Sample records for carmine organic dyes

  1. Natural dyeing of wool and hair with indigo carmine (C.I. Natural Blue 2), a renewable resource based blue dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunsanee Komboonchoo; Thomas Bechtold

    2009-01-01

    Indigo carmine can be used as a source of blue dye for wool and hair dyeing. The option to use indigo carmine in combination with other natural dyes in a one-bath procedure as a hybrid dyeing concept is of interest both for natural dyeing and for coloration of hair. The present study shows that indigo carmine dyeing on wool exhibits

  2. The history, chemistry and modes of action of carmine and related dyes.

    PubMed

    Dapson, R W

    2007-08-01

    Carmine has been used in biological staining to demonstrate selectively nuclei, chromosomes or mucins, depending on the formulation. Throughout its history in science, complaints and frustrations have been expressed about dye quality. Inconsistencies in dye quality or identity have prevented thorough understanding of staining mechanisms and have caused many stain solutions to behave unsatisfactorily. The aim of this review is to (1) detail causes of these problems, which are rooted in history, geography and production, (2) offer ways to minimize problems and (3) provide modern explanations for stain behavior. Carmine is a "semi-synthetic" dye, i.e., a complex of aluminum and the natural dye cochineal (carminic acid). Carmine shows considerable batch-to-batch variability. Geography, politics, history, agricultural practices and iconography all contribute to the variability of cochineal. In addition, widely divergent manufacturing methods are used to produce carmine. Also, confusion in terminology has led to mislabeling. Pressure from the food industry for a more satisfactory colorant for acidic foods led to the introduction of a new dye, aminocarminic acid, which could enter the biological market inadvertantly. Improved methods of analysis should help the certification process by the Biological Stain Commission. Further standardization could be achieved by replacing most of the methods of solubilizing carmine. The majority of these methods use heat, which is likely to damage the dye molecule. Fortunately, carmine is readily dissolved by raising the pH of the aqueous solvent above 12, and a new form of the dye, now available commercially, is soluble in water without the need for heat or pH adjustment. Chemical structures and physical properties of carminic acid, carmine, aminocarminic acid and kermesic acid are reviewed. A new configuration for carmine is proposed, as well as possible changes to carminic acid and carmine molecules as a result of decomposition caused by heating. Each of the major classes of carmine-based stains is described as are possible mechanisms of attachment to specific substrates. Glycogen binds carmine through hydrogen bonding, and it is here that carmine decomposed by heat could have the greatest detrimental impact. Nuclei and chromosomes are stained via coordination bonds, perhaps supplemented by hydrogen bonds. Finally, acidic mucins react ionically with carmine. Specificity in the latter case may be due to unique polymeric carmine molecules that form in the presence of aluminum chloride. PMID:18074265

  3. Aqueous two-phase systems: An efficient, environmentally safe and economically viable method for purification of natural dye carmine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aparecida Barbosa Mageste; Leandro Rodrigues de Lemos; Guilherme Max Dias Ferreira; Maria do Carmo Hespanhol da Silva; Luis Henrique Mendes da Silva; Renata Cristina Ferreira Bonomo; Luis Antonio Minim

    2009-01-01

    Partition of the natural dye carmine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of polymer or copolymer with aqueous salt solutions (Na2SO4 and Li2SO4). The carmine dye partition coefficient was investigated as a function of system pH, polymer molar mass, hydrophobicity, system tie-line length and nature of the electrolyte. It has been observed that the

  4. Interaction of indigo carmine dye with silica modified with humic acids at solid/liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Alexandre G. S.; Miranda, Bárbara S.; Jacintho, Guilherme V. M.

    2003-09-01

    Two distinct humic acids, one extracted from Brazilian peat soil, HA PS, and another one obtained from commercial source, HA FL, were attachment onto silica gel modified with aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, producing two material named SiHA PS and SiHA FL, respectively. The ability of these materials in removing indigo carmine dye from aqueous solution was followed through series of adsorption isotherms adjusted to modified Langmuir equation. The maximum number of moles adsorbed gave 6.82 ± 0.12 × 10 -4 and 2.15 ± 0.17 × 10 -4 mol g -1 for SiHA PS and SiHA FL, respectively. Same interactions were calorimetrically followed and the thermodynamic data showed endothermic enthalpic values: 12.31 ± 0.55 and 24.69 ± 1.05 kJ mol -1 for SiHA PS and SiHA FL surfaces, respectively. Gibbs free energies for two adsorption processes of indigo carmine dye presented negative values, reflecting dye/surface interactions must be accompanied by an increased in entropy values, which are 65 ± 3 and 98 ± 5 J mol -1 K -1 for SiHA PS and SiHA FL materials, respectively. The adsorption processes for both materials were spontaneous in nature although they presented an endothermic enthalpy for the interaction, resulting in an entropically favored process.

  5. Charge-Transfer Complexation at Carminic Acid–CdS Interface and Its Impact on the Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, Naila; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Munir, Shamsa; Hana, Amina; Jabeen, Uzma; Nosheen, Erum; Habib, Banafsha; Khan, Arif Ullah; Hassan, Zubair; Siddiq, Muhammad; Hussain, Hazrat

    2015-04-01

    We report for the first time charge-transfer complex formation at the interface of carminic acid and cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles. The complex formation was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were synthesized by the wet chemical method and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Carminic acid, in different concentrations, was chemisorbed on the surface of CdS nanoparticles. Grafting of carminic acid on CdS was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Energy levels of the highest occupied molecular orbitals and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) of both carminic acid and CdS nanoparticles matched well for the injection of electron from LUMO of carminic acid to the conduction band of cadmium sulfide. The photoactive nanohybrid material was used in dye-sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of carminic acid functionalized CdS nanoparticles was found to be double the value obtained for the reference device and remained constant over a certain concentration range owing to the complex formation at the interface. However, raising the concentration of carminic acid beyond 2.5 × 10-5 M resulted in a decrease in efficiency. This was ascribed to charge recombination due to the presence of ungrafted carminic acid molecules.

  6. Raman spectroscopy of organic dyes adsorbed on pulsed laser deposited silver thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, E.; Neri, F.; Valenti, A.; Ossi, P. M.; Trusso, S.; Ponterio, R. C.

    2013-08-01

    The results of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) study performed on representative organic and inorganic dyes adsorbed on silver nanostructured thin films are presented and discussed. Silver thin films were deposited on glass slides by focusing the beam from a KrF excimer laser (wavelength 248 nm, pulse duration 25 ns) on a silver target and performing the deposition in a controlled Ar atmosphere. Clear Raman spectra were acquired for dyes such as carmine lake, garanza lake and brazilwood overcoming their fluorescence and weak Raman scattering drawbacks. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy measurements were not able to discriminate among the different chromophores usually referred as carmine lake (carminic, kermesic and laccaic acid), as brazilwood (brazilin and brazilein) and as garanza lake (alizarin and purpurin). SERS measurements showed that the analyzed samples are composed of a mixture of different chromophores: brazilin and brazilein in brazilwood, kermesic and carminic acid in carmine lake, alizarin and purpurin in garanza lake. Detection at concentration level as low as 10-7 M in aqueous solutions was achieved. Higher Raman intensities were observed using the excitation line of 632.8 nm wavelength with respect to the 785 nm, probably due to a pre-resonant effect with the molecular electronic transitions of the dyes.

  7. Adsorption of indigo carmine by activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tamura; T. Miyoshi; K. Boki; S. Tanada

    1988-01-01

    Adsorption of indigo carmine as an acid dye onto activated carbon was studied in order to elucidate its adsorption behavior on the basis of amount adsorbed, pore size distribution, pH and basicity of activated carbon, and pH of filtrate. Activated carbon No.1 and No.4 were the preferable adsorbents for removing indigo carmine in the range of higher and lower equilibrium

  8. Electrochemical analysis of natural solid organic dyes and pigments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Grygar; Š. Ku?ková; D. Hradil; J. Hradilová

    2003-01-01

    Square-wave voltammetry of solid naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and flavone dyes, carmine, cochineal red, indigo, and Prussian blue, was compared to microanalysis (sample consumption <1 mg) of traditional painting pigments and dyes without their preliminary dissolution. Electrochemical analysis was also performed after the samples' hydrolysis simultaneously with thin-layer chromatography. Anthraquinone-based pigments and Prussian blue are reversibly reduced, cochineal red and lac dyes are

  9. ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of triphenylamine-based organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jihyun Heo; Jin-Woo Oh; Ho-Ik Ahn; Su-Bin Lee; Sang-Eun Cho; Mi-Ra Kim; Jin-Kook Lee; Nakjoong Kim

    2010-01-01

    We synthesized three organic dyes (DYE 1, DYE 2, and DYE 3) containing triphenylamine (TPA) moieties as electron donors and cyanoacrylic acid moieties as electron acceptors, designed at the molecular level, and developed them for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Among all the dyes, DYE 2 exhibited the highest overall solar-energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 4.06% with a short-circuit photocurrent

  11. Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells with triarylamine organic dyes featuring functionalized-truxene unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mao Liang; Meng Lu; Qi-Lin Wang; Wei-Yi Chen; Hong-Yu Han; Zhe Sun; Song Xue

    2011-01-01

    Four triarylamine organic dyes featuring functionalized-truxene unit (MXD1–4) have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. It was found that these dyes favored light harvesting, prevented dye aggregation and suppressed the dark current significantly in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), leading to enhanced performance compared to the corresponding triphenylamine dye. As a result of retarding charge recombination benefiting from the steric hindrance of

  12. Continuous-wave organic dye lasers and methods

    DOEpatents

    Shapira, Ofer; Chua, Song-Liang; Zhen, Bo; Lee, Jeongwon; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-16

    An organic dye laser produces a continuous-wave (cw) output without any moving parts (e.g., without using flowing dye streams or spinning discs of solid-state dye media to prevent photobleaching) and with a pump beam that is stationary with respect to the organic dye medium. The laser's resonant cavity, organic dye medium, and pump beam are configured to excite a lasing transition over a time scale longer than the associated decay lifetimes in the organic dye medium without photobleaching the organic dye medium. Because the organic dye medium does not photobleach when operating in this manner, it may be pumped continuously so as to emit a cw output beam. In some examples, operation in this manner lowers the lasing threshold (e.g., to only a few Watts per square centimeter), thereby facilitating electrical pumping for cw operation.

  13. Tetrahydroquinoline dyes with different spacers for organic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruikui Chen; Xichuan Yang; Haining Tian; Licheng Sun

    2007-01-01

    Novel organic dyes (C1-1, C1-5 and C2-1) with a tetrahydroquinoline moiety as the electron donor, different thiophene-containing electron spacers and a cyanoacrylic acid moiety as the electron acceptor have been designed and synthesized for the application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). An interesting relationship between the dye structures, properties, and the performance of DSSCs based on these tetrahydroquinoline dyes is

  14. Molecular design and photovoltaic performance of organic dyes containing phenothiazine for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyo Jeong; Nam, Jung Eun; Sim, Kyoseung; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Jae Hong; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-10-01

    We synthesized novel organic photosensitizers based on fluorine-substituted phenothiazine with thiophene bridge units in the chromophore for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Furthermore, organic dyes with different acceptors exhibited higher molar extinction coefficients, and better light absorption at longer wavelengths. The photovoltaic properties of organic dyes composed of different acceptors in their chromophores were measured to identify their effects on the DSSC performance. The organic dye, PFSCN2 containing multi-cyanoacrylic acid as the electron acceptor, showed a power conversion efficiency of 4.67% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm2). The retarded recombination kinetics from TiO2 electrode to electrolyte enhanced the electron life time of the organic dye, PFSCN2 in the photoanode of the DSSC. This was confirmed with impedance analysis. PMID:25942898

  15. Organic dyes based on fluorene and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdyukova, I. V.; Ishchenko, Aleksandr A.

    2012-03-01

    Data on various types of organic dyes based on fluorene and its derivatives, including polymethine, styryl, triphenylmethane, spiran, merocyanine, porphyrin and polymeric dyes, as well as azo dyes and donor-acceptor polyenes, are described systematically. The key methods for their synthesis are considered. The properties of the dyes are analyzed and summarized. The principles of development of modern functional materials based on these dyes are outlined. The use of these materials in advanced fields of science and technology such as photovoltaics, electroluminescence, nonlinear optics, holography, sensing photodynamic therapy are considered. The bibliography includes 476 references.

  16. A new class of organic dyes based on acenaphthopyrazine for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhixia Kong; Huizhi Zhou; Jingnan Cui; Tingli Ma; Xichuan Yang; Licheng Sun

    2010-01-01

    A new class of organic dyes based on acenaphthopyrazine derivatives, containing pyrazine group as the electron acceptor and o-dicarboxyl acids as the anchoring groups were designed and synthesized for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). These dyes have short synthesis routes and are easily adsorbed on the surface of TiO2. Under illumination of simulated AM1.5 solar light (100mWcm?2), a total

  17. Retuneable organic dye solution laser, excited by a nitrogen laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. I. Bychkov; V. F. Losev; V. I. Revenko; V. F. Tarasenko; V. B. Timofeev

    1975-01-01

    Organic dye lasers, excited by pulse nitrogen lasers (N 2 lasers) may be used in a whole range of spectroscopic investigations, since the high pulse repetition frequency of generation (~ 102 Hz) allows the well-known stroboscopic recording technique to be used successfully [1]. This paper describes a simple reliable laser of this type. To excite generation in the dyes, we

  18. Organic synthetic transformations using organic dyes as photoredox catalysts.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ohkubo, Kei

    2014-08-28

    The oxidizing ability of organic dyes is enhanced significantly by photoexcitation. Radical cations of weak electron donors can be produced by electron transfer from the donors to the excited states of organic dyes. The radical cations thus produced undergo bond formation reactions with various nucleophiles. For example, the direct oxygenation of benzene to phenol was made possible under visible-light irradiation of 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ) in an oxygen-saturated acetonitrile solution of benzene and water via electron transfer from benzene to the triplet excited state of DDQ. 3-Cyano-1-methylquinolinium ion (QuCN(+)) can also act as an efficient photocatalyst for the selective oxygenation of benzene to phenol using oxygen and water under homogeneous and ambient conditions. Alkoxybenzenes were also obtained when water was replaced by alcohol under otherwise identical experimental conditions. QuCN(+) can also be an effective photocatalyst for the fluorination of benzene with O2 and fluoride anion. Photocatalytic selective oxygenation of aromatic compounds was achieved using an electron donor-acceptor-linked dyad, 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium ion (Acr(+)-Mes), as a photocatalyst and O2 as the oxidant under visible-light irradiation. The electron-transfer state of Acr(+)-Mes produced upon photoexcitation can oxidize and reduce substrates and dioxygen, respectively, leading to the selective oxygenation and halogenation of substrates. Acr(+)-Mes has been utilized as an efficient organic photoredox catalyst for many other synthetic transformations. PMID:24984977

  19. Organic dye removal from aqueous solution by glidarc discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radu Burlica; Michael J. Kirkpatrick; Wright C. Finney; Ronald J. Clark; Bruce R. Locke

    2004-01-01

    The performance of several electrical discharge gliding arc (glidarc) reactors for the removal of an organic dye from aqueous solution has been studied. The glidarc reactors utilized AC electrical discharges with two different electrode configurations. In one case, two electrodes were placed in the gas phase over the liquid surface (P=250–300W, U=12kV). In order to increase the dye removal from

  20. Spectrophotometric resolution of ternary mixtures of Tartrazine, Patent Blue V and Indigo Carmine in commercial products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Berzas; J. Rodr??guez Flores; M. J. Villaseñor Llerena; N. Rodr??guez Fariñas

    1999-01-01

    Four spectrophotometric methods are described and applied to resolve ternary mixtures of the food dyes Tartrazine (E-102), Patent Blue V (E-131) and Indigo Carmine (E-132). The simultaneous determination of these three dyes was firstly accomplished by two derivative methods using the “first derivative” and the “ratio spectrum-zero crossing derivative”, which were satisfactorily used to determine synthetic mixtures of these colorants

  1. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. PMID:25466082

  2. Structure-performance correlations of organic dyes with an electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline moiety for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Sie-Rong; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Yang, Po-Fan; Liao, Chia-Wei; Lee, Mandy M; Su, Wei-Lin; Li, Chun-Ting; Lin, Hao-Wu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Sun, Shih-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    The high performances of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on seven new dyes are disclosed. Herein, the synthesis and electrochemical and photophysical properties of a series of intentionally designed dipolar organic dyes and their application in DSSCs are reported. The molecular structures of the seven organic dyes are composed of a triphenylamine group as an electron donor, a cyanoacrylic acid as an electron acceptor, and an electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline moiety integrated in the ?-conjugated spacer between the electron donor and acceptor moieties. The DSSCs based on the dye DJ104 gave the best overall cell performance of 8.06?%; the efficiency of the DSSC based on the standard N719 dye under the same experimental conditions was 8.82?%. The spectral coverage of incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies extends to the onset at the near-infrared region due to strong internal charge-transfer transition as well as the effect of electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline to lower the energy gap in these organic dyes. A combined tetraphenyl segment as a hydrophobic barrier in these organic dyes effectively slows down the charge recombination from TiO2 to the electrolyte and boosts the photovoltage, comparable to their Ru(II) counterparts. Detailed spectroscopic studies have revealed the dye structure-cell performance correlations, to allow future design of efficient light-harvesting organic dyes. PMID:25042065

  3. Organic polyaromatic hydrocarbons as sensitizing model dyes for semiconductor nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongyi; Galoppini, Elena

    2010-04-26

    The study of interfacial charge-transfer processes (sensitization) of a dye bound to large-bandgap nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors, including TiO(2), ZnO, and SnO(2), is continuing to attract interest in various areas of renewable energy, especially for the development of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The scope of this Review is to describe how selected model sensitizers prepared from organic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have been used over the past 15 years to elucidate, through a variety of techniques, fundamental aspects of heterogeneous charge transfer at the surface of a semiconductor. This Review does not focus on the most recent or efficient dyes, but rather on how model dyes prepared from aromatic hydrocarbons have been used, over time, in key fundamental studies of heterogeneous charge transfer. In particular, we describe model chromophores prepared from anthracene, pyrene, perylene, and azulene. As the level of complexity of the model dye-bridge-anchor group compounds has increased, the understanding of some aspects of very complex charge transfer events has improved. The knowledge acquired from the study of the described model dyes is of importance not only for DSSC development but also to other fields of science for which electronic processes at the molecule/semiconductor interface are relevant. PMID:20135672

  4. The degradation of organic dyes by corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Durham, D.E.; Heath, W.O.

    1992-02-01

    Several dyes in water were individually exposed to corona discharge. Light absorbance decreased for all organic dyes with time. Absorbance losses with methylene blue, malachite green, and new coccine were studied. The loss of color was followed using an in situ colorimeter and the effects of varying the current, voltage, gas phase, stirring rates, salinity, and electrode spacing were investigated. The highest reaction rates were observed using the highest current, highest voltage (up to 10kV), highest stirring rate, lowest salinity, smallest electrode spacing, and an environment containing enhanced levels of oxygen. Current was higher in the presence of nitrogen than in the presence of oxygen (for the same voltage), but the reaction of methylene blue did not proceed unless oxygen was present. These results help identify conditions using corona discharge in which dyes, and potentially other organics, can be destroyed. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Cyanine dyes in solid state organic heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heier, Jakob; Peng, Chuyao; Véron, Anna C.; Hany, Roland; Geiger, Thomas; Nüesch, Frank A.; Vismara, Marcus V. G.; Graeff, Carlos F. O.

    2014-10-01

    Today numerous cyanine dyes that are soluble in organic solvents are available, driven by more than a century of research and development of the photographic industry. Several properties specific to cyanine dyes suggest that this material class can be of interest for organic solar cell applications. The main absorption wavelength can be tuned from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared. The unparalleled high absorption coefficients allow using very thin films for harvesting the solar photons. Furthermore, cyanines are cationic polymethine dyes, offering the possibility to modify the materials by defining the counteranion. We here show specifically how counterions can be utilized to tune the bulk morphology when blended with fullerenes. We compare the performance of bilayer heterojunction and bulk heterojunction solar cells for two different dyes absorbing in the visible and the near-infrared. Light-induced Electron Spin Resonance (LESR) was used to study the charge transfers of light induced excitons between cyanine dyes and the archetype fullerene C60. LESR results show good correlation with the cell performance.

  6. Theoretical investigation of phenothiazine-triphenylamine-based organic dyes with different ? spacers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ximing; Jia, Chunyang; Wan, Zhongquan; Zhang, Jiaqiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2014-04-01

    Three phenothiazine-triphenylamine-based organic dyes (CD-1, CD-2 and CD-3) are designed based on the dye WD-8. The geometries, electronic structures, and electronic absorption spectra of these dyes before and after binding to TiO2 are studied by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The calculated geometries indicate that these dyes show good steric hindrance effect which is advantage to inhibit the close intermolecular ?-? aggregation effectively. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of these dyes could ensure positive effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. The simulated spectra of CD-1?3 show better absorption than that of WD-8 in the low energy zone. All the calculated results demonstrate that these dyes could be used as potential sensitizers for DSSCs and show better performances than WD-8. PMID:24398472

  7. Structural effect of donor in organic dye on recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells with cobalt complex electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takurou N; Koumura, Nagatoshi; Kimura, Mutsumi; Mori, Shogo

    2014-03-01

    The effect of the donor in an organic dye on the electron lifetime of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employing a cobalt redox electrolyte was investigated. We synthesized organic dyes with donor moieties of carbazole, coumarin, triphenylamine, and N-phenyl-carbazole and measured the current-voltage characteristics and electron lifetimes of the DSSCs with these dyes. The cell with the triphenylamine donor dye produced the highest open circuit voltage and longest electron lifetime. On the other hand, the lowest open circuit voltage and shortest electron lifetime was obtained with coumarin donor dye, suggesting that the coumarin attracted the cobalt redox couples to the surface of the TiO2 layer, thus increasing the concentration of cobalt complex. On the other hand, the longest electron lifetime with triphenylamine was attributed to the blocking effect by steric hindrance of the nonplanar structure of the donor. PMID:24533669

  8. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of sixteen red beverages containing carminic acid: identification of degradation products by using principal component analysis/discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Mastroianni, Rita; Marengo, Emilio

    2015-01-15

    The study investigates the sunlight photodegradation process of carminic acid, a natural red colourant used in beverages. For this purpose, both carminic acid aqueous standard solutions and sixteen different commercial beverages, ten containing carminic acid and six containing E120 dye, were subjected to photoirradiation. The results show different patterns of degradation, not only between the standard solutions and the beverages, but also from beverage to beverage. Due to the different beverage recipes, unpredictable reactions take place between the dye and the other ingredients. To identify the dye degradation products in a very complex scenario, a methodology was used, based on the combined use of principal component analysis with discriminant analysis and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high resolution mass spectrometry. The methodology is unaffected by beverage composition and allows the degradation products of carminic acid dye to be identified for each beverage. PMID:25149011

  9. Removal of dyes using immobilized titanium dioxide illuminated by fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hui, Lee Kong; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ramli, Irmawati

    2005-10-17

    The photodegradation of various dyes in aqueous solution was studied. Experiments were carried out using glass coated titanium dioxide thin film as photocatalyst. Photodegradation processes of methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), indigo carmine (IC), chicago sky blue 6B (CSB), and mixed dye (MD, mixture of the four mentioned single dye) were reported. As each photodegradation system is pH dependent, the photodegradation experiment was carried out in each dye photodegradation reactive pH range at approximately 28 degrees C. The dyes removal efficiency was studied and compared using UV-vis spectrophotometer analysis. The total removal of each dye was: methylene blue (90.3%), methyl orange (98.5%), indigo carmine (92.4%), chicago sky blue 6B (60.3%), and mixed dyes (70.1%), respectively. The characteristic of the photocatalyst was investigated using X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The amount of each dye intermediate produced in the photodegradation process was also determined with the help of total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. PMID:15996813

  10. Tailored titanium dioxide photocatalysts for the degradation of organic dyes in wastewater treatment: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Han; Venkata Subba Rao Kambala; Madapusi Srinivasan; Dharmarajan Rajarathnam; Ravi Naidu

    2009-01-01

    Organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants released into wastewaters from textile and other industrial processes. Because of potential toxicity of the dyes and their visibility in surface waters, removal and degradation of organic dyes have been a matter of considerable interest. A wide range of methods have been developed, amongst which the heterogeneous photocatalysis involving titanium

  11. Self-healing organic-dye-based random lasers.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Benjamin R; Gunawidjaja, Ray; Eilers, Hergen

    2015-02-15

    One of the primary difficulties in the implementation of organic-dye-based random lasers is the tendency of organic dyes to irreversibly photodecay. In this Letter, we report the observation of "reversible" photodegradation in a Rhodamine 6G and ZrO2 nanoparticle-doped polyurethane random laser. We find that during degradation, the emission broadens, redshifts, and decreases in intensity. After degradation, the system is observed to self-heal leading to the emission returning to its pristine intensity, giving a recovery efficiency of 100%. While the peak intensity fully recovers, the process is not strictly "reversible", as the emission after recovery is still found to be broadened and redshifted. The combination of the peak emission fully recovering and the broadening of the emission leads to a remarkable result: the random laser cycled through degradation, and recovery has a greater integrated emission intensity than the pristine system. PMID:25680154

  12. Self-healing organic-dye-based random lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Benjamin R.; Gunawidjaja, Ray; Eilers, Hergen

    2015-02-01

    One of the primary difficulties in the implementation of organic-dye-based random lasers is the tendency of organic dyes to irreversibly photodecay. In this letter we report the observation of "reversible" photodegradation in a Rhodamine 6G and ZrO$_2$ nanoparticle doped polyurethane random laser. We find that during degradation the emission broadens, redshifts, and decreases in intensity. After degradation the system is observed to self-heal leading to the emission returning to its pristine intensity, giving a recovery efficiency of 100%. While the peak intensity fully recovers, the process is not strictly "reversible" as the emission after recovery is still found to be broadened and redshifted. The combination of the peak emission fully recovering and the broadening of the emission leads to a remarkable result: the random laser cycled through degradation and recovery has a greater integrated emission intensity than the pristine system.

  13. Adsorption of indigo carmine from aqueous solution using coal fly ash and zeolite from fly ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terezinha E. M. de Carvalho; Denise A. Fungaro; Carina P. Magdalena; Patricia Cunico

    Coal fly ash, a waste generated at the Figueira coal-fired electric power plant located in Brazil, was used to synthesize\\u000a zeolite by hydrothermal treatment with NaOH solution at 100 °C for 24 h. The fly ash (FA) and this synthesized zeolite (ZM)\\u000a that was characterized predominantly as hydroxy-sodalite were used as adsorbents for anionic dye indigo carmine from aqueous\\u000a solutions. The samples

  14. Removal of Indigo Carmine and Pb(II) Ion from Aqueous Solution by Polyaniline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat Ya?ar; Hüseyin Deligöz; Gamze Güçlü

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis of polyaniline emaraldine salt (PAni-ES) by a chemical oxidative polymerization method. The obtained PAni-ES samples prepared under different conditions were used for the removal of indigo carmine anionic dye and Pb(II) ion from aqueous solutions. The results also showed that the pseudo–second-order kinetic model fitted better than the data obtained from pseudo–first-order model

  15. Theoretical design of thiazolothiazole-based organic dyes with different electron donors for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Fitri, Asmae; Benjelloun, Adil Touimi; Benzakour, Mohammed; Mcharfi, Mohammed; Hamidi, Mohammed; Bouachrine, Mohammed

    2014-11-11

    In this study, we have designed four novel organic donor-?-acceptor dyes (D1, D2, D3, D4), used for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The electron acceptor (anchoring) group was 2-cyanoacrylic for all dyes whereas the electron donor unit varied (coumarin, indoline, carbazole, triphenylamine) and the influence was investigated. These dyes, based on thiazolothiazole as ?-spacer, were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and its extensible time dependant DFT (TDDFT) approaches to shed light on how the ?-conjugation order influence the performance of the dyes in the DSSCs. The theoretical results have shown that the LUMO and HOMO energy levels of these dyes can be ensuring positive effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. The trend of the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps nicely compares with the spectral data. Key parameters in close connection with the short-circuit current density (Jsc), including light harvesting efficiency (LHE), injection driving force (?Ginject.) and total reorganization energy (?total), were discussed. The calculated results of these dyes reveal that dye D2, with indoline as electron donor group, can be used as a potential sensitizer for TiO2 nanocrystalline solar cells due to its best electronic and optical properties and good photovoltaic parameters. PMID:24866090

  16. Theoretical investigation of new thiazolothiazole-based D-?-A organic dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Fitri, Asmae; Benjelloun, Adil Touimi; Benzakour, Mohammed; Mcharfi, Mohammed; Hamidi, Mohammed; Bouachrine, Mohammed

    2014-04-24

    Novel ten organic donor-?-acceptor dyes (D-?-A), used for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), based on thiazolothiazole were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and time dependant DFT (TDDFT) approaches to shed light on how the ?-conjugation order influence the performance of the dyes. The electron acceptor (anchoring) group was 2-cyanoacrylic for all dyes whereas the electron-donor unit varied and the influence was investigated. The theoretical results have shown that TDDFT calculations using the Coulomb attenuating method CAM-B3LYP with the polarized split-valence 6-31G (d,p) basis sets and the polarizable continuum model (PCM) were reasonably capable of predicting the excitation energies, the absorption and the emission spectra of the molecules. The LUMO and HOMO energy levels of these dyes can ensure a positive effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. The trend of the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps nicely compares with the spectral data. Key parameters in close connection with the short-circuit current density (Jsc), including light-harvesting efficiency (LHE), injection driving force (?G(inject)) and total reorganization energy (?total), were discussed. In addition, the estimated values of open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) for these dyes were presented. The calculated results of these dyes reveal that the D6 dye can be used as a potential sensitizer for TiO2 nanocrystalline solar cells due to its best electronic and optical properties and good photovoltaic parameters. PMID:24513712

  17. DCM-based organic dyes with electron donating groups for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Young; Yoon, Seung Soo; Kim, Young Sik

    2014-07-01

    Herein, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-[p-(dimethylamino)styryl]-4H-pyran (DCM)-based dyes with electron donating groups were designed and their electronic and optical properties were investigated theoretically for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Among the dyes, the D1 and D2 dyes were composed of single electron donating group and the D3 and D4 dyes composed of dual donating group. We performed DFT/TDDFT calculations to get insight into the factors responsible for photovoltaic properties as dye sensitizers. It showed that all the dyes in this work are available as dye sensitizers from the energy consideration compared to TiO2 electrode and iodide electrolyte. It also showed that the D3 and D4 dyes produced additional absorption bands by the introduction of dual donor in absorption spectra and the absorption band of the D4 dye is more red-shifted than that of the D3 dye. It is attributed to the fact that the M2 (a coumarin derivative) moiety with stronger electron withdrawing ability stabilized its LUMO level. In terms of molar extinction coefficient and panchromatic feature, we suggest that the D4 dye would show better performance than other dyes in the present study as a dye sensitizer for DSSCs. PMID:24758003

  18. Organic Dye Behavior in PEG Block Copolymer Nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    Organic Dye Behavior in PEG Block Copolymer Nanoparticles Katie Chin Faculty advisor: Prof. Prud.0 8000.0 9000.0 0.0000 0.0500 0.1000 0.1500 0.2000 0.2500 0.3000 Concentration (mg/mL) Fluorescence 8 10 12 14 Time (days) Radius(nm) 0.05 mg/mL 0.1 mg/mL 0.25 mg/mL Radius of PEG-b-PS particles

  19. Organic dyes incorporating low-band-gap chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, Marappan; Justin Thomas, K R; Lin, Jiann T; Hsu, Ying-Chan; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2005-05-12

    Versatile dyes based on benzothiadiazole and benzoselenadiazole chromophores have been developed that perform efficiently in dye-sensitized solar cells. Power conversion efficiency of 3.77% is realized for a dye in which charge recombination is probably hindered by the nonplanar charge-separated structure. PMID:15876014

  20. Efficient panchromatic organic sensitizers with dihydrothiazole derivative as ?-bridge for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Yang, Xichuan; Cheng, Ming; Zhang, Fuguo; Zhao, Jianghua; Sun, Licheng

    2013-11-13

    Novel organic dyes CC201 and CC202 with dihydrothiazole derivative as ?-bridge have been synthesizedand applied in the DSSCs. With the synergy electron-withdrawing of dihydrothiazole and cyanoacrylic acid, these two novel dyes CC201 and CC202 show excellent response in the region of 500-800 nm. An efficiency as high as 6.1% was obtained for the device fabricated by sensitizer CC202 together with cobalt electrolyte under standard light illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-2)). These two novel D-?-A panchromatic organic dyes gave relatively high efficiencies except common reported squaraine dyes. PMID:24107132

  1. Benzo[a]carbazole-Based Donor-?-Acceptor Type Organic Dyes for Highly Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xing; Zhu, Yi-Zhou; Chang, Wen-Ying; Song, Jian; Pan, Bin; Lu, Lin; Gao, Huan-Huan; Zheng, Jian-Yu

    2015-05-01

    A novel class of metal-free organic dyes based on benzo[a]carbazole have been designed, synthesized, and used in dye-sensitized solar cells for the first time. These types of dyes consisted of a cyanoacrylic acid moiety as the electron acceptor/anchoring group and different electron-rich spacers such as thiophene (JY21), furan (JY22), and oligothiophene (JY23) as the ?-linkers. The photophysical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties, as well as theoretical calculations of these dyes were investigated. The photovoltaic performances of these dyes were found to be highly relevant to the ?-conjugated linkers. In particular, dye JY23 exhibited a broad IPCE response with a photocurrent signal up to about 740 nm covering the most region of the UV-visible light. A DSSC based on JY23 showed the best photovoltaic performance with a Jsc of 14.8 mA cm(-2), a Voc of 744 mV, and a FF of 0.68, achieving a power conversion efficiency of 7.54% under standard AM 1.5 G irradiation. PMID:25874363

  2. Analysis of anthraquinoid and indigoid dyes used in ancient artistic works by thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Fabbri; Giuseppe Chiavari; He Ling

    2000-01-01

    Thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was applied to the analysis of red dyes based on the 9,10-anthracenedione skeleton (anthraquinone), namely alizarin, quinizarin, purpurin, carminic acid, and the blue pigment indigo. Alizarin and purpurin are the principal coloured compounds of madder, and carminic acid of cochineal red. Synthetic dyes were dissolved in aqueous

  3. Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for color tuning of organic light-emitting diodes

    E-print Network

    for organic light-emitting diode OLED application is introduced. After an initial dye transfer from a dyeSolvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for color tuning of organic light-emitting in polymer-based organic light-emitting devices OLEDs demonstrates remarkable potential for commercial

  4. Local tuning of organic light-emitting diode color by dye droplet application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Hebner; J. C. Sturm

    1998-01-01

    We have demonstrated that fluorescent dyes may be introduced into previously fabricated polymer thin films by local application of a dye-containing droplet. The UV fluorescence spectra of the films and the spectra of organic light-emitting diodes made from these films can be successfully tuned by this method. The technique has been implemented by ink-jet printing of the dye droplet.

  5. Photostability enhancement of anionic natural dye by intercalation into hydrotalcite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiumi Kohno; Koichi Totsuka; Shuji Ikoma; Keiko Yoda; Masashi Shibata; Ryoka Matsushima; Yasumasa Tomita; Yasuhisa Maeda; Kenkichiro Kobayashi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is the improvement of the photostability of several natural anionic dyes, carmine (CM), carthamus yellow (CY), and annatto dye (ANA), by complexation with hydrotalcite. The composite of the dyes and hydrotalcite is prepared by the coprecipitation method. CM is successfully intercalated in the hydrotalcite layer when the amount of introduced CM is large. The photostability

  6. Organic dyes with intense light absorption especially suitable for application in thin-layer dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Dessì, Alessio; Calamante, Massimo; Mordini, Alessandro; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Sinicropi, Adalgisa; Basosi, Riccardo; Fabrizi de Biani, Fabrizia; Taddei, Maurizio; Colonna, Daniele; Di Carlo, Aldo; Reginato, Gianna; Zani, Lorenzo

    2014-11-21

    Three new thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole-based organic dyes have been designed and synthesized for employment as DSSC sensitizers. Alternation of the electron poor thiazolothiazole unit with two propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) groups ensured very intense light absorption in the visible region (? up to 9.41 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1) in THF solution). The dyes were particularly suitable for application in transparent and opaque thin-layer DSSCs (TiO2 thickness: 5.5-6.5 ?m, efficiencies up to 7.71%), thus being good candidates for production of solar cells under simple fabrication conditions. PMID:25264863

  7. Electroluminescence color tuning by dye doping in organic light-emitting diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei A. Shoustikov; Yujian You; M. E. Thompson

    1998-01-01

    Doping a small amount of a fluorescent dye into an organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) can lead to significant changes in the color of luminescence and an improvement in the device properties (e.g,, quantum efficiency, lifetime, etc.). The process of energy transfer from the OLED material to the dye in these devices may involve several different processes, including carrier trapping as

  8. Titanate nanosheets as highly efficient non-light-driven catalysts for degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenjuan; Luo, Junjie; Chen, Qinqin; Jiang, Yinzhi; Dong, Xiaoping; Cui, Fangming

    2015-06-23

    A novel non-light-driven catalysis by the delaminated two dimensional titanate nanosheets (TNSs) has been explored for degradation of organic dyes with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This catalyst can efficiently remove dyes at high concentration and over a wide pH range, as well as with a long cycle number and superior universality. PMID:26051325

  9. Degradation of wastewaters containing organic dyes photocatalysed by zinc oxide: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sze-Mun Lam; Jin-Chung Sin; Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants discharged into wastewaters from textile and other industrial processes. Owing to the potential toxicity of the dyes and their visibility in surface waters, removal and degradation of them have attracted considerable attention worldwide. A wide range of approaches have been developed, amongst which the heterogeneous photocatalysis involving zinc oxide (ZnO)

  10. Use of jute processing wastes for treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Souvik Banerjee; M. G. Dastidar

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the potential of jute processing waste (JPW) for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics generated from various activities associated with jute cultivation and fibre production. Adsorption studies in batch mode have been conducted using dye solution as an adsorbate and JPW as an adsorbent. A comparative adsorption study was made

  11. Preparation and spectral characterization of polymeric nanocapsules containing DR1 organic dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifimehr, Mohammad Reza; Ghanbari, Khadijeh; Ayoubi, Kazem; Mohajerani, Ezedin

    2015-07-01

    In order to provide necessary degree of freedom for organic dye molecules in optical applications and also for safety improvement, water insoluble Disperse Red 1 (DR1) dye molecules were placed inside the polymeric nanocapsules along with suitable surfactants and using controlled phase-separation method. TEM images were used to investigate the morphology of prepared nanocapsules. Total dye concentration for a solution consist of obtained polymeric nanocapsules was determined using decomposition of nanocapsules and a reference absorption spectrum. Absorption spectrum of a solution containing DR1 and dichloromethane was also compared with prepared nanocapsules at the same dye concentration, thereby a red-shift in absorption spectrum was detected.

  12. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of tartrazine, patent blue V, and indigo carmine in commercial products by partial least squares and principal component regression methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Berzas Nevado; J. Rodr??guez Flores; M. J. Villaseñor Llerena; N. Rodr??guez Fariñas

    1999-01-01

    Two multivariate calibration methods, partial least squares (PLS-1) and principal component regression (PCR) were proposed and successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of three dyes, tartrazine (T) (E-102), patent blue V (P) (E-131), and indigo carmine (I) (E-132) in mixtures by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometry. Calibration models were evaluated by internal validation (prediction of dyes concentration in its own designed training

  13. Efficient organic dye-sensitized solar cells: molecular engineering of donor-acceptor-acceptor cationic dyes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming; Yang, Xichuan; Zhao, Jianghua; Chen, Cheng; Tan, Qin; Zhang, Fuguo; Sun, Licheng

    2013-12-01

    Three metal-free donor-acceptor-acceptor sensitizers with ionized pyridine and a reference dye were synthesized, and a detailed investigation of the relationship between the dye structure and the photophysical and photoelectrochemical properties and the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is described. The ionization of pyridine results in a red shift of the absorption spectrum in comparison to that of the reference dye. This is mainly attributable to the ionization of pyridine increasing the electron-withdrawing ability of the total acceptor part. Incorporation of the strong electron-withdrawing units of pyridinium and cyano acrylic acid gives rise to optimized energy levels, resulting in a large response range of wavelengths. When attached to TiO2 film, the conduction band of TiO2 is negatively shifted to a different extent depending on the dye. This is attributed to the electron recombination rate between the TiO2 film and the electrolyte being efficiently suppressed by the introduction of long alkyl chains and thiophene units. DSSCs assembled using these dyes show efficiencies as high as 8.8?%. PMID:24039097

  14. Assessment of the ?SCF-DFT approach for electronic excitations in organic dyes

    E-print Network

    Kowalczyk, Timothy Daniel

    This paper assesses the accuracy of the ?SCF method for computing low-lying HOMO?LUMO transitions in organic dye molecules. For a test set of vertical excitation energies of 16 chromophores, surprisingly similar accuracy ...

  15. Organic Dye-Sensitized Tandem Photoelectrochemical Cell for Light Driven Total Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Li, Fusheng; Fan, Ke; Xu, Bo; Gabrielsson, Erik; Daniel, Quentin; Li, Lin; Sun, Licheng

    2015-07-22

    Light driven water splitting was achieved by a tandem dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell with two photoactive electrodes. The photoanode is constituted by an organic dye L0 as photosensitizer and a molecular complex Ru1 as water oxidation catalyst on meso-porous TiO2, while the photocathode is constructed with an organic dye P1 as photoabsorber and a molecular complex Co1 as hydrogen generation catalyst on nanostructured NiO. By combining the photocathode and the photoanode, this tandem DS-PEC cell can split water by visible light under neutral pH conditions without applying any bias. PMID:26132113

  16. Local tuning of organic light-emitting diode color by dye droplet application

    E-print Network

    Local tuning of organic light-emitting diode color by dye droplet application T. R. Hebner and J. C and the spectra of organic light-emitting diodes made from these films can be successfully tuned by this method. S0003-6951 98 01339-4 A main goal of the field of organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs

  17. Photoisomerization of the cyanoacrylic acid acceptor group--a potential problem for organic dyes in solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zietz, Burkhard; Gabrielsson, Erik; Johansson, Viktor; El-Zohry, Ahmed M; Sun, Licheng; Kloo, Lars

    2014-02-14

    Organic solar cell dyes containing the most common anchoring group, cyanoacrylic acid, are shown to be photolabile and undergo photoisomerization. This may have significant consequences for dye-sensitized solar cells, as isomerisation competes with electron injection and leads to modifications of the dye and surface arrangement. PMID:24382585

  18. Study of porous silicon optical waveguides impregnated with organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirasteh, P.; Charrier, J.; Dumeige, Y.; Chaillou, A.; Guendouz, M.; Haji, L.

    2007-01-01

    Planar waveguides were made using oxidised porous silicon layers. Then, they were impregnated with Congo Red or Disperse Red 1 dyes. Optical losses were investigated before and after impregnation. In our case, the losses of impregnated waveguides were always higher than those of non-impregnated ones. In order to achieve a better understanding of the origin of these losses, we not only studied the absorbance of solutions which would impregnate the porous layers but also the reflectance spectra of the obtained composite materials. According to the measurements, the increase in losses in the visible spectrum depends on the intrinsic absorption of the dye while in NIR, the increase would be due to an accumulation of dried dye on the surface of the waveguide which would give rise to the surface scattering losses.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Organic Dyes Containing Various Donors and Acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tzi-Yi; Tsao, Ming-Hsiu; Chen, Fu-Lin; Su, Shyh-Gang; Chang, Cheng-Wen; Wang, Hong-Paul; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Ou-Yang, Wen-Chung; Sun, I-Wen

    2010-01-01

    New organic dyes comprising carbazole, iminodibenzyl, or phenothiazine moieties, respectively, as the electron donors, and cyanoacetic acid or acrylic acid moieties as the electron acceptors/anchoring groups were synthesized and characterized. The influence of heteroatoms on carbazole, iminodibenzyl and phenothiazine donors, and cyano-substitution on the acid acceptor is evidenced by spectral, electrochemical, photovoltaic experiments, and density functional theory calculations. The phenothiazine dyes show solar-energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 3.46–5.53%, whereas carbazole and iminodibenzyl dyes show ? of 2.43% and 3.49%, respectively. PMID:20162019

  20. Fluorescence Quenching of Tris(2,2?-bipyridine)Ruthenium(II) Dichloride by Certain Organic Dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Asha Jhonsi; A. Kathiravan; G. Paramaguru; C. Manivannan; R. Renganathan

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence quenching of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ by a series of organic dyes has been investigated by using the steady state fluorescence technique in aqueous medium. The\\u000a dyes used are anthraquinone dyes: uniblue, acid blue 129, alizarin, alizarin red S and the azo dyes: congo red, sunset yellow,\\u000a methyl orange, tartrazine, acid orange 63, methyl red and erichrome black T. The quenching of

  1. Determination of textile dyes in organs of Oncorhynchus mykiss W. after in vitro exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Riva; R. Flos; M. Crespi; M. Pepió

    1992-01-01

    The quantitative determination in organs of Oncorhynchus mykiss W. of a premetallized dye (C.I. Acid Violet 66) and the azoic base (C.I. Acid Red 217), used in wool dyeing, is studied in this paper. UV-VIS Spectrophotometry was used for the chromatic quantification and atomic absorption spectrophotometry for the detection of the metal. The method described here is as satisfactory for

  2. Synthesis, linear optical, non-linear optical, thermal and mechanical characterizations of dye-doped semi-organic NLO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesha Bamini, N.; Vidyalakshmy, Y.; Choedak, Tenzin; Kejalakshmy, N.; Muthukrishnan, P.; Ancy, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    Organic laser dyes Coumarin 485, Coumarin 540 and Rhodamine 590 Chloride were used to dope potassium acid phthalate crystals (KAP). Dye-doped KAP crystals with different dye concentrations such as 0.01 mM, 0.03 mM, 0.05 mM, 0.07 mM and 0.09 mM (in the KAP growth solution) were grown. The linear optical, non-linear optical, mechanical and thermal characterizations of dye-doped KAP crystals were studied and compared to understand the effect of dye and dye concentration on the KAP crystal. Absorption and emission studies of KAP and dye-doped KAP single crystals indicated the inclusion of the dye into the KAP crystal lattice. The effect of dye and its concentration on the SHG efficiency of the KAP crystal was studied using the Kurtz and Perry powder technique. It was observed that the absorption maximum wavelength and concentration of the dye used for doping the KAP single crystal decided the SHG efficiency of the dye-doped KAP single crystals. The mechanical hardness of the dye-doped and undoped (pure) KAP single crystals were studied using the Vickner’s microhardness test. It was observed that doping the KAP crystals with the laser dyes changed them from softer material to harder material. Etching studies showed an improvement in the optical quality of the KAP crystal after doping with laser dyes.

  3. Three-color organic light-emitting diodes patterned by masked dye Florian Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturma)

    E-print Network

    Three-color organic light-emitting diodes patterned by masked dye diffusion Florian Pschenitzka of Physics. S0003-6951 99 02913-7 Organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs have demon- strated a remarkable for publication 1 February 1999 A method of masked dye diffusion to locally pattern the emissive color of organic

  4. A method for concentrating organic dyes: colorimetric measurements of nitric oxides and sialic acids.

    PubMed

    Lalezari, Parviz; Lekhraj, Rukmani; Casper, Diana

    2011-09-01

    A new method for extraction and concentration of organic dyes that uses a reagent composed of a nonionic detergent mixed with an alcohol is described. We have observed that water-soluble organic dyes are also soluble in nonionic detergents and can be extracted by adding salt, which separates the dye-detergent component from the aqueous phase. We have also found that mixing nonionic detergents with alcohols markedly reduces their viscosity and produces stable, free-flowing, and effective reagents for color extraction. On the basis of these observations, we used a mixture of Triton X-100 and 1-butanol and observed that water-soluble natural and synthetic chromophores, as well as dyes generated in biochemical reactions, can be extracted, concentrated, and analyzed spectrophotometrically. Trypan blue and phenol red are used as examples of synthetic dyes, and red wine is used as an example of phenolic plant pigments. Applications for quantification of nitric oxides and sialic acids are described in more detail and show that as little as 0.15 nmol of nitric oxide and 0.20 nmol of sialic acid can be detected. A major advantage of this method is its ability to concentrate chromophores from dye-containing solutions that otherwise cannot be measured because of their low concentrations. PMID:21605540

  5. Removal of dyes using immobilized titanium dioxide illuminated by fluorescent lamps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zulkarnain Zainal; Lee Kong Hui; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap; Abdul Halim Abdullah; Irmawati Ramli

    2005-01-01

    The photodegradation of various dyes in aqueous solution was studied. Experiments were carried out using glass coated titanium dioxide thin film as photocatalyst. Photodegradation processes of methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), indigo carmine (IC), chicago sky blue 6B (CSB), and mixed dye (MD, mixture of the four mentioned single dye) were reported. As each photodegradation system is pH dependent,

  6. Comparative studies on rigid ? linker-based organic dyes: structure-property relationships and photovoltaic performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Hairong; Koh, Teck Ming; Hao, Yan; Zhou, Feng; Abe, Yuichiro; Su, Haibin; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grimsdale, Andrew C

    2014-12-01

    A series of six structurally correlated donor-? bridge-acceptor organic dyes were designed, synthesized, and applied as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most widely studied donor (triarylamine) and cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophene or cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophene[2',1':4,5]thieno[2,3-d]thiophene as ? spacers, their structure-property relationships were investigated in depth by photophysical techniques and theoretical calculations. It was found that the photovoltaic performance of these dyes largely depends on their electronic structures, which requires synergistic interaction between donors and acceptors. Increasing the electron richness of the donor or the elongation of ?-conjugated bridges does not necessarily lead to higher performance. Rather, it is essential to rationally design the dyes by balancing their light-harvesting capability with achieving suitable energy levels to guarantee unimpeded charge separation and transport. PMID:25319943

  7. Phosphorescent Dyes for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pi-Tai Chou

    2007-01-01

    This article presents general concepts that have guided important developments in our recent re- search progress regarding room-temperature phosphor- escent dyes and their potential applications. We first elaborate the theoretical background for emissive metal complexes and the strategic design of the chelating C- linked 2-pyridylazolate ligands, followed by their feasi- bility in functionalization and modification in an aim to fine-tune

  8. Adsorption study of an industrial dye by an organic clay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Khenifi; Z. Bouberka; F. Sekrane; M. Kameche; Z. Derriche

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption of an industrial dye Supranol Yellow 4GL onto Cetyltrimethylammonium-bentonite (CTAB-bentonite)\\u000a is investigated. The organobentonite is synthesised by exchanging cetyltrimethylammonium cations (CTAB) with inorganic ions\\u000a on the surface of bentonite. The adsorption of Supranol Yellow 4GL onto organobentonite is found to be maximum when the concentration\\u000a of CTAB exchanged is 100% according to the cation exchange

  9. Singlet Oxygen Generation from Water-Soluble Quantum Dot-Organic Dye Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lixin; Hernandez, Billy

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble quantum dot - organic dye nanocomposites have been prepared via electrostatic interaction. We used CdTe quantum dots with diameters up to 3.4 nm, 2-aminoethanthiol as a stabilizer, and meso-tetra (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphine dihydrochloride (TSPP) as an organic dye. The photophysical properties of the nanocomposite have been investigated. The fluorescence of the parent CdTe quantum dot is largely suppressed. Instead, indirect excitation of the TSPP moiety leads to production of singlet oxygen with a quantum yield of 0.43. The nanocomposite is sufficiently photostable for biological applications. PMID:16683767

  10. Organic dyes containing carbazole as donor and ?-linker: optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties.

    PubMed

    Venkateswararao, A; Thomas, K R Justin; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Li, Chun-Ting; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2014-02-26

    A series of new metal free organic dyes containing carbazole as donor and ?-linker have been synthesized and characterized as effective sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The carbazole functionalized at C-2 and C-7 served as electron-rich bridge. The donor property of the carbazole is substantially enhanced on introduction of tert-butyl groups at C-3 and C-6 positions and the oxidation propensity of the dyes increased on insertion of thiophene unit in the conjugation pathway. These structural modifications fine-tuned the optical and electrochemical properties of the dyes. Additionally, the presence of tert-butyl groups on the carbazole nucleus minimized the intermolecular interactions which benefited the performance of DSSCs. The dyes served as efficient sensitizers in DSSCs owing to their promising optical and electrochemical properties. The efficiency of DSSCs utilizing these dyes as sensitizers ranged from 4.22 to 6.04%. The tert-butyl groups were found to suppress the recombination of injected electrons which contributed to the increment in the photocurrent generation (JSC) and open circuit voltage (VOC). A dye with carbazole donor functionalized with tert-butyl groups and the conjugation bridge composed of 2,7-disubstituted carbazole and thiophene fragments exhibited higher VOC value. However, the best device efficiency was observed for a dye with unsubstituted carbazole donor and the ?-linker featuring carbazole and bithiophene units due to the high photocurrent generation arising from the facile injection of photogenerated electrons into the conduction band of titanium dioxide (TiO2) facilitated by the low-lying LUMO. PMID:24456063

  11. New materials for photocatalytic degradation of Indigo Carmine—Synthesis, characterization and catalytic experiments of nanometric tin dioxide-based composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Coelho; G. M. de Lima; R. Augusti; D. A. Maria; J. D. Ardisson

    2010-01-01

    Herein we describe experiments of photocatalytic degradation of Indigo Carmine dye, carried out by new composites containing nanometric SnO2 supported on Al2O3. The composites were prepared in a sequence of procedures which involved reactions of SnBuCl3, aluminium hydroxide with NH4OH in ethanol in order to impregnate organotin oxide in Al2O3 in different stoichiometry. Hence, the obtained materials were employed in

  12. Electronic structure measurements of metal-organic solar cell dyes using x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Phillip S.

    The focus of this thesis is twofold: to report the results of X-ray absorption studies of metal-organic dye molecules for dye-sensitized solar cells and to provide a basic training manual on X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques and data analysis. The purpose of our research on solar cell dyes is to work toward an understanding of the factors influencing the electronic structure of the dye: the choice of the metal, its oxidation state, ligands, and cage structure. First we study the effect of replacing Ru in several common dye structures by Fe. First-principles calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the C 1s and N 1s edges are combined to investigate transition metal dyes in octahedral and square planar N cages. Octahedral molecules are found to have a downward shift in the N 1s-to-pi* transition energy and an upward shift in C 1s-to-pi* transition energy when Ru is replaced by Fe, explained by an extra transfer of negative charge from Fe to the N ligands compared to Ru. For the square planar molecules, the behavior is more complex because of the influence of axial ligands and oxidation state. Next the crystal field parameters for a series of phthalocyanine and porphyrins dyes are systematically determined using density functional calculations and atomic multiplet calculations with polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra. The polarization dependence of the spectra provides information on orbital symmetries which ensures the determination of the crystal field parameters is unique. A uniform downward scaling of the calculated crystal field parameters by 5-30% is found to be necessary to best fit the spectra. This work is a part of the ongoing effort to design and test new solar cell dyes. Replacing the rare metal Ru with abundant metals like Fe would be a significant advance for dye-sensitized solar cells. Understanding the effects of changing the metal centers in these dyes in terms of optical absorption, charge transfer, and electronic structure enables the systematic design of new dyes using less expensive materials.

  13. Magnetic fluid modified peanut husks as an adsorbent for organic dyes removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Ivo; Safarikova, Mirka

    Magnetically responsive nanocomposite materials, prepared by modification of diamagnetic materials by magnetic fluids (ferrofluids), have already found many important applications in various areas of biosciences, medicine, biotechnology, environmental technology etc. Ferrofluid modified biological waste (peanut husks) has been successfully used for the separation and removal of water soluble organic dyes and thus this low cost adsorbent could be potentially used for waste water treatment.

  14. Performance measurement of dye-sensitized solar cells and organic polymer solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Hishikawa

    2008-01-01

    Performance characterization of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and organic polymer solar cells (OSC) has been investigated, in order to clarify how to accurately determine their performance. Accurate characterization of DSC requires consideration on the very slow temporal response, and variation of the quantum efficiency spectrum for the bias light. The I-V curves of the DSC are clearly dependent on

  15. Photocatalytic Destruction of an Organic Dye Using TiO2 and Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kimberly D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a general chemistry experiment that is carried out in sunlight to illustrate the ability of TiO2 to act as a photocatalyst by mineralizing an organic dye into carbon dioxide. Details about the construction of the reactor system used to perform this experiment are included. (DDR)

  16. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 7. ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The organic dyes...

  17. Optical Properties of Fluorescent Mixtures: Comparing Quantum Dots to Organic Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Benjamin M.; Morgan, Thomas T.; Ucak-Astarlioglu, Mine G.; Wlilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The study describes and compares the size-dependent optical properties of organic dyes with those of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs). The analysis shows that mixtures of QDs contain emission colors that are sum of the individual QD components.

  18. Organization of butadienyl dyes containing benzodithiacrown-ether or dimethoxybenzene in monolayers at the air/aqueous salt solution interface.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, T I; Gromov, S P; Zaitsev, S Yu; Möbius, D

    2009-12-01

    Two amphiphilic butadienyl dyes 1 and 2 form stable monolayers at the air/water interface in the presence of various salts. Dye 1 consists of the basic amphiphilic butadienyl chromophore. In dye 2, the dimethoxybenzene part of dye 1 is substituted by benzodithia-15-crown-5. The monolayers have been characterized by surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms as well as Brewster angle microscopy and reflection spectroscopy. In contrast to dye 1, dye 2 interacts specifically with Hg(2+) and Ag(+) cations forming complexes. No complex formation was observed with alkali and earth alkali metal ions. The nature of the anion (Cl(-) or ClO(4)(-)) influences the monolayer behaviour of both dyes. At the air/water interface, besides monomers of the dyes, two types of associates are coexisting in the pure dye monolayers on aqueous salt solutions, attributed to dimers and aggregates, respectively. Their equilibria depend on the nature of both cations and anions in the subphase, as in the case of dye 2, or only anions, as in the case of dye 1. The dimers may be organized as head-to-tail dimers with the intermolecular distances 0.38 and 0.45nm for dye 1 and dye 2, respectively. According to the extended dipole model, we propose formation of aggregates in which the chromophores are parallel to each other with the same intermolecular distances as in the dimers, and the centers of their transition moments shifted by 0.95nm (dye 1) and 1.2nm (dye 2). PMID:19720508

  19. Carbazole-dendrimer-based donor-?-acceptor type organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: effect of the size of the carbazole dendritic donor.

    PubMed

    Thongkasee, Pongsathorn; Thangthong, Amonrat; Janthasing, Nittaya; Sudyoadsuk, Taweesak; Namuangruk, Supawadee; Keawin, Tinnagon; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn; Promarak, Vinich

    2014-06-11

    A series of novel D-?-A type organic dyes, namely, GnTA (n = 1-4), containing carbazole dendrons up to fourth generation as a donor, bithiophene as ?-linkage, and cyanoacrylic acid as acceptor were synthesized and characterized for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photophysical, thermal, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties of the new dyes as dye sensitizers were investigated, and the effects of the carbazole dendritic donors on these properties were evaluated. Results demonstrated that increasing the size or generation of the carbazole dendritic donor of the dye molecules enhances their total light absorption abilities and unluckily reduces the amount of dye uptake per unit TiO2 area because of their high molecular volumes. The latter was found to have a strong effect on the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs. Importantly, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) revealed that the size or generation of the donor had a significant influence on a charge-transfer resistance for electron recombination at the TiO2/electrolyte interface, causing a difference in open circuit voltage (Voc) of the solar cells. Among them, dye G1TA containing first generation dendron as a donor (having lowest molecular volume) exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 5.16% (Jsc = 9.89 mA cm(-2), Voc = 0.72 V, ff = 0.73) under simulated AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm(-2)). PMID:24878449

  20. Synthesis of Pt3Ni Microspheres with High Performance for Rapid Degradation of Organic Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Yang, Yushi; Long, Jia; Mao, Zhou; Qiu, Tong; Wu, Qingzhi; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-05-01

    In this study, Pt3Ni microspheres consisted of nanoparticles were synthesized without addition of surfactants via the solvothermal route. The obtained sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Furthermore, the catalytic performance of as-synthesized Pt3Ni microspheres was evaluated on the degradation of different organic dyes (methylene blue, methyl orange, Congo red, and rhodamine B). The results show that different dyes were rapidly decomposed by Pt3Ni microspheres in different pathways. Among different dyes, the formation and further degradation of the intermediates was observed during the degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange, suggesting the indirect degradation process of these dyes. This study provides not only a promising catalyst for the removal of organic contaminants for environment remediation, but also new insights for Pt3Ni alloy as a high-performance catalyst in organic synthesis.

  1. Synthesis of Pt3Ni microspheres with high performance for rapid degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Yang, Yushi; Long, Jia; Mao, Zhou; Qiu, Tong; Wu, Qingzhi; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-12-01

    In this study, Pt3Ni microspheres consisted of nanoparticles were synthesized without addition of surfactants via the solvothermal route. The obtained sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Furthermore, the catalytic performance of as-synthesized Pt3Ni microspheres was evaluated on the degradation of different organic dyes (methylene blue, methyl orange, Congo red, and rhodamine B). The results show that different dyes were rapidly decomposed by Pt3Ni microspheres in different pathways. Among different dyes, the formation and further degradation of the intermediates was observed during the degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange, suggesting the indirect degradation process of these dyes. This study provides not only a promising catalyst for the removal of organic contaminants for environment remediation, but also new insights for Pt3Ni alloy as a high-performance catalyst in organic synthesis. PMID:26058511

  2. Phosphonic anchoring groups in organic dyes for solid-state solar cells.

    PubMed

    Abate, Antonio; Pérez-Tejada, Raquel; Wojciechowski, Konrad; Foster, Jamie M; Sadhanala, Aditya; Steiner, Ullrich; Snaith, Henry J; Franco, Santiago; Orduna, Jesús

    2015-07-01

    We report the synthesis and the optoelectronic characterization of three new 4H-pyran-4-ylidene and thiazole derivatives (pyt) as metal-free organic dyes for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We investigate the performance and the long-term stability of devices employing pyt dyes functionalized with carboxylic and phosphonic acids as TiO2 anchoring groups. In contrast to reports on liquid electrolyte DSSCs, we show that solid-state DSSCs prepared with phosphoric pyt derivatives can achieve similar power conversion efficiency to their carboxyl analogues. We make use of the Mott-Schottky analysis and equivalent circuit models to demonstrate that a phosphonic group induces a significant increase in built-in voltage at the TiO2-hole transporter interface, which results in a higher open circuit voltage. PMID:26123840

  3. Effect of enzymatic treatment on the dyeing of cotton and wool fibres with natural dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Tsatsaroni; M. Liakopoulou-Kyriakides

    1995-01-01

    Cotton and wool fabrics were dyed with the natural dyes chlorophyll and carmine after treatment with the enzymes cellulase, ?-amylase and trypsin. Wash and light fastnesses of the dyed samples were studied. Enzymatic pretreatment resulted in an increase in pigment uptake in all cases compared with the corresponding untreated samples, and did not affect fastness properties. Pretreatment with metallic salts

  4. Intermolecular interactions between a Ru complex and organic dyes in cosensitized solar cells: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Kusama, Hitoshi; Funaki, Takashi; Koumura, Nagatoshi; Sayama, Kazuhiro

    2014-08-14

    Intermolecular interactions in cyclometalated Ru complex dye (FT89) dimers, carbazole organic dye (MK-45 and MK-111) dimers, FT89-MK-45 complexes, and FT89-MK-111 complexes were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) to elucidate the improvement mechanism of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance due to cosensitization with FT89 and MK dyes. All of the dimers and complexes form intermolecular cyclic hydrogen bonds via the carboxyl groups. The FT89 dimer and complexes with the TiO2Na model system promote intermolecular interactions with I2via the NCS ligand of the FT89 monomer. The computational results verify that MK-111 behaves not only as a sensitizer but also inhibits FT89 aggregation by effectively serving as a coadsorbent similar to deoxycholic acid (DCA) in the dye solution, suppressing recombination of the injected electrons in TiO2 with I2, improving DSSC performance. PMID:24968132

  5. Highly photostable solid-state dye lasers based on silicon-modified organic matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costela, A.; García-Moreno, I.; del Agua, D.; García, O.; Sastre, R.

    2007-04-01

    We report on the synthesis, characterization, and physical properties of modified polymeric matrices incorporating silicon atoms in their structure and doped with laser dyes. When the silicon-modified organic matrices incorporated pyrromethene 567 (PM567) and pyrromethene 597 (PM597) dyes as actual solid solutions, highly photostable laser operation with reasonable, nonoptimized efficiencies was obtained under transversal pumping at 532nm. At a pump repetition rate of 10Hz, the intensity of the laser emission remained at the level or above the initial lasing intensity after 100 000 pump pulses in the same position of the sample, corresponding to an estimated accumulated pump energy absorbed by the system of 518 and 1295GJ/mol for PM567 and PM597, respectively. When the pump repetition rate was increased to 30Hz, the laser emission of dye PM567 decreased steadily and the output energy fell to one-half its initial value after an accumulated pump energy of 989 GJ/mol. Dye PM597 demonstrated a remarkable photostability, and under 30Hz pumping the laser emission from some samples remained stable after 700 000 pump pulses in the same position of the sample, corresponding to an accumulated pump energy of 17300GJ/mol. Narrow linewidth operation with tuning ranges of up to 31nm was obtained with both pyrromethene dyes when some of the samples were incorporated into a grazing-incidence grating oscillator.

  6. 6H-Indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline-based organic dyes containing different electron-rich conjugated linkers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xing; Gao, Huan-Huan; Zhu, Yi-Zhou; Lu, Lin; Zheng, Jian-Yu

    2015-04-01

    A new class of organic dyes based on 6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline are synthesized and applied as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. Different electron-rich ?-conjugated bridges such as oligothiophene, thienyl carbazole, and furyl carbazole are introduced to cooperate with 6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline and cyanoacrylic acid anchoring group to give the dyes JY01, JY02, and JY03, respectively. Their photophysical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties are further investigated. All three dyes show good performances as photosensitizers. In particular, DSSC based on JY01 shows the best photovoltaic performance with a short-circuit photocurrent density of 16.0 mA cm-2, an open-circuit photovoltage of 708 mV and a fill factor of 0.67, corresponding to an overall power conversion efficiency of 7.62% under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm-2).

  7. 2,7-Diaminofluorene-based organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: effect of auxiliary donor on optical and electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Baheti, Abhishek; Singh, Prachi; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Thomas, K R Justin; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2011-06-17

    New organic dyes containing a diarylaminofluorene unit as an electron donor and cyanoacrylic acid as acceptor and anchoring group in a donor-?-donor-?-acceptor architecture have been synthesized and characterized as sensitizers for nanocrystalline TiO(2)-based dye-sensitized solar cells. They have shown three major electronic absorptions originating from the ?-?* and charge-transfer transitions covering the broad visible range (250-550 nm) in solution. The charge-transfer transition of the dyes exhibited negative solvatochromism, suggesting a polarized ground state. They have also displayed acidochromism in solution owing to the presence of a protonation-deprotonation equilibrium. On comparison with the triphenylamine and carbazole-based parent dyes (E)-2-cyano-3-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)acrylic acid and (E)-2-cyano-3-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)acrylic acid they exhibited longer wavelength absorptions and facile oxidation, indicating the stronger electron-donating ability of the auxiliary chromophores. In addition, they exhibited nearly two times larger light-to-electron conversion efficiency under simulated AM 1.5 G irradiation (100 mW cm(-2)) with an aperture mask when compared to the parent dyes. Among the new dyes, the one containing the naphthylphenylamine segment showed better device characteristics attributable to the higher HOMO energy level which probably facilitates the regeneration of the dye and effective suppression of the back reaction of the injected electrons with the I(3)(-) in the electrolyte. The optical properties of the dyes were modeled using TDDFT simulations employing different theoretical models (B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, and MPW1K), and the best correlations with the observed parameters have been found for CAM-B3LYP and MPW1K calculations. The electron lifetimes extracted from the electrochemical impedance measurements of the dye-sensitized solar cells were used to interpret the solar cell efficiency alternations. PMID:21557605

  8. Comparison between organic sensitizers containing stilbene and azo group as bridging unit for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Woong; Namgoong, Jin Woong; Kwon, Ii Keun; Kim, Jae Pil

    2014-10-01

    While azo dyes have been widely used in dye industry, the azo dyes have been seldom applied as sensitizers to dye sensitized solar cells. In this study, new metal-free organic sensitizers, ST and AZ, which are same structures except bridging units, were synthesized and evaluated. ST containing stilbene as bridging unit gave higher energy conversion efficiency than AZ containing azo group as bridging unit. As a result of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, ST displayed more localized frontier molecular orbitals at lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) states than AZ. PMID:25942816

  9. Organic dye penetration quantification into a dental composite resin cured by LED system using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarelli, Rosane de Fátima Zanirato; Silva, Maciel E., Jr.; Lins, Emery C. C. C.; Costa, Mardoqueu M.; Pelino, José Eduardo P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2007-02-01

    A major characteristic of LEDs systems is the lower heat emission related with the kind of light generation and spectral emission band. Material temperature during photoactivation can promote different photocuring performance. Organic dye penetration could be a trace to identify the efficacy of photocured composite resin. A new method using fluorescent spectroscopy through digital image evaluation was developed in this study. In order to understand if there is a real influence of material temperature during the photoactivation procedure of a dental restorative material, a hybrid composite resin (Z250, 3M-Espe, USA) and 3 light sources, halogen lamp (510 mW/cm2) and two LED systems 470+/-10nm (345 and 1000 mW/cm2) under different temperatures and intensities were used. One thousand and five hundred samples under different associations between light sources and temperatures (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C were tested and immediately kept in 6G rodamin dye solution. Dye penetration was evaluated through fluorescent spectroscopy recorded by digital image data. Pixels in gray scale showed the percentage penetration of organic dye into the composite resin mass. Time and temperature were statistically significant (p<0.05) through the ANOVA statistical test. The lowest penetration value was with 60 seconds and 25 °C. Time and temperature are important factors to promote a homogeneous structure polymerized composite resin more than the light source type, halogen or LEDs system.

  10. Adsorption of organic dyes on TiO2 surfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells: interplay of theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Chiara; Mosconi, Edoardo; Pastore, Mariachiara; Ronca, Enrico; De Angelis, Filippo

    2012-12-14

    First-principles computer simulations can contribute to a deeper understanding of the dye/semiconductor interface lying at the heart of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs). Here, we present the results of simulation of dye adsorption onto TiO(2) surfaces, and of their implications for the functioning of the corresponding solar cells. We propose an integrated strategy which combines FT-IR measurements with DFT calculations to individuate the energetically favorable TiO(2) adsorption mode of acetic acid, as a meaningful model for realistic organic dyes. Although we found a sizable variability in the relative stability of the considered adsorption modes with the model system and the method, a bridged bidentate structure was found to closely match the FT-IR frequency pattern, also being calculated as the most stable adsorption mode by calculations in solution. This adsorption mode was found to be the most stable binding also for realistic organic dyes bearing cyanoacrylic anchoring groups, while for a rhodanine-3-acetic acid anchoring group, an undissociated monodentate adsorption mode was found to be of comparable stability. The structural differences induced by the different anchoring groups were related to the different electron injection/recombination with oxidized dye properties which were experimentally assessed for the two classes of dyes. A stronger coupling and a possibly faster electron injection were also calculated for the bridged bidentate mode. We then investigated the adsorption mode and I(2) binding of prototype organic dyes. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and geometry optimizations were performed for two coumarin dyes differing by the length of the ?-bridge separating the donor and acceptor moieties. We related the decreasing distance of the carbonylic oxygen from the titania to an increased I(2) concentration in proximity of the oxide surface, which might account for the different observed photovoltaic performances. The interplay between theory/simulation and experiments appears to be the key to further DSCs progress, both concerning the design of new dye sensitizers and their interaction with the semiconductor and with the solution environment and/or an electrolyte upon adsorption onto the semiconductor. PMID:23108504

  11. Large area lighting applications with organic dye embedded flexible film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huang-Yu; Tu, Zong-Yi; Ku, Pei-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2015-03-01

    A flexible large area lighting devices have been demonstrated by PDMS films. The (polydimethylsiloxane) PDMS films doped with organic/inorganic materials. The PDMS film is favorable due to its heat stability, good transparency, and flexibility. This study aimed to combine both organic and inorganic materials for flexible large area lighting applications. The architecture consists of blue LEDs coupled to a leaky waveguide that is covered with the PDMS film. The white light was generated with the poly (9, 9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole)F8BT blended into the PDMS slurry. Organic wavelength conversion materials were chosen owing to their ability to decompose in nature. The more conventional inorganic phosphors such as YAG are difficult to decompose and may present environmental issues which can bring concerns in many lighting applications. These flexible PDMS films had thicknesses of 100?m, 440?m, and 980?m. The resulting white light devices had color temperatures of 8944K, 4863K, and 4429K, respectively. In this study, we have also compared the performance of the organic versus conventional YAG phosphor embedded films.

  12. Spatial modulation spectroscopy for imaging and quantitative analysis of single dye-doped organic nanoparticles inside cells.

    PubMed

    Devadas, Mary Sajini; Devkota, Tuphan; Guha, Samit; Shaw, Scott K; Smith, Bradley D; Hartland, Gregory V

    2015-06-01

    Imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticles in complex biological environments, such as the cell cytosol, is a challenging problem. For metal nanoparticles, Rayleigh scattering methods can be used, but for organic nanoparticles, such as dye-doped polymer beads or lipid nanoparticles, light scattering does not provide good contrast. In this paper, spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS) is used to image single organic nanoparticles doped with non-fluorescent, near-IR croconaine dye. SMS is a quantitative imaging technique that yields the absolute extinction cross-section of the nanoparticles, which can be used to determine the number of dye molecules per particle. SMS images were recorded for particles within EMT-6 breast cancer cells. The measurements allowed mapping of the nanoparticle location and the amount of dye in a single cell. The results demonstrate how SMS can facilitate efforts to optimize dye-doped nanoparticles for effective photothermal therapy of cancer. PMID:25964049

  13. An organic D-?-A dye for record efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ning; Moon, Soo-Jin; Cevey-Ha, Lê; Moehl, Thomas; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael

    2011-04-13

    The high molar absorption coefficient organic D-?-A dye C220 exhibits more than 6% certified electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5G solar irradiation (100 mW cm(-2)) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-dimethoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This contributes to a new record (6.08% by NREL) for this type of sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device. Efficient charge generation is proved by incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra. Transient photovoltage and photocurrent decay measurements showed that the enhanced performance achieved with C220 partially stems from the high charge collection efficiency over a wide potential range. PMID:21375265

  14. A Robust Organic Dye for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Iodine/Iodide Electrolytes Combining High Efficiency and Outstanding Stability

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Damien; Pellejà, Laia; Narbey, Stéphanie; Oswald, Frédéric; Chiron, Julien; Clifford, John N.; Palomares, Emilio; Demadrille, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Among the new photovoltaic technologies, the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) is becoming a realistic approach towards energy markets such as BIPV (Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics). In order to improve the performances of DSCs and to increase their commercial attractiveness, cheap, colourful, stable and highly efficient ruthenium-free dyes must be developed. Here we report the synthesis and complete characterization of a new purely organic sensitizer (RK1) that can be prepared and synthetically upscaled rapidly. Solar cells containing this orange dye show a power conversion efficiency of 10.2% under standard conditions (AM 1.5G, 1000?Wm?2) using iodine/iodide as the electrolyte redox shuttle in the electrolyte, which is among the few examples of DSC using an organic dyes and iodine/iodide red/ox pair to overcome the 10% efficiency barrier. We demonstrate that the combination of this dye with an ionic liquid electrolyte allows the fabrication of solar cells that show power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.36% that are highly stable with no measurable degradation of initial performances after 2200?h of light soaking at 65°C under standard irradiation conditions. RK1 achieves one of the best output power conversion efficiencies for a solar cell based on the iodine/iodide electrolyte, combining high efficiency and outstanding stability. PMID:24504344

  15. A robust organic dye for dye sensitized solar cells based on iodine/iodide electrolytes combining high efficiency and outstanding stability.

    PubMed

    Joly, Damien; Pellejà, Laia; Narbey, Stéphanie; Oswald, Frédéric; Chiron, Julien; Clifford, John N; Palomares, Emilio; Demadrille, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Among the new photovoltaic technologies, the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) is becoming a realistic approach towards energy markets such as BIPV (Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics). In order to improve the performances of DSCs and to increase their commercial attractiveness, cheap, colourful, stable and highly efficient ruthenium-free dyes must be developed. Here we report the synthesis and complete characterization of a new purely organic sensitizer (RK1) that can be prepared and synthetically upscaled rapidly. Solar cells containing this orange dye show a power conversion efficiency of 10.2% under standard conditions (AM 1.5G, 1000?Wm(-2)) using iodine/iodide as the electrolyte redox shuttle in the electrolyte, which is among the few examples of DSC using an organic dyes and iodine/iodide red/ox pair to overcome the 10% efficiency barrier. We demonstrate that the combination of this dye with an ionic liquid electrolyte allows the fabrication of solar cells that show power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.36% that are highly stable with no measurable degradation of initial performances after 2200?h of light soaking at 65°C under standard irradiation conditions. RK1 achieves one of the best output power conversion efficiencies for a solar cell based on the iodine/iodide electrolyte, combining high efficiency and outstanding stability. PMID:24504344

  16. Influence of DCM dye doping on the magnetic field dependent electroluminescence in organic light emitting diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Chen; Yanlian Lei; Rong Liu; Qiaoming Zhang; Yong Zhang; Zuhong Xiong

    2010-01-01

    The DCM dye doped organic electroluminescence devices with structure of ITO\\/NPB\\/Alq3: DCM\\/Alq3\\/LiF\\/Al were fabricated. From 15 K to room temperature, the magnetic field dependent of electroluminescence (MEL) of devices\\u000a was investigated. Our observations indicated that the MEL is composed of two effects in different regimes: a low field (0?B?40 mT) effect and a high field (B > 40 mT) effect.

  17. Concept and demonstration of all organic Gratzel solar cell (dye sensitized solar cell)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prakash R. Somani; Savita P. Somani; M. Umeno; A. Sato

    2006-01-01

    The authors present the concept of ``all organic Gratzel\\/dye sensitized solar cell'' and demonstrate such a device using high Tauc band gap (above 2.5 eV) amorphous carbon thin films doped with nitrogen (n type) deposited by microwave assisted surface wave plasma chemical vapor deposition and sensitized with copper-phthalocyanine thin films. Open circuit voltage and short circuit current density obtained are

  18. Optical Amplification in Organic Dye-doped Polymeric Channel Waveguide under CW Optical Pumping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Yamashita; Kengo Hase; Hisao Yanagi; Kunishige Oe

    2007-01-01

    We have achieved amplified spontaneous emission and optical amplification in an organic dye-doped polymeric waveguide using a cw pumping source. By fabricating a channel waveguide structure, amplified spontaneous emission was found under long-pulse (0.3-4.1 ms) optical pumping with 120 mW amplitude from the waveguide end face. The optical gain for externally input 770 nm light was measured to be 13.8

  19. Theoretical analysis of the solvatochromism of organic dyes differing by the conjugation sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhos, Sergei; Komatsu, Makoto; Nakazaki, Jotaro; Segawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Absorption peak maxima of two organic dyes differing by the position of the methine unit differ by 61 nm in dioxane and by up to 139 nm in polar solvents. It was previously reported that the difference is not reproduced by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) using ab initio or hybrid functionals. TDDFT errors are different between the molecules, leading to a qualitative failure of TDDFT to predict relative energetics of the dyes. We focus on the effect of polar solvents (acetonitrile, DMSO, methanol, and 2-propanol) on the absorption spectrum, specifically, on the different between the two molecules sign of the solvatochromic shift versus dioxane. Using the correction due to Peach et al., the absolute TDDFT errors can be brought within acceptable ranges of 0.2 to 0.3 eV, and the blue shift versus dioxane is reproduced, although both dyes are predicted to exhibit positive solvatochromism. The inclusion of explicit solvent molecules did not appreciably change either TDDFT energies or the correction term. These results show that in dye design by changing the conjugation order, computational errors are expected to be more important than in the case of an extension of the size of conjugation, especially when polar solvents are used.

  20. 1-Alkyl-1H-imidazole-based dipolar organic compounds for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, Marappan; Hsu, Ying-Chan; Lin, Jiann T; Chang, Che-Wei; Hsu, Chao-Ping

    2010-01-01

    A series of donor-pi-acceptor-type organic dyes based on 1-alkyl-1H-imidazole spacers 1-5 have been developed and characterized. The two electron donors are at positions 4 and 5 of the imidazole, while the electron-accepting cyanoacrylic acid is incorporated at position 2 by a spacer-containing heteroaromatic rings, such as thiophene and thiazole. Detailed investigation on the relationship between the structure, spectral and electrochemical properties, and performance of DSSC is described here. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using dyes as the sensitizers exhibit good efficiencies, ranging from 3.06 to 6.35 %, which reached 42-87 % with respect to that of N719-based device (7.33 %) fabricated and measured under similar conditions. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been performed on the dyes, and the results show that both electron donors can contribute to electron injection upon photo-excitation, either directly or indirectly by internal conversion to the lowest excited state. PMID:19924761

  1. Tailor-made hole-conducting coadsorbents for highly efficient organic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, In Taek; Ju, Myung Jong; Song, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sang Gyun; Cho, Dae Won; Im, Chan; Kim, Hwan Kyu

    2013-11-11

    The Y-shaped, low molecular mass, hole-conductor (HC), acidic coadsorbents 4-{3,7-bis[4-(2-ethylhexyloxy)phenyl]-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl}benzoic acid (PTZ1) and 4-{3,7-bis[4-(2-ethylhexyloxy)phenyl]-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl}biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid (PTZ2) were developed. Owing to their tuned and negative-shifted HOMO levels (vs. NHE), they were used as HC coadsorbents in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to improve cell performance through desired cascade-type hole-transfer processes. Their detailed functions as HC coadsorbents in DSSCs were investigated to obtain evidence for the desired cascade-type hole-transfer processes. They have multiple functions, such as preventing ?-? stacking of dye molecules, harvesting light of shorter wavelengths, and faster dye regeneration. By using PTZ2 as the tailor-made HC coadsorbent on the TiO2 surface with the organic dye NKX2677, an extremely high conversion efficiency of 8.95?% was achieved under 100?mW?cm(-2) AM 1.5G simulated light (short-circuit current JSC =16.56?mA?cm(-2) , open-circuit voltage VOC =740?mV, and fill factor of 73?%). Moreover, JSC was increased by 13?%, VOC by 27?% and power-conversion efficiency by 49?% in comparison to an NKX2677-based DSSC without an HC coadsorbent. This is due to the HC coadsorbent having a HOMO energy level well matched to that of the NKX-2677 dye to induce the desired cascade-type hole-transfer processes, which are associated with a slower charge recombination, fast dye regeneration, effective screening of liquid electrolytes, and an induced negative shift of the quasi-Fermi level of the electrode. Thus, this new class of Y-shaped, low molecular weight, organic, HC coadsorbents based on phenothiazine carboxylic acid derivatives hold promise for highly efficient organic DSSCs. PMID:24115151

  2. Surfactant encapsulated DNA: structure characterization and interaction with dye molecules in organic media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xueliang Hou; Miao Xu; Lixin Wu; Jiacong Shen

    2005-01-01

    The recognition of electrostatically-bound DNA–didodecyldimethylammonium (DNA–DDDA) complex by three dye molecules, acridine orange (AO), ethidium bromide (EB) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl) porphyrin tetra(p-toluenesulfonate) (TMPyP) in organic media was investigated through 1H NMR, UV–vis, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. When the organic solvent in which DNA–DDDA complex dissolves is changed from ethanol to chloroform, the adsorbed AO undergoes a reversible transformation from a

  3. Tailoring of Energy Levels in D-?-A Organic Dyes via Fluorination of Acceptor Units for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min-Woo; Kim, Jae-Yup; Son, Hae Jung; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Bongsoo; Kim, Honggon; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Kyungkon; Lee, Duck-Hyung; Ko, Min Jae

    2015-01-01

    A molecular design is presented for tailoring the energy levels in D-?-A organic dyes through fluorination of their acceptor units, which is aimed at achieving efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This is achieved by exploiting the chemical structure of common D-?-A organic dyes and incorporating one or two fluorine atoms at the ortho-positions of the cyanoacetic acid as additional acceptor units. As the number of incorporated fluorine atoms increases, the LUMO energy level of the organic dye is gradually lowered due to the electron-withdrawing effect of fluorine, which ultimately results in a gradual reduction of the HOMO-LUMO energy gap and an improvement in the spectral response. Systematic investigation of the effects of incorporating fluorine on the photovoltaic properties of DSSCs reveals an upshift in the conduction-band potential of the TiO2 electrode during impedance analysis; however, the incorporation of fluorine also results in an increased electron recombination rate, leading to a decrease in the open-circuit voltage (Voc). Despite this limitation, the conversion efficiency is gradually enhanced as the number of incorporated fluorine atoms is increased, which is attributed to the highly improved spectral response and photocurrent.

  4. Tailoring of Energy Levels in D-?-A Organic Dyes via Fluorination of Acceptor Units for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min-Woo; Kim, Jae-Yup; Son, Hae Jung; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, BongSoo; Kim, Honggon; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Kyungkon; Lee, Duck-Hyung; Ko, Min Jae

    2015-01-01

    A molecular design is presented for tailoring the energy levels in D-?-A organic dyes through fluorination of their acceptor units, which is aimed at achieving efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This is achieved by exploiting the chemical structure of common D-?-A organic dyes and incorporating one or two fluorine atoms at the ortho-positions of the cyanoacetic acid as additional acceptor units. As the number of incorporated fluorine atoms increases, the LUMO energy level of the organic dye is gradually lowered due to the electron-withdrawing effect of fluorine, which ultimately results in a gradual reduction of the HOMO-LUMO energy gap and an improvement in the spectral response. Systematic investigation of the effects of incorporating fluorine on the photovoltaic properties of DSSCs reveals an upshift in the conduction-band potential of the TiO2 electrode during impedance analysis; however, the incorporation of fluorine also results in an increased electron recombination rate, leading to a decrease in the open-circuit voltage (Voc). Despite this limitation, the conversion efficiency is gradually enhanced as the number of incorporated fluorine atoms is increased, which is attributed to the highly improved spectral response and photocurrent. PMID:25591722

  5. Photovoltaic p-n junction cells employing new organic dyes having high stability and designed molecular properties: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, G.R.; Panayotatos, P.; Sauers, R.R.; Potenza, J.

    1986-10-01

    This report contains the results of work done on more than 30 combinations of organic dye pairs and of organic dye-metal electrode pairs suitable for fabricating p-n heterojunction and test Schottky-barrier solar cells, respectively. More than 350 individual cells and test structures were fabricated by vacuum evaporation of thin (300 A) dye layers on electrodes. Both familiar and newly synthesized organic semiconductors were used. In the two-dye p-n cells, the limitation of partial absorption has been successfully overcome and full visible solar spectrum coverage has been achieved. A set of criteria were devised for the optimization of p-n junction cells that include material and cell design requirements. The best results to date have been obtained with a ClAlPc and DMP pair.

  6. Diffusion of organic dyes in a niosome immobilized on a glass surface using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shirsendu; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Das, Atanu Kumar; Mondal, Tridib; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2012-07-21

    Giant multilameller niosomes containing cholesterol and triton X-100 are studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data indicates formation of niosomes of broadly two different sizes (diameter)--~150 nm and ~1300 nm. This is confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and confocal microscopy. The diffusion coefficient (D(t)) of three organic dyes in the niosome immobilized on a glass surface is studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. On addition of the room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) (1-methyl-3-pentylimidazolium bromide, [pmim][Br] and 1-methyl- 3-pentylimidazolium tetra-fluoroborate, [pmim][BF(4)]) the size of the niosome particles increases. The D(t) of all the organic dyes (DCM, C343 and C480) increases on addition of RTILs, indicating faster diffusion. The viscosity calculated from the D(t) of the three dyes exhibits weak probe dependence. Unlike lipid or catanionic vesicle, the D(t) values in a niosome exhibit very narrow distribution. This indicates that the niosomes are fairly homogeneous with small variation of viscosity. PMID:22692627

  7. Efficient organic sensitizers with pyridine-N-oxide as an anchor group for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Xichuan; Zhao, Jianghua; Zhang, Fuguo; Wang, Xiuna; Sun, Licheng

    2014-09-01

    Five organic dyes with pyridine-N-oxide as the anchor group and electron acceptor have been synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Benzothiadiazole was introduced in the conjugation system to increase the electron withdrawing properties, FTIR spectra showed that the coordination was between the pyridine-N-oxide and the Brønsted acid site on the TiO2 surface. The relationship between different dye structures and the performance of the DSSCs was investigated systematically. The location of the thiophene unit was studied, and the direct linkage of benzothiadiazole with pyridine-N-oxide was beneficial to broaden the absorption. The donor-acceptor-acceptor-configured dye WL307, which has 2-ethylhexyloxy chains in the donor part, showed the best efficiency of 6.08% under 100?mW?cm(-2) light illumination. The dye series showed a fairly good stability during the one month test period. PMID:25066061

  8. Metal-organic frameworks at interfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yafeng; Chen, Caiyun; Sun, Xun; Dou, Jie; Wei, Mingdeng

    2014-09-01

    ZIF-8, a kind of widely studied metal-organic frameworks, was used for the interfacial modification of dye-sensitized solar cells by a facile post-treatment strategy for the first time, which solved the problem of severely decreased short-circuit photocurrent in previous report. After the surface treatment, the performance of cells was obviously improved. The conditions for the deposition of ZIF-8 were optimized. The best photovoltaic property was obtained when the growth time of ZIF-8 was 7?min and the TiO2 photoanode was post-treated for 2 times. Besides the energy barrier effect of ZIF-8 that improved the open-circuit photovoltage and electron lifetime, the dyes adsorbed tightly on TiO2 surface was found to be a key point for the efficient electron injection and improved performance. PMID:24989826

  9. Density Functional Theory Study on Organic Dye Sensitizers Containing Bis-dimethylfluorenyl Amino Benzofuran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cai-rong; Liu, Zi-jiang; Chen, Yu-hong; Ma, Jun; Chen, Hong-shan; Zhang, Mei-ling

    2009-10-01

    The geometries, electronic structures, polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities, as well as the UV-Vis spectra of the two organic dye sensitizers containing bis-dimethylfluorenyl amino benzofuran were studied via density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT. The features of electronic absorption spectra were assigned on account of the agreement between the experiment and the calculations. The absorption bands in visible region are related to photoinduced electron transfer processes, and the dimethylfluorenyl amino benzo[b]furan groups are major chromophore that contributed to the sensitization of photo-to-current conversion. The role of vinylene group in geometry, electronic structure and spectra property is analyzed according to the comparative study of the dyes.

  10. Visible light assisted degradation of organic dye using Ag3PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanabal, R.; Velmathi, S.; Bose, A. Chandra

    2015-06-01

    The study of visible light photodegradation of organic dye Methylene Blue (MB) have been investigated using silver phosphate (Ag3PO4) as a photocatalyst which is good efficient material for photocatalytic reaction. The simple ion-exchange method is used to prepare Ag3PO4. The structure of the material have been confirmed using X-ray diffraction which shows cubic structure of Ag3PO4. The functional group of the Ag3PO4 has been verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The bandgap of Ag3PO4 is calculated using kubelka-munk function from the ultra violet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the absorption of Ag3PO4 starts from 470 nm. Under simulated visible light irradiation, Ag3PO4 catalyst exhibits good catalytic ability for degrading MB dye.

  11. Organic nanofibers from squarylium dyes: local morphology, optical, and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Osadnik, Andreas; Lützen, Arne; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2012-02-01

    Environmentally stable, non-toxic squarylium dyes with strong absorption maxima in the red and near infrared spectral region are known for almost fifty years. Despite the fact that their optoelectronic properties distinguish them as promising materials for organics based photovoltaic cells, they have regained attention only very recently. For their application in heterojunction solar cells knowledge of their nanoscopic morphology as well as nanoscopic electrical properties is paramount. In this paper thin films from two different squarylium dyes, from squarylium (SQ) and from hydroxy-squarylium (SQOH) are investigated. The thin films are either solution casted or vacuum sublimed onto substrates such as muscovite mica, which are known to promote self-assembly into oriented, crystalline nanostructures such as nanofibers. Local characterization is performed via (polarized) optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM).

  12. Rapid Synthesis of Thiophene-Based, Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) by a One-Pot, Four-Component Coupling Approach.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Keisuke; Yoshizaki, Soichi; Maitani, Masato M; Wada, Yuji; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Kaiho, Tatsuo; Fuse, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Takashi

    2015-06-26

    This one-pot, four-component coupling approach (Suzuki-Miyaura coupling/C?H direct arylation/Knoevenagel condensation) was developed for the rapid synthesis of thiophene-based organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Seven thiophene-based, organic dyes of various donor structures with/without the use of a 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) moiety were successfully synthesized in good yields based on a readily available thiophene boronic acid pinacol ester scaffold (one-pot, 3-step, 35-61?%). Evaluation of the photovoltaic properties of the solar cells that were prepared using the synthesized dyes revealed that the introduction of an EDOT structure beside a cyanoacrylic acid moiety improved the short-circuit current (Jsc ) while decreasing the fill factor (FF). The donor structure significantly influenced the open-circuit voltage (Voc ), the FF, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The use of a n-hexyloxyphenyl amine donor, and our originally developed, rigid, and nonplanar donor, both promoted good cell performance (?=5.2-5.6?%). PMID:26017569

  13. Spatial modulation spectroscopy for imaging and quantitative analysis of single dye-doped organic nanoparticles inside cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadas, Mary Sajini; Devkota, Tuphan; Guha, Samit; Shaw, Scott K.; Smith, Bradley D.; Hartland, Gregory V.

    2015-05-01

    Imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticles in complex biological environments, such as the cell cytosol, is a challenging problem. For metal nanoparticles, Rayleigh scattering methods can be used, but for organic nanoparticles, such as dye-doped polymer beads or lipid nanoparticles, light scattering does not provide good contrast. In this paper, spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS) is used to image single organic nanoparticles doped with non-fluorescent, near-IR croconaine dye. SMS is a quantitative imaging technique that yields the absolute extinction cross-section of the nanoparticles, which can be used to determine the number of dye molecules per particle. SMS images were recorded for particles within EMT-6 breast cancer cells. The measurements allowed mapping of the nanoparticle location and the amount of dye in a single cell. The results demonstrate how SMS can facilitate efforts to optimize dye-doped nanoparticles for effective photothermal therapy of cancer.Imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticles in complex biological environments, such as the cell cytosol, is a challenging problem. For metal nanoparticles, Rayleigh scattering methods can be used, but for organic nanoparticles, such as dye-doped polymer beads or lipid nanoparticles, light scattering does not provide good contrast. In this paper, spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS) is used to image single organic nanoparticles doped with non-fluorescent, near-IR croconaine dye. SMS is a quantitative imaging technique that yields the absolute extinction cross-section of the nanoparticles, which can be used to determine the number of dye molecules per particle. SMS images were recorded for particles within EMT-6 breast cancer cells. The measurements allowed mapping of the nanoparticle location and the amount of dye in a single cell. The results demonstrate how SMS can facilitate efforts to optimize dye-doped nanoparticles for effective photothermal therapy of cancer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM imaging, calibration experiments for the SMS instrument with gold nanoparticles, SMS images of dye doped polymer beads from a commercial source, evidence for endosome uptake, and additional SMS images of dye-doped LPNPs in EMT-6 cells, and spectra of SRfluor680/croconaine doped lipid-polymer nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR01614B

  14. Efficient organic tandem cell combining a solid state dye-sensitized and a vacuum deposited bulk heterojunction solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingmar Bruder; Martin Karlsson; Felix Eickemeyer; Jaehyung Hwang; Peter Erk; Anders Hagfeldt; Jürgen Weis; Neil Pschirer

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, we report on an efficient organic tandem solar cell combining a solid state dye-sensitized with a ZnPc\\/C60-based, vacuum deposited bulk heterojunction solar cell. Due to an effective serial connection of both subcells and to the complementary absorption of the dyes used, a power conversion efficiency of ?p=(6.0±0.1)% was achieved under simulated 100mW\\/cm2 AM 1.5 illumination. The device

  15. Influence of the donor size in D-?-A organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiabao; Ganesan, Paramaguru; Teuscher, Joël; Moehl, Thomas; Kim, Yong Joo; Yi, Chenyi; Comte, Pascal; Pei, Kai; Holcombe, Thomas W; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Hua, Jianli; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Tian, He; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-04-16

    We report two new molecularly engineered push-pull dyes, i.e., YA421 and YA422, based on substituted quinoxaline as a ?-conjugating linker and bulky-indoline moiety as donor and compared with reported IQ4 dye. Benefitting from increased steric hindrance with the introduction of bis(2,4-dihexyloxy)benzene substitution on the quinoxaline, the electron recombination between redox electrolyte and the TiO2 surface is reduced, especially in redox electrolyte employing Co(II/III) complexes as redox shuttles. It was found that the open circuit photovoltages of IQ4, YA421, and YA422 devices with cobalt-based electrolyte are higher than those with iodide/triiodide electrolyte by 34, 62, and 135 mV, respectively. Moreover, the cells employing graphene nanoplatelets on top of gold spattered film as a counter electrode (CE) show lower charge-transfer resistance compared to platinum as a CE. Consequently, YA422 devices deliver the best power conversion efficiency due to higher fill factor, reaching 10.65% at AM 1.5 simulated sunlight. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and transient absorption spectroscopy analysis were performed to understand the electrolyte influence on the device performances with different counter electrode materials and donor structures of donor-?-acceptor dyes. Laser flash photolysis experiments indicate that even though the dye regeneration of YA422 is slower than that of the other two dyes, the slower back electron transfer of YA422 contributes to the higher device performance. PMID:24655036

  16. Neutral color tuning of polymer electrochromic devices using an organic dye.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yumin; Otley, Michael T; Kumar, Amrita; Li, Mengfang; Zhang, Xiaozheng; Asemota, Chris; Sotzing, Gregory A

    2014-08-01

    Herein, we present a facile, one-step method to color tune electrochromic devices (ECDs) that switch between two neutral colors via in situ electrochemical polymerization of electroactive monomers in the presence of a small molecule organic yellow dye using all commercially available materials. These devices exhibited photopic contrasts of ca. 30% without background correction when assembled on flexible PET-ITO substrates. In addition, devices exhibited switching speeds as low as 1 second, color uniformity, and stability. Large defect free ECDs of 100 cm(2) were fabricated exceeding the active switch area required for goggles, lenses, and small display applications. PMID:24927214

  17. Assessment of the ?SCF density functional theory approach for electronic excitations in organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, T.; Yost, S. R.; Van Voorhis, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the accuracy of the ?SCF method for computing low-lying HOMO?LUMO transitions in organic dye molecules. For a test set of vertical excitation energies of 16 chromophores, surprisingly similar accuracy is observed for time-dependent density functional theory and for ?SCF density functional theory. In light of this performance, we reconsider the ad hoc ?SCF prescription and demonstrate that it formally obtains the exact stationary density within the adiabatic approximation, partially justifying its use. The relative merits and future prospects of ?SCF for simulating individual excited states are discussed.

  18. Red-Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Devices with Bisanil Dye as Emitter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junsheng Yu; Zhijian Chen; Masato Sone; Seizo Miyata; Minrun Li; Toshiyuki Watanabe

    2001-01-01

    Double-layer organic thin film electroluminescent (EL) devices having red emission have been constructed using bisanil dyes. The basic structure of the EL device consisted of a hole-transport layer and a luminescent layer between the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass and magnesium electrodes. The hole-transport layer was a N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD)-doped poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) film. The luminescent layer consisted of a host material, 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum

  19. Detailed analysis of ultrathin fluorescent red dye interlayer for organic photovoltaic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Zang; Jun-Sheng Yu; Na-Na Wang; Ya-Dong Jiang

    2011-01-01

    The influence of an ultrathin 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) fluorescent dye layer at donor\\/acceptor heterojunction on the performance of small-molecule organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell is studied. The structure of OPV cell is of indium-tin oxide (ITO)\\/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)\\/DCJTB\\/fullerene (C60)\\/bathophenanthroline (Bphen)\\/Ag. The results show that open circuit voltage (VOC) increases to 0.57 V as the film thickness of DCJTB layer increases from 0.2

  20. Determining the appropriate exchange-correlation functional for time-dependent density functional theory studies of charge-transfer excitations in organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Pratibha; Agrawal, Saurabh; English, Niall J.

    2012-06-01

    UV-Vis spectra are calculated using time-dependent density functional theory for several organic dyes - 4-(N, N-dimethylamino) benzonitrile, alizarin, squaraine, polyene-linker dyes, oligothiophene-containing coumarin dyes (NKX series) and triphenylamine-donor dyes. Most of these dyes (except, for the first two) or their derivatives are considered to be promising organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells. An accurate description of the photophysics of such dyes is imperative for understanding and creating better dyes. To this end, we studied the dyes within several approximations to the exchange-correlation functional. The chosen functionals - PBE, M06L, B3LYP, M06, CAM-B3LYP, and wB97 - represent the various classes of approximations that are currently being used to study material properties. From amongst the six approximations studied here, CAM-B3LYP outperformed the others in its description of charge-transfer excitations in most (though, not all) of the dyes. This study shows why it is difficult to choose a particular functional a priori, especially when starting out with a new dye for solar cell application. A possible way to judge the fitness of an approximation is used in this work and it is shown to provide a good quantitative guideline for subsequent research in this field.

  1. Sol-gel-derived silica films with tailored microstructures for applications requiring organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, M.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Prabakar, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A three-step sol-gel process was developed to prepare organic dye-doped thin films with tailored porosity for applications in chemical sensing and optoelectronics. Varying the acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis steps of sols prepared from tetraethoxysilane with identical final H{sub 2}O/Si ratios, dilution factors and pH resulted in considerably different distributions of the silicate polymers in the sol (determined by {sup 29}Si NMR) and considerably different structures for the polymer clusters (determined by SAXS). During film formation these kinetic effects cause differences in the packing and collapse of the silicate network, leading to thin films with different refractive indices and volume fraction porosities. Under conditions where small pore-plugging species were avoided, the porosities of as-deposited films could be varied by aging the sol prior to film deposition. This strategy, which relies on the growth and aggregation of fractal polymeric clusters, is compatible with the low temperature and near neutral pH requirements of organic dyes.

  2. Encapsulation of large dye molecules in hierarchically superstructured metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yanfeng; Binder, Andrew J; Song, Ruijing; Cui, Yuanjing; Chen, Jihua; Hensley, Dale K; Dai, Sheng

    2014-12-28

    Microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a new family of microporous materials, offering potential applications in gas separation and storage, catalysis, and membranes. The engineering of hierarchical superstructured MOFs, i.e., fabricating mesopores in microporous frameworks during the crystallization stage is expected to serve a myriad of applications for molecular adsorption, drug delivery, and catalysis. However, MOFs with mesopores are rarely studied because of the lack of a simple, effective way to construct mesoscale cavities in the structures. Here, we report the use of a perturbation-assisted nanofusion technique to construct hierarchically superstructured MOFs. In particular, the mesopores in the MOF structure enabled the confinement of large dye species, resulting in fluorescent MOF materials, which can serve as a new type of ratiometric luminescent sensors for typical volatile organic compounds. PMID:25301034

  3. Screening for larvicidal activity of ten carminative plants.

    PubMed

    Pitasawat, B; Choochote, W; Kanjanapothi, D; Panthong, A; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U

    1998-09-01

    Ten species of plants, reported to possess carminative property, were screened for larvicidal potential against Culex quinquefasciatus by exposing early 4th instar larvae to a series of concentrations of the ethanolic extracts of the plants. Mortality counts were made after 24 hours exposure. Probit analysis using computerized Harvard Programming (Hg1, 2) was employed to determine the LC50, LC95 and LC99 values in order to compare the larvicidal potency of the ten plants. Marked larvicidal effects were seen with Kaempferia galanga, Illicium vernum and Spilanthes acmella having LC50 values of 50.54, 54.11 and 61.43 ppm, respectively. PMID:10437975

  4. -encapsulated zero-valent iron nanoparticles for degradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Zhou; Wu, Qingzhi; Wang, Min; Yang, Yushi; Long, Jia; Chen, Xiaohui

    2014-09-01

    A series of nanocomposites consisting of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a successive two-step method, i.e., the wet chemical reduction by borohydride followed by a modified Stöber method. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. The catalytic performance of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI nanocomposites for the degradation of organic dyes was investigated using methylene blue (MB) as the model dye in the presence of H2O2. The results showed that the degradation efficiency and apparent rate constant of the degradation reaction were significantly enhanced with increased ZVI NPs encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres, whereas the dosage of H2O2 remarkably promoted degradation rate without affecting degradation efficiency. The content-dependent magnetic property ensured the excellent magnetic separation of degradation products under an external magnet. This strategy for the synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI NPs nanocomposites was low cost and easy to scale-up for industrial production, thereby enabling promising applications in environmental remediation.

  5. Hierarchically porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen hybrid materials towards highly efficient and selective adsorption of organic dyes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lala; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tang, Yusheng; Su, Kehe; Kong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchically macro/micro-porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen (Si–C–N) hybrid material was presented with novel functionalities of totally selective and highly efficient adsorption for organic dyes. The hybrid material was conveniently generated by the pyrolysis of commercial polysilazane precursors using polydivinylbenzene microspheres as sacrificial templates. Owing to the Van der Waals force between sp2-hybridized carbon domains and triphenyl structure of dyes, and electrostatic interaction between dyes and Si-C-N matrix, it exhibites high adsorption capacity and good regeneration and recycling ability for the dyes with triphenyl structure, such as methyl blue (MB), acid fuchsin (AF), basic fuchsin and malachite green. The adsorption process is determined by both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. According to the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity is 1327.7?mg·g?1 and 1084.5?mg·g?1 for MB and AF, respectively, which is much higher than that of many other adsorbents. On the contrary, the hybrid materials do not adsorb the dyes with azo benzene structures, such as methyl orange, methyl red and congro red. Thus, the hierarchically porous Si–C–N hybrid material from a facile and low cost polymer-derived strategy provides a new perspective and possesses a significant potential in the treatment of wastewater with complex organic pollutants. PMID:25604334

  6. Hierarchically porous silicon-carbon-nitrogen hybrid materials towards highly efficient and selective adsorption of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lala; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tang, Yusheng; Su, Kehe; Kong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchically macro/micro-porous silicon-carbon-nitrogen (Si-C-N) hybrid material was presented with novel functionalities of totally selective and highly efficient adsorption for organic dyes. The hybrid material was conveniently generated by the pyrolysis of commercial polysilazane precursors using polydivinylbenzene microspheres as sacrificial templates. Owing to the Van der Waals force between sp-hybridized carbon domains and triphenyl structure of dyes, and electrostatic interaction between dyes and Si-C-N matrix, it exhibites high adsorption capacity and good regeneration and recycling ability for the dyes with triphenyl structure, such as methyl blue (MB), acid fuchsin (AF), basic fuchsin and malachite green. The adsorption process is determined by both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. According to the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity is 1327.7?mg·g(-1) and 1084.5?mg·g(-1) for MB and AF, respectively, which is much higher than that of many other adsorbents. On the contrary, the hybrid materials do not adsorb the dyes with azo benzene structures, such as methyl orange, methyl red and congro red. Thus, the hierarchically porous Si-C-N hybrid material from a facile and low cost polymer-derived strategy provides a new perspective and possesses a significant potential in the treatment of wastewater with complex organic pollutants. PMID:25604334

  7. Hierarchically porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen hybrid materials towards highly efficient and selective adsorption of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lala; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tang, Yusheng; Su, Kehe; Kong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchically macro/micro-porous silicon-carbon-nitrogen (Si-C-N) hybrid material was presented with novel functionalities of totally selective and highly efficient adsorption for organic dyes. The hybrid material was conveniently generated by the pyrolysis of commercial polysilazane precursors using polydivinylbenzene microspheres as sacrificial templates. Owing to the Van der Waals force between sp-hybridized carbon domains and triphenyl structure of dyes, and electrostatic interaction between dyes and Si-C-N matrix, it exhibites high adsorption capacity and good regeneration and recycling ability for the dyes with triphenyl structure, such as methyl blue (MB), acid fuchsin (AF), basic fuchsin and malachite green. The adsorption process is determined by both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. According to the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity is 1327.7 mg.g-1 and 1084.5 mg.g-1 for MB and AF, respectively, which is much higher than that of many other adsorbents. On the contrary, the hybrid materials do not adsorb the dyes with azo benzene structures, such as methyl orange, methyl red and congro red. Thus, the hierarchically porous Si-C-N hybrid material from a facile and low cost polymer-derived strategy provides a new perspective and possesses a significant potential in the treatment of wastewater with complex organic pollutants.

  8. Confinement of pyridinium hemicyanine dye within an anionic metal-organic framework for two-photon-pumped lasing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing; Xu, Hui; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong

    2013-01-01

    Two-photon-pumped dye lasers are very important because of their applications in wavelength up-conversion, optical data storage, biological imaging and photodynamic therapy. Such lasers are very difficult to realize in the solid state because of the aggregation-caused quenching. Here we demonstrate a new two-photon-pumped micro-laser by encapsulating the cationic pyridinium hemicyanine dye into an anionic metal-organic framework (MOF). The resultant MOF?dye composite exhibits significant two-photon fluorescence because of the large absorption cross-section and the encapsulation-enhanced luminescent efficiency of the dye. Furthermore, the well-faceted MOF crystal serves as a natural Fabry–Perot resonance cavity, leading to lasing around 640?nm when pumped with a 1064-nm pulse laser. This strategy not only combines the crystalline benefit of MOFs and luminescent behaviour of organic dyes but also creates a new synergistic two-photon-pumped lasing functionality, opening a new avenue for the future creation of solid-state photonic materials and devices. PMID:24173352

  9. Effect of organic load on decolourization of textile wastewater containing acid dyes in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Wijetunga, Somasiri; Li, Xiu-Fen; Jian, Chen

    2010-05-15

    Textile wastewater (TW) is one of the most hazardous wastewater for the environment when discharged without proper treatment. Biological treatment technologies have shown encouraging results over the treatment of recalcitrant compounds containing wastewaters. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated in terms of colour and the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with different organic loads using TW containing dyes belonging to different chemical groups. The study was performed using six different dye concentrations (10mg/L, 25mg/L, 50mg/L, 100mg/L, 150 mg/L, 300 mg/L) with three COD levels ( approximately 1000 mg/L, approximately 2000 mg/L, approximately 3000 mg/L). Decolourization, COD removal and reactor stability were monitored. Over 85% of colour removal was observed with all dye concentrations with three organic loads. Acid Red 131 and Acid Yellow 79 were decolourized through biodegradation while Acid Blue 204 was decolourized due to adsorption onto anaerobic granules. COD removal was high in all dye concentrations, regardless of co-substrate levels. The reactor did not show any instability during the study. The activity of granules was not affected by the dyes. Methanothrix like bacteria were the dominant group in granules before introducing TW, however, they were reduced and cocci-shape microorganism increased after the treatment of textile wastewater. PMID:20074855

  10. Bright red organic light-emitting diodes doped with a fluorescent dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Mitsuya; Takayuki Suzuki; Toshiki Koyama; Hirofusa Shirai; Yoshio Taniguchi; Makoto Satsuki; Sadaharu Suga

    2000-01-01

    We have evaluated a synthetic red fluorescent dye, 6-methyl-3-[3-(1,1,6,6-tetramethyl-10-oxo2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-1H,4H,10H-11 -oxa-3a-aza-benzo[de]anthracen-9-yl)-acryloyl]-pyran-2,4-dione (AAAP), as a dopant for an organic light-emitting diode (LED). Bright emission of a good red (maximum luminance: 5600 cd\\/m2, chromaticity coordinates: x=0.63, y=0.36) was obtained. The device consisted of ITO\\/TPD(50 nm)\\/Alq3 doped with AAAP(1.5 mol %,15 nm)\\/bOXDF(20 nm)\\/Alq3(25 nm)\\/Mg:Ag (ITO: indium tin oxide, TPD: N, N'-diphenyl- N,N'-di(3-methylphenyl)-1, 1'biphenyl-4,4'-diamine, Alq3:

  11. Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) and metal-free organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbao; Häggman, Leif; Jouini, Mohamed; Jarboui, Adel; Boschloo, Gerrit; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2014-04-14

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) (PEDOP), combined with metal-free organic sensitizers, is efficiently used for the first time as the hole-transporting material in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Devices employing PEDOP as the hole conductor and D35 or D21 L6 as the sensitizer show a ten-times-higher energy-conversion efficiency (of 4.5% and 3.3%, respectively) compared to Ru-Z907-based devices. This is due to the efficient suppression of electron recombination. PMID:24596255

  12. Solid state organic laser emission at 970 nm from dye-doped fluorinated-polyimide planar waveguides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shun Yuyama; Takahiro Nakajima; Kenichi Yamashita; Kunishige Oe

    2008-01-01

    We have demonstrated near-infrared amplified spontaneous emission and laser emission from fluorinated-polyimide waveguides doped with an organic dye, 5,6-dichloro-2[8-(p-dimethylaminophenyl)-2,4-neopentylene-1,3,5,7-octatetraenyl]-3-ethylbenzothiazolium perchlorate (LDS950). The planar waveguides doped with 1 wt % of the dye, 10 mm in length and 9.3 mum in thickness, have exhibited amplified spontaneous emission and optical gain around 960 nm under optical pulse pumping. A good optical gain

  13. Quantitative determination of carmine in foods by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ho-Soo; Choi, Jae-Chon; Song, Sung-Bong; Kim, Meehye

    2014-09-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed and validated for the determination of carmine in foods. Samples were homogenised and extracted with 0.05 M NaOH, followed by centrifugation. The resulting solution was filtered and injected to HPLC. Carmine was separated by HPLC using an NovaPak C18 column coupled to a photodiode array detector. The contents of carmine were finally quantified using corresponding calibration curves over ranges of 1.0-100 ?g ml(-1), with good correlation coefficients (r(2)=0.9999). The recoveries of carmine from foods spiked at levels of 10, 50, and 100 ?g g(-1) which ranged from 90.4% to 96.2% with relative standard deviations between 2.8% and 6.8%. Limit of detection and limit of quantification of carmine were 0.4 and 1.0 ?g ml(-1), respectively. This method was found to be useful to distinguish carmine from carminic acid, a major component of cochineal extract. The method has been successfully applied to various foods. PMID:24731378

  14. Theoretical analysis of the absorption spectra of organic dyes differing by the conjugation sequence: illusion of negative solvatochromism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhos, Sergei; Segawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi

    2012-06-01

    Absorption peak maxima of two organic dyes differing by the position of the methine unit differ by 61 nm in dioxane and 128 nm in acetonnitrile. The difference is not reproduced by TDDFT using ab initio or hybrid functionals. TDDFT errors are different between the molecules due to a different albeit small extent of charge transfer, leading to a qualitative failure of TDDFT to predict relative energetics of the dyes. The TDDFT errors in non-polar solvents (such as dioxane) could be corrected based on the approach of Peach et al. (J. Chem. Phy. 128, 044118 (2008)). Here, we focus on the effect on the absorption spectrum of a polar solvent, specifically of the different between the two molecules sign of the solvatochromic shift vs. dioxane. Using the corrrection due to Peach et al, the absolute TDDFT errors can be brought within accetable ranges of 0.2-0.3 eV with the PCM solvent model, and the blue shift vs.dioxane is reporoduced, although both dyes are predicted to exhibit positive solvatochromism. The inclusion of explicit solvent molecules forming hydrogen bonds with the dye did not appreciably change neither TDDFT energies nor the correction term. These results show the importance of a more careful assessment of computational errors in the strategy of computationaly dye design by changing the conjugation order, where they are expected to be more important than in the case of an extension of the size of conjugation, and more so when polar solvents are used.

  15. Template-free hydrothermal derived cobalt oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, Mostafa Y. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)] [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt); Ahmed, Ibrahim S., E-mail: isahmed2010@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the products obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 24 h, and at different [Co{sup 2+}]/[CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}] ratios: (a) 1:6, (b) 1:3, (c) 1:1.5, (d) 1:1, (e) 1:0.5. Highlights: ? Spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal approach. ? The optical characteristics of the as-prepared cobalt oxide revealed the presence of two band gaps. ? Adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated and the percent uptake was found to be >99% in 24 h. -- Abstract: Pure spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared through hydrothermal approach using different counter ions. First, the pure and uniform cobalt carbonate (with particle size of 21.8–29.8 nm) were prepared in high yield (94%) in an autoclave in absence unfriendly organic surfactants or solvents by adjusting different experimental parameters such as: pH, reaction time, temperature, counter ions, and (Co{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) molar ratios. Thence, the spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (with mean particle size of 30.5–47.35 nm) was produced by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate in air at 500 °C for 3 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis (TA). Also, the optical characteristics of the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles revealed the presence of two band gaps (1.45–1.47, and 1.83–1.93 eV). Additionally, adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated and the uptake% was found to be >99% in 24 h.

  16. Photoinduced absorption measurement on a microchip equipped with organic dye-doped polymer waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, T.; Nagai, K.; Yamashita, K.

    2013-05-01

    We have fabricated a waveguide-type optical sensing microchip and succeeded in on-chip photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy. The PIA microchip was fabricated with a conventional photolithographic technique and consisted of plastic optical waveguides and microfluidic channels. Furthermore, a serially-cascaded polymer waveguide doped with organic dyes was integrated on this microchip, which was fabricated using a self-written waveguide process. This dye-doped waveguide was pumped by a UV light emitting diode (UV-LED) and used as a probe light source with a broad emission spectrum. At the same time, a solution of test material in the microfluidic channel was synchronously pumped by a UV-LED or UV laser diode. Since the transmission spectrum of the photo-excited test material could be measured, the PIA spectra were obtained easily. In this study, we have demonstrated the on-chip PIA measurements for two classes of test materials, rare-earth complex and chlorophyll molecules. In the measurement for the aqueous solution of Neodymium (III) acetate hydrate, PIA signals attributed to the 4f-4f transition was observed. Furthermore, by varying the modulation frequency of the pulsed optical pumping, lifetime analysis of the excited 4f states was achieved. In the measurements for the ethanol solutions of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, PIA signals were observed at the wavelength near the Q-band absorption peaks. These spectra were very similar to the well-known feature for the photosystem II protein complex observed in a conventional PIA system. From these results, it is expected that the onchip PIA measurement technique is applicable to the transient analyses for the material systems with photoexcited charge transfer.

  17. Enhancing dye-sensitized solar cell performances by molecular engineering: highly efficient ?-extended organic sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Grisorio, Roberto; De Marco, Luisa; Agosta, Rita; Iacobellis, Rosabianca; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Manca, Michele; Mastrorilli, Piero; Gigli, Giuseppe; Suranna, Gian Paolo

    2014-09-01

    This study deals with the synthesis and characterization of two ?-extended organic sensitizers (G1 and G2) for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. The materials are designed with a D-A-?-A structure constituted by i)?a triarylamine group as the donor part, ii)?a dithienyl-benzothiadiazole chromophore followed by iii)?a further ethynylene-thiophene (G1) or ethynylene-benzene (G2) ?-spacer and iv)?a cyano-acrylic moiety as acceptor and anchoring part. An unusual structural extension of the ?-bridge characterizes these structures. The so-configured sensitizers exhibit a broad absorption profile, the origin of which is supported by density functional theory. The absence of hypsochromic shifts as a consequence of deprotonation as well as notable optical and electrochemical stabilities are also observed. Concerning the performances in devices, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicates that the structural modification of the ?-spacer mainly increases the electron lifetime of G2 with respect to G1. In devices, this feature translates into a superior power conversion efficiency of G2, reaching 8.1%. These results are comparable to those recorded for N719 and are higher with respect to literature congeners, supporting further structural engineering of the ?-bridge extension in the search for better performing ?-extended organic sensitizers. PMID:25056642

  18. Organic-dye-coupled magnetic nanoparticles encaged inside thermoresponsive PNIPAM Microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jia; Yang, Wuli; Deng, Yonghui; Wang, Changchun; Fu, Shoukuan

    2005-07-01

    We present a new approach for the fabrication of thermoresponsive polymer microcapsules with mobile magnetic cores that undergo a volume phase-transition upon changing the temperature and are collected under an external magnetic field. We have prepared organic/inorganic composite microspheres with a well-defined core-shell structure that are composed of a crosslinked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) shell and silica cores dotted centrally by magnetite nanoparticles. Since the infiltration of template-decomposed products is dependent on the permeability of PNIPAM shells triggered by changes of exterior temperature, the silica layer sandwiched between the magnetic core and the PNIPAM shell was quantitatively removed to generate PNIPAM microcapsules with mobile magnetic cores by treatment with aqueous NaOH solution. For development of the desired multifunctional microcapsules, modification of the unetched silica surface interiors can be realized by treatment with a silane coupling agent containing functional groups that can easily bind to catalysts, enzymes, or labeling molecules. Herein, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), which is a common organic dye, is attached to the insides of the mobile magnetic cores to give PNIPAM microcapsules with FITC-labeled magnetic cores. In this system, it can be expected that an extension of the functionalization of the cavity properties of smart polymer microcapsules is to immobilize other target molecules onto the mobile cores in order to introduce other desired functions in the hollow cage. PMID:17193517

  19. Abatements of reduced sulphur compounds, colour, and organic matter from indigo dyeing effluents by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Tünay, Olcay; Sim?eker, Merve; Kabda?li, Isik; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the treatability of indigo dyeing effluents by the electrocoagulation (EC) process using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The samples used were concentrated with main pollutant parameters of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (1000-1100 mg/L), reduced sulphur species (over 2000 mg SO2-(3)/L), and colour (0.12-0.13 1/cm). The study focused on the effect of main operation parameters on the EC process performance in terms of abatement of reduced sulphur compounds as well as decolourization and organic matter reduction. Results indicated that the performance of EC proved to be high providing total oxidation of the reduced sulphur compounds, almost complete decolourization, and COD removal up to 90%. Increasing applied current density from 22.5 to 45 mA/cm2 appreciably improved abatement of the reduced sulphur compounds for Sample I, but a further increase in the applied current density to 67.5 mA/cm2 did not accelerate the conversion rate to sulphate. The process performance was adversely affected by increasing initial concentration of the reduced sulphur compounds. Decolourization and organic matter removal efficiency enhanced with increasing applied current density. The main removal mechanism of the reduced sulphur compounds by EC was explained as conversion to sulphate via oxidation. Conversion rate to sulphate fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well. PMID:24956747

  20. A metal-organic tetrahedron as a redox vehicle to encapsulate organic dyes for photocatalytic proton reduction.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xu; He, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Duan, Chunying

    2015-03-25

    The design of artificial systems that mimic highly evolved and finely tuned natural photosynthetic systems is a subject of intensive research. We report herein a new approach to constructing supramolecular systems for the photocatalytic generation of hydrogen from water by encapsulating an organic dye molecule into the pocket of a redox-active metal-organic polyhedron. The assembled neutral Co4L4 tetrahedron consists of four ligands and four cobalt ions that connect together in alternating fashion. The cobalt ions are coordinated by three thiosemicarbazone NS chelators and exhibit a redox potential suitable for electrochemical proton reduction. The close proximity between the redox site and the photosensitizer encapsulated in the pocket enables photoinduced electron transfer from the excited state of the photosensitizer to the cobalt-based catalytic sites via a powerful pseudo-intramolecular pathway. The modified supramolecular system exhibits TON values comparable to the highest values reported for related cobalt/fluorescein systems. Control experiments based on a smaller tetrahedral analogue of the vehicle with a filled pocket and a mononuclear compound resembling the cobalt corner of the tetrahedron suggest an enzymatic dynamics behavior. The new, well-elucidated reaction pathways and the increased molarity of the reaction within the confined space render these supramolecular systems superior to other relevant systems. PMID:25738748

  1. Synthesis of magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) for efficient removal of organic dyes from water

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuangliu; Tang, Zhi; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Meng, Wei; Wu, Fengchang; Giesy, John P.

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple and efficient strategy for fabricating a magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) as sorbent to remove organic compounds from simulated water samples is presented and tested for removal of methylene blue (MB) as an example. The novel adsorbents combine advantages of MOFs and magnetic nanoparticles and possess large capacity, low cost, rapid removal and easy separation of the solid phase, which makes it an excellent sorbent for treatment of wastewaters. The resulting magnetic MOFs composites (also known as MFCs) have large surface areas (79.52?m2 g?1), excellent magnetic response (14.89?emu g?1), and large mesopore volume (0.09?cm3 g?1), as well as good chemical inertness and mechanical stability. Adsorption was not drastically affected by pH, suggesting ?–? stacking interaction and/or hydrophobic interactions between MB and MFCs. Kinetic parameters followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and adsorption was described by the Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption capacity was 84?mg MB g?1 at an initial MB concentration of 30?mg L?1, which increased to 245?mg g?1 when the initial MB concentration was 300?mg L?1. This capacity was much greater than most other adsorbents reported in the literature. In addition, MFC adsorbents possess excellent reusability, being effective after at least five consecutive cycles. PMID:26149818

  2. Synthesis of magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) for efficient removal of organic dyes from water.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuangliu; Tang, Zhi; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Meng, Wei; Wu, Fengchang; Giesy, John P

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple and efficient strategy for fabricating a magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) as sorbent to remove organic compounds from simulated water samples is presented and tested for removal of methylene blue (MB) as an example. The novel adsorbents combine advantages of MOFs and magnetic nanoparticles and possess large capacity, low cost, rapid removal and easy separation of the solid phase, which makes it an excellent sorbent for treatment of wastewaters. The resulting magnetic MOFs composites (also known as MFCs) have large surface areas (79.52?m(2) g(-1)), excellent magnetic response (14.89?emu g(-1)), and large mesopore volume (0.09?cm(3) g(-1)), as well as good chemical inertness and mechanical stability. Adsorption was not drastically affected by pH, suggesting ?-? stacking interaction and/or hydrophobic interactions between MB and MFCs. Kinetic parameters followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and adsorption was described by the Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption capacity was 84?mg MB g(-1) at an initial MB concentration of 30?mg L(-1), which increased to 245?mg g(-1) when the initial MB concentration was 300?mg L(-1). This capacity was much greater than most other adsorbents reported in the literature. In addition, MFC adsorbents possess excellent reusability, being effective after at least five consecutive cycles. PMID:26149818

  3. Novel metal-organic photocatalysts: synthesis, characterization and decomposition of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Gopal Reddy, N B; Murali Krishna, P; Kottam, Nagaraju

    2015-02-25

    An efficient method for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in an aqueous medium was developed using metal-organic complexes. Two novel complexes were synthesized using, Schiff base ligand, N'-[(E)-(4-ethylphenyl)methylidene]-4-hydroxybenzohydrazide (HL) and Ni(II) (Complex 1)/Co(II) (Complex 2) chloride respectively. These complexes were characterized using microanalysis, various spectral techniques. Spectral studies reveal that the complexes exhibit square planar geometry with ligand coordination through azomethine nitrogen and enolic oxygen. The effects of catalyst dosage, irradiation time and aqueous pH on the photocatalytic activity were studied systematically. The photocatalytic activity was found to be more efficient in the presence of Ni(II) complexes than the Co(II) complex. Possible mechanistic aspects were discussed. PMID:25233028

  4. Novelmetal-organic photocatalysts: Synthesis, characterization and decomposition of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal Reddy, N. B.; Murali Krishna, P.; Kottam, Nagaraju

    2015-02-01

    An efficient method for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in an aqueous medium was developed using metal-organic complexes. Two novel complexes were synthesized using, Schiff base ligand, N?-[(E)-(4-ethylphenyl)methylidene]-4-hydroxybenzohydrazide (HL) and Ni(II) (Complex 1)/Co(II) (Complex 2) chloride respectively. These complexes were characterized using microanalysis, various spectral techniques. Spectral studies reveal that the complexes exhibit square planar geometry with ligand coordination through azomethine nitrogen and enolic oxygen. The effects of catalyst dosage, irradiation time and aqueous pH on the photocatalytic activity were studied systematically. The photocatalytic activity was found to be more efficient in the presence of Ni(II) complexes than the Co(II) complex. Possible mechanistic aspects were discussed.

  5. Preparation of graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposites by heat treatment and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bum Hwi; Ko, Weon Bae

    2013-11-01

    ZrO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by combining a solution containing zinconyl chloride in distilled water with a NH4OH solution under microwave irradiation. Graphene and ZrO2 nanocomposites were synthesized in an electric furnace at 700 degrees C for 2 hours. The heated graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, UV-vis spectrophotometry was used to evaluate the heated graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposites as a catalyst in the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. The photocatalytic effect of the heated graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposites was compared with that of unheated graphene nanoparticles, heated graphene nanoparticles, and unheated graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposites in organic dyes (methylene blue, methyl orange, and rhodamine B) under ultraviolet light at 254 nm. PMID:24245304

  6. Optical modeling of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells based on squarine dye as electron donor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitova, S.; Stoyanova, D.; Dikova, J.; Kandinska, M.; Vasilev, A.; Angelova, S.

    2014-12-01

    The potentiality of a squarine dye (Sq1) for using as electron donor component in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ) has been studied from the optical point of view. The soluble n-type fullerene, (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61MB) was chosen as acceptor. Optical modelling based on transfer matrix method was carried out to predict and improve photovoltaic performance of a BHJ device with blended Sq1/PC61MB active layer. The dependence of the absorption and the calculated maximum short circuit photocurrent (Jscmax) on the thickness of the active layer (dact), was investigated for two weight ratios of Sq1 and PC61MB. Thus, the optimal dact was calculated to be about 100 nm, which provides an efficient overlapping of the total absorption with solar spectrum in the range between 580 and 900 nm. Besides, it is found that the insertion of ZnO or C60 spacer layer shifts Jscmax peak to lower dact and significantly enhances Jscmax for active layers with dact < 50 nm, which is mainly due to improved light absorption by a factor of 5 to 10. Simultaneously, for dact <100 nm the optical effect of inserted PEDOT:PSS hole transporting layer is negligible.

  7. Distributed feedback dye laser holographically induced in improved organic-inorganic photocurable nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhno, O. V.; Stumpe, J.; Smirnova, T. N.

    2011-06-01

    Distributed feedback (DFB) lasing in permanent volume transmission gratings formed in a laser dye-doped organic-inorganic nanocomposite has been investigated. DFB laser cavities were fabricated using one-step two-beam holographic exposure of Pyrromethene 567 (PM567) doped photopolymerizable acrylate monomers containing inorganic (LaPO4) nanoparticles. Compared to the formulation previously utilized, the material composition presented provides longer lifetime of the laser. Spectral and polarization properties, input-output and stability characteristics of the laser output have been investigated by varying the material composition and the patterning parameters. DFB lasing emission of the second and the third diffraction orders has been demonstrated. The spectral linewidth of ˜0.08 nm has been observed at a pump energy threshold of about 0.2 ?J/pulse for the second-order DFB lasing when pumped with 532 nm 500 ps laser pulses. Spectral tuning of the lasing output over ˜56 and ˜7 nm was obtained by varying the grating period and the content of inorganic nanoparticles in the polymer matrix, respectively.

  8. MnO2 nanosheets based fluorescent sensing platform with organic dyes as a probe with excellent analytical properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxia; Zhai, Wanying; Wang, Yuexiang; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2015-06-21

    Manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheets have recently been demonstrated to be particularly attractive for fluorescent sensing and imaging; however, almost all MnO2 nanosheets-based fluorescent assays have been developed with emissive nanoparticles as the probes. In this study, we developed a novel strategy to use organic dyes, instead of emissive nanoparticles, as the probe to construct a platform for biosensing with excellent analytical properties. With 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) as a model organic dye, we firstly investigate the effect of MnO2 nanosheets on the fluorescence of FAM and find that the fluorescence intensity of FAM is considerably suppressed by MnO2 nanosheets based on the inner filter effect (IFE). To demonstrate that the MnO2 nanosheets-based fluorescence sensing platform can easily achieve a high selectivity with organic dyes as the probe, we use single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) oligonucleotide as a typical biorecognition unit, which is labeled with the FAM probe to form FAM-ssDNA. The fluorescent intensity of FAM-ssDNA is first suppressed by MnO2 nanosheets through the combination of IFE and Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET), and then recovered with subsequent hybridization with the complementary DNA oligonucleotide. To demonstrate the potential applications of the MnO2 nanosheets-based fluorescence sensing platform with organic dyes as the probes, we developed methods for simple but effective microRNA and thrombin assays. With the platform demonstrated here, the limits of detection for miR124a and thrombin are 0.8 nM and 11 nM, respectively. Moreover, the fluorescent sensing assay for thrombin exhibits high selectivity. This study essentially demonstrates a new 2D nanostructure-based fluorescent sensing platform that is robust, technically simple, and easily manipulated to achieve high selectivity and sensitivity for practical applications. PMID:25919222

  9. Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg Frischeisen; Daisuke Yokoyama; Ayataka Endo; Chihaya Adachi; Wolfgang Brütting

    2011-01-01

    Small molecule organic light-emitting diodes (SM-OLEDs) are efficient large area light sources facing their market entry. However, a low light outcoupling efficiency of typically 20% still strongly limits device performance. Here, we highlight the potential of employing dye-doped emission layers with emitting molecules having horizontally oriented transition dipole moments. The effect of molecular orientation is explained by studying optical simulations

  10. Diffusion of organic dyes in ionic liquid and giant micron sized ionic liquid mixed micelle: fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Dibyendu Kumar; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Mondal, Tridib; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2011-06-23

    Diffusion of organic dyes in neat room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) and RTIL-mixed micelle has been studied by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). We have selected two RTILs, 3-pentyl-1-methyl imidazolium bromide ([C5C1Im][Br]) and the corresponding tetra-fluoroborate ([C5C1Im][BF(4)]). Diffusion coefficients (D(t)) of three organic dyes--DCM (neutral), C480 (neutral), and C343 (anionic)--in these RTILs are ?100 times slower compared to water. This indicates very high viscosity of the RTILs. In contrast to water, the D(t) in RTIL exhibits a wide distribution which suggests the presence of heterogeneity (nanoscale organization). The presence of ions in the RTILs markedly affects diffusion in the RTILs. D(t)'s of C480 (neutral) and C343 (anionic) are very similar in water but in RTILs the ionic dye C343 diffuses 1.7 times slower than neutral C480. This is attributed to the electrostatic force exerted by the ions in the RTILs. In the giant (?2-4 ?m) [C5C1Im][Br]-triblock copolymer (P123) mixed micelle D(t) of DCM, C480, and C343 are found to be 7, 15, and 7 ?m(2) s(-1), respectively. The results are compared with those in P123 micelle and gel. PMID:21619001

  11. Simulation of solid-state dye solar cells based on organic and Perovskite sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, Aldo; Gentilini, Desireé; Gagliardi, Alessio

    2015-03-01

    In this work we present a multiscale numerical simulation of solid-state Dye and Perovskite Solar Cells where the real morphology of the mesoporous active layer is taken into account. Band alignment and current densities are computed using the drift-diffusion model. In the case of Dye cells, a portion of the real interface is merged between two regions described using the effective medium approximation, casting light on the role of trapped states at the interface between TiO2 / Dye / hole transporting materials. A second case of study is the simulation of Perovskite Solar Cell where the performances of cells based on Alumina and Titania mesoporous layer are compared.

  12. Modulating triphenylamine-based organic dyes for their potential application in dye-sensitized solar cells: a first principle theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Nath Ghosh, Narendra; Chakraborty, Arnab; Pal, Sougata; Pramanik, Anup; Sarkar, Pranab

    2014-12-14

    By using computational methodologies based on time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) we study the opto-electronic properties of three types of triphenylamine (TPA)-based dyes, namely TPA-TBT-1, TPA-DBT-1, and TPA-BT-1, and these are proposed as potential candidates for photovoltaic applications. Energy band modulation has been performed by functionalizing these dyes with different electron donating and electron withdrawing groups. Photoelectron spectra and photovoltaic properties of the dyes have been investigated by a combination of DFT and TDDFT approaches. Based on the optimized molecular geometry, relative position of the frontier energy levels, and the absorption maximum of the dyes we propose some dyes offering good photovoltaic performance. At the same time, these results provide a direction for optimizing the composition of dye-metal surface nanodevices for fabricating dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). PMID:25335462

  13. Removal of malachite green dye from wastewater by different organic acid-modified natural adsorbent: kinetics, equilibriums, mechanisms, practical application, and disposal of dye-loaded adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hou; Yuan, Xingzhong; Zeng, Guangming; Leng, Lijian; Peng, Xin; Liao, Kailingli; Peng, Lijuan; Xiao, Zhihua

    2014-10-01

    Natural adsorbent (Cinnamomum camphora sawdust) modified by organic acid (oxalic acid, citric acid, and tartaric acid) was investigated as a potential adsorbent for the removal of hazardous malachite green (MG) dye in aqueous media in a batch process. The extent of MG adsorption onto modified sawdust increased with increasing organic acid concentrations, pH, contact time, and temperature but decreased with increasing adsorbent dosage and ionic strength. Kinetic study indicated that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model could best describe the adsorption kinetics of MG. Equilibrium data were found to fit well with the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of the three kinds of organic acid-modified sawdust was 280.3, 222.8, and 157.5 mg/g, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that the sorption of MG was an endothermic process. The adsorption mechanism, the application of adsorbents in practical wastewater, the prediction of single-stage batch adsorption system, and the disposal of depleted adsorbents were also discussed. PMID:25028314

  14. Investigation of the preparation and properties of organic dye/metal oxide composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Steffen; Neumann, F.; Klages, Claus-Peter

    1994-11-01

    In this study the growth, structure and physical, particularly optical properties of composite thin films (copper-phthalocyanine-SiO2) with different dye contents are investigated by means of optical spectroscopy (UV-IR), electron probe micro analysis, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements and compared with the properties of pure dye thin films of different thicknesses and dye/metal oxide multilayer structures, respectively. The composite thin films show spectral shifts and changes in the extension and the intensity of the typical absorption bands in the visible spectral range depending on the dye concentration in the composites. This behavior is accompanied by pronounced color changes, e.g. from blue-green to green in the CuPc-SiO2 system. The results show, that the CuPc- SiO2 composite properties are mainly influenced by the size and kind of dye aggregates in the films (monomer, dimer) and not by interaction of dye molecules with the metal oxide matrix.

  15. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels for organic dye removal from water.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Deepika; Serpe, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    The ability of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAm), and pNIPAm-co-acrylic acid (pNIPAm-co-AAc) microgels to remove an organic azo dye molecule, 4-(2-Hydroxy-1-naphthylazo) benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (Orange II) from aqueous solutions at both room and elevated temperature was assessed. At room temperature, we found that the amount of Orange II removed from water (removal efficiency) increased with increasing AAc and microgel concentration. The removal of Orange II from water was also fit by a Langmuir sorption isotherm model. Furthermore, we found the extent of Orange II removal depended on solution temperature; more Orange II was removed from water at elevated temperature and as the microgels were held at that temperature for longer durations of time. Additionally, by increasing the cycles between high and ambient temperature, the removal of Orange II was enhanced, although this was only true for two temperature cycles. We hypothesize that this is a result of the thermoresponsive nature of pNIPAm-based microgels which deswell at elevated temperature expelling their solvating water and when the microgels are cooled back down they reswell with the Orange II containing water. We also hypothesize that the microgels become saturated after the second heating cycle and so the efficiency of removal did not increase further. Finally, we assessed the ability of the microgels to retain the Orange II after it is removed from the aqueous solution. We determined that the microgels "leak" 25.6% of the Orange II that was originally removed from the water. PMID:21682294

  16. Assessing the fitness of various exchange-correlation functionals for TD-DFT studies of charge-transfer excitations in organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Pratibha; Agrawal, Saurabh; English, Niall

    2012-02-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) are a possible alternative to the more expensive silicon-based cells. Theoretical research in this field has highlighted some of the issues with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) that is widely used to study electronic excitations of matter. The situation is complicated by the fact that several classes of approximations to the exchange correlation functional can be employed, however, not one of these strictly outperforms the others in its description of charge-transfer excitations. In this work, UV-Vis spectra are calculated using TD-DFT for several organic dyes -- alizarin, squaraine, 4-(N, N-dimethylamino) benzonitrile, polyene-linker dyes and triphenylamine-donor dyes. We studied the dyes within three approximations (PBE, B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP) to the exchange-correlation functional. In the dyes considered here, a correlation exists between the functional performance and the spatial overlap of the states involved in the excitations. This overlap can be quantified to provide a good guideline for choosing the right functional when studying intramolecular charge transfer in dyes. It will be an invaluable tool when studying these molecules within more challenging systems, such as dye-titania complexes in DSSCs.

  17. Controlling dye (Merocyanine-540) aggregation on nanostructured TiO{sub 2} films. An organized assembly approach for enhancing the efficiency of photosensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Khazraji, A.C. [Notre Dame Radiation Lab., IN (United States)] [Notre Dame Radiation Lab., IN (United States); [Univ. du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres (Canada). Groupe de Recherche en Energie et Information Biomoleculaires; Hotchandani, S. [Univ. du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres (Canada). Groupe de Recherche en Energie et Information Biomoleculaires] [Univ. du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres (Canada). Groupe de Recherche en Energie et Information Biomoleculaires; Das, S.; Kamat, P.V. [Notre Dame Radiation Lab., IN (United States)] [Notre Dame Radiation Lab., IN (United States)

    1999-06-03

    The anionic cyanine dye Merocyanine 540 (MC540) dissolved in Aerosol-OT (AOT) solutions of heptane and toluene possesses a significantly higher fluorescence quantum yield and excited singlet lifetime than the acetonitrile solutions of the dye. The difference in the photophysical properties observed upon incorporation of the dye into the AOT micelles is attributed to the decrease in the photoisomerization efficiency. The presence of AOT also controls the aggregation and photosensitization behavior of MC540 adsorbed onto TiO{sub 2} semiconductor nanoparticles. MC540 adsorbed onto nanostructured TiO{sub 2} films from acetonitrile solutions contains both the aggregated and monomeric forms of the sensitizer, while the dye-modified films obtained from AOT/heptane solutions contain mainly the monomeric form of the sensitizer. Significant enhancement in the photocurrent generation efficiency has been achieved in photoelectrochemical cells using the AOT encapsulated dye films. An electroactive polymer (poly(4-vinylpyridine)) film cast on the dye-modified TiO{sub 2} electrode has been found to be effective in promoting charge mediation and minimizing dye desorption from the electrode surface. The incident photon-to-photocurrent generation efficiency (IPCE) exhibited by the monomeric form ({approximately}40%) is nearly five times greater than the corresponding efficiency of the aggregate form ({approximately}8%). The beneficial aspects of incorporating dyes in organized assemblies for the purpose of suppressing nonradiative decay of the excited-state sensitizer and minimizing the aggregation effects on semiconductor surfaces are discussed.

  18. An integrated experimental and theoretical approach to the spectroscopy of organic-dye-sensitized TiO? heterointerfaces: disentangling the effects of aggregation, solvation, and surface protonation.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Gabriele; Lobello, Maria Grazia; Anselmi, Chiara; Barozzino Consiglio, Gabriella; Calamante, Massimo; Mordini, Alessandro; Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-04-14

    We report a joint experimental and computational study into the spectroscopic properties of a prototypical D5 organic dye, both in solution and adsorbed on a TiO2 surface, with the aim of modeling and quantifying the UV/Vis spectral shifts that occur in the different explored environments. Going from the dye in solution to dye-sensitized TiO2, various factors may shift the position of the UV/Vis absorption maximum, both towards longer and shorter wavelengths. Here we have focused on the effect of dye aggregation on TiO2, surface protonation, and solvent effects. The D5 dye forms stable aggregates on the TiO2 surface that cause spectral blueshifts. We used different sensitization conditions to vary the dye loading and thus the extent of dye aggregation. For each sensitization condition, we explored protonated and native TiO2 films. Computational modeling of different dimeric aggregates with increasing intermolecular interactions and simulation of the associated optical responses also confirm the observed spectral blueshifts. Our results show that both the presence of surface protons and solvent stabilize the excited state of the adsorbed dye molecules, which causes a marked redshift in the absorption maximum and thus moves in the opposite direction to the shift due to the increase in the surface coverage. PMID:24402779

  19. Synthesis and characterization of organic dyes with various electron-accepting substituents for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Weidelener, Martin; Powar, Satvasheel; Kast, Hannelore; Yu, Ze; Boix, Pablo P; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Geiger, Thomas; Kuster, Simon; Nüesch, Frank; Bach, Udo; Mishra, Amaresh; Bäuerle, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Four new donor-?-acceptor dyes differing in their acceptor group have been synthesized and employed as model systems to study the influence of the acceptor groups on the photophysical properties and in NiO-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. UV/Vis absorption spectra showed a broad range of absorption coverage with maxima between 331 and 653?nm. Redox potentials as well as HOMO and LUMO energies of the dyes were determined from cyclic voltammetry measurements and evaluated concerning their potential use as sensitizers in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs). Quantum-chemical density functional theory calculations gave further insight into the frontier orbital distributions, which are relevant for the electronic processes in p-DSCs. In p-DSCs using an iodide/triiodide-based electrolyte, the polycyclic 9,10-dicyano-acenaphtho[1,2-b]quinoxaline (DCANQ) acceptor-containing dye gave the highest power conversion efficiency of 0.08%, which is comparable to that obtained with the perylenemonoimide (PMI)-containing dye. Interestingly, devices containing the DCANQ-based dye achieve a higher V(OC) of 163?mV compared to 158?mV for the PMI-containing dye. The result was further confirmed by impedance spectroscopic analysis showing higher recombination resistance and thus a lower recombination rate for devices containing the DCANQ dye than for PMI dye-based devices. However, the use of the strong electron-accepting tricyanofurane (TCF) group played a negative role in the device performance, yielding an efficiency of only 0.01% due to a low-lying LUMO energy level, thus resulting in an insufficient driving force for efficient dye regeneration. The results demonstrate that a careful molecular design with a proper choice of the acceptor unit is essential for development of sensitizers for p-DSCs. PMID:25234556

  20. Clickable degradable aliphatic polyesters via copolymerization with alkyne epoxy esters: synthesis and postfunctionalization with organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Teske, Nele S; Voigt, Julia; Shastri, V Prasad

    2014-07-23

    Degradable aliphatic polyesters are the cornerstones of nanoparticle (NP)-based therapeutics. In this paradigm, covalent modification of the NP with cell-targeting motifs and dyes can aid in guiding the NP to its destination and gaining visual confirmation. Therefore, strategies to impart chemistries along the polymer backbone that are amenable to easy modification, such as 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of an azide to an alkyne (the "click reaction"), could be significant. Here we present a simple and efficient way to introduce alkyne groups at high density in aliphatic polyesters without compromising their crystallinity via the copolymerization of cyclic lactones with propargyl 3-methylpentenoate oxide (PMPO). Copolymers of lactic acid and ?-caprolactone with PMPO were synthesized with up to 9 mol % alkyne content, and accessibility of the alkyne groups to the click reaction was demonstrated using several dyes commonly employed in fluorescence microscopy and imaging (Cy3, ATTO-740, and coumarin 343). In order to establish the suitability of these copolymers as nanocarriers, copolymers were formulated into NPs, and cytocompatibility, cellular uptake, and visualization studies undertaken in HeLa cells. Dye-modified NPs exhibited no quenching, remained stable in solution for at least 10 days, showed no cytotoxicity, and were readily taken up by HeLa cells. Furthermore, in addition to enabling the incorporation of multiple fluorophores within the same NP through blending of individual dye-modified copolymers, dye-modified polyesters offer advantages over physical entrapment of dye, including improved signal to noise ratio and localization of the fluorescence signal within cells, and possess the necessary prerequisites for drug delivery and imaging. PMID:24972035

  1. Facile synthesis of PbWO4: Applications in photoluminescence and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraf, Rohit; Shivakumara, C.; Behera, Sukanti; Nagabhushana, H.; Dhananjaya, N.

    2015-02-01

    Stolzite polymorph of PbWO4 catalyst was prepared by the facile room temperature precipitation method. Structural parameters were refined by the Rietveld analysis using powder X-ray data. PbWO4 was crystallized in the scheelite-type tetragonal structure with space group I41/a (No. 88). Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed leaf like morphology. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit broad blue emission (425 nm) under the excitation of 356 nm. The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue, Rhodamine B and Methyl orange dyes were measured under visible illumination. The 100% dye degradation was observed for MB and RhB dyes within 60 and 105 min. The rate constant was found to be in the decreasing order of MB > RhB > MO which followed the 1st order kinetic mechanism. Therefore, PbWO4 can be a potential candidate for blue component in white LEDs and also acts as a catalyst for the treatment of toxic and non-biodegradable organic pollutants in water.

  2. Silicon-containing organic matrices as hosts for highly photostable solid-state dye lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costela, A.; García-Moreno, I.; del Agua, D.; García, O.; Sastre, R.

    2004-09-01

    Modified polymeric matrices incorporating silicon atoms in their structure and doped with lasing dyes have been synthesized and demonstrated to render improved laser performance. When transversely pumped at 532nm, highly stable laser operation with reasonable, not-optimized efficiencies was obtained. Materials were prepared where dyes pyrromethene 567 and pyrromethene 597 emitted laser radiation with no sign of degradation in the laser output, albeit with some oscillations, after 100 000pump pulses in the same position of the sample at 10Hz repetition rate.

  3. Multi-Layered Anisotropic Films Based on the Azo Dye Brilliant Yellow and Organic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplanova, Zh. D.; Murauski, A. A.; Rogachev, A. A.; Agabekov, V. E.; Gracheva, E. A.

    2013-11-01

    A technique for producing multi-layered fi lms containing alternating layers of photo-aligned dichroic azo dye brilliant yellow (BY) dispersed in a matrix of polyvinylpyrrolidone and optically transparent polycyclohexadiene (PCHD) was developed. The optical density of the films depended linearly on the number of layers of dye and its concentration in the initial solutions. It was determined that the surface roughness of the composition BY layer on the PCHD layer was three times less than on single-crystalline silicon substrate (4.8 and 1.5 nm). Multi-layered fi lms based on BY exhibited dichroic absorption and birefringence upon irradiation with linearly polarized light (? = 450 nm).

  4. Catalytic activity of iron species in layered clays for photodegradation of organic dyes under visible irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingming Cheng; Wenjing Song; Wanhong Ma; Chuncheng Chen; Jincai Zhao; Jun Lin; Huaiyong Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The iron species in layered clays are active for catalytically oxidizing synthetic dyes with H2O2 under visible irradiation (?>420nm). Three layered clays, Montmorillonite, Laponite, and Nontronite, in which the iron species exist in different chemical environment, were used to investigate the role of the iron species in the clays. It was found that the reactivity of the iron species greatly

  5. An advanced Ag-based photocatalyst Ag2Ta4O11 with outstanding activity, durability and universality for removing organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongjun; Sun, Jingxue; Chen, Gang; Li, Chunmei; Hu, Yidong; Lv, Chade

    2014-11-21

    Constructing Ag-based photocatalysts by the incorporation of Ag(+) ions into metal/nonmetal oxides for removing organic pollutants is a recently developed strategy, but overcoming their own photocorrosion is still a tremendous challenge. In this work, an advanced Ag-based photocatalyst Ag2Ta4O11 is obtained by this strategy, which exhibits improved photocatalytic activity compared with Ta2O5 and the universality for degrading several organic dyes. Importantly, the Ag2Ta4O11 photocatalyst has outstanding durability and reusability, which indicates that it has potential application prospects for organic wastewater treatment in the printing and dyeing industry. PMID:25277949

  6. Investigation of dye functional group on the photocatalytic degradation of dyes by nano-TiO2.

    PubMed

    Vinu, R; Akki, Spurti U; Madras, Giridhar

    2010-04-15

    The photocatalytic degradation of five anionic, eight cationic and three solvent dyes using combustion-synthesized nano-TiO(2) (CS TiO(2)) and commercial Degussa P-25 TiO(2) (DP-25) were evaluated to determine the effect of the functional group in the dye. The degradation of the dyes was quantified using the initial rate of decolorization and mineralization. The decolorization of the anionic dyes with CS TiO(2) followed the order: indigo carmine > eosin Y > amido black 10B > alizarin cyanine green > orange G. The decolorization of the cationic dyes with DP-25 followed the order: malachite green > pyronin Y > rhodamine 6G > azure B > nile blue sulfate > auramine O approximately = acriflavine approximately = safranin O. CS TiO(2) showed higher rates of decolorization and mineralization for all the anionic dyes compared to DP-25, while DP-25 was better in terms of decolorization for most of the cationic dyes. The solvent dyes exhibited adsorption dependent decolorization. The order of decolorization and mineralization of the anionic and cationic dyes (a) with CS TiO(2) and DP-25 was different and correlated with the surface properties of these catalysts (b) were rationalized with the molecular structure of the dye and the degradation pathway of the dye. PMID:20018445

  7. Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions.

  8. Preparation of C60(O)n-ZnO nanocomposite under electric furnace and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bum Hwi; Oh, Youn Jun; Mun, Sang Mi; Ko, Weon Bae

    2012-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized sonochemically by applying ultrasonic irradiation to a mixed aqueous-alcoholic solution of zinc nitrate with sodium hydroxide at room temperature. The morphology and optical properties of the ZnO nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The C60(O)n nanoparticles were synthesized by heating a mixture of C60 and 3-chloroperoxybenzoic acid in a benzene solvent under the reflux system. The heated C60(O)n-ZnO nanocomposite was synthesized in an electric furnace at 700 degrees C for two hours. The heated C60(O)n-ZnO nanocomposite was characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM, and examined as a catalyst in the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic effect of the heated C60(O)n-ZnO nanocomposite was evaluated by a comparison with that of unheated C60(O)n nanoparticles, heated C60(O)n nanoparticles, and unheated C60(O)n-ZnO in organic dyes, such as methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), and rhodamine B (RhB) under ultraviolet light at 365 nm. PMID:22966679

  9. Organic dyes incorporating the dithieno[3',2':3,4;2?,3?:5,6]benzo[1,2-c]furazan moiety for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jen-Shyang; You, Jian-Hao; Hung, Wei-I; Kao, Wei-Siang; Chou, Hsien-Hsin; Lin, Jiann T

    2014-12-24

    New D-?-A'-?-A type sensitizers (JH dyes), comprised arylamine as the electron donor, dithieno[3',2':3,4;2?,3?:5,6]benzo[1,2-c]furazan (DTBF) in the conjugated spacer, and 2-cyanoacrylic acid as both the acceptor and anchor, have been synthesized. The JH dyes have broad absorption spectra covering the range of 350 to 600 nm with the highest molar extinction coefficient up to >40?000 M(-1) cm(-1). The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated from the dyes exhibited light-to-electricity conversions ranging from 1.42 to 6.18% under simulated AM 1.5 G illumination. Upon adding 10 mM CDCA as the coadsorbent, the best performance cell has the power conversion efficiency of 7.33%, which is close to that of N719-based standard DSSC (7.56%). PMID:25470385

  10. Random lasing in liquid and solid solutions oversaturated with organic laser dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sznitko, Lech; Cyprych, Konrad; Szukalski, Adam; Miniewicz, Andrzej; Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of studies carried out for oversaturated solutions with common laser dye 4- (Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) and 3-(1,1-Dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5- dihydro-1H-pyrazole (DCNP) nonlinear chromophore. We show that oversaturating the solution leads to formation of crystals suspension resulting in strong Mie scattering and thus random laser operation can be observed. The formation of aggregates can be induced be oversaturating the solution or by injection of non-solvent to the dye solution, leading to reduction of solubility limit. Similar situation can be obtained for polymeric matrices for which small crystals are precipitated during layer formation (solvent evaporation) when film is casted from the solution.

  11. Methylene blue but not indigo carmine is toxic to human luteal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, M M; Weitzman, G A; Hogan, S; Breckinridge, S; Miller, M M

    1993-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) is reported to be teratogenic when injected intra-amniotically. Indigo carmine (IC) appears to be a safe alternative. To determine if MB has potential detrimental effects on ovarian tissue, we compared the effect of MB and IC on human granulosa luteal cell (GC) function in vitro. Human oocyte-cumulus complexes were obtained during in vitro fertilization cycles and one to three were placed in an organ culture dish. After insemination with sperm, oocytes were removed the day after retrieval and the attached GC were washed daily for 3 more days by changing 2 mL of culture medium. All the dishes were treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the next 24 h and progesterone (P) production during this interval was taken as baseline. Test chemicals were added with hCG for the next 48 h with daily media changes. The P production during the last 24 h of chemical treatment was expressed as a percentage of the baseline. MB significantly reduced P production whereas IC did not appear to have any effect. Moreover, under inverted microscopy more than 90% of the GC cells contained several small bluish intracellular granules when exposed to 0.01% MB but not 0.01% IC. These results indicate that MB may be taken up and processed by GC cells and inhibits P production. This finding adds to previous reports on the use of in vitro GC assay to identify potential reproductive toxicants. The clinical significance of this preliminary study needs further investigation. PMID:8118115

  12. Smectite clays of Serbia and their application in adsorption of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloševi?, Maja; Logar, Mihovil

    2014-05-01

    Colorants and dyes are currently available in over a 100.000 different species and several biggest industries are using them daily in their manufacture processes (textile, cosmetics, food industry, etc.). Since colorants are easily dissoluble in water they pass through filter membranes without further decomposing and in that manner they end up in the environment. The main goal of this work is to apply certain methods in determining the suitability of individual clay in adsorbing and removing colorants from polluted waters. For this study we have chosen four different raw clays from three regions in Serbia: Svrljig (B), Bogovina (Bo) and Slatina-Ub (C and V) and as colorant - methylene blue dye (MB (MERCK, for analytical purposes)). Experiments where carried out to determine the sample structure (XRD and IR), grain size (granulometry), cationic exchange capacity (CEC via spectrophotometry using MB) and adsorption capabilities (spectrophotometry and fluorimetry using MB). XRD and IR data are showing that the samples are smectite clays where samples B i Bo are mainly montmorillonite while C and V are montmorillonite-illite clays. Granulometric distribution results indicate that samples B i Bo have smaller grain size, less that 1? (over 60%) whereas the samples C and V are more coarse grained (40% over 20?). This grain distribution is affecting their specific surface area in the manner that those coarse grained samples have smaller specific surface area. Cationic exchange capacity determined with methylene blue indicate that montmorillonite samples have larger CEC (B = 37 meq/100g, Bo = 50 meq/100g) and montmorillonite-illite samples smaller CEC (V = 5 meq/100g, V = 3 meq/100g). Fluorimetry measurement results gave us a clear distinction between those with higher and smaller adsorption capability. Montmorillonite samples (B and Bo) with higher CEC values and smaller grain size are adsorbing large amounts of methylene blue witch is visible by absence of fluorimetric band corresponding to methylene blue. Montmorillonite-illite samples with smaller CEC values and coarser grain size are adsorbing very small amounts of methylene blue from the suspension which is visible by appearance of the methylene blue band. Untreated, raw smectite clays of Serbia are efficient adsorbent material for removal of dyes from polluted waters. Samples from two regions especially, Bogovina and Svrljig, are showing favorable adsorption results and they are representing good raw materials for purification of waste-waters containing dyes. References: - Jovi?-Jovi?i?, N., Milutinovi?-Nikoli?, A., Gržeti?, I., Jovanovi?, D.; Organobentonite as efficient textile dye sorbent; Chem. Eng. Technol. 2008, 31, No. 4, 567-574 - Žuni?, M.J., Milutinovi?-Nikoli?, A.D., Jovi?-Jovi?i?, N.P., Bankovi?, P.T., Mojovi?, Z.D., Manojlovi?, D.D., Jovanovi?, D.M.; Modified bentonite as adsorbent and catalyst for purification of wastewaters containing dyes; Hem. ind. 2010, 64 ,No. 3, 193-199

  13. Electrochemical oxidation of bio-refractory dye in a simulated textile industry effluent using DSA electrodes in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisca A; Mateo, María N; Aceves, Juan M; Rivero, Eligio P; González, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a study on degradation of indigo carmine dye in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor using Sb2O5-doped Ti/IrO2-SnO2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Micro- and macroelectrolysis studies were carried out using solutions of 0.8 mM indigo carmine in 0.05 M NaCl, which resemble blue denim laundry industrial wastewater. Microelectrolysis results show the behaviour of DSA electrodes in comparison with the behaviour of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. In general, dye degradation reactions are carried out indirectly through active chlorine generated on DSA, whereas in the case of BDD electrodes more oxidizing species are formed, mainly OH radicals, on the electrode surface. The well-characterized geometry, flow pattern and mass transport of the FM01-LC reactor used in macroelectrolysis experiments allowed the evaluation of the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the chlorine-mediated degradation rate. Four values of Reynolds number (Re) (93, 371, 464 and 557) at four current densities (50, 100, 150 and 200 A/m2) were tested. The results show that the degradation rate is independent of Re at low current density (50 A/m2) but becomes dependent on the Re at high current density (200 A/m2). This behaviour shows the central role of mass transport and the reactor parameters and design. The low energy consumption (2.02 and 9.04 kWh/m3 for complete discolouration and chemical oxygen demand elimination at 50 A/m2, respectively) and the low cost of DSA electrodes compared to BDD make DSA electrodes promising for practical application in treating industrial textile effluents. In the present study, chlorinated organic compounds were not detected. PMID:23837306

  14. Photophysical characterization of pyrromethene 597 laser dye in cross-linked silicon-containing organic copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, A.; del Agua, D.; Penzkofer, A.; García, O.; Sastre, R.; Costela, A.; García-Moreno, I.

    2007-12-01

    Samples of the dipyrromethene-BF 2 dye PM597 incorporated in copolymers of 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl 2-methylprop-2-enoate (TMSPMA, number of polymerizable CC double bonds: ? = 1) with 2-(2-methylprop-2-enoyloxy)ethyl 2-methylprop-2-enoate (EGDMA, ? = 2), [2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-prop-2-(prop-2-enoyloxymethyl)propyl] prop-2-enoate (PETA, ? = 3), and [3-prop-2-enoyloxy-2,2-bis(prop-2-2-enoyloxymethyl)propyl]prop-2-enoate (PETRA, ? = 4) are characterized. The fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, degrees of fluorescence polarization, and fluorescence lifetimes are measured. The radiative lifetimes are calculated from fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield. Absorption coefficient spectra are determined from transmission measurements. Absolute absorption cross-section spectra and dye concentrations are obtained by calibration to the radiative lifetimes and to saturable absorptions. Excited-state absorption cross-sections at 527 nm are determined by saturable absorption measurements. The photo-degradation is studied under cw laser excitation conditions and quantum yields of photo-degradation are extracted. The excited-state absorption cross-sections were found to be rather small, and the photo-stability turned out to be high (up to 3 million excitation cycles before degradation) making this class of dipyrromethene dye-doped polymers attractive active laser media. Structural and thermo-mechanical properties of the materials have been determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, densitometry, and refractometry. They improve with increasing inter-crossing (copolymerization of TMSPMA with PETA and PETRA). The laser properties of the PM597 doped copolymers were evaluated by transverse pumping with 6 ns laser pulses at 532 nm. The best laser materials resulted to be the 7:3 and 9:1 TMSPMA-monomer copolymers.

  15. UV light induced photodegradation of organic dye by ZnO nanocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumesh, C. K.; Patel, Bhavin; Parekh, Kinnari

    2013-06-01

    Ultraviolet light induced photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanocatalyst prepared using a wet chemical precipitation route and mineralization of the methyl orange (MO) dye has been carried out in a photocatalytic reactor. The degradation of the MO was monitored spectrophotometrically and showed a decolorization efficiency of 92% after nine hours of irradiation in the MO-ZnO/UV light system. The blue shifting of maximum peak position of the MO and the formation of extra peak at 247 nm during irradiation time advances revealed that MO degrades in the form of intermediates during the photocatalytic process.

  16. Quantum chemistry study on absorption spectra, electronic and electrical properties of organic dye on anatase(001).

    PubMed

    Lv, Chen; Ogiyal, Kei; Suzuki, Ai; Sahnoun, Riadh; Koyama, Michihisa; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Del Carpio, Carlos A; Deka, Ramesh C; Kubo, Momoji; Miyamoto, Akira

    2010-04-01

    As the most reactive surface, the stoichiometric O-bridge terminated anatase(001) surface attracted considerable attentions in many application fields. The interfacial electron transfer in dye-sensitized anatase(001) plays a principal role in a variety of photoinduced reactions. In the present work, the UV-vis absorption spectrum of TiO2 bulk and different surface models were calculated by means of tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics program "Colors-excite" for the first time. The thickness dependence on electronic and electrical properties of anatase(001) surface was achieved. The anatase(001) surface with a thickness of 1.0 nm shows excellent electronic and electrical properties. Moreover, the most suitable binding mode (dissociative adsorption) and absorption spectra of perylene with acrylic acid (PAA) on the optimum anatase(001) were investigated. A significant red-shift was observed from the UV-vis absorption spectrum of PAA/anatase(001) system. The red-shift occurring when PAA adsorbed on anatase(001) surface suggests that PAA/anatase(001) may be potential candidate for dye-sensitized solar cell. This study also proposed an effective computational tool "Colors-excite" to study of the electronic excitation properties for both molecular and periodic systems. PMID:20355445

  17. Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2006-07-31

    The abundant lignocellulosic agricultural waste, coir pith is used to develop ZnCl(2) activated carbon and applied to the removal of toxic anions, heavy metals, organic compounds and dyes from water. Sorption of inorganic anions such as nitrate, thiocyanate, selenite, chromium(VI), vanadium(V), sulfate, molybdate, phosphate and heavy metals such as nickel(II) and mercury(II) has been studied. Removal of organics such as resorcinol, 4-nitrophenol, catechol, bisphenol A, 2-aminophenol, quinol, O-cresol, phenol and 2-chlorophenol has also been investigated. Uptake of acidic dyes such as acid brilliant blue, acid violet, basic dyes such as methylene blue, rhodamine B, direct dyes such as direct red 12B, congo red and reactive dyes such as procion red, procion orange were also examined to assess the possible use of the adsorbent for the treatment of contaminated ground water. Favorable conditions for maximum removal of all adsorbates at the adsorbate concentration of 20 mg/L were used. Results show that ZnCl(2) activated coir pith carbon is effective for the removal of toxic pollutants from water. PMID:16406295

  18. Novel D-?-A organic dyes with thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene unit as a ?-bridge for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells with long-term stability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Woo; Kim, Jae-Yup; Lee, Duck-Hyung; Ko, Min Jae

    2014-03-26

    This paper reports on new D-?-A organic dyes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which were developed by incorporating thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-thiophene (M9) and thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-EDOT (M10) as ?-bridges. These dyes exhibited relatively small highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy gaps in spite of the short ?-conjugation lengths, resulting in broad spectral responses. As photosensitizers in DSSCs, M10 showed a broader spectral response than M9, leading to a greater short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc). In addition, M10 exhibited higher open-circuit voltage (Voc) compared to M9, because of the greater electron lifetime of the photoanode. The impedance analysis revealed that the greater electron lifetime of the photoanode with M10 was attributed to the lower electron recombination rate caused by the blocking effect of the bulky EDOT unit. As a result, M10 showed much higher conversion efficiency (? = 7.00%) than M9 (? = 5.67%) under one sun condition (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW/cm(2)). This conversion efficiency was comparable to that of the conventional Ru-based dye N719 (? = 7.24%) under the same condition. In addition, M10 exhibited a remarkable long-term stability, i.e., 95% of the initial conversion efficiency was maintained after light soaking for 45 days (1080 h). PMID:24559244

  19. The energy transfer mechanism of a photoexcited and electroluminescent organic hybrid thin film of blue, green, and red laser dyes.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiling; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Yanqiong; Chen, Guo; Cai, Miao; Wei, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Though optically pumped lasing has been realized for years, electrically pumped lasing has not yet been achieved in organic semiconductor devices. In order to make a better understanding of the laser mechanisms of the organic materials, we prepared organic thin films consisting of three efficient laser dyes of a blue emitter, 4?,4?'-N,N-diphenylamine-4,4'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl (BN), a green emitter, 1,4-bis[2-[4-[N,N-di(p-tolyl)amino] phenyl]vinyl]benzene (DSB), and a red emitter, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidy-l-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) with different doping concentrations for the first time to investigate the cascade energy transfer process. The energy transfer schemes in the co-doped thin films in photoluminescence and electroluminescence have been investigated. The results indicated that the DSB molecules acted as a bridge to deliver energy more effectively from the host (BN) to the guest (DCJTB). Meanwhile, the maximum current efficiency (C E) and power efficiency (P E) of the organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with the emitting layer of lower doping concentration were 13.5 cd/A and 14.1 lm/W, respectively. PMID:25977665

  20. High-performance organic thin-film transistors of J-stacked squaraine dyes.

    PubMed

    Gsänger, Marcel; Kirchner, Eva; Stolte, Matthias; Burschka, Christian; Stepanenko, Vladimir; Pflaum, Jens; Würthner, Frank

    2014-02-12

    We have synthesized a series of dipolar squaraine dyes that contain dicyanovinyl groups as acceptor and benzannulated five-membered ring heterocycles with alkyl chains of varied length as donor moieties. Based on these squaraines, thin-film transistors (TFT) were fabricated by spin coating and solution shearing. Moreover, with one of these squaraine derivatives vacuum-deposited TFTs were prepared as well. Our detailed studies revealed that the transistor performance of the present series of squaraines is strongly dependent on their structural features as well as on the processing method of thin films. Thus, solution-sheared OTFTs of selenium squaraine bearing dodecyl substituents (denoted as Se-SQ-C12) performed best with a maximum hole mobility of 0.45 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which is by far the highest value yet reported for OTFTs based on squaraines. This value was even surpassed by vacuum-deposited thin films of n-butyl-substituted selenium squaraine Se-SQ-C4, the only sublimable compound in this series, exhibiting a record hole mobility of 1.3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Furthermore, we have investigated the morphology of the thin films and the molecular packing of these squaraine dyes by optical spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. These studies revealed a relationship between the molecular structure, packing motif, thin-film morphology, and transistor performance of the squaraine dyes. From the supramolecular point of view two packing features discovered in the single crystal structure of Se-SQ-C8 are of particular interest with regard to the structure-functionality relationship: The first is the slipped and antiparallel ?-stacking motif which ensures cancellation of the molecules' dipole moments and J-type absorption band formation in thin films. The second is the presence of CN···Se noncovalent bonds which show similarities to the more common halogen-bonding interactions and which interconnect the individual one-dimensional slipped ?-stacks, thus leading to two-dimensional percolation pathways along the source-drain direction. PMID:24432873

  1. Fluorescence spectra of organic dyes in solution: a time dependent multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Barone, Vincenzo; Bloino, Julien; Monti, Susanna; Pedone, Alfonso; Prampolini, Giacomo

    2011-02-14

    Classical all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum mechanical (QM) time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations are employed to study the conformational and photophysical properties of the first emitter excited state of tetramethyl-rhodamine iso-thiocyanate fluorophore in aqueous solution. For this purpose, a specific and accurate force field has been parameterised from QM data to model the fluorophore's first bright excited state. During the MD simulations, the consequences of the ???* electronic transition on the structure and microsolvation sphere of the dye has been analysed in some detail and compared to the ground state behaviour. Thereafter, fluorescence has been calculated at the TD-DFT level on configurations sampled from the simulated MD trajectories, allowing us to include time dependent solvent effects in the computed emission spectrum. The latter, when compared with the absorption spectrum, reproduces well the experimental Stokes shift, further validating the proposed multilevel computational procedure. PMID:21127788

  2. Theoretical multilevel approach for studying the photophysical properties of organic dyes in solution.

    PubMed

    Barone, Vincenzo; Bloino, Julien; Monti, Susanna; Pedone, Alfonso; Prampolini, Giacomo

    2010-09-21

    Classical all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum mechanical time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations are employed to study the conformational and photophysical properties of tetramethylrhodamine iso-thiocyanate (TRITC) in solution. The potential energy surface (PES) is explored and the minimum energy structure is identified both in water and ethanol. An accurate force-field is parameterized on the computed quantum mechanical data and used in the classical dynamics to take into account solute vibrations and solvent effects. Several configurations, extracted from the MD trajectories, are employed to investigate absorbance spectra in a time dependent approach, considering solvation models of increasing complexity. Explicit- and implicit-solvent approaches, as well as combinations of them are used to predict and explain the absorption properties and the electronic structure of the dye. The defined theoretical methodology succeeds in reproducing correctly the available experimental data. PMID:20614057

  3. Aqueous synthesis of hierarchical bismuth nanobundles with high catalytic activity to organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dechong; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Jingzhe; Li, Yawen; Lu, Yan; Zhao, Duijia

    2015-07-01

    Bundle-like bismuth (Bi) nanoarchitectures were successfully prepared on a large scale by an aqueous reducing strategy with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as directing agent at 90 °C for 55 min. The bundle-like Bi nanoarchitectures have a length of 4-5 ?m and diameter of 0.5-1 ?m with fairly uniform construction. Catalytic activities of the as-prepared hierarchical Bi nanobundles were investigated for degrading Rhodamine B (RhB) dye solution under visible-light irradiation. The Bi nanostructures extended excellent catalytic activity and good cycling performance toward photodegradation of RhB. Possible mechanism was proposed for Bi-assisted photocatalytic degradation of RhB under visible-light.

  4. Metal-free organic sensitizers for use in water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Swierk, John R; Méndez-Hernández, Dalvin D; McCool, Nicholas S; Liddell, Paul; Terazono, Yuichi; Pahk, Ian; Tomlin, John J; Oster, Nolan V; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L; Gust, Devens; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2015-02-10

    Solar fuel generation requires the efficient capture and conversion of visible light. In both natural and artificial systems, molecular sensitizers can be tuned to capture, convert, and transfer visible light energy. We demonstrate that a series of metal-free porphyrins can drive photoelectrochemical water splitting under broadband and red light (? > 590 nm) illumination in a dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. We report the synthesis, spectral, and electrochemical properties of the sensitizers. Despite slow recombination of photoinjected electrons with oxidized porphyrins, photocurrents are low because of low injection yields and slow electron self-exchange between oxidized porphyrins. The free-base porphyrins are stable under conditions of water photoelectrolysis and in some cases photovoltages in excess of 1 V are observed. PMID:25583488

  5. Photophysical characterization of pyrromethene 597 laser dye in silicon-containing organic matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susdorf, T.; Del Agua, D.; Tyagi, A.; Penzkofer, A.; García, O.; Sastre, R.; Costela, A.; García-Moreno, I.

    2007-02-01

    Samples of dipyrromethene-BF2 dye PM597 incorporated in copolymers of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA) with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), and in terpolymers of MMA, HEMA and TMSPMA are characterized. The absorption cross-section spectra, stimulated emission cross-section spectra, and the excited-state absorption cross-section at 527 nm are determined. The fluorescence quantum distributions and fluorescence lifetimes are measured. The photo-degradation is studied under cw laser excitation conditions and quantum yields of photo-degradation are extracted. PM597 solid state samples are compared with PM597 in liquid ethyl acetate solution. The fluorescence quantum yield of PM597 is higher in doped samples (around 70%) compared to PM597 in ethyl acetate (43%). The excited-state absorption cross-section was found to be negligibly small. The photo-stability is considerably larger in the polymeric samples compared to the liquid solutions.

  6. Surface modification with MK-2 organic dye in a ZnO/P3HT hybrid solar cell: Impact on device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yu Jin; An, Tae Kyu; Oh, Seung-Jeong; Chung, Dae Sung; Park, Chan Eon

    2014-07-01

    The photovoltaic performance of a hybrid ZnO/P3HT heterojunction was improved by modifying the device surface with the MK-2 dye. This organic dye enhanced the compatibility between the polymer and the metal oxide, increased the exciton separation efficiency, and improved the molecular ordering in the charge transport network. The resulting device displayed a substantial enhancement in the photocurrent, open circuit voltage, and fill factor, leading to a 12-fold increase in the power conversion efficiency relative to the unmodified device, from 0.13% to 1.53%.

  7. Dissolved organic matter removal using magnetic anion exchange resin treatment on biological effluent of textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Li, Haibo; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Wentao; Li, Aimin

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from real dyeing bio-treatment effluents (DBEs) with the use of a novel magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP). DOMs in two typical DBEs were fractionized using DAX-8/XAD-4 resin and ultrafiltration membranes. The hydrophilic fractions and the low molecular weight (MW) (<3kDa) DOM fractions constituted a major portion (>50%) of DOMs for the two effluents. The hydrophilic and low MW fractions of both effluents were the greatest contributors of specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254), and the SUVA254 of DOM fractions decreased with hydrophobicity and MW. Two DBEs exhibited acute and chronic biotoxicities. Both acute and chronic toxicities of DOM fractions increased linearly with the increase of SUVA254 value. Kinetics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal via NDMP treatment was performed by comparing it with that of particle active carbon (PAC). Results indicated that the removal of DOC from DBEs via NDMP was 60%, whereas DOC removals by PAC were lower than 15%. Acidic organics could be significantly removed with the use of NDMP. DOM with large MW in DBE could be removed significantly by using the same means. Removal efficiency of NDMP for DOM decreased with the decrease of MW. Compared with PAC, NDMP could significantly reduce the acute and chronic bio-toxicities of DBEs. NaCl/NaOH mixture regenerants, with selected concentrations of 10% NaCl (m/m)/1% NaOH (m/m), could improve desorption efficiency. PMID:25108712

  8. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanofibers and their flexible composite films: Decomposition of organic dyes and efficient H 2 generation from ethanol-water mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Chung Wu; András Sápi; Anna Avila; Mária Szabó; Jussi Hiltunen; Mika Huuhtanen; Géza Tóth; Ákos Kukovecz; Zoltán Kónya; Riitta Keiski; Wei-Fang Su; Heli Jantunen; Krisztián Kordás

    2011-01-01

    TiO2 nanofibers decorated with Pt and Pd nanoparticles have been synthesized and studied in various photocatalytic processes.\\u000a Excellent photocatalytic behavior in the decomposition of organic dyes in water, degradation of organic stains on the surface\\u000a of flexible freestanding cellulose\\/catalyst composite films and in generation of hydrogen from ethanol using both suspended\\u000a and immobilized catalysts are demonstrated. The performance of the

  9. Effects of surface modification on dye-sensitized solar cell based on an organic dye with naphtho[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene as the conjugated linker.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxu; Guo, Lei; Xia, Ping Fang; Zheng, Fan; Wong, Man Shing; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2014-02-12

    We have investigated the effects of surface modification on the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on a donor-(?-spacer)-acceptor organic dye. A major challenge for donor-(?-spacer)--acceptor molecules as sensitizers in DSSCs is the fast recombination reactions that occur at both the photoanode (e.g., TiO2) surface and the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode, which presents unfavorable effects on the DSSC performance. The two interfaces of TiO2/electrolyte and FTO/electrolyte are passivated selectively in a DSSC using an organic dye with Naphtho[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene as the conjugated linker and the I(-)/I3(-) electrolyte. The current density-voltage characteristics, the dark current analysis, the open circuit voltage-light intensity dependence, and the transient photovoltage/photocurrent results indicate that the recombination processes are affected strongly by surface passivation under variable light intensity. At high light intensity, the recombination reaction at the TiO2 surface is dominant. In this case, silane passivation of the TiO2 surface can suppress recombination significantly, while the c-TiO2 layer makes little contribution to the reduction of the recombination. At low illumination intensity, the recombination at FTO becomes significant, and the recombination can be reduced by applying a c-TiO2 layer. PMID:24377275

  10. Relationship between temperature-induced changes in internal microscopic structures of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels and organic dye uptake behavior.

    PubMed

    Kureha, Takuma; Sato, Takaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke

    2014-07-29

    Temperature-induced changes in the internal structures of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAm) microgels were evaluated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and the results were used to explain organic dye uptake by the microgels. The dye uptake experiments were conducted using two organic dyes: cationic rhodamine 6G (R6G) and anionic erythrosine. In the SAXS investigation, the internal structures of the microgels were characterized in terms of the correlation length, ?, and the distance, d*, which originated from the local packing of the isopropyl groups of two neighboring chains. With increasing temperature up to the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the microgels, the correlation length, ?, was increased and the distance, d*, was decreased. At the same time, the amounts of the dyes taken up by the pNIPAm microgels were increased, despite a decrease in the volume of the microgels. The results indicated that the pNIPAm chains were closer to each other due to the hydrophobic association of isopropyl groups, which resulted in the growth of the hydrophobic domains. Thus, the hydrophobic interactions between the dyes and pNIPAm were probably accompanied by the domain formation. With a further increase of temperature above the VPTT, the correlation length, ?, was decreased and then not defined because the Ornstein-Zernike type contribution disappeared, and the distance, d*, was not largely changed. At the same time, the uptake amounts of the dyes per unit volume of the microgels were also not largely changed, which behaved similar to the distance, d*. It was probably due to the fact that the internal structures of the microgels were not largely changed because the isopropyl groups were in contact with each other. The view was supported by the result of the uptake study of the nonthermoresponsive microgels which did not have the hydrophobic isopropyl groups. PMID:25003512

  11. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on nanostructured organic dyes/DNA/polyelectrolyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Evtugyn, Gennady A; Stepanova, Veronika B; Porfireva, Anna V; Zamaleeva, Alsu I; Fakhrullin, Rawil R

    2014-09-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexes based on electropolymerized phenothiazine dyes (Methylene Blue and Methylene Green), poly(allylamine hydrochloride), polystyrene sulfonate and native DNA from salmon sperm have been for the first time obtained by self-assembling on the glassy carbon electrode using the layer-by-layer assembly and characterized using direct current voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The changes in the charge transfer resistance and capacitance are attributed to the charge separation and the regularity of the layers depending on the number of layers and the position of DNA within the complex. Fenton reagent increases the resistance of the outer interface of the modifier with the maximal effect for the coatings including polymeric form of Methylene Green based coatings and direct contact of the DNA and polyphenothiazines. Meanwhile the selectivity of the response was found higher for the coatings based on poly(Methylene Blue). The difference in the behavior of the polyelectrolyte complex including different components makes it possible to distinguish the response related to the DNA damage and changes in the redox status of polyphenothiazines. PMID:25924325

  12. Carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals detected by energy transfer to organic dye molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ying; Hua, Zheng; Wang, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Chunfeng; Xiao, Min

    2012-01-01

    Carrier multiplication describes an interesting optical phenomenon in semiconductors whereby more than one electron-hole pair, or exciton, can be simultaneously generated upon absorption of a single high-energy photon. So far, it has been highly debated whether the carrier multiplication efficiency is enhanced in semiconductor nanocrystals as compared with their bulk counterpart. The controversy arises from the fact that the ultrafast optical methods currently used need to correctly account for the false contribution of charged excitons to the carrier multiplication signals. Here we show that this charged exciton issue can be resolved in an energy transfer system, where biexcitons generated in the donor nanocrystals are transferred to the acceptor dyes, leading to an enhanced fluorescence from the latter. With the biexciton Auger and energy transfer lifetime measurements, an average carrier multiplication efficiency of ~17.1% can be roughly estimated in CdSe nanocrystals when the excitation photon energy is ~2.46 times of their energy gap. PMID:23132020

  13. Determination of Trace Amounts of Molybdenum in Waters with Carminic Acid by Ion-Exchange Spectrofluorimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Luis VILCHEZ; Gonzalo SÁNCHEZ-PALENCIA; Rosario BLANC; Ramiro AVIDAD; Alberto NAVALÓN

    1994-01-01

    A spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of trace amounts of molybdenum was developed, based on ion-exchange spectrofluorimetry (IEF). Molybdenum reacts with carminic acid to give a red fluorescent complex, which was fixed on a dextran-type anion-exchange gel. The fluorescence of the gel, packed on a 1-mm quartz cell, was measured directly using a solid-surface attachment. The applicable concentration range was

  14. Organic sensitizers featuring a planar indeno[1,2-b]-thiophene for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kimin; Ju, Myung Jong; Song, Juman; Choi, In Taek; Do, Kwangsuk; Choi, Hyeju; Song, Kihyung; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Ko, Jaejung

    2013-08-01

    An efficient organic sensitizer (JK-306) featuring a planar indeno[1,2-b]thiophene as the ?-linker of a bridging unit for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was synthesized. The sensitizer had a strong molar absorption coefficient and a red-shifted absorption band compared with JK-305, which resulted in a significant increase in the short-circuit photocurrent density. We incorporated a highly congested bulky amino group into the 2',4'-dihexyloxybiphenyl-4-yl moiety, an electron donor, to diminish the charge recombination and to prevent aggregation of the sensitizer. Under standard AM 1.5G solar conditions, JK-306-sensitized cells in the presence of co-adsorbents chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and 4-[bis(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)amino]benzoic acid (HC-A), which afforded an overall conversion efficiency of 8.37% and 8.52%, respectively. Upon changing the I(-) /I3 (-) electrolyte to the Co(II) /Co(III) redox couple, the cell gave rise to a significantly improved conversion efficiency of 10.02% with the multifunctional HC-A, which is one of the highest values reported for DSSCs with a cobalt-based electrolyte. Furthermore, the JK-306-based solar cell with a polymer gel electrolyte revealed a high conversion efficiency of 7.61%, which is one of the highest values for cells based on organic sensitizers. PMID:23788486

  15. Straightforward fabrication of stable white LEDs by embedding of inorganic UV-LEDs into bulk polymerized polymethyl-methacrylate doped with organic dyes

    PubMed Central

    Di Martino, Daniela; Beverina, Luca; Sassi, Mauro; Brovelli, Sergio; Tubino, Riccardo; Meinardi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Stable white-emitting down-converted LEDs are straightforwardly prepared by bulk polymerization of an organic dye doped polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) shell directly on top of a highly efficient commercial blue-emitting InGaN LED. Our optimized polymerization procedure allows for extending the form factor of achievable luminescence converter (LUCO) material beyond the conventional thin film form and to directly produce devices with light bulb design. The selected organic dyes, the blue-emitting Coumarin 30 and a red-emitting diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative, exhibit high compatibility with the free radical polymerization reaction of the PMMA matrix and ensure high stability of the final hybrid device. The control of both the thickness of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the dopant dyes allow for fine tuning of the emission color of the LUCO LED and to obtain white light with CIE chromatic coordinates x = 0.32 and y = 0.33, with rendering index as high as 80. This simple and versatile procedure is not dye-exclusive and is therefore extendable to other molecular systems for color-tunable efficient solid-state lighting sources. PMID:24638041

  16. Multiple-state interfacial electron injection competes with excited state relaxation and de-excitation to determine external quantum efficiencies of organic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Yang, Lin; Yan, Cancan; Ma, Wentao; Wang, Peng

    2014-10-14

    A comprehensive description of the complicated dynamics of excited state evolution and charge transfer at the photochemical interface in dye-sensitized solar cells is crucial to understand the mechanism of converting solar photons to clean electricity, providing an informative basis for the future development of advanced organic materials. By selecting two triarylamine-based organic donor-acceptor dyes characteristic of the respective benzoic acid and cyanoacrylic acid anchors, in this paper we reveal stepwise excited state relaxations and multiple-state electron injections at a realistic titania/dye/electrolyte interface based upon ultrafast spectroscopic measurements and theoretical simulations. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations show that the optically generated "hot" excited state of the dye molecules can undergo a significant conformational relaxation via multistage torsional motions, and thereby transform into an equilibrium quinonoid structure characteristic of a more planar conjugated backbone. A set of kinetic parameters derived from the target analysis of femtosecond transient absorption spectra have been utilized to estimate the electron injection yield, which is in good accord with the maximum of external quantum efficiencies. PMID:25156537

  17. Straightforward fabrication of stable white LEDs by embedding of inorganic UV-LEDs into bulk polymerized polymethyl-methacrylate doped with organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Martino, Daniela; Beverina, Luca; Sassi, Mauro; Brovelli, Sergio; Tubino, Riccardo; Meinardi, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    Stable white-emitting down-converted LEDs are straightforwardly prepared by bulk polymerization of an organic dye doped polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) shell directly on top of a highly efficient commercial blue-emitting InGaN LED. Our optimized polymerization procedure allows for extending the form factor of achievable luminescence converter (LUCO) material beyond the conventional thin film form and to directly produce devices with light bulb design. The selected organic dyes, the blue-emitting Coumarin 30 and a red-emitting diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative, exhibit high compatibility with the free radical polymerization reaction of the PMMA matrix and ensure high stability of the final hybrid device. The control of both the thickness of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the dopant dyes allow for fine tuning of the emission color of the LUCO LED and to obtain white light with CIE chromatic coordinates x = 0.32 and y = 0.33, with rendering index as high as 80. This simple and versatile procedure is not dye-exclusive and is therefore extendable to other molecular systems for color-tunable efficient solid-state lighting sources.

  18. Detection of volatile organic compounds through a sensing film of TiO II doped with organic dyes deposited on an optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz A., S.; Ramos M., J.; Martínez H., C.; Castillo M., J.; Beltrán P., G.; Palomino M., R.

    2007-03-01

    The necessity of detection and recognition of different types of gases, such as volatile organic compounds, which are frequently found in food and beverage industries among others, requires the development of different types of sensors. In this work, an application of optical fiber for the detection of volatile organic compounds, particularly ethanol is presented. The sensor was constructed removing a portion of the cladding and depositing instead a sensing titanium dioxide (TiO II) film doped with an organic dye (rhodamine 6G) by the sol-gel method. The sensor response was measured in a Teflon chamber where the sample to be measured was injected. A He-Ne laser beam was coupled to the fiber and the variation in the output power was measured which indicates the gas presence. The difference between the output power with and without gas gives a measure of the concentration that exists in the chamber. The experimental results showed that for an ethanol concentration range from 0 to 10500 ppm, the response of the sensor was approximately linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9924.

  19. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Various Dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Yuliarto; Fahiem Fanani; M. Kasyful Fuadi; Nugraha

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the development of organic dyes as an attempt to reduce material costs of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Indonesia, a country with variety and considerable number of botanical resources, is suitable to perform the research. Indonesian black rice, curcuma, papaya leaf, and the combination were chosen as organic dyes source. Dyes were extracted using organic solvent and adsorbed

  20. Transparent Organic Photodetector using a Near-Infrared Absorbing Cyanine Dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Jenatsch, Sandra; de Jonghe, Jelissa; Nüesch, Frank; Steim, Roland; Véron, Anna C.; Hany, Roland

    2015-03-01

    Organic photodetectors are interesting for low cost, large area optical sensing applications. Combining organic semiconductors with discrete absorption bands outside the visible wavelength range with transparent and conductive electrodes allows for the fabrication of visibly transparent photodetectors. Visibly transparent photodetectors can have far reaching impact in a number of areas including smart displays, window-integrated electronic circuits and sensors. Here, we demonstrate a near-infrared sensitive, visibly transparent organic photodetector with a very high average visible transmittance of 68.9%. The transmitted light of the photodetector under solar irradiation exhibits excellent transparency colour perception and rendering capabilities. At a wavelength of 850 nm and at -1 V bias, the photoconversion efficiency is 17% and the specific detectivity is 1012 Jones. Large area photodetectors with an area of 1.6 cm2 are demonstrated.

  1. Organic dyes in Byzantine and post-Byzantine icons from Chalkidiki (Greece)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis Karapanagiotis; Lemonia Valianou; Sister Daniilia; Yannis Chryssoulakis

    2007-01-01

    The present study is probably the first attempt to record the organic colouring materials found in Byzantine and post-Byzantine icons, made in the Mount Athos area and in the adjacent area of Chalkidiki. Fifteen icons, dated from the 14th to the 19th century were tested by Optical Microscopy (OM), employed to reveal the existing pigment layers and High Performance Liquid

  2. Synthesis of a Near-Infrared Emitting Squaraine Dye in an Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Patrick; Levine, Mindy

    2012-01-01

    Squaraines are a class of organic fluorophores that possess unique photophysical properties, including strong near-infrared absorption and emission. The synthesis of many squaraines involves the condensation of an electron-rich aromatic ring with squaric acid. These reactions are generally refluxed overnight in a benzene-butanol solvent mixture.…

  3. New fluoranthene-based cyanine dye for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenjun Wu; Fuling Guo; Jing Li; Jinxiang He; Jianli Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new fluoranthene-based unsymmetrical organic cyanine dye I and the corresponding cyanine dye II containing ethynyl unit for the purpose of comparison were designed and synthesized as sensitizers for the application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The absorption spectra, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of I and II were extensively investigated. The DSSCs based on the fluoranthene dye

  4. Three N-H functionalized metal-organic frameworks with selective CO2 uptake, dye capture, and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu; Wang, Yan-Mei; Zhao, Sheng-Yun; Liu, Pan; Wei, Chao; Wu, Yun-Long; Xia, Chang-Kun; Xie, Ji-Min

    2014-07-21

    Three N-H functionalized metal-organic frameworks, Pb-DDQ, Zn-DDQ, and Cu-DDQ, were synthesized with a new flexible dicarboxylate ligand based on quinoxaline (H2DDQ = N,N'-dibenzoic acid-2,3-diaminoquinoxaline). CO2 adsorptions indicate that Zn-DDQ and Cu-DDQ have greatly enhanced the CO2 uptake due to the opposite N-H groups on pyrazine. With very small adsorption of N2, Cu-DDQ shows high selectivity for CO2 and N2. The three MOFs also have large adsorptions of some selected dyes, while Zn-DDQ and Cu-DDQ with large but different shapes of pores are demonstrated to be promising materials for fast separation of MB/other and CV/other mixtures, respectively. The cyanosilylation of aldehydes and ketones with high yields in a short reaction time for Cu-DDQ indicates that Cu-DDQ has a higher Lewis acidity than the other two MOFs. PMID:24987791

  5. New photocatalysts based on MIL-53 metal-organic frameworks for the decolorization of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Yu-Peng; Sun, Jia-Xin; Peng, Fu-Min; Jiang, Xia; Qiu, Ling-Guang; Xie, An-Jian; Shen, Yu-Hua; Zhu, Jun-Fa

    2011-06-15

    The photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue dye in aqueous solution using a novel photocatalyst MIL-53(Fe) metal-organic frameworks was investigated under UV-vis light and visible light irradiation. The effect of electron acceptor H(2)O(2), KBrO(3) and (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8) addition on the photocatalytic performance of MIL-53(Fe) was also evaluated. The results show that MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst exhibited photocatalytic activity for MB decolorization both under UV-vis light and visible light irradiation, and the MB decolorization over MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst followed the first-order kinetics. The addition of different electron acceptors all enhances the photocatalytic performance of MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst, and the enhanced rate follows the order of H(2)O(2)>(NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8)>KBrO(3) under UV-vis light irradiation, while in the order of (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8)>H(2)O(2)>KBrO(3) under visible light irradiation. Moreover, MIL-53(Fe) did not exhibit any obvious loss of the activity for MB decolorization during five repeated usages. The photocatalytic activities over MIL-53(M) (M=Al, Fe), the isostructure to MIL-53(Fe), indicate that the metal centers show nil effect on the photocatalytic activity of MIL-53(M) photocatalysts. PMID:21531507

  6. Large electro-optic effect in sol-gel-processed poled TiO2\\/SiO2 films doped with organic azo dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alin Hou; Hongfei Liu; Shaolin Liu; Weinan Gao; Jie Sun; Daming Zhang; Maobin Yi

    2007-01-01

    Highly transparent TiO2\\/SiO2 films prepared using sol-gel technique doped with organic azo dye, Disperse Red 1(DR1) have been investigated. Processing parameters such as spin speed, spin time, and ambient atmosphere, and solution synthesis parameters such as catalysis method, alcohol dilution ratio, and component molar percentages, may affect the film formation. The refractive index increases follow along with the raising of

  7. Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Lee, Sunghun; Moon, Chang-Ki; Kim, Sei-Yong; Park, Young-Seo; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Woo Lee, Jin; Huh, June; You, Youngmin; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are among the most promising organic semiconductor devices. The recently reported external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 29-30% for green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are considered to be near the limit for isotropically oriented iridium complexes. The preferred orientation of transition dipole moments has not been thoroughly considered for phosphorescent OLEDs because of the lack of an apparent driving force for a molecular arrangement in all but a few cases, even though horizontally oriented transition dipoles can result in efficiencies of over 30%. Here we use quantum chemical calculations to show that the preferred orientation of the transition dipole moments of heteroleptic iridium complexes (HICs) in OLEDs originates from the preferred direction of the HIC triplet transition dipole moments and the strong supramolecular arrangement within the co-host environment. We also demonstrate an unprecedentedly high EQE of 35.6% when using HICs with phosphorescent transition dipole moments oriented in the horizontal direction. PMID:25204981

  8. Multicolor organic electroluminescent device utilizing vapor-deposited fluorescent dye films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Tada; Akihiko Fujii; Yutaka Ohmori; Katsumi Yoshino

    1997-01-01

    Multicolor-emitting organic electroluminescent (EL) diodes have been realized utilizing a vapor-deposited multilayer structure. Two types of layer structure have been employed to realize multicolor emission. One type has a three-layer structure (Type I) to emit two different colors; the other type has five layers (Type II) to emit three different colors. The Type I devices contain 1,2,3,4,5-pentaphenyl-1,3-cyclopentadiene (PPCP), 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum

  9. Photodegradation of organic dyes in the presence of [Fe(III)-salen]Cl complex and H2O2 under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Gazi, Sarifuddin; Rajakumar, Ananthakrishnan; Singh, N D Pradeep

    2010-11-15

    Photodegradation of persistent organic dyes (Rhodamine B (RhB), Malachite Green Oxalate (MG) and Crystal Violet 10B (CV)) is studied with Fe(III)-salen complex (?(max) 494 nm), and hydrogen peroxide under visible light irradiation (??400 nm). The complete decolourization of the dyes (60 mg/L each) was achieved in the aqueous medium. The pseudo-first-order degradation rate constants of RhB, MG, CV were found to be 2.83×10(-3) s(-1), 1.57×10(-3) s(-1) and 1.34×10(-3) s(-1), respectively. The effect of various parameters like concentration of H(2)O(2), pH of the medium, and influence of electrolytes are investigated on the degradation of RhB. A modified benzoic acid hydroxylation method has been used to detect the active oxygen species (OH radicals) in this study. The hydroxyl radical production is increased with the increase in irradiation time. Interestingly, even an excess amount of scavenger could not arrest the degradation of the dyes. This may be due to the formation of some secondary oxidants. Here, active ferryl ion was identified as the secondary oxidant. Degradation products of the dye (RhB) were determined by GC-MS, and phthalic acid was identified as the major one. From the results, a possible photodegradation mechanism has been proposed. PMID:20800350

  10. Modeling materials and processes in hybrid/organic photovoltaics: from dye-sensitized to perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Over the last 2 decades, researchers have invested enormous research effort into hybrid/organic photovoltaics, leading to the recent launch of the first commercial products that use this technology. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have shown clear advantages over competing technologies. The top certified efficiency of DSCs exceeds 11%, and the laboratory-cell efficiency is greater than 13%. In 2012, the first reports of high efficiency solid-state DSCs based on organohalide lead perovskites completely revolutionized the field. These materials are used as light absorbers in DSCs and as light-harvesting materials and electron conductors in meso-superstructured and flat heterojunction solar cells and show certified efficiencies that exceed 17%. To effectively compete with conventional photovoltaics, emerging technologies such as DSCs need to achieve higher efficiency and stability, while maintaining low production costs. Many of the advances in the DSC field have relied on the computational design and screening of new materials, with researchers examining material characteristics that can improve device performance or stability. Suitable modeling strategies allow researchers to observe the otherwise inaccessible but crucial heterointerfaces that control the operation of DSCs, offering the opportunity to develop new and more efficient materials and optimize processes. In this Account, we present a unified view of recent computational modeling research examining DSCs, illustrating how the principles and simulation tools used for these systems can also be adapted to study the emerging field of perovskite solar cells. Researchers have widely applied first-principles modeling to the DSC field and, more recently, to perovskite-based solar cells. DFT/TDDFT methods provide the basic framework to describe most of the desired materials and interfacial properties, and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics allow researchers the further ability to sample local minima and dynamical fluctuations at finite temperatures. However, conventional DFT/TDDFT has some limitations, which can be overcome in part by tailored solutions or using many body perturbation theory within the GW approach, which is however more computationally intensive. Relativistic effects, such as spin-orbit coupling, are also included in simulations since they are fundamental for addressing systems that contain heavy atoms. We illustrate the performance of the proposed simulation toolbox along with the fundamental modeling strategies using selected examples of relevant isolated device constituents, including dye and perovskite absorbers, metal-oxide surfaces and nanoparticles, and hole transporters. We critically assess the accuracy of various computational approaches against the related experimental data. We analyze the representative interfaces that control the operational mechanism of the devices, including dye-sensitized TiO2/hole transporter and organohalide lead perovskite/TiO2, and the results reveal fundamental aspects of the device's operational mechanism. Although the modeling of DSCs is relatively mature, the recent "perovskite storm" has presented new problems and new modeling challenges, such as understanding exciton formation and dissociation at interfaces and carrier recombination in these materials. PMID:24856085

  11. Sampling and identification of natural dyes in historical maps and drawings by liquid chromatography with diode-array detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosario Blanc; Teresa Espejo; Ana López-Montes; David Torres; Guillermo Crovetto; Alberto Navalón; José Luis Vílchez

    2006-01-01

    A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic with diode-array UV–vis spectrophotometric detection (HPLC–DAD) method for identification of natural dyes has been developed. Chromatographic retention of carminic acid, indigotin, crocetin, gambogic acid, alizarin and purpurin has been studied. The mobile phase consisted of 40mM SDS–10mM phosphate buffer solution (pH 2.3)–0.1% TFA (eluent A) and acetonitrile (eluent B) using a programmed gradient (5%

  12. Three-photon absorption process in organic dyes enhanced by surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohanoschi, Ion

    2006-07-01

    Multi-photon absorption processes have received significant attention from the scientific community during the last decade, mainly because of their potential applications in optical limiting, data storage and biomedical fields. Perhaps, one of the most investigated processes studied so far has been two-photon absorption (2PA). These investigations have resulted in successful applications in all the fields mentioned above. However, 2PA present some limitations in the biomedical field when pumping at typical 2PA wavelengths. In order to overcome these limitations, three-photon absorption (3PA) process has been proposed. However, 3PA in organic molecules has a disadvantage, typical values of sigma3' are small (10-81 cm6s 2/photon2), therefore, 3PA excitation requires high irradiances to induce the promotion of electrons from the ground state to the final excited state. To overcome this obstacle, specific molecules that exhibit large 3PA cross-section must be designed. Thus far, there is a lack of systematic studies that correlate 3PA processes with the molecular structure of organic compounds. In order to fill the existent gap in 3PA molecular engineering, in this dissertation we have investigated the structure/property relationship for a new family of fluorene derivatives with very high three-photon absorption cross-sections. We demonstrated that the symmetric intramolecular charge transfer as well as the pi-electron conjugation length enhances the 3PA cross-section of fluorene derivatives. In addition, we showed that the withdrawing electron character of the attractor groups in a pull-pull geometry proved greater 3PA cross-section. After looking for alternative ways to enhance the effective sigma 3' of organic molecules, we investigated the enhancement of two- and three-photon absorption processes by means of Surface Plasmon. We demonstrated an enhancement of the effective two- and three-photon absorption cross-section of an organic compound of 480 and 30 folds, respectively. We proved that the enhancement is a direct consequence of the electric field enhancement at a metal/buffer interface. Next, motivated by the demands for new materials with enhanced nonlinear optical properties, we studied the 3PA of Hematoporphyrin IX and J-aggregate supramolecular systems. As a result, we were able to propose the use of 3PA in photodynamic therapy using Photofrin, the only drug approved by the FDA for PDT.

  13. Realization of large open circuit voltage in organic photovoltaic cells by introducing a fluorescent dye layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nana Wang; Junsheng Yu; Yue Zang; Yadong Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Small-molecule organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell with a large open circuit voltage (VOC) has been achieved by introducing 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) as donor layer. In order to obtain large VOC of standard copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)\\/C60 OPV cell, a very thin layer of DCJTB was inserted between CuPc and C60. It was found that the device formed multicharge separation interfaces. The VOC of

  14. Effect of vital dyes on retinal pigmented epithelial cell viability and apoptosis: implications for chromovitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Penha, Fernando M; Pons, Marianne; Costa, Elaine Fiod; Rodrigues, Eduardo B.; Maia, Mauricio; Marin-Castaño, Maria E; Farah, Michel Eid

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate in vitro effect of vital dyes on toxicity and apoptosis in a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line. Methods ARPE-19 cells were exposed to brilliant blue-BriB, evans blue-EB, bromophenol blue-BroB, indocyanine green-ICG, infracyanine green-IfCG, light green-LG, fast green-FG, indigo carmine-IC and congo red-CR. BSS was used as the control. Five different concentrations and two times were tested. Cell viability was determined by MTS assay and apoptosis by Bax expression on western blot. Results All dyes significantly reduced cell viability after 3 minutes of exposure at all concentrations (p<0.01), except for BriB that was safe at concentrations up to 0.25mg/mL and CR up to 0.05mg/mL, while LG was safe in all concentrations. Toxicity was higher after 30 minutes of exposure. Expression of Bax was upregulated after all dyes exposure, except BriB; ICG had the highest Bax expression (p<0.01). Conclusions Overall the safest dye was BriB followed by LG, IfCG, FG, CR, IC, BroB, RB and ICG. ICG was toxic at all concentrations and exposure times tested. Moreover, BriB was the only dye that did not induce apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. PMID:24022718

  15. Realization of large open circuit voltage in organic photovoltaic cells by introducing a fluorescent dye layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nana; Yu, Junsheng; Zang, Yue; Jiang, Yadong

    2010-10-01

    Small-molecule organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell with a large open circuit voltage (VOC) has been achieved by introducing 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) as donor layer. In order to obtain large VOC of standard copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C60 OPV cell, a very thin layer of DCJTB was inserted between CuPc and C60. It was found that the device formed multicharge separation interfaces. The VOC of device with 2 nm DCJTB layer was increased from 0.44 to 0.58 V. Also, the atomic force microscope (AFM) 3D-images of the donor surfaces were characterize to discuss OPV cell performance improvement. Furthermore, the absorption spectrum shows that an additional thin DCJTB layer enhances the light harvest capability of the cell.

  16. A novel adsorbent obtained by inserting carbon nanotubes into cavities of diatomite and applications for organic dye elimination from contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongwen; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2010-05-15

    A novel approach is described for establishing adsorbents for elimination of water-soluble organic dyes by using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the adsorptive sites. Agglomerates of MWCNTs were dispersed into individual tubes (dispersed-MWCNTs) using sodium n-dodecyl itaconate mixed with 3-(N,N-dimethylmyristylammonio)-propanesulfonate as the dispersants. The resultant dispersed-MWCNTs were inserted into cavities of diatomite to form composites of diatomite/MWCNTs. These composites were finally immobilized onto the cell walls of flexible polyurethane foams (PUF) through an in situ PUF formation process to produce the foam-like CNT-based adsorbent. Ethidium bromide, acridine orange, methylene blue, eosin B, and eosin Y were chosen to represent typical water-soluble organic dyes for studying the adsorptive capabilities of the foam-like CNT-based adsorbent. For comparisons, adsorptive experiments were also carried out by using agglomerates of the sole MWCNTs as adsorbents. The foam-like CNT-based adsorbents were found to have higher adsorptive capacities than the CNT agglomerates for all five dyes; in addition, they are macro-sized, durable, flexible, hydrophilic and easy to use. Adsorption isotherms plotted based on the Langmuir equation gave linear results, suggesting that the foam-like CNT-based adsorbent functioned in the Langmuir adsorption manner. The foam-like CNT-based adsorbents are reusable after regeneration with aqueous ethanol solution. PMID:20045251

  17. Organic additives assisted synthesis of mesoporous ?-Ga2O3 nanostructures for photocatalytic dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girija, K.; Thirumalairajan, S.; Patra, Astam K.; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C.

    2013-03-01

    Functional semiconductor ?-Ga2O3 nanostructures with interesting morphologies like blocks, spindles and rods were fabricated using hydrothermal process employing cationic (CTAB), anionic (SDS) and non-ionic (PEG) organic additives. Well-defined and monodispersed uniform mesoporous nanostructures of ?-Ga2O3 were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The diameter of nanostructures was evaluated from transmission electron microscopy images and was found to be ˜125, 70 and 50 nm, respectively, for nanoblocks, nanospindles and nanorods, which are in accordance with XRD analysis. Structural characterization using XRD and FTIR spectroscopy revealed the single crystalline monoclinic structure of ?-Ga2O3 with high purity. The thermal decomposition process was monitored through a thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyzer. The N2 adsorption/desorption analysis revealed the distribution of mesopores with high surface area. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activities of semiconductor ?-Ga2O3 nanostructures toward Rhodamine B under ultraviolet light showed enhanced activity over commercial Degussa P25 and bulk Ga2O3, with ?-Ga2O3 nanorods presenting higher photocatalytic ability. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of ?-Ga2O3 nanostructures ascribed to specific surface area, pore size distribution and optical properties have also been addressed.

  18. First Record of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae, Infesting Withania somnifera in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kumar Pati, Pratap

    2012-01-01

    During April–June 2010, red two—spotted carmine spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) were found on aerial apical parts of Ashwagandha Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants in the Amritsar District of Punjab Province in the North Indian plains. The mites fed on the leaves, making them shiny white in color, which gradually dried off and were later shed. The pest was identified as T. urticae. To best of our knowledge, this is the first record of this pest infesting W. somnifera in India. PMID:22970740

  19. Enhanced electrochromic properties of a polypyrrole-indigo carmine-gold nanoparticles nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Loguercio, L F; Alves, C C; Thesing, A; Ferreira, J

    2015-01-14

    An indigo carmine doped polypyrrole embedded with gold nanoparticles nanocomposite (PPy-IC-Aunanop) was synthesized by in situ electrochemical polymerization of polypyrrole in the presence of HAuCl4. The nanocomposite was characterized by in situ spectroelectrochemical experiments to study the effect of embedded gold nanoparticles on the electrochromic properties of the material. The results show the formation of a nanocomposite presenting enhanced electrochromic and optical properties, higher electroactivity and 10% lower band-gap energies. The PPy-IC-Aunanop presented a two-fold increase in optical contrast when compared to PPy-IC, in addition to better optical stability. PMID:25418577

  20. TiO2 immobilized on Manihot carbon: optimal preparation and evaluation of its activity in the decomposition of indigo carmine.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-01-01

    Applications of carbon-TiO2 materials have attracted attention in nanotechnology due to their synergic effects. We report the immobilization of TiO2 on carbon prepared from residues of the plant Manihot, commercial TiO2 and glycerol. The objective was to obtain a moderate loading of the anatase phase by preserving the carbonaceous external surface and micropores of the composite. Two preparation methods were compared, including mixing dry precursors and immobilization using a glycerol slurry. The evaluation of the micropore blocking was performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that it was possible to use Manihot residues and glycerol to prepare an anatase-containing material with a basic surface and a significant SBET value. The activities of the prepared materials were tested in a decomposition assay of indigo carmine. The TiO2/carbon eliminated nearly 100% of the dye under UV irradiation using the optimal conditions found by a Taguchi L4 orthogonal array considering the specific surface, temperature and initial concentration. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS, enabling the identification of some intermediates. No isatin-5-sulfonic acid was detected after a 60 min photocatalytic reaction, and three sulfonated aromatic amines, including 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2-(2-amino-5-sulfophenyl)-2-oxoacetic acid and 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid, were present in the reaction mixture. PMID:25588214

  1. Comparative study of UV/TiO2, UV/ZnO and photo-Fenton processes for the organic reactive dye degradation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Igor T; Koprivanac, Natalija; Bozi?, Ana M Loncari?; Kusi?, Hrvoje M

    2007-09-01

    In this study advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), UV/TiO(2), UV/ZnO and photo-Fenton, were applied in order to degrade C.I. Reactive Red 45 (RR45) dye in aqueous solution. The effects of key operating parameters, such as initial pH, catalyst and hydrogen peroxide dosage as well as the effect of initial dye concentration on decolorization and mineralization extents were studied. Primary objective was to determine the optimal conditions for each of the processes. The influence of added zeolite on the process efficiency was also studied. UV/vis spectrophotometric and total organic carbon (TOC) measurements were performed for determination of decolorization and mineralization extents. It has been found that photo-Fenton process was the most efficient with 74.2% TOC removal and complete color removal achieved after a 1h treatment. PMID:17400374

  2. A cascaded QSAR model for efficient prediction of overall power conversion efficiency of all-organic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhi; Zhong, Ziyan; Li, Lin; Gao, Rui; Cui, Jingxia; Gao, Ting; Hu, Li Hong; Lu, Yinghua; Su, Zhong-Min; Li, Hui

    2015-05-30

    A cascaded model is proposed to establish the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) between the overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) and quantum chemical molecular descriptors of all-organic dye sensitizers. The cascaded model is a two-level network in which the outputs of the first level (JSC , VOC , and FF) are the inputs of the second level, and the ultimate end-point is the overall PCE of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The model combines quantum chemical methods and machine learning methods, further including quantum chemical calculations, data division, feature selection, regression, and validation steps. To improve the efficiency of the model and reduce the redundancy and noise of the molecular descriptors, six feature selection methods (multiple linear regression, genetic algorithms, mean impact value, forward selection, backward elimination, and +n-m algorithm) are used with the support vector machine. The best established cascaded model predicts the PCE values of DSSCs with a MAE of 0.57 (%), which is about 10% of the mean value PCE (5.62%). The validation parameters according to the OECD principles are R(2) (0.75), Q(2) (0.77), and Qcv2 (0.76), which demonstrate the great goodness-of-fit, predictivity, and robustness of the model. Additionally, the applicability domain of the cascaded QSAR model is defined for further application. This study demonstrates that the established cascaded model is able to effectively predict the PCE for organic dye sensitizers with very low cost and relatively high accuracy, providing a useful tool for the design of dye sensitizers with high PCE. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25773984

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of organic reactive dyes over MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites under UV-visible irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Santhanam; Selvaraj, Ayyasamy; Ramasamy, Anaipalayam Kandasamy

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of organic reactive dyes have been investigated using MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites in the presence of electron acceptors under UV-Visible light irradiation. This MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites were prepared by annealing different mass ratios of pyrophanite MnTiO3 (3-11 wt%) and TiO2 at 300°C. All the MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites were characterized by spectral techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and diffused reflectance UV-visible spectroscopic analysis (DRS). Among them, 9 wt% MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Reactive Blue 4 (RB 4). The photocatalytic efficiency of 9 wt% MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites was further enhanced by the addition of substantial amount of electron acceptors like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ammonium peroxydisulfate ([NH4]2S2O8). The presence of oxidants (electron acceptors) facilitates the fast degradation of dye solution even in higher concentration upto 200 mg/L. The photocatalytic activity of MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites was also studied for the degradation of other four different structured reactive dyes. The extent of mineralization of these organic reactive dyes during photocatalytic degradation was estimated from COD analysis. MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites was also found to have good photostability in the presence of oxidants. PMID:23848842

  4. [Determination of synthetic food dyes in food by capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Fusako; Oishi, Mitsuo; Kimura, Keisuke; Yasui, Akiko; Saito, Kazuo

    2004-06-01

    A method for the determination of 12 synthetic food dyes (Amaranth, Erythrosine, Allura Red AC, New Coccine, Phloxine, Rose Bengal, Acid Red, Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Fast Green FCF, Brilliant Blue FCF, Indigo Carmine) in food was developed using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with photodiode array detection. The dyes were extracted with water and 0.5% ammonia-ethanol (1:1) mixture, and cleaned up using solid-phase extraction (Sep-Pak Plus tC18). The dyes were eluted with methanol from the cartridge. The dyes were separated by CE on a bubble cell fused-silica capillary (72 cm to the detector, 75 microm i.d.) using 20% acetonitrile in a mixture of 10 mmol/L potassium phosphate, monobasic and 5 mmol/L sodium carbonate (pH 10.0) as the running buffer. Identifications of the dyes were performed on the basis of the migration time and the absorbance spectrum of each peak. The coefficients of variation of the migration times and the peak areas were 0.28-0.62% and 1.84-4.30%, respectively (n = 5). The identification limits using the absorbance spectra of the dyes were 10 microg/mL for Brilliant Blue FCF and Fast Green FCF, and 5 microg/mL for the other 10 dyes. The recoveries of the 12 dyes from pickles, soft drinks and candies at the level of 10 microg/g were 70.0-101.5%. The method was applied to the analysis of dyes in foods. The dyes detected by CE were in agreement with those detected by paper chromatography. PMID:15468935

  5. Hair Dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Søsted

    \\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

  6. Electrodeposition of nanoporous ZnO on Al-doped ZnO leading to a highly organized structure for integration in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, S.; Rousset, J.; Renou, G.; Lincot, D.

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, we propose an improvement of the anode configuration in Zinc Oxide based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC). Instead of the classical configuration, which is composed by two different metal oxides: one transparent conducting oxide (TCO) for the substrate and one nanostructured metal oxide for supporting the dye, the new approach is to use ZnO as unique material. Thus, nanoporous zinc oxide films have been electrodeposited on a sputtered Al doped ZnO layers with varying thicknesses up to 6 ?m. The evolution of the porosity of the structure has been studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and compared with standard nanoporous ZnO grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (SnO2:F noted FTO). This results firstly in the modification of the nanoporous structure morphology and secondly a better adhesion between the nanoporous layer and the substrate. Organization in the nanoporous material is enhanced with regular pores arrays and perpendicular to the substrate. Dye sensitized solar cells based on this simplified architecture present efficiencies up to 4.2% and 4.5% with N719 and D149 respectively as sensitizers. Higher fill factor and Voc are found in comparison with the one obtained for deposition on the classical transparent conducting oxide (FTO), which denote improved electrical transfer properties.

  7. Photooxidation of different organic dyes (RB, MO, TB, and BG) using Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 nanophotocatalyst prepared by novel chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorai, Tanmay K.; Biswas, Soumya K.; Pramanik, Panchanan

    2008-09-01

    The nano-structured Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts with anatase phase have been developed for the oxidation of non-biodegradable different organic dyes like methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RB), thymol blue (TB) and bromocresol green (BG) using UV-Hg-lamp. The different compositions of Fe xTi 1- xO 2 ( x = 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1) nanocatalysts synthesized by chemical method (CM), have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, specific surface area (BET), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) analysis, XPS, ESR and zeta potential. From XRD analysis, the results indicate that all the compositions of Fe(III) doped in TiO 2 catalysts gives only anatase phase not rutile phase. For complete degradation of all the solutions of the dyes (MO, RB, TB, and BG), the composition with x = 0.005 is more photoactive compared all other compositions of Fe xTi 1- xO 2, and degussa P25. The decolorization rate of different dyes decreases as Fe(III) concentration in TiO 2 increases. The energy band gap of Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 is found to be 2.38 eV. The oxidation state of iron has been found to be 3+ from XPS and ESR show that Fe 3+ is in low spin state.

  8. Functionalization of self-organized TiO2 nanotubes with Pd nanoparticles for photocatalytic decomposition of dyes under solar light illumination.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Susanta K; Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Banerjee, Subarna; Misra, Mano

    2008-10-01

    Self-organized, vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays prepared by the sonoelectrochemical anodization method are functionalized with palladium (Pd) nanoparticles of approximately 10 nm size. A simple incipient wetness method is adopted to distribute the Pd nanoparticles uniformly throughout the TiO2 nanotubular surface. This functionalized material is found to be an excellent heterogeneous photocatalyst that can decompose nonbiodegradable azo dyes (e.g., methyl red and methyl orange) rapidly (150-270 min) and efficiently (100%) under ambient conditions using simulated solar light in the absence of any external oxidative radicals such as hydrogen peroxide. PMID:18729485

  9. Influence of organic and inorganic compounds on oxidoreductive decolorization of sulfonated azo dye C.I. Reactive Orange 16.

    PubMed

    Telke, Amar A; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Dawkar, Vishal V; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2009-12-15

    An isolated bacterial strain is placed in the branch of the Bacillus genus on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence and biochemical characteristics. It decolorized an individual and mixture of dyes, including reactive, disperse and direct. Bacillus sp. ADR showed 88% decolorization of sulfonated azo dye C.I. Reactive Orange 16 (100 mg L(-1)) with 2.62 mg of dye decolorized g(-1) dry cells h(-1) as specific decolorization rate along with 50% reduction in COD under static condition. The optimum pH and temperature for the decolorization was 7-8 and 30-40 degrees C, respectively. It was found to tolerate the sulfonated azo dye concentration up to 1.0 g L(-1). Significant induction in the activity of an extracellular phenol oxidase and NADH-DCIP reductase enzymes during decolorization of C.I. Reactive Orange 16 suggest their involvement in the decolorization. The metal salt (CaCl2), stabilizers (3,4-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol and o-tolidine) and electron donors (sodium acetate, sodium formate, sodium succinate, sodium citrate and sodium pyruvate) enhanced the C.I. Reactive Orange 16 decolorization rate of Bacillus sp. ADR. The 6-nitroso naphthol and dihydroperoxy benzene were final products obtained after decolorization of C.I. Reactive Orange 16 as characterized using FTIR and GC-MS. PMID:19640646

  10. 75 FR 81949 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...carmine on the labels of any alcohol beverage product containing one or both of...a recent final rule issued by the Food and Drug Administration as well as...to identify and thus avoid alcohol beverage products that contain these...

  11. 76 FR 3584 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...Docket No. TTB-2010-0008; Notice No. 111] RIN 1513-AB79 Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages Correction In proposed rule document 2010-27733 beginning on page 67669 in the...

  12. Acaricidal activities of the essential oils from several medicinal plants against the carmine spider mite ( Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd.) (Acarina: Tetranychidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erdal Sertkaya; Kamuran Kaya; Soner Soylu

    2010-01-01

    A screening for pesticidal activity of plant extracts with some known medicinal attributes could lead to the discovery of new agents for pest control. In the backdrop of recent revival of interest in developing plant-based insecticides, the present study was carried out to find an alternative to synthetic miticides currently used in the control of the devastating greenhouse pest, carmine

  13. Simultaneous identification of natural dyes in the collection of drawings and maps from The Royal Chancellery Archives in Granada (Spain) by CE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana López-Montes; Rosario Blanc García; Teresa Espejo; José F. Huertas-Perez; Alberto Navalón; José Luis Vílchez

    2007-01-01

    A simple and rapid capillary electrophoretic method with UV detection (CE-UV) has been developed for the identification of five natural dyes namely, carmine, indigo, saffron, gam- boge and Rubia tinctoria root. The separation was performed in a fused-silica capillary of 64.5 cm length and 50 mm id. The running buffer was 40 mM sodium tetraborate buffer solution (pH 9.25). The

  14. Removal of Congo Red dye by adsorption onto phyrophyllite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Bachri Amran; Muhammad Ali Zulfikar

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic dye?containing wastewaters from textile, paper, plastic and leather?tanning industries are a most common organic pollutant. Such dyes may be toxic not only to aquatic life, but also to human beings. Consequently, dye removal from wastewater significantly benefits the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of phyrophyllite as an adsorbent for Congo Red dye from

  15. Green synthesis of AgI-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites: Toward enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity for organic dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Lee, Seunghee; Choi, Jiha; Park, Seonhwa; Ma, Rory; Yang, Haesik; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2015-06-01

    Novel reduced graphene oxide (RGO) enwrapped AgI nanocomposites were successfully fabricated by a facile template-free ultrasound-assisted method at room temperature. The structural, morphological, and optical studies demonstrate that the obtained nanostructures have good crystallinity and that the graphene nanosheets are decorated densely with AgI nanostructures. The photocatalytic activity of the composite was evaluated by the degradation of an organic dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), under visible-light irradiation. The results indicate that AgI with incorporated graphene exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than the pure AgI due to the improved separation efficiency of the photogenerated carriers and that it prolonged the lifetime of the electron-hole pairs due to the chemical bonding between AgI and graphene. AgI (0.4 mg mL-1 of graphene oxide) nanocomposites displayed the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency and the corresponding catalytic efficiencies within 70 min were ?96%. Moreover, with the assistance of H2O2 the photocatalytic ability of the as-obtained AgI-RGO nanocomposites was enhanced. The corresponding catalytic efficiencies within 30 min were ?96.8% (for 1 mL H2O2) under the same irradiation conditions. The excellent visible-light photocatalytic efficiency and luminescence properties make the AgI-RGO nanocomposites promising candidates for the removal of organic dyes for water purification and enable their application in near-UV white LEDs.

  16. Organic Fluorescent Dyes Supported on Activated Boron Nitride: A Promising Blue Light Excited Phosphors for High-Performance White Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2015-01-01

    We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (?BN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500–650?nm under the 466?nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36?W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6?lm·W?1. Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs. PMID:25682730

  17. Hyperbranched conjugated polymers with donor-?-acceptor architecture as organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuhua Tang; Ping Shen; Tianpeng Ding; Hui Huang; Bin Zhao; Songting Tan

    2010-01-01

    Three novel hyperbranched conjugated polymers (H-tpa, H-cya, and H-pca) with the same conjugated core structure and different functional terminal units were synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as photosensitizers. The photophysical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of the three hyperbranched conjugated polymers (HBPs) were investigated in detail. The results showed that donor-?-acceptor architecture in hyperbranched molecule benefited intramolecular charge

  18. Transient multiple diffraction rings induced by Ar+ laser from poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) polymer doped with organic dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdalla M. Darwish; Sergey S. Sarkisov; William Bryant; Putcha Venkateswarlu; Hossin A. Abdeldayem; Donald O. Frazier

    1995-01-01

    The transient multiple diffraction rings associated with self-phase modulation is observed from PMMA doped with different dyes. The phenomenon is shown to be the result of laser-induced refractive-index change. The experiment is done on three different films fo PMMA doped with sulfrodamine, DCM, and Accriden yellow. The films were fabricated using the spin coating technique. The Ar+ laser at 514

  19. Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

    1977-01-01

    In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a…

  20. Study of nonlinear refraction of organic dye by Z-scan technique using He-Ne laser

    SciTech Connect

    Medhekar, S.; Kumar, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Choubey, R. K. [Dept. of Applied Physics, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi - 835215, Jharkhand (India)

    2013-02-05

    Laser induced third-order nonlinear optical responses of Brilliant Green solution has been investigated by utilizing single beam Z-scan technique with a continuous-wave He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It was observed that the material exhibits self-defocusing type optical nonlinearity. The measurements of nonlinear refraction were carried out at different dye concentrations and found that the increase in solution concentration leads to the linear increase of the nonlinear refractive index. The experimental results confirm great potential of the Brilliant Green for the application in nonlinear optical devices.

  1. Optical, structural, and lasing properties of a composite material nanoporous glass filled with an organic dye-activated polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufrik, S. S.; Ihnatouski, M. I.; Koldunov, M. F.; Lyalikov, A. M.; Manenkov, A. A.; Tarkovsky, V. V.

    2007-06-01

    Structural and optical characteristics of polymer-filled nanoporous glass (PFNPG) composite was studied with holographic interferometry and atomic-force microscopy methods. A high homogeneity of the bulk PFNPG samples and their surfaces has been found. Light scattering in the samples was investigated. Rather low scattering losses have been observed in spite of heterogeneous structure of the composite. This result is discussed on a base of the Rayleigh scattering model. Lasing properties including a pump-to-laser conversion efficiency and a life time due to photodestruction of PFNPG samples activated with pyrromethene dyes are reported.

  2. J-aggregates of organic dye molecules complexed with iron oxide nanoparticles for imaging-guided photothermal therapy under 915-nm light.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuejiao; Gong, Hua; Liu, Teng; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Chao; Sun, Xiaoqi; Liang, Chao; Liu, Zhuang

    2014-11-12

    Recently, the development of nano-theranostic agents aiming at imaging guided therapy has received great attention. In this work, a near-infrared (NIR) heptamethine indocyanine dye, IR825, in the presence of cationic polymer, polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH), forms J-aggregates with red-shifted and significantly enhanced absorbance. After further complexing with ultra-small iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and the followed functionalization with polyethylene glycol (PEG), the obtained IR825@PAH-IONP-PEG composite nanoparticles are highly stable in different physiological media. With a sharp absorbance peak, IR825@PAH-IONP-PEG can serve as an effective photothermal agent under laser irradiation at 915 nm, which appears to be optimal in photothermal therapy application considering its improved tissue penetration compared with 808-nm light and much lower water heating in comparison to 980-nm light. As revealed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, those nanoparticles after intravenous injection exhibit high tumor accumulation, which is then harnessed for in vivo photothermal ablation of tumors, achieving excellent therapeutic efficacy in a mouse tumor model. This study demonstrates for the first time that J-aggregates of organic dye molecules are an interesting class of photothermal material, which when combined with other imageable nanoprobes could serve as a theranostic agent for imaging-guided photothermal therapy of cancer. PMID:24976309

  3. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser in the long-wavelength (700 nm) region in the visible by energy transfer between organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhifu; Zhou, Yuan; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Qian, Guodong

    2014-06-01

    In this work, organic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with single-mode laser output in the long-wavelength region (~700 nm) of the visible were reported based on the energy transfer between dye pairs consisting of pyrromethene 597 (PM597) and rhodamine 700 (LD700). By co-doping PM597 into the polymeric hosts, the fluorescence intensity of LD700 was enhanced by 30-fold and the photophysical parameters of the donor-acceptor pairs were investigated, indicating the involvement of non-radiative resonance energy transfer processes between PM597 and LD700. Active distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) were made by alternately spin-coating dye-doped polyvinylcarbazole and cellulose acetate thin films as the high and low refractive index layers, respectively. By sandwiching the active layer with 2 DBR mirrors, VCSEL emission at 698.9 nm in the biological first window (650-950 nm) was observed under the 532-nm laser pulses. The laser slope efficiency and threshold were also measured.

  4. Sorption of indigo carmine by a Fe-zeolitic tuff and carbonaceous material from pyrolyzed sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Segura, E; Solache-Ríos, M; Colín-Cruz, A

    2009-10-30

    Indigo carmine removal from aqueous solution has been evaluated using Fe-zeolitic tuff and carbonaceous material from pyrolyzed sewage sludge treated with HCl (CM). The adsorbents were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area and X-ray diffraction. Sorption kinetics and isotherms were determined and the adsorption behaviors analyzed. Kinetic pseudo-second order and Langmuir-Freundlich models were successfully applied to the experimental results obtained with the Fe-zeolitic material, while kinetic first order and Langmuir-Freundlich models were applied to the results from the carbonaceous materials. This indicates mechanisms of chemisorption and physical sorption, respectively, on the heterogeneous materials. The results indicate that the carbonaceous material from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge (sorption capacity 92.83 mg/g) is a better adsorbent of indigo carmine than the zeolitic material (sorption capacity 32.83 mg/g). PMID:19541413

  5. Theoretical studies on POM-based organic-inorganic hybrids containing double D-A1-?-A2 chains for high-performance p-type, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Guan, Wei; Yan, Likai; Ma, Tengying; Wang, Jing; Su, Zhongmin

    2015-02-21

    Polyoxometalate (POM)-based organic-inorganic hybrid systems are designed as p-type dyes containing double D-A1-?-A2 chains. The A1 spacers are thiophene, 1,2,3-triazole, 1,3,4-oxadlazole, thienothiadiazole units or their combinations and the A2 spacer is hexamolybdate. The electronic structures, absorption spectra, and electronic transition characteristics of systems were systematically studied on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT). The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels of systems were below the valence bond (VB) of NiO and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels of studied systems were higher than the I2/I3(-) redox level, which benefit hole injection and dye regeneration. The HOMOs of systems were predominantly delocalized over the organic groups and Mo[triple bond, length as m-dash]N, which are more helpful to hole injection than systems . Introduction of thienothiadiazole units is an effective way to improve the light absorption ability of dyes, and inserting thiophene and 1,2,3-triazole as A1 spacers can increase the efficiency of dye in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). PMID:25619694

  6. Dyeing properties of natural dyes extracted from eucalyptus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ali; N. Nisar; T. Hussain

    2007-01-01

    A natural dye was extracted from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and was used to dye cotton by direct dyeing method at different dyeing conditions. Then, the fastness properties of dyeing with different dyeing techniques were compared.

  7. Water-dispersible, pH-stable and highly-luminescent organic dye nanoparticles with amplified emissions for in vitro and in vivo bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia; Diao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiujuan; Chen, Xianfeng; Hao, Xiaojun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2014-03-26

    A new strategy is presented for using doped small-molecule organic nanoparticles (NPs) to achieve high-performance fluorescent probes with strong brightness, large Stokes shifts and tunable emissions for in vitro and in vivo imaging. The host organic NPs are used not only as carriers to encapsulate different doped dyes, but also as fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors to couple with the doped dyes (as acceptors) to achieve multicolor luminescence with amplified emissions (AE). The resulting optimum green emitting NPs show high brightness with quantum yield (QY) of up to 45% and AE of 12 times; and the red emitting NPs show QY of 14% and AE of 10 times. These highly-luminescent doped NPs can be further surface modified with poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene)-polyethylene glycol (C18PMH-PEG), endowing them with excellent water dispersibility and robust stability in various bio-environments covering wide pH values from 2 to 10. In this study, cytotoxicity studies and folic acid targeted cellular imaging of these multicolor probes are carried out to demonstrate their potential for in vitro imaging. On this basis, applications of the NP probes in in vivo and ex vivo imaging are also investigated. Intense fluorescent signals of the doped NPs are distinctly, selectively and spatially resolved in tumor sites with high sensitivity, due to the preferential accumulation of the NPs in tumor sites through the passive enhanced permeability and retention effect. The results clearly indicate that these doped NPs are promising fluorescent probes for biomedical applications. PMID:24318966

  8. THERMOSPRAY IONIZATION AND TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY OF DYES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sixteen commercial dye samples and three liquid wastes from organic pigment and dye manufacture have been characterized without prior chromatography by thermospray ionization and low energy collision-activated dissociation of protonated molecules using a triple quadrupole mass sp...

  9. Discoloration of Indigo Carmine Using Aqueous Extracts from Vegetables and Vegetable Residues as Enzyme Sources

    PubMed Central

    Solís, A.; Perea, F.; Solís, M.; Manjarrez, N.; Pérez, H. I.; Cassani, J.

    2013-01-01

    Several vegetables and vegetable residues were used as sources of enzymes capable to discolor indigo carmine (IC), completely or partially. Complete discoloration was achieved with aqueous extracts of green pea seeds and peels of green pea, cucumber, and kohlrabi, as well as spring onion leaves. The source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pH, time, and aeration is fundamental for the discoloration process catalyzed by PPO. The PPO present in the aqueous extract of green pea seeds was able to degrade 3,000?ppm of IC at a pH of 7.6 and magnetic stirring at 1,800?rpm in about 36?h. In addition, at 1,800?rpm and a pH of 7.6, this extract discolored 300?ppm of IC in 1:40?h; in the presence of 10% NaCl, the discoloration was complete in 5:50?h, whereas it was completed in 4:30?h with 5% NaCl and 2% laundry soap. PMID:24151588

  10. Facile fabrication of mesoporous iron modified Al2O3 nanoparticles pillared montmorillonite nanocomposite: a smart photo-Fenton catalyst for quick removal of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Amaresh C; Varadwaj, G Bishwa Bidita; Parida, K M

    2013-11-14

    A mesoporous iron modified Al2O3 nanoparticle pillared montmorillonite nanocomposite (mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite) was synthesized by using sodium exchanged montmorillonite by cation-exchange, gallery-templated synthesis and impregnation method. Formation of Al2O3 nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) having average particle size 5.20-6.50 nm within montmorillonite, formation of mesoporous Al2O3 NPs pillared montmorillonite (mesoporous APM) from montmorillonite and formation of a mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite signifies the present investigation. The roles of ammonia, CTAB, octyl amine and calcination temperature for fabrication of mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite were highly significant. Ammonia was used for post-synthesis treatment, which helped in the formation of micellar assemblies in the interlayer space. The materials were characterized by different techniques such as N2 adsorption-desorption study, which demonstrated the mesoporosity of the material. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image proves the morphology and size of the Al2O3 NPs and mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) describes the formation of the pillaring of the Al2O3 NPs within montmorillonite (APM). It has been noted that pure montmorillonite is a micro/mesoporous material. But after pillaring of Al2O3 NPs within the montmorillonite, mesoporosity developed, which is the vital aspect of present investigation. It was observed that the mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite has high photo-Fenton activity towards degradation of organic dyes such as acid blue (AB) and reactive blue (RB). Nearly 100% degradation took place within 30 minutes with high concentration of dye (500 mg L(-1)) by mesoporous 5 Fe/APM nanocomposite under ambient conditions. Small particle sizes of nanocomposite, quick reduction of Fe(III) and mesoporosity are the key points for proficient degradation of AB and RB. PMID:24002045

  11. The use of potential-sensitive cyanine dye for studying ion-dependent electrogenic renal transport of organic solutes. Spectrophotometric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kragh-Hansen, Ulrich; Jørgensen, Karl Evald; Sheikh, M. Iqbal

    1982-01-01

    Renal transport of four different categories of organic solutes, namely sugars, neutral amino acids, monocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids, was studied by using the potential-sensitive dye 3,3?-diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide in purified luminal-membrane and basolateral-membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit kidney cortex. Valinomycin-induced K+ diffusion potentials resulted in concomitant changes in dye–membrane-vesicle absorption spectra. Linear relationships were obtained between these changes and depolarization and hyperpolarization of the vesicles. Addition of d-glucose, l-phenylalanine, succinate or l-lactate to luminal-membrane vesicles, in the presence of an extravesicular>intravesicular Na+ gradient, resulted in rapid transient depolarization. With basolateral-membrane vesicles no electrogenic transport of d-glucose or l-phenylalanine was observed. Spectrophotometric competition studies revealed that d-galactose is electrogenically taken up by the same transport system as that for d-glucose, whereas l-phenylalanine, succinate and l-lactate are transported by different systems in luminal-membrane vesicles. The absorbance changes associated with simultaneous addition of d-glucose and l-phenylalanine were additive. The uptake of these solutes was influenced by the presence of Na+-salt anions of different permeabilities in the order: Cl?>SO42?>gluconate. Addition of valinomycin to K+-loaded vesicles enhanced uptake of d-glucose and l-phenylalanine in the presence of an extravesicular>intravesicular Na+ gradient. Gramicidin or valinomycin plus nigericin diminished/abolished electrogenic solute uptake by Na+- or Na++K+-loaded vesicles respectively. These results strongly support the presence of Na+-dependent renal electrogenic transport of d-glucose, l-phenylalanine, succinate and l-lactate in luminal-membrane vesicles. PMID:7159404

  12. Novel polymer gel electrolyte with organic solvents for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sheng-Yen; Dong, Rui-Xuan; Shih, Po-Ta; Ramamurthy, Vittal; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2014-11-12

    A cross-linked copolymer was previously synthesized from poly(oxyethylene) diamine (POE-amine) and an aromatic anhydride and cured to generate an amide-imide cross-linking structure. The copolymer containing several chemical groups such as POE, amido acids, and imide, enabled to absorb liquid electrolytes in methoxypropionitrile (MPN) for suitable uses in dye-sensitized solar cells. To establish the advantages of polymer gel electrolytes (PGE), the same copolymer was studied by using different electrolyte solvents including propylene carbonate (PC), dimethylformamide, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and shown their long-term stability. The morphology of the copolymer after absorbing liquid electrolytes in these solvents was proven the same as a 3D interconnected nanochannels, evidenced field emission-scanning electron microscopy. Among these solvents, PC was selected as the optimized PGE, which demostrated a higher power conversion efficiency (8.31%) than that of the liquid electrolyte (7.89%). In particular, the long-term stability of only a 5% decrease in the cell efficiency after 1000 h of testing was achieved. It was proven the developed copolymer as PGE was versatile for different solvents showing high efficiency and long-term durability. PMID:25296883

  13. Optical microring resonators constructed from organic dye nanofibers and their application to miniaturized channel drop/add filters.

    PubMed

    Takazawa, Ken; Inoue, Jun-ichi; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka

    2013-07-10

    We fabricated micrometer-scale optical ring resonators by micromanipulation of thiacyanine (TC) dye nanofibers that propagate exciton polaritons (EPs) along the fiber axis. High mechanical flexibility of the nanofibers and a low bending loss property of EP propagation enabled the fabrication of microring resonators with an average radius (r(ave)) as small as 1.6 ?m. The performances of the fabricated resonators (r(ave) = 1.6-8.9 ?m) were investigated by spatially resolved microscopy techniques. The Q-factors and finesses were evaluated as Q ? 300-3500 and F ? 2-12. On the basis of the r(ave)-dependence of resonator performances, we revealed the origin of losses in the resonators. To demonstrate the applicability of the microring resonators to photonic devices, we fabricated a channel drop filter that comprises a ring resonator (r(ave) = 3.9 ?m) and an I/O bus channel nanofiber. The device exhibited high extinction ratios (4-6 dB) for its micrometer-scale dimensions. Moreover, we successfully fabricated a channel add filter comprising a ring resonator (r(ave) = 4.3 ?m) and two I/O bus channel nanofibers. Our results demonstrated a remarkable potential for the application of TC nanofibers to miniaturized photonic circuit devices. PMID:23802740

  14. Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Rok Jeon; Eun-Ju Kim; Young-Mo Kim; Kumarasamy Murugesan; Jae-Hwan Kim; Yoon-Seok Chang

    2009-01-01

    Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this

  15. Hierarchical Heteroaggregation of Binary Metal-Organic Gels with Tunable Porosity and Mixed Valence Metal Sites for Removal of Dyes in Water

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Asif; Xia, Wei; Mahmood, Nasir; Wang, Qingfei; Zou, Ruqiang

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical heteronuclear metal-organic gels (MOGs) based on iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) metal-organic framework (MOF) backbones bridged by tri-carboxylate ligands have firstly been synthesized by simple solvothermal method. Monometallic MOGs based on Fe or Al give homogenous monoliths, which have been tuned by introduction of heterogeneity in the system (mismatched growth). The developed gels demonstrate that surface areas, pore volumes and pore sizes can be readily tuned by optimizing heterogeneity. The work also elaborates effect of heterogeneity on size of MOG particles which increase substantially with increasing heterogeneity as well as obtaining mixed valence sites in the gels. High surface areas (1861?m2/g) and pore volumes (9.737?cc/g) were obtained for heterogeneous gels (0.5Fe-0.5Al). The large uptakes of dye molecules (290?mg/g rhodamine B and 265?mg/g methyl orange) with fast sorption kinetics in both neutral and acidic mediums show good stability and accessibility of MOG channels (micro and meso-/macropores), further demonstrating their potential applications in catalysis and sorption of large molecules. PMID:26014755

  16. A near-infrared dithieno[2,3-a:3',2'-c]phenazine-based organic co-sensitizer for highly efficient and stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuefeng; Lan, Tian; Qin, Zhenwen; Wang, Zhong-Sheng; Zhou, Gang

    2014-11-12

    A novel near-infrared (NIR) organic sensitizer FNE53 with a strong electron-withdrawing unit, dithieno[2,3-a:3',2'-c]phenazine, has been designed and synthesized for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By simply fusing the two thiophene rings on quinoxaline unit in sensitizer FNE48, the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) band bathochromically shifts from 542 nm for FNE48 to 629 nm for FNE53 in toluene solution. The absorption spectrum of sensitizer FNE53 covers the whole visible region and extends to the NIR region, which exhibits complementary absorption profile to another organic dye FNE46 based on quinoxaline. When FNE46 and FNE53 are used as cosensitizers for metal-free cocktail-type quasi-solid-state DSSCs, sensitizer FNE53 not only extends the photoresponse range but also suppresses the intermolecular interactions among the dye molecules. Therefore, the cocktail-type quasi-solid-state DSSC displays much higher IPCE value compared with that for the DSSC sensitizer based on FNE53 and a broader IPCE response in comparison to that for the DSSC sensitizers based on FNE46, respectively. After the molar ratio between the two cocktail dyes is optimized, the highest energy conversion efficiency of 8.04% is achieved in a metal-free quasi-solid-state DSSC cosensitized with FNE46 and FNE53, which exhibits good long-term stability after continuous light soaking for 1000 h. PMID:25291482

  17. Application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the identification of anthraquinone dyes used in works of art

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kui [ORNL; Leona, Marco [ORNL; Yan, Fei [ORNL; Wabuyele, Musundi B [ORNL; Vo Dinh, Tuan [ORNL

    2006-04-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was investigated for applications in the analysis of anthraquinone dyes used in works of art. Two SERS procedures were developed and evaluated with three frequently used anthraquinone dyes, alizarin, carminic acid and lac dye. The first procedure involves coating a layer of silver nanoparticles directly on pieces of filter paper stained with the dyes of interest by thermal evaporation to induce SERS effect. In the second procedure, a SERS-active Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate was prepared by spin-coating an alumina-nanoparticle layer onto a glass slide to provide the nanostructure of the substrate, followed by thermally evaporating a layer of silver nanoparticles on top of the alumina layer. Aliquots of dye solutions were delivered onto this substrate to be analyzed. Intense SERS spectra characteristic of alizarin, carminic acid and lac dye were obtained using both SERS procedures. The effects of two parameters, the concentration of the alumina suspension and the thickness of the silver nanoparticle layer on the performance of the Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate were examined with alizarin as the model compound. Comparative studies were conducted between the Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate and the SERS substrate prepared using Tollens reaction. The Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate was shown to offer larger enhancement and improved reproducibility than the Tollens substrates. Finally, the potential applicability of the Ag-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate for the analysis of real artifact objects was illustrated by the identification of alizarin extracted from a small piece of textile dyed using traditional methods and materials. The limit of detection for alizarin was estimated to be 7 x 10{sup -15} g from tests performed on solutions of known concentration.

  18. Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash -SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  19. Accidental injection of patent blue dye during gynaecological surgery: Lack of knowledge constitutes a system error.

    PubMed

    Laukaityte, Edita; Bruyère, Marie; Bull, Amanda; Benhamou, Dan

    2015-02-01

    The authors report a case in which an intravenous injection of Patent Blue V dye instead of Indigo Carmine was given during routine gynaecological surgery. The patient presented with temporary arterial (spurious) desaturation and skin discoloration over a 48-hour period. Pharmacological differences between these dyes are described. Root cause analysis based on the ALARM (Association of Litigation and Risk Management) model is presented. The authors emphasise that use of this model should not be limited solely to describing and correcting well known systems errors such as working conditions or teamwork and communication. Furthermore, they conclude that insufficient knowledge must also be recognised as a systems error and as such should be sought out and corrected using similar strategies to those used to discover other contributory factors, without allocation of blame to any individual. PMID:25829317

  20. Review: Dye sensitized solar cells based on natural photosensitizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monishka Rita Narayan

    The performance of dye sensitized solar cells is mainly based on the dye as a sensitizer. Natural dyes have become a viable alternative to expensive and rare organic sensitizers because of its low cost, easy attainability, abundance in supply of raw materials and no environment threat. Various components of a plant such as the flower petals, leaves and bark have

  1. Sorption of Acid Dyes by Chemically Modified Peanut Hulls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Low; C. K. Lee; W. H. Koo

    1999-01-01

    Dyes, while comprising only a very small fraction of the total organic load in wastewater, render themselves easily recognizable substances in the aqueous environment. At present there are no general and economically suitable methods for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Though dyes can be removed by activated carbon, the cost of treatment is high. Treatment of textile wastewater

  2. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  3. On the interaction of triarylmethane dye crystal violet with LAPONITE® clay: using mineral nanoparticles to control the dye photophysics.

    PubMed

    Ley, C; Brendlé, J; Walter, A; Jacques, P; Ibrahim, A; Allonas, X

    2015-06-24

    The combination of an organic dye with clays leads to very interesting hybrid materials with original properties. It is found that LAPONITE® nanoparticles have an impact on the photophysical properties of the crystal violet dye inducing a kinetic stabilization of its excited emissive state, turning this nonemissive dye into a fluorescent compound. PMID:26028222

  4. New organic donor-acceptor-?-acceptor sensitizers for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Cui, Shicong; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Ying; Zhou, Hao; Hu, Yue; Liu, Jin-Gang; Long, Yitao; Wu, Wenjun; Hua, Jianli; Tian, He

    2014-10-01

    Two organic donor-acceptor-?-acceptor (D-A-?-A) sensitizers (AQ and AP), containing quinoxaline/pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine as the auxiliary acceptor, have been. Through fine-tuning of the auxiliary acceptor, a higher designed and synthesized photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.02% for the AQ-based dye-sensitized solar cells under standard global AM1.5 solar conditions was achieved. Also, it was found that AQ-Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts displayed a better rate of H2 evolution under visible-light irradiation (420 nm

  5. Platinum-Free Counter Electrode Comprised of Metal-Organic-Framework (MOF)-Derived Cobalt Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shao-Hui; Li, Chun-Ting; Chien, Heng-Ta; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wu, Kevin C.-W.

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated a highly efficient (with a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 8.1%) Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The counter electrode was made of cobalt sulfide (CoS) nanoparticles synthesized via surfactant-assisted preparation of a metal organic framework, ZIF-67, with controllable particle sizes (50 to 320?nm) and subsequent oxidation and sulfide conversion. In contrast to conventional Pt counter electrodes, the synthesized CoS nanoparticles exhibited higher external surface areas and roughness factors, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) element mapping, and electrochemical analysis. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results showed an increase in the open circuit voltage (VOC) and a decrease in the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) for CoS-based DSSCs compared to Pt-based DSSCs, resulting in a similar power conversion efficiency. The CoS-based DSSC fabricated in the study show great potential for economically friendly production of Pt-free DSSCs. PMID:25382139

  6. Platinum-Free Counter Electrode Comprised of Metal-Organic-Framework (MOF)-Derived Cobalt Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shao-Hui; Li, Chun-Ting; Chien, Heng-Ta; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wu, Kevin C.-W.

    2014-11-01

    We fabricated a highly efficient (with a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 8.1%) Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The counter electrode was made of cobalt sulfide (CoS) nanoparticles synthesized via surfactant-assisted preparation of a metal organic framework, ZIF-67, with controllable particle sizes (50 to 320 nm) and subsequent oxidation and sulfide conversion. In contrast to conventional Pt counter electrodes, the synthesized CoS nanoparticles exhibited higher external surface areas and roughness factors, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) element mapping, and electrochemical analysis. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results showed an increase in the open circuit voltage (VOC) and a decrease in the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) for CoS-based DSSCs compared to Pt-based DSSCs, resulting in a similar power conversion efficiency. The CoS-based DSSC fabricated in the study show great potential for economically friendly production of Pt-free DSSCs.

  7. Platinum-free counter electrode comprised of metal-organic-framework (MOF)-derived cobalt sulfide nanoparticles for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shao-Hui; Li, Chun-Ting; Chien, Heng-Ta; Salunkhe, Rahul R; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wu, Kevin C-W

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated a highly efficient (with a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 8.1%) Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The counter electrode was made of cobalt sulfide (CoS) nanoparticles synthesized via surfactant-assisted preparation of a metal organic framework, ZIF-67, with controllable particle sizes (50 to 320?nm) and subsequent oxidation and sulfide conversion. In contrast to conventional Pt counter electrodes, the synthesized CoS nanoparticles exhibited higher external surface areas and roughness factors, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) element mapping, and electrochemical analysis. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results showed an increase in the open circuit voltage (VOC) and a decrease in the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) for CoS-based DSSCs compared to Pt-based DSSCs, resulting in a similar power conversion efficiency. The CoS-based DSSC fabricated in the study show great potential for economically friendly production of Pt-free DSSCs. PMID:25382139

  8. First-principles study of Carbz-PAHTDDT dye sensitizer and two Carbz-derived dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Narges; Wang, Feng

    2014-03-01

    Two new carbazole-based organic dye sensitizers are designed and investigated in silico. These dyes are designed through chemical modifications of the ?-conjugated bridge of a reference organic sensitizer known as Carbz-PAHTDDT (S9) dye. The aim of designing these dyes was to reduce the energy gap between their highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and to red-shift their absorption response compared to those of the reference S9 dye sensitizer. This reference dye has a reported promising efficiency when coupled with ferrocene-based electrolyte composition. To investigate geometric and electronic structure, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were conducted on the new dyes as well as the reference dye. The present study indicated that the long-range correction to the theoretical model in the TD-DFT simulation is important to produce accurate absorption wavelengths. The theoretical studies have shown a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap and red-shifted absorption spectra for both of the new candidate dyes. In particular, the new S9-D1 dye is found to have significant reduced HOMO-LUMO energy gap, greater push-pull character and higher wavelengths of absorption when compared to the reference dye. Such findings suggest that the new dyes are promising and suitable for optoelectronic applications. PMID:24595721

  9. Huge suppression of charge recombination in P3HT-ZnO organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells by locating dyes at the ZnO/P3HT interfaces.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Ogomi, Yuhei; Das, Sandeep K; Pandey, Shyam S; Yoshino, Kenji; Katayama, Kenji; Momose, Hisayo; Toyoda, Taro; Hayase, Shuzi

    2013-09-14

    The charge separation and charge recombination dynamics in P3HT-ZnO and P3HT-dye-ZnO bulk heterojunction organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells (OIHSCs) prepared by a one-pot method were studied using a transient absorption (TA) method, both for optical absorption of P3HT in the visible region and for optical absorption of SQ36 in the NIR region. In the case of P3HT-ZnO, the charge separation was very fast, occurring within 1 ps. On the other hand, high charge recombination between electrons in the surface states and/or the conduction band of ZnO and holes in P3HT was observed. In the case of P3HT-dye-ZnO, we found that the charge recombination could be greatly suppressed by locating the dye at the P3HT/ZnO interfaces while maintaining a fast charge separation rate (a few ps to 10 ps). Our findings provide one methodology for the design of OIHSCs for improving their conversion efficiency, which is to position the dye at the appropriate BHJ interfaces. PMID:23877400

  10. Characterization of anthocyanin based dye-sensitized organic solar cells (DSSC) and modifications based on bio-inspired ion mobility improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawyin, Jose Amador

    The worldwide electrical energy consumption will increase from currently 10 terawatts to 30 terawatts by 2050. To decrease the current atmospheric CO2 would require our civilization to develop a 20 terawatts non-greenhouse emitting (renewable) electrical power generation capability. Solar photovoltaic electric power generation is thought to be a major component of proposed renewable energy-based economy. One approach to less costly, easily manufactured solar cells is the Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) introduced by Greatzel and others. This dissertation describes the work focused on improving the performance of DSSC type solar cells. In particular parameters affecting dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on anthocyanin pigments extracted from California blackberries (Rubus ursinus) and bio-inspired modifications were analyzed and solar cell designs optimized. Using off-the-shelf materials DSSC were constructed and tested using a custom made solar spectrum simulator and photoelectric property characterization. This equipment facilitated the taking of automated I-V curve plots and the experimental determination of parameters such as open circuit voltage (V OC), short circuit current (JSC), fill factor (FF), etc. This equipment was used to probe the effect of various modifications such as changes in the annealing time and composition of the of the electrode counter-electrode. Solar cell optimization schemes included novel schemes such as solar spectrum manipulation to increase the percentage of the solar spectrum capable of generating power in the DSSC. Solar manipulation included light scattering and photon upconversion. Techniques examined here focused on affordable materials such as silica nanoparticles embedded inside a TiO2 matrix. Such materials were examined for controlled scattering of visible light and optimize light trapping within the matrix as well as a means to achieve photon up-energy-conversion using the Raman effect in silica nano-particles (due to a strong Raman anti-Stoke scattering probability). Finally, solutions to the mobility problem of organic photovoltaics were explored. The solutions examined here were based on the bio-inspired neural ionic conduction were nature has overcome the poor ionic mobility in solutions (D ˜ 10-5cm2/ s) to achieve amazingly fast ionic conduction using non-electric field energy gradients. Electric-permeability-graded layers with possibility to create an energy gradient that helps the diffusion DSSC electrolyte diffusion were explored in this work.

  11. Energy Transfer Employing Europium Complex and Blue Phosphorescent Dye and Its Application in White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichi Hino; Hirotake Kajii; Yutaka Ohmori

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the energy transfer of a blue phosphorescent molecule, bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2'] (picolinate) iridium(III) (FIrpic), and a red europium complex of tris(dibenzoylmethane)-mono(4,7-dimethyphenanthroline) europium(III) [Eu(dbm)3phen] doped in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK). The photoluminescence (PL) spectral intensity of a PVK:Eu(dbm)3phen film was increased by FIrpic doping. Additionally, we demonstrated white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) employing the energy transfer from a host to dopants, showing the

  12. Application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the identification of anthraquinone dyes used in works of art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; Leona, Marco; Vo-Dinh, K. C.; Yan, F.; Wabuyele, M.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2005-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was investigated for applications in the analysis of anthraquinone dyes used in works of art. Two SERS procedures were developed and evaluated with frequently used anthraquinone dyes, alizarin, carminic acid and lac dye. The first procedure involves the removal of a microscopic fragment containing alizarin from a painting, and a layer of silver nanoparticles was thermally evaporated directly on the fragment to induce SERS signal from alizarin. The applicability of this procedure for analyzing solid samples of color layer from paintings was discussed in detail. In the second procedure, a SERS-active substrate was prepared by spin-coating an alumina-nanoparticle layer onto a glass slide, followed by thermally evaporating a layer of silver nanoparticles on top of the alumina layer. Aliquots of dye solutions were delivered onto this substrate where intense SERS spectra characteristic of alizarin, carminic acid, and lac dye were obtained. The effects of two parameters, the concentration of the alumina suspension, and the thickness of the silver nanoparticle layer, on the performance of the Ag-Al2O3 substrate were examined with alizarin as the model compound. Comparative studies with other common SERS substrates showed larger enhancement and improved reproducibility for the Ag-Al2O3 substrate. The potential applicability of the Ag-Al2O3 substrate for the analysis of real artifact objects was illustrated by the identification of alizarin extracted from a small piece of textile dyed with traditional methods and materials. The limit of detection for alizarin was estimated to be 7×10-15 g from tests using solutions of known concentration.

  13. A double-acceptor as a superior organic dye design for p-type DSSCs: high photocurrents and the observed light soaking effect.

    PubMed

    Click, Kevin A; Beauchamp, Damian R; Garrett, Benjamin R; Huang, Zhongjie; Hadad, Christopher M; Wu, Yiying

    2014-12-21

    Herein, we report three novel single donor double acceptor dyes, BH2, 4, and 6, for use in p-type dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). BH4 yields one of the highest photocurrents, 7.4 mA cm(-2), to date. The high performance is achieved via a shorter synthetic route and no exotic materials or cell-building techniques. We suggest a structural principle when building dyes whereby one adopts a double acceptor/single anchor when a triphenylamine moiety is incorporated into a dye for p-type DSSCs. This strategy increases the molar extinction coefficient while simultaneously reducing the number of synthetic steps. The molar extinction coefficients (99?980 M(-1) cm(-1)) reported herein are among the highest reported. Finally, we report the first-ever-observed light soaking effect in p-type DSSCs. PMID:25360820

  14. Comparison of dye doping and ultrathin emissive layer in white organic light-emitting devices with dual emissive layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Qi, Yige; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-09-01

    White organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) with combined doping emissive layer (EML) and ultrathin EML have been fabricated to investigate the effect of each EML on the electroluminescent (EL) performance of the WOLEDs. Through tailoring doping concentration of bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2'](picolinate) iridium(III) (FIrpic) and thickness of ultrathin bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C2'] iridium (acetylacetonate) [(tbt)2Ir(acac)] EML, it is found that the change in the doping ratio of FIrpic significantly influenced the EL efficiencies and spectra, while the alteration of ultrathin EML thickness had much milder effect on the EL performance. The results indicated that ultrathin EML is in favor of reproducibility in mass production compared with doping method.

  15. Patterns of dye coupling involving serotonergic neurons provide insights into the cellular organization of a central complex lineage of the embryonic grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Boyan; Bertram Niederleitner

    2011-01-01

    All eight neuroblasts from the pars intercerebralis of one protocerebral hemisphere whose progeny contribute fibers to the\\u000a central complex in the embryonic brain of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria generate serotonergic cells at stereotypic locations in their lineages. The pattern of dye coupling involving these neuroblasts\\u000a and their progeny was investigated during embryogenesis by injecting fluorescent dye intracellularly into the neuroblast

  16. The Development and Application of Novel IR and NMR-Based Model for the Evaluation of Carminative Effect of Artemisia judaica L. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alzweiri, Muhammed; Alrawashdeh, Ibrahim M.; Bardaweel, Sanaa K.

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia judaica L. is a medicinal plant that is traditionally used to relieve abdominal pains through its carminative activity. In this study, spectroscopic analysis was employed to investigate the carminative activity associated with A. judaica. Using infrared spectroscopy, the carminative activity was evaluated based on the first derivative of IR-characteristic stretching signal of CO2. Our results indicate that A. judaica oil effectively reduced the response of CO2 signal equivalent to thymol standard. Additionally, 1H-NMR spectroscopy was utilized to assess surface activity of A. judaica crude oil through the reduction of interfacial tension in a D2O/CDCl3 system. Apparently, 10?mg of the oil was able to solubilize water in a chloroform layer up to 4.3% (w/w). In order to correlate the observed surface activity of the oil to its actual composition, GC-MS and GC-FID structural analysis were undertaken. The results revealed that the oil composition consists of oxygenated terpenes which might be responsible for the carminative effect. Furthermore, owing to its sensitivity, our model provides a fundamental basis for the pharmacological assessment of trace amounts of oils with high precision and accuracy. PMID:25614741

  17. Synthesis, Photophysics, Electrochemistry and Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of PEG-Modified BODIPY dyes in Organic and Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B.; Pistner, Allen J.; Bard, Allen J.; Rosenthal, Joel

    2013-01-01

    A set polyethylene glycol (PEG) appended BODIPY architectures (BOPEG1 – BOPEG3) have been prepared and studied in CH2Cl2, H2O:CH3CN (1:1) and aqueous solutions. BOPEG1 and BOPEG2 both contain a short PEG chain and differ in substitution about the BODIPY framework. BOPEG3 is comprised of a fully substituted BODIPY moiety linked to a PEG polymer that is roughly 13 units in length. The photophysics and electrochemical properties of these compounds have been thoroughly characterized in CH2Cl2 and aqueous CH3CN solutions. The behavior of BOPEG1 – BOPEG3 correlates with established rules of BODIPY stability based on substitution about the BODIPY moiety. ECL for each of these compounds was also monitored. BOPEG1, which is unsubstituted at the 2- and 6-positions dimerized upon electrochemical oxidation while BOPEG2, which contains ethyl groups at the 2- and 6-positions, was much more robust and served as an excellent ECL luminophore. BOPEG3 is highly soluble in water due to the long PEG tether and demonstrated modest ECL activity in aqueous solutions using tri-n-propylamine (TPrA) as a coreactant. As such, BOPEG3 represents the first BODIPY derivative that has been shown to display ECL in water without the need for an organic cosolvent, and marks an important step in the development of BODIPY based ECL probes for various biosensing applications. PMID:23626863

  18. Applicability of radiocolloids, blue dyes and fluorescent indocyanine green to sentinel node biopsy in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Uhara, Hisashi; Yamazaki, Naoya; Takata, Minoru; Inoue, Yuji; Sakakibara, Akihiro; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Suehiro, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Akifumi; Kamo, Riei; Mochida, Kosuke; Takenaka, Hideya; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Takenouchi, Tatsuya; Yoshikawa, Shusuke; Takahashi, Akira; Uehara, Jiro; Kawai, Mikio; Iwata, Hiroaki; Kadono, Takafumi; Kai, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Shoichi; Murata, Satoru; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Fukamizu, Hidekazu; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Hatta, Naohito; Saida, Toshiaki

    2012-04-01

    Patients with primary cutaneous melanoma underwent sentinel node (SN) mapping and biopsy at 25 facilities in Japan by the combination of radiocolloid with gamma probe and dye. Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-tin colloid, (99m)Tc-phytate, 2% patent blue violet (PBV) and 0.4% indigo carmine were used as tracers. In some hospitals, 0.5% fluorescent indocyanine green, which allows visualization of the SN with an infrared camera, was concomitantly used and examined. A total of 673 patients were enrolled, and 562 cases were eligible. The detection rates of SN were 95.5% (147/154) with the combination of tin colloid and PBV, 98.9% (368/372) with the combination of phytate and PBV, and 97.2% (35/36) with the combination of tin colloid or phytate and indigo carmine. SN was not detected in 12 cases by the combination method, and the primary tumor was in the head and neck in six of those 12 cases. In eight of 526 cases (1.5%), SN was detected by PBV but not by radiocolloid. There were 13 cases (2.5%) in which SN was detected by radiocolloid but not by PBV. In 18 of 36 cases (50%), SN was detected by radiocolloid but not by indigo carmine. Concomitantly used fluorescent indocyanine green detected SN in all of 67 cases. Interference with transcutaneous oximetry by PVB was observed in some cases, although it caused no clinical trouble. Allergic reactions were not reported with any of the tracers. (99m)Tc-tin colloid, (99m)Tc-phytate, PBV and indocyanine green are useful tracers for SN mapping. PMID:21933261

  19. Low temperature (150 °C) fabrication of high-performance TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells using ultraviolet light and plasma treatments of TiO2 paste containing organic binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, Shungo; Inoue, Yuki; Ono, Ryo

    2015-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require annealing of TiO2 photoelectrodes at 450 °C to 550 °C. However, such high-temperature annealing is unfavorable because it limits the use of materials that cannot withstand high temperatures, such as plastic substrates. In our previous paper, a low-temperature annealing technique of TiO2 photoelectrodes using ultraviolet light and dielectric barrier discharge treatments was proposed to reduce the annealing temperature from 450 °C to 150 °C for a TiO2 paste containing an organic binder. Here, we measure the electron diffusion length in the TiO2 film, the amount of dye adsorption on the TiO2 film, and the sheet resistance of a glass substrate of samples manufactured with the 150 °C annealing method, and we discuss the effect that the 150 °C annealing method has on those properties of DSSCs.

  20. Chalcogenopyrylium Dyes as Differential Modulators of Organic Anion Transport by Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 (MRP1), MRP2, and MRP4

    PubMed Central

    Myette, Robert L.; Conseil, Gwenaëlle; Ebert, Sean P.; Wetzel, Bryan; Detty, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) mediate the ATP-dependent efflux of structurally diverse compounds, including anticancer drugs and physiologic organic anions. Five classes of chalcogenopyrylium dyes (CGPs) were examined for their ability to modulate transport of [3H]estradiol glucuronide (E217?G; a prototypical MRP substrate) into MRP-enriched inside-out membrane vesicles. Additionally, some CGPs were tested in intact transfected cells using a calcein efflux assay. Sixteen of 34 CGPs inhibited MRP1-mediated E217?G uptake by >50% (IC50 values: 0.7–7.6 µM). Of 9 CGPs with IC50 values ?2 µM, two belonged to class I, two to class III, and five to class V. When tested in the intact cells, only 4 of 16 CGPs (at 10 µM) inhibited MRP1-mediated calcein efflux by >50% (III-1, V-3, V-4, V-6), whereas a fifth (I-5) inhibited efflux by just 23%. These five CGPs also inhibited [3H]E217?G uptake by MRP4. In contrast, their effects on MRP2 varied, with two (V-4, V-6) inhibiting E217?G transport (IC50 values: 2.0 and 9.2 µM) and two (V-3, III-1) stimulating transport (>2-fold), whereas CGP I-5 had no effect. Strikingly, although V-3 and V-4 had opposite effects on MRP2 activity, they are structurally identical except for their chalcogen atom (Se versus Te). This study is the first to identify class V CGPs, with their distinctive methine or trimethine linkage between two disubstituted pyrylium moieties, as a particularly potent class of MRP modulators, and to show that, within this core structure, differences in the electronegativity associated with a chalcogen atom can be the sole determinant of whether a compound will stimulate or inhibit MRP2. PMID:23530018

  1. Chalcogenopyrylium dyes as differential modulators of organic anion transport by multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), MRP2, and MRP4.

    PubMed

    Myette, Robert L; Conseil, Gwenaëlle; Ebert, Sean P; Wetzel, Bryan; Detty, Michael R; Cole, Susan P C

    2013-06-01

    Multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) mediate the ATP-dependent efflux of structurally diverse compounds, including anticancer drugs and physiologic organic anions. Five classes of chalcogenopyrylium dyes (CGPs) were examined for their ability to modulate transport of [(3)H]estradiol glucuronide (E(2)17?G; a prototypical MRP substrate) into MRP-enriched inside-out membrane vesicles. Additionally, some CGPs were tested in intact transfected cells using a calcein efflux assay. Sixteen of 34 CGPs inhibited MRP1-mediated E(2)17?G uptake by >50% (IC50 values: 0.7-7.6 µM). Of 9 CGPs with IC50 values ?2 µM, two belonged to class I, two to class III, and five to class V. When tested in the intact cells, only 4 of 16 CGPs (at 10 µM) inhibited MRP1-mediated calcein efflux by >50% (III-1, V-3, V-4, V-6), whereas a fifth (I-5) inhibited efflux by just 23%. These five CGPs also inhibited [(3)H]E(2)17?G uptake by MRP4. In contrast, their effects on MRP2 varied, with two (V-4, V-6) inhibiting E(2)17?G transport (IC(50) values: 2.0 and 9.2 µM) and two (V-3, III-1) stimulating transport (>2-fold), whereas CGP I-5 had no effect. Strikingly, although V-3 and V-4 had opposite effects on MRP2 activity, they are structurally identical except for their chalcogen atom (Se versus Te). This study is the first to identify class V CGPs, with their distinctive methine or trimethine linkage between two disubstituted pyrylium moieties, as a particularly potent class of MRP modulators, and to show that, within this core structure, differences in the electronegativity associated with a chalcogen atom can be the sole determinant of whether a compound will stimulate or inhibit MRP2. PMID:23530018

  2. Electron transfer mediation by aqueous C?? aggregates in H?O?/UV advanced oxidation of indigo carmine.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ling; Moor, Kyle; Zhang, Bo; He, Yiliang; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2014-11-21

    C60 fullerene has long been known to exhibit favorable electron accepting and shuttling properties, but little is known about the possibility of electron transfer mediation by fullerene aggregates (nC60) in water. In this study, we investigated the electron shuttling capabilities of nC60 using UV/H2O2 as a model oxidation process in the presence of an electron donor, indigo carmine (IC). nC60 addition to the IC/H2O2 system was found to drastically increase IC degradation and shift the reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance, favoring the formation of superoxide and perhydroxyl radical species compared to hydroxyl radicals. Results indicate that nC60 can act as an electron mediator, where the adsorbed IC donates an electron to nC60, which is subsequently transferred to H2O2 or perhydroxyl radical. PMID:25268845

  3. Anthracene/phenothiazine ?-conjugated sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells using redox mediator in organic and water-based solvents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ryan Yeh-Yung; Chuang, Tzu-Man; Wu, Feng-Ling; Chen, Pei-Yu; Chu, Te-Chun; Ni, Jen-Shyang; Fan, Miao-Syuan; Lo, Yih-Hsing; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Lin, Jiann T

    2015-01-01

    Metal-free dyes (MD1 to MD5) containing an anthracene/phenothiazine unit in the spacer have been synthesized. The conversion efficiency (7.13?%) of the dye-sensitized solar cell using MD3 as the sensitizer reached approximately 85?% of the N719-based standard cell (8.47?%). The cell efficiency (8.42?%) of MD3-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with addition of chenodeoxycholic acid is comparable with that of N719-based standard cell. The MD3 water-based DSSCs using a dual-TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl)/iodide electrolyte exhibited very promising cell performance of 4.96?% with an excellent Voc of 0.77?V. PMID:25404282

  4. Electron transfer mediation by aqueous C60 aggregates in H2O2/UV advanced oxidation of indigo carmine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ling; Moor, Kyle; Zhang, Bo; He, Yiliang; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2014-10-01

    C60 fullerene has long been known to exhibit favorable electron accepting and shuttling properties, but little is known about the possibility of electron transfer mediation by fullerene aggregates (nC60) in water. In this study, we investigated the electron shuttling capabilities of nC60 using UV/H2O2 as a model oxidation process in the presence of an electron donor, indigo carmine (IC). nC60 addition to the IC/H2O2 system was found to drastically increase IC degradation and shift the reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance, favoring the formation of superoxide and perhydroxyl radical species compared to hydroxyl radicals. Results indicate that nC60 can act as an electron mediator, where the adsorbed IC donates an electron to nC60, which is subsequently transferred to H2O2 or perhydroxyl radical.C60 fullerene has long been known to exhibit favorable electron accepting and shuttling properties, but little is known about the possibility of electron transfer mediation by fullerene aggregates (nC60) in water. In this study, we investigated the electron shuttling capabilities of nC60 using UV/H2O2 as a model oxidation process in the presence of an electron donor, indigo carmine (IC). nC60 addition to the IC/H2O2 system was found to drastically increase IC degradation and shift the reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance, favoring the formation of superoxide and perhydroxyl radical species compared to hydroxyl radicals. Results indicate that nC60 can act as an electron mediator, where the adsorbed IC donates an electron to nC60, which is subsequently transferred to H2O2 or perhydroxyl radical. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03647f

  5. Evaluation of potential genotoxicity of five food dyes using the somatic mutation and recombination test.

    PubMed

    Sar?kaya, Rabia; Selvi, Mahmut; Erkoç, Figen

    2012-08-01

    In this study, different concentrations of five food dyes (amaranth, patent blue, carminic acid, indigotine and erythrosine) have been evaluated for genotoxicity in the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) of Drosophila melanogaster. Standard cross was used in the experiment. Larvae including two linked recessive wing hair mutations were chronically fed at different concentrations of the test compounds in standard Drosophila Instant Medium. Feeding ended with pupation of the surviving larvae. Wings of the emerging adult flies were scored for the presence of spots of mutant cells which can result from either somatic mutation or somatic recombination. For the evaluation of genotoxic effects, the frequencies of spots per wing in the treated series were compared to the control group, which was distilled water. The present study shows that carminic acid and indigotine demonstrated negative results while erythrosine demonstrated inconclusive results. In addition 25 mg mL(-1) concentration of patent blue and 12.5, 25 and 50 mg mL(-1) concentrations of amaranth demonstrated positive results in the SMART. PMID:22482698

  6. Improving the decolorization for textile dyes of a metagenome-derived alkaline laccase by directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu Huan; Ye, Mao; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Xia; Li, Gang

    2011-08-01

    To obtain better performing laccases for textile dyes decolorization, random mutagenesis of Lac591, a metagenome-derived alkaline laccase, was carried out. After three rounds of error-prone PCR and high-throughput screening by assaying enzymatic activity toward the phenolic substrate 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP), a mutant (Lac3T93) with remarkably improved enzymatic activity was obtained. Sequence analysis revealed that four amino acid substitutions (N40S, V55A, F62L, and E316V) were accumulated in the Lac3T93. Compared to the wild-type enzyme, the specific activity of Lac3T93 toward 2,6-DMP was increased to 4.8-fold (61.22 U/mg), and its optimal temperature and pH were changed to 60°C and 8.0 from 55°C and 7.5 of the wild-type enzyme, respectively. Furthermore, the degradation ability of Lac3T93 for textile dyes was investigated, and the new variant represented improved decolorization percentage for four industrial dyes with complex phenyl structure (Basic Blue 3, Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Crystal Violet) and higher decolorization efficiency for Indigo Carmine than that of the parent enzyme. Furthermore, the decolorization percentage of Lac3T93 for five dyes in the absence of hydroxybenzotrizole (HBT) is clearly higher than those of the wild-type enzyme with 1 mM HBT, and HBT can further improve its decolorization ability. PMID:21523474

  7. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Various Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliarto, Brian; Fanani, Fahiem; Fuadi, M. Kasyful; Nugraha

    2010-10-01

    This article reports the development of organic dyes as an attempt to reduce material costs of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Indonesia, a country with variety and considerable number of botanical resources, is suitable to perform the research. Indonesian black rice, curcuma, papaya leaf, and the combination were chosen as organic dyes source. Dyes were extracted using organic solvent and adsorbed on mesoporous Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) which has been optimized in our laboratory. The best dyes light absorbance and performance obtained from papaya leaf as chlorophyll dyes that gives two peaks at 432 nm and 664 nm from UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and performance under 100 mW/cm2 Xenon light solar simulator gives VOC = 0.566 Volt, JSC = 0.24 mA/cm2, Fill Factor = 0.33, and efficiency of energy conversion 0,045%.

  8. Optofluidic dye lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenyu Li; Demetri Psaltis

    2008-01-01

    Optofluidic dye lasers are microfabricated liquid dye lasers enabled by the microfluidics technology. The integration of dye\\u000a lasers with microfluidics not only facilitates the implementation of complete “lab-on-a-chip” systems, but also allows the\\u000a dynamical control of the laser properties which is not achievable with solid-state optical components. We review the recent\\u000a demonstrations of on-chip liquid dye lasers and some of

  9. Decolorization of Azo Dyes by Immobilized Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rashmi Khan; Uttam Chand Banerjee

    \\u000a Synthetic organic dyes are essential for satisfying the ever growing demand in terms of quality, variety, and speed of coloration\\u000a of large number of substances. Because of the xenobiotic nature of dyes, they are toxicant to biological system and causes\\u000a serious damage to environment. Ever-increasing concerns about color in the effluent lead to the worldwide efforts to build\\u000a up effective

  10. Dye Like A Natural

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners stain fabrics--on purpose! Learners explore the art of natural dyeing by using dyes and substrates that are both derived from plant or animal sources as well as mordant solutions. Learners compare the color and effectiveness of different mordant/dye combinations on the different substrates.

  11. Treatment of Dyeing Wastewater by TiO2\\/H2O2\\/UV Process: Experimental Design Approach for Evaluating Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Removal Efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Mok Lee; Young-Gyu Kim; Il-Hyoung Cho

    2005-01-01

    Optimal operating conditions in order to treat dyeing wastewater were investigated by using the factorial design and responses surface methodology (RSM). The experiment was statistically designed and carried out according to a 2 full factorial design with four factorial points, three center points, and four axial points. Then, the linear and nonlinear regression was applied on the data by using

  12. Effect of mercerization and gamma irradiation on the dyeing behaviour of cotton using stilbene based direct dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Adeel, Shahid; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Irshad, Misbah; Abbas, Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    The dyeing behaviour of mercerized and gamma irradiated cotton fabric using stilbene based direct dye has been investigated. The fabric was treated with different concentrations of alkali to optimize the mercerization. The optimum mercerized cotton fabric was irradiated to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature, time of dyeing, pH of dyeing solutions and salt concentration were optimized. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It was found that mercerized and irradiated cotton have not only improved the colour strength but enhanced the rating of fastness properties also.

  13. Essential oil constituents of different organs of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Facanali; S. P. Brazil

    Essential oil constituents of different organs of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare). The fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.var. vulgare) is an annual herbaceous plant, whose seeds are very used in the homemade medicine and pharmaceutical industry. The fennel seeds produce yellow-clear aromatic essential oil, used in the production of several licorous drinks and of perfumery, with action carminative and stimulant. Therefore,

  14. The potential of middle eastern flora as a source of new safe bio-acaricides to control Tetranychus cinnabarinus , the carmine spider mite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Mansour; H. Azaizeh; B. Saad; Y. Tadmor; F. Abo-Moch; O. Said

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-nine plant extracts of local species were evaluated for their potential as a source of bioactive ingredients with significant\\u000a acaricidal activity that could lead to the development of new and safe bio-acaricides. The crude extracts (70% ethanol) of\\u000a these plants were tested for their acaricidal activity against the carmine spider miteTetranychus cinnabarinus in a bioassay under controlled conditions. Mortality, repellency,

  15. Data mining with molecular design rules identifies new class of dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jacqueline M; Low, Kian Sing; Ozoe, Hiroaki; Stathi, Panagiota; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Kurata, Hiroyuki; Rudolf, Petra; Kawase, Takeshi

    2014-12-28

    A major deficit in suitable dyes is stifling progress in the dye-sensitised solar cell (DSC) industry. Materials discovery strategies have afforded numerous new dyes; yet, corresponding solution-based DSC device performance has little improved upon 11% efficiency, achieved using the N719 dye over two decades ago. Research on these dyes has nevertheless revealed relationships between the molecular structure of dyes and their associated DSC efficiency. Here, such structure-property relationships have been codified in the form of molecular dye design rules, which have been judiciously sequenced in an algorithm to enable large-scale data mining of dye structures with optimal DSC performance. This affords, for the first time, a DSC-specific dye-discovery strategy that predicts new classes of dyes from surveying a representative set of chemical space. A lead material from these predictions is experimentally validated, showing DSC efficiency that is comparable to many well-known organic dyes. This demonstrates the power of this approach. PMID:25011389

  16. Data Mining with Molecular Design Rules Identifies New Class of Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    A major deficit in suitable dyes is stiffling progress in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) industry. Materials discovery strategies have afforded numerous new dyes; yet, corresponding solution-based DSC device performance has little improved upon 11% efficiency, achieved using the N719 dye over two decades ago. Research on these dyes has nevertheless revealed relationships between the molecular structure of dyes and their associated DSC efficiency. Here, we have codified such structure-property relationships in the form of molecular dye design rules, which have been judiciously sequenced in an algorithm to enable large-scale data mining of dye structures with optimal DSC performance. For the first time, we have a DSC-specific dye-discovery strategy that predicts new classes of dyes from surveying a representative set of chemical space. A lead material from these predictions is experimentally validated herein, showing DSC efficiency that is comparable to many well-known organic dyes. This demonstrates the power of this approach.

  17. Organic Dye-Doped Thin Films for Wavelength Conversion and Their Effects on the Photovoltaic Characteristics of CdS\\/CdTe Solar Cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-Chul Hong; Katsuyasu Kawano

    2004-01-01

    For the improvement of the conversion efficiency of CdS\\/CdTe solar cells by applying the wavelength conversion properties, the spectroscopic studies of the fluorescent laser dye Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G)-doped into polyvinylbutyral (PVB) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were carried out. It was found that all the photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra below 540 nm were effectively converted to photoluminescence (PL) spectra in the wavelength

  18. Influence of the organic electrolyte and anodization conditions on the preparation of well-aligned TiO 2 nanotube arrays in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee Yeon Hwang; Arun Anand Prabu; Dong Young Kim; Kap Jin Kim

    2011-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) comprising randomly networked titanium nanoparticles usually exhibit lower energy conversion efficiency and limited electron mobility due to the scattering and trapping of free electrons. In this study, attempts were made to improve the electron mobility in DSSCs using vertically aligned and well ordered TiO2 nanotubes. These nanotubes were prepared by the electrochemical etching of Ti foil

  19. Enhancement of solar light photocatalytic activity of TiO2-CeO2 composite by Er3+:Y3Al5O12 in organic dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Li, S. G.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Ma, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Er3+:Y3Al5O12, as an upconversion luminescence agent which is able to transform the visible part of the solar light to ultraviolet light, was prepared by nitrate-citrate sol-gel method. A novel solar light photocatalyst, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite was synthesized using ultrasonic treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning election microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structural morphology of the Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite. In order to evaluate the solar light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite, the Azo Fuchsine dye was used as a model organic pollutant. The progress of the degradation reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and ion chromatography. The key influences on the solar light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 were studied, such as Ti/Ce molar ratio, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time. Otherwise, the effects of initial dye concentration, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 amount, solar light irradiation time and the nature of the dye on the solar light photocatalytic degradation process were investigated. It was found that the solar light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite was superior to Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 and Er3+:Y3Al5O12/CeO2 powder in the similar conditions.

  20. Peruvian natural dye plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay K. Antúnez de Mayolo

    1989-01-01

    The use of natural dyes to color textiles and other objects has a long history in Andean South America, but has for the most\\u000a part become a lost technology with the introduction of synthetic dyes. A literature and field survey to recover information\\u000a about the traditional use of dye plants in Peru, from pre-Hispanic to recent times, was accompanied by

  1. Ultrasonic assisted dyeing. IV. Dyeing of cationised cotton with lac natural dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Kamel; Reda M. El-Shishtawy; B. M. Youssef; H. Mashaly

    2007-01-01

    The dyeing of cationised cotton fabrics with lac natural dye has been studied using both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. The effects of dye bath pH, salt concentration, ultrasonic power, dyeing time and temperature were studied and the resulting shades obtained by dyeing with ultrasonic and conventional techniques were compared. Colour strength values obtained were found to be higher with ultrasonic

  2. Characteristics and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin film sensitized with a porphyrin dye.

    PubMed

    Yao, K S; Wang, D Y; Chang, C Y; Ho, W Y; Yang, L Y

    2008-05-01

    In this study, a novel porphyrin dye, 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenyl-21H, 23H-porphine nickel (TPPN) doped TiO2 (TiO2/TPPN) thin film with visible light respondency was prepared using a sol-gel method and characterized with XRD, SEM, UV-Vis instruments. The observation showed that the absorption edge of TPPN dye-doped thin film shifted into the visible light region. The photocatalytic indigo carmine degradation results showed that under visible light irradiation (lambda > 400 nm) for 6 hrs, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin film sensitized with 200 microM of TPPN dye showed the best performance, with an indigo degradation ratio up to 96%. Moreover, the TiO2/TPPN thin film showed a relevant photocatalytic bactericidal effect on Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora 7 induced vegetable soft rot disease in the visible spectral region. Evidence for the photocatalytic disinfection technique against a plant pathogen under visible light irradiation will have potential for direct application in future control of plant diseases in irrigation water systems. PMID:18572711

  3. [Anaphylaxis to blue dyes].

    PubMed

    Langner-Viviani, F; Chappuis, S; Bergmann, M M; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    In medicine, vital blue dyes are mainly used for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in oncologic surgery. Perioperative anaphylaxis to blue dyes is a rare but significant complication. Allergic reactions to blue dyes are supposedly IgE-mediated and mainly caused by triarylmethanes (patent blue and isosulfane blue) and less frequently by methylene blue. These substances usually do not feature on the anesthesia record and should not be omitted from the list of suspects having caused the perioperative reaction, in the same manner as latex and chlorhexidine. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity to vital blue dyes can be established by skin test. We illustrate this topic with three clinical cases. PMID:24834647

  4. Dyeing Wool with Fungi

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sue Assinder

    2002-01-01

    In this activity (p.23 of PDF), learners dye wool with fungi. Learners discover that natural chemicals in fungi can dye wool different colors. Note: Natural dyeing normally requires a color fixative such as alum. This is not necessary if you use an aluminum, tin, or copper pot as the metal in the pot will take part in the dyeing reaction. However, if you use a non-stick saucepan you should add a few copper coins to the mix. Safety note: Always wash your hands after touching fungi! Adult supervision recommended.

  5. Kinetics of dye decolorization in an air–solid system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison J. Julson; David F. Ollis

    2006-01-01

    The photocatalytic decolorization of adsorbed organic dyes (Acid Blue 9, Acid Orange 7, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Blue 19) in air was examined, applicable to self-cleaning surfaces and catalyst characterization. Dye-coated Degussa P25 titanium dioxide (TiO2) and dye-coated photo-inert aluminum oxide (Al2O3) particles, both of sub-monolayer initial dye coverage, were illuminated with 1.3mWcm?2 of near-UV light. Visual evidence of

  6. Fluorescent voltage-sensitive dyes: applications for neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Dasheiff, R M

    1988-07-01

    Voltage-sensitive dyes are a means to optically monitor changes in membrane potential. Their application in research has grown steadily over the last two decades as better dyes have been developed. The techniques presently in use are providing unique information about biologic systems from bacteria to the functional organization of primate occipital cortex. This review provides a history of the dyes, the data supporting their voltage sensitivity, and the techniques required for their use. The limitations in using and interpreting the voltage-sensitive dyes, as well as their diverse applications in all areas of research, especially neurophysiology, are comprehensively presented. PMID:3049666

  7. Effects of DNA on the optical properties of cyanine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yutaka; Kato, Sho; Honda, Mayuko; Yoshida, Junichi

    2010-08-01

    Interactions with double strand structure of DNA enhance or modify the optical characteristics of organic dyes through its influences on electronic and structural properties. We investigated the absorption and emission spectra of several types of water soluble cyanine dyes, showing that the quite low concentration of DNA has large effects on the aggregate behaviors of the dyes in solutions and complex films. This effect was applied to control the J-aggregate formation of pseudo-isocyanine dye, demonstrating the J-aggregate spectra in solutions and polymer films with rather low concentration of the dyes. These results were important for realization of novel optical devices such as solid state dye laser and nonlinear optical switches incorporating DNA and other relating materials.

  8. Blue-green lasing dyes. I. Selection of class of dyes. Technical publication Dec 1972--Jun 1973

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hammond

    1973-01-01

    Dye lasers operating in the blue-green region are strong candidates for underwater communication, illumination and surveillance purposes on account of their properties of tunability, collimation, beam coherence and high peak powers. This project was undertaken to provide organic dyes of higher efficiency, lower laser action threshold and particularly higher photochemical stability than the few presently available commercially. The problem was

  9. Bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(?-A)2 comprising thiophene-2-acetonitrile as ?-spacer and malonic acid as electron acceptor for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Gachumale Saritha; Ramkumar, Sekar; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Anandan, Sambandam

    2015-06-01

    Two new bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(?-A)2 comprising the identical ?-spacer (thiophene-2-acetonitrile) and electron acceptor (malonic acid) but different aryl amine as electron donors (diphenylamine and carbazole) were synthesized, characterized and fabricated metal free dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The intra molecular charge transfer property and electrochemical property of these dyes were investigated by molecular absorption, emission, cyclic voltammetric experiments and in addition, quantum chemical calculation studies were performed to provide sufficient driving force for the electron injection into the conduction band of TiO2 which leads to efficient charge collection. Among the fabricated devices, carbazole based device exhibits high current conversion efficiency (? = 4.7%) with a short circuit current density (JSC) 15.3 mA/cm2, an open circuit photo voltage (VOC) of 0.59 V and a fill factor of 0.44 under AM 1.5 illumination (85 mW/cm2) compared to diphenylamine based device.

  10. Perylene imide dyes for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells: Spectroscopy, energy levels and photovoltaic performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sule Erten-Ela; Gulsah Turkmen

    2011-01-01

    We report the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell performances of perylene imide using nanoporous TiO2 electrodes. Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using the organic hole-transporting medium (HTM) 2,2?7,7?-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9?-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD). The experimental ELUMO levels of perylene imide dyes are found to be 3.75 and 3.77eV, respectively. Therefore, perylene imide dyes can inject electrons to the conduction band of titanium dioxide in

  11. Planar Waveguide-Nanowire Integrated Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Planar Waveguide-Nanowire Integrated Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Yaguang Wei, Chen to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by integrating planar optical waveguide cells that can be expanded to organic- and inorganic-based solar cells. KEYWORDS Dye-sensitized solar

  12. One-pot synthesis of ZnO2/ZnO composite with enhanced photocatalytic performance for organic dye removal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Mingliang; Xu, Chunxiang; Chen, Shifu; Fu, Xianliang

    2013-01-01

    The ZnO2/ZnO photocatalysts with various ZnO2 contents were prepared by one-pot synthesis method using ZnO and H2O2 as raw materials. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, UV-vis DRS, SEM, EDS, FT-IR spectra, fluorescence emission spectra, and BET specific area. The photocatalytic performance of the photocatalyst was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) and rhodamine B (RhB). The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO2/ZnO was much higher than that of single-phase ZnO or ZnO2. The optimum ZnO2 content was 1.0 wt.%. The maximal degradation rate constant of MO and RhB was 4.1 times and 2.2 times that observed for pure ZnO, respectively. The stability of the prepared photocatalyst in the photocatalytic process was also investigated. The active species in dye degradation were examined by adding a series of scavengers. The possible mechanisms involved in the photocatalytic degradation of dye were also discussed. PMID:23646793

  13. Doping nano-Co3O4 surface with bigger nanosized Ag and its photocatalytic properties for visible light photodegradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangliang; Si, Xiaolei; Yu, Jinsong; Bai, Huiyu; Zhang, Xianhui

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of nanosized Ag/Co3O4 composite catalysts using a silver-mirror reaction and the calibration of their catalytic activities towards methyl blue (MB) dye degradation with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) under visible light. The nanosized Ag/Co3O4 composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The experimental evidence indicated that the hydrothermal synthesis approach lead to the exposure of the {1 1 2} facets of the Co3O4 nanoflakes. Compared to Co3O4 nanoflakes, Co3O4 doped with Ag nanoparticle (average diameters of 10-15 nm) presented lower band gap energy and photoluminescent (PL) intensity. Meanwhile, the Ag/Co3O4 exhibited high stability and excellent dispersion property in dye solution. Experimental data suggested that 3.06 wt% Ag nanoparticle-doped Ag/Co3O4 nanocomposite catalyst possessed the highest catalytic activity towards MB degradation in aqueous solution at the tested concentration level of 15 mg/L, about 2.4 times higher than that of pure Co3O4. Complete decolorization of the 15 mg/L MB solution can be achieved by 3.06 wt% Ag-doped Ag/Co3O4 nanocomposite within 20 min of visible light irradiation.

  14. High color rending index and high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes based on the control of red phosphorescent dye-doped hole transport layer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M Y; Wang, F F; Wei, N; Zhou, P C; Peng, K J; Yu, J N; Wang, Z X; Wei, B

    2013-01-14

    We have investigated the transport characteristics of red phosphorescent dye bis(1-(phenyl)isoquinoline) iridium (III) acetylanetonate (Ir(piq)?acac) doped 4,4',4"-tri(N-carbazolyl)triphenylamine (TCTA), and found that the increasing doping ratio was facilitated to improve the ability of hole transporting. A high color rendering index (CRI) and high-efficiency WOLED was achieved by employing Ir(piq)?acac doped TCTA film as an effective red emissive layer due to the generation of charge transfer complex (CTC) at the interface. The relative proportion in red: green: blue emission intensity can be controlled by the CTC concentration to obtain high CRI WOLEDs. The WOLED with an optimal red dye doping concentration of 5 wt% exhibits a high CRI of 89 and a power efficiency of 31.2 lm/W and 27.5 lm/W at the initial luminance and 100 cd/m², respectively. The devices show little variation of the Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage coordinates in a wide range of luminance. PMID:23389269

  15. Solid state dye lasers with scattering feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costela, A.; Cerdán, L.; García-Moreno, I.

    2013-11-01

    Over the last decade, significant advances have been made toward the development of practical, tunable solid state dye lasers, which resulted in improved lasing efficiency with reduced dye photodegradation. To achieve this goal, a “chemical” approach was followed, where attention was focused onto the particular dye/host interaction and compatibility, specifically choosing already existing hosts for a given dye, synthesizing new dyes and/or matrices, or chemically modifying existing ones. Nevertheless, this approach was limited by a single fact learnt from the experience: there is no universal matrix which optimizes the efficiency and photostability of all dyes. This limitation could be overcome by following a “physical” approach, where the emission properties of the active medium are tailored by means of physical and structural modifications of the dye host. Following this approach, in this paper recent theoretical and experimental work is reviewed where it is demonstrated that following a simultaneous “physical” and “chemical” approach to tailor the emission properties of the host materials for solid state dye lasers, may lead, under specific circumstances, to the improvement of both the laser efficiency and photostability. In particular, it is demonstrated that optical scattering is not always detrimental either to conventional bulk lasers (laser rods or colloidal suspensions) or to integrated devices, but may give place, on the contrary, to dramatic improvements in the laser operation of organic (hybrid) laser rods, and to alternative ways of obtaining laser light from integrated devices based on the phenomenon of coherent random lasing, where feedback is provided by light scattering in an appropriate medium, without the need to manufacture complex periodic structures in the substrate. The processing and pumping flexibility of these materials, together with their low cost and capability of efficient emission across the whole visible spectrum makes them very attractive for the fabrication and development of coherent light sources suitable for integration in optoelectronic and disposable spectroscopic and sensing devices.

  16. First-principles study of Carbz-PAHTDDT dye sensitizer and two Carbz-derived dyes for dye sensitized solar cells

    E-print Network

    Mohammadi, Narges

    2014-01-01

    Two new carbazole-based organic dye sensitizers are designed and investigated in silico. These dyes are designed through chemical modifications of the conjugated bridge of a reference organic sensitizer known as Carbz-PAHTDDT (S9) dye. The aim of designing these dyes was to reduce the energy gap between their highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and to red-shift their absorption response compared to those of the reference S9 dye sensitizer. This reference dye has a reported promising efficiency when coupled with ferrocene-based electrolyte composition. To investigate geometric and electronic structure, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were conducted on the new dyes as well as the reference dye. The present study indicated that the long-range correction to the theoretical model in the TD-DFT simulation is important to produce accurate absorption wavelengths.The theoretical studies have shown a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap ...

  17. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  18. Tie-Dye Chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gretchen Cessna

    2001-03-01

    In their travels to the indigo dye pits of northern Nigeria, the authors were struck by the beauty, history, and chemistry of indigo dyeing. They returned from Nigeria eager to develop a laboratory exercise that would expose students to the science of ind

  19. New donor-?-acceptor type triazatruxene derivatives for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xing; Zhu, Yi-Zhou; Song, Jian; Gao, Xue-Ping; Zheng, Jian-Yu

    2013-12-01

    A new class of organic dyes based on triazatruxene have been designed and synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells. The photoelectronic properties of these donor-?-acceptor dyes can be tuned by changing ?-conjugated linkers. The best performance was found for triazatruxene dye TD1, wherein, with thiophene as the conjugated linker and cyanoacrylic acid as the acceptor, a power conversion efficiency up to 6.10% was achieved. PMID:24224807

  20. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  1. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  2. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells: comparison of in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization in aqueous micellar and organic media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbao; Ellis, Hanna; Yang, Lei; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hagfeldt, Anders; Bergquist, Jonas; Shevchenko, Denys

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) are devoid of such issues as electrolyte evaporation or leakage and electrode corrosion, which are typical for traditional liquid electrolyte-based DSCs. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is one of the most popular and efficient p-type conducting polymers that are used in sDSCs as a solid-state hole-transporting material. The most convenient way to deposit this insoluble polymer into the dye-sensitized mesoporous working electrode is in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization. Apparently, the structure and the physicochemical properties of the generated conducting polymer, which determine the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding solar cell, can be significantly affected by the preparation conditions. Therefore, a simple and fast analytical method that can reveal information on polymer chain length, possible chemical modifications, and impurities is strongly required for the rapid development of efficient solar energy-converting devices. In this contribution, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) for the analysis of PEDOT directly on sDSCs. It was found that the PEDOT generated in aqueous micellar medium possesses relatively shorter polymeric chains than the PEDOT deposited from an organic medium. Furthermore, the micellar electrolyte promotes a transformation of one of the thiophene terminal units to thiophenone. The introduction of a carbonyl group into the PEDOT molecule impedes the growth of the polymer chain and reduces the conductivity of the final polymer film. Both the simplicity of sample preparation (only application of the organic matrix onto the solar cell is needed) and the rapidity of analysis hold the promise of making MALDI MS an essential tool for the physicochemical characterization of conducting polymer-based sDSCs. PMID:25751409

  3. Flexible solid-state dye solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby B. Meyer; Andreas F. Meyer; Daniel Ginestoux

    2002-01-01

    The cell structure concepts and materials to build solid-state dye solar cells based on nanocristalline titanium oxide and an organic hole conductor were investigated. The substrate cell is based on a metal foil and a semi-transparent gold window on top of the cell structure and the superstrate cell is deposited on ITO coated polymer foil replacing the traditional conductive glass

  4. Water-soluble benzophenoxazine dyes: syntheses, derivatization and photophysical studies

    E-print Network

    Jose, Jiney

    2007-04-25

    -bond energy transfer cassettes. Structural modifications prevented aggregation in water and improved their fluorescence properties in water. Their absorption and emission were studied in both organic and aqueous media. Two of the three dyes have superior...

  5. Peculiarities of the photovoltaic properties of films based on photoconducting polymer and organic dye in samples with free surfaces and between electric contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulavko, G. V.; Davidenko, N. A.; Ishchenko, A. A.; Studzinsky, S. L.; Shkavro, A. G.

    2015-02-01

    Composite films based on a carbazolyl-containing oligomer with polymethine dye additives exhibit a change in the magnitude and sign of the photovoltaic response on the passage from the samples with free surfaces to sandwich structures. It is concluded that the photovoltaic effect in the former case is determined by the diffusion of positive charge carriers possessing higher mobility, while in the latter case this effect is controlled by a significant drift of carriers in the electric field created by different work functions of the charge-collecting electrodes. It is shown that the photovoltaic effect also takes place in a nonphotoconducting polymer (polyvinyl ethylal). However, neither the sign nor magnitude of the effect in this case change on the passage from the samples with free surfaces to sandwich structures.

  6. New synthetic routes towards soluble and dissymmetric triphenodioxazine dyes designed for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Yohann; Allama, Fouzia; Lepeltier, Marc; Massin, Julien; Castet, Frédéric; Ducasse, Laurent; Hirsch, Lionel; Boubegtiten, Zahia; Jonusauskas, Gediminas; Olivier, Céline; Toupance, Thierry

    2014-03-24

    New ?-conjugated structures are constantly the subject of research in dyes and pigments industry and electronic organic field. In this context, the triphenodioxazine (TPDO) core has often been used as efficient photostable pigments and once integrated in air stable n-type organic field-effect transistor (OFET). However, little attention has been paid to the TPDO core as soluble materials for optoelectronic devices, possibly due to the harsh synthetic conditions and the insolubility of many compounds. To benefit from the photostability of TPDO in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), an original synthetic pathway has been established to provide soluble and dissymmetric molecules applied to a suitable design for the sensitizers of DSC. The study has been pursued by the theoretical modeling of opto-electronic properties, the optical and electronic characterizations of dyes and elaboration of efficient devices. The discovery of new synthetic pathways opens the way to innovative designs of TPDO for materials used in organic electronics. PMID:24677330

  7. Characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoji Furukawa; Hiroshi Iino; Tomohisa Iwamoto; Koudai Kukita; Shoji Yamauchi

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are expected to be used for future clean energy. Recently, most of the researchers in this field use Ruthenium complex as dye in the dye-sensitized solar cells. However, Ruthenium is a rare metal, so the cost of the Ruthenium complex is very high. In this paper, various dye-sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using natural dye, such

  8. Mordant dyes as sensitisers in dye-sensitised solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith R. Millington; Keith W. Fincher; A. Lee King

    2007-01-01

    Many mordant dyes commonly used in the textile industry form coordination complexes at the surface of nanocrystalline TiO2. Dyes having a salicylate chelating group are particularly effective. Forty-nine commercial mordant dyes were studied as sensitisers in a non-optimised dye-sensitised solar cell (DSSC) and their performance compared to the N3 ruthenium complex. Although N3 produced the highest output, six mordant dyes

  9. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  10. Solar light induced degradation of reactive dye using photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Hong; Cho, Il-Hyoung; Kim, Young-Gyu

    2004-01-01

    Outdoors experiment with natural solar light instead of using artificial UV light was also conducted to investigate alternative energy source applicability on organics degradation. The results of this study were as follows. Degradation of the reactive dye, Red 120, with TiO2/solar light was enhanced by augmentation in TiO2 loading, and UV light intensity but was inhibited by increase in initial dye concentration. With both solar light illumination and TiO2 present, reactive dye was more effectively eliminated than with either solar light or TiO, alone. Photocatalytic removal efficiency of reactive dye increased with increasing TiO2 dosage. However, over 1.5 gL(-1) of TiO2 dosage, the efficiency reached a plateau. The degradation rate of reactive dye, Red 120, was strongly dependent on initial dye concentration, and all the experimental data were fit to the first-order rate equation. Photocatalytic degradation of reactive dye increased linearly with increasing UV light intensity. It is found that the presence of thick clouds in the sky markedly increased the time required for degradation of reactive dye. On the basis of these experimental observations, the photo-oxidation degradation of reactive dye using TiO2 under solar light irradiation can be feasible application of the advanced oxidation process. PMID:15030149

  11. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  12. Unexpected radiation hazard in dyes of textiles.

    PubMed

    Abdel Ghany, Hayam A; Ibrahim, Eman M

    2014-01-01

    Textile dyes are among the most problematic pollutants because of their toxicity on several organisms and ecosystems. Many of the chemicals used in the textile industry may represent some health concerns. The determination of the radioactivity in textile dyes is therefore very important for both human health and environment. The study was designated to determine, for the first time, the values of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in nine different dyes employed in the textile industry using gamma spectrometry with a Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were 29.37?±?4.48, 1.15?±?0.13 and 565?±?4 Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated radium equivalents for all samples were lower than the maximum admissible value (370 Bq/kg). The absorbed dose rates due to the natural radioactivity of the investigated samples ranged from 2.94?±?0.05 to 166?±?3 nGy/h. So, the absorbed dose rates for all samples of textile dyes were lower than the international recommended value (55 nGy/h) except the yellow dye (166?±?3 nGy/h), which recorded a significant radiological hazard. The external hazard index was also calculated. Conclusively, the results have indicated that the textile dyes may possess a measurable amount of radioactivity that should be taken into account. Therefore, safety rules and precautions should be applied for dyes used in the textile industry and for people working in this field. PMID:25322918

  13. Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matt Law; Lori E. Greene; Justin C. Johnson; Richard Saykally; Peidong Yang

    2005-01-01

    Excitonic solar cells-including organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized cells (DSCs)-are promising devices for inexpensive, large-scale solar energy conversion. The DSC is currently the most efficient and stable excitonic photocell. Central to this device is a thick nanoparticle film that provides a large surface area for the adsorption of light-harvesting molecules. However, nanoparticle DSCs rely on trap-limited diffusion for electron transport,

  14. DFT study of the effect of different metals on structures and electronic spectra of some organic-metal compounds as sensitizing dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guodong; Li, Rongqing; Kou, Shanshan; Tang, Tingling; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yiwei

    2014-02-01

    Ruthenium polypyridined-derivative complexes are used in dye-sensitized solar cell [DSSC] as a light to current conversion sensitizer. In order to lower the cost of the DSSC the normal transition metals were used to replace the noble metal ruthenium, and some compounds [ML2L'] (M = Pt, Fe, Ni, Zn; L = isonicotinic acid, L' = maleonitriledithiolate, I = PtL2L', II = FeL2L', III = NiL2L', IV = ZnL2L') were selected as the replacement. The geometries, electronic structures and optical absorption spectra of these compounds have been studied by using density functional theory (DFT) calculation at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ, B3P86/LANL2DZ, B3LYP/GEN level of theory. All the geometric parameters are close to the experimental values. The HOMOs are mainly on the maleonitriledithiolate groups mixed with fewer characters of the metal atom, the LUMOs are mainly on the two pyridine ligands. This means that the electron transition is attributed to the LLCT. The maximum absorptions of complexes are found to be at 351 nm, 806 nm for compound I, and 542 nm for compound II. The maximum absorptions of complexes are found to be at 884 nm for compound III, and 560 nm for compound IV. This means that those compounds may be as a suitable sensitizer for solar energy conversion applications.

  15. Phenoxazine dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: relationship between molecular structure and electron lifetime.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Karl Martin; Jiang, Xiao; Eriksson, Susanna K; Gabrielsson, Erik; Rensmo, Håkan; Hagfeldt, Anders; Sun, Licheng

    2011-05-27

    A series of metal-free organic dyes with a core phenoxazine chromophore have been synthesized and tested as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Overall conversion efficiencies of 6.03-7.40% were reached under standard AM 1.5G illumination at a light intensity of 100 mW cm(-2) . A clear trend in electron lifetime could be seen; a dye with a furan-conjugated linker showed a shorter lifetime relative to dyes with the acceptor group directly attached to the phenoxazine. The addition of an extra donor unit, which bore insulating alkoxyl chains, in the 7-position of the phenoxazine could increase the lifetime even further and, together with additives in the electrolyte to raise the conduction band, an open circuit voltage of 800 mV could be achieved. From photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the dyes adsorbed on TiO(2) particles, it can be concluded that the excitation is mainly of cyano character (i.e., on average, the dye molecules are standing on, and pointing out, from the surface of TiO(2) particles). PMID:21509836

  16. Degradation of environment pollutant dyes using phytosynthesized metal nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    MeenaKumari, M; Philip, Daizy

    2015-01-25

    We present for the first time biogenic reduction and stabilization of gold and silver ions at room temperature using fruit juice of Punica granatum. The formation, morphology and crystalline structure of the synthesized nanoparticles are determined using UV-Visible, XRD and TEM. An attempt to reveal the partial role of phenolic hydroxyls in the reduction of Au(3+) and Ag(+) is done through FTIR analysis. The synthesized nanoparticles are used as potential catalysts in the degradation of a cationic phenothiazine dye, an anionic mono azo dye and a cationic fluorescent dye. The calculated values of percentage removal of dyes and the rate constants from pseudo first order kinetic data fit give a comparative study on degradation of organic dyes in presence of prepared gold and silver nanoparticles. PMID:25128675

  17. Near Infrared Heptamethine Cyanine Dye-Mediated Cancer Imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojian; Shi, Chunmeng; Tong, Rong; Qian, Weiping; Zhau, Haiyen E.; Wang, Ruoxiang; Zhu, Guodong; Cheng, Jianjun; Yang, Vincent W.; Cheng, Tianmin; Henary, Maged; Strekowski, Lucjan; Chung, Leland W.K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has great potential for noninvasive in vivo imaging of tumors. In this study, we demonstrate the preferential uptake and retention of two hepatamethine cyanine dyes, IR-783 and MHI-148, in tumor cells and tissues. Experimental Design IR-783 and MHI-148 were investigated for their ability to accumulate in human cancer cells, tumor xenografts and spontaneous mouse tumors in transgenic animals. Time- and concentration-dependent dye uptake and retention in normal and cancer cells and tissues were compared, and subcellular localization of the dyes and mechanisms of the dye uptake and retention in tumor cells were evaluated using organelle-specific tracking dyes and bromosulfophthalein (BSP), a competitive inhibitor of organic anion transporting peptides (OATPs). These dyes were used to detect human cancer metastases in a mouse model and differentiate cancer cells from normal cells in blood. Results These NIR hepatamethine cyanine dyes were retained in cancer cells but not normal cells, in tumor xenografts, and in spontaneous tumors in transgenic mice. They can be used to detect cancer metastasis and cancer cells in blood with a high degree of sensitivity. The dyes were found to concentrate in the mitochondria and lysosomes of cancer cells, probably through OATPs since the dye uptake and retention in cancer cells can be blocked completely by BSP. These dyes, when injected to mice, did not cause systemic toxicity. Conclusions These two heptamethine cyanine dyes are promising imaging agents for human cancers and can be further exploited to improve cancer detection, prognosis and treatment. PMID:20410058

  18. In situ monitoring and optimization of room temperature ultra-fast sensitization for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Davies, Matthew L; Watson, Trystan M; Holliman, Peter J; Connell, Arthur; Worsley, David A

    2014-10-25

    We describe the fastest dyeing of TiO2 photo-electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells reported to date (<2 min) at room temperature giving ? = 7.5% for an N719-SQ1-CDCA mixture which is significantly higher than devices dyed for >12 h using the same dye mixture (? = 5.5%). Time-lapse photography has been used to monitor the ultra-fast co-sensitization. The data show significantly different dye uptake between passive and pump dyeing reflecting competitive sorption between a Ru complex (N719) and an organic dye (SQ1). PMID:25189646

  19. Capturing the Potential of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, James

    2010-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are a continually developing type of low-cost solar cells that have commercial efficiency around 6-10%. The proposed research here will be focusing on the photo-bleaching and improving techniques for electron transport. Nature has given us a goal to reach towards with proven techniques for converting light into energy with around 30-40% efficiency, however, chlorophyll, the light absorber in plants, is expensive and it is not practical to make solar cells with only chlorophyll as the absorber. One such alternative to chlorophyll is phthalocyanines which is a common industrial dye used in many applications. This dye has a common similar ring without the long phytol chain that chlorophyll has. Previous research has shown that encapsulating organic dyes can magnify the properties of dye from the increased concentration with a possible benefit of stabilizing the dye allowing it to slow down the photo bleaching significantly. Likewise, such encapsulation may help with thermal stability since many dye-sensitized solar cells require a liquid or gel solution that is sensitive to thermal expansion. Many researchers are also finding new ways to encapsulate the dyes or dope the p-n layers with nano and meso tubes to help with electron transport or build the p-n layers right in the tubes. This allows for countless layers and an overall more efficient design.

  20. Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor-blading

    E-print Network

    McGehee, Michael

    Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor Accepted 19 April 2010 Available online xxxx Keywords: Dye-sensitized solar cells Organic semiconductors)-9,90 -spirobifluorene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Doctor-blading is a roll

  1. New perylene derivative dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ceylan Zafer; Mahmut Kus; Gulsah Turkmen; Haluk Dincalp; Serafettin Demic; Baha Kuban; Yildirim Teoman; Siddik Icli

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the influence of the spacer alkyl chain length of perylenemonoimide (PMI) dyes on the device performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We observed that the dyes with longer and brunched alkyl chains exhibit higher efficiencies in DSSCs. In line with these statements we now report the highest efficiency obtained under standard conditions for a perylene imide derivative

  2. Anthraquinone dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaoyan Li; Xichuan Yang; Ruikui Chen; Jingxi Pan; Haining Tian; Hongjun Zhu; Xiuna Wang; Anders Hagfeldt; Licheng Sun

    2007-01-01

    Three anthraquinone dyes with carboxylic acid as anchoring group are designed and synthesized as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Preliminary photophysical and photoelectrochemical measurements show that these anthraquinone dyes have very low performance on DSSC applications, although they have broad and intense absorption spectra in the visible region (up to 800nm). Transient absorption kinetics, fluorescence lifetime measurements and density

  3. Dye Removal from Textile Dye Wastewater Using Recycled Alum Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Chu

    2001-01-01

    The removal of dyes from textile dying wastewater by recycled alum sludge (RAS) generated by the coagulation process itself was studied and optimized. One hydrophobic and one hydrophilic dye were used as probes to examine the performance of this process. It was found that RAS is a good way of removing hydrophobic dye in wastewater, while simultaneously reducing the fresh

  4. Diffusion of dye solution in the intermolecular nanostructure of polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Mitsunori; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Sakiyama, Kohei; Nakagawa, Michinori

    2012-09-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) contains a large, flexible free space between weakly-bonded molecules, which allows notable molecular diffusion. A toluene solution of diarylethene (photochromic dye) was mixed with a PDMS oil, and then the mixture was cured in a glass vessel by adding a curing agent. Violet laser (405 nm wavelength) irradiation induced an absorption band at around 530 nm, and consequently, the irradiated portion exhibited a red color. The colored portion gradually expanded to the entire sample because of diffusion of the dye molecules. This diffusion characteristic was used for improving an organic dye durability against a photo-induced degradation.

  5. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  6. Laser dye technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, P R

    1999-09-01

    The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

  7. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. PMID:24656996

  8. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  9. Planar amine-based dye features the rigidified O-bridged dithiophene ?-spacer: A potential high-efficiency sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Bai, Fu-Quan; Chen, Jie; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hong-Xing

    2015-02-01

    This work reports a systematically theoretical study concerning the design of D-?-A organic dyes for DSSC. Two elaborate strategies, namely the rigidity of dithiophene and introduction of strong electron rich/deficient moieties, are proposed. By using the state-of-the-art theoretical calculations, the general influences of fastening atoms (C, N, and O) for ?-spacer rigidification in planar amine-based organic dyes are firstly investigated and elucidated. The properties of isolated dye, dye/(TiO2)38, and dye-I2 interaction are discussed in detail. The results show that, compared with the P2T dye containing dithiophene ?-spacer, its three counterparts with rigidified dithiophene ?-spacers would present the improved absorption properties. We further demonstrate that incorporation of O-bridged dithiophene moiety into the ?-spacer was promising to challenge the photoelectric conversion efficiency 8.29% of P2T. Furthermore, benzothiadiazole (BTD) and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) moieties are the well-known ?-skeletons that can effectively tune the electronic structure properties and the light-harvesting ability. Subsequently, a series of dyes are designed through introducing the BTD and EDOT groups into ?-spacer. The calculated results reveal that the dye with the incorporation of EDOT moiety would be more beneficial for photocurrent and photovoltage performance. The current theoretical studies are expected to be very relevant for the molecular design of D-?-A organic dyes in DSSC.

  10. A metal-free N-annulated thienocyclopentaperylene dye: power conversion efficiency of 12?% for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Min; Li, Renzhi; Yang, Lin; Qiao, Yongna; Wang, Peng

    2015-05-11

    Reported are two highly efficient metal-free perylene dyes featuring N-annulated thienobenzoperylene (NTBP) and N-annulated thienocyclopentaperylene (NTCP), which are coplanar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Without the use of any coadsorbate, the metal-free organic dye derived from the NTCP segment was used for a dye-sensitized solar cell which attained a power conversion efficiency of 12?% under an irradiance of 100?mW?cm(-2) , simulated air mass global (AM1.5G) sunlight. PMID:25820975

  11. The adsorption of dyes from aqueous solution using diatomite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. X. Lin; S. L. Zhan; M. H. Fang; X. Q. Qian

    2007-01-01

    Raw diatomite was calcined at 450 °C for dyes removal from aqueous solution. SEM and FTIR analysis show that the raw diatomite\\u000a contains organic impurities, which are removed after the calcination. The impurities removal decreases the specific surface\\u000a area and increases the average pore diameter of raw diatomite, while improves its adsorption capability of dyes. The adsorption\\u000a isotherm and kinetics experiments

  12. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W. (Tijeras, NM)

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  13. Modulation of Electron Injection Dynamics of Ru-Based Dye/TiO2 System in the Presence of Three Different Organic Solvents: Role of Solvent Dipole Moment and Donor Number.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Subrata; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Takurou N; Katoh, Ryuzi; Matsumoto, Hajime; Furube, Akihiro

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (fs-TAS) has been employed to investigate the electron injection efficiency (EIE) both from the singlet and triplet excited states of a well-known ruthenium dye (N719) to the conduction band (CB) of nanostructured TiO2 in presence of three different organic solvents [?-butylactone (GBL), 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN), and dimethylformamide (DMF)] with different donor numbers (DNs) and dipole moments (DMs). The DM and DN of a solvent modulates the CB edge energy of TiO2 , and this effect reflects well in the fs-TAS results, which shows an EIE trend following the order GBL?MPN?DMF, that is, highest in GBL and lowest in DMF solvent environments. Fs-TAS results indicate a lower contribution of electron injection from both the singlet and triplet states in DMF, for which the dominant adsorption of DMF molecules on the TiO2 surface seems to play an important role in the mechanism. PMID:25832779

  14. Exploring the ability of Sphingobacterium sp. ATM to degrade textile dye Direct Blue GLL, mixture of dyes and textile effluent and production of polyhydroxyhexadecanoic acid using waste biomass generated after dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Dhawal P; Kurade, Mayur B; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Joshi, Swati M; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2010-10-15

    The degradation of textile effluent using microorganisms has been studied extensively, but disposal of generated biomass after dye degradation is a serious problem. Among all tested microorganisms, isolated Sphingobacterium sp. ATM effectively decolorized (100%) the dye Direct Blue GLL (DBGLL) and simultaneously it produced (64%) polyhydroxyhexadecanoic acid (PHD). The organism decolorized DBGLL at 300 mg l(-1) concentration within 24 h of dye addition and gave optimum production of PHD. The organism also decolorized three combinations of mixture of dyes. The organism decolorized textile effluent too when it was combined with medium. The organism produced a maximum of 66% and 61% PHD while decolorizing mixture of dyes and textile effluent respectively. Molasses was found to be more significant within all carbon sources used. The activity of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase was found to be higher after 24 h of addition of DBGLL. The enzymes responsible for dye degradation, viz. veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, DCIP (2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol) reductase, riboflavin reductase, and azo reductase were found to be induced during decolorization process of DBGLL and mixture of dyes. There was significant reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD). FTIR analysis of samples before and after decolorization of dye confirmed the biotransformation of DBGLL. PMID:20591565

  15. Usefulness of visible dyes for the staining of protein or DNA in electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li-Tai; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2004-08-01

    Since 1993, we have studied visible organic dye stains for protein or DNA to improve methodologies and developed the counterion dye staining method. The method employs two oppositely charged dyes that form an ion-pair complex in the staining solution. The selective binding of free dye to protein or DNA in the staining solution improves detection sensitivity and speed. It is a rapid and sensitive procedure, involving fixing/staining or staining/quick destaining steps that are completed in 1-1.5 h. The lowest detection limits achieved are 4-8 ng of protein on polyacrylamide gels and approximately 10 ng of DNA on agarose gels. The focus of this review is to chronicle the development and current status of the counterion dye staining method for detection of protein or DNA. As an extended application of visible dyes, we also discuss the visible dye staining method for detecting protein on blotting membranes developed in our laboratory. PMID:15300759

  16. Density functional theory study on dye-sensitized solar cells using oxadiazole-based dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Umer; Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.; Harrabi, Khalil; Reddy, Belum V. S.

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT(TD-DFT) modeling techniques are used to conduct a computational study of the geometry and electronic structure of oxadiazole-based organic sensitizers. A DFT study on the thermodynamic aspects of the charge transport processes associated with dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) suggests that the system with 1,2,4-oxadiazole has a balance among the different crucial factors and may result in the highest incident photon to charge carrier efficiency. The dye/) anatase clusters were also simulated to illustrate the electron injection efficiency at the interface. This study provides basic understanding of the impact of molecular design on the performance of oxadiazole dyes in DSSCs.

  17. Indanthrone dye revisited after sixty years.

    PubMed

    Kotwica, Kamil; Bujak, Piotr; Wamil, Damian; Materna, Mariusz; Skorka, Lukasz; Gunka, Piotr A; Nowakowski, Robert; Golec, Barbara; Luszczynska, Beata; Zagorska, Malgorzata; Pron, Adam

    2014-10-01

    Indanthrone, an old, insoluble dye can be converted into a solution processable, self-assembling and electroluminescent organic semiconductor, namely tetraoctyloxydinaptho[2,3-a:2',3'-h]phenazine (P-C8), in a simple one-pot process consisting of the reduction of the carbonyl group by sodium dithionite followed by the substitution with solubility inducing groups under phase transfer catalysis conditions. PMID:25133516

  18. Enhancement of the photoproperties of solid-state TiO2|dye|CuI cells by coupling of two dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirimanne, P. M.; Senevirathna, M. K. I.; Premalal, E. V. A.; Pitigala, P. K. D. D. P.

    2006-06-01

    The electronic coupling of a natural pigment extracted from pomegranate fruits (rich with cyanin and exist as flavylium at natural PH) with an organic dye mercurochrome enhanced the performance of solid-state TiO2|dye|CuI-type photovoltaic cells sensitized from pomegranate pigments or mercurochrome individually.

  19. Mutagenicity of textile dye products.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Klaus; Hafner, Christoph; Jäger, Ismene

    2004-01-01

    Within an EU-funded research project, 281 textile dye products in use at nine textile finishing companies from eight European countries were assessed for potential mutagenic properties. Most of the dyes belonged to the so-called existing substances. Data sources considered were data published in the literature, unpublished industrial data provided by dye producing companies, and laboratory testing. Data on mutagenicity are virtually absent for many of the dyes. Unpublished test results performed on behalf of the dye manufacturing industry proved to be an important data source that is not accessible under usual circumstances. Four dye stuffs contained in seven dye products in use at the textile finishing companies were judged to be mutagenic, based on published data from the literature. Mutagenicity testing using Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA98 and TA100, revealed positive results for about 28% (15 out of 53) of the dye products investigated. Upon further testing with the mouse lymphoma assay (L5178Y/TK(+/-)) 67% (6 out of 9) of Ames-positive dyes proved to be mutagenic in this mammalian cell test. All data sources combined led to an overall assessment of 14 dye products out of 281 being mutagenic. For 16 there is a suspicion of mutagenicity due to positive responses in one test but 71 of the dye products are without any data on mutagenicity. This paper describes the data aggregation process, evaluation criteria and the overall assessment, and exemplifies controversial evaluations. PMID:15052602

  20. Sonophotolytic degradation of azo dye reactive black 5 in an ultrasound/UV/ferric system and the roles of different organic ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Lim, Teik-Thye; Wu, Xiaohui

    2011-04-01

    The sonophotolytic advance oxidation system (US/UV/Fe(3+)) could achieve synergistic degradation of reactive black 5 (RB5), as compared to UV/Fe(3+) and US/Fe(3+) systems. A synergy factor of 2.5 based on the pseudo-first-order degradation rate constant (k(obs)) was found, along with enhancements in organic detoxification and mineralization. The presence of organic ligands could affect the US/UV/Fe(3+) system differently. Oxalate, citrate, tartrate and succinate could enhance the RB5 degradation, while NTA and EDTA exhibited strong inhibitions. The influence of these ligands on k(obs)(RB5) in the US/UV/Fe(III)-ligand systems followed the sequence of oxalate > tartrate > succinate > citrate > without ligand > NTA > EDTA, while they could be degraded simultaneously with the k(obs)(ligand) order of oxalate > citrate > tartrate > succinate > NTA > EDTA. Monitoring of iron species and the generated H(2)O(2) and •OH revealed that the ligands in the US/UV/Fe(III)-ligand system could play different mechanistic roles: (1) promoting H(2)O(2) production, (2) accelerating Fenton reaction, and (3) competing with RB5 for reacting with •OH. Among the ligands, oxalate exhibited the most significant enhancement of RB5 oxidation in the sonophotolytic system, and the process was pH-dependent. An initial reaction lag in RB5 degradation was observed when Fe(2+) was used in lieu of Fe(3+) as the catalyst in the sonophotolytic system. PMID:21444101

  1. An efficient metal-free sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Hsiu Tsao; Tzi-Yi Wu; Hong-Paul Wang; I-Wen Sun; Shyh-Gang Su; Yuan-Chung Lin; Cheng-Wen Chang

    2011-01-01

    A novel metal-free organic dye consisting of a phenothiazine donor, a 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene bridge, and a cyanoacrylate acceptor is synthesized and its optical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties are characterized. A solar cell employing the metal-free dye exhibits a maximum solar energy to an electricity conversion efficiency of 6.72% under AM 1.5solar simulator (100mWcm?2). The results suggest that dye based on a

  2. Increased laser action in commercial dyes from fluorination regardless of their skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran-Sampedro, G.; Agarrabeitia, A. R.; Arbeloa Lopez, T.; Bañuelos, J.; López-Arbeloa, I.; Chiara, J. L.; Garcia-Moreno, I.; Ortiz, M. J.

    2014-11-01

    The direct and simple fluorination of representative organic laser dyes with emission covering the entire visible spectrum, from blue to red, including Coumarin 460, Pyrromethene 546, Rhodamine 6G and Perylene Red, enhances laser efficiencies by a factor up to 1.8 with respect to the corresponding non-fluorinated parent dyes. More importantly, fluorination also significantly enhances the photostability of the dyes, even under drastic laser pumping conditions.

  3. Low threshold amplified spontaneous emission from near-infrared dye-doped polymeric waveguide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yamashita; T. Kuro; K. Oe; H. Yanagi

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated near-infrared light amplification in a dye-doped polymeric waveguide structure under optical pumping. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) at ~800 nm was observed in poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) thin film with organic dye LDS798. The ASE threshold energy was as low as ~12 muJ\\/cm2, which is about one-tenth of previously reported values for infrared-dye-doped polymeric waveguides. This low threshold ASE comes from

  4. Organic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts.. The Organic topic focuses on the basics of organic chemistry that are taught in general chemistry.

  5. Dyeing of wool with natural anthraquinone dyes from Fusarium oxysporum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Nagia; R. S. R. EL-Mohamedy

    2007-01-01

    Two anthraquinone compounds are described which were produced by liquid cultures of Fusarium oxysporum (isolate no. 4), isolated from the roots of citrus trees affected with root rot disease. These anthraquinone compounds are 2-acetyl-3,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy anthraquinone or 3-acetyl-2,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy anthraquinone. Dyeing of wool fabrics with these new anthraquinone compounds as natural dyes has been studied. The values of dyeing rate constant, half-time

  6. High performance electrocatalyst consisting of CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 film: its use as a counter electrode for Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Tae; Lee, Chang Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2015-01-14

    High energy conversion efficiencies of 6.6% and 7.5% are demonstrated in solid and liquid states, Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), respectively, based on CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 (om-SnO2) counter electrode. These results correspond to improvements of 14% and 9%, respectively, compared to a conventional Pt counter electrode and are among the highest values reported for Pt-free DSSCs. The om-SnO2 layer plays a pivotal role as a platform to deposit a large amount of highly electrocatalytically active CoS nanoparticles via a facile solvothermal reaction. The om-SnO2 platform with a high porosity, larger pores, and good interconnectivity is derived from a poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) graft copolymer template, which provides not only improved interaction sites for the formation of CoS nanoparticles but also enhanced electron transport. The structural, morphological, chemical, and electrochemical properties of CoS on the om-SnO2 platform are investigated using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The performance enhancement results from the excellent electron transport at the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/counter electrode/electrolyte interface, reduced resistance at the FTO/CoS interface, and better catalytic reduction at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface. PMID:25429695

  7. Fiberized fluorescent dye microtubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladev, Veselin; Eftimov, Tinko

    2013-03-01

    In the present work we study the effect of the length of fluorescent dye-filled micro-capillaries on the fluorescence spectra. Two types of micro-capillaries have been studied: a 100 ?m inner diameter fused silica capillary with a transparent coating and one of the holes of a fiber optic glass ferrule with 125 ?m inner diameter. The tubes were filled with solutions of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol and then in glycerin. Experimental data show that the maximum fluorescence and the largest spectral widths are observed for a sample length of about 0.25 mm for the used concentration. This results show that miniature tunable fiberized dye lasers can be developed using available standard micro-and fibre-optic components.

  8. Painting With Natural Dyes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

    1999-07-01

    This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

  9. Retinal tolerance to dyes

    PubMed Central

    Lüke, C; Lüke, M; Dietlein, T S; Hueber, A; Jordan, J; Sickel, W; Kirchhof, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dye solutions for intraoperative staining of epiretinal membranes and the internal limiting membrane improve the visualisation of these thin structures and facilitate their removal. In the present study the authors investigated the effects of indocyanine green 0.05%, trypan blue 0.15%, and patent blue 0.48% on bovine retinal function. Methods: Bovine retina preparations were perfused with a standard solution and the electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded repeatedly. After recording of stable ERG amplitudes the nutrient solution was substituted by one of the dye solutions. The duration of retinal exposure to a dye solution was varied between 10 seconds and 2 minutes. Thereupon, the preparation was reperfused with standard solution for at least 115 minutes. The percentage of b-wave reduction after exposition was calculated. Results: Reductions of the b-wave amplitude were found for each dye solution tested. The effects after application of patent blue and indocyanine green were completely reversible within the recovery time for an exposure period of 60 and 30 seconds, respectively. The application of trypan blue lead to a loss of the b-wave when the retina was exposed for 15 seconds or longer. This effect was only partly reversible within the recovery time. Conclusion: The ERG showed toxic effects of trypan blue after a short period of retinal exposure. The intraocular application of trypan blue should be limited to selected cases. However, intraocular application of indocyanine green and patent blue in a sufficient concentration and taking account of a short period of retinal exposure seems possible. PMID:16113379

  10. Dye laser tuner

    SciTech Connect

    Arthurs, E.G.; Purdie, A.F.

    1980-11-11

    A laser of the kind in which the lasing medium is a free flowing dye stream incorporates a means of tuning the output wave length of the laser, this means being in the form of a wedged birefringent plate which is driven in a linear mode by a linear translator so that the thickness of the birefringent plate traversed by the intracavity beam of laser light may be varied.

  11. Study of a natural dye solubilisation in o\\/w microemulsions and its dyeing behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roshan Paul; Conxita Solans; Pilar Erra

    2005-01-01

    The manufacture of synthetic dyes involves many non eco-friendly chemical procedures. For this reason, the application of natural dyes in textile dyeing is being explored worldwide. The dye exhaustion, fixation and levelness of dyeing depends on several factors such as the properties of fibres, the molecular structure of dyes, and the medium of the dyebath. The solubilisation of insoluble natural

  12. Dye-coated europium monosulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Srotoswini [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Dollahon, Norman R. [Department of Biology, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Stoll, Sarah L., E-mail: sls55@georgetown.ed [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

  13. Fine tuning of fluorene-based dye structures for high-efficiency p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zonghao; Li, Wenhui; Topa, Sanjida; Xu, Xiaobao; Zeng, Xianwei; Zhao, Zhixin; Wang, Mingkui; Chen, Wei; Wang, Feng; Cheng, Yi-Bing; He, Hongshan

    2014-07-01

    We report on an experimental study of three organic push-pull dyes (coded as zzx-op1, zzx-op1-2, and zzx-op1-3) featuring one, two, and three fluorene units as spacers between donors and acceptors for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSC). The results show increasing the number of spacer units leads to obvious increases of the absorption intensity between 300 nm and 420 nm, a subtle increase in hole driving force, and almost the same hole injection rate from dyes to NiO nanoparticles. Under optimized conditions, the zzx-op1-2 dye with two fluorene spacer units outperforms other two dyes in p-DSSC. It exhibits an unprecedented photocurrent density of 7.57 mA cm(-2) under full sun illumination (simulated AM 1.5G light illumination, 100 mW cm(-2)) when the I(-)/I3(-) redox couple and commercial NiO nanoparticles were used as an electrolyte and a semiconductor, respectively. The cells exhibited excellent long-term stability. Theoretical calculations, impedance spectroscopy, and transient photovoltage decay measurements reveal that the zzx-op1-2 exhibits lower photocurrent losses, longer hole lifetime, and higher photogenerated hole density than zzx-op1 and zzx-op1-3. A dye packing model was proposed to reveal the impact of dye aggregation on the overall photovoltaic performance. Our results suggest that the structural engineering of organic dyes is important to enhance the photovoltaic performance of p-DSSC. PMID:24918263

  14. Identification of Red Natural Dyes in Post?Byzantine Icons by HPLC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis Karapanagiotis; sist. Daniilia; Andreas Tsakalof; Yannis Chryssoulakis

    2005-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methodology, combined with UV?Vis Diode Array Detection, is developed for the separation and identification of five reddish natural dyestuffs: cochineal, madder, lac dye, dragon blood, and brazilwood. The method is used for the identification of organic dyes in extracts originating from five icons, four of which are representative for the post Byzantine era (15th

  15. FM-dyes as experimental probes for dissecting vesicle trafficking in living plant cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bolte; C. Talbot; Y. Boutte; O. Catrice; N. D. Read; B. Satiat-Jeunemaitre

    2004-01-01

    Summary FM-dyes are widely used to study endocytosis, vesicle traffick- ing and organelle organization in living eukaryotic cells. The increasing use of FM-dyes in plant cells has provoked much debate with regard to their suitability as endocytosis markers, which organelles they stain and the precise pathways they follow through the vesicle trafficking network. A primary aim of this article is

  16. Absolute tracer dye concentration using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter.

    PubMed

    Hoge, F E; Swift, R N

    1981-04-01

    Reported here for the first time is the use of simultaneous airborne laser-induced dye fluorescence and the 3400-cm(-1) OH-stretch water Raman backscatter spectra to yield the absolute concentration of an ocean-dispersed tracer dye. Using a straightforward theoretical model, the concentration is calculated by numerically comparing the airborne laser-induced fluorescence and Raman backscatter spectra to similar laboratory data for a known dye concentration measured under comparable environmental and instrumental conditions. The dye is assumed to be uniformly mixed throughout the water column together with other interfering, fluorescent, organic matter. A minimum detectable integrated water column dye concentration of approximately 2 ppb by weight as limited by background and instrument noise is obtained. A dye concentration contour map produced from the conical scan lidar data is given. PMID:20309284

  17. Congeners of Pyrromethene-567 Dye: Perspectives from Synthesis, Photophysics, Photostability, Laser, and TD-DFT Theory.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Kishor G; Kamble, Priyadarshani; Mallah, Ramnath; Ray, Alok K; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2015-06-19

    In an attempt to develop photostable and efficient BODIPY (PM) dyes for use in liquid dye lasers, three new congeners of widely used laser dye, PM567, were synthesized and their photophysical properties in various organic solvents, laser performances, and photostabilities in a selected solvent, 1,4-dioxane, have been investigated using a frequency doubled Q-switched (10 Hz) Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm. The results of photostability study in nonpolar 1,4-dioxane revealed the remarkable enhancement in stability of the novel dyes compared to that of PM567 as well as improved laser performances. Cyclic voltammetry study strongly supports the observed enhancement in photostability of the novel dyes compared to that of PM567. The observed properties of the novel dyes in relation to those of PM567 have been rationalized by extensive use of DFT and TD-DFT using the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method of theory. PMID:26001098

  18. Solvent-enhanced Dye Diffusion in Polymer This-Films for OLED Application F. Pschenitzka, K. Long, and J. C. Sturm

    E-print Network

    Solvent-enhanced Dye Diffusion in Polymer This-Films for OLED Application F. Pschenitzka, K. Long in polymer films for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) application is introduced. After an initial dye transfer from a dye source substrate into the top of the electractive polymer film, the device substrate

  19. New triarylamine sensitizers for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells: Recombination kinetics of cobalt(III) complexes at titania/dye interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weixue; Liang, Mao; Tan, Yulin; Wang, Min; Sun, Zhe; Xue, Song

    2015-06-01

    A new generation of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is based on a combination of D-?-A organic dyes in conjunction with cobalt-based redox mediators. Here, two new triarylamine organic dyes (M36 and M37) toward cobalt electrolytes are constructed and employed as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. The photoelectrochemical properties and photovoltaic performance of dyes are sensitive to the slightly structural modification of the terminal donor in triarylamine. Recombination kinetics of cobalt(III) complexes at titania/dye interface are also studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and controlled intensity modulated photovoltage spectroscopy measurements. Our results show that, for M36 sensitized DSCs, a Marcus inverted region can be reached for the charge recombination kinetics behavior of cobalt(III) species. While that for DSCs based on M37 just lies in the Marcus normal region. The results can be attributed to differences in the retarding charge recombination ability of the dye layer. Benefiting from a Marcus inverted region behavior, the M36 dye exhibits a good compatibility with the [Co(phen)3]2+/3+ redox couples, achieving a high overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.58% under full sun illumination.

  20. nature materials | VOL 4 | JUNE 2005 | www.nature.com/naturematerials 455 Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells

    E-print Network

    Yang, Peidong

    1387 E xcitonic solar cells1 --including organic, hybrid organic­ inorganic and dye-sensitized cells, limited primarily by the surface area of the nanowire array. The anodes of dye-sensitized solar cells-sensitized solar cells MATT LAW1,2 *, LORI E. GREENE1,2 *, JUSTIN C. JOHNSON1 , RICHARD SAYKALLY1 AND PEIDONG YANG1

  1. Effect of carbazoleoxadiazole excited-state complexes on the efficiency of dye-doped light-emitting diodes

    E-print Network

    a profound effect on the external quantum efficiency of dye-doped organic light-emitting diodes employing Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1469692 I. INTRODUCTION Thin-film organic light-emitting diodes LEDsEffect of carbazole­oxadiazole excited-state complexes on the efficiency of dye-doped light-emitting

  2. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  3. Gel Electrophoresis of Dyes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Janice Stephens

    2011-01-01

    In this experiment related to plant biotechnology, learners discover how to prepare and load an electrophoresis gel. They will then run the gels in an electrophoresis system to separate several dyes that are of different molecular sizes and carry different charges. This technique is fundamental to many of the procedures used in biotechnology. This lesson guide includes background information for the educator, safety precautions, and questions with answers for learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended. Modifications for use with younger learners are described in a related PDF (see related resource).

  4. Effects of pH of Dyes on Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoji Furukawa; Hiroshi Iino; Koudai Kukita; Kaoru Kaminosono

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dyes and synthesized dyes in which rear metal was not contained. Effects of pH of dyes on the characteristics of the dye-sensitized solar cells were also examined. As a result, it was found that the conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated using red-cabbage dye with a pH of 2.5 was 0.10

  5. Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes. PMID:25054183

  6. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E.D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

  7. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  8. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  9. Computational design of small phenothiazine dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells by functionalizations affecting the thiophene unit.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wei Han; Tan, Yi Yin; Rege, Omkar; Manzhos, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    We present a computational density functional theory study of the potential to improve the solar absorbance of small organic dyes featuring a phenothiazine donor and an acceptor moiety that combines a thiophene unit and a cyanoacrylic group. We consider different conjugation orders and functional groups on and around the thiophene unit, including electron-donating and electron-withdrawing moieties (H, F, CH3, CF3, and CN). We predict that by combining change of conjugation order and functionalization with electron withdrawing CN groups, it must be possible to decrease the excitation energy by up to 60 % vs. the parent dye (which would correspond to a redshift of the absorption peak maximum from 450 nm to 726 nm), effectively enabling red light absorption with small dyes. The contraction of the band gap is mostly due to the stabilization of the LUMO (by up to 1.8 eV), so that-in spite of the kinetic redundancy of the parent dye with respect to the conduction-band minimum of TiO2-care must be taken to ensure efficient injection when using the dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells. By studying 50 dyes, of which 44 are new dyes that are studied for the first time in this work, we identify parameters (such as charges, dihedral angles between donor and acceptor groups, bond length alternation) which can serve as predictors of the band gap. We find that bond length alternation or dihedral angles are not good predictors, while the charge on the thiophene unit is. PMID:25750021

  10. Preparation of Graphene Oxide-Based Hydrogels as Efficient Dye Adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Haiying; Jiao, Tifeng; Zhang, Qingrui; Guo, Wenfeng; Peng, Qiuming; Yan, Xuehai

    2015-12-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets exhibit superior adsorption capacity for removing organic dye pollutants from an aqueous environment. In this paper, the facile preparation of GO/polyethylenimine (PEI) hydrogels as efficient dye adsorbents has been reported. The GO/PEI hydrogels were achieved through both hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between amine-rich PEI and GO sheets. For both methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB), the as-prepared hydrogels exhibit removal rates within about 4 h in accordance with the pseudo-second-order model. The dye adsorption capacity of the hydrogel is mainly attributed to the GO sheets, whereas the PEI was incorporated to facilitate the gelation process of GO sheets. More importantly, the dye-adsorbed hydrogels can be conveniently separated from an aqueous environment, suggesting potential large-scale applications of the GO-based hydrogels for organic dye removal and wastewater treatment. PMID:26123269

  11. Levitated droplet dye laser

    E-print Network

    Azzouz, H; Balslev, S; Johansson, J; Mortensen, N A; Nilsson, S; Kristensen, A

    2006-01-01

    We present the first observation, to our knowledge, of lasing from a levitated, dye droplet. The levitated droplets are created by computer controlled pico-liter dispensing into one of the nodes of a standing ultrasonic wave (100 kHz), where the droplet is trapped. The free hanging droplet forms a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating spectrometer. With this setup we have achieved reproducible lasing spectra in the visible wavelength range from 610 nm to 650 nm. The levitated droplet technique has previously successfully been applied for a variety of bio-analytical applications at single cell level. In combination with the lasing droplets, the capability of this high precision setup has potential applications within highly sensitive intra-cavity absorban...

  12. Levitated droplet dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouz, H.; Alkhafadiji, L.; Balslev, S.; Johansson, J.; Mortensen, N. A.; Nilsson, S.; Kristensen, A.

    2006-05-01

    We present the first observation, to our knowledge, of lasing from a levitated, dye droplet. The levitated droplets are created by computer controlled pico-liter dispensing into one of the nodes of a standing ultrasonic wave (100 kHz), where the droplet is trapped. The free hanging droplet forms a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating spectrometer. With this setup we have achieved reproducible lasing spectra in the visible wavelength range from 610 nm to 650 nm. The levitated droplet technique has previously successfully been applied for a variety of bio-analytical applications at single cell level. In combination with the lasing droplets, the capability of this high precision setup has potential applications within highly sensitive intra-cavity absorbance detection.

  13. Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on sorption of uranium and thorium from aqueous solutions by a selective impregnated resin containing carminic acid.

    PubMed

    Rahmani-Sani, Abolfazl; Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Ahmad; Hosseini, Seyyed-Hossein; Kharghani, Keivan; Zarei, Hossein; Rastegar, Ayoob

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the removal of uranium and thorium ions from aqueous solutions was studied by solid-liquid extraction using an advantageous extractant-impregnated resin (EIR) prepared by loading carminic acid (CA) onto Amberlite XAD-16 resin beads. Batch sorption experiments using CA/XAD-16 beads for the removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions were carried out as a function of several parameters, like equilibration time, metal ion concentration, etc. The equilibrium data obtained from the sorption experiments were adjusted to the Langmuir isotherm model and the calculated maximum sorption capacities in terms of monolayer sorption were in agreement with those obtained from the experiments. The experimental data on the sorption behavior of both metal ions onto the EIR beads fitted well in both Bangham and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models, indicating that the intra-particle diffusion is the rate-controlling step. The thermodynamic studies at different temperatures revealed the feasibility and the spontaneous nature of the sorption process for both uranium and thorium ions. PMID:25576783

  14. Chromonic liquid crystalline properties of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xuxia; Park, Jung; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2009-03-01

    As a new class of lyotropic liquid crystals, chromonic liquid crystals (CLCs) can self-assemble into an ordered complex fluid, potentially useful for organic solar cells. Different from common amphiphilic lyotropic mesophases, CLCs have no optimum aggregation size, which implies the order parameter increases with concentration. We used capillary flow and magnetic field to induce alignment in chromonic dyes and studied the aggregation behavior by Vis-spectroscopy, the phase behavior by POM and DSC, and the order distribution by Raman Scattering. We also investigated how the molecular structures influence the structures of mesogens and the morphology in the dried film which will further influence the charge mobility in the solar cells.

  15. Observation of precursorlike behavior of femtosecond pulses in a dye with a strong absorption band 

    E-print Network

    Springer, Matthew M.; Yang, Wenlong; Kolomenski, Alexandre A.; Schuessler, Hans A.; Strohaber, James; Kattawar, George W.; Sokolov, Alexei V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in Sommerfeld-Brillouin optical precursors has brought attention to the possibility of optical precursor observation in bulk matter. We investigate the possible formation of optical precursors in an organic dye solution with a sharp...

  16. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sancun Hao; Jihuai Wu; Yunfang Huang; Jianming Lin

    2006-01-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The ISC from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the VOC from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and Pmax from 58?W to 327?W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts.

  17. Decolorization of textile dyes by fungal pellets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozfer Yesilada; Dilek Asma; Seval Cing

    2003-01-01

    Decolorization of various dyes by pellets of white rot fungi was studied. All fungal pellets used could remove more than 75% of the color of these dyes in 24 h. Effect of various conditions such as initial pH, concentration of dye, amount of pellet, temperature and agitation on Astrazone blue dye decolorization activity of Funalia trogii was tested and the

  18. Decolorization and Detoxification of Textile Dyes with a Laccase from Trametes hirsuta

    PubMed Central

    Abadulla, Elias; Tzanov, Tzanko; Costa, Silgia; Robra, Karl-Heinz; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Gübitz, Georg M.

    2000-01-01

    Trametes hirsuta and a purified laccase from this organism were able to degrade triarylmethane, indigoid, azo, and anthraquinonic dyes. Initial decolorization velocities depended on the substituents on the phenolic rings of the dyes. Immobilization of the T. hirsuta laccase on alumina enhanced the thermal stabilities of the enzyme and its tolerance against some enzyme inhibitors, such as halides, copper chelators, and dyeing additives. The laccase lost 50% of its activity at 50 mM NaCl while the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the immobilized enzyme was 85 mM. Treatment of dyes with the immobilized laccase reduced their toxicities (based on the oxygen consumption rate of Pseudomonas putida) by up to 80% (anthraquinonic dyes). Textile effluents decolorized with T. hirsuta or the laccase were used for dyeing. Metabolites and/or enzyme protein strongly interacted with the dyeing process indicated by lower staining levels (K/S) values than obtained with a blank using water. However, when the effluents were decolorized with immobilized laccase, they could be used for dyeing and acceptable color differences (?E*) below 1.1 were measured for most dyes. PMID:10919791

  19. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  1. Dyeing Properties of Natural Dye Syzygium cuminii on Silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Swamy, V.; Ninge Gowda, K. N.; Sudhakar, R.

    2014-04-01

    Dyeing behavior of natural dye extracted from the bark of Syzygium cuminii L has been studied on silk fabric. Colour values and colour co-ordinates were examined in terms of K/S and L* a* b* C and h. A range of shades were obtained by using various mordants and mordanting techniques. Dye was tested for some of the eco-parameters using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS. The test results were compared with the set standards to determine the eco-friendliness of natural dye. Their concentrations were much below the stipulated limits. Dyed samples were tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and were found to possess antibacterial activity.

  2. Ionic liquid electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gorlov, Mikhail; Kloo, Lars

    2008-05-28

    The potential of room-temperature molten salts (ionic liquids) as solvents for electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells has been investigated during the last decade. The non-volatility, good solvent properties and high electrochemical stability of ionic liquids make them attractive solvents in contrast to volatile organic solvents. Despite this, the relatively high viscosity of ionic liquids leads to mass-transport limitations. Here we review recent developments in the application of different ionic liquids as solvents or components of liquid and quasi-solid electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:18688394

  3. Optimization of extraction and dyeing conditions for traditional turmeric dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiran Sachan; VP Kapoor

    Water soluble yellow dye was extracted from turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa L.), collected from Lucknow, Shillong and from local market, through aqueous\\/solvent extraction procedure using vacuum evaporator and spray drying of aqueous extract. Shillong sample was found to contain higher dye content (21.3-27.6%) followed by Lucknow sample (15.5- 18.9%) and market sample (14.0-18.2%). Shillong sample was also been found to

  4. Effect of Gas Pressure on Decomposition of Indigo Carmine in Water Subjected to Reciprocal Traveling Wave Voltage Pulse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kadowaki; T. Sone; H. Nishiyama; I. Kitani

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes experimental results of decomposition of an organic material in water using repetitive surface discharges produced by reciprocal traveling wave voltage pulse. A point electrode with a CR high-pass-filter at one end of a long coaxial cable was faced on a surface of 3 mm thick water layer on the grounded-plate in a low-pressure chamber. When the cable

  5. Laser properties and photostabilities of laser dyes doped in ORMOSILs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Wang, Minquan; Qian, Guodong; Wang, Zhiyu; Fan, Xianping

    2004-01-01

    Laser dyes such as rhodamine B, rhodamine 6G, pyrromethene 567, perylene orange and perylene red were doped into GPTMS-, MTES- and VTES-derived organically modified silicates (ORMOSILs) by sol-gel process. A longitudinal pumped solid-state dye laser was established with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source. The lifetimes of these dyes in various ORMOSILs were investigated by using such an experimental setup at a pump repetition rate of 2 Hz and pump intensity of 0.1 or 1.4 J/cm 2. The lifetime of 60 000 pulses, 50 GJ/mol in normalized photostability, was obtained for the pyrromethene 567 doped in MTES-derived ORMOSIL with the net sample thickness of 4 mm when its output energy declined to 50% of its initial value. The slope efficiencies of pyrromethene 567 and perylene orange in various host media were also measured.

  6. Dye molecules in electrolytes: new approach for suppression of dye-desorption in dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Nansra; Jun, Yongseok; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-01-01

    The widespread commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells remains limited because of the poor long-term stability. We report on the influence of dye-molecules added in liquid electrolyte on long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. Dye-desorption from the TiO2 surface during long-term cycling is one of the decisive factors that degrade photocurrent densities of devices which in turn determine the efficiencies of the devices. For the first time, desorption of dye from the TiO2 surface could be suppressed by controlling thermodynamic equilibrium; by addition of dye molecules in the electrolyte. The dye molecules in the electrolyte can suppress the driving forces for the adsorbed dye molecules to be desorbed from TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, highly enhanced device stabilities were achieved due to the reduction of dye-desorption although there was a little decrease in the initial efficiencies.

  7. Enhanced brightness and photostability of cyanine dyes by supramolecular containment

    E-print Network

    Muddana, Hari S; Sen, Ayusman; Butler, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasensitive detection and real-time monitoring of biological processes can benefit significantly from the improved brightness and photostability of the popular organic dyes such as cyanines. Here, using a model cyanine dye, Cy3, we demonstrate that brightness and photostability of the dye is significantly altered when trapped in a molecular container, e.g. cucurbit[n]urils (CB[n]) and cyclodextrins (CD).Through computational modeling, we predicted that Cy3 forms a stable inclusion complex with three different hosts, CB[7], beta-CD, and methyl-beta-CD, which was further confirmed by single-molecule diffusion measurements using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The effect of supramolecular encapsulation on Cy3 photophysical properties was found to be highly host-specific. Up to three-fold increase in brightness of Cy3 was observed when the dye was trapped in methyl-beta-CD, due to an increase in both dye absorption and quantum yield. Steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy of the various complexes r...

  8. Organic Materials for Holographic Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Gengsheng Chen

    1993-01-01

    Volume holography plays an important role in modern optical technology. This research explores organic materials for holographic applications in optical systems. A novel medium composed of azo dye molecules (methyl red sodium salt) and liquid crystals (PCB) was developed for holographic applications. A conformation change of azo dye molecules in cis-trans isomerization reorients liquid crystal molecules. Reversible polarization holograms are

  9. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell.

  10. Polymer-filled nanoporous silica aerogels as hosts for highly stable solid-state dye lasers.

    PubMed

    Costela, A; García Moreno, I; Gómez, C; García, O; Sastre, R; Roig, A; Molins, E

    2005-03-17

    New hybrid solid-state dye laser materials based on highly porous silica aerogels have been synthesized. The open porous network of the aerogel was saturated with laser dyes dissolved in appropriate organic monomers, and polymerization took place inside the silica structure. The resulting polymer-filled nanoporous aerogel (PFNPA) was cast in a cylindrical shape, forming monoliths that were used as gain media in solid-state dye lasers. When the PFNPA incorporated pyrromethene dyes, highly photostable laser emission with good lasing efficiency was obtained. Under the demanding conditions of tightly focused transversal pumping with 532 nm, 5 mJ pulses at 10 Hz repetition rate, the commercial dye Pyrromethene 567 exhibited laser action with only a 10% drop in the laser output after 10(6) pump pulses in the same position of the sample. PMID:16851520

  11. A vibrational spectroscopic and principal component analysis of triarylmethane dyes by comparative laboratory and portable instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Doherty, B; Vagnini, M; Dufourmantelle, K; Sgamellotti, A; Brunetti, B; Miliani, C

    2014-01-01

    This contribution examines the utility of vibrational spectroscopy by bench and portable Raman/surface enhanced Raman and infrared methods for the investigation of ten early triarlymethane dye powder references and dye solutions applied on paper. The complementary information afforded by the techniques is shown to play a key role in the identification of specific spectral marker ranges to distiguish early synthetic dyes of art-historical interest through the elaboration of an in-house database of modern organic dyes. Chemometric analysis has permitted a separation of data by the discrimination of di-phenyl-naphthalenes and triphenylmethanes (di-amino and tri-amino derivatives). This work serves as a prelude to the validation of a non-invasive working method for in situ characterization of these synthetic dyes through a careful comparison of respective strengths and limitations of each portable technique. PMID:24252295

  12. Influence of various coumarin dyes on the laser performance of laser dyes co-doped into ORMOSILs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Zou, J.; Rong, H.; Qian, G. D.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, M. Q.

    2007-01-01

    Several kinds of coumarin dyes (C440, C460, C500, C503 and C540A) were co-doped with perylene red (p-red) or pyrromethene 567 (p567) into VTES- and MTES-derived organically modified silicates (ORMOSILs) respectively, by the sol-gel process. The effects of coumarin dyes and their concentration on the laser properties and photostabilities of p-redand p567 were studied and the mechanisms involved were discussed. At optimized coumarin dye concentration, the slope efficiency of co-doped p-redincreased by a factor of 2 while only minor increases in the laser efficiency of p567 were observed. A broader tunable range with increased conversion efficiency and at least a 3-fold improvement in the photostabilities of p-redand p567 in the presence of coumarin family dyes have also been achieved. The mechanism responsible for the improvement in the laser performances and photostabilities of p-redand p567 resulted from the energy transfer between p-red/567 and coumarin dyes.

  13. Modeling materials and processes in dye-sensitized solar cells: understanding the mechanism, improving the efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of recent first-principles computational modeling studies on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), focusing on the materials and processes modeling aspects which are key to the functioning of this promising class of photovoltaic devices. Crucial to the DSCs functioning is the photoinduced charge separation occurring at the heterointerface(s) between a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline, mesoporous metal oxide electrode and a redox shuttle. Theoretical and computational modeling of isolated cell components (e.g., dye, semiconductor nanoparticles, redox shuttle, etc…) as well as of combined dye/semiconductor/redox shuttle systems can successfully assist the experimental research by providing basic design rules of new sensitizers and a deeper comprehension of the fundamental chemical and physical processes governing the cell functioning and its performances. A computational approach to DSCs modeling can essentially be cast into a stepwise problem, whereby one first needs to simulate accurately the individual DSCs components to move to relevant pair (or higher order) interactions characterizing the device functioning. This information can contribute to enhancing further the target DSCs characteristics, such as temporal stability and optimization of device components. After presenting selected results for isolated dyes, including the computational design of new dyes, and model semiconductors, including realistic nanostructure models, we focus in the remainder of this review on the interaction between dye-sensitizers and semiconductor oxides, covering organic as well as metallorganic dyes. PMID:24682760

  14. Effect of different numbers of -CH2- units on the performance of isoquinolinium dyes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianghua; Yang, Xichuan; Hao, Yan; Cheng, Ming; Tian, Jie; Sun, Licheng

    2014-03-26

    Three new dyes have been synthesized to investigate the influence of the distance between the electron acceptor and TiO2 surface on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In these dyes, the isoquinolinium acceptor, with a -(CH2)nCOOH anchoring group, and a functionalized triphenylamine donor are separated by an oligothiophene bridge. The physical and electrochemical properties of the dyes were investigated systematically. The results prove that different numbers of -CH2- units between the isoquinolinium acceptor and the carboxyl anchoring group have a less pronounced effect on the physical and electrochemical properties of these dyes. However, when applied in DSSCs, a sharp decrease in the short-circuit current (Jsc) was observed with increasing numbers of -CH2- units. For example, the device containing the organic dye bearing three -CH2- units produced the lowest Jsc of 7.94 mA·cm(-2). In contrast, the device containing the dye bearing only one -CH2- unit exhibited the highest Jsc of 13.88 mA·cm(-2). The higher photocurrent obtained with the device incorporating the dye with one -CH2- unit resulted in a higher power conversion efficiency of 6.8%. PMID:24575825

  15. Forcing aggregation of cyanine dyes with salts: a fine line between dimers and higher ordered aggregates.

    PubMed

    Mooi, Sara M; Keller, Samantha N; Heyne, Belinda

    2014-08-19

    It is uncommon to read about cyanine dyes in the literature and not have their aggregation discussed. They are of high interest considering their propensity to undergo self-organization in aqueous solution, leading to interesting photophysical properties resulting from the formation of their dimers and higher ordered aggregates. Currently, the study of their aggregation is in high demand due to their diverse application range including dye-sensitized solar cells. However, their aggregation in high salt solutions is under studied, and the effect on aggregation in congruence with high ionic strength is often overlooked. In a previous study, our group established the role of specific ion effects and in particular the necessity of matching water affinity to induce aggregation of a cationic cyanine dye, thiazole orange. In order to advance the understanding of this topic, we present in this article the diverse aggregation of cyanine dyes, as a single monovalent salt can cause different aggregation responses in a variety of these dyes. We established via absorption spectroscopy combined with chemometric analyses that the inherent monomer-dimer equilibrium of a dye depends on its geometry. More interestingly, experimental data coupled with DFT calculations reveal that not only the geometry of a dye but also its charge location plays a role in the aggregate morphology formed by the interaction of a cationic cyanine dye and an anion. It is thought that contact ion pair formation and effective charge screening generated within that ion pair are responsible for aggregates with a greater order. PMID:25073802

  16. Soybean peroxidase-mediated degradation of an azo dye– a detailed mechanistic study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peroxidases are emerging as an important class of enzymes that can be used for the efficient degradation of organic pollutants. However, detailed studies identifying the various intermediates produced and the mechanisms involved in the enzyme-mediated pollutant degradation are not widely published. Results In the present study, the enzymatic degradation of an azo dye (Crystal Ponceau 6R, CP6R) was studied using commercially available soybean peroxidase (SBP) enzyme. Several operational parameters affecting the enzymatic degradation of dye were evaluated and optimized, such as initial dye concentration, H2O2 dosage, mediator amount and pH of the solution. Under optimized conditions, 40 ppm dye solution could be completely degraded in under one minute by SBP in the presence of H2O2 and a redox mediator. Dye degradation was also confirmed using HPLC and TOC analyses, which showed that most of the dye was being mineralized to CO2 in the process. Conclusions Detailed analysis of metabolites, based on LC/MS results, showed that the enzyme-based degradation of the CP6R dye proceeded in two different reaction pathways- via symmetric azo bond cleavage as well as asymmetric azo bond breakage in the dye molecule. In addition, various critical transformative and oxidative steps such as deamination, desulfonation, keto-oxidation are explained on an electronic level. Furthermore, LC/MS/MS analyses confirmed that the end products in both pathways were small chain aliphatic carboxylic acids. PMID:24308857

  17. Clean Photothermal Heating and Controlled Release from Near-Infrared Dye Doped Nanoparticles without Oxygen Photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Guha, Samit; Shaw, Scott K; Spence, Graeme T; Roland, Felicia M; Smith, Bradley D

    2015-07-21

    The photothermal heating and release properties of biocompatible organic nanoparticles, doped with a near-infrared croconaine (Croc) dye, were compared with analogous nanoparticles doped with the common near-infrared dyes ICG and IR780. Separate formulations of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles and liposomes, each containing Croc dye, absorbed strongly at 808 nm and generated clean laser-induced heating (no production of (1)O2 and no photobleaching of the dye). In contrast, laser-induced heating of nanoparticles containing ICG or IR780 produced reactive (1)O2, leading to bleaching of the dye and also decomposition of coencapsulated payload such as the drug doxorubicin. Croc dye was especially useful as a photothermal agent for laser-controlled release of chemically sensitive payload from nanoparticles. Solution state experiments demonstrated repetitive fractional release of water-soluble fluorescent dye from the interior of thermosensitive liposomes. Additional experiments used a focused laser beam to control leakage from immobilized liposomes with very high spatial and temporal precision. The results indicate that fractional photothermal leakage from nanoparticles doped with Croc dye is a promising method for a range of controlled release applications. PMID:26149326

  18. Electronic and optical properties of dye-sensitized TiO? interfaces.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Mariachiara; Selloni, Annabella; Fantacci, Simona; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) represent a promising approach to the direct conversion of sunlight to electrical energy at low cost and high efficiency. DSCs are based on a film of anatase TiO? nanoparticles covered by adsorbed molecular dyes and immersed in a liquid redox electrolyte. Upon photoexcitation of the chemisorbed dye, electrons are injected into the TiO? conduction band and can travel across the nanostructured film to reach the counter-electrode, while the oxidized dye is regenerated by the redox electrolyte. In this review we present a summary of recent computational studies of the electronic and optical properties of dye-sensitized TiO2 interfaces, with the aim of providing the basic understanding of the operation principles of DSCs and establishing the conceptual basis for their design and optimization.We start with a discussion of isolated dyes in solution, focusing on the dye's atomic structure, ground and excited state oxidation potentials, and optical absorption spectra. We examine both Ru(II)-polypyridyl complexes and organic "push-pull" dyes with a D-?-A structure, where the donor group (D) is an electron-rich unit, linked through a conjugated linker (?) to the electron-acceptor group (A). We show that a properly calibrated computational approach based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) combined with Time Dependent DFT (TD-DFT) can provide a good description of both the absorption spectra and ground and excited state oxidation potential values of the Ru(II) complexes. On the other hand, organic push-pull dyes are not well described by the standard DFT/TD-DFT approach. For these dyes, an excellent description of the electronic structure in gas phase can be obtained by the many body perturbation theory GW method, which has, however, a much higher computational cost.We next consider interacting dye/semiconductor systems. Key properties are the dye adsorption structure onto the semiconductor, the nature and localization of the dye@semiconductor excited states, and the alignment of ground and excited state energy levels at the dye/semiconductor heterointerface. These properties, along with an estimate of the electronic coupling, constitute the fundamental parameters that determine the electron injection and dye regeneration processes. For metallorganic dyes, standard DFT/TDDFT methods are again found to reproduce accurately most of the relevant electronic and optical properties. For highly conjugated organic dyes, characterized by a high degree of charge transfer excited states, instead, the problems associated to the charge-transfer nature of their excited states extend to their interaction with TiO? and translate into an erroneous description of the relative energetics of dye/semiconductor excited states. A full description of push-pull organic dyes/semiconductor excited states, which is essential for modeling the key process of electron injection in DSCs, still represents a challenge which should be addressed by next generation DFT or post-DFT methods. PMID:24488437

  19. Electrochemical-assisted photodegradation of mixed dye and textile effluents using TiO2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Zainal, Zulkarnain; Lee, Chong Yong; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Kassim, Anuar; Yusof, Nor Azah

    2007-07-19

    Mixed dye consists of six commercial dyes and textile effluents from cotton dyeing process were treated by electrochemical-assisted photodegradation under halogen lamp illumination. Two types of effluents were collected which are samples before and after undergone pre-treatment at the factory wastewater treatment plant. The photodegradation process was studied by evaluating the changes in concentration employing UV-vis spectrophotometer (UV-vis) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. The photoelectrochemical degradation of mixed dye was found to follow the Langmuir Hinshelwood pseudo-first order kinetic while pseudo-second order kinetic model for effluents by using TOC analyses. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values of mixed dye and raw effluents were reported. Photoelectrochemical characteristic of pollutants was studied using the cyclic voltammetry technique. Raw effluent was found to exhibit stronger reduction behaviour at cathodic bias potential but slightly less photoresponse at anodic bias than mixed dye. PMID:17196740

  20. A promising candidate with D-A-A-A architecture as an efficient sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Na; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Sun, Ping-Ping; Chen, Shi-Lu; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2015-02-23

    A series of metal-free organic dyes with electron-rich (D) and electron-deficient units (A) as ? linkers have been studied theoretically by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations to explore the effects of ? spacers on the optical and electronic properties of triphenylamine dyes. The results show that Dye?1 with a structure of D-A-A-A is superior to the typical C218 dye in various key aspects, including the maximum absorption (?max =511 nm), the charge-transfer characteristics (D/?q/t is 5.49 Å/0.818 e(-) /4.41 Å), the driving force for charge-carrier injection (?Ginject =1.35 eV)/dye regeneration (?Gregen =0.27 eV), and the lifetime of the first excited state (?=3.1 ns). It is thus proposed to be a promising candidate in dye-sensitized solar cell applications. PMID:25511660

  1. Elucidating the structure-property relationships of donor-?-acceptor dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through rapid library synthesis by a one-pot procedure.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Shinichiro; Sugiyama, Sakae; Maitani, Masato M; Wada, Yuji; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Katoh, Ryuzi; Kaiho, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Takashi

    2014-08-18

    The creation of organic dyes with excellent high power conversion efficiency (PCE) is important for the further improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells. We wish to describe the rapid synthesis of a 112-membered donor-?-acceptor dye library by a one-pot procedure, evaluation of PCEs, and elucidation of structure-property relationships. No obvious correlations between ?, and the ? were observed, whereas the HOMO and LUMO levels of the dyes were critical for ?. The dyes with a more positive E(HOMO), and with an E(LUMO)<-0.80?V, exerted higher PCEs. The proper driving forces were crucial for a high J(sc), and it was the most important parameter for a high ?. The above criteria of E(HOMO) and E(LUMO) should be useful for creating high PCE dyes; nevertheless, that was not sufficient for identifying the best combination of donor, ?, and acceptor blocks. Combinatorial synthesis and evaluation was important for identifying the best dye. PMID:24954633

  2. Novel fluoranthene dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuemei Ma; Wenjun Wu; Qiong Zhang; Fuling Guo; Fanshun Meng; Jianli Hua

    2009-01-01

    Three, novel, fluoranthene-based dyes, 2-cyano-3-(5-(7,12-diphenylbenzo[k]fluoranthen-3-yl)thiophen-2-yl)acrylic acid, 2-(5-((5-(7,12-diphenylben-zo[k]fluoranthen-3-yl)thiophen-2-yl)methylene)-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid and 2-cyano-3-(4-(2-(7,12-diphenylbenzo[k]fluoranthen-3-yl)ethynyl) phenyl) acrylic acid, were synthesized for application as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. In each dye, the 7,12-diphenyl-benzo[k]fluoranthene moiety acted as electron donor with phenyl and thiophene units as electron spacers and carboxylic acid as electron acceptor. Tuning of the HOMO and LUMO energy levels was conveniently accomplished by changing

  3. Dyes as tracers for vadose zone hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, Markus; Wai, Nu Nu

    2003-03-01

    Dyes are important tracers to investigate subsurface water movement. For more than a century, dye tracers have provided clues about the hydrological cycle as well as flow and transport processes in the subsurface. Groundwater contamination often originates in the vadose zone. Agrochemicals applied to the soil surface, toxic compounds accidentally spilled by human activities, and contaminants released from waste repositories leach through the vadose zone and can ultimately pollute groundwater resources. Dyes are an important tool to assess flow pathways of such contaminants. This review compiles information on dyes used as hydrological tracers, with particular emphasis on vadose zone hydrology. We summarize briefly different human-applied tracers, including nondye tracers. We then provide a historical sketch of the use of dyes as tracers and describe newer developments in visualization and quantification of tracer experiments. Relevant chemical properties of dyes used as tracers are discussed and illustrated with dye intermediates and selected dye tracers. The types of dyes used as tracers in subsurface hydrology are summarized, and recommendations are made regarding the use of dye tracers. The review concludes with a toxicological assessment of dyes used as hydrological tracers. Many different dyes have been proposed as tracers for water movement in the subsurface. All of these compounds, however, are to some degree retarded by the subsurface medium. Nevertheless, dyes are useful tracers to visualize flow pathways.

  4. organism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD E. MICHOD

    The fitness of any evolutionary unit can be understood in terms of its two basic com- ponents: fecundity (reproduction) and viability (survival). Trade-offs between these fitness com- ponents drive the evolution of life-history traits in extant multicellular organisms. We argue that these trade-offs gain special significance during the transition from unicellular to multicellular life. In particular, the evolution of germ-soma

  5. Dye-modified nanochannel materials for photoelectronic and optical devices.

    PubMed

    Calzaferri, Gion; Li, Huanrong; Brühwiler, Dominik

    2008-01-01

    Artificial photonic antenna systems have been realised by incorporating organic dyes into zeolite L. The size and aspect ratio of the cylindrically shaped zeolite crystals can be tuned over a wide range, adding to the versatility of this host material. A 600 nm sized crystal, for example, consists of about 96 000 one-dimensional channels oriented parallel to the cylinder axis. Geometrical constraints imposed by the host structure lead to supramolecular organisation of the guests, allowing high concentrations of non- or only very weakly interacting dye molecules. A special twist is added to these systems by plugging the channel openings with a second type of fluorescent dye, a so-called stopcock molecule. The two types of molecules are precisely tuned to each other; the stopcocks are able to accept excitation energy from the dyes in the channels, but cannot pass it back. The supramolecular organisation of dyes in the zeolite channels corresponds to a first stage of organisation, allowing light-harvesting within the volume of a cylindrical crystal and radiationless energy transport to either the cylinder ends or centre. The second stage of organisation represents the coupling to an external acceptor or donor stopcock fluorophore at the channel entrances, which can then trap or inject electronic excitation energy. The third stage of organisation is realised by interfacing the material to an external device through a stopcock intermediate. We observed that electronic-excitation-energy transfer in dye-zeolite L materials occurs mainly along the channel axis and we have shown that macroscopically organised materials can be prepared. The new materials offer unique possibilities as building blocks for optical, electro-optical and sensing devices. PMID:18626875

  6. Anaerobic\\/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Seshadri; P. L. Bishop; A. M. Agha

    1994-01-01

    Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass

  7. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    McGehee, Michael

    High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Brian E, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3 be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly

  8. Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes

    E-print Network

    McGehee, Michael

    Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes Brian E. Hardin1 factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible pathway to develop more efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. D ye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) work

  9. TEXTILE DYEING WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of the biological, chemical, and physical treatability of wastewaters from selected typical dye baths. Twenty systems providing a broad cross section of dye classes, fibers, and application techniques, were examined. Wastes, produced usi...

  10. nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashad, M. M.; Shalan, A. E.

    2014-08-01

    Hierarchical architectures consisting of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures are of great interest for potential use in energy and environmental applications in recent years. In this work, hierarchical tungsten oxide (WO3) has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route from ammonium metatungstate hydrate and implemented as photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The urchin-like WO3 micro-patterns are constructed by self-organized nanoscale length 1D building blocks, which are single crystalline in nature, grown along (001) direction and confirm an orthorhombic crystal phase. The obtained powders were investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on WO3 photoanodes was investigated. With increasing the calcination temperature of the prepared nanopowders, the light-electricity conversion efficiency ( ?) was increased. The results were attributed to increase the crystallinity of the particles and ease of electron movement. The DSSC based on hierarchical WO3 showed a short-circuit current, an open-circuit voltage, a fill factor, and a conversion efficiency of 4.241 mA/cm2, 0.656 V, 66.74, and 1.85 %, respectively.

  11. Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1987-01-01

    Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

  12. Industrial hygiene concerns of laser dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1990-01-01

    A variety of materials are used as dyes in laser systems, but often very little is known about each dye`s toxicity or mutagenicity\\/carcinogenicity. As a precaution, we have devised guidelines for handling these materials. We studied the literature to determine the hazards associated with various common laser dye solutions, taking into account the possible toxicity and mutagenicity\\/carcinogenicity of the solvent

  13. Optofluidic ring resonator dye lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuze; Suter, Jonathan D.; Fan, Xudong

    2010-02-01

    We overview the recent progress on optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers developed in our research group. The fluidics and laser cavity design can be divided into three categories: capillary optofluidic ring resonator (COFRR), integrated cylindrical optofluidic ring resonator (ICOFRR), and coupled optofluidic ring resonator (CpOFRR). The COFRR dye laser is based on a micro-sized glass capillary with a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The capillary circular cross-section forms the ring resonator and supports the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) that interact evanescently with the gain medium in the core. The laser cavity structure is versatile to adapt to the gain medium of any refractive index. Owing to the high Q-factor (>109), the lasing threshold of 25 nJ/mm2 is achieved. Besides directly pump the dye molecules, lasing through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the donor and acceptor dye molecules is also studied in COFRR laser. The energy transfer process can be further controlled by designed DNA scaffold labeled with donor/acceptor molecules. The ICOFRR dye laser is based on a cylindrical ring resonator fused onto the inner surface of a thick walled glass capillary. The structure has robust mechanical strength to sustain rapid gain medium circulation. The CpOFRR utilizes a cylindrical ring resonator fused on the inner surface of the COFRR capillary. Since the capillary wall is thin, the individual WGMs of the cylindrical ring resonator and the COFRR couples strongly and forms Vernier effect, which provides a way to generate a single mode dye laser.

  14. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

  15. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner.

  16. FLUORESCENCE GAS SENSOR USING TiO2 NANOPARTICLES COATED WITH PORPHYRIN DYE THIN FILMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nurul Huda Yusoff; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Muhammad Yahaya

    This paper explores the possibility of using fluorescence technique to detect the presence of volatile organic compounds based on TiO2 nanoparticles coated with porphyrin dye thin films. Porphyrin dye used was Iron (III) meso-tetraphenylporphine chloride. The thin films were prepared with the variation of TiO2 and porphyrin ratio, i.e. 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 by volume. The purpose of this

  17. New carbazole-based polymers for dye solar cells with hole-conducting polymer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Wagner; Jan Pielichowski; Andreas Hinsch; Krzysztof Pielichowski; Dariusz Bogda?; Micha? Pajda; Stefan S. Kurek; Aleksandra Burczyk

    2004-01-01

    New carbazole-based polymers for use in dye-sensitized solar cells with p-conducting polymers have been synthesized. Further, a ruthenium-complex has been prepared to serve as electron\\/hole injecting dye in these cells. The energy gap has been determined by absorption and luminescence measurements of these materials in selected organic solvents. Cyclic voltammetry measurements have been performed to determine the energy level of

  18. Buffer Layers May Reduce Recombination in Solid State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Proctor; T. Brennan; J. Bakke; S. Bent

    2009-01-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cell is a new and renewable energy device that aims to compete with conventional fuels with its low cost and ease to manufacture. While the efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells are improving, they are not yet cost-competitive with current energy sources such as coal. Our project focuses on improving the efficiency of these organic solar cells by

  19. Thermal dye double indicator dilution measurement of lung water in man: comparison with gravimetric measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F G Mihm; T W Feeley; S W Jamieson

    1987-01-01

    The thermal dye double indicator dilution technique for estimating lung water was compared with gravimetric analyses in nine human subjects who were organ donors. As observed in animal studies, the thermal dye measurement of extravascular thermal volume (EVTV) consistently overestimated gravimetric extravascular lung water (EVLW), the mean (SEM) difference being 3.43 (0.59) ml\\/kg. In eight of the nine subjects the

  20. Industrial hygiene concerns of laser dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1990-01-01

    A variety of materials are used as dyes in laser systems, but often very little is known about each dye's toxicity or mutagenicity\\/carcinogenicity. As a precaution, we have devised guidelines for handling these materials. We studied the literature to determine the hazards associated with various common laser dye solutions, taking into account the possible toxicity and mutagenicity\\/carcinogenicity of the solvent

  1. Degradation of Congo Red Dye by Ozonation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthit Neramittagapong

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degradation of azo dye in synthetic wastewater by ozonation and to optimize the reaction parameters such as pH, time and type of catalysts which influence the efficiencies of color and COD removal. Congo red dye was selected as model pollutant. Catalytic and non-catalytic ozonation of Congo red dye were carried out

  2. Dye-Sensitized Cuprrous Iodide Photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennakone, K.; Fernando, C. A. N.; Dewasurendra, M.; Kariappert, M. S.

    1987-04-01

    Copper plates coated with cuprous iodide (p-type semiconductor) are found to adsorb iodides of cationic dyes extremely well. Photocurrent efficiency and stability of dye-sensitized CuI photocathodes in aqueous KI+I2 are studied. Deposition of trace quantities of platinum on top of the dye layer is found to increase the stability and the photocurrent quantum efficiency.

  3. Modeling the efficiency of Frster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye-

    E-print Network

    McGehee, Michael

    of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons-Efficiency Solar Cell Based on Dye-Sensitized Colloidal TiO2 Films," Nature 353(6346), 737­740 (1991). 2. M. K in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes," Nat. Photonics 3(7), 406­411 (2009). 4. P. R. F

  4. Theory of pulsed dye lasers including dye-molecule rotational relaxation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger A. Haas; Mark D. Rotter

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a phenomenological semiclassical theory of pulsed-laser-pumped dye-laser light amplifiers is presented. The theory accounts for the broadband radiation absorption and emission characteristics of dye molecules in liquid solvents. Dye-molecule fluorescence, vibrational, rotational, and electric polarization relaxation processes are represented by phenomenological relaxation rates. In general, it is found that due to dye-molecule rotational relaxation the laser-pumped dye

  5. Novel iminocoumarin dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Velappan Kandavelu; Hsin-Sian Huang; Jia-Liang Jian; Thomas C.-K. Yang; Kun-Li Wang; Sheng-Tung Huang

    2009-01-01

    Novel iminocoumarin dyes (2a–c and 3a–c) having carboxyl and hydroxyl anchoring groups onto the dyes skeletons have been designed and synthesized for the application of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells (DSSCs). The photophysical and electrochemical studies showed that these iminocoumarin dyes are suitable as light harvesting sensitizers in DSSC application. The dyes having carboxyl and hydroxyl anchoring groups (2a–c) showed

  6. Treatment and reuse of dyeing effluents by potassium ferrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Ciabatti; F. Tognotti; L. Lombardi

    2010-01-01

    The use of potassium ferrate, K2FeO4, an environmentally-friendly chemical reagent containing iron in the +6 oxidation state, has been investigated as a new approach for dyeing wastewater purification.The performance of this product, alone or in combination with a cationic organic polymer and\\/or power ultrasound, was compared to the traditional biological activated sludge process and a tertiary treatment featuring ozonation.Experimental tests

  7. Industrial hygiene concerns of laser dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1990-11-01

    A variety of materials are used as dyes in laser systems, but often very little is known about each dye`s toxicity or mutagenicity/carcinogenicity. As a precaution, we have devised guidelines for handling these materials. We studied the literature to determine the hazards associated with various common laser dye solutions, taking into account the possible toxicity and mutagenicity/carcinogenicity of the solvent used. Working from this information, we have proposed three control classes -- limited, moderate, and strict -- for work performed with dyes in each class. This paper describes the considerations that went into preparing our guidelines and summarizes the precautions themselves.

  8. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Grätzel

    2003-01-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) provides a technically and economically credible alternative concept to present day p–n junction photovoltaic devices. In contrast to the conventional systems where the semiconductor assume both the task of light absorption and charge carrier transport the two functions are separated here. Light is absorbed by a sensitizer, which is anchored to the surface of a

  9. The chromonic phases of dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Attwood; J. E. Lydon; F. Jones

    1986-01-01

    It has been shown that the lyotropic liquid-crystalline phases formed by certain dyes are structurally analogous to the chromonic N and M liquid-crystalline phases previously thought to be unique to certain anti-asthmatic\\/anti-allergic drugs. We suspect that these two groups of compounds will prove to be representatives of a large new class of mesogenic materials.

  10. The use of a potential-sensitive cyanine dye for studying ion-dependent electrogenic renal transport of organic solutes. Uptake of l-malate and d-malate by luminal-membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Kragh-Hansen, Ulrich; Jørgensen, Karl Evald; Sheikh, M. Iqbal

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms of uptake of dicarboxylic acids by rabbit renal luminal-membrane vesicles were studied by the use of filtration and spectrophotometric techniques as described in an accompanying paper [Kragh-Hansen, Jørgensen & Sheikh (1982) Biochem. J. 208, 359–368]. Addition of l- or d-malate to dye-membrane-vesicle suspensions in the presence of Na+ gradients (extravesicular>intravesicular) resulted in spectral curves indicative of depolarization events. The renal uptake of dicarboxylic acids was dependent on the type of Na+-salt anion present and could be correlated with the ability of the anions to penetrate biological membranes (i.e. Cl?>SO42?>gluconate). Identical results were obtained by a filtration technique with Sartorius membrane filters. The results indicate that the dicarboxylic acids are taken up by the membrane vesicles in an electrically positive form (i.e. Na+/substrate coupling ratio 3:1) by an Na+-dependent transport system. This proposal was further supported by spectrophotometric experiments with various ionophores such as valinomycin, gramicidin and nigericin. The absorbance changes associated with simultaneous addition of l- and d-malate and spectrophotometric competition studies revealed that the two isomers are taken up by a common transport system. Spectral changes of the dye induced by addition of increasing concentrations of l- or d-malate indicated that the transport system favours the unphysiological d-form rather than the l-form of malate. Furthermore, it was observed that the affinity of both isomers for the transport system was dependent on the concentration of Na+ in the medium. PMID:7159405

  11. Multimodal dyes: toward correlative two-photon and electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolze, Frédéric; Ftouni, Hussein; Nicoud, Jean-François; Leoni, Piero; Schwab, Yannick; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Mafouana, Rodrigues R.

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, many crucial biological questions involve the observation of biological samples at different scales. Thus, optical microscopy can be associated to magnetic nuclear imaging allowing access to data from the cellular to the organ level, or can be associated to electron microscopy to reach the sub cellular level. We will describe here the design, synthesis and characterization of new bimodal probes, which can be used as dye in two-photon excited microscopy (TPEM) and electron dense markers in scanning and transmission electron microscopy (EM). In a first part, we will describe new molecular dyes with small organic systems grafted on metal atoms (Pt, Au). Such systems show good twophoton induced fluorescence and two-photon images of HeLa cells will be presented. In a second part, we will present hybrid organic-inorganic fluorescent systems with diketopyrrolopyrole-based dye grafted on iron oxide-silica core shell nanoparticles by peptide bond. Such systems present high two-photon absorption cross sections and good fluorescence quantum yields. These nanoparticles are rapidly internalized in HeLa cells and high quality two-photon images were performed with low laser power. Then we will present our results on correlative light-electron microscopy were twophoton and electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission) images were obtained on the same biological sample.

  12. Flexible dye solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Rossier-Iten; Toby B. Meyer; Jessica Krueger; Michael Graetzel

    2004-01-01

    Strategies towards flexible solid state solar cells based on nanocrystalline titanium oxide and organic hole conductor were investigated. For the flexible cell geometry a metal foil was used as substrate and a semi-transparent gold layer as counter electrode which allows light transmission (back illumination). The device performance of solid state cells based on SnO2:F coated glass on the one hand

  13. Investigation of natural dyes and ancient textiles from korea using TOF-SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeonhee; Lee, Jihye; Kim, Youngsoo; Choi, Seokchan; Ham, Seung Wook; Kim, Kang-Jin

    2008-12-01

    The identification of the colorants used on ancient textiles provides a historical pathway to the understanding of the processes associated with one of the oldest of chemical technologies, namely textile dyeing. In this paper, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was used to detect dyes on textiles avoiding the time-consuming and destructive extraction procedures necessary for the spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods previously used. The plant dyes investigated belong to a variety of chemical groups, which include curcumin, crocin, carthamin, purpurin, alizarin, brazilin, shikonin, and indigo. Reference textile samples were prepared with dye extracts of plants and were characterized by TOF-SIMS. TOF-SIMS spectra for the dyed textiles showed element ions from metallic mordants, specific fragment ions, and molecular ions from organic dyes. Remnant dyes on excavated textiles have also been identified using TOF-SIMS. The ancient textile sample showed the presence of indigo clearly, although the fiber itself had degraded badly. From the results, it was concluded that most of plant dyes can be identified with TOF-SIMS and it is a very promising technique for the archaeology field.

  14. Cell type-specific delivery of short interfering RNAs by dye-functionalised theranostic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, Adrian T.; Traeger, Anja; Pietsch, Christian; Mosig, Alexander; Wagner, Michael; Clemens, Mark G.; Jbeily, Nayla; Koch, Nicole; Gottschaldt, Michael; Bézière, Nicolas; Ermolayev, Volodymyr; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Popp, Jürgen; Kessels, Michael M.; Qualmann, Britta; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Bauer, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Efficient delivery of short interfering RNAs reflects a prerequisite for the development of RNA interference therapeutics. Here, we describe highly specific nanoparticles, based on near infrared fluorescent polymethine dye-derived targeting moieties coupled to biodegradable polymers. The fluorescent dye, even when coupled to a nanoparticle, mimics a ligand for hepatic parenchymal uptake transporters resulting in hepatobiliary clearance of approximately 95% of the dye within 45?min. Body distribution, hepatocyte uptake and excretion into bile of the dye itself, or dye-coupled nanoparticles can be tracked by intravital microscopy or even non-invasively by multispectral optoacoustic tomography. Efficacy of delivery is demonstrated in vivo using 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase siRNA as an active payload resulting in a reduction of plasma cholesterol levels if siRNA was formulated into dye-functionalised nanoparticles. This suggests that organ-selective uptake of a near infrared dye can be efficiently transferred to theranostic nanoparticles allowing novel possibilities for personalised silencing of disease-associated genes.

  15. Nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films doped with Bixa Orellana dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongo, S.; Kerasidou, A. P.; Sone, B. T.; Diallo, A.; Mthunzi, P.; Iliopoulos, K.; Nkosi, M.; Maaza, M.; Sahraoui, B.

    2015-06-01

    Natural dyes with highly delocalized ?-electron systems are considered as promising organic materials for nonlinear optical applications. Among these dyes, Bixa Orellana dye with extended ?-electron delocalization is one of the most attractive dyes. Bixa Orellana dye-doped Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films were prepared through spin coating process for linear and nonlinear optical properties investigation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the roughness of the thin films. The optical constants n and k were evaluated by ellipsometric spectroscopy. The refractive index had a maximum of about 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm, while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080 with the thickness. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the hybrid Bixa Orellana dye-PMMA polymer were investigated under 30 ps laser irradiation at 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. In particular the third-order nonlinear susceptibility has been determined by means of the Maker Fringes technique. The nonlinear third order susceptibility was found to be 1.00 × 10-21 m2 V-2 or 0.72 × 10-13 esu. Our studies provide concrete evidence that the hybrid-PMMA composites of Bixa dye are prospective candidates for nonlinear material applications.

  16. Cell type-specific delivery of short interfering RNAs by dye-functionalised theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Press, Adrian T.; Traeger, Anja; Pietsch, Christian; Mosig, Alexander; Wagner, Michael; Clemens, Mark G.; Jbeily, Nayla; Koch, Nicole; Gottschaldt, Michael; Bézière, Nicolas; Ermolayev, Volodymyr; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Popp, Jürgen; Kessels, Michael M.; Qualmann, Britta; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Bauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Efficient delivery of short interfering RNAs reflects a prerequisite for the development of RNA interference therapeutics. Here, we describe highly specific nanoparticles, based on near infrared fluorescent polymethine dye-derived targeting moieties coupled to biodegradable polymers. The fluorescent dye, even when coupled to a nanoparticle, mimics a ligand for hepatic parenchymal uptake transporters resulting in hepatobiliary clearance of approximately 95% of the dye within 45?min. Body distribution, hepatocyte uptake and excretion into bile of the dye itself, or dye-coupled nanoparticles can be tracked by intravital microscopy or even non-invasively by multispectral optoacoustic tomography. Efficacy of delivery is demonstrated in vivo using 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase siRNA as an active payload resulting in a reduction of plasma cholesterol levels if siRNA was formulated into dye-functionalised nanoparticles. This suggests that organ-selective uptake of a near infrared dye can be efficiently transferred to theranostic nanoparticles allowing novel possibilities for personalised silencing of disease-associated genes. PMID:25470305

  17. Decolorization of reactive textile dyes using water falling film dielectric barrier discharge.

    PubMed

    Doj?inovi?, Biljana P; Rogli?, Goran M; Obradovi?, Bratislav M; Kuraica, Milorad M; Kosti?, Mirjana M; Neši?, Jelena; Manojlovi?, Dragan D

    2011-08-30

    Decolorization of reactive textile dyes Reactive Black 5, Reactive Blue 52, Reactive Yellow 125 and Reactive Green 15 was studied using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in a non-thermal plasma reactor, based on coaxial water falling film dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Used initial dye concentrations in the solution were 40.0 and 80.0mg/L. The effects of different initial pH of dye solutions, and addition of homogeneous catalysts (H(2)O(2), Fe(2+) and Cu(2+)) on the decolorization during subsequent recirculation of dye solution through the DBD reactor, i.e. applied energy density (45-315kJ/L) were studied. Influence of residence time was investigated over a period of 24h. Change of pH values and effect of pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation on the decolorization was also tested. It was found that the initial pH of dye solutions and pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation did not influence the decolorization. The most effective decolorization of 97% was obtained with addition of 10mM H(2)O(2) in a system of 80.0mg/L Reactive Black 5 with applied energy density of 45kJ/L, after residence time of 24h from plasma treatment. Toxicity was evaluated using the brine shrimp Artemia salina as a test organism. PMID:21703757

  18. Improving optical absorptivity of natural dyes for fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmatzadeh, Reza; Mohammadi, Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Efficient and cheap dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using natural dyes from Pastinaca sativa and Beta vulgaris. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted dyes. We investigated the influence of various factors in the extraction process, such as utilization of different extraction approaches, the acidity of extraction solvent, and different compounds of solvents on the optical absorption spectra. It was found that we could considerably enhance the optical absorptivity of dye and consequently the performance of DSSC by choosing a proper mixture of ethanol and water for extracting solvent and also the acidity of dye solution.

  19. Characteristics of a Broadband Dye Laser Using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband CARS system called WIDECARS. The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes were used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640, Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650 as well as mixture of these dyes.

  20. Characteristics of a broadband dye laser using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine dyes.

    PubMed

    Tedder, Sarah A; Wheeler, Jeffrey L; Danehy, Paul M

    2011-02-20

    A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full width at half-maximum from 592 to 610?nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) system called width increased dual-pump enhanced CARS (WIDECARS). The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes was used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser, a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640 and Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650, as well as mixtures of these dyes. PMID:21343970

  1. Parallel Combinatorial Synthesis of Azo Dyes: A Combinatorial Experiment Suitable for Undergraduate Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gung, Benjamin W.; Taylor, Richard T.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment in the parallel synthesis of azo dyes that demonstrates the concepts of structure-activity relationships and chemical diversity with vivid colors is described. It is seen that this experiment is suitable for the second-semester organic chemistry laboratory and also for the one-semester organic laboratory.

  2. Experimental and theoretical spectroscopic studies of dye modification in synthetic Maya Blue pigment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Layra Reza; Felicia Manciu; Alejandra Ramirez; Russell Chianelli

    2009-01-01

    Maya pigments are hybrid organic\\/inorganic materials with multiple technology applications that possess unprecedented stability with respect to harsh environment conditions. In this investigation, we address the question of how the organic indigo dye modifies as it binds to the inorganic palygorskite clay to form a pigment similar to Maya Blue after a heating treatment is applied. Both infrared and Raman

  3. New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko

    2007-01-01

    The use of harmful organic solvents in classrooms has become a critical issue of concern in the field of chemistry education. This article describes a classroom activity at a high school in which an acrylic fabric was used as the extraction medium in the analysis of the detergent concentration in water instead of organic solvents. Dyes were used…

  4. Attempt to improve the performance of pyrrole-containing dyes in dye sensitized solar cells by adjusting isolation groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyang; Hou, Yingqin; Yang, Yizhou; Tang, Runli; Chen, Junnian; Wang, Heng; Han, Hongwei; Peng, Tianyou; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2013-12-11

    Four new pyrrole-based organic sensitizers with different isolation groups were conveniently synthesized and applied to dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The introduction of isolation group in the side chain could both suppress the formation of dye aggregates and electron recombination. Especially, when two pieces of D-?-A chromophore moieties shared one isolation group to construct the "H" type dye, the performance was further improved. Consequently, in the corresponding solar cell of LI-57, a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) was tested to be 13.85 mA cm(-2), while 0.72 V for the open-circuit photovoltage (Voc), 0.64 for the fill factor (FF), and 6.43% for the overall conversion efficiency (?), exceeding its analogue LI-55 (5.94%) with the same isolation group. The results demonstrated that both the size (bulk and shape) and the linkage mode between the D-?-A chromophores and the isolation groups, could affect the performance of sensitizers in DSCs in a large degree, providing a new approach to optimize the chemical structure of dyes to achieve high conversion efficiencies. PMID:24215468

  5. Effect of nuclear vibrations, temperature, and orientation on injection and recombination conditions in amino-phenyl acid dyes on TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhos, Sergei; Segawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi

    2012-06-01

    Adsorption geometry, nuclear vibrations, and molecular orientation of the dye with respect to the oxide surface affect significantly the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. We compute the influence of these factors on injection and recombination conditions in organic amino-phenyl acid dyes differing by the donor group on the anatase (101) surface of titania. Nuclear motions affect significantly and differently between the dyes the driving force to injection ? G. A temperature increase from 300 to 350 K does not have a noticeable effect on the distribution of injection rates in all studied system. Molecular dynamics simulations predict configurations in which dyes tend to lay flat on the oxide surface. The resulting proximity of the oxidation equivalent hole to the oxide is expected to promote recombination. Temporal evolution of the driving force to injection is found to be independent of dye orientation and uncorrelated to the oscillations of the Odye Ti bonds through which the dye is attached to the surface. We conclude that the dynamics of ? G(t) is explained by uncorrelated evolution of the energies of the dye excited state and of the conduction band minimum of the oxide due to their respective vibrations. This suggests that it must be possible to control independently conditions of recombination (e.g. by preventing the dye oxidation hole from approaching TiO2 by using co-adsorbates) and of injection (e.g. by designing dyes where non-equilibrium geometries strongly destabilize dye's LUMO to increase ? G).

  6. Treatment of Azo Dye-Containing Wastewater Using Integrated Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xujie Lu; Rongrong Liu

    \\u000a Azo dyes are the most widely used dyes in textile industry. During the dyeing process, the degree of exhaustion of dyes is\\u000a never complete, resulting in azo dye-containing effluents. The biodegradation of azo dyes is difficult due to their complex\\u000a structure and synthetic nature. The removal of azo dyes from industry effluents is desirable not only for aesthetic reasons\\u000a but

  7. Enhancement of adsorption and photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 by using carbon nanotubes for the treatment of azo dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Yu; Jimmy C. Yu; Cho-Yin Chan; Yan-Ke Che; Jin-Cai Zhao; Lu Ding; Wei-Kun Ge; Po-Keung Wong

    2005-01-01

    The effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the adsorption and the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 (P25) for the treatment of azo dyes, including one monoazo dye Procion Red MX-5B, and two diazo dyes Procion Yellow HE4R and Procion Red HE3B, are investigated by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) measurement, spectrophotometer, total organic carbon (TOC), high proficiency liquid chromatography (HPLC), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), photoluminescence

  8. Identification of natural dyes used in works of art by pyrolysis–gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry combined with in situ trimethylsilylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María José Casas-Catalán; María Teresa Doménech-Carbó

    2005-01-01

    Samples of four natural dyes from different organic families—natural madder (anthraquinonoid), curcuma (curcuminoid), saffron (carotenoid) and indigo (indigotic)—were analysed using a new procedure based on pyrolysis–gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (Py–GC\\/MS), which includes the on-line derivatisation of the natural dyes using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). In addition, a previous procedure involving the addition of a 10% H2SO4 aqueous solution to the dye and further

  9. Designing dye-nanochannel antenna hybrid materials for light harvesting, transport and trapping.

    PubMed

    Calzaferri, Gion; Méallet-Renault, Rachel; Brühwiler, Dominik; Pansu, Robert; Dolamic, Igor; Dienel, Thomas; Adler, Pauline; Li, Huanrong; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2011-02-25

    We discuss artificial photonic antenna systems that are built by incorporating chromophores into one-dimensional nanochannel materials and by organizing the latter in specific ways. Zeolite L (ZL) is an excellent host for the supramolecular organization of different kinds of molecules and complexes. The range of possibilities for filling its one-dimensional channels with suitable guests has been shown to be much larger than one might expect. Geometrical constraints imposed by the host structure lead to supramolecular organization of the guests in the channels. The arrangement of dyes inside the ZL channels is what we call the first stage of organization. It allows light harvesting within the volume of a dye-loaded ZL crystal and also the radiationless transport of energy to either the channel ends or center. One-dimensional FRET transport can be realized in these guest-host materials. The second stage of organization is realized by coupling either an external acceptor or donor stopcock fluorophore at the ends of the ZL channels, which can then trap or inject electronic excitation energy. The third stage of organization is obtained by interfacing the material to an external device via a stopcock intermediate. A possibility to achieve higher levels of organization is by controlled assembly of the host into ordered structures and preparation of monodirectional materials. The usually strong light scattering of ZL can be suppressed by refractive-index matching and avoidance of microphase separation in hybrid polymer/dye-ZL materials. The concepts are illustrated and discussed in detail on a bidirectional dye antenna system. Experimental results of two materials with a donor-to-acceptor ratio of 33:1 and 52:1, respectively, and a three-dye system illustrate the validity and challenges of this approach for synthesizing dye-nanochannel hybrid materials for light harvesting, transport, and trapping. PMID:21337487

  10. Choline-based ionic liquids-enhanced biodegradation of azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Sudharshan; Surianarayanan, Mahadevan; Ranganathan, Vijayaraghavan; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-05-01

    Industrial wastewaters such as tannery and textile processing effluents are often characterized by a high content of dissolved organic dyes, resulting in large values of chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD) in the aquatic systems into which they are discharged. Such wastewater streams are of rapidly growing concern as a major environmental issue in developing countries. Hence there is a need to mitigate this challenge by effective approaches to degrade dye-contaminated wastewater. In this study, several choline-based salts originally developed for use as biocompatible hydrated ionic liquids (i.e., choline sacchrinate (CS), choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDP), choline lactate (CL), and choline tartarate (CT)) have been successfully employed as the cosubstrate with S. lentus in the biodegradation of an azo dye in aqueous solution. We also demonstrate that the azo dye has been degraded to less toxic components coupled with low biomass formation. PMID:22497364

  11. Further Development of Selective Dyeing Method for Detecting Chrysotile Asbestos in Building Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, Y.; Yamasaki, N.; Maeta, N.; Fujimaki, H.; Hashida, T.

    2008-02-01

    Extensive usage of chrysotile asbestos has resulted in the remains of large numbers of chrysotile asbestos-containing buildings to be surveyed. We have recently developed a simple dyeing method for detecting chrysotile asbestos in building materials, which involves pretreatment with calcium-chelating agent and dyeing treatment with magnesium-chelating organic dyes. In this study, we further developed a method which eliminates dyed asbestos substitutes containing magnesium, potentially present in building materials. In the new method, post-treatment with formic acid was conducted to dissolve the non-chrysotile asbestos materials in order to delineate dyed chrysotile asbestos. The calcium-masking process was also shown to be an essential process even when the post-treatment was conducted. It was shown that the new method developed in this study may enable us to dye chrysotile asbestos only without detecting asbestos substitutes in building materials.

  12. Evaluation of Polymethine Dyes as Potential Probes for Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Tumors: Part - 1

    PubMed Central

    James, Nadine S.; Chen, Yihui; Joshi, Penny; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Henary, Maged; Strekowsk, Lucjan; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) organic dyes have become important for many biomedical applications, including in vivo optical imaging. Conjugation of NIR fluorescent dyes to photosensitizing molecules (photosensitizers) holds strong potential for NIR fluorescence image guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Therefore, we were interested in investigating the photophysical properties, in vivo tumor-affinity and fluorescence imaging potential of a series of heterocyclic polymethine dyes, which could then be conjugated to certain PDT agents. For our present study, we selected a series of symmetrical polymethine dyes containing a variety of bis-N-substituted indole or benzindole moieties linked by linear conjugation with and without a fused substituted cyclohexene ring. The N-alkyl side chain at the C-terminal position was functionalized with sulfonic, carboxylic acid, methyl ester or hydroxyl groups. Although, among the parent cyanine dyes investigated, the commercially available, cyanine dye IR783 (3) (bis-indole-N-butylsulfonate)-polymethine dye with a cyclic chloro-cyclohexene moiety showed best fluorescence-imaging ability, based on its spectral properties (?Abs=782 nm, ?Fl=810 nm, ? = 261,000 M-1cm-1, ?Fl?0.08) and tumor affinity. In addition to 3, parent dyes IR820 and Cypate (6) were also selected and subjected to further modifications by introducing desired functional groups, which could enable further conjugation of the cyanine dyes to an effective photosensitizer HPPH developed in our laboratory. The synthesis and biological studies (tumor-imaging and PDT) of the resulting bifunctional conjugates are discussed in succeeding paper (Part-2 of this study). PMID:24019854

  13. Entrapment of dye molecules within submicron silver particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itzik Yosef; David Avnir

    We describe a method for the preparation of metal–organic composites submicron particles. Specifically, the preparation of\\u000a silver particle-clusters 150–200 nm in size, doped with an organic dye Congo-red, is reported. The use of sodium citrate coupled\\u000a with sodium hypophosphite facilitated the formation of these particle-clusters, which were fully characterized by TEM analysis,\\u000a Zeta potential and size measurements, scanning electron microscopy, UV–Vis

  14. Nano-fluidic dye laser

    E-print Network

    Gersborg-Hansen, M; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This letter describes the design and operation of a single mode polymer-based nano-fluidic dye laser. The device relies on light-confinement in a nano-structured polymer film where an array of nano-fluidic channels is filled by capillary action with a liquid dye solution which has a refractive index lower than that of the polymer. In combination with a third order distributed feed-back (DFB) grating, formed by the array of nano-fluidic channels, this yields a low threshold for lasing. The laser is straight-forward to integrate on Lab-on-a-Chip micro-systems, e.g. for novel sensor concepts, where coherent, tunable light in the visible range is desired.

  15. The effect of operational parameters on the photocatalytic degradation of Congo red organic dye using ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure coated on glass by Doctor Blade method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Rahmati, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-02-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of Congo red was investigated using ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure coated on glass by Doctor Blade method in aqueous solution under irradiation. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for the morphological and structural characterization of ZnO-CdS core-shell nanostructures. XRD results showed diffractions of wurtzite zinc oxide core and wurtzite cadmium sulfide shell. FESEM results showed that nanoparticles are nearly hexagonal with an average diameter of about 50 nm. The effect of catalyst loading, UV-light irradiation time and solution pH on photocatalytic degradation of Congo red was studied and optimized values were obtained. Results showed that the employment of efficient photocatalyst and selection of optimal operational parameters may lead to complete decolorization of dye solutions. It was found that ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure is more favorable for the degradation of Congo red compare to pure ZnO or pure CdS due to lower electron hole recombination. The results showed that the photocatalytic degradation rate of Congo red is enhanced with increasing the content of ZnO up to ZnO(0.2 M)/CdS(0.075 M) which is reached 88.0% within 100 min irradiation.

  16. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson from The Lawrence Hall of Science was taught in spring 2012 and teaches students about nano and environmental technologies. Students will create "dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using nano-crystalline titanium dioxide." This page includes links to the Source Articles for the Hands-on Module and Project Staff Write-ups of the Hands-on Module. Additionally, five documents provide lecture and lab materials for instructor use.

  17. Biosorption of reactive dye from textile wastewater by non-viable biomass of Aspergillus niger and Spirogyra sp.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Mahmoud A

    2008-09-01

    The potential of Aspergillus niger fungus and Spirogyra sp., a fresh water green algae, was investigated as a biosorbents for removal of reactive dye (Synazol) from its multi component textile wastewater. The results showed that pre-treatment of fungal and algal biomasses with autoclaving increased the removal of dye than pre-treatment with gamma-irradiation. The effects of operational parameters (pH, temperature, biomass concentration and time) on dye removal were examined. The results obtained revealed that dried autoclaved biomass of A. niger and Spirogyra sp. exhibited maximum dye removal (88% and 85%, respectively) at pH3, temperature 30 degrees C and 8 gl(-1)(w/v) biomass conc. after 18h contact time. The stability and efficiency of both organisms in the long-term repetitive operation were also investigated. The results showed that the non-viable biomasses possessed high stability and efficiency of dye removal over 3 repeated batches. PMID:18242981

  18. Photodegradation and self-healing in a Rhodamine 6G dye and nanoparticle-doped polyurethane random laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Benjamin R.; Gunawidjaja, Ray; Eilers, Hergen

    2015-07-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in implementing organic dyes in random lasers is irreversible photodegradation of the dye molecules, leading to loss of performance and the need to replace the dye. We report the observation of self-healing after photodegradation in a Rhodamine 6G dye and nanoparticle-doped polyurethane random laser. During irradiation, we observe two distinct temporal regions in which the random lasing emission first increases in intensity and redshifts, followed by further redshifting, spectral broadening, and decay in the emission intensity. After irradiation, the emission intensity is found to recover back to its peak value, while still being broadened and redshifted, which leads to the result of an enhancement of the spectrally integrated intensity. We also perform IR-VIS absorbance measurements and find that the results suggest that during irradiation, some of the dye molecules form dimers and trimers and that the polymer host is irreversibly damaged by photooxidation and Norrish type I photocleavage.

  19. Dye laser traveling wave amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, F.; Hohman, J.

    1985-01-01

    Injection locking was applied to a cavity-dumped coaxial flashlamp pumped dye laser in an effort to obtain nanosecond duration pulses which have both high energy and narrow-linewidth. In the absence of an injected laser pulse, the cavity-dumped dye laser was capable of generating high energy (approx. 60mJ) nanosecond duration output pulses. These pulses, however, had a fixed center wavelength and were extremely broadband (approx. 6nm FWHM). Experimental investigations were performed to determine if the spectral properties of these outputs could be improved through the use of injection-locking techniques. A parametric study to determine the specific conditions under which the laser could be injection-locked was also carried out. Significant linewidth reduction to 0.0015nm) of the outputs was obtained through injection-locking but only at wavelengths near the peak lasing wavelength of the dye. It was found, however; that by inserting weakly dispersive tuning elements in the laser cavity, these narrow-linewidth outputs could be obtained over a wide (24nm) tuning range. Since the tuning elements had low insertion losses, the tunability of the output was obtained without sacrificing output pulse energy.

  20. A temporary henna tattoo causing hair and clothing dye allergy.

    PubMed

    Matulich, Jacqueline; Sullivan, John

    2005-07-01

    Contact dermatitis following the application of temporary paint-on henna tattoos indicates a potentially serious problem of active sensitization. We describe 2 cases involving sisters who travelled to Bali together and acquired a temporary black henna tattoo to the lower back region. Both sisters subsequently developed a contact dermatitis at the tattoo site, the dermatitis disseminating in one sister. There was persistent hyperpigmentation at the tattoo site in both sisters several months after the application. Patch testing revealed a positive reaction to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in both sisters. One sister also showed reactions to other hair dyes and to multiple organic dyes. Allergic contact dermatitis to PPD contained in temporary henna tattoos is an increasing problem worldwide, with cross-reaction to related compounds and permanent skin changes, a frequent consequence of sensitization to this significant allergen. PMID:15982229

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of a bacterial aerobic degrader of azo dyes.

    PubMed Central

    Govindaswami, M; Schmidt, T M; White, D C; Loper, J C

    1993-01-01

    Eubacterial consensus oligonucleotide primers were used to amplify by polymerase chain reaction the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene of isolate C7, a gram-negative rod capable of aerobic degradation of azo dyes. The DNA product was cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis based upon this DNA sequence places C7 within the alpha subdivision of proteobacteria, most closely related to Caulobacter subvibrioides. The phospholipid fatty acid pattern resembles that of caulobacters, with monounsaturated 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids predominating. C7 is unusual in having a monounsaturated branched fatty acid in the phospholipids and exclusively 2-hydroxy fatty acids in the lipid-extracted residue. This organism is of potential use in bioreactors operated for azo dye degradation. PMID:8376354

  2. Energy transfer mechanism between laser dyes doped in ORMOSILs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong; Su, Deliang; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Minquan

    2005-02-01

    Laser dyes perylene orange (p-orange) or perylene red (p-red) or pyrromethene 567 (p567) were co-doped with coumarin 440 (C440) or coumarin 500 (C500) into MTES- and VTES-derived organically modified silicates (ORMOSILs) by sol-gel process. Energy transfer from both C440 and C500, energy donors, to p-red, p-orange and p567, acceptor, respectively, has been observed and studied by steady-state emission measurement. The effect of donor concentration on energy transfer and its mechanism were studied. The potential application as an energy transfer dye laser (ETDL) was also discussed. At least 1-fold increase in the slope efficiency of p-red and 3-fold increase in the photostability of p567 was observed in such ETDLs.

  3. Predicting dye biodegradation from redox potentials.

    PubMed

    Zille, Andrea; Ramalho, Patricia; Tzanov, Tzanko; Millward, Roy; Aires, Veronika; Cardoso, Maria Helena; Ramalho, Maria Teresa; Gübitz, Georg M; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2004-01-01

    Two biological approaches for decolorization of azo sulfonated dyes have been compared: reductive decolorization with the ascomycete yeast Issatchenkia occidentalis and enzymatic oxidative decolorization with Trametes villosa laccase alone or in the presence of the mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. The redox potential difference between the biological cofactor involved in the reductive activity of growing cells and the azo dye is a reliable indication for the decolorization ability of the biocatalyst. A linear relationship exists between the redox potential of the azo dyes and the decolorization efficiency of enzyme, enzyme/mediator, and yeast. The less positive the anodic peak of the dye, the more easily it is degraded oxidatively with laccase. The more positive the cathodic peak of the dye, the more rapidly the dye molecule is reduced with yeast. PMID:15458349

  4. Inner-Sphere Electron-Transfer Single Iodide Mechanism for Dye Regeneration in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    the regeneration of the oxidized dye in dye-sensitized solar cells, the redox couple of I- /I3 - reduces the photo dye- sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in 1991,1 DSSCs have been considered as promising alternativesInner-Sphere Electron-Transfer Single Iodide Mechanism for Dye Regeneration in Dye-Sensitized Solar

  5. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    PubMed

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450°C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8g/100mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it. PMID:25875031

  6. Anthocyanin dyes in titanium dioxide nanoparticle-dye sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailey Cramer; Daniel Choi; Mark Griep; Shashi P. Karna

    2011-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are a class of thin-film solar cells, which can be made using low-cost materials and natural dyes. They can potentially achieve the same efficiency compared to bulky silicon photovoltaic cells, while providing many other advantages. In this research, anthocyanin dyes taken from different fruits were used in titanium dioxide dye-sensitized solar cells. The unique ability of anthocyanin

  7. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian E. Hardin; Jun-Ho Yum; Eric T. Hoke; Young Chul Jun; Peter Pe?chy; Toma?s Torres; Mark L. Brongersma; Michael Gra?tzel; Michael D. McGehee

    2010-01-01

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near- infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (ETE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO2 films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM

  8. Low-cost dyes based on methylthiophene for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zongfang Tian; Meihua Huang; Bin Zhao; Hui Huang; Xiaoming Feng; Yujuan Nie; Ping Shen; Songting Tan

    2010-01-01

    Three donor–acceptor, ?-conjugated (D–?–A) dyes containing methylthiophene or vinylene methylthiophene as ?-conjugated spacer were utilised in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells. The relationship between the structure of the dyes and their photophysical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties was investigated systematically. The vinyl unit, introduced as the ?-conjugated spacer, leads to unfavorable back-electron transfer and decrease of the open-circuit voltage. A dye-sensitized

  9. Heterogeneous Catalytic Ozonation of Aqueous Reactive Dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kintoo Yong; Jiangning Wu; Susan Andrews

    2005-01-01

    The aqueous solution of a model reactive dye, C.I. Reactive Blue 5, was ozonated in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst, CuS. It was found that CuS was very effective for catalyzing the decolorization so that both treatment time and ozone consumption were significantly reduced. For 1 g\\/L of the reactive dye, the stoichiometric ratios of ozone to dye in

  10. Electrochromism of an aggregating thiapyrylium dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Marchetti; M. Scozzafava; R. H. Young

    1988-01-01

    Electrochromism (electric-field-modulated absorption) spectra are reported for a thiapyrylium dye in a polycarbonate host. When the dye is homogeneously dissolved in the polymer, excitation to the first excited singlet state changes its dipole moment by approximately 6 D (2×10?29 C m). When the dye is aggregated with the host polymer, the structure of the aggregate is believed to consist of

  11. Preliminary investigation of the effects of dye concentration on the output of a multiwavelength dye laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, I. O.; Burney, L. G.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of dye concentration on the output wavelength and energy of a multiwavelength dye laser were investigated. The dyes tested were Coumarin 2 in methyl alcohol and Rhodomine 6G, Acridine Red, and 7-diethylamino-4-methyl Coumarin (7DA 4MC) in ethyl alcohol.

  12. [Toxicogenetic effects of azo- and arylmethane dyes].

    PubMed

    Zimina, T A; Pavlenko, V V

    1990-12-01

    The haploid strain 15B-II4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to study in an acute experiment the toxic and mutagenic effects of arylmethane dyes Victory Blue (C.I. 44040), Methyl Violet (C.I. 42535), Brilliant Green (C.I. 42040) and cancerogenic aminoazo dye Chrysoidine (C.I. 11270). High biological activity of all the dyes tested was found, based on such toxic effects as cell killing and growth inhibition. Also, it was shown that the dyes could increase the frequency of appearance of nuclear point mutations and cytoplasmic mutations of respiratory deficiency. PMID:2086349

  13. Industrial hygiene concerns of laser dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1990-11-01

    A variety of materials are used as dyes in laser systems, but often very little is known about each dye's toxicity or mutagenicity/carcinogenicity. As a precaution, we have devised guidelines for handling these materials. We studied the literature to determine the hazards associated with various common laser dye solutions, taking into account the possible toxicity and mutagenicity/carcinogenicity of the solvent used. Working from this information, we have proposed three control classes -- limited, moderate, and strict -- for work performed with dyes in each class. This paper describes the considerations that went into preparing our guidelines and summarizes the precautions themselves.

  14. Identification of synthetic dyes in early colour photographs using capillary electrophoresis and electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López-Montes, Ana Ma; Dupont, Anne-Laurence; Desmazières, Bernard; Lavédrine, Bertrand

    2013-09-30

    Capillary electrophoresis with photodiode array detection (CE-PDA) and with electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) was used for the separation and the identification of 23 synthetic organic dyes, among those used in early 20th century colour photographs such as autochromes. Both cationic and anionic dyes could be separated within 15min using a single CE-PDA method. The method was used as the basis to develop a CE-ESI-MS methodology through the optimisation of the relevant ESI and MS parameters. Sheath liquid composition, nebulising gas pressure, drying gas flow rate and drying gas temperature were found to influence the sensitivity of the detection. These parameters were optimised in positive and negative ion modes for cationic dyes and anionic dyes, respectively. The two analyses could be carried out successively on a single sample. In view of the application to cultural heritage objects, the CE-ESI-MS analytical procedure was applied to identify the dyes in a Filmcolor artefact, late version of the autochrome. The results complemented and enhanced current knowledge as four cationic dyes and three anionic dyes were identified. Four additional dyes are proposed as possibly present as traces. PMID:23953463

  15. Investigation of effect of anti-aggregation agent on the performance of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinnezhad, M.; Moradian, S.; Gharanjig, K.

    2015-06-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on indigo dyes exhibit suitable conversion efficiency. These organic dyes have been undergone for aggregation. Electron transfer process is reduced due to an aggregation of molecular dyes. Therefore, anti-aggregation agent is commonly utilized in fabrication of DSSCs. In the present study, two anti-aggregation agents namely as 3?,7?-dihydroxy-5?-cholanic acid (cheno) and 3?,7?,12?-trihydroxy-5?-cholanic acid (cholic acid) were added to indigo dye solution in DSSCs in order to determine the photovoltaic parameters such as short circuit photocurrent, open circuit voltage and conversion efficiency of each individual dye in the absence and presence of anti-aggregation agents. The results show that the conversion efficiencies are improved with reduced aggregation. Spectrophotometric evaluations of the indigo dyes in solution and on a TiO2 substrate were carried out in the absence and presence of anti-aggregation agents in order to estimate changes in the status of the dyes in different environments. J-type aggregates on the nano TiO2 are reduced in the presence of anti-aggregation agents.

  16. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for...purposes are mixtures of synthetic or natural dyes or nondye chemicals in...

  17. Substitution of a hydroxamic acid anchor into the MK-2 dye for enhanced photovoltaic performance and water stability in a DSSC.

    PubMed

    Koenigsmann, C; Ripolles, T S; Brennan, B J; Negre, C F A; Koepf, M; Durrell, A C; Milot, R L; Torre, J A; Crabtree, R H; Batista, V S; Brudvig, G W; Bisquert, J; Schmuttenmaer, C A

    2014-08-21

    An efficient synthetic protocol to functionalize the cyanoacrylic acid anchoring group of commercially available MK-2 dye with a highly water-stable hydroxamate anchoring group is described. Extensive characterization of this hydroxamate-modified dye (MK-2HA) reveals that the modification does not affect its favorable optoelectronic properties. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) prepared with the MK-2HA dye attain improved efficiency (6.9%), relative to analogously prepared devices with commercial MK-2 and N719 dyes. The hydroxamate anchoring group also contributes to significantly increased water stability, with a decrease in the rate constant for dye desorption of MK-2HA relative to MK-2 in the presence of water by as much as 37.5%. In addition, the hydroxamate-anchored dye undergoes essentially no loss in DSSC efficiency and the external quantum efficiency improves when up to 20% water is purposefully added to the electrolyte. In contrast, devices prepared with the commercial dye suffer a 50% decline in efficiency under identical conditions, with a concomitant decrease in external quantum efficiency. Collectively, our results indicate that covalent functionalization of organic dyes with hydroxamate anchoring groups is a simple and efficient approach to improving the water stability of the dye-semiconductor interface and overall device durability. PMID:24993024

  18. Estimation of Fluorescent Dye Amount in Tracer Dye Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkan, Emrah; Balkan, Erman; Balkan, Emir

    2015-04-01

    Karstic groundwater is more influenced by human than the groundwater that disperse in pores. On the other hand karstic groundwater resources, in addition to providing agricultural needs, livestock breeding, drinking and domestic water in most of the months of the year, they also supply drinking water to the wild life at high altitudes. Therefore sustainability and hydrogeological investigation of karstic resources is critical. Tracing techniques are widely used in hydrologic and hydrogeologic studies to determine water storage, flow rate, direction and protection area of groundwater resources. Karanfil Mountain (2800 m), located in Adana, Turkey, is one of the karstic recharge areas of the natural springs spread around its periphery. During explorations of the caves of Karanfil mountain, a 600 m deep cave was found by the Turkish and Polish cavers. At the bottom of the cave there is an underground river with a flow rate of approximately 0.5 m3/s during August 2014. The main spring is located 8 km far from the cave's entrance and its mean flow rate changes between 3.4 m3/s and 0.21 m3/s in March and September respectively according to a flowrate observation station of Directorate of Water Works of Turkey. As such frequent storms, snowmelt and normal seasonal variations in rainfall have a significant and rapid effect on the volume of this main spring resource. The objective of our research is to determine and estimate dye amount before its application on the field inspired from the previously literature on the subject. This estimation is intended to provide a preliminary application of a tracer test of a karstic system. In this study dye injection, inlet point will be an underground river located inside the cave and the observation station will be the spring that is approximately 8 km far from the cave entrance. On the other hand there is 600 meter elevation difference between cave entrance and outlet spring. In this test Rodamin-WT will be used as tracer and the appropriate amount of tracers was found according to the flowrate of the spring. The amount of dye is very important for the consistency of the results and the applicability of the tests. For example if the amount of tracer that is estimated is found to be inadequate, any field readings and data could be lost. Most importantly tracer dye is costly and hard to prepare, transport and will follow a torturous path through the cave to the underground river.

  19. Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with nanoporous TiO 2 and TPD dyes: Analysis of penetration behavior and I–V characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sule Erten-Ela; Johannes Brendel; Mukundan Thelakkat

    2011-01-01

    We present the synthesis, electrochemical properties and device-based investigation of triphenylene diamine (TPD) sensitizer with an extended ? system consisting of donor, electron conducting and anchoring group for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using blocking TiO2 electrodes, nanoporous TiO2 electrodes and the organic hole-transporting medium, HTM (spiro-OMeTAD) in a fluorine doped tin oxide\\/blocking TiO2\\/nanoporous TiO2\\/TPDs\\/hole

  20. Dyeing of jute with binary mixtures of jackfruit wood and other natural dyes — Study on colour performance and dye compatibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashis Kumar Samanta; Priti Agarwal; Siddhartha Datta

    manjistha (MJ), red sandal wood (RSW), mariegold (MG), sappan wood (SW) and babool (BL), have been used to dye bleached jute fabric pre-mordanted with 20% myrobolan followed by 20% aluminium sulphate. Binary combinations of JFW with each of the five natural dye extracts have been evaluated for colour strength (K\\/S value) and its coefficient of variation, brightness index (BI), changes