High Efficiency and Outstanding Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the new photovoltaic technologies, the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) is becoming a realistic approach towards energy markets such as BIPV (Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics). In order to improve the performances of DSCs and to increase their commercial attractiveness, cheap, colourful, stable and highly efficient ruthenium-free dyes must be developed. Here we report the synthesis and complete characterization of a new purely organic sensitizer (RK1) that can be prepared and synthetically upscaled rapidly. Solar cells containing this orange dye show a power conversion efficiency of 10.2% under standard conditions (AM 1.5G, 1000 Wm-2) using iodine/iodide as the electrolyte redox shuttle in the electrolyte, which is among the few examples of DSC using an organic dyes and iodine/iodide red/ox pair to overcome the 10% efficiency barrier. We demonstrate that the combination of this dye with an ionic liquid electrolyte allows the fabrication of solar cells that show power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.36% that are highly stable with no measurable degradation of initial performances after 2200 h of light soaking at 65°C under standard irradiation conditions. RK1 achieves one of the best output power conversion efficiencies for a solar cell based on the iodine/iodide electrolyte, combining high efficiency and outstanding stability.

Joly, Damien; Pellejà, Laia; Narbey, Stéphanie; Oswald, Frédéric; Chiron, Julien; Clifford, John N.; Palomares, Emilio; Demadrille, Renaud

2014-02-01

95

Efficient degradation of organic dyes by BiAg x O y  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, simple and efficient approach for degrading organic dye, based on BiAgxOy (bismuth silver oxide, BSO), is reported for the first time. The oxidative powder BSO was prepared by simple coprecipitation of NaBiO3·2H2O and AgNO3. The technique was evaluated for the decolorization and oxidative decomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB). The results demonstrated that mixing BSO with an aqueous solution

Kai Yu; Shaogui Yang; Stephen A. Boyd; Hongzhe Chen; Cheng Sun

96

Encapsulated-dye all-organic charged colored ink nanoparticles for electrophoretic image display.  

PubMed

Electrophoretic ink nanoparticles with high mobility are successfully fabricated by dispersion polymerization. The color of test cells can be changed by applying a bias voltage, as shown in the figure: the lower row shows the same cells as the upper row but with an applied voltage. These all-organic, encapsulated-dye, electrophoretic ink particles are expected to reduce the fabrication cost of e-ink in electrophoretic image display cells. PMID:25377075

Oh, Sun Wha; Kim, Chang Woo; Cha, Hwa Jin; Pal, Umapada; Kang, Young Soo

2009-12-28

97

The potential application of activated carbon from sewage sludge to organic dyes removal.  

PubMed

The objective of this research work was to study the potential application of activated carbon from sewage sludge to organic dye removal. Methylene blue and crystal violet were the two dyes investigated in the present study. Three activated carbons were produced from the exclusive sewage sludge (referred to as DS), the sludge with the additive of coconut husk (DC) and sludge with the additive of peanut shell (DP) respectively. They were characterized by their surface area and porosity and their surface chemistry structure. Adsorption studies were performed by the batch technique to obtain kinetic and equilibrium data. The results show that the three sludge-derived activated carbons had a developed porosity and marked content of surface functional groups. They exhibited a rapid three-stage adsorption process for both methylene blue and crystal violet. Their adsorption capacities for the two dyes were high, the carbon DP performed best in the adsorption whereas the carbon DC performed worst. It is therefore concluded that the activated carbons made from sewage sludge and its mixtures are promising for dye removal from aqueous streams. PMID:11380186

Graham, N; Chen, X G; Jayaseelan, S

2001-01-01

98

Theoretical analysis of the solvatochromism of organic dyes differing by the conjugation sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption peak maxima of two organic dyes differing by the position of the methine unit differ by 61 nm in dioxane and by up to 139 nm in polar solvents. It was previously reported that the difference is not reproduced by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) using ab initio or hybrid functionals. TDDFT errors are different between the molecules, leading to a qualitative failure of TDDFT to predict relative energetics of the dyes. We focus on the effect of polar solvents (acetonitrile, DMSO, methanol, and 2-propanol) on the absorption spectrum, specifically, on the different between the two molecules sign of the solvatochromic shift versus dioxane. Using the correction due to Peach et al., the absolute TDDFT errors can be brought within acceptable ranges of 0.2 to 0.3 eV, and the blue shift versus dioxane is reproduced, although both dyes are predicted to exhibit positive solvatochromism. The inclusion of explicit solvent molecules did not appreciably change either TDDFT energies or the correction term. These results show that in dye design by changing the conjugation order, computational errors are expected to be more important than in the case of an extension of the size of conjugation, especially when polar solvents are used.

Manzhos, Sergei; Komatsu, Makoto; Nakazaki, Jotaro; Segawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi

2012-01-01

99

Correction: Sacrificial template-directed synthesis of mesoporous manganese oxide architectures with superior performance for organic dye adsorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correction for `Sacrificial template-directed synthesis of mesoporous manganese oxide architectures with superior performance for organic dye adsorption' by Lunhong Ai et al., Nanoscale, 2012, 4, 5401-5408.

Ai, Lunhong; Yue, Haitao; Jiang, Jing

2014-10-01

100

Photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine in aqueous solution by TiO2-coated non-woven fibres.  

PubMed

The photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine has been investigated in aqueous solutions using TiO2 coated non-woven fibres as photocatalyst. The experiments were carried out to investigate the factors influencing the photocatalytic degradation, such as the previous adsorption in the dark, initial concentration of dye solution, temperature, and pH. The experimental results show that adsorption is an important parameter controlling the apparent kinetic constant of the degradation. The photocatalytic degradation rate was favoured by a high concentration of solution in respect to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The degradation rate was pH and temperature dependent with a high degradation rate at high temperature. PMID:17804155

Barka, N; Assabbane, A; Nounah, A; Ichou, Y Aît

2008-04-15

101

Tailoring of Energy Levels in D-?-A Organic Dyes via Fluorination of Acceptor Units for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular design is presented for tailoring the energy levels in D-?-A organic dyes through fluorination of their acceptor units, which is aimed at achieving efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This is achieved by exploiting the chemical structure of common D-?-A organic dyes and incorporating one or two fluorine atoms at the ortho-positions of the cyanoacetic acid as additional acceptor units. As the number of incorporated fluorine atoms increases, the LUMO energy level of the organic dye is gradually lowered due to the electron-withdrawing effect of fluorine, which ultimately results in a gradual reduction of the HOMO-LUMO energy gap and an improvement in the spectral response. Systematic investigation of the effects of incorporating fluorine on the photovoltaic properties of DSSCs reveals an upshift in the conduction-band potential of the TiO2 electrode during impedance analysis; however, the incorporation of fluorine also results in an increased electron recombination rate, leading to a decrease in the open-circuit voltage (Voc). Despite this limitation, the conversion efficiency is gradually enhanced as the number of incorporated fluorine atoms is increased, which is attributed to the highly improved spectral response and photocurrent.

Lee, Min-Woo; Kim, Jae-Yup; Son, Hae Jung; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Bongsoo; Kim, Honggon; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Kyungkon; Lee, Duck-Hyung; Ko, Min Jae

2015-01-01

102

Tailoring of energy levels in D-?-A organic dyes via fluorination of acceptor units for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A molecular design is presented for tailoring the energy levels in D-?-A organic dyes through fluorination of their acceptor units, which is aimed at achieving efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This is achieved by exploiting the chemical structure of common D-?-A organic dyes and incorporating one or two fluorine atoms at the ortho-positions of the cyanoacetic acid as additional acceptor units. As the number of incorporated fluorine atoms increases, the LUMO energy level of the organic dye is gradually lowered due to the electron-withdrawing effect of fluorine, which ultimately results in a gradual reduction of the HOMO-LUMO energy gap and an improvement in the spectral response. Systematic investigation of the effects of incorporating fluorine on the photovoltaic properties of DSSCs reveals an upshift in the conduction-band potential of the TiO2 electrode during impedance analysis; however, the incorporation of fluorine also results in an increased electron recombination rate, leading to a decrease in the open-circuit voltage (Voc). Despite this limitation, the conversion efficiency is gradually enhanced as the number of incorporated fluorine atoms is increased, which is attributed to the highly improved spectral response and photocurrent. PMID:25591722

Lee, Min-Woo; Kim, Jae-Yup; Son, Hae Jung; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, BongSoo; Kim, Honggon; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Kyungkon; Lee, Duck-Hyung; Ko, Min Jae

2015-01-01

103

Tailoring of Energy Levels in D-?-A Organic Dyes via Fluorination of Acceptor Units for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

PubMed Central

A molecular design is presented for tailoring the energy levels in D-?-A organic dyes through fluorination of their acceptor units, which is aimed at achieving efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This is achieved by exploiting the chemical structure of common D-?-A organic dyes and incorporating one or two fluorine atoms at the ortho-positions of the cyanoacetic acid as additional acceptor units. As the number of incorporated fluorine atoms increases, the LUMO energy level of the organic dye is gradually lowered due to the electron-withdrawing effect of fluorine, which ultimately results in a gradual reduction of the HOMO-LUMO energy gap and an improvement in the spectral response. Systematic investigation of the effects of incorporating fluorine on the photovoltaic properties of DSSCs reveals an upshift in the conduction-band potential of the TiO2 electrode during impedance analysis; however, the incorporation of fluorine also results in an increased electron recombination rate, leading to a decrease in the open-circuit voltage (Voc). Despite this limitation, the conversion efficiency is gradually enhanced as the number of incorporated fluorine atoms is increased, which is attributed to the highly improved spectral response and photocurrent. PMID:25591722

Lee, Min-Woo; Kim, Jae-Yup; Son, Hae Jung; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, BongSoo; Kim, Honggon; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Kyungkon; Lee, Duck-Hyung; Ko, Min Jae

2015-01-01

104

Photovoltaic p-n junction cells employing new organic dyes having high stability and designed molecular properties: Final subcontract report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of work done on more than 30 combinations of organic dye pairs and of organic dye-metal electrode pairs suitable for fabricating p-n heterojunction and test Schottky-barrier solar cells, respectively. More than 350 individual cells and test structures were fabricated by vacuum evaporation of thin (300 A) dye layers on electrodes. Both familiar and newly synthesized organic semiconductors were used. In the two-dye p-n cells, the limitation of partial absorption has been successfully overcome and full visible solar spectrum coverage has been achieved. A set of criteria were devised for the optimization of p-n junction cells that include material and cell design requirements. The best results to date have been obtained with a ClAlPc and DMP pair.

Bird, G.R.; Panayotatos, P.; Sauers, R.R.; Potenza, J.

1986-10-01

105

Quantum dot and quantum dot-dye co-sensitized solar cells containing organic thiolate-disulfide redox electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) require special electrolytes, which are not always compatible with the requirements of dye sensitized solar cells. CdS and PbS quantum dot sensitized solar cells are able to show promising power conversion efficiencies in the presence of an organic thiolate/disulfide redox electrolyte. Also, an appreciable enhancement in performance is noticed when such devices are co-sensitized with a Ru-dye. The measured cell efficiencies of the CdS/dye and PbS/dye co-sensitized solar cells are 3.93% and 4.18%, respectively, which are higher than the sum of the corresponding individual QDSSCs and the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs). The enhancement seen with co-sensitization was investigated and explained by the fact that it suppressed back electron transfer processes in the cell, which was ascertained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results.

Meng, Ke; Surolia, Praveen K.; Byrne, Owen; Thampi, K. Ravindranathan

2015-02-01

106

Efficient organic sensitizers with pyridine-N-oxide as an anchor group for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Five organic dyes with pyridine-N-oxide as the anchor group and electron acceptor have been synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Benzothiadiazole was introduced in the conjugation system to increase the electron withdrawing properties, FTIR spectra showed that the coordination was between the pyridine-N-oxide and the Brønsted acid site on the TiO2 surface. The relationship between different dye structures and the performance of the DSSCs was investigated systematically. The location of the thiophene unit was studied, and the direct linkage of benzothiadiazole with pyridine-N-oxide was beneficial to broaden the absorption. The donor-acceptor-acceptor-configured dye WL307, which has 2-ethylhexyloxy chains in the donor part, showed the best efficiency of 6.08% under 100?mW?cm(-2) light illumination. The dye series showed a fairly good stability during the one month test period. PMID:25066061

Wang, Lei; Yang, Xichuan; Zhao, Jianghua; Zhang, Fuguo; Wang, Xiuna; Sun, Licheng

2014-09-01

107

Femtosecond spectroscopic study of carminic acid-DNA interactions Radu Comanicia  

E-print Network

reaction from a G base of DNA to the intercalated chromophore, which is associated with the oxidation1 Femtosecond spectroscopic study of carminic acid-DNA interactions Radu Comanicia , Bianca Gabela-sur-Yvette, France Abstract Photo-excited carminic acid and carminic acid-DNA complexes in a buffer solution at pH= 7

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

Cosensitization of D-A-?-A Quinoxaline Organic Dye: Efficiently Filling the Absorption Valley with High Photovoltaic Efficiency.  

PubMed

In the efficient cosensitization, the pure organic sensitizers with high molecular extinction coefficients and long wavelength response are highly preferable since the dye loading amount for each dye in cosensitization is decreased with respect to single dye sensitization. A D-A-?-A featured quinoxaline organic sensitizer IQ21 is specifically designed. The high conjugation building block of 4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene (CPDT) is introduced as the ? bridge, instead of the traditional thiophene unit, especially in realizing high molecular extinction coefficients (up to 66?600 M(-1) cm(-1)) and extending the light response wavelength. With respect to the reference dye IQ4, the slightly lower efficiency of IQ21 (9.03%) arises from the decrease of VOC, which offsets the gain in JSC. While cosensitized with a smaller D-?-A dye S2, the efficiency in IQ21 is further improved to 10.41% (JSC = 19.8 mA cm(-2), VOC = 731 mV, FF = 0.72). The large improvement in efficiency is attributed to the well-matched molecular structures and loading amounts of both dyes in the cosensitization system. We also demonstrated that coabsorbent dye S2 can distinctly compensate the inherent drawbacks of IQ21, not only enhancing the response intensity of IPCE, making up the absorption defects around low wavelength region of IPCE, but also repressing the charge recombination rate to some extent. PMID:25710618

Pei, Kai; Wu, Yongzhen; Li, Hui; Geng, Zhiyuan; Tian, He; Zhu, Wei-Hong

2015-03-11

109

Synthesis of Organic Dye-Impregnated Silica Shell-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by a New Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for preparing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated by organic dye-doped silica shell was developed in this article. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first coated with dye-impregnated silica shell by the hydrolysis of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HTMOS) which produced a hydrophobic core for the entrapment of organic dye molecules. Then, the particles were coated with a hydrophilic shell by the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), which enabled water dispersal of the resulting nanoparticles. The final product was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and vibration sample magnetometer. All the characterization results proved the final samples possessed magnetic and fluorescent properties simultaneously. And this new multifunctional nanomaterial possessed high photostability and minimal dye leakage.

Ren, Cuiling; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Qian; Ren, Juan; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide; Xue, Desheng

2008-12-01

110

Synthesis of Organic Dye-Impregnated Silica Shell-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by a New Method  

PubMed Central

A new method for preparing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated by organic dye-doped silica shell was developed in this article. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first coated with dye-impregnated silica shell by the hydrolysis of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HTMOS) which produced a hydrophobic core for the entrapment of organic dye molecules. Then, the particles were coated with a hydrophilic shell by the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), which enabled water dispersal of the resulting nanoparticles. The final product was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and vibration sample magnetometer. All the characterization results proved the final samples possessed magnetic and fluorescent properties simultaneously. And this new multifunctional nanomaterial possessed high photostability and minimal dye leakage. PMID:20596479

2008-01-01

111

Decomposition of Dye in Water Solution by Pulsed Power Discharge in a Water Droplet Spray  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for decomposing dye by spraying water solution of dye into nonequilibrium plasma in gas phase was investigated using a pulsed-corona discharge reactor. The corona reactor consists of a discharge wire and a cylindrical electrode. The water solution of indigo carmine with a concentration of 20 mg\\/L was sprayed into the reactor from a showerhead. The sprayed water solution

Yasushi Minamitani; Satoshi Shoji; Yoshihiro Ohba; Yoshio Higashiyama

2008-01-01

112

Neutral color tuning of polymer electrochromic devices using an organic dye.  

PubMed

Herein, we present a facile, one-step method to color tune electrochromic devices (ECDs) that switch between two neutral colors via in situ electrochemical polymerization of electroactive monomers in the presence of a small molecule organic yellow dye using all commercially available materials. These devices exhibited photopic contrasts of ca. 30% without background correction when assembled on flexible PET-ITO substrates. In addition, devices exhibited switching speeds as low as 1 second, color uniformity, and stability. Large defect free ECDs of 100 cm(2) were fabricated exceeding the active switch area required for goggles, lenses, and small display applications. PMID:24927214

Zhu, Yumin; Otley, Michael T; Kumar, Amrita; Li, Mengfang; Zhang, Xiaozheng; Asemota, Chris; Sotzing, Gregory A

2014-08-01

113

Effect of viscosity, basicity and organic content of composite flocculant on the decolorization performance and mechanism for reactive dyeing wastewater.  

PubMed

A coagulation/flocculation process using the composite flocculant polyaluminum chloride-epichlorohydrin dimethylamine (PAC-EPI-DMA) was employed for the treatment of an anionic azo dye (Reactive Brilliant Red K-2BP dye). The effect of viscosity (eta), basicity (B = [OH]/[Al]) and organic content (W(P)) on the flocculation performance as well as the mechanism of PAC-EPI-DMA flocculant were investigated. The eta was the key factor affecting the dye removal efficiency of PAC-EPI-DMA. PAC-EPI-DMA with an intermediate eta (2400 mPa x sec) gave higher decolorization efficiency by adsorption bridging and charge neutralization due to the co-effect of PAC and EPI-DMA polymers. The W(P) of the composite flocculant was a minor important factor for the flocculation. The adsorption bridging of PAC-EPI-DMA with eta of 300 or 4300 mPa x sec played an important role with the increase of W(P), whereas the charge neutralization of them was weaker with the increase of W(P). There was interaction between W(P) and B on the removal of reactive dye. The composite flocculant with intermediate viscosity and organic content was effective for the treatment of reactive dyeing wastewater, which could achieve high reactive dye removal efficiency with low organic dosage. PMID:22432257

Wang, Yuanfang; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Yan

2011-01-01

114

Synthesis and nanostructural characterization of new layered compounds based on molybdenum disulfide and organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preparation of new MoS 2 layered compounds, in which organic dyes (rhodamine 6G, oxazine 1, and thionine) were used as the guest components, was successfully realized in two reaction systems differing by the nature of molybdenum disulfide. In one system, MoS 2 was used in the form of single-layer dispersion in aqueous media; in the other system, it was taken in the form of nanodispersed powdered material, res-MoS 2, obtained by exfoliation-restacking procedure and suspended in non-aqueous solvent. Structures of prepared compounds are discussed on the basis of their compositions, X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy data. The hybrid compounds formed in single-layer dispersions were found to contain the MoS 2 layers, each of which alternate with dye layer, whereas, in the case of res-MoS 2 the same as well as the other sequences of organic and inorganic layers are formed depending on the reaction conditions. The vicinity of different-thickness domains was revealed within the guest layers of rhodamine and oxazine. It results from different packings of organic molecules and sufficient flexibility of molybdenum disulfide layers.

Golub, Alexandre S.; Lenenko, Natalia D.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.; Novikov, Yurii N.

2012-01-01

115

A Research Module for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: Multistep Synthesis of a Fluorous Dye Molecule  

PubMed Central

A multi-session research-like module has been developed for use in the undergraduate organic teaching laboratory curriculum. Students are tasked with planning and executing the synthesis of a novel fluorous dye molecule and using it to explore a fluorous affinity chromatography separation technique, which is the first implementation of this technique in a teaching laboratory. Key elements of the project include gradually introducing students to the use of the chemical literature to facilitate their searching, as well as deliberate constraints designed to force them to think critically about reaction design and optimization in organic chemistry. The project also introduces students to some advanced laboratory practices such as Schlenk techniques, degassing of reaction mixtures, affinity chromatography, and microwave-assisted chemistry. This provides students a teaching laboratory experience that closely mirrors authentic synthetic organic chemistry practice in laboratories throughout the world. PMID:24501431

2014-01-01

116

Post-assembly atomic layer deposition of ultrathin metal-oxide coatings enhances the performance of an organic dye-sensitized solar cell by suppressing dye aggregation.  

PubMed

Dye aggregation and concomitant reduction of dye excited-state lifetimes and electron-injection yields constitute a significant mechanism for diminution of light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies in many dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). For TiO2-based DSCs prepared with an archetypal donor-acceptor organic dye, (E)-2-cyano-3-(5'-(5''-(p-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-thiophen-2''-yl)thiophen-2'-yl)acrylic acid (OrgD), we find, in part via ultrafast spectroscopy measurements, that postdye-adsorption atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ultrathin layers of either TiO2 or Al2O3 effectively reverses residual aggregation. Notably, the ALD treatment is significantly more effective than the widely used aggregation-inhibiting coadsorbent, chenodeoxycholic acid. Primarily because of reversal of OrgD aggregation, and resulting improved injection yields, ALD post-treatment engenders a 30+% increase in overall energy conversion efficiency. A secondary contributor to increased currents and efficiencies is an ALD-induced attenuation of the rate of interception of injected electrons, resulting in slightly more efficient charge collection. PMID:25695408

Son, Ho-Jin; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Nak Cheon; Prasittichai, Chaiya; Luo, Langli; Wu, Jinsong; Farha, Omar K; Wasielewski, Michael R; Hupp, Joseph T

2015-03-11

117

Third-order nonlinear optical response of indigo carmine under 633 nm excitation for nonlinear optical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report thermally induced third-order nonlinearity and optical limiting behaviour of Indigo Carmine dye. z-Scan technique was used to determine the sign and magnitude of absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. Continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser operating at 633 nm was used as source of excitation. In open aperture z-scan experiments, samples exhibited reverse saturable absorption (RSA) process. For closed aperture z-scan experiments, samples revealed self-defocusing property. The presence of donor and acceptor groups in the structure increases the conjugation length and in turn increases the optical nonlinearity. Induced self-diffraction rings pattern was recorded for the samples and it is attributed to refractive index change and thermal lensing. Also, optical limiting and clamping studies were carried out for various input power. Optical clamping of about ~1 mW was observed. This endorses that the dye under investigation is a positive candidate for opto-electronic and photonic applications.

Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.

2014-11-01

118

High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of carminic acid, alpha- and beta-bixin, and alpha- and beta-norbixin, and the determination of carminic acid in foods.  

PubMed

During a study of natural food colours, a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography system was developed for use with cochineal and annato. An isocratic mobile phase, consisting of methanol and 6% aqueous acetic acid, resolved bixin and norbixin, while a gradient system was used to separate carminic acid and the annato compounds. The carminic acid contents of cochineal extract, carmine and carmine hydrosoluble were determined using an isocratic mobile phase (40:60, v/v). The detection limit for carminic acid in the various products was approximately 100 ng/g. Carminic acid was determined quantitatively in fruit beverages, yogurt and candies. It was demonstrated that, because of decomposition, carminic acid was not suitable for use in candies when manufacturing temperatures above 100 degrees C were required. Most membrane filters are not suitable for use with cochineal solutions, but a cellulose membrane filter did not adsorb carminic acid and was used successfully to remove impurities from water-based cochineal products and food extracts containing carminic acid. PMID:8653204

Lancaster, F E; Lawrence, J F

1996-05-01

119

21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The color additive carmine is the aluminum or calcium-aluminum lake on an aluminum hydroxide substrate of the coloring principles...Cochineal extract shall conform to the following specifications: pH, not less than 5.0 and not more than 5.5 at 25 °C....

2012-04-01

120

21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...The color additive carmine is the aluminum or calcium-aluminum lake on an aluminum hydroxide substrate of the coloring principles...Cochineal extract shall conform to the following specifications: pH, not less than 5.0 and not more than 5.5 at 25 °C....

2014-04-01

121

21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The color additive carmine is the aluminum or calcium-aluminum lake on an aluminum hydroxide substrate of the coloring principles...Cochineal extract shall conform to the following specifications: pH, not less than 5.0 and not more than 5.5 at 25 °C....

2011-04-01

122

21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The color additive carmine is the aluminum or calcium-aluminum lake on an aluminum hydroxide substrate of the coloring principles...Cochineal extract shall conform to the following specifications: pH, not less than 5.0 and not more than 5.5 at 25 °C....

2013-04-01

123

Hierarchical assembly of metal nanoparticles, quantum dots and organic dyes using DNA origami scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-assembly of nanoscale elements into three-dimensional structures with precise shapes and sizes is important in fields such as nanophotonics, metamaterials and biotechnology. Short molecular linkers have previously been used to create assemblies of nanoparticles, but the approach is limited to small interparticle distances, typically less than 10 nm. Alternatively, DNA origami can precisely organize nanoscale objects over much larger length scales. Here we show that rigid DNA origami scaffolds can be used to assemble metal nanoparticles, quantum dots and organic dyes into hierarchical nanoclusters that have a planet-satellite-type structure. The nanoclusters have a tunable stoichiometry, defined distances of 5-200 nm between components, and controllable overall sizes of up to 500 nm. We also show that the nanoscale components can be positioned along the radial DNA spacers of the nanostructures, which allows short- and long-range interactions between nanoparticles and dyes to be studied in solution. The approach could, in the future, be used to construct efficient energy funnels, complex plasmonic architectures, and porous, nanoengineered scaffolds for catalysis.

Schreiber, Robert; Do, Jaekwon; Roller, Eva-Maria; Zhang, Tao; Schüller, Verena J.; Nickels, Philipp C.; Feldmann, Jochen; Liedl, Tim

2014-01-01

124

Z-Scan Determination of the Third-Order Optical Nonlinearity of Organic Dye Nile Blue Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single beam Z-scan technique was used to determine the nonlinear optical properties of the organic dye Nile Blue chloride in the solvent ethanol. The experiments were performed with a He-Ne laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm. The negative nonlinear refractive index and two-photon absorption coefficient were observed in this dye. The intensity-dependent nonlinear refractive index was investigated. The result shows that the dye exhibits a great nonlinear response with the real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility ?(3) being -4.12×10-5 esu and 1.35×10-6 esu, respectively. These results show that the Nile Blue chloride dye has potential applications in nonlinear optics.

Ali, Qusay Mohammed; Palanisamy, P. K.

125

Super-resolution recordable disc with organic dye for recording layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new structure of super resolution optical disk with organic dye for recording layer was proposed. By utilizing of Sb thin film for the mask layer, below-diffraction-limited marks on organic recording layer could be recorded and retrieved. The mark size as small as 120nm could be read out on the current dynamic tester of digital versatile recordable disc (DVD-R). The conditions of optical pickup head are 635nm of laser wavelength (l) and 0.6 of lens numerical aperture (NA). The carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) from recorded marks of 200nm was more than 28.5dB at low readout power of 2mW and at a constant linear velocity (CLV) equals 3.5 m/s. The recording layer with modified composition owned high thermal stability and the readout durability was more than 6 X 104 cycles without any decreasing of CNR.

Hsu, Wei-Chih; Tsai, Song Yeu; Kuo, P. C.; Tseng, Mei-Rurng; Hsu, Shih-Peng; Hung, Tien-Tsan; Chang, Chih-Li

2002-01-01

126

Hierarchically porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen hybrid materials towards highly efficient and selective adsorption of organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hierarchically macro/micro-porous silicon-carbon-nitrogen (Si-C-N) hybrid material was presented with novel functionalities of totally selective and highly efficient adsorption for organic dyes. The hybrid material was conveniently generated by the pyrolysis of commercial polysilazane precursors using polydivinylbenzene microspheres as sacrificial templates. Owing to the Van der Waals force between sp-hybridized carbon domains and triphenyl structure of dyes, and electrostatic interaction between dyes and Si-C-N matrix, it exhibites high adsorption capacity and good regeneration and recycling ability for the dyes with triphenyl structure, such as methyl blue (MB), acid fuchsin (AF), basic fuchsin and malachite green. The adsorption process is determined by both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. According to the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity is 1327.7 mg.g-1 and 1084.5 mg.g-1 for MB and AF, respectively, which is much higher than that of many other adsorbents. On the contrary, the hybrid materials do not adsorb the dyes with azo benzene structures, such as methyl orange, methyl red and congro red. Thus, the hierarchically porous Si-C-N hybrid material from a facile and low cost polymer-derived strategy provides a new perspective and possesses a significant potential in the treatment of wastewater with complex organic pollutants.

Meng, Lala; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tang, Yusheng; Su, Kehe; Kong, Jie

2015-01-01

127

Hierarchically porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen hybrid materials towards highly efficient and selective adsorption of organic dyes  

PubMed Central

The hierarchically macro/micro-porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen (Si–C–N) hybrid material was presented with novel functionalities of totally selective and highly efficient adsorption for organic dyes. The hybrid material was conveniently generated by the pyrolysis of commercial polysilazane precursors using polydivinylbenzene microspheres as sacrificial templates. Owing to the Van der Waals force between sp2-hybridized carbon domains and triphenyl structure of dyes, and electrostatic interaction between dyes and Si-C-N matrix, it exhibites high adsorption capacity and good regeneration and recycling ability for the dyes with triphenyl structure, such as methyl blue (MB), acid fuchsin (AF), basic fuchsin and malachite green. The adsorption process is determined by both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. According to the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity is 1327.7?mg·g?1 and 1084.5?mg·g?1 for MB and AF, respectively, which is much higher than that of many other adsorbents. On the contrary, the hybrid materials do not adsorb the dyes with azo benzene structures, such as methyl orange, methyl red and congro red. Thus, the hierarchically porous Si–C–N hybrid material from a facile and low cost polymer-derived strategy provides a new perspective and possesses a significant potential in the treatment of wastewater with complex organic pollutants. PMID:25604334

Meng, Lala; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tang, Yusheng; Su, Kehe; Kong, Jie

2015-01-01

128

Hierarchically porous silicon-carbon-nitrogen hybrid materials towards highly efficient and selective adsorption of organic dyes.  

PubMed

The hierarchically macro/micro-porous silicon-carbon-nitrogen (Si-C-N) hybrid material was presented with novel functionalities of totally selective and highly efficient adsorption for organic dyes. The hybrid material was conveniently generated by the pyrolysis of commercial polysilazane precursors using polydivinylbenzene microspheres as sacrificial templates. Owing to the Van der Waals force between sp-hybridized carbon domains and triphenyl structure of dyes, and electrostatic interaction between dyes and Si-C-N matrix, it exhibites high adsorption capacity and good regeneration and recycling ability for the dyes with triphenyl structure, such as methyl blue (MB), acid fuchsin (AF), basic fuchsin and malachite green. The adsorption process is determined by both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. According to the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity is 1327.7?mg·g(-1) and 1084.5?mg·g(-1) for MB and AF, respectively, which is much higher than that of many other adsorbents. On the contrary, the hybrid materials do not adsorb the dyes with azo benzene structures, such as methyl orange, methyl red and congro red. Thus, the hierarchically porous Si-C-N hybrid material from a facile and low cost polymer-derived strategy provides a new perspective and possesses a significant potential in the treatment of wastewater with complex organic pollutants. PMID:25604334

Meng, Lala; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tang, Yusheng; Su, Kehe; Kong, Jie

2015-01-01

129

Silver nanoparticles on amidoxime fibers for photo-catalytic degradation of organic dyes in waste water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein we report that a new photo-catalyst of silver nanoparticles attached on the surface of amidoxime fibers was developed and evaluated. The nanoparticles had different sizes from tens to hundreds of nanometers and varied shapes of cube, plate, and sphere; and there were coordination interactions between the nanoparticles and the amidoxime fibers. The developed photo-catalyst demonstrated high activities for degradation of an organic dye of methyl orange, particularly under sunlight; and the catalyst could be re-activated for several times by simple tetrahydrofuran treatment. The results also suggested that the silver nanoparticles initiated and/or mediated the photo-oxidation reaction of methyl orange through localized surface plasmon resonance under sunlight, and the photo-catalytic activities were primarily determined by sizes and/or surface-to-mass ratios instead of shapes of the silver nanoparticles.

Wu, Zhi-Chuan; Zhang, Yong; Tao, Ting-Xian; Zhang, Lifeng; Fong, Hao

2010-11-01

130

N-Annulated perylene-based metal-free organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A series of novel metal-free organic sensitizers based on N-annulated perylene derivatives have been designed and synthesized, and exhibit broad absorption spectra in the visible region. The dye-sensitized solar cells exhibit overall conversion efficiencies ranging from 4.90% to 8.28% under AM 1.5 solar conditions. PMID:25695804

Yang, Liu; Zheng, Zhiwei; Li, Yan; Wu, Wenjun; Tian, He; Wang, Zhaohui

2015-03-01

131

Simple metal-free organic D-pi-A dyes with alkoxy- or fluorine substitutions: application in dye sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Two new metal-free organic sensitizers with simplest structural variations have been synthesized for application in nanocrystalline TiO2 sensitized solar cells. The donor-pi-bridge-acceptor (D-pi-A) structure dyes, Y2 and Y3 each designed with three parts, an electron donor unit (substituted phenyl), a linker unit (thiophene), and an anchor unit (cyanoacrylic acid) showed maximal monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) in a device reaching upto 67% and 82% respectively. The organic sensitizers with 3,4,5-trimethoxy phenyl (Y3) as donor moieties obtained better solar light to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of 3.30% where as the organic sensitizer with 2,4-difluoro phenyl as donor (Y2) showed comparatively lower efficiency of 1.02%. The efficiency obtained with the reference sensitizer N719 under similar fabrication and evaluation conditions was 5.84%. PMID:22905490

Chandrasekharam, M; Chiranjeevi, B; Gupta, K S V; Singh, Surya Prakash; Islam, A; Han, L; Kantam, M Lakshmi

2012-06-01

132

Development of a Rapid and Simple Method for Detection of Protein Contaminants in Carmine  

PubMed Central

Protein contaminants in carmine can cause dyspnea and anaphylactic reactions in users and consumers of products containing this pigment. The method generally used for detection of proteins in carmine has low reproducibility and is time-consuming. In this study, a rapid, simple, and highly reproducible method was developed for the detection of protein contaminants in carmine. This method incorporates acidic protein denaturation conditions and ultrafiltration. To prevent protein aggregation, sodium dodecyl sulfate containing gel electrophoresis running buffer was used for dispersing the carmine before filtration. An ultrafiltration device was used to separate the protein contaminants from carminic acid in the carmine solution. Two ultrafiltration devices were compared, and a cylindrical device containing a modified polyethersulfone membrane gave the best results. The method had high reproducibility.

Nakayama, Norihisa; Ohtsu, Yutaka; Maezawa-Kase, Daisuke; Sano, Ken-Ichi

2015-01-01

133

Preparation and properties of nanosized fluorescent solid films based on a polyelectrolyte-surfactant complex with organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure for preparing an organosoluble stoichiometric complex based on a cationic polyelectrolyte and an anionic surfactant is described. A method is proposed for forming monolayers at the water-air interface, along with conditions for preparing fluorescent nanosized solid films based on polyelectrolyte complex and organic dyes using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. The spectral and luminescent properties of the obtained films are investigated. It is established from the absorption and fluorescence spectra of LB films that electrostatic interaction between the molecules of polyelectrolyte complex and oxazine dyes results in dimer formation.

Seliverstova, E. V.; Ibrayev, N. Kh.; Kudaibergenov, S. E.

2013-05-01

134

Theoretical analysis of the absorption spectra of organic dyes differing by the conjugation sequence: illusion of negative solvatochromism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption peak maxima of two organic dyes differing by the position of the methine unit differ by 61 nm in dioxane and 128 nm in acetonnitrile. The difference is not reproduced by TDDFT using ab initio or hybrid functionals. TDDFT errors are different between the molecules due to a different albeit small extent of charge transfer, leading to a qualitative failure of TDDFT to predict relative energetics of the dyes. The TDDFT errors in non-polar solvents (such as dioxane) could be corrected based on the approach of Peach et al. (J. Chem. Phy. 128, 044118 (2008)). Here, we focus on the effect on the absorption spectrum of a polar solvent, specifically of the different between the two molecules sign of the solvatochromic shift vs. dioxane. Using the corrrection due to Peach et al, the absolute TDDFT errors can be brought within accetable ranges of 0.2-0.3 eV with the PCM solvent model, and the blue shift vs.dioxane is reporoduced, although both dyes are predicted to exhibit positive solvatochromism. The inclusion of explicit solvent molecules forming hydrogen bonds with the dye did not appreciably change neither TDDFT energies nor the correction term. These results show the importance of a more careful assessment of computational errors in the strategy of computationaly dye design by changing the conjugation order, where they are expected to be more important than in the case of an extension of the size of conjugation, and more so when polar solvents are used.

Manzhos, Sergei; Segawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi

2012-06-01

135

Template-free hydrothermal derived cobalt oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of organic dyes  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the products obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 24 h, and at different [Co{sup 2+}]/[CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}] ratios: (a) 1:6, (b) 1:3, (c) 1:1.5, (d) 1:1, (e) 1:0.5. Highlights: ? Spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal approach. ? The optical characteristics of the as-prepared cobalt oxide revealed the presence of two band gaps. ? Adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated and the percent uptake was found to be >99% in 24 h. -- Abstract: Pure spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared through hydrothermal approach using different counter ions. First, the pure and uniform cobalt carbonate (with particle size of 21.8–29.8 nm) were prepared in high yield (94%) in an autoclave in absence unfriendly organic surfactants or solvents by adjusting different experimental parameters such as: pH, reaction time, temperature, counter ions, and (Co{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) molar ratios. Thence, the spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (with mean particle size of 30.5–47.35 nm) was produced by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate in air at 500 °C for 3 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis (TA). Also, the optical characteristics of the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles revealed the presence of two band gaps (1.45–1.47, and 1.83–1.93 eV). Additionally, adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated and the uptake% was found to be >99% in 24 h.

Nassar, Mostafa Y. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)] [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt); Ahmed, Ibrahim S., E-mail: isahmed2010@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)

2012-09-15

136

Photoconductivity of organic polymer films doped with porous silicon nanoparticles and ionic polymethine dyes  

SciTech Connect

Features of electrical conductivity and photoconductivity of polyvinylbutyral films containing porous silicon nanoparticles and similar films doped with cationic and anionic polymethine dyes are studied. Sensitization of the photoelectric effect by dyes with different ionicities in films is explained by the possible photogeneration of holes and electrons from dye molecules and the intrinsic bipolar conductivity of porous silicon nanoparticles. It is assumed that the electronic conductivity in porous silicon nanoparticles is higher in comparison with p-type conductivity.

Davidenko, N. A., E-mail: daviden@ukrpack.net; Skrichevsky, V. A. [Kiev National Taras Shevchenko University (Ukraine); Ishchenko, A. A. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Organic Chemistry (Ukraine); Karlash, A. Yu.; Mokrinskaya, E. V. [Kiev National Taras Shevchenko University (Ukraine)

2009-05-15

137

A metal-organic tetrahedron as a redox vehicle to encapsulate organic dyes for photocatalytic proton reduction.  

PubMed

The design of artificial systems that mimic highly evolved and finely tuned natural photosynthetic systems is a subject of intensive research. We report herein a new approach to constructing supramolecular systems for the photocatalytic generation of hydrogen from water by encapsulating an organic dye molecule into the pocket of a redox-active metal-organic polyhedron. The assembled neutral Co4L4 tetrahedron consists of four ligands and four cobalt ions that connect together in alternating fashion. The cobalt ions are coordinated by three thiosemicarbazone NS chelators and exhibit a redox potential suitable for electrochemical proton reduction. The close proximity between the redox site and the photosensitizer encapsulated in the pocket enables photoinduced electron transfer from the excited state of the photosensitizer to the cobalt-based catalytic sites via a powerful pseudo-intramolecular pathway. The modified supramolecular system exhibits TON values comparable to the highest values reported for related cobalt/fluorescein systems. Control experiments based on a smaller tetrahedral analogue of the vehicle with a filled pocket and a mononuclear compound resembling the cobalt corner of the tetrahedron suggest an enzymatic dynamics behavior. The new, well-elucidated reaction pathways and the increased molarity of the reaction within the confined space render these supramolecular systems superior to other relevant systems. PMID:25738748

Jing, Xu; He, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Duan, Chunying

2015-03-25

138

High-voltage (1.8 V) tandem solar cell system using a GaAs\\/Al X Ga (1? X )As graded solar cell and dye-sensitised solar cells with organic dyes having different absorption spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stacked multijunction (tandem) solar cells have been prepared by mechanically stacking dye-sensitised solar cells (DSCs) and a GaAs\\/AlXGa(1?X)As graded solar cell (GGC) as the top and bottom cells, respectively. Three organic dyes with different absorption spectra (D131, D102 and D205) were used in the DSCs, in order to match the photocurrent density between the DSC and the GGC. Tuning the

S. Ito; I. M. Dharmadasa; G. J. Tolan; J. S. Roberts; G. Hill; H. Miura; J.-H. Yum; P. Pechy; P. Liska; P. Comte; M. Grätzel

2011-01-01

139

Novelmetal-organic photocatalysts: Synthesis, characterization and decomposition of organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient method for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in an aqueous medium was developed using metal-organic complexes. Two novel complexes were synthesized using, Schiff base ligand, N?-[(E)-(4-ethylphenyl)methylidene]-4-hydroxybenzohydrazide (HL) and Ni(II) (Complex 1)/Co(II) (Complex 2) chloride respectively. These complexes were characterized using microanalysis, various spectral techniques. Spectral studies reveal that the complexes exhibit square planar geometry with ligand coordination through azomethine nitrogen and enolic oxygen. The effects of catalyst dosage, irradiation time and aqueous pH on the photocatalytic activity were studied systematically. The photocatalytic activity was found to be more efficient in the presence of Ni(II) complexes than the Co(II) complex. Possible mechanistic aspects were discussed.

Gopal Reddy, N. B.; Murali Krishna, P.; Kottam, Nagaraju

2015-02-01

140

Hydrogen evolution by photocatalytic reactions of some organic dyes and semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various organic dyes and powdered semiconductors are illuminated by visible light to bring about methylviologen - MV(2+) - reduction and hydrogen evolution from water, in an effort to study an 'artificial photosynthesis' process. MV(2+) is used as an electron acceptor, EDTA as an electron donor, and photochemical reactions are carried out both in nonaqueous solutions, such as dimethylsulfoxide, methanol, and in their mixtures with water. A 500W Xe lamp and a monochromator are used for monochromatic illumination at the peak wavelength of the visible absorption band of each molecule. The reduced MV(+) is monitored by a spectrophotometer, and a thermopile is used to determine the quantum efficiency of the reaction. Zn-chlorophyl-a and Zn-tetraphenylporphine show quite a high quantum efficiency. The preparation of the TiO2-RuO2 photocatalyst is described. The band gap illumination of TiO2 mixed with RuO2 leads to a continuous, catalytic production of hydrogen and oxygen from gaseous water at room temperature. The rate of hydrogen evolution per 100 mg of TiO2-RuO2, for 20 hours, is 11 micromoles at the stationary state.

Sakata, T.; Kawai, T.; Koiso, T.; Okuyama, M.

141

Optical modeling of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells based on squarine dye as electron donor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potentiality of a squarine dye (Sq1) for using as electron donor component in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ) has been studied from the optical point of view. The soluble n-type fullerene, (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61MB) was chosen as acceptor. Optical modelling based on transfer matrix method was carried out to predict and improve photovoltaic performance of a BHJ device with blended Sq1/PC61MB active layer. The dependence of the absorption and the calculated maximum short circuit photocurrent (Jscmax) on the thickness of the active layer (dact), was investigated for two weight ratios of Sq1 and PC61MB. Thus, the optimal dact was calculated to be about 100 nm, which provides an efficient overlapping of the total absorption with solar spectrum in the range between 580 and 900 nm. Besides, it is found that the insertion of ZnO or C60 spacer layer shifts Jscmax peak to lower dact and significantly enhances Jscmax for active layers with dact < 50 nm, which is mainly due to improved light absorption by a factor of 5 to 10. Simultaneously, for dact <100 nm the optical effect of inserted PEDOT:PSS hole transporting layer is negligible.

Kitova, S.; Stoyanova, D.; Dikova, J.; Kandinska, M.; Vasilev, A.; Angelova, S.

2014-12-01

142

75 FR 81949 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...111] RIN 1513-AB79 Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of...prescribed in Notice No. 111, Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of...require the disclosure of the presence of cochineal extract and carmine on the labels...

2010-12-29

143

High-efficiency orange and tandem white organic light-emitting diodes using phosphorescent dyes with horizontally oriented emitting dipoles.  

PubMed

Tandem white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) using horizontally oriented phosphorescent dyes in an exciplex-forming co-host are presented, along with an orange OLED. A high external quantum efficiency of 32% is achieved for the orange OLED at 1000 cd m(-2) and the tandem WOLEDs exhibit a high maximum EQE of 54.3% (PE of 63 lm W(-1)). PMID:24923483

Lee, Sunghun; Shin, Hyun; Kim, Jang-Joo

2014-09-01

144

Aggregation control of organic sensitizers for panchromatic dye co-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photovoltaic properties of dye co-sensitized solar cells were compared with those of mono-sensitized devices. Co-sensitized TiO2 photo-electrodes were prepared from a phenothiazine chromophore for the RED dye and a squaraine chromophore for the BLUE dye to achieve panchromatic light absorption in dye co-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Co-sensitization on the TiO2 photo-electrode could reduce the aggregation of the BLUE dye adsorbed on the TiO2 surface, which led to an enhancement of the short circuit current (Jsc) of the co-sensitized solar cells. The dye co-sensitized solar cells with the RED and BLUE dyes optimized according to the dipping time showed an increase in the photon-to-current efficiency compared to that of the solar cell with a mono-sensitized photo-electrode. The photovoltaic and aggregation properties of the DSSCs were examined by measuring the current-voltage curve, incident photon-to-current efficiency, and electrochemical impedance spectra.

Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Sang A.; Jung, Mi Ran; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Han, Yoon Soo; Kim, Jae Hong

2014-08-01

145

Surface Binding and Organization of Sensitizing Dyes on Metal Oxide Single Crystal Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Even though investigations of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors in solar cells has dominated research on dye-sensitized semiconductors over the past two decades. Single crystal electrodes represent far simpler model systems for studying the sensitization process with a continuing train of studies dating back more than forty years. Even today single crystal surfaces prove to be more controlled experimental models for the study of dye-sensitized semiconductors than the nanocrystalline substrates. We analyzed the scientific advances in the model sensitized single crystal systems that preceded the introduction of nanocrystalline semiconductor electrodes. It then follows the single crystal research to the present, illustrating both their striking simplicity of use and clarity of interpretation relative to nanocrystalline electrodes. Researchers have employed many electrochemical, photochemical and scanning probe techniques for studying monolayer quantities of sensitizing dyes at specific crystallographic faces of different semiconductors. These methods include photochronocoulometry, electronic spectroscopy and flash photolysis of dyes at potential-controlled semiconductor electrodes and the use of total internal reflection methods. In addition, we describe the preparation of surfaces of single crystal SnS2 and TiO2 electrodes to serve as reproducible model systems for charge separation at dye sensitized solar cells. This process involves cleaving the SnS2 electrodes and a photoelectrochemical surface treatment for TiO2 that produces clean surfaces for sensitization (as verified by AFM) resulting in near unity yields for electron transfer from the molecular excited dyes into the conduction band.

Parkinson, Bruce

2010-06-04

146

Modulating triphenylamine-based organic dyes for their potential application in dye-sensitized solar cells: a first principle theoretical study.  

PubMed

By using computational methodologies based on time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) we study the opto-electronic properties of three types of triphenylamine (TPA)-based dyes, namely TPA-TBT-1, TPA-DBT-1, and TPA-BT-1, and these are proposed as potential candidates for photovoltaic applications. Energy band modulation has been performed by functionalizing these dyes with different electron donating and electron withdrawing groups. Photoelectron spectra and photovoltaic properties of the dyes have been investigated by a combination of DFT and TDDFT approaches. Based on the optimized molecular geometry, relative position of the frontier energy levels, and the absorption maximum of the dyes we propose some dyes offering good photovoltaic performance. At the same time, these results provide a direction for optimizing the composition of dye-metal surface nanodevices for fabricating dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). PMID:25335462

Nath Ghosh, Narendra; Chakraborty, Arnab; Pal, Sougata; Pramanik, Anup; Sarkar, Pranab

2014-12-14

147

Ultralow detection limits for an organic dye determined by fluorescence spectroscopy with laser diode excitation  

SciTech Connect

Fluorescence of IR-140, a laser dye in methanol solution, is excited by a semiconductor laser diode. Analytical figures of merit are compared for three different instrumental configurations, with the dye measured in a cuvette, a liquid jet, and a compact instrument. The best limit of detection, 46,000 molecules, was achieved with a liquid jet. Linear dynamic range was 6 orders of magnitude. The laser diode operates in the near-infrared region, resulting in low background fluorescence.

Johnson, P.A.; Barber, T.E.; Smith, B.W.; Winefordner, J.D. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

1989-04-15

148

Removal of malachite green dye from wastewater by different organic acid-modified natural adsorbent: kinetics, equilibriums, mechanisms, practical application, and disposal of dye-loaded adsorbent.  

PubMed

Natural adsorbent (Cinnamomum camphora sawdust) modified by organic acid (oxalic acid, citric acid, and tartaric acid) was investigated as a potential adsorbent for the removal of hazardous malachite green (MG) dye in aqueous media in a batch process. The extent of MG adsorption onto modified sawdust increased with increasing organic acid concentrations, pH, contact time, and temperature but decreased with increasing adsorbent dosage and ionic strength. Kinetic study indicated that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model could best describe the adsorption kinetics of MG. Equilibrium data were found to fit well with the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of the three kinds of organic acid-modified sawdust was 280.3, 222.8, and 157.5 mg/g, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that the sorption of MG was an endothermic process. The adsorption mechanism, the application of adsorbents in practical wastewater, the prediction of single-stage batch adsorption system, and the disposal of depleted adsorbents were also discussed. PMID:25028314

Wang, Hou; Yuan, Xingzhong; Zeng, Guangming; Leng, Lijian; Peng, Xin; Liao, Kailingli; Peng, Lijuan; Xiao, Zhihua

2014-10-01

149

HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of dyes identified in textiles from Mount Athos.  

PubMed

Organic colorants contained in 30 textiles (16th to early 20th century) from the monastery of Simonos Petra (Mount Athos) have been investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). The components of natural dyes identified in samples treated by the standard HCl dyestuff extraction method were: alizarin, apigenin, butein, carminic acid, chrysoeriol, dcII, dcIV, dcVII, ellagic acid, emodin, fisetin, flavokermesic acid, fustin, genistein, haematein derivative (Hae'), indigotin, indirubin, isoliquiritigenin, isorhamnetin, kaempferide, kaempferol, kermesic acid, luteolin, naringenin, purpurin, quercetin, rhamnazin, rhamnetin, sulfuretin, and type B and type C compounds (last two are markers for Caesalpinia trees). Early, semi-synthetic dyes, for example indigo carmine, fuchsin components, and rhodamine B were identified in objects dated late 19th to early 20th century. A dyestuff extraction method which involves use of TFA, instead of HCl, was applied to selected historical samples, showing that the mild method enables efficient extraction of weld (Reseda luteola L.) and dyer's broom (Genista tinctoria L.) glycosides. The marker compound (Hae') for logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum L.) identification after treatment with HCl was investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in negative electrospray ionization (LC-MS-ESI(-)) mode. LC-MS in negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC-MS-APCI(-)) mode was used, probably for the first time, to investigate cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) samples. Positive electrospray ionization (LC-MS-ESI(+)) mode was used for identification of fuchsin components. Detailed HPLC-DAD studies were performed on young fustic (Cotinus coggygria Scop.) and Persian berries (Rhamnus trees). PMID:21271239

Mantzouris, Dimitrios; Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Valianou, Lemonia; Panayiotou, Costas

2011-03-01

150

The hazardous effects of the three natural food dyes on developmental stages and longevity of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Nowadays, food dyes obtained from herbal, animal, microbial and mineral sources are widely used as food additives. In this study, the toxic effects of three different natural food dyes (carmine, turmeric and annatto) on 72 ± 4 h larvae of Oregon-R wild type of Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. For this purpose, four different application doses (50, 75, 100, 125 mg mL(-1)) were chosen by means of preliminary studies. It was determined that larval mortality increased with increasing concentration in the application groups and the toxicity order was carmine > turmeric > annatto. It was observed that the survival rate was highest in the control with 98% and lowest in 125 mg mL(-1) carmine with 16%. In addition, the average lifespan of the adult individuals obtained from third instar larvae was also studied. While the average lifespan was 40.88 ± 1.44 days in the control group, these values were 10.81 ± 0.55-23.90 ± 1.27 days in the carmine group, 15.00 ± 0.80-22.42 ± 1.43 days in the turmeric group and 10.33 ± 1.03-35.68 ± 1.54 days in the annatto group, respectively. According to the obtained results, when both the developmental period from larvae into adults and the lifespan of the developing adults were compared with the control group, the food dyes were found to be toxic and the toxicity order of carmine > turmeric > annatto was identified. PMID:23456813

Uysal, Handan; Semerdoken, Sidika; Colak, Deniz Altun; Ayar, Arif

2013-03-01

151

Induction, purification and characterization of a novel manganese peroxidase from Irpex lacteus CD2 and its application in the decolorization of different types of dye.  

PubMed

Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is the one of the important ligninolytic enzymes produced by lignin-degrading fungi which has the great application value in the field of environmental biotechnology. Searching for new MnP with stronger tolerance to metal ions and organic solvents is important for the maximization of potential of MnP in the biodegradation of recalcitrant xenobiotics. In this study, it was found that oxalic acid, veratryl alcohol and 2,6-Dimehoxyphenol could stimulate the synthesis of MnP in the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2. A novel manganese peroxidase named as CD2-MnP was purified and characterized from this fungus. CD2-MnP had a strong capability for tolerating different metal ions such as Ca2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ as well as organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, DMSO, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, butanediol and glycerin. The different types of dyes including the azo dye (Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R, Direct Red 5B), anthraquinone dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue R), indigo dye (Indigo Carmine) and triphenylmethane dye (Methyl Green) as well as simulated textile wastewater could be efficiently decolorized by CD2-MnP. CD2-MnP also had a strong ability of decolorizing different dyes with the coexistence of metal ions and organic solvents. In summary, CD2-MnP from Irpex lacteus CD2 could effectively degrade a broad range of synthetic dyes and exhibit a great potential for environmental biotechnology. PMID:25412169

Qin, Xing; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

2014-01-01

152

Induction, Purification and Characterization of a Novel Manganese Peroxidase from Irpex lacteus CD2 and Its Application in the Decolorization of Different Types of Dye  

PubMed Central

Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is the one of the important ligninolytic enzymes produced by lignin-degrading fungi which has the great application value in the field of environmental biotechnology. Searching for new MnP with stronger tolerance to metal ions and organic solvents is important for the maximization of potential of MnP in the biodegradation of recalcitrant xenobiotics. In this study, it was found that oxalic acid, veratryl alcohol and 2,6-Dimehoxyphenol could stimulate the synthesis of MnP in the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2. A novel manganese peroxidase named as CD2-MnP was purified and characterized from this fungus. CD2-MnP had a strong capability for tolerating different metal ions such as Ca2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ as well as organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, DMSO, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, butanediol and glycerin. The different types of dyes including the azo dye (Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R, Direct Red 5B), anthraquinone dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue R), indigo dye (Indigo Carmine) and triphenylmethane dye (Methyl Green) as well as simulated textile wastewater could be efficiently decolorized by CD2-MnP. CD2-MnP also had a strong ability of decolorizing different dyes with the coexistence of metal ions and organic solvents. In summary, CD2-MnP from Irpex lacteus CD2 could effectively degrade a broad range of synthetic dyes and exhibit a great potential for environmental biotechnology. PMID:25412169

Qin, Xing; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

2014-01-01

153

Quantitative determination of carmine in foods by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid method has been developed and validated for the determination of carmine in foods. Samples were homogenised and extracted with 0.05 M NaOH, followed by centrifugation. The resulting solution was filtered and injected to HPLC. Carmine was separated by HPLC using an NovaPak C18 column coupled to a photodiode array detector. The contents of carmine were finally quantified using corresponding calibration curves over ranges of 1.0-100 ?g ml(-1), with good correlation coefficients (r(2)=0.9999). The recoveries of carmine from foods spiked at levels of 10, 50, and 100 ?g g(-1) which ranged from 90.4% to 96.2% with relative standard deviations between 2.8% and 6.8%. Limit of detection and limit of quantification of carmine were 0.4 and 1.0 ?g ml(-1), respectively. This method was found to be useful to distinguish carmine from carminic acid, a major component of cochineal extract. The method has been successfully applied to various foods. PMID:24731378

Lim, Ho-Soo; Choi, Jae-Chon; Song, Sung-Bong; Kim, Meehye

2014-09-01

154

An integrated experimental and theoretical approach to the spectroscopy of organic-dye-sensitized TiO? heterointerfaces: disentangling the effects of aggregation, solvation, and surface protonation.  

PubMed

We report a joint experimental and computational study into the spectroscopic properties of a prototypical D5 organic dye, both in solution and adsorbed on a TiO2 surface, with the aim of modeling and quantifying the UV/Vis spectral shifts that occur in the different explored environments. Going from the dye in solution to dye-sensitized TiO2, various factors may shift the position of the UV/Vis absorption maximum, both towards longer and shorter wavelengths. Here we have focused on the effect of dye aggregation on TiO2, surface protonation, and solvent effects. The D5 dye forms stable aggregates on the TiO2 surface that cause spectral blueshifts. We used different sensitization conditions to vary the dye loading and thus the extent of dye aggregation. For each sensitization condition, we explored protonated and native TiO2 films. Computational modeling of different dimeric aggregates with increasing intermolecular interactions and simulation of the associated optical responses also confirm the observed spectral blueshifts. Our results show that both the presence of surface protons and solvent stabilize the excited state of the adsorbed dye molecules, which causes a marked redshift in the absorption maximum and thus moves in the opposite direction to the shift due to the increase in the surface coverage. PMID:24402779

Marotta, Gabriele; Lobello, Maria Grazia; Anselmi, Chiara; Barozzino Consiglio, Gabriella; Calamante, Massimo; Mordini, Alessandro; Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo

2014-04-14

155

Synthesis and characterization of organic dyes with various electron-accepting substituents for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Four new donor-?-acceptor dyes differing in their acceptor group have been synthesized and employed as model systems to study the influence of the acceptor groups on the photophysical properties and in NiO-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. UV/Vis absorption spectra showed a broad range of absorption coverage with maxima between 331 and 653?nm. Redox potentials as well as HOMO and LUMO energies of the dyes were determined from cyclic voltammetry measurements and evaluated concerning their potential use as sensitizers in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs). Quantum-chemical density functional theory calculations gave further insight into the frontier orbital distributions, which are relevant for the electronic processes in p-DSCs. In p-DSCs using an iodide/triiodide-based electrolyte, the polycyclic 9,10-dicyano-acenaphtho[1,2-b]quinoxaline (DCANQ) acceptor-containing dye gave the highest power conversion efficiency of 0.08%, which is comparable to that obtained with the perylenemonoimide (PMI)-containing dye. Interestingly, devices containing the DCANQ-based dye achieve a higher V(OC) of 163?mV compared to 158?mV for the PMI-containing dye. The result was further confirmed by impedance spectroscopic analysis showing higher recombination resistance and thus a lower recombination rate for devices containing the DCANQ dye than for PMI dye-based devices. However, the use of the strong electron-accepting tricyanofurane (TCF) group played a negative role in the device performance, yielding an efficiency of only 0.01% due to a low-lying LUMO energy level, thus resulting in an insufficient driving force for efficient dye regeneration. The results demonstrate that a careful molecular design with a proper choice of the acceptor unit is essential for development of sensitizers for p-DSCs. PMID:25234556

Weidelener, Martin; Powar, Satvasheel; Kast, Hannelore; Yu, Ze; Boix, Pablo P; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Geiger, Thomas; Kuster, Simon; Nüesch, Frank; Bach, Udo; Mishra, Amaresh; Bäuerle, Peter

2014-11-01

156

Multi-Layered Anisotropic Films Based on the Azo Dye Brilliant Yellow and Organic Polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique for producing multi-layered fi lms containing alternating layers of photo-aligned dichroic azo dye brilliant yellow (BY) dispersed in a matrix of polyvinylpyrrolidone and optically transparent polycyclohexadiene (PCHD) was developed. The optical density of the films depended linearly on the number of layers of dye and its concentration in the initial solutions. It was determined that the surface roughness of the composition BY layer on the PCHD layer was three times less than on single-crystalline silicon substrate (4.8 and 1.5 nm). Multi-layered fi lms based on BY exhibited dichroic absorption and birefringence upon irradiation with linearly polarized light (? = 450 nm).

Chaplanova, Zh. D.; Murauski, A. A.; Rogachev, A. A.; Agabekov, V. E.; Gracheva, E. A.

2013-11-01

157

Facile synthesis of PbWO4: Applications in photoluminescence and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes under visible light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stolzite polymorph of PbWO4 catalyst was prepared by the facile room temperature precipitation method. Structural parameters were refined by the Rietveld analysis using powder X-ray data. PbWO4 was crystallized in the scheelite-type tetragonal structure with space group I41/a (No. 88). Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed leaf like morphology. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit broad blue emission (425 nm) under the excitation of 356 nm. The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue, Rhodamine B and Methyl orange dyes were measured under visible illumination. The 100% dye degradation was observed for MB and RhB dyes within 60 and 105 min. The rate constant was found to be in the decreasing order of MB > RhB > MO which followed the 1st order kinetic mechanism. Therefore, PbWO4 can be a potential candidate for blue component in white LEDs and also acts as a catalyst for the treatment of toxic and non-biodegradable organic pollutants in water.

Saraf, Rohit; Shivakumara, C.; Behera, Sukanti; Nagabhushana, H.; Dhananjaya, N.

2015-02-01

158

Response Characterization of a Fiber Optic Sensor Array with Dye-Coated Planar Waveguide for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds  

PubMed Central

We have developed a multi-array side-polished optical-fiber gas sensor for the detection of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases. The side-polished optical-fiber coupled with a polymer planar waveguide (PWG) provides high sensitivity to alterations in refractive index. The PWG was fabricated by coating a solvatochromic dye with poly(vinylpyrrolidone). To confirm the effectiveness of the sensor, five different sensing membranes were fabricated by coating the side-polished optical-fiber using the solvatochromic dyes Reinhardt's dye, Nile red, 4-aminophthalimide, 4-amino-N-methylphthalimide, and 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde, which have different polarities that cause changes in the effective refractive index of the sensing membrane owing to evanescent field coupling. The fabricated gas detection system was tested with five types of VOC gases, namely acetic acid, benzene, dimethylamine, ethanol, and toluene at concentrations of 1, 2,…,10 ppb. Second-regression and principal component analyses showed that the response properties of the proposed VOC gas sensor were linearly shifted bathochromically, and each gas showed different response characteristics. PMID:24988381

Lee, Jae-Sung; Yoon, Na-Rae; Kang, Byoung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Won; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Lee, Seung-Ha; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

2014-01-01

159

Facile synthesis of PbWO4: applications in photoluminescence and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes under visible light.  

PubMed

Stolzite polymorph of PbWO4 catalyst was prepared by the facile room temperature precipitation method. Structural parameters were refined by the Rietveld analysis using powder X-ray data. PbWO4 was crystallized in the scheelite-type tetragonal structure with space group I41/a (No. 88). Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed leaf like morphology. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit broad blue emission (425 nm) under the excitation of 356 nm. The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue, Rhodamine B and Methyl orange dyes were measured under visible illumination. The 100% dye degradation was observed for MB and RhB dyes within 60 and 105 min. The rate constant was found to be in the decreasing order of MB>RhB>MO which followed the 1st order kinetic mechanism. Therefore, PbWO4 can be a potential candidate for blue component in white LEDs and also acts as a catalyst for the treatment of toxic and non-biodegradable organic pollutants in water. PMID:25448939

Saraf, Rohit; Shivakumara, C; Behera, Sukanti; Nagabhushana, H; Dhananjaya, N

2015-02-01

160

Analytical Methods for the Characterization of Organic Dyes in Artworks and in Historical Textiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes are among the most significant components in works of art and archaeological findings. In the scientific examination of historical artefacts, the identification of natural dyestuffs is a challenging task, due to the complexity of their chemical composition and the possible presence of mixtures of chromophores and degradation products. For this reason, in the last few decades, new analytical procedures

I. Degano; E. Ribechini; F. Modugno; M. P. Colombini

2009-01-01

161

Determination of ranitidine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations by titrimetry and visible spectrophotometry using bromate and acid dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new methods using titrimetry and spectrophotometry are described for the determination of ranitidine hydrochloride (RNH) with potassium bromate as the oxidimetric reagent and acid dyes, methyl orange, indigo carmine and metanil yellow. In direct titrimetry (method A), the drug is titrated directly with bromate in acid medium and in the presence of excess of bromide using methyl orange indicator.

K. Basavaiah; P. Nagegowda

2004-01-01

162

Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity study of carmine of cochineal in the rat.  

PubMed

Groups of 30 mated female rats were given daily doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1000 mg carmine/kg body weight by oral intubation throughout pregnancy. A group of 17 similar animals was given a solution of chlorides to provide an intake of sodium, potassium and ammonium equal to that resulting from the highest dose level of carmine. There were no effects of carmine treatment on body weights, pregnancy rates, pre-implantation losses, the average numbers of live young, litter weights or foetal weights. The group given the highest dose of carmine and the cation control had increased numbers of implantations and post-implantation losses. The latter was considered to be due to an inability to maintain the increased numbers of implantations rather than to an embryotoxic effect. The foetuses showed no malformations and those from the carmine-treated rats tended to have a slightly more advanced degree of ossification of certain skeletal elements than foetuses of the control animals. On the basis of the results obtained it is considered that there were no untoward effects on embryo development in rats given oral doses of up to 1000 mg carmine/kg body weight/day throughout pregnancy. PMID:3692398

Grant, D; Gaunt, I F; Carpanini, F M

1987-12-01

163

Organic dyes incorporating the dithieno[3',2':3,4;2?,3?:5,6]benzo[1,2-c]furazan moiety for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

New D-?-A'-?-A type sensitizers (JH dyes), comprised arylamine as the electron donor, dithieno[3',2':3,4;2?,3?:5,6]benzo[1,2-c]furazan (DTBF) in the conjugated spacer, and 2-cyanoacrylic acid as both the acceptor and anchor, have been synthesized. The JH dyes have broad absorption spectra covering the range of 350 to 600 nm with the highest molar extinction coefficient up to >40?000 M(-1) cm(-1). The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated from the dyes exhibited light-to-electricity conversions ranging from 1.42 to 6.18% under simulated AM 1.5 G illumination. Upon adding 10 mM CDCA as the coadsorbent, the best performance cell has the power conversion efficiency of 7.33%, which is close to that of N719-based standard DSSC (7.56%). PMID:25470385

Ni, Jen-Shyang; You, Jian-Hao; Hung, Wei-I; Kao, Wei-Siang; Chou, Hsien-Hsin; Lin, Jiann T

2014-12-24

164

``Fast'' amplifying optical Kerr gate using stimulated emission of organic non-linear dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a "fast" optical Kerr gate (OKG) which can act at the same time as light amplifier. As a Kerr medium we used different laser dyes (Cresyl violet, Nile blue, Rhodamine 640). The most efficient at available wavelengths (595 nm and 297 nm) was Cresyl violet dissolved in methanol. With a classical OKG arrangement we obtained a maximum transmission of 4000% at 650 nm (strong amplification of the tramsmitted signal), this wavelength corresponding to a gain maximum of Cresyl violet. The opening time of the OKG was 15 ps limited by the reorientation time of the dye molecule in methanol solvent. With a special OKG arrangement based on the use of two delayed opening pulses, we obtained 240% transmission at the same wavelength with an opening time of 2.5 ps. Possible improvements of the method are described.

Jonusauskas, G.; Oberlé, J.; Abraham, E.; Rullière, C.

1997-02-01

165

Random lasing in liquid and solid solutions oversaturated with organic laser dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of studies carried out for oversaturated solutions with common laser dye 4- (Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) and 3-(1,1-Dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5- dihydro-1H-pyrazole (DCNP) nonlinear chromophore. We show that oversaturating the solution leads to formation of crystals suspension resulting in strong Mie scattering and thus random laser operation can be observed. The formation of aggregates can be induced be oversaturating the solution or by injection of non-solvent to the dye solution, leading to reduction of solubility limit. Similar situation can be obtained for polymeric matrices for which small crystals are precipitated during layer formation (solvent evaporation) when film is casted from the solution.

Sznitko, Lech; Cyprych, Konrad; Szukalski, Adam; Miniewicz, Andrzej; Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw

2014-03-01

166

Stimulated emission and lasing in dye-doped organic thin films with Forster transfer  

SciTech Connect

Optically pumped stimulated emission and lasing in thin films of an absorbing host 8-hydroxyquinolinato aluminum(Alq) doped with small amounts of the laser dye DCM II is observed. Forster transfer of the excitation from the Alq molecules to the DCM II molecules results in a high absorption coefficient at pump wavelength (337 nm) as well as low absorption loss at the emission wavelengths (610{endash}650 nm). {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Berggren, M.; Dodabalapur, A.; Slusher, R.E. [Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)] [Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)

1997-10-01

167

A comparative study of non-covalent encapsulation methods for organic dyes into silica nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Numerous luminophores may be encapsulated into silica nanoparticles (< 100 nm) using the reverse microemulsion process. Nevertheless, the behaviour and effect of such luminescent molecules appear to have been much less studied and may possibly prevent the encapsulation process from occurring. Such nanospheres represent attractive nanoplatforms for the development of biotargeted biocompatible luminescent tracers. Physical and chemical properties of the encapsulated molecules may be affected by the nanomatrix. This study examines the synthesis of different types of dispersed silica nanoparticles, the ability of the selected luminophores towards incorporation into the silica matrix of those nanoobjects as well as the photophysical properties of the produced dye-doped silica nanoparticles. The nanoparticles present mean diameters between 40 and 60 nm as shown by TEM analysis. Mainly, the photophysical characteristics of the dyes are retained upon their encapsulation into the silica matrix, leading to fluorescent silica nanoparticles. This feature article surveys recent research progress on the fabrication strategies of these dye-doped silica nanoparticles. PMID:21711855

2011-01-01

168

Smectite clays of Serbia and their application in adsorption of organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorants and dyes are currently available in over a 100.000 different species and several biggest industries are using them daily in their manufacture processes (textile, cosmetics, food industry, etc.). Since colorants are easily dissoluble in water they pass through filter membranes without further decomposing and in that manner they end up in the environment. The main goal of this work is to apply certain methods in determining the suitability of individual clay in adsorbing and removing colorants from polluted waters. For this study we have chosen four different raw clays from three regions in Serbia: Svrljig (B), Bogovina (Bo) and Slatina-Ub (C and V) and as colorant - methylene blue dye (MB (MERCK, for analytical purposes)). Experiments where carried out to determine the sample structure (XRD and IR), grain size (granulometry), cationic exchange capacity (CEC via spectrophotometry using MB) and adsorption capabilities (spectrophotometry and fluorimetry using MB). XRD and IR data are showing that the samples are smectite clays where samples B i Bo are mainly montmorillonite while C and V are montmorillonite-illite clays. Granulometric distribution results indicate that samples B i Bo have smaller grain size, less that 1? (over 60%) whereas the samples C and V are more coarse grained (40% over 20?). This grain distribution is affecting their specific surface area in the manner that those coarse grained samples have smaller specific surface area. Cationic exchange capacity determined with methylene blue indicate that montmorillonite samples have larger CEC (B = 37 meq/100g, Bo = 50 meq/100g) and montmorillonite-illite samples smaller CEC (V = 5 meq/100g, V = 3 meq/100g). Fluorimetry measurement results gave us a clear distinction between those with higher and smaller adsorption capability. Montmorillonite samples (B and Bo) with higher CEC values and smaller grain size are adsorbing large amounts of methylene blue witch is visible by absence of fluorimetric band corresponding to methylene blue. Montmorillonite-illite samples with smaller CEC values and coarser grain size are adsorbing very small amounts of methylene blue from the suspension which is visible by appearance of the methylene blue band. Untreated, raw smectite clays of Serbia are efficient adsorbent material for removal of dyes from polluted waters. Samples from two regions especially, Bogovina and Svrljig, are showing favorable adsorption results and they are representing good raw materials for purification of waste-waters containing dyes. References: - Jovi?-Jovi?i?, N., Milutinovi?-Nikoli?, A., Gržeti?, I., Jovanovi?, D.; Organobentonite as efficient textile dye sorbent; Chem. Eng. Technol. 2008, 31, No. 4, 567-574 - Žuni?, M.J., Milutinovi?-Nikoli?, A.D., Jovi?-Jovi?i?, N.P., Bankovi?, P.T., Mojovi?, Z.D., Manojlovi?, D.D., Jovanovi?, D.M.; Modified bentonite as adsorbent and catalyst for purification of wastewaters containing dyes; Hem. ind. 2010, 64 ,No. 3, 193-199

Miloševi?, Maja; Logar, Mihovil

2014-05-01

169

Random lasing in dye doped bio-organic based systems: recent experiments and stochastic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the results of recent experimental studies on random lasing phenomenon in biopolymeric matrices: DNA-CTMA and starch, loaded with different luminescent dyes (DCNP and Rh6G). New experimental results for DNA-CTMA:DCNP system are presented. The random lasing originates due to the light scattering induced by formation of microcrystals or clusters in the bulk of biosystem. We propose a simple model for light transport in the scattering medium accounting for the inhomogeneities in polymer matrices simulated using Monte Carlo method and present some preliminary results related to ray scattering.

Mitus, A. C.; Pawlik, G.; Mysliwiec, J.; Sznitko, L.; Cyprych, K.; Szukalski, A.; Kajzar, F.; Rau, I.

2014-08-01

170

UV light induced photodegradation of organic dye by ZnO nanocatalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet light induced photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanocatalyst prepared using a wet chemical precipitation route and mineralization of the methyl orange (MO) dye has been carried out in a photocatalytic reactor. The degradation of the MO was monitored spectrophotometrically and showed a decolorization efficiency of 92% after nine hours of irradiation in the MO-ZnO/UV light system. The blue shifting of maximum peak position of the MO and the formation of extra peak at 247 nm during irradiation time advances revealed that MO degrades in the form of intermediates during the photocatalytic process.

Sumesh, C. K.; Patel, Bhavin; Parekh, Kinnari

2013-06-01

171

Theoretical studies on organic D-?-A sensitizers with planar triphenylamine donor and different ?-linkers for dyes-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Systematic density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations on the geometry, electronic structure, absorption, and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of experimentally synthesized organic sensitizers LCn (n?=?1-3) used in dyes-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were performed to disclose the important influences of the planar triphenylamine donor and the extended ?-linker on the DSSCs performance. The interaction of dye with I2 and the conduction band shift were also investigated to rationalize the difference in open-circuit photovoltage (V oc). The results demonstrated that the planarization of TPA donor and the extended conjugation of ?-linker in sensitizers LC2 and LC3 could result in a red shift of absorption and a reduction in exciton binding energy, which is beneficial to enhance the matching degree of absorption of sensitizers with solar photon-flux spectrum and to improve the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency, both contributing to the significant increase of photocurrent density as compared to reference dye LC1. It is also found that the calculated NLO properties correlated well with the photocurrent response of sensitizers, suggesting that NLO properties may be used as an effective tool for the fast screen and design of candidate sensitizers. As for candidate dyes Tn (n?=?1-4) with different dithiophene blocks as ?-linker, dye T1 with dithienosilole as ?-linker may serve as a promising alternative to high-performance dye LC3. PMID:24961897

Li, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Jian-Zhao; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Yong; Duan, Yi-Ai; Su, Zhong-Min; Geng, Yun

2014-07-01

172

Tunable synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated zero-valent iron nanoparticles for degradation of organic dyes  

PubMed Central

A series of nanocomposites consisting of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a successive two-step method, i.e., the wet chemical reduction by borohydride followed by a modified Stöber method. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. The catalytic performance of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI nanocomposites for the degradation of organic dyes was investigated using methylene blue (MB) as the model dye in the presence of H2O2. The results showed that the degradation efficiency and apparent rate constant of the degradation reaction were significantly enhanced with increased ZVI NPs encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres, whereas the dosage of H2O2 remarkably promoted degradation rate without affecting degradation efficiency. The content-dependent magnetic property ensured the excellent magnetic separation of degradation products under an external magnet. This strategy for the synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI NPs nanocomposites was low cost and easy to scale-up for industrial production, thereby enabling promising applications in environmental remediation. PMID:25258615

2014-01-01

173

Highly catalytic counter electrodes for organic redox couple of thiolate/disulfide in dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We synthesized a low-cost, highly catalytic tungsten carbide that was embedded in ordered mesoporous carbon (WC-OMC). This was used as a counter electrode (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). For comparison, we also evaluated the catalytic activity of bare WC, and several normal carbon materials for the organic redox couple of thiolate/disulfide (T-/T2). The DSCs showed highly photovoltaic conversion efficiencies, ranging from 4.75% to 5.34%. The efficiency of the DSC composed of WC-OMC was 45% higher than that of Pt. Based on kinetic studies, the increased efficiency was caused by the increased exchange current density and decreased charge transfer resistance.

Wang, Liang; Wu, Mingxing; Gao, Yurong; Ma, Tingli

2011-05-01

174

Metal-free organic sensitizers for use in water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells.  

PubMed

Solar fuel generation requires the efficient capture and conversion of visible light. In both natural and artificial systems, molecular sensitizers can be tuned to capture, convert, and transfer visible light energy. We demonstrate that a series of metal-free porphyrins can drive photoelectrochemical water splitting under broadband and red light (? > 590 nm) illumination in a dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. We report the synthesis, spectral, and electrochemical properties of the sensitizers. Despite slow recombination of photoinjected electrons with oxidized porphyrins, photocurrents are low because of low injection yields and slow electron self-exchange between oxidized porphyrins. The free-base porphyrins are stable under conditions of water photoelectrolysis and in some cases photovoltages in excess of 1 V are observed. PMID:25583488

Swierk, John R; Méndez-Hernández, Dalvin D; McCool, Nicholas S; Liddell, Paul; Terazono, Yuichi; Pahk, Ian; Tomlin, John J; Oster, Nolan V; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L; Gust, Devens; Mallouk, Thomas E

2015-02-10

175

Photocatalytic degradation of organic dye on porous iron sulfide film surface.  

PubMed

Thin films of nanocrystalline and porous FeS(2) with marcasite phase have been deposited from a greenish-blue iron nitroprusside precursor film, which readily gives FeS(2) on reacting with an aqueous solution of sodium sulfide. High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) pattern indicated the formation of polycrystalline and orthorhombic (marcasite) phase of FeS(2), whereas the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed the morphology of the films to be consisted of grains of average 25 nm diameter with unevenly distributed numerous pores. Optical characterization (UV-Vis and photoluminescence) revealed significant amount of blueshift in the band gap energy of the deposited material, which is attributed to the strong quantum confinement effect exerted by the FeS(2) nanocrystals. The deposited FeS(2) films showed good photocatalytic activity toward the degradation of Rose Bengal dye and could be found efficient for wastewater treatment. PMID:23218234

Bhar, Sanjib Kumar; Jana, Sumanta; Mondal, Anup; Mukherjee, Nillohit

2013-03-01

176

Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by La³?/Ce³?-H?PW??O?? under different light irradiation.  

PubMed

New photocatalysts (La(3+)-H3PW12O40 and Ce(3+)-H3PW12O40) were prepared, and the degradation activity of these products was evaluated. These photocatalysts were synthesized by the hydrothermal method assisted by PEG-1000 from the reactions of LaCl3 or CeCl3 and phosphotungstic acid. The prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic activity of La(3+)-H3PW12O40 and Ce(3+)-H3PW12O40 was evaluated by adopting methyl orange (MO) and Rhodamine B (RhB) as model dyes, and the reaction was carried out under UV- and visible light irradiation. PMID:24805777

Li, Taohai; Li, Quanguo; Yan, Jing; Li, Feng

2014-06-28

177

Nonlinear optical organic co-crystals of merocyanine dyes and phenolic derivatives with short hydrogen bonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the co-crystallization of merocyanine dyes M ( M: R-N +C 5H 4-CH?CH-C 6H 4O -, M1: R=CH 3, M2: R=HO-CH 2-CH 2-) with phenolic and aniline derivatives and show that the short or very short hydrogen bond between the two phenolic oxygen atoms which lead to a self-assembly of the M dyes and phenol derivatives is the key steering force for the co-crystallization process. The co-crystal formation was studied by melting point determination, by second-harmonic generation using the Kurtz and Perry powder test, and X-ray structural analysis. We present detailed results on the growth, polymorphism, and nonlinear optical properties of co-crystals of derivatives of M1 ( M2) and m-nitrophenol (mNP) and co-crystals of M2 and methyl 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate (MDB). Three phases of the co-crystal M2·mNP and three phases of the co-crystal M2·MDB were found. Both M2·MDB(I) and (II) have the same crystal structure (space group symmetry Cc determined by X-ray diffraction), but show different linear and nonlinear optical properties. This unusual property in the co-crystals of M2·MDB(I) and (II) may be caused by a different proton location of the short hydrogen bond (O-H-O) in the aggregation between M2 and MDB which could not be resolved by X-ray diffraction.

Bosshard, Christian; Pan, Feng; Wong, Man Shing; Manetta, Sabine; Spreiter, Rolf; Cai, Chengzhi; Günter, Peter; Gramlich, Volker

1999-07-01

178

Dissolved organic matter removal using magnetic anion exchange resin treatment on biological effluent of textile dyeing wastewater.  

PubMed

This study investigated the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from real dyeing bio-treatment effluents (DBEs) with the use of a novel magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP). DOMs in two typical DBEs were fractionized using DAX-8/XAD-4 resin and ultrafiltration membranes. The hydrophilic fractions and the low molecular weight (MW) (<3kDa) DOM fractions constituted a major portion (>50%) of DOMs for the two effluents. The hydrophilic and low MW fractions of both effluents were the greatest contributors of specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254), and the SUVA254 of DOM fractions decreased with hydrophobicity and MW. Two DBEs exhibited acute and chronic biotoxicities. Both acute and chronic toxicities of DOM fractions increased linearly with the increase of SUVA254 value. Kinetics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal via NDMP treatment was performed by comparing it with that of particle active carbon (PAC). Results indicated that the removal of DOC from DBEs via NDMP was 60%, whereas DOC removals by PAC were lower than 15%. Acidic organics could be significantly removed with the use of NDMP. DOM with large MW in DBE could be removed significantly by using the same means. Removal efficiency of NDMP for DOM decreased with the decrease of MW. Compared with PAC, NDMP could significantly reduce the acute and chronic bio-toxicities of DBEs. NaCl/NaOH mixture regenerants, with selected concentrations of 10% NaCl (m/m)/1% NaOH (m/m), could improve desorption efficiency. PMID:25108712

Fan, Jun; Li, Haibo; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Wentao; Li, Aimin

2014-08-01

179

Variation in the concentration of carminic acid produced by Dactylopius coccus (Hemiptera: Dactylopidae) at various maturation stages.  

PubMed

The concentration of carminic acid was found to vary based on the size and life cycle stage of the cochineal, Dactylopius coccus Costa. The concentration of carminic acid in cochineal eggs, nymph I, nymph II, fertilized adults, ovipositing adults, and sterile adults female was measured using capillary electrophoresis, and the total fluorescence of the carminic acid globules was measured using flow cytometry. The smallest sterile adult females had a greater percentage of carminic acid relative to their weight (26.27%; P < 0.001) than adult females in the remaining groups. In general, ovipositing females had a greater percentage of carminic acid than the remainder of the females. Nymph II was the phase that had the smallest percentage of carminic acid. Using flow cytometry, it was demonstrated that ovipositing females had a greater total fluorescence than the other sampled groups (P < 0.05). A positive correlation was found between the percentage of carminic acid and the total fluorescence of the carminic acid globules (r2 = 0.68; P < 0.05). The results of this study, together with others that involve industrial processes, shall allow an improvement of the current classification criteria of the commercial quality of dry cochineal. PMID:25195465

Flores-Alatorre, H L; Abrego-Reyes, V; Reyes-Esparza, J A; Angeles, E; Alba-Hurtado, F

2014-08-01

180

Defensive use of an acquired substance (carminic acid) by predaceous insect larvae.  

PubMed

Larvae of two insects, a coccinellid beetle (Hyperaspis trifurcata) and a chamaemyiid fly (Leucopis sp.), feed on cochineal insects and appropriate their prey's defensive chemical, carminic acid, for protective purposes of their own. H. trifurcata discharges the chemical with droplets of blood (hemolymph) that it emits when disturbed; Leucopis sp. ejects the compound with rectal fluid. Ants are thwarted by these defenses, which are compared with the previously-described defense of a pyralid caterpillar (Laetilia coccidivora) that disgorges carminic acid-laden crop fluid. The defensive fluid of all three larvae contains carminic acid at concentrations spanning a range (0.2-6.2%) proven deterrent to ants. Many insects are known to appropriate defensive substances from plants. Insects that acquire defensive chemicals from animal sources may be relatively rare. PMID:8020623

Eisner, T; Ziegler, R; McCormick, J L; Eisner, M; Hoebeke, E R; Meinwald, J

1994-06-15

181

Genotoxicity studies in vitro and in vivo on carminic acid (natural red 4).  

PubMed

The potential genotoxic activity of carminic acid (CAS no. 1260-17-9; EINECS no. 215-023-3; C.I. no. 75410), a component of natural red colouring products (cochineal: CAS no. 1343-78-8; EINECS no. 215-680-6; C.I. no. 75470), used in food, cosmetics and drugs, has been evaluated by means of a series of short-term tests in vitro and in vivo, namely Salmonella reverse mutation, chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in vitro on Chinese hamster ovary cells, and the mouse micronucleus test. All studies have produced negative results. The data obtained strongly support the non-mutagenic/non-carcinogenic activity of this compound. Genotoxicity data previously obtained for carminic acid, concerning the induction of a series of other genetic endpoints in different test systems, have also been considered, as have recent findings that indicate lack of carcinogenic activity in the cochineal preparation containing 29.8% carminic acid. PMID:1385283

Loprieno, G; Boncristiani, G; Loprieno, N

1992-09-01

182

Optimization of lasing in an inverted-opal titania photonic crystal cavity as an organic solid-state dye-doped laser.  

PubMed

Lasing performance of a dye-doped laser by encapsulating orange fluorescent dye 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) with different concentrations in a highly ordered three-dimensional (3D) inverted-opal titania (TiO2) photonic crystal (PC) microcavity was studied. The lasing threshold and laser quality were improved by optimizing the concentration of the laser dye DCM. When the concentration of DCM is optimized to 10-4??mol/l, the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency of DCM is sufficient to achieve lasing emission and meanwhile no fluorescence quantum quenching occurs. Therefore, the emission spectrum was greatly narrowed and the threshold was significantly improved, which reached 0.8??mJ?pulse-1?cm-2. Our findings are promising results toward the realization of fabricating a highly efficient low-threshold organic laser. PMID:25402981

Zhang, Dingke; Chen, Shijian; Jiang, Maohua; Ye, Lijuan

2014-11-10

183

A microporous anionic metal-organic framework for sensing luminescence of lanthanide(III) ions and selective absorption of dyes by ionic exchange.  

PubMed

Herein, a novel anionic framework with primitive centered cubic (pcu) topology, [(CH3 )2 NH2 ]4 [(Zn4 dttz6 )Zn3 ]?15?DMF?4.5?H2 O, (IFMC-2; H3 dttz=4,5-di(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole) was solvothermally isolated. A new example of a tetranuclear zinc cluster {Zn4 dttz6 } served as a secondary building unit in IFMC-2. Furthermore, the metal cluster was connected by Zn(II) ions to give rise to a 3D open microporous structure. The lanthanide(III)-loaded metal-organic framework (MOF) materials Ln(3+) @IFMC-2, were successfully prepared by using ion-exchange experiments owing to the anionic framework of IFMC-2. Moreover, the emission spectra of the as-prepared Ln(3+) @IFMC-2 were investigated, and the results suggested that IFMC-2 could be utilized as a potential luminescent probe toward different Ln(3+) ions. Additionally, the absorption ability of IFMC-2 toward ionic dyes was also performed. Cationic dyes can be absorbed, but not neutral and anionic dyes, thus indicating that IFMC-2 exhibits selective absorption toward cationic dyes. Furthermore, the cationic dyes can be gradually released in the presence of NaCl. PMID:24677301

Qin, Jun-Sheng; Zhang, Shu-Ran; Du, Dong-Ying; Shen, Ping; Bao, Shao-Juan; Lan, Ya-Qian; Su, Zhong-Min

2014-05-01

184

Carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals detected by energy transfer to organic dye molecules  

PubMed Central

Carrier multiplication describes an interesting optical phenomenon in semiconductors whereby more than one electron-hole pair, or exciton, can be simultaneously generated upon absorption of a single high-energy photon. So far, it has been highly debated whether the carrier multiplication efficiency is enhanced in semiconductor nanocrystals as compared with their bulk counterpart. The controversy arises from the fact that the ultrafast optical methods currently used need to correctly account for the false contribution of charged excitons to the carrier multiplication signals. Here we show that this charged exciton issue can be resolved in an energy transfer system, where biexcitons generated in the donor nanocrystals are transferred to the acceptor dyes, leading to an enhanced fluorescence from the latter. With the biexciton Auger and energy transfer lifetime measurements, an average carrier multiplication efficiency of ~17.1% can be roughly estimated in CdSe nanocrystals when the excitation photon energy is ~2.46 times of their energy gap. PMID:23132020

Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ying; Hua, Zheng; Wang, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Chunfeng; Xiao, Min

2012-01-01

185

Stark effect and spectral hole-burning: solvation of organic dyes in polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral hole-burning studies of nile red and cresyl violet in polyvinylbutyral and polyvinylformal films have been performed. From the shape of spectral holes under the influence of an electric field, the dipole moment difference between the ground and excited state of both dyes has been determined. The Stark effect was investigated at different positions in the inhomogeneously broadened absorption band of the guest molecules. The observed dipole moment difference decreases with increasing wavelength. This variation is caused by the matrix induced dipole moment. For nile red, which is a neutral and polar molecule, the distribution of induced dipole moments is strongly correlated with the orientation of its ground state dipole moment. In the case of cresyl violet perchlorate, which is a salt, this distribution is anisotropic for guests absorbing in the blue part of the inhomogeneous band but becomes more isotropic as the absorption wavelength increases. The wavelength dependence of the observed dipole moment is much stronger and is ascribed to the existence of the cresyl violet perchlorate salt in different states of solvation.

Vauthey, Eric; Holliday, Keith; Wei, Changjiang; Renn, Alois; Wild, Urs P.

1993-04-01

186

Impact of local compressive stress on the optical transitions of single organic dye molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to mechanically control the optical properties of individual molecules is a grand challenge in nanoscience and could enable the manipulation of chemical reactivity at the single-molecule level. In the past, light has been used to alter the emission wavelength of individual molecules or modulate the energy transfer quantum yield between them. Furthermore, tensile stress has been applied to study the force dependence of protein folding/unfolding and of the chemistry and photochemistry of single molecules, although in these mechanical experiments the strength of the weakest bond limits the amount of applicable force. Here, we show that compressive stress modifies the photophysical properties of individual dye molecules. We use an atomic force microscope tip to prod individual molecules adsorbed on a surface and follow the effect of the applied force on the electronic states of the molecule by fluorescence spectroscopy. Applying a localized compressive force on an isolated molecule induces a stress that is redistributed throughout the structure. Accordingly, we observe reversible spectral shifts and even shifts that persist after retracting the microscope tip, which we attribute to transitions to metastable states. Using quantum-mechanical calculations, we show that these photophysical changes can be associated with transitions among the different possible conformers of the adsorbed molecule.

Stöttinger, Sven; Hinze, Gerald; Diezemann, Gregor; Oesterling, Ingo; Müllen, Klaus; Basché, Thomas

2014-03-01

187

Photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine by hydrothermally synthesized Bi?MoO ? in presence of EDTA.  

PubMed

Bi2MoO6 oxide was synthesized by hydrothermal reaction in the presence of EDTA under different experimental conditions (time of reaction and EDTA concentration) in order to obtain materials with specific textural properties. It was determined that the addition of EDTA influences the final physical properties of Bi2MoO6. The photocatalytic activity of Bi2MoO6 samples was evaluated in the degradation reaction of indigo carmine (IC) in aqueous solution under solar radiation type. The best results as photocatalyst were obtained with the sample hydrothermally synthesized at 150 ºC for 4h in presence of a 0.031 M EDTA solution. This sample was able to whiten a solution of IC in a 94% after 120 min of lamp irradiation with t 1/2?=?31 min. In general, the samples prepared with lower concentrations of EDTA were the best photocatalysts. A gradual decrease in the activity was observed in the samples prepared with the same EDTA concentration as was increased in the reaction time. Beyond differences in morphology and textural properties of the samples prepared, the presence of EDTA by-products on the samples and the decomposition degree of it were important factors in determining the activity of the photocatalysts. Analysis of total organic carbon (TOC) of samples irradiated for 100 h confirmed that Bi2MoO6 oxide is able to mineralize the complex organic molecule of IC to CO2 and H2O in 55 %. PMID:24865501

Sánchez Trinidad, C; Martínez-de la Cruz, A; López Cuéllar, E

2015-01-01

188

Organic sensitizers featuring a planar indeno[1,2-b]-thiophene for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

An efficient organic sensitizer (JK-306) featuring a planar indeno[1,2-b]thiophene as the ?-linker of a bridging unit for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was synthesized. The sensitizer had a strong molar absorption coefficient and a red-shifted absorption band compared with JK-305, which resulted in a significant increase in the short-circuit photocurrent density. We incorporated a highly congested bulky amino group into the 2',4'-dihexyloxybiphenyl-4-yl moiety, an electron donor, to diminish the charge recombination and to prevent aggregation of the sensitizer. Under standard AM 1.5G solar conditions, JK-306-sensitized cells in the presence of co-adsorbents chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and 4-[bis(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)amino]benzoic acid (HC-A), which afforded an overall conversion efficiency of 8.37% and 8.52%, respectively. Upon changing the I(-) /I3 (-) electrolyte to the Co(II) /Co(III) redox couple, the cell gave rise to a significantly improved conversion efficiency of 10.02% with the multifunctional HC-A, which is one of the highest values reported for DSSCs with a cobalt-based electrolyte. Furthermore, the JK-306-based solar cell with a polymer gel electrolyte revealed a high conversion efficiency of 7.61%, which is one of the highest values for cells based on organic sensitizers. PMID:23788486

Lim, Kimin; Ju, Myung Jong; Song, Juman; Choi, In Taek; Do, Kwangsuk; Choi, Hyeju; Song, Kihyung; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Ko, Jaejung

2013-08-01

189

Stepwise cosensitization through chemically bonding organic dye to CdS quantum-dot-sensitized TiO2 electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An organic dye (JK218) with thiol moiety as an anchoring group was synthesized and explored to assemble a cosensitized TiO2 electrode in combination with an inorganic CdS quantum-dot. Due to the selective adsorption of JK218 on the surface of CdS through thiol group, the developed cosensitized electrode demonstrates cascade architecture with CdS coating on TiO2 while JK218 functions as a covering on CdS. Most importantly, the energy levels of the TiO2-CdS-JK218 electrode were also found to be stepwise aligned, which accordingly makes electrons efficiently inject from JK218 to CdS under illumination and finally collect to TiO2. This constructed cosensitized electrode with an organic sensitizer (JK218) and an inorganic quantum-dot (CdS) being selectively bonded together is expected to be valuable for the interface design of next generation solar cells.

So, Seulgi; Fan, Sheng-Qiang; Choi, Hyunbong; Kim, Chulwoo; Cho, Nara; Song, Kihyung; Ko, Jaejung

2010-12-01

190

Straightforward fabrication of stable white LEDs by embedding of inorganic UV-LEDs into bulk polymerized polymethyl-methacrylate doped with organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable white-emitting down-converted LEDs are straightforwardly prepared by bulk polymerization of an organic dye doped polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) shell directly on top of a highly efficient commercial blue-emitting InGaN LED. Our optimized polymerization procedure allows for extending the form factor of achievable luminescence converter (LUCO) material beyond the conventional thin film form and to directly produce devices with light bulb design. The selected organic dyes, the blue-emitting Coumarin 30 and a red-emitting diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative, exhibit high compatibility with the free radical polymerization reaction of the PMMA matrix and ensure high stability of the final hybrid device. The control of both the thickness of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the dopant dyes allow for fine tuning of the emission color of the LUCO LED and to obtain white light with CIE chromatic coordinates x = 0.32 and y = 0.33, with rendering index as high as 80. This simple and versatile procedure is not dye-exclusive and is therefore extendable to other molecular systems for color-tunable efficient solid-state lighting sources.

di Martino, Daniela; Beverina, Luca; Sassi, Mauro; Brovelli, Sergio; Tubino, Riccardo; Meinardi, Francesco

2014-03-01

191

Multiple-state interfacial electron injection competes with excited state relaxation and de-excitation to determine external quantum efficiencies of organic dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A comprehensive description of the complicated dynamics of excited state evolution and charge transfer at the photochemical interface in dye-sensitized solar cells is crucial to understand the mechanism of converting solar photons to clean electricity, providing an informative basis for the future development of advanced organic materials. By selecting two triarylamine-based organic donor-acceptor dyes characteristic of the respective benzoic acid and cyanoacrylic acid anchors, in this paper we reveal stepwise excited state relaxations and multiple-state electron injections at a realistic titania/dye/electrolyte interface based upon ultrafast spectroscopic measurements and theoretical simulations. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations show that the optically generated "hot" excited state of the dye molecules can undergo a significant conformational relaxation via multistage torsional motions, and thereby transform into an equilibrium quinonoid structure characteristic of a more planar conjugated backbone. A set of kinetic parameters derived from the target analysis of femtosecond transient absorption spectra have been utilized to estimate the electron injection yield, which is in good accord with the maximum of external quantum efficiencies. PMID:25156537

Zhang, Min; Yang, Lin; Yan, Cancan; Ma, Wentao; Wang, Peng

2014-10-14

192

Detection of volatile organic compounds through a sensing film of TiO II doped with organic dyes deposited on an optical fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The necessity of detection and recognition of different types of gases, such as volatile organic compounds, which are frequently found in food and beverage industries among others, requires the development of different types of sensors. In this work, an application of optical fiber for the detection of volatile organic compounds, particularly ethanol is presented. The sensor was constructed removing a portion of the cladding and depositing instead a sensing titanium dioxide (TiO II) film doped with an organic dye (rhodamine 6G) by the sol-gel method. The sensor response was measured in a Teflon chamber where the sample to be measured was injected. A He-Ne laser beam was coupled to the fiber and the variation in the output power was measured which indicates the gas presence. The difference between the output power with and without gas gives a measure of the concentration that exists in the chamber. The experimental results showed that for an ethanol concentration range from 0 to 10500 ppm, the response of the sensor was approximately linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9924.

Muñoz A., S.; Ramos M., J.; Martínez H., C.; Castillo M., J.; Beltrán P., G.; Palomino M., R.

2007-03-01

193

Transparent Organic Photodetector using a Near-Infrared Absorbing Cyanine Dye.  

PubMed

Organic photodetectors are interesting for low cost, large area optical sensing applications. Combining organic semiconductors with discrete absorption bands outside the visible wavelength range with transparent and conductive electrodes allows for the fabrication of visibly transparent photodetectors. Visibly transparent photodetectors can have far reaching impact in a number of areas including smart displays, window-integrated electronic circuits and sensors. Here, we demonstrate a near-infrared sensitive, visibly transparent organic photodetector with a very high average visible transmittance of 68.9%. The transmitted light of the photodetector under solar irradiation exhibits excellent transparency colour perception and rendering capabilities. At a wavelength of 850?nm and at -1?V bias, the photoconversion efficiency is 17% and the specific detectivity is 10(12) Jones. Large area photodetectors with an area of 1.6?cm(2) are demonstrated. PMID:25803320

Zhang, Hui; Jenatsch, Sandra; De Jonghe, Jelissa; Nüesch, Frank; Steim, Roland; Véron, Anna C; Hany, Roland

2015-01-01

194

Transparent Organic Photodetector using a Near-Infrared Absorbing Cyanine Dye  

PubMed Central

Organic photodetectors are interesting for low cost, large area optical sensing applications. Combining organic semiconductors with discrete absorption bands outside the visible wavelength range with transparent and conductive electrodes allows for the fabrication of visibly transparent photodetectors. Visibly transparent photodetectors can have far reaching impact in a number of areas including smart displays, window-integrated electronic circuits and sensors. Here, we demonstrate a near-infrared sensitive, visibly transparent organic photodetector with a very high average visible transmittance of 68.9%. The transmitted light of the photodetector under solar irradiation exhibits excellent transparency colour perception and rendering capabilities. At a wavelength of 850?nm and at ?1?V bias, the photoconversion efficiency is 17% and the specific detectivity is 1012 Jones. Large area photodetectors with an area of 1.6?cm2 are demonstrated. PMID:25803320

Zhang, Hui; Jenatsch, Sandra; De Jonghe, Jelissa; Nüesch, Frank; Steim, Roland; Véron, Anna C.; Hany, Roland

2015-01-01

195

Electrochemical oxidation of bio-refractory dye in a simulated textile industry effluent using DSA electrodes in a filter-press type FM01LC reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a study on degradation of indigo carmine dye in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor using Sb2O5-doped Ti\\/IrO2-SnO2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Micro- and macroelectrolysis studies were carried out using solutions of 0.8 mM indigo carmine in 0.05 M NaCl, which resemble blue denim laundry industrial wastewater. Microelectrolysis results show the behaviour of DSA electrodes in comparison with the

Francisca A. Rodríguez; María N. Mateo; Juan M. Aceves; Eligio P. Rivero; Ignacio González

2012-01-01

196

Synthesis of a Near-Infrared Emitting Squaraine Dye in an Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Squaraines are a class of organic fluorophores that possess unique photophysical properties, including strong near-infrared absorption and emission. The synthesis of many squaraines involves the condensation of an electron-rich aromatic ring with squaric acid. These reactions are generally refluxed overnight in a benzene-butanol solvent mixture.…

Marks, Patrick; Levine, Mindy

2012-01-01

197

Optical dephasing of organic dye molecules doped in cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol derivatives: Incoherent photon echo and hole-burning studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical dephasing of the zero-phonon line (ZPL) of organic dye molecules doped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and several cross-linked PVA derivatives was studied by using the incoherent photon echoes and the photophysical persistent hole-burning. It was found in the incoherent photon echo measurements that optical dephasing time of the ZPL increases with increasing the length of a cross-linker introduced to the PVA backbone. The difference in the temperature dependence of the dephasing time was also observed between a dye doped in PVA with and without the cross-link. When a longer cross-linker was introduced, the phonon sideband component in the incoherent photon echo signal became dominant in contrast to that in PVA with a relatively short cross-linker, while the dephasing time of the ZPL was still longer than that in PVA without the cross-link. Hole-burning studies showed that the phonon sideband spectrum of a dye doped in the cross-linked PVAs is essentially similar to that in PVA. However, the depth of the zero-phonon hole burnt with the same burning power was found to depend on the PVA hosts with the cross-linkers. These our findings suggest that the introduced cross-link does not alter the electron-phonon coupling modes or pseudo-local mode, but it drastically reduces the effect of the two-level tunneling systems in PVA on the optical dephasing of a doped dye. As a result, the dephasing time of the dye in the cross-linked PVAs becomes longer than that in PVA without the cross-link. The decrease of the optical dephasing by introducing the cross-link can be interpreted by assuming a void space in PVA, which is created near to the cross-linker. In addition, absorption and fluorescence spectra in these systems were measured, which imply the occurrence of weak dye-dye interaction when the dye is doped in PVA with a much longer cross-linker.

Nakanishi, Shunsuke; Miyawaki, Yuuichi; Nishikawa, Mitsuo; Amano, Masayuki; Fujiwara, Seiji; Jitou, Mayumi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kawase, Masaya

1994-03-01

198

Three N-H functionalized metal-organic frameworks with selective CO2 uptake, dye capture, and catalysis.  

PubMed

Three N-H functionalized metal-organic frameworks, Pb-DDQ, Zn-DDQ, and Cu-DDQ, were synthesized with a new flexible dicarboxylate ligand based on quinoxaline (H2DDQ = N,N'-dibenzoic acid-2,3-diaminoquinoxaline). CO2 adsorptions indicate that Zn-DDQ and Cu-DDQ have greatly enhanced the CO2 uptake due to the opposite N-H groups on pyrazine. With very small adsorption of N2, Cu-DDQ shows high selectivity for CO2 and N2. The three MOFs also have large adsorptions of some selected dyes, while Zn-DDQ and Cu-DDQ with large but different shapes of pores are demonstrated to be promising materials for fast separation of MB/other and CV/other mixtures, respectively. The cyanosilylation of aldehydes and ketones with high yields in a short reaction time for Cu-DDQ indicates that Cu-DDQ has a higher Lewis acidity than the other two MOFs. PMID:24987791

Zhu, Yu; Wang, Yan-Mei; Zhao, Sheng-Yun; Liu, Pan; Wei, Chao; Wu, Yun-Long; Xia, Chang-Kun; Xie, Ji-Min

2014-07-21

199

Light amplification at 501 nm and large nanosecond optical gain in organic dye-doped polymeric waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the results of a gain measurement on a substituted stilbene-dye-doped polymer waveguide operating in the blue-green spectral region. By monitoring amplified spontaneous emission from the waveguides under nanosecond photopumping, we deduced net modal gain as large as 84±6cm-1 at 501nm, the peak of the gain spectrum, when pumped with a fluence of 1.1mJ/cm2. Moreover, the effective stimulated emission cross section of 2.7×10-16cm2 and the loss coefficient of 0.3cm-1 at 501nm are extracted. The transparency pump fluence and the corresponding excited state population density are found to be 17?J/cm2 and 8.8×1015cm-3 which is approximately 0.1% of total population, respectively. Comparison is made with other organic and inorganic gain media operating in the short wavelength (violet-green) region of the spectrum. We demonstrate that small-molecule-doped polymers show large gain, comparable with those in conjugated polymers and dendrimers.

Jordan, Grace; Flämmich, Michael; Rüther, Manuel; Kobayashi, Takeyuki; Blau, Werner J.; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kaino, Toshikuni

2006-04-01

200

Dye Painting!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

Johnston, Ann

201

Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are among the most promising organic semiconductor devices. The recently reported external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 29–30% for green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are considered to be near the limit for isotropically oriented iridium complexes. The preferred orientation of transition dipole moments has not been thoroughly considered for phosphorescent OLEDs because of the lack of an apparent driving force for a molecular arrangement in all but a few cases, even though horizontally oriented transition dipoles can result in efficiencies of over 30%. Here we use quantum chemical calculations to show that the preferred orientation of the transition dipole moments of heteroleptic iridium complexes (HICs) in OLEDs originates from the preferred direction of the HIC triplet transition dipole moments and the strong supramolecular arrangement within the co-host environment. We also demonstrate an unprecedentedly high EQE of 35.6% when using HICs with phosphorescent transition dipole moments oriented in the horizontal direction.

Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Lee, Sunghun; Moon, Chang-Ki; Kim, Sei-Yong; Park, Young-Seo; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Woo Lee, Jin; Huh, June; You, Youngmin; Kim, Jang-Joo

2014-09-01

202

New type of inorganic–organic hybrid (heteropolytungsticacid–polyepichlorohydrin) polymer electrolyte with TiO 2 nanofiller for solid state dye sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of inorganic–organic hybrid solid state polymer electrolyte consisting of heteropolytungsticacid impregnated polyepichlorohydrin with iodine\\/iodide and TiO2 nanofiller have been prepared for their potential application in dye sensitized solar cells. The prepared polymer electrolytes were well characterized by FT-IR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electrochemical Impedance analysis (EIS) and Thermal analysis (TGA). The prepared polymer electrolyte

Radhakrishnan Sivakumar; Krishnasamy Akila; Sambandam Anandan

2010-01-01

203

Optical dephasing of organic dye molecules doped in cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol derivatives: Incoherent photon echo and hole-burning studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical dephasing of the zero-phonon line (ZPL) of organic dye molecules doped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and several cross-linked PVA derivatives was studied by using the incoherent photon echoes and the photophysical persistent hole-burning. It was found in the incoherent photon echo measurements that optical dephasing time of the ZPL increases with increasing the length of a cross-linker introduced to

Shunsuke Nakanishi; Yuuichi Miyawaki; Mitsuo Nishikawa; Masayuki Amano; Seiji Fujiwara; Mayumi Jitou; Hiroshi Itoh; Masaya Kawase

1994-01-01

204

Modeling materials and processes in hybrid/organic photovoltaics: from dye-sensitized to perovskite solar cells.  

PubMed

CONSPECTUS: Over the last 2 decades, researchers have invested enormous research effort into hybrid/organic photovoltaics, leading to the recent launch of the first commercial products that use this technology. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have shown clear advantages over competing technologies. The top certified efficiency of DSCs exceeds 11%, and the laboratory-cell efficiency is greater than 13%. In 2012, the first reports of high efficiency solid-state DSCs based on organohalide lead perovskites completely revolutionized the field. These materials are used as light absorbers in DSCs and as light-harvesting materials and electron conductors in meso-superstructured and flat heterojunction solar cells and show certified efficiencies that exceed 17%. To effectively compete with conventional photovoltaics, emerging technologies such as DSCs need to achieve higher efficiency and stability, while maintaining low production costs. Many of the advances in the DSC field have relied on the computational design and screening of new materials, with researchers examining material characteristics that can improve device performance or stability. Suitable modeling strategies allow researchers to observe the otherwise inaccessible but crucial heterointerfaces that control the operation of DSCs, offering the opportunity to develop new and more efficient materials and optimize processes. In this Account, we present a unified view of recent computational modeling research examining DSCs, illustrating how the principles and simulation tools used for these systems can also be adapted to study the emerging field of perovskite solar cells. Researchers have widely applied first-principles modeling to the DSC field and, more recently, to perovskite-based solar cells. DFT/TDDFT methods provide the basic framework to describe most of the desired materials and interfacial properties, and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics allow researchers the further ability to sample local minima and dynamical fluctuations at finite temperatures. However, conventional DFT/TDDFT has some limitations, which can be overcome in part by tailored solutions or using many body perturbation theory within the GW approach, which is however more computationally intensive. Relativistic effects, such as spin-orbit coupling, are also included in simulations since they are fundamental for addressing systems that contain heavy atoms. We illustrate the performance of the proposed simulation toolbox along with the fundamental modeling strategies using selected examples of relevant isolated device constituents, including dye and perovskite absorbers, metal-oxide surfaces and nanoparticles, and hole transporters. We critically assess the accuracy of various computational approaches against the related experimental data. We analyze the representative interfaces that control the operational mechanism of the devices, including dye-sensitized TiO2/hole transporter and organohalide lead perovskite/TiO2, and the results reveal fundamental aspects of the device's operational mechanism. Although the modeling of DSCs is relatively mature, the recent "perovskite storm" has presented new problems and new modeling challenges, such as understanding exciton formation and dissociation at interfaces and carrier recombination in these materials. PMID:24856085

De Angelis, Filippo

2014-11-18

205

Investigation of dye-doped red emitting organic electroluminescent devices with metal-mirror microcavity structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic electroluminescent (EL) devices with planar microcavity structure, indium-tin-oxide\\/Ag\\/N,N'-diphenyl-N , N '-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4 , 4'-diamine\\/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (AlQ):4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethyl aminostyryl)-4H-pyran\\/AlQ\\/LiF\\/Al, were fabricated. The Ag and Al layers acted as not only hole-injection layer and cathode, respectively, but reflective mirrors, resulting in strong microcavity effects, such as spectral narrowing and directional emission. The effects of device parameters on the EL performance were studied in detail

X. Y. Sun; W. L. Li; Z. R. Hong; H. Z. Wei; F. X. Zang; L. L. Chen; Z. Shi; D. F. Bi; B. Li; Z. Q. Zhang; Z. Z. Hu

2005-01-01

206

Photostability enhancement of anionic natural dye by intercalation into hydrotalcite.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is the improvement of the photostability of several natural anionic dyes, carmine (CM), carthamus yellow (CY), and annatto dye (ANA), by complexation with hydrotalcite. The composite of the dyes and hydrotalcite is prepared by the coprecipitation method. CM is successfully intercalated in the hydrotalcite layer when the amount of introduced CM is large. The photostability of CM in CM/HT composites is superior to the CM adsorbed on silica surface. The effect of the stability enhancement is larger when the amount of introduced CM exceeds 0.23 g/g-host, or when the layer charge density of the hydrotalcite is larger. CY is also stabilized by complexation with hydrotalcite, whereas ANA is not stabilized by complexation with hydrotalcite. The photostability of an anionic natural dye can be improved by intercalation into the hydrotalcite layer, if the dye has a hydrophilic nature and a rather planar structure. The intercalated dye is stabilized by the protection from the attack of the atmospheric oxygen. In addition, contribution of the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged hydrotalcite layer and the intercalated anionic dye is also proposed. PMID:19477459

Kohno, Yoshiumi; Totsuka, Koichi; Ikoma, Shuji; Yoda, Keiko; Shibata, Masashi; Matsushima, Ryoka; Tomita, Yasumasa; Maeda, Yasuhisa; Kobayashi, Kenkichiro

2009-09-01

207

Influence of synthetic and natural food dyes on activities of CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7.  

PubMed

Synthetic or natural food dyes are typical xenobiotics, as are drugs and pollutants. After ingestion, part of these dyes may be absorbed and metabolized by phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes and excreted by transporters of phase III enzymes. However, there is little information regarding the metabolism of these dyes. It was investigated whether these dyes are substrates for CYP2A6 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). The in vitro inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes by these dyes was also examined. The synthetic food dyes studied were amaranth (food red no. 2), erythrosine B (food red no. 3), allura red (food red no. 40), new coccine (food red no. 102), acid red (food red no. 106), tartrazine (food Yellow no. 4), sunset yellow FCF (food yellow no. 5), brilliant blue FCF (food blue no. 1), and indigo carmine (food blue no. 2). The natural additive dyes studied were extracts from purple sweet potato, purple corn, cochineal, monascus, grape skin, elderberry, red beet, gardenia, and curthamus. Data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. Only indigo carmine inhibited CYP2A6 in a noncompetitive manner, while erythrosine B inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). In the natural additive dyes just listed, only monascus inhibited UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. PMID:16009655

Kuno, Nayumi; Mizutani, Takaharu

2005-08-27

208

[Case of urticaria due to cochineal dye in red-colored diet].  

PubMed

We herein describe a 33-year-old female who recurrently exhibited urticaria accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea and dyspnea after taking red-colored food. From her history, we suspected the cochineal dye, the commonly used natural red dye in red-colored food and beverage, to be the cause of her symptoms. Oral provocation test using cochineal dye-stained red-colored boiled-fish-paste induced urticaria and respiratory symptoms. Furthermore the prick tests and the scratch tests with cochineal dye and carminic acid, the major ingredient of cochineal dye, were also positive. These results indicate that type 1 allergy to cochineal dye caused urticaria in this patient. Thereafter, she avoided the foods containing a cochineal dye and showed a complete clinical remission. Recently, the number of literatures described about increased incidence of type 1 allergy to cochineal dye. As the usage of cochineal dye is increasing in the Japanese market, we should keep in mind that cochineal dye can be a cause of urticaria in daily practice. PMID:18195555

Kotobuki, Yorihisa; Azukizawa, Hiroaki; Nishida, Youko; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro; Yoshikawa, Kunihiko

2007-12-01

209

In situ generation of hydroxyl radical by cobalt oxide supported porous carbon enhance removal of refractory organics in tannery dyeing wastewater.  

PubMed

In this study, cobalt oxide doped nanoporous activated carbon (Co-NPAC) was synthesized and used as a heterogeneous catalyst for the Fenton oxidation of organic dye chemicals used in tannery process. The nanoporous activated carbon (NPAC) was prepared from rice husk by precarbonization followed by chemical activation at elevated temperature (600°C). The cobalt oxide was impregnated onto NPAC and characterized for UV-visible, Fluorescence spectroscopy, FT-IR, HR-TEM, XRD, BET surface area and XPS analyses. The hydroxyl radical generation potential of Co-NPAC from hydrogen peroxide decomposition was identified (?exi, 320nm; ?emi, 450nm) by Excitation Emission Spectra (EES) analysis. The conditions for the degradation of tannery dyeing wastewater such as, Co-NPAC dose, concentration of H2O2, and temperature were optimized in heterogeneous Fenton oxidation process and the maximum percentage of COD removal was found to be 77%. The treatment of dyes in wastewater was confirmed through UV-Visible spectra, EES and FT-IR spectra analyses. PMID:25733392

Karthikeyan, S; Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

2015-06-15

210

Direct assembly of preformed nanoparticles and graft copolymer for the fabrication of micrometer-thick, organized TiO2 films: high efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with 7.1% efficiency at 100 mW/cm(2) is reported, one of the highest observed for N719 dye. Excellent performance was achieved via a graft copolymer-templated, organized mesoporous TiO(2) film with a large surface area using spindle-shaped, preformed TiO(2) nanoparticles and solid polymer electrolyte. PMID:22213245

Ahn, Sung Hoon; Chi, Won Seok; Park, Jung Tae; Koh, Jong Kwan; Roh, Dong Kyu; Kim, Jong Hak

2012-01-24

211

Influence of organic and inorganic compounds on oxidoreductive decolorization of sulfonated azo dye C.I. Reactive Orange 16.  

PubMed

An isolated bacterial strain is placed in the branch of the Bacillus genus on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence and biochemical characteristics. It decolorized an individual and mixture of dyes, including reactive, disperse and direct. Bacillus sp. ADR showed 88% decolorization of sulfonated azo dye C.I. Reactive Orange 16 (100 mg L(-1)) with 2.62 mg of dye decolorized g(-1) dry cells h(-1) as specific decolorization rate along with 50% reduction in COD under static condition. The optimum pH and temperature for the decolorization was 7-8 and 30-40 degrees C, respectively. It was found to tolerate the sulfonated azo dye concentration up to 1.0 g L(-1). Significant induction in the activity of an extracellular phenol oxidase and NADH-DCIP reductase enzymes during decolorization of C.I. Reactive Orange 16 suggest their involvement in the decolorization. The metal salt (CaCl2), stabilizers (3,4-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol and o-tolidine) and electron donors (sodium acetate, sodium formate, sodium succinate, sodium citrate and sodium pyruvate) enhanced the C.I. Reactive Orange 16 decolorization rate of Bacillus sp. ADR. The 6-nitroso naphthol and dihydroperoxy benzene were final products obtained after decolorization of C.I. Reactive Orange 16 as characterized using FTIR and GC-MS. PMID:19640646

Telke, Amar A; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Dawkar, Vishal V; Govindwar, Sanjay P

2009-12-15

212

Enhancement of a solar photo-Fenton reaction with ferric-organic ligands for the treatment of acrylic-textile dyeing wastewater.  

PubMed

Literature describes a kinetic mineralization profile for most of acrylic-textile dyeing wastewaters using a photo-Fenton reaction characterized by a slow degradation process and high reactants consumption. This work tries to elucidate that the slow decay on DOC concentration is associated with the formation of stable complexes between Fe(3+) and textile auxiliary products, limiting the photoreduction of Fe(3+). This work also evaluates the enhancement of a solar photo-Fenton reaction through the use of different ferric-organic ligands applied to the treatment of a simulated acrylic-textile dyeing wastewater, as a pre-oxidation step to enhance its biodegradability. The photo-Fenton reaction was negatively affected by two dyeing auxiliary products: i) Sera(®) Tard A-AS, a surfactant mainly composed of alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride and ii) Sera(®) Sperse M-IW, a dispersing agent composed of polyglycol solvents. The catalytic activity of the organic ligands toward the ferrous-catalysed system followed this order: Fe(III)-Oxalate > Fe(III)-Citrate > Fe(III)-EDDS, and all were better than the traditional photo-Fenton reaction. Different design parameters such as iron concentration, pH, temperature, flow conditions, UV irradiance and H2O2 addition strategy and dose were evaluated. The ferrioxalate induced photo-Fenton process presented the best results, achieving 87% mineralization after 9.3 kJUV L(-1) and allowing to work until near neutral pH values. As expected, the biodegradability of the textile wastewater was significantly enhanced during the photo-Fenton treatment, achieving a value of 73%, consuming 32.4 mM of H2O2 and 5.7 kJUV L(-1). PMID:25618444

Soares, Petrick A; Batalha, Mauro; Souza, Selene M A Guelli U; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

2015-04-01

213

ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL TOXIC RELEASES FROM LEATHER INDUSTRY DYEING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The study focused on the organic dyes released to the environment in the wastewaters from leather dyeing operations. Basically, three types of dyes--acid, basic, and direct--are used, although the number of different dyes are well over 50, and the number of formulations used at a...

214

Free amino and imino-bridged centres attached to organic chains bonded to structurally ordered silica for dye removal from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Ordered mesoporous SBA-15 type silica was synthesized by sol gel polymerization and reacted with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AP) or triethylenetetramine (TE), to attach pendant chains or bridging molecules, with basic centres. The materials were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance in the solid state, X-ray diffractometry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The nitrogen sorption/desorption data for SBA-15 and the organofunctionalized SBA-15AP and SBA-15TE silicas resulted in IV type isotherms with hysteresis loops of the H1 type, surface areas of 800; 213 and 457 m(2) g(-1) and average pore diameters of 8.0; 3.2 and 6.8 nm, respectively. The ordered structural features of the mesoporous silica remained preserved after post-functionalization with pendant and bridged organic chains. Sorption data for organofunctionalized silicas gave highly selective sorption capacities for anionic water soluble Reactive Blue dye, with 0.064 and 0.072 mmol g(-1). Negligible sorption was observed with the unmodified mesoporous silica. The results suggest that organofunctionalized silica can be a simple, efficient, inexpensive and suitable method for the effective and selective removal of anionic organic dye pollutants from aqueous solutions. PMID:24374243

Rehman, Fozia; Volpe, Pedro L O; Airoldi, Claudio

2014-01-15

215

Organic Fluorescent Dyes Supported on Activated Boron Nitride: A Promising Blue Light Excited Phosphors for High-Performance White Light-Emitting Diodes  

PubMed Central

We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (?BN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500–650?nm under the 466?nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36?W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6?lm·W?1. Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs. PMID:25682730

Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

2015-01-01

216

Organic Fluorescent Dyes Supported on Activated Boron Nitride: A Promising Blue Light Excited Phosphors for High-Performance White Light-Emitting Diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (?BN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500-650 nm under the 466 nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36 W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6 lm.W-1. Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs.

Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

2015-02-01

217

Organic fluorescent dyes supported on activated boron nitride: a promising blue light excited phosphors for high-performance white light-emitting diodes.  

PubMed

We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (?BN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500-650?nm under the 466?nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36?W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6?lm·W(-1). Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs. PMID:25682730

Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

2015-01-01

218

Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of anionic dyes onto organo-bentonite from single and multisolute systems.  

PubMed

The performances of polydiallydimethylammonium modified bentonite (PDADMA-bentonite) as an adsorbent to remove anionic dyes, namely Acid Scarlet GR (AS-GR), Acid Turquoise Blue 2G (ATB-2G) and Indigo Carmine (IC), were investigated in single, binary and ternary dye systems. In adsorption from single dye solutions with initial concentration of 100 micromol/L, the dosage of PDADMA-bentonite needed to remove 95% dye was 0.42, 0.68 and 0.75 g/L for AS-GR, ATB-2G and IC, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of the three dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model with the equilibrium constants of 0.372, 0.629 and 4.31 L/micromol, the saturation adsorption amount of 176.3, 149.2 and 228.7 micromol/g for ATB-2G, IC and AS-GR, respectively. In adsorption from mixed dye solutions, the isotherm of each individual dye followed an expanded Langmuir isotherm model and the relationship between the total amount of dyes adsorbed and the total equilibrium dye concentration was interpreted well by Langmuir isotherm model. In the region of insufficient dosage of PDADMA-bentonite, the dye with a larger affinity was preferentially removed by adsorption. Desorption was observed in the kinetic curve of the dye with lower affinity on PDADMA-bentonite surface by the competitive adsorption. The kinetics in single dye solution and the total adsorption of dyes in binary and ternary dye systems nicely followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:19631461

Shen, Dazhong; Fan, Jianxin; Zhou, Weizhi; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Kang, Qi

2009-12-15

219

TiO2 Immobilized on Manihot Carbon: Optimal Preparation and Evaluation of Its Activity in the Decomposition of Indigo Carmine  

PubMed Central

Applications of carbon-TiO2 materials have attracted attention in nanotechnology due to their synergic effects. We report the immobilization of TiO2 on carbon prepared from residues of the plant Manihot, commercial TiO2 and glycerol. The objective was to obtain a moderate loading of the anatase phase by preserving the carbonaceous external surface and micropores of the composite. Two preparation methods were compared, including mixing dry precursors and immobilization using a glycerol slurry. The evaluation of the micropore blocking was performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that it was possible to use Manihot residues and glycerol to prepare an anatase-containing material with a basic surface and a significant SBET value. The activities of the prepared materials were tested in a decomposition assay of indigo carmine. The TiO2/carbon eliminated nearly 100% of the dye under UV irradiation using the optimal conditions found by a Taguchi L4 orthogonal array considering the specific surface, temperature and initial concentration. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS, enabling the identification of some intermediates. No isatin-5-sulfonic acid was detected after a 60 min photocatalytic reaction, and three sulfonated aromatic amines, including 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2-(2-amino-5-sulfophenyl)-2-oxoacetic acid and 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid, were present in the reaction mixture. PMID:25588214

Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M.; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M.; Elizalde-González, María P.; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

2015-01-01

220

TiO2 immobilized on Manihot carbon: optimal preparation and evaluation of its activity in the decomposition of indigo carmine.  

PubMed

Applications of carbon-TiO2 materials have attracted attention in nanotechnology due to their synergic effects. We report the immobilization of TiO2 on carbon prepared from residues of the plant Manihot, commercial TiO2 and glycerol. The objective was to obtain a moderate loading of the anatase phase by preserving the carbonaceous external surface and micropores of the composite. Two preparation methods were compared, including mixing dry precursors and immobilization using a glycerol slurry. The evaluation of the micropore blocking was performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that it was possible to use Manihot residues and glycerol to prepare an anatase-containing material with a basic surface and a significant SBET value. The activities of the prepared materials were tested in a decomposition assay of indigo carmine. The TiO2/carbon eliminated nearly 100% of the dye under UV irradiation using the optimal conditions found by a Taguchi L4 orthogonal array considering the specific surface, temperature and initial concentration. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS, enabling the identification of some intermediates. No isatin-5-sulfonic acid was detected after a 60 min photocatalytic reaction, and three sulfonated aromatic amines, including 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2-(2-amino-5-sulfophenyl)-2-oxoacetic acid and 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid, were present in the reaction mixture. PMID:25588214

Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

2015-01-01

221

Decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes and textile and dye-stuff effluent by Kurthia sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of soil and water samples were collected from the vicinity of effluent treatment plant of a textile and dyeing industry. Several organisms were screened for their ability to decolorize triphenylmethane group of dyes. A Kurthia sp. was selected on the basis of rapid dye decolorizing activity. Under aerobic conditions, 98% color was removed intracellularly by this strain. A

Rajesh Kumar Sani; Uttam Chand Banerjee

1999-01-01

222

First Record of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae, Infesting Withania somnifera in India  

PubMed Central

During April–June 2010, red two—spotted carmine spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) were found on aerial apical parts of Ashwagandha Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants in the Amritsar District of Punjab Province in the North Indian plains. The mites fed on the leaves, making them shiny white in color, which gradually dried off and were later shed. The pest was identified as T. urticae. To best of our knowledge, this is the first record of this pest infesting W. somnifera in India. PMID:22970740

Sharma, Ashutosh; Kumar Pati, Pratap

2012-01-01

223

Enhanced electrochromic properties of a polypyrrole-indigo carmine-gold nanoparticles nanocomposite.  

PubMed

An indigo carmine doped polypyrrole embedded with gold nanoparticles nanocomposite (PPy-IC-Aunanop) was synthesized by in situ electrochemical polymerization of polypyrrole in the presence of HAuCl4. The nanocomposite was characterized by in situ spectroelectrochemical experiments to study the effect of embedded gold nanoparticles on the electrochromic properties of the material. The results show the formation of a nanocomposite presenting enhanced electrochromic and optical properties, higher electroactivity and 10% lower band-gap energies. The PPy-IC-Aunanop presented a two-fold increase in optical contrast when compared to PPy-IC, in addition to better optical stability. PMID:25418577

Loguercio, L F; Alves, C C; Thesing, A; Ferreira, J

2015-01-14

224

Favorite Demonstration: Demonstrating Indigo Carmine Oxidation-Reduction Reactions--A Choreography for Chemical Reactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The indigo carmine demonstration (Ferguson et al. 1973), also referred to as a traffic-light demonstration (Flinn Scientific 2007a), is an example of a set of oxidation-reduction reactions that occurs within one solution. This type of demonstration can be used to introduce the concept of chemical reaction to undergraduate nonscience majors. Through their observations guided by the instructor, students begin to develop and construct the following concepts: color changes, reaction rates, reversible reactions, energy requirements (endothermic/exothermic), and equilibrium.

David M. Majerich

2008-03-01

225

Study of nonlinear refraction of organic dye by Z-scan technique using He-Ne laser  

SciTech Connect

Laser induced third-order nonlinear optical responses of Brilliant Green solution has been investigated by utilizing single beam Z-scan technique with a continuous-wave He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It was observed that the material exhibits self-defocusing type optical nonlinearity. The measurements of nonlinear refraction were carried out at different dye concentrations and found that the increase in solution concentration leads to the linear increase of the nonlinear refractive index. The experimental results confirm great potential of the Brilliant Green for the application in nonlinear optical devices.

Medhekar, S.; Kumar, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Choubey, R. K. [Dept. of Applied Physics, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi - 835215, Jharkhand (India)

2013-02-05

226

Graphene nanoplatelets doped with N at its edges as metal-free cathodes for organic dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Challenging precious Pt-based electrocatalysts for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), graphene nanoplatelets that are N-doped at the edges (NGnPs) are prepared via simply ball-milling graphite in the presence of nitrogen gas. DSSCs based on specific nanoplatelets designated "NGnP5" display superior photovoltaic performance (power conversion efficiency, 10.27%) compared to that of conventional Pt-based devices (9.96%). More importantly, the NGnP counter electrode exhibits outstanding electrochemical stability and electrocatalytic activity with a cobalt-complex redox couple. PMID:24677174

Ju, Myung Jong; Jeon, In-Yup; Kim, Jae Cheon; Lim, Kimin; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Sun-Min; Choi, In Taek; Eom, Yu Kyung; Kwon, Young Jin; Ko, Jaejung; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Baek, Jong-Beom

2014-05-21

227

Identification of indigoid dyes in natural organic pigments used in historical art objects by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Pigments are among the most important components of historical paintings and textiles and their nature provides the unique character of color. They can be divided into two main groups: inorganic and organic, extracted from plants or animals. Their identification is a necessary stage in the conservation of art objects. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and UV/visible spectrophotometric methods were elaborated for the identification of indigoid (indigo, indirubin, isoindigo, isoindirubin) color components of natural dyestuffs and their natural or synthetic precursors (indican, isatin, indoxyl, 2-indolinone). ES-MS offers detection limits in the range 0.03-5.00 microg ml(-1) for the color compounds examined. The method developed made it possible to identify indigo and its isomers in genuine Indian indigo, indigo from woad and Tyrian Purple. It was applied to the identification of natural dyes on fiber from a 19th century Japanese tapestry, 'Cranes in the landscape'. A procedure based on freezing and grinding of a sample before the extraction of dyes from the textile was developed. The components of the extract obtained were identified after acidic hydrolysis as indigotin and methylene blue. PMID:15578636

Puchalska, Maria; Po?e?-Pawlak, Kasia; Zadrozna, Irmina; Hryszko, Helena; Jarosz, Maciej

2004-12-01

228

Theoretical studies on POM-based organic-inorganic hybrids containing double D-A1-?-A2 chains for high-performance p-type, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).  

PubMed

Polyoxometalate (POM)-based organic-inorganic hybrid systems are designed as p-type dyes containing double D-A1-?-A2 chains. The A1 spacers are thiophene, 1,2,3-triazole, 1,3,4-oxadlazole, thienothiadiazole units or their combinations and the A2 spacer is hexamolybdate. The electronic structures, absorption spectra, and electronic transition characteristics of systems were systematically studied on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT). The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels of systems were below the valence bond (VB) of NiO and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels of studied systems were higher than the I2/I3(-) redox level, which benefit hole injection and dye regeneration. The HOMOs of systems were predominantly delocalized over the organic groups and Mo[triple bond, length as m-dash]N, which are more helpful to hole injection than systems . Introduction of thienothiadiazole units is an effective way to improve the light absorption ability of dyes, and inserting thiophene and 1,2,3-triazole as A1 spacers can increase the efficiency of dye in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). PMID:25619694

Zhang, Ting; Guan, Wei; Yan, Likai; Ma, Tengying; Wang, Jing; Su, Zhongmin

2015-02-01

229

Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.  

PubMed

Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated. PMID:21552764

Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

2011-01-01

230

77 FR 22485 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...one or both of these color additives. This rule responds to a...products that contain these color additives. DATES: Effective Date...statements relating to age, manufacturing processes, analyses, guarantees...extract and carmine are color additives that are permitted for...

2012-04-16

231

76 FR 3584 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Parts 5 [Docket No. TTB-2010-0008; Notice No. 111] RIN 1513-AB79 Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages Correction In proposed rule...

2011-01-20

232

THERMOSPRAY IONIZATION AND TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY OF DYES  

EPA Science Inventory

Sixteen commercial dye samples and three liquid wastes from organic pigment and dye manufacture have been characterized without prior chromatography by thermospray ionization and low energy collision-activated dissociation of protonated molecules using a triple quadrupole mass sp...

233

Dye Doped Ormosil Materials for Solid State Dye Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organically Modified Silicate (ORMOSIL) materials doped with organic dyes (Rhodamine 6G, Rhodamine B) have been prepared from sol-gel derived using Methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) as precursor. The synthesis process was investigated step by step using Raman spectroscopy, and the experimental results demonstrated that Methyl group bounds to silica oxide network remain in the final materials. Broadband laser emission of the materials has

Tran Hong Nhung; Nghiem Ha Lien; A. Brun; Vu Thi Bich; Nguyen Xuan Nghia; Do Quang Hoa; Truong Thi Anh Dao; Nguyen Dai Hung

2001-01-01

234

Vibrational spectroscopy to study degradation of natural dyes. Assessment of oxygen-free cassette for safe exposition of artefacts.  

PubMed

An important issue connected with conservation chemistry is how to improve the storage and exposure conditions in order to suppress the fading and degradation of dyes and other components of paintings. Although the oxygen-free exposure cassettes are commonly known in museums, there is still lack of information in the literature about the effect of anoxic conditions on the degradation of dyes. This study is an attempt to start a database formation on the dyes degradation. Five commercial dyes (indigo, dragon's blood, curcumin, madder, carminic acid) were submitted to accelerated ageing by exposure to intensive light in the visible range in both oxygen-free (anoxia) and -rich conditions. Degradation of the samples was investigated by several analytical techniques (attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and optical microscopy). The conclusions are based on the estimators (derived from the determination of colour differences from Vis spectra and from the changes in FTIR and Raman vibrational bands intensity). According to them, only indigo, dragon's blood and curcumin show greater stability in anoxic conditions in comparison with oxygen-rich ones while madder, carminic acid undergo greater degradation. PMID:21165610

Koperska, Monika; ?ojewski, Tomasz; ?ojewska, Joanna

2011-03-01

235

Identification and characterization of artists' red dyes and their mixtures by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Silver film over nanospheres (AgFONs) were successfully employed as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates to characterize several artists' red dyes including: alizarin, purpurin, carminic acid, cochineal, and lac dye. Spectra were collected on sample volumes (1 x 10(-6) M or 15 ng/microL) similar to those that would be found in a museum setting and were found to be higher in resolution and consistency than those collected on silver island films (AgIFs). In fact, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this work presents the highest resolution spectrum of the artists' material cochineal to date. In order to determine an optimized SERS system for dye identification, experiments were conducted in which laser excitation wavelengths were matched with correlating AgFON localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) maxima. Enhancements of approximately two orders of magnitude were seen when resonance SERS conditions were met in comparison to non-resonance SERS conditions. Finally, because most samples collected in a museum contain multiple dyestuffs, AgFONs were employed to simultaneously identify individual dyes within several dye mixtures. These results indicate that AgFONs have great potential to be used to identify not only real artwork samples containing a single dye but also samples containing dyes mixtures. PMID:17910797

Whitney, Alyson V; Casadio, Francesca; Van Duyne, Richard P

2007-09-01

236

Transparent bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells based on organic counter electrodes and iodine-free electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a novel bifacially active transparent dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) assembled with a transparent poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) counter electrode and a colorless iodine-free polymer gel (IFPG) electrolyte was developed. The IFPG electrolyte was prepared by employing an ionic liquid (1,2-dimethyl-3-propylinmidazolium iodide, DMPII) as the charge transfer intermediate and a polymer composite as the gelator without the addition of iodine, exhibiting high conductivity and non-absorption characters. PEDOT electrodes were prepared via a facile electro-polymerization method. By controlling the amount of polymerization charge capacity, we optimized the PEDOT electrodes with high transparency and a favorable activity for catalyzing the IFPG electrolyte. The bifacial DSSCs device fabricated by this kind of transparent PEDOT electrode and colorless IFPG electrolyte showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.35% and 4.98% at 100 mW cm-2 AM1.5 illumination corresponding to front- and rear-side illumination. It is notable that the PCE under rear-side illumination approaches 80% that of front-side illumination. Moreover, the device shows excellent stability as confirmed by aging test. These promising results highlight the enormous potential of this transparent PEDOT CE and colorless IFPG electrolyte in scaling up and commercialization of low cost and effective bifacial DSSCs.

Ku, Zhiliang; Rong, Yaoguang; Han, Hongwei

2013-10-01

237

Iron complexed afterchrome dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of elimination of chromium in dye effluents during application of afterchrome dyes has been investigated. Eight commercially available azo mordant dyes were used in dyeing of wood fabric and aftertreated with iron (II) and iron (III) salts. Colour and lightfastness of received dyeings was compared with those obtained with the use of traditional chromium-aftertreated method. The structure of

Wojciech Czajkowski; Ma?gorzata Szymczyk

1998-01-01

238

Dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01

239

In vivo and in vitro decolorization of synthetic dyes by laccase from solid state fermentation with Trametes sp. SYBC-L4.  

PubMed

Synthetic decolorization of dyes through solid cassava residue substrate fermentation with Trametes sp. SYBC-L4 via in vivo and in vitro processes was investigated in this study. Effects of pH and mediator (1-hydroxybenzotriazole, HBT) concentration on dyes decolorization were evaluated. In vitro, decolorization ratios of dyes differed considerably in pH and increased with the increasing of HBT concentration. Crude laccase (50 U/L) derived from Trametes sp. SYBC-L4 decolorized 67.91 ± 1.25 % Congo red (100 mg/L), 94.58 ± 1.05 % aniline blue (100 mg/L) and 99.02 ± 0.54 % indigo carmine (100 mg/L) with 2.5 mM HBT at pH 4.5 in 36 h of incubation. In vivo, decolorization ratios of dyes were not enhanced by usage of the mediator. After 10 days of fermentation, decolorization ratio of Congo red (1,000 mg/kg), aniline blue (1,000 mg/kg) and indigo carmine (1,000 mg/kg) was 57.82 ± 0.84, 92.53 ± 1.12 and 97.26 ± 1.92 % without the usage of mediator at pH 4.5, respectively. Moreover, there was no obvious difference between the in vivo decolorization of aniline blue and indigo carmine in the pH range of 3.0-9.0. Results showed that Trametes sp. SYBC-L4 had great potential to be used for dyes decolorization via in vivo and in vitro processes. Moreover, in terms of pH range and mediator, in vivo decolorization with Trametes sp. SYBC-L4 was more advantageous since laccase mediator was needless and the applicable range of pH was broader. PMID:24951916

Li, Hui-Xing; Zhang, Rui-Jing; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Mao, Zhong-Gui

2014-12-01

240

Analysis of organic colouring and binding components in colour layer of art works.  

PubMed

Two methods of analysis of organic components of colour layers of art works have been tested: IR microspectroscopy of indigo, Cu-phthalocyanine, and Prussian blue, and MALDI-TOF-MS of proteinaceous binders and a protein-containing red dye. The IR spectra distortion common for smooth outer surfaces and polished cross sections of colour layer of art works is suppressed by reflectance measurement of microtome slices. The detection limit of the three blue pigments examined is approximately 0.3 wt% in reference colour layers in linseed oil binder with calcite as extender and lead white as a drying agent. The sensitivity has been sufficient to identify Prussian blue in repaints on a Gothic painting. MALDI-TOF-MS has been used to identify proteinaceous binders in two historical paintings, namely isinglass (fish glue) and rabbit glue. MALDI-TOF-MS has also been proposed for identification of an insect red dye, cochineal carmine, according to its specific protein component. The enzymatic cleavage with trypsin before MALDI-TOF-MS seems to be a very gentle and specific way of dissolution of the colour layers highly polymerised due to very long aging of old, e.g. medieval, samples. PMID:15800763

Kuckova, S; Nemec, I; Hynek, R; Hradilova, J; Grygar, T

2005-05-01

241

Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash -SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

2012-11-01

242

Platinum-free counter electrode comprised of metal-organic-framework (MOF)-derived cobalt sulfide nanoparticles for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).  

PubMed

We fabricated a highly efficient (with a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 8.1%) Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The counter electrode was made of cobalt sulfide (CoS) nanoparticles synthesized via surfactant-assisted preparation of a metal organic framework, ZIF-67, with controllable particle sizes (50 to 320?nm) and subsequent oxidation and sulfide conversion. In contrast to conventional Pt counter electrodes, the synthesized CoS nanoparticles exhibited higher external surface areas and roughness factors, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) element mapping, and electrochemical analysis. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results showed an increase in the open circuit voltage (VOC) and a decrease in the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) for CoS-based DSSCs compared to Pt-based DSSCs, resulting in a similar power conversion efficiency. The CoS-based DSSC fabricated in the study show great potential for economically friendly production of Pt-free DSSCs. PMID:25382139

Hsu, Shao-Hui; Li, Chun-Ting; Chien, Heng-Ta; Salunkhe, Rahul R; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wu, Kevin C-W

2014-01-01

243

3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 and metal-free organic sensitizer producing dye-sensitized solar cells 8.6% conversion efficiency.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical nanoscale architectures comprised of building blocks, with specifically engineered morphologies, are expected to play important roles in the fabrication of 'next generation' microelectronic and optoelectronic devices due to their high surface-to-volume ratio as well as opto-electronic properties. Herein, a series of well-defined 3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 architectures (HRT) were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method without any surfactant or template, simply by changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid used in the synthesis. The production of these materials provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first identified example of a ledgewise growth mechanism in a rutile TiO2 structure. Also for the first time, a Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) combining a HRT is reported in conjunction with a high-extinction-coefficient metal-free organic sensitizer (D149), achieving a conversion efficiency of 5.5%, which is superior to ones employing P25 (4.5%), comparable to state-of-the-art commercial transparent titania anatase paste (5.8%). Further to this, an overall conversion efficiency 8.6% was achieved when HRT was used as the light scattering layer, a considerable improvement over the commercial transparent/reflector titania anatase paste (7.6%), a significantly smaller gap in performance than has been seen previously. PMID:25167837

Lin, Jianjian; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Nattestad, Andrew; Sun, Ziqi; Wang, Lianzhou; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

2014-01-01

244

3D Hierarchical Rutile TiO2 and Metal-free Organic Sensitizer Producing Dye-sensitized Solar Cells 8.6% Conversion Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical nanoscale architectures comprised of building blocks, with specifically engineered morphologies, are expected to play important roles in the fabrication of `next generation' microelectronic and optoelectronic devices due to their high surface-to-volume ratio as well as opto-electronic properties. Herein, a series of well-defined 3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 architectures (HRT) were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method without any surfactant or template, simply by changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid used in the synthesis. The production of these materials provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first identified example of a ledgewise growth mechanism in a rutile TiO2 structure. Also for the first time, a Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) combining a HRT is reported in conjunction with a high-extinction-coefficient metal-free organic sensitizer (D149), achieving a conversion efficiency of 5.5%, which is superior to ones employing P25 (4.5%), comparable to state-of-the-art commercial transparent titania anatase paste (5.8%). Further to this, an overall conversion efficiency 8.6% was achieved when HRT was used as the light scattering layer, a considerable improvement over the commercial transparent/reflector titania anatase paste (7.6%), a significantly smaller gap in performance than has been seen previously.

Lin, Jianjian; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Nattestad, Andrew; Sun, Ziqi; Wang, Lianzhou; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

2014-08-01

245

Platinum-Free Counter Electrode Comprised of Metal-Organic-Framework (MOF)-Derived Cobalt Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated a highly efficient (with a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 8.1%) Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The counter electrode was made of cobalt sulfide (CoS) nanoparticles synthesized via surfactant-assisted preparation of a metal organic framework, ZIF-67, with controllable particle sizes (50 to 320 nm) and subsequent oxidation and sulfide conversion. In contrast to conventional Pt counter electrodes, the synthesized CoS nanoparticles exhibited higher external surface areas and roughness factors, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) element mapping, and electrochemical analysis. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results showed an increase in the open circuit voltage (VOC) and a decrease in the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) for CoS-based DSSCs compared to Pt-based DSSCs, resulting in a similar power conversion efficiency. The CoS-based DSSC fabricated in the study show great potential for economically friendly production of Pt-free DSSCs.

Hsu, Shao-Hui; Li, Chun-Ting; Chien, Heng-Ta; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wu, Kevin C.-W.

2014-11-01

246

Platinum-Free Counter Electrode Comprised of Metal-Organic-Framework (MOF)-Derived Cobalt Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs)  

PubMed Central

We fabricated a highly efficient (with a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 8.1%) Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The counter electrode was made of cobalt sulfide (CoS) nanoparticles synthesized via surfactant-assisted preparation of a metal organic framework, ZIF-67, with controllable particle sizes (50 to 320?nm) and subsequent oxidation and sulfide conversion. In contrast to conventional Pt counter electrodes, the synthesized CoS nanoparticles exhibited higher external surface areas and roughness factors, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) element mapping, and electrochemical analysis. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results showed an increase in the open circuit voltage (VOC) and a decrease in the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) for CoS-based DSSCs compared to Pt-based DSSCs, resulting in a similar power conversion efficiency. The CoS-based DSSC fabricated in the study show great potential for economically friendly production of Pt-free DSSCs. PMID:25382139

Hsu, Shao-Hui; Li, Chun-Ting; Chien, Heng-Ta; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wu, Kevin C.-W.

2014-01-01

247

New organic donor-acceptor-?-acceptor sensitizers for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible-light irradiation.  

PubMed

Two organic donor-acceptor-?-acceptor (D-A-?-A) sensitizers (AQ and AP), containing quinoxaline/pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine as the auxiliary acceptor, have been. Through fine-tuning of the auxiliary acceptor, a higher designed and synthesized photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.02% for the AQ-based dye-sensitized solar cells under standard global AM1.5 solar conditions was achieved. Also, it was found that AQ-Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts displayed a better rate of H2 evolution under visible-light irradiation (420 nm

Li, Xing; Cui, Shicong; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Ying; Zhou, Hao; Hu, Yue; Liu, Jin-Gang; Long, Yitao; Wu, Wenjun; Hua, Jianli; Tian, He

2014-10-01

248

Effects of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) seed kernel extracts from different solvents on the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed kernels prepared from various solvents affected the behavior and fecundity of the carmine spider mite,Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.).\\u000a \\u000a Bean leaf discs freshly sprayed with different concentrations of the extracts strongly repelled the females from the treated\\u000a leaves and egg-laying was reduced. On the basis of EC 50s for both parameters, the order of

K. R. S. Ascher

1983-01-01

249

Characterization of anthocyanin based dye-sensitized organic solar cells (DSSC) and modifications based on bio-inspired ion mobility improvements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The worldwide electrical energy consumption will increase from currently 10 terawatts to 30 terawatts by 2050. To decrease the current atmospheric CO2 would require our civilization to develop a 20 terawatts non-greenhouse emitting (renewable) electrical power generation capability. Solar photovoltaic electric power generation is thought to be a major component of proposed renewable energy-based economy. One approach to less costly, easily manufactured solar cells is the Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) introduced by Greatzel and others. This dissertation describes the work focused on improving the performance of DSSC type solar cells. In particular parameters affecting dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on anthocyanin pigments extracted from California blackberries (Rubus ursinus) and bio-inspired modifications were analyzed and solar cell designs optimized. Using off-the-shelf materials DSSC were constructed and tested using a custom made solar spectrum simulator and photoelectric property characterization. This equipment facilitated the taking of automated I-V curve plots and the experimental determination of parameters such as open circuit voltage (V OC), short circuit current (JSC), fill factor (FF), etc. This equipment was used to probe the effect of various modifications such as changes in the annealing time and composition of the of the electrode counter-electrode. Solar cell optimization schemes included novel schemes such as solar spectrum manipulation to increase the percentage of the solar spectrum capable of generating power in the DSSC. Solar manipulation included light scattering and photon upconversion. Techniques examined here focused on affordable materials such as silica nanoparticles embedded inside a TiO2 matrix. Such materials were examined for controlled scattering of visible light and optimize light trapping within the matrix as well as a means to achieve photon up-energy-conversion using the Raman effect in silica nano-particles (due to a strong Raman anti-Stoke scattering probability). Finally, solutions to the mobility problem of organic photovoltaics were explored. The solutions examined here were based on the bio-inspired neural ionic conduction were nature has overcome the poor ionic mobility in solutions (D ˜ 10-5cm2/ s) to achieve amazingly fast ionic conduction using non-electric field energy gradients. Electric-permeability-graded layers with possibility to create an energy gradient that helps the diffusion DSSC electrolyte diffusion were explored in this work.

Mawyin, Jose Amador

250

First-principles study of Carbz-PAHTDDT dye sensitizer and two Carbz-derived dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Two new carbazole-based organic dye sensitizers are designed and investigated in silico. These dyes are designed through chemical modifications of the ?-conjugated bridge of a reference organic sensitizer known as Carbz-PAHTDDT (S9) dye. The aim of designing these dyes was to reduce the energy gap between their highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and to red-shift their absorption response compared to those of the reference S9 dye sensitizer. This reference dye has a reported promising efficiency when coupled with ferrocene-based electrolyte composition. To investigate geometric and electronic structure, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were conducted on the new dyes as well as the reference dye. The present study indicated that the long-range correction to the theoretical model in the TD-DFT simulation is important to produce accurate absorption wavelengths. The theoretical studies have shown a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap and red-shifted absorption spectra for both of the new candidate dyes. In particular, the new S9-D1 dye is found to have significant reduced HOMO-LUMO energy gap, greater push-pull character and higher wavelengths of absorption when compared to the reference dye. Such findings suggest that the new dyes are promising and suitable for optoelectronic applications. PMID:24595721

Mohammadi, Narges; Wang, Feng

2014-03-01

251

Application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the identification of anthraquinone dyes used in works of art  

SciTech Connect

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was investigated for applications in the analysis of anthraquinone dyes used in works of art. Two SERS procedures were developed and evaluated with three frequently used anthraquinone dyes, alizarin, carminic acid and lac dye. The first procedure involves coating a layer of silver nanoparticles directly on pieces of filter paper stained with the dyes of interest by thermal evaporation to induce SERS effect. In the second procedure, a SERS-active Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate was prepared by spin-coating an alumina-nanoparticle layer onto a glass slide to provide the nanostructure of the substrate, followed by thermally evaporating a layer of silver nanoparticles on top of the alumina layer. Aliquots of dye solutions were delivered onto this substrate to be analyzed. Intense SERS spectra characteristic of alizarin, carminic acid and lac dye were obtained using both SERS procedures. The effects of two parameters, the concentration of the alumina suspension and the thickness of the silver nanoparticle layer on the performance of the Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate were examined with alizarin as the model compound. Comparative studies were conducted between the Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate and the SERS substrate prepared using Tollens reaction. The Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate was shown to offer larger enhancement and improved reproducibility than the Tollens substrates. Finally, the potential applicability of the Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate for the analysis of real artifact objects was illustrated by the identification of alizarin extracted from a small piece of textile dyed using traditional methods and materials. The limit of detection for alizarin was estimated to be 7 x 10{sup -15} g from tests performed on solutions of known concentration.

Chen, Kui [ORNL; Leona, Marco [ORNL; Yan, Fei [ORNL; Wabuyele, Musundi B [ORNL; Vo Dinh, Tuan [ORNL

2006-04-01

252

Dyes for Optical Recording  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes for optical recording systems such as laser optical recording systems, laser printing systems, cycolor and related systems, xerography and so on are reviewed. Infrared absorbing (IR) dyes are newly designed for laser optical recording systems such as DRAW and erasable type recording systems. The chemistry of IR dyes developed the new fields in dye chemistry. Many of functionalities in

Masaru Matsuoka

1993-01-01

253

Comparison of dye doping and ultrathin emissive layer in white organic light-emitting devices with dual emissive layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) with combined doping emissive layer (EML) and ultrathin EML have been fabricated to investigate the effect of each EML on the electroluminescent (EL) performance of the WOLEDs. Through tailoring doping concentration of bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2'](picolinate) iridium(III) (FIrpic) and thickness of ultrathin bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C2'] iridium (acetylacetonate) [(tbt)2Ir(acac)] EML, it is found that the change in the doping ratio of FIrpic significantly influenced the EL efficiencies and spectra, while the alteration of ultrathin EML thickness had much milder effect on the EL performance. The results indicated that ultrathin EML is in favor of reproducibility in mass production compared with doping method.

Wang, Xu; Qi, Yige; Yu, Junsheng

2014-09-01

254

Low temperature (150 °C) fabrication of high-performance TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells using ultraviolet light and plasma treatments of TiO2 paste containing organic binder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require annealing of TiO2 photoelectrodes at 450 °C to 550 °C. However, such high-temperature annealing is unfavorable because it limits the use of materials that cannot withstand high temperatures, such as plastic substrates. In our previous paper, a low-temperature annealing technique of TiO2 photoelectrodes using ultraviolet light and dielectric barrier discharge treatments was proposed to reduce the annealing temperature from 450 °C to 150 °C for a TiO2 paste containing an organic binder. Here, we measure the electron diffusion length in the TiO2 film, the amount of dye adsorption on the TiO2 film, and the sheet resistance of a glass substrate of samples manufactured with the 150 °C annealing method, and we discuss the effect that the 150 °C annealing method has on those properties of DSSCs.

Zen, Shungo; Inoue, Yuki; Ono, Ryo

2015-03-01

255

Supersensitization of CdS quantum dots with a near-infrared organic dye: toward the design of panchromatic hybrid-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

The photoresponse of quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) has been successfully extended to the near-IR (NIR) region by sensitizing nanostructured TiO(2)-CdS films with a squaraine dye (JK-216). CdS nanoparticles anchored on mesoscopic TiO(2) films obtained by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) exhibit limited absorption below 500 nm with a net power conversion efficiency of ~1% when employed as a photoanode in QDSC. By depositing a thin barrier layer of Al(2)O(3), the TiO(2)-CdS films were further modified with a NIR absorbing squaraine dye. Quantum dot sensitized solar cells supersensitized with a squariand dye (JK-216) showed good stability during illumination with standard global AM 1.5 solar conditions, delivering a maximum overall power conversion efficiency (?) of 3.14%. Transient absorption and pulse radiolysis measurements provide further insight into the excited state interactions of squaraine dye with SiO(2), TiO(2), and TiO(2)/CdS/Al(2)O(3) films and interfacial electron transfer processes. The synergy of combining semiconductor quantum dots and NIR absorbing dye provides new opportunities to harvest photons from different regions of the solar spectrum. PMID:21961965

Choi, Hyunbong; Nicolaescu, Roxana; Paek, Sanghyun; Ko, Jaejung; Kamat, Prashant V

2011-11-22

256

Method of dye removal for the textile industry  

SciTech Connect

The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

Stone, M.L.

2000-07-25

257

Method of dye removal for the textile industry  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01

258

Role of rare earth oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 and La2O3) in suppressing the photobleaching of fluorescent organic dyes.  

PubMed

Aqueous solutions with Rhodamine dye, and fluorescently labeled polymer samples of fibrin and collagen were mixed with aqueous dispersions of cerium oxide, lanthanum oxide, iron (II) oxide nanoparticles, and OxyFluor, a commonly used reagent for suppressing photobleaching. From time dependent studies of the fluorescence from these samples, we observed that the dyes in samples containing rare earth oxide nanoparticles exhibited significantly slower rates of fluorescence decay compared to control samples without additives, or containing OxyFluor or iron oxide nanoparticles. We posit that this may be related to the oxygen free radical scavenging properties of rare earth oxides. PMID:24706286

Guha, Anubhav; Basu, Anindita

2014-05-01

259

Laser dye stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lasing characteristics and bleaching of four Eastman Kodak ir dyes have been examined in dimethyl sulfoxide. These ir dyes\\u000a are shown to improve in performance in the absence of oxygen. Their photochemical stability was found to be comparable to\\u000a the quinolone laser dyes when exposed to flashlamp excitation. Photodecomposition of the ir dyes under lasing conditions was\\u000a found to vary

N. Fletcher

1980-01-01

260

Monitoring the dye impregnation time of nanostructured photoanodes for dye sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are getting increasing attention as low-cost, easy-to-prepare and colored photovoltaic devices. In the current work, in view of optimizing the fabrication procedures and understanding the mechanisms of dye attachment to the semiconductor photoanode, absorbance measurements have been performed at different dye impregnation times ranging from few minutes to 24 hours using UV-Vis spectroscopy. In addition to the traditional absorbance experiments, based on diffuse and specular reflectance on dye impregnated thin films and on the desorption of dye molecules from the photoanodes by means of a basic solution, an alternative in-situ solution depletion measurement, which enables fast and continuous evaluation of dye uptake, is presented. Photoanodes have been prepared with two different nanostructured semiconducting films: mesoporous TiO2, using a commercially available paste from Solaronix, and sponge-like ZnO obtained in our laboratory from sputtering and thermal annealing. Two different dyes have been analyzed: Ruthenizer 535-bisTBA (N719), which is widely used because it gives optimal photovoltaic performances, and a new metal-free organic dye based on a hemisquaraine molecule (CT1). Dye sensitized cells were fabricated using a customized microfluidic architecture. The results of absorbance measurements are presented and discussed in relation to the obtained solar energy conversion efficiencies and the incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies (IPCE).

Shahzad, N.; Pugliese, D.; Lamberti, A.; Sacco, A.; Virga, A.; Gazia, R.; Bianco, S.; Shahzad, M. I.; Tresso, E.; Pirri, C. F.

2013-06-01

261

Dye Like A Natural  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners stain fabrics--on purpose! Learners explore the art of natural dyeing by using dyes and substrates that are both derived from plant or animal sources as well as mordant solutions. Learners compare the color and effectiveness of different mordant/dye combinations on the different substrates.

Julie Yu

2010-01-01

262

Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Various Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports the development of organic dyes as an attempt to reduce material costs of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Indonesia, a country with variety and considerable number of botanical resources, is suitable to perform the research. Indonesian black rice, curcuma, papaya leaf, and the combination were chosen as organic dyes source. Dyes were extracted using organic solvent and adsorbed on mesoporous Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) which has been optimized in our laboratory. The best dyes light absorbance and performance obtained from papaya leaf as chlorophyll dyes that gives two peaks at 432 nm and 664 nm from UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and performance under 100 mW/cm2 Xenon light solar simulator gives VOC = 0.566 Volt, JSC = 0.24 mA/cm2, Fill Factor = 0.33, and efficiency of energy conversion 0,045%.

Yuliarto, Brian; Fanani, Fahiem; Fuadi, M. Kasyful; Nugraha

2010-10-01

263

Location and size of carotid body-like organs (paraganglia) revealed in rats by the permeability of blood vessels to Evans blue dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We determined the number, distribution, size, and morphology of paraganglia near the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and sympathetic nerves of rats. The location of paraganglia was revealed by a method that takes advantage of the comparatively high permeability of their blood vessels to Evans blue dye. Rats were fixed by vascular perfusion of glutaraldehyde 2 min after receiving an intravenous injection

Donald M. McDonald; Richard W. Blewett

1981-01-01

264

Decolorization of Azo Dyes by Immobilized Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Synthetic organic dyes are essential for satisfying the ever growing demand in terms of quality, variety, and speed of coloration\\u000a of large number of substances. Because of the xenobiotic nature of dyes, they are toxicant to biological system and causes\\u000a serious damage to environment. Ever-increasing concerns about color in the effluent lead to the worldwide efforts to build\\u000a up effective

Rashmi Khan; Uttam Chand Banerjee

265

Synthesis of azoimidazolium dyes with nitrous oxide.  

PubMed

A new method for the synthesis of industrially important azoimidazolium dyes is presented. The procedure is based on a reagent which is rarely used in the context of synthetic organic chemistry: nitrous oxide ("laughing gas"). N2O is first coupled to N-heterocyclic carbenes. Subsequent reaction with aromatic compounds through an AlCl3-induced C-H activation process provides azoimidazolium dyes in good yields. PMID:25420599

Tskhovrebov, Alexander G; Naested, Lara C E; Solari, Euro; Scopelliti, Rosario; Severin, Kay

2015-01-19

266

Identification of anthraquinone coloring matters in natural red dyes by electrospray mass spectrometry coupled to capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Capillary electrophoresis with UV/visible diode-array detection (DAD) and electrospray mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) detection were used for the identification of anthraquinone color components of cochineal, lac-dye and madder, natural red dyestuffs often used by ancient painters. For the purpose of such analysis, ESI-MS was found to be a much more appropriate detection technique than DAD one owing to its higher sensitivity (detection limits in the range 0.1-0.5 micro g ml(-1)) and selectivity. The method developed made it possible to identify unequivocally carminic acid and laccaic acids A, B and E as coloring matters in the examined preparations of cochineal and lac-dye, respectively. In madder, European Rubia tinctorum, alizarin and purpurin were found. The method allows the rapid, direct and straightforward identification and quantification of components of natural products used in art and could be very helpful in restoration and conservation procedures. PMID:14696204

Puchalska, Maria; Orli?ska, Magdalena; Ackacha, Mohamed A; Po?e?-Pawlak, Kasia; Jarosz, Maciej

2003-12-01

267

Seeking effective dyes for a mediated glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant level of power generation from an abiotic, air breathing, mediated reducing sugar-air alkaline battery/fuel cell has been achieved in our laboratories at room temperature without complicated catalysis or membrane separation in the reaction chamber. Our prior studies suggested that mass transport limitation by the mediator is a limiting factor in power generation. New and effective mediators were sought here to improve charge transfer and power density. Forty-five redox dyes were studied to identify if any can facilitate mass transport in alkaline electrolyte solution; namely, by increasing the solubility and mobility of the dye, and the valence charge carried per molecule. Indigo dyes were studied more closely to understand the complexity involved in mass transport. The viability of water-miscible co-solvents was also explored to understand their effect on solubility and mass transport of the dyes. Using a 2.0 mL solution, 20% methanol by volume, with 100 mM indigo carmine, 1.0 M glucose and 2.5 M sodium hydroxide, the glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell attained 8 mA cm-2 at short-circuit and 800 ?W cm-2 at the maximum power point. This work shall aid future optimization of mediated charge transfer mechanism in batteries or fuel cells.

Eustis, Ross; Tsang, Tsz Ming; Yang, Brigham; Scott, Daniel; Liaw, Bor Yann

2014-02-01

268

Simple method for the analysis of food dyes on reversed-phase thin-layer plates.  

PubMed

A technique for the determination of food dyes using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography on octadecyl-modified silica is described. A solvent system containing 5.0% aqueous sodium sulphate solution enables good separation of the food dyes. Their separation is dependent on the pH of the solvent system, good separation among all dyes being obtained between pH 6.0 and 7.0. The determination of thirteen dyes can be achieved by a combination of methanol-acetonitrile-5.0% aqueous sodium sulphate solution (3:3:10) (solvent system A) and methanol-methyl ethyl ketone-5.0% aqueous sodium sulphate solution (1:1:1) (solvent system B). Solvent system A was used for the determination of Tartrazine, Amaranth, Indigo Carmine, New Coccine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Allura Red AC, Fast Green FCF and Brilliant Blue FCF and for the screening of Acid Red (R-106), Eosin (R-103), Erythrosin (R-3), Rose Bengale (R-105) and Phloxine (R-104). When the spots of R-3, R-103, R-104, R-105 and R-106 appear on the plate, their determination can be achieved by using solvent system B. Each calibration graph was linear between 0.2 and 1.0 micrograms. PMID:3443633

Oka, H; Ikai, Y; Kawamura, N; Yamada, M; Inoue, H; Ohno, T; Inagaki, K; Kuno, A; Yamamoto, N

1987-12-18

269

Two photon absorption energy transfer in the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) modified with organic boron dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plant light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHC-II) play important roles in collecting solar energy and transferring the energy to the reaction centers of photosystems I and II. A two photon absorption compound, 4-(bromomethyl)-N-(4-(dimesitylboryl)phenyl)-N-phenylaniline (DMDP-CH2Br), was synthesized and covalently linked to the LHC-II in formation of a LHC-II-dye complex, which still maintained the biological activity of LHC-II system. Under irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses at 754 nm, the LHC-II-dye complex can absorb two photons of the laser light effectively compared with the wild type LHC-II. The absorbed excitation energy is then transferred to chlorophyll a with an obvious fluorescence enhancement. The results may be interesting and give potentials for developing hybrid photosystems.

Chen, Li; Liu, Cheng; Hu, Rui; Feng, Jiao; Wang, Shuangqing; Li, Shayu; Yang, Chunhong; Yang, Guoqiang

2014-07-01

270

Influence of physicochemical-electronic properties of transition metal ion doped polycrystalline titania on the photocatalytic degradation of Indigo Carmine and 4-nitrophenol under UV/solar light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the role of dopant inside TiO2 matrix, anatase TiO2 was doped with transition metal ions like Mn2+, Fe3+, Ru3+ and Os3+ having unique half filled electronic configuration and their photocatalytic activity was probed in the degradation of Indigo Carmine (IC) and 4-nitrophenol (NP) under UV/solar light. For comparison, TiO2 was also doped with V5+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ metal ions having d0, d8 and d10 electronic configuration respectively. Irrespective of excitation source UV/solar light and nature of the organic pollutant, photocatalytic activities of doped photocatalysts followed the order: Mn2+-TiO2 > Fe3+-TiO2 > Ru3+-TiO2 ? Os3+-TiO2 > Zn2+-TiO2 > V5+-TiO2 > Ni2+-TiO2 at an optimum concentration of dopant. Based on the experimental results obtained, it is proposed that the existence of dopant with half filled electronic configuration in TiO2 matrix which is known to enhance the photocatalytic activity is not universal! Rather it is a complex function of several physicochemical-electronic properties of doped titania. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Mn2+ (0.06 at.%)-TiO2 was attributed to the combined factors of high positive reduction potential of Mn2+/Mn3+ pairs, synergistic effects in the mixed polymorphs of anatase and rutile, smaller crystallite size with high intimate contact between two phases and favorable surface structure of the photocatalyst. Despite the intense research devoted to transition metal ion doped TiO2, it is rather difficult to make unifying conclusion which is highlighted in this study.

Devi, L. Gomathi; Kumar, S. Girish

2011-01-01

271

The Development and Application of Novel IR and NMR-Based Model for the Evaluation of Carminative Effect of Artemisia judaica L. Essential Oil  

PubMed Central

Artemisia judaica L. is a medicinal plant that is traditionally used to relieve abdominal pains through its carminative activity. In this study, spectroscopic analysis was employed to investigate the carminative activity associated with A. judaica. Using infrared spectroscopy, the carminative activity was evaluated based on the first derivative of IR-characteristic stretching signal of CO2. Our results indicate that A. judaica oil effectively reduced the response of CO2 signal equivalent to thymol standard. Additionally, 1H-NMR spectroscopy was utilized to assess surface activity of A. judaica crude oil through the reduction of interfacial tension in a D2O/CDCl3 system. Apparently, 10?mg of the oil was able to solubilize water in a chloroform layer up to 4.3% (w/w). In order to correlate the observed surface activity of the oil to its actual composition, GC-MS and GC-FID structural analysis were undertaken. The results revealed that the oil composition consists of oxygenated terpenes which might be responsible for the carminative effect. Furthermore, owing to its sensitivity, our model provides a fundamental basis for the pharmacological assessment of trace amounts of oils with high precision and accuracy. PMID:25614741

Alzweiri, Muhammed; Alrawashdeh, Ibrahim M.; Bardaweel, Sanaa K.

2014-01-01

272

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed in carminic acid for the development of catalase based biosensor for selective amperometric determination of H 2O 2 and iodate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the preparation of stable dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using carminic acid (CA) as a dispersing agent. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results confirmed that MWCNT is well dispersed in CA aqueous solution and CA has been well adsorbed at MWCNT walls. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV–vis

Arun Prakash Periasamy; Ya-Hui Ho; Shen-Ming Chen

2011-01-01

273

Chromoendoscopy with Indigo Carmine in Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Screening: Does it Improve the Detection of Adenomas in the Distal Colon and Rectum?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims. The aim of our study was to determine whether chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine significantly improves the detection of adenomas in the distal colon and rectum and therefore could become routine in flexible sigmoidoscopy screening. Methods. Between 2001- 2003, two sigmoidoscopies, the first conventional, the second with chromoendoscopy, were performed in a \\

Nadia Ratiu; Cornelia Gelbmann; Heiko C. Rath; Hans Herfarth; Frank Kullmann; Jürgen Schölmerich

274

Femtosecond excited state relaxation of dye molecules in solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bleaching dynamics of organic dye molecules in solution have been investigated using 70 fs pulses from a colliding pulse mode-locked ring dye laser. In addition to ground state relaxation on a nanosecond time scale, a fast partial recovery is observed. For the dyes Nile blue, oxazine 720, cresyl violet and rhodamine 640, this recovery is exponential, with relaxation times in the range 190-480 fs.

Weiner, A. M.; Ippen, E. P.

1985-03-01

275

Zeolite-dye micro lasers  

E-print Network

We present a new class of micro lasers based on nanoporous molecular sieve host-guest systems. Organic dye guest molecules of 1-Ethyl-4-(4-(p-Dimethylaminophenyl)-1,3-butadienyl)-pyridinium Perchlorat were inserted into the 0.73-nm-wide channel pores of a zeolite AlPO$_4$-5 host. The zeolitic micro crystal compounds where hydrothermally synthesized according to a particular host-guest chemical process. The dye molecules are found not only to be aligned along the host channel axis, but to be oriented as well. Single mode laser emission at 687 nm was obtained from a whispering gallery mode oscillating in a 8-$\\mu$m-diameter monolithic micro resonator, in which the field is confined by total internal reflection at the natural hexagonal boundaries inside the zeolitic microcrystals.

Vietze, U; Laeri, F; Ihlein, G; Schüth, F; Limburg, B; Abraham, M

1998-01-01

276

Enhancement of solar light photocatalytic activity of TiO2-CeO2 composite by Er3+:Y3Al5O12 in organic dye degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Er3+:Y3Al5O12, as an upconversion luminescence agent which is able to transform the visible part of the solar light to ultraviolet light, was prepared by nitrate-citrate sol-gel method. A novel solar light photocatalyst, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite was synthesized using ultrasonic treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning election microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structural morphology of the Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite. In order to evaluate the solar light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite, the Azo Fuchsine dye was used as a model organic pollutant. The progress of the degradation reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and ion chromatography. The key influences on the solar light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 were studied, such as Ti/Ce molar ratio, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time. Otherwise, the effects of initial dye concentration, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 amount, solar light irradiation time and the nature of the dye on the solar light photocatalytic degradation process were investigated. It was found that the solar light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite was superior to Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 and Er3+:Y3Al5O12/CeO2 powder in the similar conditions.

Li, Y.; Li, S. G.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Ma, C. H.

2014-12-01

277

Dyeing Wool with Fungi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (p.23 of PDF), learners dye wool with fungi. Learners discover that natural chemicals in fungi can dye wool different colors. Note: Natural dyeing normally requires a color fixative such as alum. This is not necessary if you use an aluminum, tin, or copper pot as the metal in the pot will take part in the dyeing reaction. However, if you use a non-stick saucepan you should add a few copper coins to the mix. Safety note: Always wash your hands after touching fungi! Adult supervision recommended.

Sue Assinder

2002-01-01

278

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers En Español Hair dye is used to ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

279

Application of response surface methodology to optimize decolourization of dyes by the laccase-mediator system.  

PubMed

Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the decolourization of 3 dyes belonging to 3 dye families such as reactive black 5 (diazoic), indigo carmine (indigoid) and aniline blue (anthraquinonic). Crude laccase from Trametes trogii and the laccase-mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) were used in this study. Box-Behnken design using RSM with six variables namely pH, temperature, enzyme concentration, HBT concentration, dye concentration and incubation time was used in this study to optimize significant correlation between the effects of these variables on the decolourization of reactive black 5 (RB5), indigo carmine (IC) and aniline blue (AB). The optimum of pH, temperature, laccase, HBT, RB5 and reaction time were 4.5, 0.5 U ml(-1), 0.5 mM, 100 mg ml(-1) and 150 min respectively, for a maximum decolourization of RB5 (about 92.92% ± 7.21). Whereas, the optimum decolourization conditions of both IC (99.76% ± 7.75) and AB (98.44% ± 10) were: pH 4.5, temperature of 45 °C, enzyme concentration of 0.1 U ml(-1) and 0.5 U ml(-1), HBT concentration of 0.9 mM and 0.5 mM, dye concentration of 60 mg l(-1) and reaction time of 150 and 90 min, respectively. The experimental values were in good agreement with the predicted ones and the models were highly significant, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) being 0.864, 0.663 and 0.776 for RB5, IC and AB, respectively. In addition, when the kinetic parameters for the three dyes decolourization were calculated according to Hannes-Wolf plot, the following values were obtained: Km of 268.4, 47.94 and 44.64 mg l(-1) then V(max) of 35.58, 10.43 and 9.23 mg l(-1) min for the RB5, IC and AB decolourizations by laccase, respectively. PMID:22659603

Daâssi, Dalel; Frikha, Fakher; Zouari-Mechichi, Hela; Belbahri, Lassaad; Woodward, Steve; Mechichi, Tahar

2012-10-15

280

Study on the fluorescence enhancement in Lanthanum(III)-carminic acid-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide system and its analytical application.  

PubMed

A fluorescent enhancement system carminic acid (CA)-La3+-CTAB is found and based on this finding a new fluorimetric method for the determination of CA is developed. Under optimized conditions, the enhanced intensities of fluorescence are quantitatively in proportion to the concentrations of CA in the range of 0.01231-12.31 ?g mL(-1). The detection limit is 10.92 ng mL(-1). Compared with other methods that have been reported to determine CA, this method has high sensitivity, stability and wide linear range. In addition, the luminescence mechanism indicates that the complex of La3+-CA (1:2) forms and solubilizes in CTAB micelle. PMID:21703912

Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Li, Kexiang; Li, Aihua; Gao, Wei; Tang, Bo

2011-09-01

281

Electron transfer mediation by aqueous C?? aggregates in H?O?/UV advanced oxidation of indigo carmine.  

PubMed

C60 fullerene has long been known to exhibit favorable electron accepting and shuttling properties, but little is known about the possibility of electron transfer mediation by fullerene aggregates (nC60) in water. In this study, we investigated the electron shuttling capabilities of nC60 using UV/H2O2 as a model oxidation process in the presence of an electron donor, indigo carmine (IC). nC60 addition to the IC/H2O2 system was found to drastically increase IC degradation and shift the reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance, favoring the formation of superoxide and perhydroxyl radical species compared to hydroxyl radicals. Results indicate that nC60 can act as an electron mediator, where the adsorbed IC donates an electron to nC60, which is subsequently transferred to H2O2 or perhydroxyl radical. PMID:25268845

Ge, Ling; Moor, Kyle; Zhang, Bo; He, Yiliang; Kim, Jae-Hong

2014-11-21

282

Investigation of RF plasma light sources for dye laser excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical and experimental studies were performed to assess the applicability of radio frequency (RF) induction heated plasma light sources for potential excitation of continuous dye lasers. Experimental efforts were directed toward development of a continuous light source having spectral flux and emission characteristics approaching that required for pumping organic dye lasers. Analytical studies were performed to investigate (1) methods of

J. S. Kendall; J. E. Jaminet

1975-01-01

283

Theoretical study of acene-bridged dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

The electronic structures and absorption spectra for a series of acene-based organic dyes and the adsorption energy and optical properties for these dyes adsorbed on (TiO2)38 have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. The effects of acene units and different substitution positions of electron donors on the optoelectronic properties of the acene-modified dyes are demonstrated. The photophysical properties of tetracene- and pentacene-based dyes are found to be tuned by changing the size of acene and the substitution position of the donor. The donor sites have a significant influence on the absorption wavelength mainly because of different molecular orbital (MO) contributions of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) on the bridging acene units, and the increasing MO contribution would lead to the red shift in the absorption spectra. Meanwhile, the donor is located close to the center of the ?-conjugated bridge, and the absorption spectra are extended. The adsorption energy and optical properties of tetracene- and pentacene-based dyes adsorbed on (TiO2)38 suggest that acene-bridged dyes could be adsorbed on the TiO2 surface and inject electrons into semiconductors effectively. Then the results obtained from the hexacene-based dyes confirm the conclusions proposed from the tetracene- and pentence-based dyes. This study will provide a useful reference to the future design and optimization of acene dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications. PMID:25756752

Li, Minjie; Kou, Li; Diao, Ling; Zhang, Qing; Li, Zhonggao; Wu, Qiang; Lu, Wencong; Pan, Dengyu

2015-04-01

284

Bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(?-A)2 comprising thiophene-2-acetonitrile as ?-spacer and malonic acid as electron acceptor for dye sensitized solar cell applications.  

PubMed

Two new bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(?-A)2 comprising the identical ?-spacer (thiophene-2-acetonitrile) and electron acceptor (malonic acid) but different aryl amine as electron donors (diphenylamine and carbazole) were synthesized, characterized and fabricated metal free dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The intra molecular charge transfer property and electrochemical property of these dyes were investigated by molecular absorption, emission, cyclic voltammetric experiments and in addition, quantum chemical calculation studies were performed to provide sufficient driving force for the electron injection into the conduction band of TiO2 which leads to efficient charge collection. Among the fabricated devices, carbazole based device exhibits high current conversion efficiency (?=4.7%) with a short circuit current density (JSC) 15.3mA/cm(2), an open circuit photo voltage (VOC) of 0.59V and a fill factor of 0.44 under AM 1.5 illumination (85mW/cm(2)) compared to diphenylamine based device. PMID:25801442

Reddy, Gachumale Saritha; Ramkumar, Sekar; Asiri, Abdullah M; Anandan, Sambandam

2015-06-15

285

Molecular design of the diketopyrrolopyrrole-based dyes with varied donor units for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of novel diketopyrrolopyrrole-based organic dyes (Type 1-3) with phenyl unit as an additional ?-bridge and triphenylamine or phenothiazine as the donors are designed and synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Type 1 dyes incorporating the donor segment directly to the diketopyrrolopyrrole core lead to a better electron communication between the donor and acceptor, allowing an efficient charge transfer process. Type 2 and Type 3 dyes with a phenyl unit between the donor and diketopyrrolopyrrole unit show lower delocalization of the excited state. Compared with Type 3 dyes, Type 1 dyes exhibit higher conjugated skeleton co planarity and shorter electron transfer distance from the donor to TiO2, resulting in the red-shifts of absorption and promotion of electron injection, respectively. Moreover, the dyes with triphenylamine as the donor display better UV performance and lower trend of aggregation than the dyes with phenothiazine as the donor. Finally, a power conversion efficiency of 8% with chenodeoxycholic acid as the co-absorbant for the DSSC based on Type 1 dyes with triphenylamine is achieved. The results reveal that the donors, the position and number of phenyl unit of the dyes significantly influence the photovoltaic performance of their DSSCs.

Zang, Xu-Feng; Huang, Zu-Sheng; Wu, Han-Lun; Iqbal, Zafar; Wang, Lingyun; Meier, Herbert; Cao, Derong

2014-12-01

286

Toxicity of Xanthene Food Dyes by Inhibition of Human Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in a Noncompetitive Manner  

PubMed Central

The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC50 values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC50 values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of 1O2 originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by 1O2 quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin. PMID:20041016

Mizutani, Takaharu

2009-01-01

287

Tie-Dye Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In their travels to the indigo dye pits of northern Nigeria, the authors were struck by the beauty, history, and chemistry of indigo dyeing. They returned from Nigeria eager to develop a laboratory exercise that would expose students to the science of ind

Gretchen Cessna

2001-03-01

288

Oxazine laser dyes  

DOEpatents

New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

1992-01-01

289

Solid state dye lasers with scattering feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, significant advances have been made toward the development of practical, tunable solid state dye lasers, which resulted in improved lasing efficiency with reduced dye photodegradation. To achieve this goal, a “chemical” approach was followed, where attention was focused onto the particular dye/host interaction and compatibility, specifically choosing already existing hosts for a given dye, synthesizing new dyes and/or matrices, or chemically modifying existing ones. Nevertheless, this approach was limited by a single fact learnt from the experience: there is no universal matrix which optimizes the efficiency and photostability of all dyes. This limitation could be overcome by following a “physical” approach, where the emission properties of the active medium are tailored by means of physical and structural modifications of the dye host. Following this approach, in this paper recent theoretical and experimental work is reviewed where it is demonstrated that following a simultaneous “physical” and “chemical” approach to tailor the emission properties of the host materials for solid state dye lasers, may lead, under specific circumstances, to the improvement of both the laser efficiency and photostability. In particular, it is demonstrated that optical scattering is not always detrimental either to conventional bulk lasers (laser rods or colloidal suspensions) or to integrated devices, but may give place, on the contrary, to dramatic improvements in the laser operation of organic (hybrid) laser rods, and to alternative ways of obtaining laser light from integrated devices based on the phenomenon of coherent random lasing, where feedback is provided by light scattering in an appropriate medium, without the need to manufacture complex periodic structures in the substrate. The processing and pumping flexibility of these materials, together with their low cost and capability of efficient emission across the whole visible spectrum makes them very attractive for the fabrication and development of coherent light sources suitable for integration in optoelectronic and disposable spectroscopic and sensing devices.

Costela, A.; Cerdán, L.; García-Moreno, I.

2013-11-01

290

First-principles study of Carbz-PAHTDDT dye sensitizer and two Carbz-derived dyes for dye sensitized solar cells  

E-print Network

Two new carbazole-based organic dye sensitizers are designed and investigated in silico. These dyes are designed through chemical modifications of the conjugated bridge of a reference organic sensitizer known as Carbz-PAHTDDT (S9) dye. The aim of designing these dyes was to reduce the energy gap between their highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and to red-shift their absorption response compared to those of the reference S9 dye sensitizer. This reference dye has a reported promising efficiency when coupled with ferrocene-based electrolyte composition. To investigate geometric and electronic structure, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were conducted on the new dyes as well as the reference dye. The present study indicated that the long-range correction to the theoretical model in the TD-DFT simulation is important to produce accurate absorption wavelengths.The theoretical studies have shown a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap ...

Mohammadi, Narges

2014-01-01

291

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, T.C.

1993-03-30

292

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

1993-01-01

293

New donor-?-acceptor type triazatruxene derivatives for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A new class of organic dyes based on triazatruxene have been designed and synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells. The photoelectronic properties of these donor-?-acceptor dyes can be tuned by changing ?-conjugated linkers. The best performance was found for triazatruxene dye TD1, wherein, with thiophene as the conjugated linker and cyanoacrylic acid as the acceptor, a power conversion efficiency up to 6.10% was achieved. PMID:24224807

Qian, Xing; Zhu, Yi-Zhou; Song, Jian; Gao, Xue-Ping; Zheng, Jian-Yu

2013-12-01

294

Adaptation for improving lifetime of dye laser using coumarin dyes  

SciTech Connect

The effective lasing lifetime of laser dyes including coumarin dyes are significantly extended by the use of an inert cover gas for the laser dye solution such as argon in combination with the employment of a glass filter such as Pyrex disposed between the pumping flash lamp and the dye laser cavity capable of absorbing electromagnetic radiation of about 300 nanometers or shorter wavelength.

Fletcher, A.N.

1984-10-23

295

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Comparison of In Situ Photoelectrochemical Polymerization in Aqueous Micellar and Organic Media.  

PubMed

Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) are devoid of such issues as electrolyte evaporation or leakage and electrode corrosion, which are typical for traditional liquid electrolyte-based DSCs. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is one of the most popular and efficient p-type conducting polymers that are used in sDSCs as a solid-state hole-transporting material. The most convenient way to deposit this insoluble polymer into the dye-sensitized mesoporous working electrode is in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization. Apparently, the structure and the physicochemical properties of the generated conducting polymer, which determine the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding solar cell, can be significantly affected by the preparation conditions. Therefore, a simple and fast analytical method that can reveal information on polymer chain length, possible chemical modifications, and impurities is strongly required for the rapid development of efficient solar energy-converting devices. In this contribution, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) for the analysis of PEDOT directly on sDSCs. It was found that the PEDOT generated in aqueous micellar medium possesses relatively shorter polymeric chains than the PEDOT deposited from an organic medium. Furthermore, the micellar electrolyte promotes a transformation of one of the thiophene terminal units to thiophenone. The introduction of a carbonyl group into the PEDOT molecule impedes the growth of the polymer chain and reduces the conductivity of the final polymer film. Both the simplicity of sample preparation (only application of the organic matrix onto the solar cell is needed) and the rapidity of analysis hold the promise of making MALDI MS an essential tool for the physicochemical characterization of conducting polymer-based sDSCs. PMID:25751409

Zhang, Jinbao; Ellis, Hanna; Yang, Lei; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hagfeldt, Anders; Bergquist, Jonas; Shevchenko, Denys

2015-04-01

296

Low temperature preparation of ?-FeOOH/reduced graphene oxide and its catalytic activity for the photodegradation of an organic dye.  

PubMed

A new approach to prepare ?-FeOOH/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) at room temperature has been developed. Instead of reducing graphene oxide (GO) with the most commonly used reagents, which are highly toxic or explosive, Fe²? was used as the reducing reagent. Fe²? efficiently reduced GO under mild conditions to form ?-FeOOH/RGO via spontaneous in situ deposition of ?-FeOOH nanorods onto the RGO surfaces. The resulting ?-FeOOH/RGO was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The ?-FeOOH/RGO was then applied as a photocatalyst for the degradation of the azo dye, methyl orange. PMID:24008350

Huang, Guanbo; Zhang, Congcong; Long, Ying; Wynn, Jeanne; Liu, Yu; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jianping

2013-10-01

297

Low temperature preparation of ?-FeOOH/reduced graphene oxide and its catalytic activity for the photodegradation of an organic dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to prepare ?-FeOOH/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) at room temperature has been developed. Instead of reducing graphene oxide (GO) with the most commonly used reagents, which are highly toxic or explosive, Fe2+ was used as the reducing reagent. Fe2+ efficiently reduced GO under mild conditions to form ?-FeOOH/RGO via spontaneous in situ deposition of ?-FeOOH nanorods onto the RGO surfaces. The resulting ?-FeOOH/RGO was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The ?-FeOOH/RGO was then applied as a photocatalyst for the degradation of the azo dye, methyl orange.

Huang, Guanbo; Zhang, Congcong; Long, Ying; Wynn, Jeanne; Liu, Yu; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jianping

2013-10-01

298

Synthesis and photocatalytic activities of CdS/TiO? nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers for high efficient adsorption and simultaneous decomposition of organic dyes.  

PubMed

CdS/TiO2 NPs-decorated carbon nanofibers were prepared by a simple electrospinning method followed by the calcination under argon atmosphere. As-synthesized nanocomposites exhibited a strong photocatalytic activity for decomposition of methylene blue (MB), reactive black 5, and reactive orange 16 under visible light radiation for many successive cycles. Moreover, in the dark, the carbon content revealed very good adsorption behavior as 95% of the dye was removed within 5 min, however less adsorption capacity was observed upon successive cycles. Therefore, the enhanced photocatalytic performance for the introduced nanofibers might be attributed to the adsorption characteristic of carbon nanofiber and the known photocatalytic activities of the TiO2 and CdS photocatalysts. PMID:25181331

Pant, Bishweshwar; Barakat, Nasser A M; Pant, Hem Raj; Park, Mira; Saud, Prem Singh; Kim, Jong-Wan; Kim, Hak-Yong

2014-11-15

299

Dye system for dye laser applications  

DOEpatents

A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

300

Solvent effects on emission yield and lifetime for coumarin laser dyes. Requirements for a rotatory decay mechanism. Technical report, 1 January 1982-31 October 1982  

SciTech Connect

Photophysical parameters have been determined for coumarin laser dyes in organic solvents and water. Fluorescence yields and lifetimes were sensitive to solvent polarity depending on subtle features of dye structure. Protic solvents were important in reducing emission yield for certain dyes. Radiative and non-radiative rates were obtained and trends analyzed in terms of dye structure, solvent properties, and medium temperature.

Jones, G. II; Jackson, W.R.; Choi, C.; Bergmark, W.R.

1983-10-31

301

Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excitonic solar cells-including organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized cells (DSCs)-are promising devices for inexpensive, large-scale solar energy conversion. The DSC is currently the most efficient and stable excitonic photocell. Central to this device is a thick nanoparticle film that provides a large surface area for the adsorption of light-harvesting molecules. However, nanoparticle DSCs rely on trap-limited diffusion for electron transport,

Matt Law; Lori E. Greene; Justin C. Johnson; Richard Saykally; Peidong Yang

2005-01-01

302

Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

2011-09-01

303

Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique  

SciTech Connect

This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

Abdel-Kareem, O. [Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University (Egypt); Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

2011-09-22

304

Molecular Models of Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The paper on the synthesis of several dyes by James V. McCullagh and Kelly A. Daggett (1) provides us with the JCE Featured Molecules for this month. The authors mention various applications of these dyes, ranging from commercial dyeing to techniques for determining the course of complex biochemical processes. One of the reaction products, rhodamine B, is a member of a family of molecules that are widely used as tunable laser dyes. In this application, the rhodamines are most commonly encountered in a cationic form, rather than in the neutral form shown in the paper. In the cations, the carboxyl group is no longer part of a ring system. Several different members of the rhodamine family are included in the molecule collection because substituents have a marked effect on the effective lasing range of a given dye. Additionally, the solvent and the excitation source also influence the lasing range (2). Students can learn more about the relationship between structure, absorption and emission properties, and lasing ranges of various dyes by consulting ref 2 and from PhotochemCAD, Jonathan Lindsey's free application (3).

305

Influence of Exposure to Imidacloprid on Survivorship, Reproduction and Vitellin Content of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus  

PubMed Central

Occasional reports linking neonicotinoid insecticide applications to field population outbreaks of the spider mite have been a topic of concern for integrated pest management programs. To elucidate the impacts of a neonicotinoid insecticide on the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisduval (Acari: Tetranychidae), the survivorship, reproduction, and vitellin contents of the mite were investigated after exposure to various concentrations of imidacloprid on the V. unguiculata leaf discs at 25°C, 80% RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) in the laboratory. The results showed that the field-relevant dose of imidacloprid did not significantly affect the hatch rate of eggs or pre-imaginal survivorship of the mite, while sublethal doses of imidacloprid, previously determined for Myzus persicae, led to a significant increase in the hatch rate of eggs and pre-imaginal survivorship of the mite compared to the untreated control. Adult longevity and fecundity of T. cinnabarinus for imidacloprid-treated populations were slightly prolonged and increased, respectively, but the difference from the untreated control was not significant. The vitellin content in eggs increased significantly after exposure to imidacloprid. Imidacloprid may be one of the major reasons for the outbreak of T. cinnabarinus in the field. PMID:20578884

Zeng, Chun-Xiang; Wang, Jin-Jun

2010-01-01

306

One-pot synthesis of C18-functionalized core-shell magnetic mesoporous silica composite as efficient sorbent for organic dye.  

PubMed

In this work, a facile one-pot strategy was proposed for the synthesis of C18-functionalized core-shell magnetic mesoporous silica composite (Fe3O4/mSiO2-C18). The Fe3O4/mSiO2-C18 composite, with an average size of 80nm and a functionalized mesoporous silica shell of about 30nm in thickness, has excellent adsorption ability toward methylene blue dye (MB) due to the large surface area (303m(2)g(-1)) and the abundant hydrophobic C18 groups. The adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 20min and the adsorption behavior of MB on Fe3O4/mSiO2-C18 composite fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well (k2=1.29×10(-2)gmg(-1)min(-1), qe=144.72mgg(-1), ho=270.27mgg(-1)min(-1) under 25°C and an initial MB concentration of 10mgL(-1)). Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal adsorption models can both be used to describe the adsorption process and the maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity of MB on Fe3O4/mSiO2-C18 at 25°C and pH 7.5 is 363.64mgg(-1). Thermodynamic parameters show that the adsorption reaction is exothermic and spontaneous (?H(0)=-63.49kJmol(-1), ?G(0)=-7.80kJmol(-1)). Ionic strength and pH affected the adsorption slightly. In addition, the MB adsorbed sorbent can be readily separated from water solution by an external magnet because of the high magnetic saturation value (22.62emug(-1)). After being regenerated by treatment with acidic methanol, the sorbent could be reused for at least 5 cycles with a little decrease in adsorption capacity. PMID:25734221

Zhang, Xiaole; Zeng, Tao; Wang, Saihua; Niu, Hongyun; Wang, Xiaoke; Cai, Yaqi

2015-06-15

307

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOEpatents

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

1998-08-11

308

Hair cosmetics: dyes.  

PubMed

Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. PMID:24656996

Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

2014-11-01

309

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOEpatents

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

1998-01-01

310

The Comparative Nucleophilicity of Naphthoxide Derivatives in Reactions with a Fast-Red TR Dye: A Discovery-Oriented Capstone Project for the Second-Year Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this experiment, organic chemistry students perform reactions between three naphthyl acetate derivatives and the diazonium salt Fast-Red TR, under basic conditions. The three naphthyl acetate derivatives used in this study are 2-naphthyl acetate (1a), 6-bromo-2-naphthyl acetate (1b) and 1,6-dibromo-2-naphthyl acetate (1c). The two-step, one-pot…

Mascarenhas, Cheryl M.

2008-01-01

311

Dye-multilayer semiconductor nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadening of the spectral response of dye-sensitized semiconductor devices is one of the major issues confronting practical application of dye-sensitization. It is the main factor limiting the energy conversion efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells. Synthesis of dyes with broader spectral response has been attempted as a possible strategy. The other method is to adopt more than one pigment. However, the

P. K. D. Duleepa P. Pitigala; M. K. Indika Senevirathna; V. P. Susira Perera; Kirthi Tennakone

2006-01-01

312

Simultaneous determination of dyes in wines by HPLC coupled to quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new method combining the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and ESI quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution MS was developed for the highly accurate and sensitive screening of 69 dyes in wines. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the QuEChERS sample preparation method for the determination of 69 different analytes in wines for the first time. After optimization, the maximum predicted recovery was 99.48% rate for canacert indigo carmine under the optimized conditions of 10 mL acetonitrile, 1.45 g sodium acetate, 107 mg primary secondary amine, and 96 mg C18 . For the matrices studied, the recovery rates of the other 68 compounds ranged from 87.2-107.4%, with coefficient of variation < 6.4%. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 1.6 ppm and only needed to be calibrated once a week. The LODs for the analytes are in the range 1-1000 ?g/kg. This method has been successfully applied on screening of dyes in commercial wines, and it is very useful for the fast screening of different food additives. PMID:24478185

Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Ling, Yun; Huang, Junrong; Lin, Yuanhui; Chang, James

2014-04-01

313

Dye filled security seal  

DOEpatents

A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

Wilson, Dennis C. W. (Tijeras, NM)

1982-04-27

314

Electrochemical removal of synthetic textile dyes from aqueous solutions using Ti/Pt anode: role of dye structure.  

PubMed

In this work, the efficiency of electrochemical oxidation (EO) was investigated for removing a dye mixture containing Novacron Yellow (NY) and Remazol Red (RR) in aqueous solutions using platinum supported on titanium (Ti/Pt) as anode. Different current densities (20, 40 and 60 mA cm(-2)) and temperatures (25, 40 and 60 °C) were studied during electrochemical treatment. After that, the EO of each of these dyes was separately investigated. The EO of each of these dyes was performed, varying only the current density and keeping the same temperature (25 °C). The elimination of colour was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, and the degradation of organic compounds was analysed by means of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Data obtained from the analysis of the dye mixture showed that the EO process was effective in colour removal, in which more than 90% was removed. In the case of COD removal, the application of a current density greater than 40 mA cm(-2) favoured the oxygen evolution reaction, and no complete oxidation was achieved. Regarding the analysis of individual anodic oxidation dyes, it was appreciated that the data for the NY were very close to the results obtained for the oxidation of the dye mixture while the RR dye achieved higher colour removal but lower COD elimination. These results suggest that the oxidation efficiency is dependent on the nature of the organic molecule, and it was confirmed by the intermediates identified. PMID:24801286

Araújo, Cynthia K C; Oliveira, Gustavo R; Fernandes, Nedja S; Zanta, Carmem L P S; Castro, Suely Souza Leal; da Silva, Djalma R; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

2014-08-01

315

Sonocatalytic degradation of organic dyes and influence of Al(2)O(3), Y(2)O(3) and Fe(2)O(3) on catalytic activity of TiO(2) under ultrasonic irradiation.  

PubMed

In order to improve the sonocatalytic activity of TiO(2), Al(2)O(3)/TiO(2), Y(2)O(3)/TiO(2) and Fe(2)O(3)/TiO(2) composites were prepared using mechanical mixing, liquid boiling, ultrasonic dispersion and heat-treated methods. And then, a series of degradation experiments were carried out under ultrasonic irradiation. Also, the influences of heat-treated temperature and heat-treated time on the sonocatalytic activity of Al(2)O(3)/TiO(2), Y(2)O(3)/TiO(2) and Fe(2)O(3)/TiO(2), and ultrasonic irradiation time and solution acidity on the sonocatalytic degradation of Acid red B were investigated by UV-vis spectra. It was found that the degradation ratio showed significant increase in the order TiO(2) < Fe(2)O(3)/TiO(2) < Y(2)O(3)/TiO(2) < Al(2)O(3)/TiO(2). And the corresponding percentage degradations are about 37, 45, 52 and 81%, respectively. In addition, for exploring the universality, the degradation of other several organic dyes was also reviewed under the same conditions. Because of good degradation efficiency, this method may be an advisable choice for the treatment of non- or low-transparent wastewaters in the future. PMID:21508558

Chen, Xia; Jiang, Renzheng; Wang, Jun; Li, Kai; Li, Ying; Wang, Baoxin; Gao, Jingqun; Kang, Pingli

2011-01-01

316

Planar amine-based dye features the rigidified O-bridged dithiophene ?-spacer: A potential high-efficiency sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports a systematically theoretical study concerning the design of D-?-A organic dyes for DSSC. Two elaborate strategies, namely the rigidity of dithiophene and introduction of strong electron rich/deficient moieties, are proposed. By using the state-of-the-art theoretical calculations, the general influences of fastening atoms (C, N, and O) for ?-spacer rigidification in planar amine-based organic dyes are firstly investigated and elucidated. The properties of isolated dye, dye/(TiO2)38, and dye-I2 interaction are discussed in detail. The results show that, compared with the P2T dye containing dithiophene ?-spacer, its three counterparts with rigidified dithiophene ?-spacers would present the improved absorption properties. We further demonstrate that incorporation of O-bridged dithiophene moiety into the ?-spacer was promising to challenge the photoelectric conversion efficiency 8.29% of P2T. Furthermore, benzothiadiazole (BTD) and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) moieties are the well-known ?-skeletons that can effectively tune the electronic structure properties and the light-harvesting ability. Subsequently, a series of dyes are designed through introducing the BTD and EDOT groups into ?-spacer. The calculated results reveal that the dye with the incorporation of EDOT moiety would be more beneficial for photocurrent and photovoltage performance. The current theoretical studies are expected to be very relevant for the molecular design of D-?-A organic dyes in DSSC.

Li, Wei; Bai, Fu-Quan; Chen, Jie; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hong-Xing

2015-02-01

317

Investigation of lasing from dye doped plastics using flash lamp and Nd:YAG excitation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an investigation of organic dye doped plastics as a lasing medium. The host materials examined are poly(methyl methacrylate) [acrylic], epoxy, polyester and polyurethane. Various solvents are used to improve dye dispersion within the material. Two forms of excitation (flash lamp and frequency doubled Nd:YAG) are used. For the Nd:YAG pumped dye lasers, a disk of dye doped plastic is mounted in a housing to provide random orbital motion. The disk is within a Littmann configuration cavity. Each dye disk is tested for threshold, durability, power output, bandwidth, and tuning range. An end pumped cylinder is also explored. For the flash lamp pumped dye lasers two configurations are used: a traditional dye cylinder within an elliptical reflector and a hollow cylinder with the flash lamp within the hollow. A monolithic cavity for the flash lamp pumped system is investigated.

Masters, Mark; de Armond, Mike; Reynolds, Clint; Suedhoff, Hans

2006-05-01

318

Multi-wavelength oscillation DFB solid-state dye laser with cascade-arranged gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid-state dye lasers have been developed as compact and easy-to-handle coherent light sources. In particular, distributed feedback (DFB) solid-state dye lasers are able to emit narrow-banded single-mode laser beams. In DFB lasers, the diffraction grating is a key device for selecting the laser oscillation wavelength from a fluorescent band of organic dye. We adopted an "etchless process" and fabricated gratings for DFB solid-state dye lasers quickly and at low cost. In this study, we attempted to fabricate a multi-beam DFB solid-state dye laser combining pitch-different gratings and dye-doped silica xero-gel. We succeeded at obtaining narrow-banded triple-beam laser oscillations in the same optical axis with the three-wavelength DFB solid-state dye laser device.

Nakai, N.; Fukuda, M.

2007-01-01

319

Eco- and genotoxicological assessments of two reactive textile dyes.  

PubMed

Contamination of natural waters has been one of the major problems of modern society and the textile industry is rated as an important polluting source, due to the generation of large amounts of wastewaters. The aim of this study was to assess textile dyes Reactive Blue 19 (RB19, anthraquinone dye) and Reactive Red 120 (RR120, azo dye) in terms of the potential to induce adverse effects on aquatic organisms and humans. Thus, these dyes were tested using the following assays: Microtox assay (Vibrio fischeri); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); Daphnia similis; and Comet with normal human dermal fibroblasts as well as Ames test (TA98, TA100, YG1041, YG1042-with and without S9). RB19 was relatively nontoxic to all aquatic bioindicators analyzed with an EC50 of more than 100 mg/L, whereas RR120 was only moderately toxic to A. salina with a EC50-48h of 81.89 mg/L. Mutagenicity through base pair substitution was observed with RB19 in the presence of S9 (Ames-positive). The comet assay did not demonstrate any apparent genotoxic effects for any tested dye. Although mutagenicity was detected with RB19, the mutagenic effect observed may be considered weak compared to the ability to induce DNA damage by other classes of dyes such as disperse dyes. Therefore, these dyes may be classified as nonmutagens (RR120) or weak mutagens (RB19) and relatively nontoxic for aquatic organisms. However, it is noteworthy that the weak acute toxicity to A. salina induced by RR120 is sufficient to suggest potential damage to the aquatic ecosystem and emphasizes the need for biomonitoring dye levels in wastewater systems. PMID:25734625

Leme, Daniela Morais; Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues de; Meireles, Gabriela; Brito, Lara Barroso; Rodrigues, Laís de Brito; Palma de Oliveira, Danielle

2015-01-01

320

Vegetable Dyeing of Wool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In keeping with the Bicentennial celebration, many art teachers will find themselves "looking back" to crafts of the American past. Dyeing is certainly one that was used extensively and here a professor in a Fine Arts Department details how the process takes place. (Author/RK)

Greenberg, Pearl

1976-01-01

321

Indanthrone dye revisited after sixty years.  

PubMed

Indanthrone, an old, insoluble dye can be converted into a solution processable, self-assembling and electroluminescent organic semiconductor, namely tetraoctyloxydinaptho[2,3-a:2',3'-h]phenazine (P-C8), in a simple one-pot process consisting of the reduction of the carbonyl group by sodium dithionite followed by the substitution with solubility inducing groups under phase transfer catalysis conditions. PMID:25133516

Kotwica, Kamil; Bujak, Piotr; Wamil, Damian; Materna, Mariusz; Skorka, Lukasz; Gunka, Piotr A; Nowakowski, Robert; Golec, Barbara; Luszczynska, Beata; Zagorska, Malgorzata; Pron, Adam

2014-10-01

322

Photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes  

SciTech Connect

Coumarin laser dyes are widely used in dye lasers for the generation of tunable laser light in the blue-green spectral region. As in the case with most laser dyes, coumarin dyes undergo photochemical reactions that interfere with simulated emission and result in loss of laser power output. This thesis describes the photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions and some attempts to extend the useful lifetime of several dyes in dye lasers. Irradiation of Coumarin 311, 7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-coumarin (15), in oxygen-free ethanol solution results in the inefficient dye destruction. Products formed absorb light at the lasing wavelength of the dye, interfere with stimulated emission, and decrease the power output of the dye laser. Addition of the sulfur free radical chain transfer agents ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide retard the rate of formation of photoproducts absorbing at the lasing wavelengths. Deuterium incorporation, from the irradiation of Coumarin 311 in the presence of ethanethiol-S-d and ethyl disulfide, indicates that photoproducts most likely result from the reactions of free radicals which are generated in a bimolecular reaction between excited Coumarin 311 and ground state Coumarin 311. Ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide are shown to decrease the rate of power loss from a Coumarin 1 (3) dye laser. The naturally occurring amino acid cysteine acts similarly.

von Trebra, R.J.

1984-01-01

323

Sonophotolytic degradation of azo dye reactive black 5 in an ultrasound/UV/ferric system and the roles of different organic ligands.  

PubMed

The sonophotolytic advance oxidation system (US/UV/Fe(3+)) could achieve synergistic degradation of reactive black 5 (RB5), as compared to UV/Fe(3+) and US/Fe(3+) systems. A synergy factor of 2.5 based on the pseudo-first-order degradation rate constant (k(obs)) was found, along with enhancements in organic detoxification and mineralization. The presence of organic ligands could affect the US/UV/Fe(3+) system differently. Oxalate, citrate, tartrate and succinate could enhance the RB5 degradation, while NTA and EDTA exhibited strong inhibitions. The influence of these ligands on k(obs)(RB5) in the US/UV/Fe(III)-ligand systems followed the sequence of oxalate > tartrate > succinate > citrate > without ligand > NTA > EDTA, while they could be degraded simultaneously with the k(obs)(ligand) order of oxalate > citrate > tartrate > succinate > NTA > EDTA. Monitoring of iron species and the generated H(2)O(2) and •OH revealed that the ligands in the US/UV/Fe(III)-ligand system could play different mechanistic roles: (1) promoting H(2)O(2) production, (2) accelerating Fenton reaction, and (3) competing with RB5 for reacting with •OH. Among the ligands, oxalate exhibited the most significant enhancement of RB5 oxidation in the sonophotolytic system, and the process was pH-dependent. An initial reaction lag in RB5 degradation was observed when Fe(2+) was used in lieu of Fe(3+) as the catalyst in the sonophotolytic system. PMID:21444101

Zhou, Tao; Lim, Teik-Thye; Wu, Xiaohui

2011-04-01

324

Enhancement of the photoproperties of solid-state TiO2|dye|CuI cells by coupling of two dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic coupling of a natural pigment extracted from pomegranate fruits (rich with cyanin and exist as flavylium at natural PH) with an organic dye mercurochrome enhanced the performance of solid-state TiO2|dye|CuI-type photovoltaic cells sensitized from pomegranate pigments or mercurochrome individually.

Sirimanne, P. M.; Senevirathna, M. K. I.; Premalal, E. V. A.; Pitigala, P. K. D. D. P.

2006-06-01

325

Full Color Pixel with Vertical Stack of Individual Red, Green, and Blue Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Devices Based on Dye-Dispersed Poly(N-vinylcarbazole)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A organic light-emitting device (OLED) with the transparent electrodes has the specific feature of being transparent over the visible spectral range when light is not emitted. We can fabricate such a transparent device that emits red, green or blue light by choosing a light-emissive material for each color. Furthermore, This transparency enables us to fabricate a full color display by stacking these transparent red, green, and blue (RGB) devices. In this display, RGB lights are emitted from one pixel, each with controlled individual emissions of light. In our experimental device, white light with chromaticity coordinates (x,y) of (0.31,0.33) was obtained, when all the devices of a pixel were turned on. The average color rendering index (Ra) was 87.8.

Uchida, Takayuki; Ichihara, Masahiro; Tamura, Tohru; Ohtsuka, Masao; Otomo, Toshio; Nagata, Yujiro

2006-09-01

326

Improving the electronic and optical properties of Carbz-PAHTDDT-based dyes through chemical modifications  

E-print Network

To investigate geometric and electronic structure, a theoretical study is performed on the Carbz-PAHTDDT (S9) organic dye sensitizer. This dye has a reported promising efficiency when coupled with ferrocene-based electrolyte composition. The present study indicated that the long-range correction to the theoretical model in the time-dependent density functional theory is important to produce accurate absorption wavelengths. In the present study, the chemical structure of the original Carbz-PAHTDDT dye on the {\\pi}-conjugated bridge is also rationally changed to produce new dyes aiming at enhancing the spectral response as a desirable property of organic dyes in DSSC application. The theoretical studies on the new dyes have shown a significant red-shifting and broadening of their absorption spectra.

Mohammadi, Narges

2013-01-01

327

Increased laser action in commercial dyes from fluorination regardless of their skeleton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct and simple fluorination of representative organic laser dyes with emission covering the entire visible spectrum, from blue to red, including Coumarin 460, Pyrromethene 546, Rhodamine 6G and Perylene Red, enhances laser efficiencies by a factor up to 1.8 with respect to the corresponding non-fluorinated parent dyes. More importantly, fluorination also significantly enhances the photostability of the dyes, even under drastic laser pumping conditions.

Duran-Sampedro, G.; Agarrabeitia, A. R.; Arbeloa Lopez, T.; Bañuelos, J.; López-Arbeloa, I.; Chiara, J. L.; Garcia-Moreno, I.; Ortiz, M. J.

2014-11-01

328

Stepwise assembly of a semiconducting coordination polymer [Cd8S(SPh)14(DMF)(bpy)]n and its photodegradation of organic dyes.  

PubMed

Chalcogenolate clusters can be interlinked with organic linkers into semiconducting coordination polymers with photocatalytic properties. Here, discrete clusters of Cd8S(SPh)14(DMF)3 were interlinked with 4,4'-bipyridine into a one dimensional coordination polymer of [Cd8S(SPh)14(DMF)(bpy)]n with helical chains. A stepwise mechanism for the assembly of the coordination polymer in DMF was revealed by an ex situ dynamic light scattering study. The cluster was electrostatically neutral and showed a penta-supertetrahedral structure. During the assembly each cluster was interlinked with two 4,4'-bipyridine molecules, which replaced the two terminal DMF molecules of the clusters. In their solid-state forms, the cluster and the coordination polymer were semiconductors with wide band gaps of 3.08 and 2.80 ev. They photocatalytically degraded rhodamine B and methylene blue in aqueous solutions. The moderate conditions used for the synthesis could allow for further in situ studies of the reaction-assembly of related clusters and coordination polymers. PMID:25747254

Xu, Chao; Hedin, Niklas; Shi, Hua-Tian; Xin, ZhiFeng; Zhang, Qian-Feng

2015-03-24

329

Painting With Natural Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

1999-07-01

330

High performance electrocatalyst consisting of CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 film: its use as a counter electrode for Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy conversion efficiencies of 6.6% and 7.5% are demonstrated in solid and liquid states, Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), respectively, based on CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 (om-SnO2) counter electrode. These results correspond to improvements of 14% and 9%, respectively, compared to a conventional Pt counter electrode and are among the highest values reported for Pt-free DSSCs. The om-SnO2 layer plays a pivotal role as a platform to deposit a large amount of highly electrocatalytically active CoS nanoparticles via a facile solvothermal reaction. The om-SnO2 platform with a high porosity, larger pores, and good interconnectivity is derived from a poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) graft copolymer template, which provides not only improved interaction sites for the formation of CoS nanoparticles but also enhanced electron transport. The structural, morphological, chemical, and electrochemical properties of CoS on the om-SnO2 platform are investigated using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The performance enhancement results from the excellent electron transport at the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/counter electrode/electrolyte interface, reduced resistance at the FTO/CoS interface, and better catalytic reduction at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface.High energy conversion efficiencies of 6.6% and 7.5% are demonstrated in solid and liquid states, Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), respectively, based on CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 (om-SnO2) counter electrode. These results correspond to improvements of 14% and 9%, respectively, compared to a conventional Pt counter electrode and are among the highest values reported for Pt-free DSSCs. The om-SnO2 layer plays a pivotal role as a platform to deposit a large amount of highly electrocatalytically active CoS nanoparticles via a facile solvothermal reaction. The om-SnO2 platform with a high porosity, larger pores, and good interconnectivity is derived from a poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) graft copolymer template, which provides not only improved interaction sites for the formation of CoS nanoparticles but also enhanced electron transport. The structural, morphological, chemical, and electrochemical properties of CoS on the om-SnO2 platform are investigated using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The performance enhancement results from the excellent electron transport at the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/counter electrode/electrolyte interface, reduced resistance at the FTO/CoS interface, and better catalytic reduction at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05779a

Park, Jung Tae; Lee, Chang Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

2014-12-01

331

Non photochemical hole burning in dye/polymer films.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hole burning spectra are presented for guest/host systems of organic dyes in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer films. Spectra exhibit the vibrational structure of the guest molecule as well as its homogeneous linewidth. Multiple holes, corresponding to vibrational energies, are burned at wavelengths shifted from the pump laser wavelength. Nile Blue dye in a PVA film was cooled to a temperature of 15 K in a closed loop He refrigerator and optically pumped with a low power, continuous wave He-Ne laser. The Nile Blue primary burn frequency hole has a linewidth of 6.35 cm-1. Experimental results are presented for two molecular dye systems, Nile Blue and Squaraine dye.

Teplin, Charles; Grossman, Carl

1996-03-01

332

Dyeing of wool with natural anthraquinone dyes from Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two anthraquinone compounds are described which were produced by liquid cultures of Fusarium oxysporum (isolate no. 4), isolated from the roots of citrus trees affected with root rot disease. These anthraquinone compounds are 2-acetyl-3,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy anthraquinone or 3-acetyl-2,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy anthraquinone. Dyeing of wool fabrics with these new anthraquinone compounds as natural dyes has been studied. The values of dyeing rate constant, half-time

F. A. Nagia; R. S. R. EL-Mohamedy

2007-01-01

333

Optimization of dyeing poly(lactic acid) fibers with vat dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of dyeing poly(lactic acid) fibers with vat dyes has been investigated. Conventional method for dyeing cellulose fibers with vat dyes was able to be applied for dyeing poly(lactic acid) fibers. It has become obvious that higher dyeing temperature and concentration of auxiliaries have negative effects on the dyeability of dyes on poly(lactic acid) fibers. Determination of optimal dyeing condition

K. Sawada; M. Ueda

2007-01-01

334

High performance electrocatalyst consisting of CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 film: its use as a counter electrode for Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

High energy conversion efficiencies of 6.6% and 7.5% are demonstrated in solid and liquid states, Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), respectively, based on CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 (om-SnO2) counter electrode. These results correspond to improvements of 14% and 9%, respectively, compared to a conventional Pt counter electrode and are among the highest values reported for Pt-free DSSCs. The om-SnO2 layer plays a pivotal role as a platform to deposit a large amount of highly electrocatalytically active CoS nanoparticles via a facile solvothermal reaction. The om-SnO2 platform with a high porosity, larger pores, and good interconnectivity is derived from a poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) graft copolymer template, which provides not only improved interaction sites for the formation of CoS nanoparticles but also enhanced electron transport. The structural, morphological, chemical, and electrochemical properties of CoS on the om-SnO2 platform are investigated using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The performance enhancement results from the excellent electron transport at the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/counter electrode/electrolyte interface, reduced resistance at the FTO/CoS interface, and better catalytic reduction at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface. PMID:25429695

Park, Jung Tae; Lee, Chang Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

2015-01-14

335

Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.  

PubMed

Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ?E (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. PMID:21550289

Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

2011-11-01

336

Dye-coated europium monosulfide  

SciTech Connect

Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

Kar, Srotoswini [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Dollahon, Norman R. [Department of Biology, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Stoll, Sarah L., E-mail: sls55@georgetown.ed [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States)

2011-05-15

337

Fine tuning the structure of unsymmetrical squaraine dyes towards the development of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creation of molecular asymmetry in the organic sensitizing dyes has been demonstrated for enhancing the photoconversion efficiency due to unidirectional flow of electron after the photoexcitation. Molecular structures for direct indole ring carboxy-functionalized unsymmetrical squaraine dyes have been optimized by fine tuning the molecular structures and judicious selection of the substituents to prevent the dye aggregation and electron recombination. Best efficiency of 4.42 % was achieved for unsymmetrical squaraine dye SQ-64 with a short circuit current density of 11.22 mA/cm2, a fill factor of 0.61 and an open circuit voltage of 0.64 V under standard AM 1.5 simulated solar irradiation.

Pandey, Shyam S.; Watanabe, Rie; Fujikawa, Naotaka; Ogomi, Yuhei; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Hayase, Shuzi

2011-09-01

338

The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

Sequin-Frey, Margareta

1981-01-01

339

Laser Oscillation of Energy Transfer Solid-State Dye Laser with a Thin-Film Ring Resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated an energy transfer solid-state dye laser with a thin-film ring resonator. We combined several organic dyes, such as stilbene 3, coumarin 153, rhodamine B, and cresyl violet. The mixed dyes were embedded into the xerogel thin film by the sol-gel method. We pumped the dye molecules with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser third-harmonic generation (THG). Using the mixed-dye doped thin-film ring resonator, we obtained laser oscillation at four different wavelengths with one pumping source.

Fukuda, Makoto; Mito, Keiichi

2000-06-01

340

Electrochemical oxidation of a textile dye wastewater using a Pt\\/Ti electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dye wastewater (TDW) from a reactive azo dyeing process was treated by an electrochemical oxidation method using Ti\\/Pt as anode and stainless steel 304 as cathode. Due to the strong oxidizing potential of the chemicals produced (chlorine, oxygen, hydroxyl radicals and other oxidants) when the wastewater was passed through the electrolytic cell the organic pollutants were oxidized to carbon

A. G Vlyssides; M Loizidou; P. K Karlis; A. A Zorpas; D Papaioannou

1999-01-01

341

FM-dyes as experimental probes for dissecting vesicle trafficking in living plant cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary FM-dyes are widely used to study endocytosis, vesicle traffick- ing and organelle organization in living eukaryotic cells. The increasing use of FM-dyes in plant cells has provoked much debate with regard to their suitability as endocytosis markers, which organelles they stain and the precise pathways they follow through the vesicle trafficking network. A primary aim of this article is

S. Bolte; C. Talbot; Y. Boutte; O. Catrice; N. D. Read; B. Satiat-Jeunemaitre

2004-01-01

342

Decolorization and Detoxification of Textile Dyes with a Laccase from Trametes hirsuta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trametes hirsuta and a purified laccase from this organism were able to degrade triarylmethane, indigoid, azo, and anthraquinonic dyes. Initial decolorization velocities depended on the substituents on the phenolic rings of the dyes. Immobilization of the T. hirsuta laccase on alumina enhanced the thermal stabilities of the enzyme and its tolerance against some enzyme inhibitors, such as halides, copper chelators,

ELIAS ABADULLA; TZANKO TZANOV; SILGIA COSTA; KARL-HEINZ ROBRA; ARTUR CAVACO-PAULO; GEORG M. GUBITZ

2000-01-01

343

Dual-Emitting MOF?Dye Composite for Ratiometric Temperature Sensing.  

PubMed

A strategy to achieve a ratiometric thermometer by encapsulating luminescent perylene dye into the pores of a europium metal-organic framework (MOF) is developed. The resulting MOF?dye thermometer exhibits highly temperature-dependent luminescence intensity ratio over the physiological temperature range, with a maximum sensiti-vity of 1.28% °C(-1) at 20 °C. PMID:25581401

Cui, Yuanjing; Song, Ruijing; Yu, Jiancan; Liu, Min; Wang, Ziqi; Wu, Chuande; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong

2015-02-01

344

Utilization of carbon nanotubes for the removal of rhodamine B dye from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attracting increasing research interest as promising adsorbents for harmful cations, anions, and other organic and inorganic impurities present in natural sources of water. This study examined the feasibility of removing Rhodamine B dye from aqueous solutions using multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The effects of dye concentration, pH and contact time on adsorption of direct dye by CNTs were also evaluated. The study used the Langmuir and Temkin isotherms to describe equilibrium adsorption. Additionally, pseudo second-order model was adopted to evaluate experimental data and thereby elucidate the kinetic adsorption process. The adsorption percentage of dye increased as contact time increased. Conversely, the adsorption percentage of dye decreased as dye concentration increased. The pseudo second-order model best represented adsorption kinetics. The capacity of CNTs to adsorb Rhodamine B was 65-90% at different pH values. PMID:24738392

Kumar, Sandeep; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Jangra, Kavita; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Umar, Ahmad

2014-06-01

345

Dye Sensitized Solar Cells  

PubMed Central

Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

Wei, Di

2010-01-01

346

Gel Electrophoresis of Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment related to plant biotechnology, learners discover how to prepare and load an electrophoresis gel. They will then run the gels in an electrophoresis system to separate several dyes that are of different molecular sizes and carry different charges. This technique is fundamental to many of the procedures used in biotechnology. This lesson guide includes background information for the educator, safety precautions, and questions with answers for learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended. Modifications for use with younger learners are described in a related PDF (see related resource).

Janice Stephens

2011-01-01

347

Decolorization Of Textile Dye Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on the use of ozone to decolorize textile dye solutions. The results describe the rates of reaction and the stoichiometry for the use of ozone to decolorize a simulated wastewater containing a bisazo acid dye (Acid Red 158). These rates of reaction are not sensitive to pH and are only mildly affected by temperature. The effects of

Julie Carrière; J. Peter Jones; Arthur D. Broadbent

1993-01-01

348

Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... Martinez A. Personal use of hair dyes and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association ... Buffler PA. Personal use of hair dyes and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. Cancer Causes and Control 2008; ...

349

Dye laser traveling wave amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flash lamp pumped dye laser suitable for use as an amplifier stage was developed. The desired output laser pulses are of nanosecond duration, tunable in center frequency, and of good optical quality. Its usefulness as a laser oscillator is emphasized, because it constitutes a compact, relatively efficient source of tunable dye laser light.

Davidson, F.

1983-01-01

350

Assessment of TD-DFT methods and of various spin scaled CIS(D) and CC2 versions for the treatment of low-lying valence excitations of large organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an extension of our previously published benchmark set for low-lying valence transitions of large organic dyes [L. Goerigk et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 4611 (2009)]. The new set comprises in total 12 molecules, including two charged species and one with a clear charge-transfer transition. Our previous study on TD-DFT methods is repeated for the new test set with a larger basis set. Additionally, we want to shed light on different spin-scaled variants of the configuration interaction singles with perturbative doubles correction [CIS(D)] and the approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles method (CC2). Particularly for CIS(D) we want to clarify, which of the proposed versions can be recommended. Our results indicate that an unpublished SCS-CIS(D) variant, which is implemented into the TURBOMOLE program package, shows worse results than the original CIS(D) method, while other modified versions perform better. An SCS-CIS(D) version with a parameterization, that has already been used in an application by us recently [L. Goerigk and S. Grimme, ChemPhysChem 9, 2467 (2008)], yields the best results. Another SCS-CIS(D) version and the SOS-CIS(D) method [Y. M. Rhee and M. Head-Gordon, J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 5314 (2007)] perform very similar, though. For the electronic transitions considered herein, there is no improvement observed when going from the original CC2 to the SCS-CC2 method but further adjustment of the latter seems to be beneficial. Double-hybrid density functionals belong to best methods tested here. Particularly B2GP-PLYP provides uniformly good results for the complete set and is considered to be close to chemical accuracy within an ab initio theory of color. For conventional hybrid functionals, a Fock-exchange mixing parameter of about 0.4 seems to be optimum in TD-DFT treatments of large chromophores. A range-separated functional such as, e.g., CAM-B3LYP seems also to be promising.

Goerigk, Lars; Grimme, Stefan

2010-05-01

351

Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes  

PubMed Central

During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes. PMID:25054183

Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

2014-01-01

352

Computational design of small phenothiazine dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells by functionalizations affecting the thiophene unit.  

PubMed

We present a computational density functional theory study of the potential to improve the solar absorbance of small organic dyes featuring a phenothiazine donor and an acceptor moiety that combines a thiophene unit and a cyanoacrylic group. We consider different conjugation orders and functional groups on and around the thiophene unit, including electron-donating and electron-withdrawing moieties (H, F, CH3, CF3, and CN). We predict that by combining change of conjugation order and functionalization with electron withdrawing CN groups, it must be possible to decrease the excitation energy by up to 60 % vs. the parent dye (which would correspond to a redshift of the absorption peak maximum from 450 nm to 726 nm), effectively enabling red light absorption with small dyes. The contraction of the band gap is mostly due to the stabilization of the LUMO (by up to 1.8 eV), so that-in spite of the kinetic redundancy of the parent dye with respect to the conduction-band minimum of TiO2-care must be taken to ensure efficient injection when using the dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells. By studying 50 dyes, of which 44 are new dyes that are studied for the first time in this work, we identify parameters (such as charges, dihedral angles between donor and acceptor groups, bond length alternation) which can serve as predictors of the band gap. We find that bond length alternation or dihedral angles are not good predictors, while the charge on the thiophene unit is. PMID:25750021

Tu, Wei Han; Tan, Yi Yin; Rege, Omkar; Manzhos, Sergei

2015-04-01

353

Effect of a sulfonated azo dye and sulfanilic acid on nitrogen transformation processes in soil.  

PubMed

Introduction of organic dyes into soil via wastewater and sludge applications has been of increasing concern especially in developing or under-developed countries where appropriate management strategies are scarce. Assessing the response of terrestrial ecosystems to organic dyes and estimating the inhibition concentrations will probably contribute to soil remediation studies in regions affected by the same problem. Hence, an incubation study was conducted in order to investigate the impact of a sulfonated azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and sulfanilic acid (SA), a typical representative of aromatic sulfonated amines, on soil nitrogen transformation processes. The results apparently showed that nitrogen related processes in soil can be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic stress caused by organic dyes. It was found that urease activity, arginine ammonification rate, nitrification potential and ammonium oxidising bacteria numbers decreased by 10-20% and 7-28% in the presence of RB5 (> 20 mg/kg dry soil) and SA (> 8 mg/kg dry soil), respectively. Accordingly, it was concluded that organic dye pollution may restrict the nitrogen-use-efficiency of plants, thus further reducing the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Furthermore, the response of soil microbiota to SA suggested that inhibition effects of the organic dye may continue after the possible reduction of the parent dye to associated aromatic amines. PMID:19524359

Topaç, F Olcay; Dindar, Efsun; Uçaro?lu, Selnur; Ba?kaya, Hüseyin S

2009-10-30

354

Photostability of laser dyes incorporated in formamide SiO 2 ORMOSILs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sol-gel process provides a low temperature chemical route for the preparation of rigid transparent matrix materials. Under this process, luminescent organic dye molecules were incorporated into organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) host matrices. The photostability of these laser dyes encapsulated in a solid matrix was studied using optical absorption and luminescence. The photochemical mechanisms of the dye response under N 2 laser irradiation were studied using UV and fluorescence spectra measurement. The evolution of the maximum of the emission and excitation curves as function of accumulated irradiated energy was fitted by exponential equations. The matrix protects the dye from the oxidation and dimerization reactions. The dye molecules exhibited photobleaching due to their photodegradation. The ORMOSIL doped with Nile blue exhibits good photostability after 6 h of irradiation.

Valverde-Aguilar, Guadalupe

2006-07-01

355

Fluorescence properties of dye doped mesoporous silica  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a review of the main results we obtained studying the emission properties of organic-inorganic hybrids obtained combining mesoporous silica and Xantene dyes, in particular the standard reference Rhodamine 6G. The purpose of the review is to show the possibility to efficiently 'dope' the transparent inorganic porous matrix to obtain promising systems for photonic and biomedical applications. The strategies to solve the concentration effect and the leaching phenomenon are discussed within the framework of the single exciton theory.

Carbonaro, Carlo M., E-mail: cm.carbonaro@dsf.unica.it; Corpino, Riccardo, E-mail: cm.carbonaro@dsf.unica.it; Ricci, Pier Carlo, E-mail: cm.carbonaro@dsf.unica.it; Chiriu, Daniele, E-mail: cm.carbonaro@dsf.unica.it [Department of Physics, University of Cagliari, Campus of Monserrato, s.p. no 8, km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Cannas, Carla [Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, University of Cagliari, Campus of Monserrato, s.p. no 8, km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)

2014-10-21

356

Chromonic liquid crystalline properties of dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a new class of lyotropic liquid crystals, chromonic liquid crystals (CLCs) can self-assemble into an ordered complex fluid, potentially useful for organic solar cells. Different from common amphiphilic lyotropic mesophases, CLCs have no optimum aggregation size, which implies the order parameter increases with concentration. We used capillary flow and magnetic field to induce alignment in chromonic dyes and studied the aggregation behavior by Vis-spectroscopy, the phase behavior by POM and DSC, and the order distribution by Raman Scattering. We also investigated how the molecular structures influence the structures of mesogens and the morphology in the dried film which will further influence the charge mobility in the solar cells.

Yao, Xuxia; Park, Jung; Srinivasarao, Mohan

2009-03-01

357

Investigation of red natural dyes used in historical objects by HPLC-DAD-MS.  

PubMed

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-Vis Diode Array Detection (DAD) and electrospray mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) method was utilized for the identification of coloring components of madder, Armenian and Mexican cochineal, lac dye, brazilwood, safflower and dragon blood--probably the most important red natural dyestuffs found in objects of the cultural heritage. UV-Vis detection limits in the range of 0.2-0.6 ng for carminic acid, alizarin and purpurin were achieved using a gradient elution of H2O-0.01% TFA and CH3CN-0.01% TFA. ESI mass spectrometer was also used, as a supportive detection method to the standard DAD, for further analysis of the tested materials, with the ability to analyze dyestuffs as small as one milligram. The presence of madder was revealed in two historical (Hellenistic and Roman period) samples, found in the Mediterranean area, by identifying purpurin in both of them. Munjistin was also identified in one of the samples (Hellenistic period) while alizarin was not detected, raising questions regarding the exact madder type, utilized in the historical samples. PMID:16736555

Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Chryssoulakis, Yannis

2006-01-01

358

Convenient Microscale Synthesis of a Coumarin Laser Dye Analog  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coumarin (2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) and its derivatives constitute a fascinating class of organic substances that are utilized industrially in areas such as cosmetics, food preservatives, insecticides and fluorescent laser dyes. The product can be synthesized, purified, and characterized within two hours with benefits of microscale reactivity being…

Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Dicks, Andrew P.

2006-01-01

359

Dye-sensitized solar cells  

DOEpatents

A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

Skotheim, T.A.

1980-03-04

360

Dye-sensitized solar cells  

DOEpatents

A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

1980-03-04

361

Never say dye  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen a remarkable increase in the number of publications dealing with the application of epifluorescence microscopy in cell biology. This can be widely attributed to the development of state-of-the-art image processing programs, as well as the development of new reagents/probes, which allow the labeling of most cell structures, organelles and metabolites with high specificity. However, the use of a specific fluorescent dye, 3,3?-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6), has been recently revisited and several new application potentials have emerged. The goal of this mini-review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the multiple roles of this multifaceted probe. PMID:22476459

2012-01-01

362

Dyeing Properties of Natural Dye Syzygium cuminii on Silk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dyeing behavior of natural dye extracted from the bark of Syzygium cuminii L has been studied on silk fabric. Colour values and colour co-ordinates were examined in terms of K/S and L* a* b* C and h. A range of shades were obtained by using various mordants and mordanting techniques. Dye was tested for some of the eco-parameters using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS. The test results were compared with the set standards to determine the eco-friendliness of natural dye. Their concentrations were much below the stipulated limits. Dyed samples were tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and were found to possess antibacterial activity.

Narayana Swamy, V.; Ninge Gowda, K. N.; Sudhakar, R.

2014-04-01

363

Bichromophoric dyes for wavelength shifting of dye-protein fluoromodules.  

PubMed

Dye-protein fluoromodules consist of fluorogenic dyes and single chain antibody fragments that form brightly fluorescent noncovalent complexes. This report describes two new bichromophoric dyes that extend the range of wavelengths of excitation or emission of existing fluoromodules. In one case, a fluorogenic thiazole orange (TO) was attached to an energy acceptor dye, Cy5. Upon binding to a protein that recognizes TO, red emission due to efficient energy transfer from TO to Cy5 replaces the green emission observed for monochromophoric TO bound to the same protein. Separately, TO was attached to a coumarin that serves as an energy donor. The same green emission is observed for coumarin-TO and TO bound to a protein, but efficient energy transfer allows violet excitation of coumarin-TO, versus longer wavelength, blue excitation of monochromophoric TO. Both bichromophores exhibit low nanomolar KD values for their respective proteins, >95% energy transfer efficiency and high fluorescence quantum yields. PMID:25679477

Pham, Ha H; Szent-Gyorgyi, Christopher; Brotherton, Wendy L; Schmidt, Brigitte F; Zanotti, Kimberly J; Waggoner, Alan S; Armitage, Bruce A

2015-03-11

364

Degradation characteristic of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye by UV / H2O2 process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the degradation characteristic of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye by UV / H2O2 process was evaluated based on the trend of color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Three types of dyes consist of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dyes were used to compare the degradation mechanism of the dyes. The UV / H2O2 experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale cylindrical glass reactor operated in semi-batch mode. The UV/Vis characterization of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye indicated that the rapid degradation of the dyes by UV / H2O2 process is meaningful with respect to decolourization, as a result of the azo bonds and substitute antraquinone chromophore degradation. However, this process is not efficient for aromatic amines removal. The monoazo MO was difficult to be decolorized than diazo RR120 dye, which imply that number of sulphonic groups in the dye molecules determines the reactivity with hydroxyl radical. The increased in COD removal is the evidence for oxidation and decreased in carbon content of dye molecules. TOC removal analysis shows that low TOC removal of monoazo MO and diazo RR120, as compared to anthraquinone RB19 may indicate an accumulation of by-products that are resistant to the H2O2 photolysis.

Abidin, Che Zulzikrami Azner; Fahmi, Muhammad Ridwan; Fazara, Md Ali Umi; Nadhirah, Siti Nurfatin

2014-10-01

365

Design and synthesis of polymer-functionalized NIR fluorescent dyes--magnetic nanoparticles for bioimaging.  

PubMed

The fluorescent probes having complete spectral separation between absorption and emission spectra (large Stokes shift) are highly useful for solar concentrators and bioimaging. In bioimaging application, NIR fluorescent dyes have a greater advantage in tissue penetration depth compared to visible-emitting organic dyes or inorganic quantum dots. Here we report the design, synthesis, and characterization of an amphiphilic polymer, poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhyride)-functionalized near-infrared (NIR) IR-820 dye and its conjugates with iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for optical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Our results demonstrate that the Stokes shift of unmodified dye can be tuned (from ~106 to 208 nm) by the functionalization of the dye with polymer and MNPs. The fabrication of bimodal probes involves (i) the synthesis of NIR fluorescent dye (IR-820 cyanine) functionalized with ethylenediamine linker in high yield, >90%, (ii) polymer conjugation to the functionalized NIR fluorescent dye, and (iii) grafting the polymer-conjugated dyes on iron oxide MNPs. The resulting uniform, small-sized (ca. 6 nm) NIR fluorescent dye-magnetic hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a wider emissive range (800-1000 nm) and minimal cytotoxicity. Our preliminary studies demonstrate the potential utility of these NPs in bioimaging by means of direct labeling of cancerous HeLa cells via NIR fluorescence microscopy and good negative contrast enhancement in T2-weighted MR imaging of a murine model. PMID:23869722

Yen, Swee Kuan; Ja?czewski, Dominik; Lakshmi, Jeeva Lavanya; Dolmanan, Surani Bin; Tripathy, Sudhiranjan; Ho, Vincent H B; Vijayaragavan, Vimalan; Hariharan, Anushya; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Bhakoo, Kishore K; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Ahmed, Sohail; Zhang, Yong; Tamil Selvan, Subramanian

2013-08-27

366

Optical properties of lanthanide dyes for spectral conversion encapsulated in porous silica nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lanthanide based dyes belong to one of the most promising fields of photovoltaic research, combining high quantum yields and large spectral shift. However, many challenges are faced when working with lanthanide dyes for spectral conversion: their thermal and chemical stability, which can greatly influence the shelf-life of the dyes; the absorption band position, which depends on the organic part of the dye, the so called "antenna" self-quenching mechanisms, which lead to a photoluminescence emission loss. The chemical composition of the surrounding environment of the dyes has a fundamental role in their properties. In this paper, the optical and PLQY (photoluminescence quantum yield) properties of an europium-based dye embedded in a silica matrix are reported. The in-house synthesized dye consists of a bis(2- (diphenylphosphino)phenyl)ether oxide (DPEPO) ligand and three hexafluoroacetylacetonate (hfac) co-ligands coordinating a central europium ion. The dye has been included in porous core-shell particles, to study its optical properties once embedded in a solid dielectric matrix. The optical properties of the resulting samples have been characterized by photoluminescence emission and PLQY measurements. The results have been compared with data obtained from a commercially available dye (BASF Lumogen family) in similar conditions.

Pizzol, Paolo; Marques-Hueso, Jose; Robertson, Neil; Freris, Isidora; Bellotto, Luca; Meyer, Thomas J. J.; Richards, Bryce S.

2012-06-01

367

Organics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

1978-01-01

368

Sixteen new IR laser dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen new IR laser dyes are reported. All lased successfully under excitation from a simple linear flashlamp of about 700-ns rise time. Untuned lasing wavelengths ranged from 810 to 972 nm. Laser output pulse energies from the four best of these dyes were 5-15 times greater than from diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide (DTTC), with peak output of about 50 mJ obtained from

J. P. Webb; F. G. Webster; B. E. Plourde

1975-01-01

369

Dye molecules in electrolytes: new approach for suppression of dye-desorption in dye-sensitized solar cells  

PubMed Central

The widespread commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells remains limited because of the poor long-term stability. We report on the influence of dye-molecules added in liquid electrolyte on long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. Dye-desorption from the TiO2 surface during long-term cycling is one of the decisive factors that degrade photocurrent densities of devices which in turn determine the efficiencies of the devices. For the first time, desorption of dye from the TiO2 surface could be suppressed by controlling thermodynamic equilibrium; by addition of dye molecules in the electrolyte. The dye molecules in the electrolyte can suppress the driving forces for the adsorbed dye molecules to be desorbed from TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, highly enhanced device stabilities were achieved due to the reduction of dye-desorption although there was a little decrease in the initial efficiencies.

Heo, Nansra; Jun, Yongseok; Park, Jong Hyeok

2013-01-01

370

Direct identification of early synthetic dyes: FT-Raman study of the illustrated broadside prints of José Gaudalupe Posada (1852-1913)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy was used for the non-invasive, direct identification of colorants used to dye historical printed papers, overcoming obstacles such as low concentration of the dye, faded colors and fluorescence interference of the aged paper substrate. Based on a newly created FT-Raman reference database of 20 widely used dyes in the 19th century paper industry, the detectability of these dyes on aged biomaterials was determined by studying dyed paper samples from contemporary dye manuals, and identifying diagnostic peaks detectable on those substrates. Lastly, the method was applied to analyze the colorants used to dye the papers of a group of prints illustrated by the influential Mexico City artist José Guadalupe Posada, active 1876-1913. Unambiguous identification of the synthetic organic colorants Malachite Green (a triarylmethane dye), Orange II and Metanil Yellow (two acid monoazo dyes), Cotton Scarlet (an acid diazo dye), Phloxine (a xanthene dye) and Victoria Blue (a triarylmethane dye) in several of Posada’s prints challenged previous art-historical assumptions that these artworks were colored with natural dyes. The acquired knowledge has important conservation implications given that aniline dyes are sensitive to light and to aqueous treatments otherwise commonly carried out on works of art on paper.

Casadio, F.; Mauck, K.; Chefitz, M.; Freeman, R.

2010-09-01

371

Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell.

Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

1992-01-01

372

Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell. 6 figs.

Davin, J.

1992-12-01

373

Dye laser solutions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a composition of matter, a cyclodextrin inclusion compound of a fluorescent dye and an {alpha}- or {beta}-chclodextrin having a substituent bonded to an oxygen atom in a glucose unit in the cyclodextrin. The substituent is selected from the class consisting of: alkyl radicals having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, radicals having the formula {bond}CH{bond}CHR{sup 1}{bond}O{sub {ital n}}H wherein R{sup 1} is selected from hydrogen and alkyl radicals having up to about six carbon atoms, and n is equal to a small whole number up to six, and radicals having the formula {bond}CHR{sup 1}{bond}CHOH{bond}CHR{sup 1}{bond} wherein R{sup 1} has the same definition as above, such that the radicals bridge two cyclodextrin rings, and the number of the rings so bridged per molecule is from two to about six; the substituted cyclodextrin having not ore than two substituents per glucose unit.

Herkstroeter, W.G.

1990-06-12

374

Metal-free tetrathienoacene sensitizers for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A new series of metal-free organic chromophores (TPA-TTAR-A (1), TPA-T-TTAR-A (2), TPA-TTAR-T-A (3), and TPA-T-TTAR-T-A (4)) are synthesized for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on a donor-?-bridge-acceptor (D-?-A) design. Here a simple triphenylamine (TPA) moiety serves as the electron donor, a cyanoacrylic acid as the electron acceptor and anchoring group, and a novel tetrathienoacene (TTA) as the ?-bridge unit. Because of the extensively conjugated TTA ?-bridge, these dyes exhibit high extinction coefficients (4.5-5.2 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1)). By strategically inserting a thiophene spacer on the donor or acceptor side of the molecules, the electronic structures of these TTA-based dyes can be readily tuned. Furthermore, addition of a thiophene spacer has a significant influence on the dye orientation and self-assembly modality on TiO2 surfaces. The insertion of a thiophene between the ?-bridge and the cyanoacrylic acid anchoring group in TPA-TTAR-T-A (dye 3) promotes more vertical dye orientation and denser packing on TiO2 (molecular footprint = 79 Å(2)), thus enabling optimal dye loading. Using dye 3, a DSSC power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.1% with Voc = 0.833 V, Jsc = 16.5 mA/cm(2), and FF = 70.0% is achieved, among the highest reported to date for metal-free organic DSSC sensitizers using an I(-)/I3(-) redox shuttle. Photophysical measurements on dye-grafted TiO2 films reveal that the additional thiophene unit in dye 3 enhances the electron injection efficiency, in agreement with the high quantum efficiency. PMID:25768124

Zhou, Nanjia; Prabakaran, Kumaresan; Lee, Byunghong; Chang, Sheng Hsiung; Harutyunyan, Boris; Guo, Peijun; Butler, Melanie R; Timalsina, Amod; Bedzyk, Michael J; Ratner, Mark A; Vegiraju, Sureshraju; Yau, Shuehlin; Wu, Chun-Guey; Chang, Robert P H; Facchetti, Antonio; Chen, Ming-Chou; Marks, Tobin J

2015-04-01

375

Sea dye marker provides visibility for 20 hours  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sea dye marker block releases a visible slick which lasts at least twelve hours. The dye marker uses a fluorescent dye in a heat cured binder which, when immersed in seawater, releases the dye at a controlled rate.

De Laat, F.

1966-01-01

376

Solvent effects on emission yield and lifetime for coumarin laser dyes. Requirements for a rotatory decay mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photophysical parameters have been determined for coumarin laser dyes in a variety of organic solvents, water, and mixed media. The response of fluorescence emission yield and lifetime to changes in solvent polarity was a sensitive function of coumarin substitution pattern. Most important were substituent influences which resulted in enlarged excited-state dipole moments for the fluorescent state. For dyes displaying sharp

Guilford Jones; William R. Jackson; Chol Yoo Choi; William R. Bergmark

1985-01-01

377

DOI: 10.1002/chem.200501541 Squaraine-Derived Rotaxanes: Highly Stable, Fluorescent Near-IR Dyes  

E-print Network

DOI: 10.1002/chem.200501541 Squaraine-Derived Rotaxanes: Highly Stable, Fluorescent Near-IR Dyes with optical imaging is restricted tissue penetration, however, it is pre- dicted that low-energy, near-IR (NIR, there is no organic NIR dye that has all of these desirable properties.[5] Abstract: Squaraines are fluorescent, near-IR

Smith, Bradley D.

378

Removal of acid and direct dye by epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine: flocculation performance and floc aggregation properties.  

PubMed

A cationic organic flocculant epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (EPI-DMA) was employed for the treatment of acid and direct dye. The study aims at investigating the flocculation performance of EPI-DMA for the model dye, and corresponding floc aggregation properties, which were determined by jar test and photometric dispersion analysis, respectively. The interactions between cationic flocculant and anionic dye were investigated through spectra analysis. The results showed that EPI-DMA effectively decolorized the tested acid and direct dye. The viscosity and cationicity of EPI-DMA had different influence on the removal of different dye. Chemical interaction was observed between quaternary ammonium of EPI-DMA and sulfonic group of dye. The flocculation dynamic process showed that flocs with better aggregation and sedimentation properties were produced by EPI-DMA with higher viscosity and cationicity for acid dye. Contrarily, flocs with the best aggregation and sedimentation properties were produced by EPI-DMA with the lowest viscosity and cationicity for direct dye. PMID:22209132

Wang, Yuan-Fang; Gao, Bao-Yu; Yue, Qin-Yan; Wang, Yan; Yang, Zhong-Lian

2012-06-01

379

Soybean peroxidase-mediated degradation of an azo dye– a detailed mechanistic study  

PubMed Central

Background Peroxidases are emerging as an important class of enzymes that can be used for the efficient degradation of organic pollutants. However, detailed studies identifying the various intermediates produced and the mechanisms involved in the enzyme-mediated pollutant degradation are not widely published. Results In the present study, the enzymatic degradation of an azo dye (Crystal Ponceau 6R, CP6R) was studied using commercially available soybean peroxidase (SBP) enzyme. Several operational parameters affecting the enzymatic degradation of dye were evaluated and optimized, such as initial dye concentration, H2O2 dosage, mediator amount and pH of the solution. Under optimized conditions, 40 ppm dye solution could be completely degraded in under one minute by SBP in the presence of H2O2 and a redox mediator. Dye degradation was also confirmed using HPLC and TOC analyses, which showed that most of the dye was being mineralized to CO2 in the process. Conclusions Detailed analysis of metabolites, based on LC/MS results, showed that the enzyme-based degradation of the CP6R dye proceeded in two different reaction pathways- via symmetric azo bond cleavage as well as asymmetric azo bond breakage in the dye molecule. In addition, various critical transformative and oxidative steps such as deamination, desulfonation, keto-oxidation are explained on an electronic level. Furthermore, LC/MS/MS analyses confirmed that the end products in both pathways were small chain aliphatic carboxylic acids. PMID:24308857

2013-01-01

380

Dyes as tracers for vadose zone hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dyes are important tracers to investigate subsurface water movement. For more than a century, dye tracers have provided clues about the hydrological cycle as well as flow and transport processes in the subsurface. Groundwater contamination often originates in the vadose zone. Agrochemicals applied to the soil surface, toxic compounds accidentally spilled by human activities, and contaminants released from waste repositories leach through the vadose zone and can ultimately pollute groundwater resources. Dyes are an important tool to assess flow pathways of such contaminants. This review compiles information on dyes used as hydrological tracers, with particular emphasis on vadose zone hydrology. We summarize briefly different human-applied tracers, including nondye tracers. We then provide a historical sketch of the use of dyes as tracers and describe newer developments in visualization and quantification of tracer experiments. Relevant chemical properties of dyes used as tracers are discussed and illustrated with dye intermediates and selected dye tracers. The types of dyes used as tracers in subsurface hydrology are summarized, and recommendations are made regarding the use of dye tracers. The review concludes with a toxicological assessment of dyes used as hydrological tracers. Many different dyes have been proposed as tracers for water movement in the subsurface. All of these compounds, however, are to some degree retarded by the subsurface medium. Nevertheless, dyes are useful tracers to visualize flow pathways.

Flury, Markus; Wai, Nu Nu

2003-03-01

381

Electronic and optical properties of dye-sensitized TiO? interfaces.  

PubMed

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) represent a promising approach to the direct conversion of sunlight to electrical energy at low cost and high efficiency. DSCs are based on a film of anatase TiO? nanoparticles covered by adsorbed molecular dyes and immersed in a liquid redox electrolyte. Upon photoexcitation of the chemisorbed dye, electrons are injected into the TiO? conduction band and can travel across the nanostructured film to reach the counter-electrode, while the oxidized dye is regenerated by the redox electrolyte. In this review we present a summary of recent computational studies of the electronic and optical properties of dye-sensitized TiO2 interfaces, with the aim of providing the basic understanding of the operation principles of DSCs and establishing the conceptual basis for their design and optimization.We start with a discussion of isolated dyes in solution, focusing on the dye's atomic structure, ground and excited state oxidation potentials, and optical absorption spectra. We examine both Ru(II)-polypyridyl complexes and organic "push-pull" dyes with a D-?-A structure, where the donor group (D) is an electron-rich unit, linked through a conjugated linker (?) to the electron-acceptor group (A). We show that a properly calibrated computational approach based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) combined with Time Dependent DFT (TD-DFT) can provide a good description of both the absorption spectra and ground and excited state oxidation potential values of the Ru(II) complexes. On the other hand, organic push-pull dyes are not well described by the standard DFT/TD-DFT approach. For these dyes, an excellent description of the electronic structure in gas phase can be obtained by the many body perturbation theory GW method, which has, however, a much higher computational cost.We next consider interacting dye/semiconductor systems. Key properties are the dye adsorption structure onto the semiconductor, the nature and localization of the dye@semiconductor excited states, and the alignment of ground and excited state energy levels at the dye/semiconductor heterointerface. These properties, along with an estimate of the electronic coupling, constitute the fundamental parameters that determine the electron injection and dye regeneration processes. For metallorganic dyes, standard DFT/TDDFT methods are again found to reproduce accurately most of the relevant electronic and optical properties. For highly conjugated organic dyes, characterized by a high degree of charge transfer excited states, instead, the problems associated to the charge-transfer nature of their excited states extend to their interaction with TiO? and translate into an erroneous description of the relative energetics of dye/semiconductor excited states. A full description of push-pull organic dyes/semiconductor excited states, which is essential for modeling the key process of electron injection in DSCs, still represents a challenge which should be addressed by next generation DFT or post-DFT methods. PMID:24488437

Pastore, Mariachiara; Selloni, Annabella; Fantacci, Simona; De Angelis, Filippo

2014-01-01

382

A promising candidate with d-a-a-a architecture as an efficient sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A series of metal-free organic dyes with electron-rich (D) and electron-deficient units (A) as ? linkers have been studied theoretically by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations to explore the effects of ? spacers on the optical and electronic properties of triphenylamine dyes. The results show that Dye?1 with a structure of D-A-A-A is superior to the typical C218 dye in various key aspects, including the maximum absorption (?max =511 nm), the charge-transfer characteristics (D/?q/t is 5.49 Å/0.818 e(-) /4.41 Å), the driving force for charge-carrier injection (?Ginject =1.35 eV)/dye regeneration (?Gregen =0.27 eV), and the lifetime of the first excited state (?=3.1 ns). It is thus proposed to be a promising candidate in dye-sensitized solar cell applications. PMID:25511660

Yang, Li-Na; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Sun, Ping-Ping; Chen, Shi-Lu; Li, Ze-Sheng

2015-02-23

383

FATE OF COMMERCIAL DISPERSE DYES IN SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Kinetics of disappearance of seven different disperse dyes were determined in compacted sediments at room temperature. he commercial dyes (in dispersed solid form) were representative of nitroazo, anthraquinone, and quinoline structures that are widely used. eaction rates were fo...

384

Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator  

DOEpatents

A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

Hackel, R.P.

1992-11-24

385

Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells  

SciTech Connect

This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

Barber, Greg D.

2009-12-21

386

Anaerobic\\/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass

S. Seshadri; P. L. Bishop; A. M. Agha

1994-01-01

387

Synthesis and characterization of some perylene dyes for dye-based LCD color filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight red perylene dyes were synthesized to improve the optical performance of LCD color filters. Among them, dyes with bulky functional substituents at the bay and terminal positions were highly soluble in cyclohexanone, the industrial solvent currently used in the pigment dispersion method. The spectral properties and thermal stability of the dye-based color filters with these dyes were examined by

Jun Choi; Chun Sakong; Jae-Hong Choi; Chun Yoon; Jae Pil Kim

2011-01-01

388

Dye-modified nanochannel materials for photoelectronic and optical devices.  

PubMed

Artificial photonic antenna systems have been realised by incorporating organic dyes into zeolite L. The size and aspect ratio of the cylindrically shaped zeolite crystals can be tuned over a wide range, adding to the versatility of this host material. A 600 nm sized crystal, for example, consists of about 96 000 one-dimensional channels oriented parallel to the cylinder axis. Geometrical constraints imposed by the host structure lead to supramolecular organisation of the guests, allowing high concentrations of non- or only very weakly interacting dye molecules. A special twist is added to these systems by plugging the channel openings with a second type of fluorescent dye, a so-called stopcock molecule. The two types of molecules are precisely tuned to each other; the stopcocks are able to accept excitation energy from the dyes in the channels, but cannot pass it back. The supramolecular organisation of dyes in the zeolite channels corresponds to a first stage of organisation, allowing light-harvesting within the volume of a cylindrical crystal and radiationless energy transport to either the cylinder ends or centre. The second stage of organisation represents the coupling to an external acceptor or donor stopcock fluorophore at the channel entrances, which can then trap or inject electronic excitation energy. The third stage of organisation is realised by interfacing the material to an external device through a stopcock intermediate. We observed that electronic-excitation-energy transfer in dye-zeolite L materials occurs mainly along the channel axis and we have shown that macroscopically organised materials can be prepared. The new materials offer unique possibilities as building blocks for optical, electro-optical and sensing devices. PMID:18626875

Calzaferri, Gion; Li, Huanrong; Brühwiler, Dominik

2008-01-01

389

Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on sorption of uranium and thorium from aqueous solutions by a selective impregnated resin containing carminic acid.  

PubMed

In this work, the removal of uranium and thorium ions from aqueous solutions was studied by solid-liquid extraction using an advantageous extractant-impregnated resin (EIR) prepared by loading carminic acid (CA) onto Amberlite XAD-16 resin beads. Batch sorption experiments using CA/XAD-16 beads for the removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions were carried out as a function of several parameters, like equilibration time, metal ion concentration, etc. The equilibrium data obtained from the sorption experiments were adjusted to the Langmuir isotherm model and the calculated maximum sorption capacities in terms of monolayer sorption were in agreement with those obtained from the experiments. The experimental data on the sorption behavior of both metal ions onto the EIR beads fitted well in both Bangham and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models, indicating that the intra-particle diffusion is the rate-controlling step. The thermodynamic studies at different temperatures revealed the feasibility and the spontaneous nature of the sorption process for both uranium and thorium ions. PMID:25576783

Rahmani-Sani, Abolfazl; Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Ahmad; Hosseini, Seyyed-Hossein; Kharghani, Keivan; Zarei, Hossein; Rastegar, Ayoob

2015-04-01

390

Suitable reference gene selection for different strains and developmental stages of the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, using quantitative real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Reference genes are used as internal controls in gene expression studies, but their expression levels vary according to tissue types and experimental treatments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the most sensitive technique for transcript quantification provided that gene transcription patterns are normalized to an evaluated reference gene. In this study, the suitability of eight commonly used genes (?-actin, 5.8SrRNA, ?-TUB, GAPDH, RPL13a, RPS18, TBP, SDHA) were cloned and investigated to find the most stable candidates for normalizing real-time PCR data generated from the four different strains (abamectin-resistant, fenpropathrin-resistant, omethoate-resistant, and susceptible strains) and different developmental stages (eggs, protonymphs, nymphs, and adults) of carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acarina: Tetranychidae). The stability of gene expression was assessed using two different analysis programs, geNorm and NormFinder. Using these analyses, RPS18 and 5.8SrRNA had the most stable expression regardless of the four different strains, whereas RPS18 and ?-TUB were expressed most stably in different developmental stages. PMID:21265619

Sun, W; Jin, Y; He, L; Lu, W-C; Li, M

2010-01-01

391

Suitable Reference Gene Selection for Different Strains and Developmental Stages of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, using Quantitative Real-Time PCR  

PubMed Central

Reference genes are used as internal controls in gene expression studies, but their expression levels vary according to tissue types and experimental treatments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the most sensitive technique for transcript quantification provided that gene transcription patterns are normalized to an evaluated reference gene. In this study, the suitability of eight commonly used genes (??-actin, 5.8SrRNA, ??-TUB, GAPDH, RPL13a, RPS18, TBP, SDHA) were cloned and investigated to find the most stable candidates for normalizing real-time PCR data generated from the four different strains (abamectin-resistant, fenpropathrin-resistant, omethoate-resistant, and susceptible strains) and different developmental stages (eggs, protonymphs, nymphs, and adults) of carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acarina: Tetranychidae). The stability of gene expression was assessed using two different analysis programs, geNorm and NormFinder. Using these analyses, RPS18 and 5.8SrRNA had the most stable expression regardless of the four different strains, whereas RPS18 and ??-TUB were expressed most stably in different developmental stages. PMID:21265619

Sun, W.; Jin, Y.; He, L; Lu, W-C.; Li, M.

2010-01-01

392

Reactive dye biosorption by Rhizopus arrhizus biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosorption of three commonly used reactive dyes, from aqueous solutions by oven-dried Rhizopus arrhizus biomass was studied in a batch system with respect to pH, initial dye concentration and initial metal ion concentration. The biomass exhibited maximum dye uptake at pH 2 due to its positively charged nature at acidic pH and the anionic nature of the reactive dyes.

T O’Mahony; E Guibal; J. M Tobin

2002-01-01

393

Decolorization of direct dyes by salt fractionated turnip proteins enhanced in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and redox mediators.  

PubMed

The present paper demonstrates the effect of salt fractionated turnip (Brassica rapa) proteins on the decolorization of direct dyes, used in textile industry, in the presence of various redox mediators. The rate and extent of decolorization of dyes was significantly enhanced by the presence of different types of redox mediators. Six out of 10 investigated compounds have shown their potential in enhancing the decolorization of direct dyes. The performance was evaluated at different concentrations of mediator and enzyme. The efficiency of each natural mediator depends on the type of dye treated. The decolorization of all tested direct dyes was maximum in the presence of 0.6mM redox mediator at pH 5.5 and 30 degrees C. Complex mixtures of dyes were also maximally decolorized in the presence of 0.6mM redox mediator (1-hydroxybenzotriazole/violuric acid). In order to examine the operational stability of the enzyme preparation, the enzyme was exploited for the decolorization of mixtures of dyes for different times in a stirred batch process. There was no further change in decolorization of an individual dye or their mixtures after 60 min; the enzyme caused more than 80% decolorization of all dyes in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole/violuric acid. However, there was no desirable increase in dye decolorization of the mixtures on overnight stay. Total organic carbon analysis of treated dyes or their mixtures showed that these results were quite comparable to the loss of color from solutions. However, the treatment of such polluted water in the presence of redox mediators caused the formation of insoluble precipitate, which could be removed by the process of centrifugation. The results suggested that catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions might be important for natural transformation pathways for dyes and indicate their potential use as an efficient means for removal of dyes color from waters and wastewaters. PMID:17524451

Matto, Mahreen; Husain, Qayyum

2007-09-01

394

Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

Davin, J.

1992-12-01

395

PHOTOLYSIS OF SMOKE DYES ON SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Photolysis of an azo, a quinophthalone, and several anthraquinone smoke dyes was studied on soil surfaces. nitially, rapid photodegradation of each dye occurred, followed by a period of much slower rate of loss, indicating that the remaining fraction of the dye was photochemicall...

396

Microbial decolourisation and degradation of textile dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes and dyestuffs find use in a wide range of industries but are of primary importance to textile manufacturing. Wastewater from the textile industry can contain a variety of polluting substances including dyes. Increasingly, environmental legislation is being imposed to control the release of dyes, in particular azo-based compounds, into the environment. The ability of microorganisms to decolourise and metabolise

G. McMullan; C. Meehan; A. Conneely; N. Kirby; T. Robinson; P. Nigam; I. M. Banat; R. Marchant; W. F. Smyth

2001-01-01

397

Influence of absorption from excited singlet states on the lasing parameters of polymethine dyes  

SciTech Connect

The influence of absorption from excited singlet states (singlet-singlet absorption) on the lasing parameters of ionic (symmetric and asymmetric cationic) and intraionic (merocyanine) polymethine dyes excited by nanosecond 532-nm second-harmonic pulses from a Nd:YAG laser and 308-nm pulses from a XeCl laser is studied. It is shown that singlet-singlet absorption at the pump and lasing wavelengths affects the spectral and energy lasing parameters of organic dye solutions. (lasers)

Svetlichnyi, Valerii A; Bazyl', O K; Kashapova, E R [V.D. Kuznetsov Siberian Physical-Technical Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Derevyanko, Nadezhda A; Ishchenko, Aleksandr A [Institute of Organic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

2009-08-31

398

Interface modifications in solid state dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of solid-state dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell in which the hole transport medium is an organic semiconductor is critically studied by examining the anode-TiO2 interface and dye-hole conductor interface. The importance and the role of a compact hole-blocking TiO2 layer in between the anode and the mesoporous layer is extensively studied by preparing this layer by spray pyrolysis using

Bin Peng; Katja Peter; Helga Wietasch; Mukundan Thelakkat

2004-01-01

399

New risks from ancient food dyes: cochineal red allergy.  

PubMed

This study reports an unusual case of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to Cochineal red or Carmine red, a coloring agent of natural origin. Although the risk of anaphylactic reactions is well known, since the nineties the use of this additive seems to be nowadays on the rise. The problem of labeling of additives used in handmade food products is highlighted. PMID:25398168

Voltolini, S; Pellegrini, S; Contatore, M; Bignardi, D; Minale, P

2014-11-01

400

Organic Chemicals: Angels or Goblins?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some of the controversial organic chemical substances such as DDT, Red Dye No. 2, DES, Tris, Laetrile, cyclamate, and saccharin. Concludes that the use of some has to be considered on a benefit/risk ratio. (GA)

Ferguson, Lloyd N.

1978-01-01

401

NMR Spectroscopy of Azo Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The known NMR spectroscopy data on different types of synthetic azo and polyazo dyes, including metal complexes, are correlated. The fundamentally new opportunities in the NMR spectroscopy of 1H, 13C, and 15N nuclei in solving problems of structural chemistry in this field of industrial chemistry are demonstrated. The bibliography includes 124 references.

L A Fedorov

1988-01-01

402

NMR Spectroscopy of Azo Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The known NMR spectroscopy data on different types of synthetic azo and polyazo dyes, including metal complexes, are correlated. The fundamentally new opportunities in the NMR spectroscopy of 1H, 13C, and 15N nuclei in solving problems of structural chemistry in this field of industrial chemistry are demonstrated. The bibliography includes 124 references.

Fedorov, L. A.

1988-10-01

403

The chromonic phases of dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that the lyotropic liquid-crystalline phases formed by certain dyes are structurally analogous to the chromonic N and M liquid-crystalline phases previously thought to be unique to certain anti-asthmatic\\/anti-allergic drugs. We suspect that these two groups of compounds will prove to be representatives of a large new class of mesogenic materials.

T. K. Attwood; J. E. Lydon; F. Jones

1986-01-01

404

Products of photodegradation for coumarin laser dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The products of conventional photolysis of the coumarin laser dyes, Cl, C35, Cl53, and Cl52 have been investigated. The previously reported dealkylation of Cl is documented for the fluorinated dyes, C35, and Cl52 in deaerated solvents. In addition, a reduction product is identified for Cl, consistent with a radical mechanism for decomposition. Evidence is provided that the concentration quenching (self quenching) of singlet dye is important to the degradation mechanism. For the rigid dye, Cl53, a photooxidation product involving the amine functionality results from decomposition in aerated media. For several dyes, very low triplet yields have been measured.

Jones, G., II; Jackson, W. R.; Kanoktanaporn, S.; Bergmark, W. R.

1983-10-01

405

Products of photodegradation for coumarin laser dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The products of conventional photolysis of the coumarin laser dyes, C1, C35, C153, and C152 have been investigated. The previously reported dealkylation of C1 is documented for the fluorinated dyes, C35, and C152 in deaerated solvents. In addition, a reduction product is identified for C1, consistent with a radical mechanism for decomposition. Evidence is provided that the concentration quenching (self quenching) of singlet dye is important to the degradation mechanism. For the rigid dye, C153, a photooxidation product involving the amine functionality results from decomposition in aerated media. For several dyes, very low triplet yields have been measured.

Jones, Guilford; Bergmark, W. R.; Jackson, W. R.

1984-07-01

406

Dye-doped silica-based nanoparticles for bioapplications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents our recent research results on synthesis and bioapplications of dye-doped silica-based nanoparticles. The dye-doped water soluble organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles (NPs) with the size of 15–100 nm were synthesized by modified Stöber method from methyltriethoxysilane CH3Si(OCH3)3 precursor (MTEOS). Because thousands of fluorescent dye molecules are encapsulated in the silica-based matrix, the dye-doped nanoparticles are extremely bright and photostable. Their surfaces were modified with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and biocompatible chemical reagents. The highly intensive luminescent nanoparticles were combined with specific bacterial and breast cancer antigen antibodies. The antibody-conjugated nanoparticles can identify a variety of bacterium, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, through antibody–antigen interaction and recognition. A highly sensitive breast cancer cell detection has been achieved with the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody–nanoparticles complex. These results demonstrate the potential to apply these fluorescent nanoparticles in various biodetection systems.

Nhung Tran, Hong; Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien; Thuy Duong Vu, Thi; Tan Pham, Minh; Van Nguyen, Thi; Trang Tran, Thu; Chu, Viet Ha; Thuan Tong, Kim; Thuy Tran, Thanh; Le, Thi Thanh Xuan; Brochon, Jean-Claude; Quy Nguyen, Thi; Nhung Hoang, My; Nguyen Duong, Cao; Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Hoang, Anh Tuan; Hoa Nguyen, Phuong

2013-12-01

407

Mechanistic study of a diazo dye degradation by Soybean Peroxidase  

PubMed Central

Background Enzyme based remediation of wastewater is emerging as a novel, efficient and environmentally-friendlier approach. However, studies showing detailed mechanisms of enzyme mediated degradation of organic pollutants are not widely published. Results The present report describes a detailed study on the use of Soybean Peroxidase to efficiently degrade Trypan Blue, a diazo dye. In addition to examining various parameters that can affect the dye degradation ability of the enzyme, such as enzyme and H2O2 concentration, reaction pH and temperature, we carried out a detailed mechanistic study of Trypan Blue degradation. HPLC-DAD and LC-MS/MS studies were carried out to confirm dye degradation and analyze the intermediate metabolites and develop a detailed mechanistic dye degradation pathway. Conclusion We report that Soybean peroxidase causes Trypan Blue degradation via symmetrical azo bond cleavage and subsequent radical-initiated ring opening of the metabolites. Interestingly, our results also show that no high molecular weight polymers were produced during the peroxidase-H2O2 mediated degradation of the phenolic Trypan Blue. PMID:23711110

2013-01-01

408

Fluorescence Dynamics of Dye Probes in Micelles Nakul C. Maiti, M. M. G. Krishna, P. J. Britto, and N. Periasamy*  

E-print Network

depolarization dynamics of organic fluorescent dye probes (nile red, cresyl violet, DODCI, rhodamine B, and rhodamine DPPE) were studied in cationic, anionic, and neutral micelles by picosecond time-resolved single

Mallela, Krishna M. G.

409

Improving optical absorptivity of natural dyes for fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient and cheap dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using natural dyes from Pastinaca sativa and Beta vulgaris. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted dyes. We investigated the influence of various factors in the extraction process, such as utilization of different extraction approaches, the acidity of extraction solvent, and different compounds of solvents on the optical absorption spectra. It was found that we could considerably enhance the optical absorptivity of dye and consequently the performance of DSSC by choosing a proper mixture of ethanol and water for extracting solvent and also the acidity of dye solution.

Hemmatzadeh, Reza; Mohammadi, Ahmad

2013-11-01

410

Dyeing of Jute with Reactive Dyes: Optimisation of the Process Variables and Assessment of Colourfastness Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the studies on the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH of the dye solution and material to liquor ratio (MLR) on colour strength and other colour parameters after being dyed of jute fabrics with reactive dyes, namely, Turquoise blue, Lemon Yellow, Red CN colours. The dye absorption increases with increase in electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH and decreases with increase of MLR. Colour fastness to wash, light and rubbing for the dyed samples has been studied and reported. It is observed that reactive dye gives overall good colour fastness to both washing and rubbing. But the light fastness has been found to be moderate only, due to the UV-light initiated fading of jute fibre itself change of the colour substrate, ie, undyed material. This colour fastness has been significantly resolved by post treatment with 1 % benzotriazole.

Samanta, A. K.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Guha Roy, T. K.

2012-08-01

411

Determination of dye intermediates in oxidative hair dyes by fused-silica capillary gas chromatography.  

PubMed

A fused-silica capillary gas chromatographic method is described for the determination of dye intermediates in oxidative hair dyes. An appropriate amount of hair dye sample is dissolved in 10 ml of methanol containing 0.25 g of ammonium thioglycolate and an appropriate amount of 2-amino-4-methylphenol as an internal standard. This solution is directly injected into a gas chromatograph. A fused-silica capillary column with cross-linked methyl silicone OV-1 or SE-54 as a liquid phase yields excellent resolution of dye intermediates. Some factors affecting the quantitation of dye intermediates are discussed. The proposed method gave good recoveries and reproducibilities, and permits simultaneous determination of various types of dye intermediates without any pretreatment. The use of a nitrogen-phosphorus detector allows the selective detection of nitrogen-containing dye intermediates. This simple and versatile method is applicable for the determination of dye intermediates in commercial hair dyes. PMID:3782349

Tokuda, H; Kimura, Y; Takano, S

1986-10-01

412

Characteristics of a Broadband Dye Laser Using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine Dyes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband CARS system called WIDECARS. The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes were used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640, Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650 as well as mixture of these dyes.

Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

2011-01-01

413

Degradation characteristic of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye by UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the degradation characteristic of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye by UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was evaluated based on the trend of color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Three types of dyes consist of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dyes were used to compare the degradation mechanism of the dyes. The UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale cylindrical glass reactor operated in semi-batch mode. The UV/Vis characterization of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye indicated that the rapid degradation of the dyes by UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process is meaningful with respect to decolourization, as a result of the azo bonds and substitute antraquinone chromophore degradation. However, this process is not efficient for aromatic amines removal. The monoazo MO was difficult to be decolorized than diazo RR120 dye, which imply that number of sulphonic groups in the dye molecules determines the reactivity with hydroxyl radical. The increased in COD removal is the evidence for oxidation and decreased in carbon content of dye molecules. TOC removal analysis shows that low TOC removal of monoazo MO and diazo RR120, as compared to anthraquinone RB19 may indicate an accumulation of by-products that are resistant to the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} photolysis.

Abidin, Che Zulzikrami Azner, E-mail: zulzikrami@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: drfahmi@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: umifazara@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: fatinnadhirah89@gmail.com; Fahmi, Muhammad Ridwan, E-mail: zulzikrami@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: drfahmi@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: umifazara@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: fatinnadhirah89@gmail.com; Fazara, Md Ali Umi, E-mail: zulzikrami@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: drfahmi@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: umifazara@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: fatinnadhirah89@gmail.com; Nadhirah, Siti Nurfatin, E-mail: zulzikrami@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: drfahmi@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: umifazara@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: fatinnadhirah89@gmail.com [School of Environmental Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kompleks Pusat Pengajian Jejawi 3, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

2014-10-24

414

Cell type-specific delivery of short interfering RNAs by dye-functionalised theranostic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient delivery of short interfering RNAs reflects a prerequisite for the development of RNA interference therapeutics. Here, we describe highly specific nanoparticles, based on near infrared fluorescent polymethine dye-derived targeting moieties coupled to biodegradable polymers. The fluorescent dye, even when coupled to a nanoparticle, mimics a ligand for hepatic parenchymal uptake transporters resulting in hepatobiliary clearance of approximately 95% of the dye within 45?min. Body distribution, hepatocyte uptake and excretion into bile of the dye itself, or dye-coupled nanoparticles can be tracked by intravital microscopy or even non-invasively by multispectral optoacoustic tomography. Efficacy of delivery is demonstrated in vivo using 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase siRNA as an active payload resulting in a reduction of plasma cholesterol levels if siRNA was formulated into dye-functionalised nanoparticles. This suggests that organ-selective uptake of a near infrared dye can be efficiently transferred to theranostic nanoparticles allowing novel possibilities for personalised silencing of disease-associated genes.

Press, Adrian T.; Traeger, Anja; Pietsch, Christian; Mosig, Alexander; Wagner, Michael; Clemens, Mark G.; Jbeily, Nayla; Koch, Nicole; Gottschaldt, Michael; Bézière, Nicolas; Ermolayev, Volodymyr; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Popp, Jürgen; Kessels, Michael M.; Qualmann, Britta; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Bauer, Michael

2014-12-01

415

Cell type-specific delivery of short interfering RNAs by dye-functionalised theranostic nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Efficient delivery of short interfering RNAs reflects a prerequisite for the development of RNA interference therapeutics. Here, we describe highly specific nanoparticles, based on near infrared fluorescent polymethine dye-derived targeting moieties coupled to biodegradable polymers. The fluorescent dye, even when coupled to a nanoparticle, mimics a ligand for hepatic parenchymal uptake transporters resulting in hepatobiliary clearance of approximately 95% of the dye within 45?min. Body distribution, hepatocyte uptake and excretion into bile of the dye itself, or dye-coupled nanoparticles can be tracked by intravital microscopy or even non-invasively by multispectral optoacoustic tomography. Efficacy of delivery is demonstrated in vivo using 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase siRNA as an active payload resulting in a reduction of plasma cholesterol levels if siRNA was formulated into dye-functionalised nanoparticles. This suggests that organ-selective uptake of a near infrared dye can be efficiently transferred to theranostic nanoparticles allowing novel possibilities for personalised silencing of disease-associated genes. PMID:25470305

Press, Adrian T.; Traeger, Anja; Pietsch, Christian; Mosig, Alexander; Wagner, Michael; Clemens, Mark G.; Jbeily, Nayla; Koch, Nicole; Gottschaldt, Michael; Bézière, Nicolas; Ermolayev, Volodymyr; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Popp, Jürgen; Kessels, Michael M.; Qualmann, Britta; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Bauer, Michael

2014-01-01

416

Analysis of Insecticide Resistance-Related Genes of the Carmine Spider Mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus Based on a De Novo Assembled Transcriptome  

PubMed Central

The carmine spider mite (CSM), Tetranychus cinnabarinus, is an important pest mite in agriculture, because it can develop insecticide resistance easily. To gain valuable gene information and molecular basis for the future insecticide resistance study of CSM, the first transcriptome analysis of CSM was conducted. A total of 45,016 contigs and 25,519 unigenes were generated from the de novo transcriptome assembly, and 15,167 unigenes were annotated via BLAST querying against current databases, including nr, SwissProt, the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO). Aligning the transcript to Tetranychus urticae genome, the 19255 (75.45%) of the transcripts had significant (e-value <10?5) matches to T. urticae DNA genome, 19111 sequences matched to T. urticae proteome with an average protein length coverage of 42.55%. Core Eukaryotic Genes Mapping Approach (CEGMA) analysis identified 435 core eukaryotic genes (CEGs) in the CSM dataset corresponding to 95% coverage. Ten gene categories that relate to insecticide resistance in arthropod were generated from CSM transcriptome, including 53 P450-, 22 GSTs-, 23 CarEs-, 1 AChE-, 7 GluCls-, 9 nAChRs-, 8 GABA receptor-, 1 sodium channel-, 6 ATPase- and 12 Cyt b genes. We developed significant molecular resources for T. cinnabarinus putatively involved in insecticide resistance. The transcriptome assembly analysis will significantly facilitate our study on the mechanism of adapting environmental stress (including insecticide) in CSM at the molecular level, and will be very important for developing new control strategies against this pest mite. PMID:24830288

Liu, Yanchao; Liu, Xing; Chen, Qiushuang; Peng, Miao; Wang, Xiangzun; Shen, Guangmao; He, Lin

2014-01-01

417

Promoting effects of carminic acid-enriched cochineal extracts on capsular invasive thyroid carcinomas through targeting activation of angiogenesis in rats.  

PubMed

Cochineal extracts (CE) is a coccid-derived natural food colorant containing carminic acid (CA) as an active ingredient that potentiates inhibition of tissue proteolysis mediated by activation of plasma hyaluronan-binding protein (PHBP). In our previous study, dietary administered CE (CA: 28.5% in CE) has shown to promote the macroscopic development of capsular invasive carcinomas (CICs) associated with up-regulation of angiogenesis-related genes in an intracapsular invasion model of experimental thyroid cancers using rats. However, the promoting effect of CE could not be confirmed histopathologically. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the promoting effect of CE through direct injections to animals on the development of CICs using this cancer invasion model. One week after initiation with N-bis(hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine, male F344/NSlc rats were administered CA-enriched CE (CA: 52.6% in CE) by intraperitoneal injections every other day (10 mg/kg body weight) during the promotion with 0.15% sulfadimethoxine in the drinking water for 8 weeks. The multiplicities of macroscopical CICs and the mean area of early capsular invasive foci estimated by Tenascin (TN)-C-immunoreactivity in the thyroid significantly increased with CE-treatment, while the number of TN-C-positive foci did not change with CE. Transcript level of Phbp and downstream genes unchanged; however, transcript level of angiogenesis-related genes, i.e, Vegfb and its transcription factor gene, Hif1a, those being downstream of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/Akt signaling, up-regulated in the thyroid tissue with CE-administration. These results suggest that CE potentiates promotion activity by facilitating angiogenesis through activation of PTEN/Akt signaling without accompanying modification of PHBP-related proteolysis. PMID:22687987

Kemmochi, Sayaka; Shimamoto, Keisuke; Shiraki, Ayako; Onda, Nobuhiko; Hasumi, Keiji; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

2012-01-01

418

New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of harmful organic solvents in classrooms has become a critical issue of concern in the field of chemistry education. This article describes a classroom activity at a high school in which an acrylic fabric was used as the extraction medium in the analysis of the detergent concentration in water instead of organic solvents. Dyes were used…

Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko

2007-01-01

419

Parallel Combinatorial Synthesis of Azo Dyes: A Combinatorial Experiment Suitable for Undergraduate Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment in the parallel synthesis of azo dyes that demonstrates the concepts of structure-activity relationships and chemical diversity with vivid colors is described. It is seen that this experiment is suitable for the second-semester organic chemistry laboratory and also for the one-semester organic laboratory.

Gung, Benjamin W.; Taylor, Richard T.

2004-01-01

420

Dye-sensitized solar cells based on axially ligated phosphorus-phthalocyanine dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-sensitized solar cells with axially anchored phosphorous-phthalocyanine dyes were fabricated for the first time. Although the phosphorus-phthalocyanine dyes do not have a conventional anchoring group (–COOH), these dyes could be absorbed on a TiO2 semiconductor surface. After the optimization of energy levels, a 24% incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) was observed at 710 nm with an IPCE curve edge of 800 nm. The efficiency was 2.67%, which was higher than those of previously reported dye-sensitized solar cells with axially anchored phthalocyanine dyes (less than 1%).

Hayat, Azwar; Shivashimpi, Gururaj M.; Nishimura, Terumi; Fujikawa, Naotaka; Ogomi, Yuhei; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Pandey, Shyam S.; Ma, Tingli; Hayase, Shuzi

2015-04-01

421

Destruction of Direct Blue 106 Dye in Underwater Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An application of underwater discharge is one possible way how make the destruction of organic dyes. This contribution presents results of Direct Blue 106 destruction in discharge generated in bubbles. The initial conductivity value of 30 ?S.cm-1 was obtained using electrolyte; the starting dye concentration was 20 mg.l-1. The DC voltage from 1.5 kV to 3.0 kV was applied to generate the discharge at the mean current of 10-30 mA. The system was bubbled through the high voltage capillary electrode by He, Ar and N2 at the constant gas follow of 200 sccm. The dye destruction rate was directly proportional to the applied discharge current, so the highest efficiency was reached at the current of 30 mA. The destruction rate was strongly dependent on the filling gas. While using He and Ar only 4% destruction was obtained during the 20 minutes treatment at 10 mA of discharge current but the decomposition of 52 % was reached if nitrogen was introduced into the high voltage electrode. The destruction efficiency of about 40 % (He, Ar) and over 60 % in nitrogen was reached at discharge current of 30 mA. This enormous difference was probably connected not only to the production of hydrogen peroxide that seems to be usually the main oxidative specie in under water discharges but also atomic and excited nitrogen particles, both atomic and molecular, can have very positive effect in the dye destruction. The detailed study of the kinetic mechanisms leading to the Direct Blue 106 dye destruction will be a subject of the further studies.

N?mcová, L.; Kr?ma, F.; Nikiforov, A.; Leys, C.

2014-06-01

422

Phthalocyanine dye as an extremely photostable and highly fluorescent near-infrared labeling reagent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current organic fluorophores used as labeling reagents for biomolecule conjugation have significant limitations in photostability. This compromises their performance in applications that require a photostable fluorescent reporting group. For example, in molecular imaging and single molecule microscopy, photostable fluorescent labels are important for observing and tracking individual molecular events over extended period of time. We report in this paper an extremely photostable and highly fluorescent phthalocyanine dye, IRDye TM 700DX, as a near-infrared fluorescence labeling reagent to conjugate with biomolecules. This novel water-soluble silicon phthalocyanine dye has an isomericly pure chemical structure. The dye is about 45 to 128 times more photostable than current near-IR fluorophores, e.g. Alexa Fluor"R"680, Cy TM 5.5, Cy TM 7 and IRDye TM 800CW dyes; and about 27 times more photostable than tetramethylrhodamine (TMR), one of the most photostable organic dyes. This dye also meets all the other stringent requirements as an ideal fluorophore for biomolecules labeling such as excellent water solubility, no aggregation in high ionic strength buffer, large extinction coefficient and high fluorescent quantum yield. Antibodies conjugated with IRDye TM 700DX at high D/P ratio exist as monomeric species in high ionic buffer and have bright fluorescence. The IRDye TM 700DX conjugated antibodies generate sensitive, highly specific detection with very low background in Western blot and cytoblot assays.

Peng, Xinzhan; Draney, Daniel R.; Volcheck, William M.; Bashford, Gregory R.; Lamb, Donald T.; Grone, Daniel L.; Zhang, Yonghong; Johnson, Craig M.

2006-02-01

423

BODIPY Dyes In Photodynamic Therapy  

PubMed Central

BODIPY dyes tends to be highly fluorescent, but their emissions can be attenuated by adding substituents with appropriate oxidation potentials. Substituents like these have electrons to feed into photoexcited BODIPYs, quenching their fluorescence, thereby generating relatively long-lived triplet states. Singlet oxygen is formed when these triplet states interact with 3O2. In tissues, this causes cell damage in regions that are illuminated, and this is the basis of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The PDT agents that are currently approved for clinical use do not feature BODIPYs, but there are many reasons to believe that this situation will change. This review summarizes the attributes of BODIPY dyes for PDT, and in some related areas. PMID:23014776

Kamkaew, Anyanee; Lim, Siang Hui; Lee, Hong Boon; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong

2012-01-01

424

BODIPY dyes in photodynamic therapy.  

PubMed

BODIPY dyes tend to be highly fluorescent, but their emissions can be attenuated by adding substituents with appropriate oxidation potentials. Substituents like these have electrons to feed into photoexcited BODIPYs, quenching their fluorescence, thereby generating relatively long-lived triplet states. Singlet oxygen is formed when these triplet states interact with (3)O(2). In tissues, this causes cell damage in regions that are illuminated, and this is the basis of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The PDT agents that are currently approved for clinical use do not feature BODIPYs, but there are many reasons to believe that this situation will change. This review summarizes the attributes of BODIPY dyes for PDT, and in some related areas. PMID:23014776

Kamkaew, Anyanee; Lim, Siang Hui; Lee, Hong Boon; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong; Burgess, Kevin

2013-01-01

425

Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.  

PubMed

Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15 min), and amounts of salt (10 g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method. PMID:25575805

Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

2015-05-01

426

Synthesis of dye-impregnated sol-gel glasses for fiber optic chemical sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polarity of the silica cage has been investigated by entrapping organic dyes in a silica gel. pH dyes of bromocresol purple and bromocresol green were selected for this study. The influence of pH on the polarity of the silica cage was determined by measuring the spectral shift of the dye. The pH dye- impregnated silica films show a red-shift in an acidic environment and a blue shift in basic environment, compared to those dissolved in water. This implies that the polarity of a silica cage varies after being treated by different pH solutions. The cage shows higher polarity in a basic solution than in an acidic solution.

Ding, Jack Y.; Tong, J.; Shahriari, Mahmoud R.; Sigel, George H., Jr.

1993-01-01

427

Low-threshold stimulated emission from lysozyme amyloid fibrils doped with a blue laser dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amyloid fibrils are excellent self-assembling nanotemplates for organic molecules such as dyes. Here, we demonstrate that laser dye-doped lysozyme type fibrils exhibit significantly reduced threshold for stimulated emission compared to that observed in usual matrices. Laser action was studied in slab planar waveguides of the amyloids doped with Stilbene 420 laser dye prepared using a film casting technique. The lowering of the threshold of stimulated emission is analyzed in the context of intrinsic structure of the amyloid nanotemplates, electrostatic interaction of different microstructures with dye molecules, as well as material properties of the cast layers. All these factors are considered to be of importance for introducing gain for random laser operation.

Sznitko, L.; Hanczyc, P.; Mysliwiec, J.; Samoc, M.

2015-01-01

428

Evaluation of Polymethine Dyes as Potential Probes for Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Tumors: Part - 1  

PubMed Central

Near-infrared (NIR) organic dyes have become important for many biomedical applications, including in vivo optical imaging. Conjugation of NIR fluorescent dyes to photosensitizing molecules (photosensitizers) holds strong potential for NIR fluorescence image guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Therefore, we were interested in investigating the photophysical properties, in vivo tumor-affinity and fluorescence imaging potential of a series of heterocyclic polymethine dyes, which could then be conjugated to certain PDT agents. For our present study, we selected a series of symmetrical polymethine dyes containing a variety of bis-N-substituted indole or benzindole moieties linked by linear conjugation with and without a fused substituted cyclohexene ring. The N-alkyl side chain at the C-terminal position was functionalized with sulfonic, carboxylic acid, methyl ester or hydroxyl groups. Although, among the parent cyanine dyes investigated, the commercially available, cyanine dye IR783 (3) (bis-indole-N-butylsulfonate)-polymethine dye with a cyclic chloro-cyclohexene moiety showed best fluorescence-imaging ability, based on its spectral properties (?Abs=782 nm, ?Fl=810 nm, ? = 261,000 M-1cm-1, ?Fl?0.08) and tumor affinity. In addition to 3, parent dyes IR820 and Cypate (6) were also selected and subjected to further modifications by introducing desired functional groups, which could enable further conjugation of the cyanine dyes to an effective photosensitizer HPPH developed in our laboratory. The synthesis and biological studies (tumor-imaging and PDT) of the resulting bifunctional conjugates are discussed in succeeding paper (Part-2 of this study). PMID:24019854

James, Nadine S.; Chen, Yihui; Joshi, Penny; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Henary, Maged; Strekowsk, Lucjan; Pandey, Ravindra K

2013-01-01

429

Dye laser traveling wave amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flashlamp pumped dye laser suitable for use as a single stage amplifier is described. Particular emphasis is placed on the efforts to increase output pulse energy and improve the temporal profile of the injected pulse. By using high power thin film polarizers, output energies reach from 4 to 45 mJ. Various dispersive elements are used to develop an amplified pulse with an extremely clean temporal profile.

Davidson, F.; Hohman, J.

1984-01-01

430

Enzymatic decolorization of sulfonphthalein dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white rot fungus (WRF) Pleurotus ostreatus produced manganese peroxidase (MnP) and manganese-independent peroxidase (MIP) activities during solid state fermentation of wheat straw, a natural lignocellulosic substrate. Most of the sulfonphthalein (SP) dyes were decolorized by MnP at pH 4.0. The higher Km for meta-cresol purple (40?M) and lower Km for ortho-cresol red (26?M) for MnP activities explained the preference

R. Shrivastava; V. Christian; B. R. M. Vyas

2005-01-01

431

Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from The Lawrence Hall of Science was taught in spring 2012 and teaches students about nano and environmental technologies. Students will create "dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using nano-crystalline titanium dioxide." This page includes links to the Source Articles for the Hands-on Module and Project Staff Write-ups of the Hands-on Module. Additionally, five documents provide lecture and lab materials for instructor use.

432

The effect of operational parameters on the photocatalytic degradation of Congo red organic dye using ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure coated on glass by Doctor Blade method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photocatalytic degradation of Congo red was investigated using ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure coated on glass by Doctor Blade method in aqueous solution under irradiation. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for the morphological and structural characterization of ZnO-CdS core-shell nanostructures. XRD results showed diffractions of wurtzite zinc oxide core and wurtzite cadmium sulfide shell. FESEM results showed that nanoparticles are nearly hexagonal with an average diameter of about 50 nm. The effect of catalyst loading, UV-light irradiation time and solution pH on photocatalytic degradation of Congo red was studied and optimized values were obtained. Results showed that the employment of efficient photocatalyst and selection of optimal operational parameters may lead to complete decolorization of dye solutions. It was found that ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure is more favorable for the degradation of Congo red compare to pure ZnO or pure CdS due to lower electron hole recombination. The results showed that the photocatalytic degradation rate of Congo red is enhanced with increasing the content of ZnO up to ZnO(0.2 M)/CdS(0.075 M) which is reached 88.0% within 100 min irradiation.

Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Rahmati, Mohammad Hossein

2015-02-01

433

The effect of operational parameters on the photocatalytic degradation of Congo red organic dye using ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure coated on glass by Doctor Blade method.  

PubMed

Photocatalytic degradation of Congo red was investigated using ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure coated on glass by Doctor Blade method in aqueous solution under irradiation. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for the morphological and structural characterization of ZnO-CdS core-shell nanostructures. XRD results showed diffractions of wurtzite zinc oxide core and wurtzite cadmium sulfide shell. FESEM results showed that nanoparticles are nearly hexagonal with an average diameter of about 50 nm. The effect of catalyst loading, UV-light irradiation time and solution pH on photocatalytic degradation of Congo red was studied and optimized values were obtained. Results showed that the employment of efficient photocatalyst and selection of optimal operational parameters may lead to complete decolorization of dye solutions. It was found that ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure is more favorable for the degradation of Congo red compare to pure ZnO or pure CdS due to lower electron hole recombination. The results showed that the photocatalytic degradation rate of Congo red is enhanced with increasing the content of ZnO up to ZnO(0.2 M)/CdS(0.075 M) which is reached 88.0% within 100 min irradiation. PMID:25218225

Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Rahmati, Mohammad Hossein

2015-02-25

434

Dye laser traveling wave amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Injection locking was applied to a cavity-dumped coaxial flashlamp pumped dye laser in an effort to obtain nanosecond duration pulses which have both high energy and narrow-linewidth. In the absence of an injected laser pulse, the cavity-dumped dye laser was capable of generating high energy (approx. 60mJ) nanosecond duration output pulses. These pulses, however, had a fixed center wavelength and were extremely broadband (approx. 6nm FWHM). Experimental investigations were performed to determine if the spectral properties of these outputs could be improved through the use of injection-locking techniques. A parametric study to determine the specific conditions under which the laser could be injection-locked was also carried out. Significant linewidth reduction to 0.0015nm) of the outputs was obtained through injection-locking but only at wavelengths near the peak lasing wavelength of the dye. It was found, however; that by inserting weakly dispersive tuning elements in the laser cavity, these narrow-linewidth outputs could be obtained over a wide (24nm) tuning range. Since the tuning elements had low insertion losses, the tunability of the output was obtained without sacrificing output pulse energy.

Davidson, F.; Hohman, J.

1985-01-01

435

Molecular assemblies of perylene bisimide dyes in water.  

PubMed

Perylene bisimides are among the most valuable functional dyes and have numerous potential applications. As a result of their chemical robustness, photostability, and outstanding optical and electronic properties, these dyes have been applied as pigments, fluorescence sensors, and n-semiconductors in organic electronics and photovoltaics. Moreover, the extended quadrupolar ??system of this class of dyes has facilitated the construction of numerous supramolecular architectures with fascinating photophysical properties. However, the supramolecular approach to the formation of perylene bisimide aggregates has been restricted mostly to organic media. Pleasingly, considerable progress has been made in the last few years in developing water-soluble perylene bisimides and their application in aqueous media. This Review provides an up-to-date overview on the self-assembly of perylene bisimides through ?-??interactions in aqueous media. Synthetic strategies for the preparation of water-soluble perylene bisimides and the influence of water on the ?-? stacking of perylene bisimides as well as the resulting applications are discussed. PMID:22573415

Görl, Daniel; Zhang, Xin; Würthner, Frank

2012-06-25

436

Bond Alternation, Polarizability and Resonance Detuning in Methine Dyes  

E-print Network

Many organic molecules with a high nonlinear polarizability have a "Brooker dye" structure, featuring electron accepting or donating groups separated by an unsaturated (methine or polyene) hydrocarbon bridge. These systems have been the topic of much discussion with regard to their structure-property relationships - particularly relationships linking nonlinear response to bond-length alternation. Here, we show that these relationships can be subsumed within the conceptual framework of a Brooker dye color proposed by Platt [J.R. Platt, J. Chem. Phys. 25 80 (1956)]. The key quantities of Platt's model are the Brooker basicity difference and the isoexcitation energy. These concepts provide a spectroscopic definition of the resonant (cyanine) limit, which is independent of other descriptors commonly used (e.g. bond length alternation). We establish a relation ship between the bond length and the Brooker basicity difference, with which we establish a natural origin for bond length alternation coordinates in asymme...

Olsen, Seth

2010-01-01

437

Molecular Design of Near-IR Harvesting Unsymmetrical Squaraine Dyes  

SciTech Connect

The functionalized unsymmetrical benzothiazole squaraine organic sensitizers 5-carboxy-2-({3-[(3-hexylbenzothiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)methyl]-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-2-cyclobuten-1-ylidene}methyl)-1-hexyl-3,3-dimethyl-3H-indolium (hereafter named as SK-11) and 5-carboxy-2-({3-[(3-hexyl-5-methoxybenzothiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)methyl]-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-2-cyclobuten-1-ylidene}methyl)-1-hexyl-3,3-dimethyl-3H-indolium (coded as SK-12) are designed and developed to observe an intense and wider absorption band in the red/NIR wavelength region. DFT/TDDFT calculations have been performed on the two unsymmetrical squaraine sensitizers to gain insight into their electronic and optical properties. The utility of these dyes in solid state dye sensitized solar cells (SS-DSSCs) is demonstrated.

Kim, Sanghoon; Mor, Gopal K.; Paulose, Maggie; Varghese, Oomman K.; Baik, Chul; Grimes, Craig A.

2010-01-01

438

Femtosecond Dephasing of Nile Blue Dye/Polymer Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the optical dephasing of organic dye molecules in polymer films by measuring the amplitude of time delayed four wave mixing. These experiments were performed with a time resolution of 150 femtoseconds using incoherent stimulated emission from several different laser dye solutions .(Y. Zhang, S. R. Hartmann and F. Moshary, J. Chem Phys. 104), 4380 (1996). For exciting wavelengths that are slightly red shifted from the absorption maximum the dephasing signals shows a fast decaying T2 with a time constant slightly longer than the coherence time of the light source. A small rise is also observed starting about 500 fs after the initial peak with a undetermined time decay constant. Current experiments include long wavelength dephasing measurements of Nile Blue in the range of 700 - 800 nm and visible wavelength measurements of bacteriorhodopsin in the range 550 - 650 nm.

Park, Nicholas; Grossman, Carl

1997-03-01

439

Concrete Embedded Dye-Synthesized Photovoltaic Solar Cell  

PubMed Central

This work presents the concept of a monolithic concrete-integrated dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell for optical-to-electrical energy conversion and on-site power generation. The transport measurements carried out in the dark revealed the presence of VOC of ~190?mV and ISC of ~9??A, induced by the electrochemical conversion of concrete-supplied ionic impurities at the electrodes. The current-voltage measurements performed under illumination at incident optical powers of ~46?mW confirmed the generation of electrical power of ~0.64??W with almost half generated via battery effect. This work presents a first step towards realizing the additional pathways to low-cost electrical power production in urban environments based on a combined use of organic dyes, nanotitania and concrete technology. PMID:24067664

Hosseini, T.; Flores-Vivian, I.; Sobolev, K.; Kouklin, N.

2013-01-01

440

The physics of dye laser amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a method for the complete analysis of the optical properties of a laser dye. The analysis uses direct measurements of the saturation intensities for absorption and emission. The complete analysis of an ultraviolet laser dye, 3,5,3,5-Tetra-t-butyl-p-sexiphenyl, demonstrates the power of the saturation analysis method. The dye TBS exhibits some unique optical properties which affect its emission wavelength range and photochemistry.

Jensen, C. C.