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1

The Anatomical Basis for Hygroscopic Movement in Primary Rays of Daucus carota Ssp. carota (Apiaceae)  

E-print Network

The Anatomical Basis for Hygroscopic Movement in Primary Rays of Daucus carota Ssp. carota-807 118314403-0009$02.OO T H E ANATOMICAL BASIS FOR HYGROSCOPIC MOVEMENT I N PRIMARY RAYS OF DAUCUS CAROTA SSP. CAROTA (APIACEAE) ELIZABETH P. LACEY,*PETER B. KAUFMAN,?AND P. DAYANANDAN? * Department of Biology

Lacey, Elizabeth P.

2

Mitochondrial DNA diversity and male sterility in natural populations of Daucus carota ssp carota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial variability was investigated in natural populations of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp carota) in different regions: South of France, Greece, and various sites in the Mediterranean Basin and Asia. Total DNA was digested with two restriction endonucleases (EcoRV and HindIII) and probed with three mitochondrial DMA-specific genes (coxI, atp6, and coxII). Twenty-five different mitochondrial types were found in 80

J. Ronfort; P. Saumitou-Laprade; J. Cuguen; D. Couvet

1995-01-01

3

Mitochondrial genome diversity among cultivars of daucus carota (ssp. sativus ) and their wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction fragment patterns of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from 13 carrot cultivars (Daucus carota ssp. sativus), wild carrot (ssp. carota), ssp. gummifer, and D. capillifolius were compared with each other using four restriction endonucleases. The mtDNAs of the 13 carrot cultivars could be classified into three distinct types — I, II and III — and were also clearly distinguishable from the

H. Ichikawa; L. Tanno-Suenaga; J. Imamura

1989-01-01

4

Rare trisubstituted sesquiterpenes daucanes from the wild Daucus carota  

E-print Network

Rare trisubstituted sesquiterpenes daucanes from the wild Daucus carota Ahmed A. Ahmed a,*, Mohktar investigation of the roots of the wild Daucus carota ssp. carota afforded three new and four known compounds reserved. Keywords: Daucus carota ssp. carota; Apiaceae; Daucane sesquiterpenes; Sesquiterpene coumarin

Paré, Paul W.

5

Linkage relationships among molecular markers and storage root traits of carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 109-point linkage map consisting of three phenotypic loci (P\\u000a 1,?Y\\u000a 2, and Rs), six restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), two random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), 96 amplified fragment\\u000a length polymorphisms (AFLPs), and two selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL) was constructed for\\u000a carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus; 2n=2x=18). The incidence of polymorphism was 36% for RFLP probes,

B. S. Vivek; P. W. Simon

1999-01-01

6

Quantification of anthocyanins in black carrot extracts ( Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) and evaluation of their color properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigment composition of 15 black carrot cultivars ( Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) was screened by HPLC-MS. Up to seven cyanidin glycosides, five of which were acylated with hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, were identified and quantified in the roots by HPLC-DAD. Contents of individual compounds indicated great differences in the potential of anthocyanin accumulation both between different cultivars

Dietmar Kammerer; Reinhold Carle; Andreas Schieber

2004-01-01

7

DEVELOPMENT OF CO-DOMINANT MARKERS LINKED TO THE MJ-L LOCUS IN CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA L. SSP. SATIVUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The majority of PCR-based markers mapped in carrot (Daucus carota) have been either random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers or amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. RAPD markers suffer from poor reproducibility and both RAPD and AFLP primarily produce dominant markers. A rec...

8

Timing of Seed Dispersal in Daucus Carota Elizabeth P. Lacey  

E-print Network

Timing of Seed Dispersal in Daucus Carota Elizabeth P. Lacey Oikos, Vol. 39, No. 1. (Jun., 1982 dispersal in Daucus carota Elizabeth P. Lacey Lacey, E. P. 1982. Timing of seed dispersal in Daucus carota. - Oikos 39: 83-91. This study describes the temporal pattern of seed dispersal in Daucus carota

Lacey, Elizabeth P.

9

Anthocyanin composition of black carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) cultivars Antonina, Beta Sweet, Deep Purple, and Purple Haze.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify the pigment composition of black carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) cultivars Antonina, Beta Sweet, Deep Purple, and Purple Haze. Cyanidin 3-xylosyl(glucosyl)galactosides acylated with sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and coumaric acid were detected as major anthocyanins by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and with electrospray ionization multiple mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)) analyses. The preparative isolation of these pigments was carried out by means of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The color activity concept was applied to the isolated anthocyanins at three pH values. Cyanidin 3-xylosyl(sinapoylglucosyl)galactoside was found to exhibit a lower visual detection threshold and a higher pH stability than cyanidin 3-xylosyl(feruloylglucosyl)galactoside and cyanidin 3-xylosyl(coumaroylglucosyl)galactoside. The color parameters of the fresh roots of the four cultivars were described by the CIELab coordinates L* (lightness), C* (chroma), and h(ab) (hue angles). Total phenolics varied among the cultivars and ranged from 17.9 to 97.9 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g fresh weight (fw). For the content of monomeric anthocyanins, values between 1.5 and 17.7 mg/100 g fw were determined. PMID:21381748

Montilla, Elyana Cuevas; Arzaba, Miriam Rodriguez; Hillebrand, Silke; Winterhalter, Peter

2011-04-13

10

Rare trisubstituted sesquiterpenes daucanes from the wild Daucus carota.  

PubMed

Phytochemical and biological investigation of the roots of the wild Daucus carota ssp. carota afforded three new and four known compounds, including four sesquiterpenes daucane esters (1-3 [new], and 4), one polyacetylene (5), one sesquiterpene coumarin (6), and sitosterol glucoside. The structures of the new compounds were determined by comprehensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC analyses. Based on an agar diffusion assay, 1, 2 and 4-6 were screened and found to contain a range of low antibacterial activities against four gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptomyces scabies, Bacillus subtilus, Bacillus cereus) and two gram negative species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) as well as antifungal against Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger using cup agar diffusion assay. PMID:15964039

Ahmed, Ahmed A; Bishr, Mohktar M; El-Shanawany, Mohamed A; Attia, Eman Z; Ross, Samir A; Paré, Paul W

2005-07-01

11

Formation of Norisoprenoid Flavor Compounds in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Roots: Characterization of a Cyclic-Specific Carotenoid  

E-print Network

Formation of Norisoprenoid Flavor Compounds in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Roots: Characterization of agricultural products. The biosynthetic pathway to norisoprenoids in carrots (Daucus carota L.) is still in carrot flavor biosynthesis. KEYWORDS: Daucus carota, norisoprenoid, farnesylacetone, -ionone, -ionone

Tholl, Dorothea

12

Latitudinal Variation in Reproductive Timing of a Short-Lived Monocarp, Daucus Carota (Apiaceae)  

E-print Network

Latitudinal Variation in Reproductive Timing of a Short-Lived Monocarp, Daucus Carota (Apiaceaernerlca LATITUDINAL VARIATION IN REPRODUCTIVE TIMING OF A SHORT-LIVED MONOCARP, DAUCUS CAROTA (APIACEAE-history variation in Daucus carota along its latitudinal range in eastern North Amer- ica. Seeds collected from

Lacey, Elizabeth P.

13

Seed Mortality in Daucus carota Populations: Latitudinal Effects Elizabeth P. Lacey  

E-print Network

Seed Mortality in Daucus carota Populations: Latitudinal Effects Elizabeth P. Lacey American IN DAUCUS CAROTA POPULATIONS: LATITUDINAL EFFECTS1 Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 A B S T R A C T Daucus carota, a common herbaceous weed, grows over a wide

Lacey, Elizabeth P.

14

Banding C et biomtrie appliqus l'analyse du caryotype de carotte (Daucus carota L.)  

E-print Network

Banding C et biométrie appliqués à l'analyse du caryotype de carotte (Daucus carota L.) Sadi ESSAD particulier de ce matériel. SUMMARY C Banding and biometry applied to karyotype analysis in Daucus carota L'utilisation, de la carotte (Dau- cus carota L., 2n = 2x = 18) considérée comme une plante modèle diploïde dans le

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

15

Functional significance of the dark central floret of Daucus carota (Apiaceae) L.; is it an insect mimic?  

E-print Network

Functional significance of the dark central floret of Daucus carota (Apiaceae) L.; is it an insect of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK Abstract In Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae) the florets comprising the central (Ollerton 1996; Waser et al. 1996; Cresswell 1998). The flowers of Daucus carota (wild carrot) belong

16

The Genetic and Environmental Control of Reproductive Timing in a Short-Lived Monocarpic Species Daucus Carota (Umbelliferae)  

E-print Network

Daucus Carota (Umbelliferae) Elizabeth P. Lacey The Journal of Ecology, Vol. 74, No. 1. (Mar., 1986), pp AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTIVE TIMING IN A SHORT-LIVED MONOCARPIC SPECIES DAUCUS CAROTA (UMBELLIFERAE.S.A. SUMMARY (1) Offspring of annual, biennial and triennial Daucus carota were grown under three nutrient

Lacey, Elizabeth P.

17

Latitudinal Variation in Reproductive Timing of a Short-Lived Monocarp Daucus Carota (Apiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. A reciprocal transplant experiment was conducted to examine several aspects of life-history variation in Daucus carota along its latitudinal range in eastern North Amer- ica. Seeds collected from natural populations at 36\\

Elizabeth P. Lacey

1988-01-01

18

Inheritance of the maroon color in Brasilia-derived carrots (Daucus carota L.)  

E-print Network

Maroon carrots (Daucus carota L.), which were developed from the orange cultivar Brasilia, were studied to determine the inheritance of the genes controlling the expression of anthocyanin in the root. Segregation ratios of root anthocyanin...

Mes, Peter Jack

2001-01-01

19

Genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus)(Apiaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated domestication and genetic structure in wild and open pollinated cultivated carrots (Daucus carota L.) with 3481 SNPs developed from carrot transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear genetic separation between wild and cultivated carrot accessions. Among the wild ...

20

Alternative oxidase involvement in Daucus carota somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Plant alternative oxidase (AOX) is a mitochondrial inner membrane enzyme involved in alternative respiration. The critical importance of the enzyme during acclimation upon stress of plant cells is not fully understood and is still an issue of intensive research and discussion. Recently, a role of AOX was suggested for the ability of plant cells to change easily its fate upon stress. In order to get new insights about AOX involvement in cell reprogramming, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and inhibitor studies were performed during cell redifferentiation and developmental stages of Daucus carota L. somatic embryogenesis. Transcript level analysis shows that D. carota AOX genes (DcAOX1a and DcAOX2a) are differentially expressed during somatic embryogenesis. DcAOX1a shows lower expression levels, being mainly down-regulated, whereas DcAOX2a presented a large up-regulation during initiation of the realization phase of somatic embryogenesis. However, when globular embryos start to develop, both genes are down-regulated, being this state transient for DcAOX2a. In addition, parallel studies were performed using salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) in order to inhibit AOX activity during the realization phase of somatic embryogenesis. Embryogenic cells growing in the presence of the inhibitor were unable to develop embryogenic structures and its growth rate was diminished. This effect was reversible and concentration dependent. The results obtained contribute to the hypothesis that AOX activity supports metabolic reorganization as an essential part of cell reprogramming and, thus, enables restructuring and de novo cell differentiation. PMID:19863756

Frederico, António Miguel; Campos, Maria Doroteia; Cardoso, Hélia Guerra; Imani, Jafargholi; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

2009-12-01

21

Experimental assessment of the functional morphology of inflorescences of Daucus carota (Apiaceae): testing the 'fly catcher effect'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The functional significance of inflorescence morphology of Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae) was tested using an inflorescence manipulation experiment. Specifically, we sought to explain the role (if any) in pollination of the dark central floret of this species. 2. In central England, D. carota was found to be pollinated by a taxonomically wide range of insects that varied in

E. Lamborn; J. Ollerton

2000-01-01

22

Daucus carota L. subsp. dentatus Bertol., gniteur de rsistance l'odium pour l'amlioration de la carotte  

E-print Network

Daucus carota L. subsp. dentatus Bertol., géniteur de résistance à l'oïdium pour l'amélioration de point pour étudier la résistance à l'oïdium, Erysiphe heraclei D.C., chez la carotte. Daucus carota L caractère est étudiée par croisements avec la carotte cultivée, variété Daucus carota, « Touchon»; la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Complete plastid genome sequence of Daucus carota: Implications for biotechnology and phylogeny of angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Carrot (Daucus carota) is a major food crop in the US and worldwide. Its capacity for storage and its lifecycle as a biennial make it an attractive species for the introduction of foreign genes, especially for oral delivery of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. Until recently efforts to express recombinant proteins in carrot have had limited success in terms

Tracey Ruhlman; Seung-Bum Lee; Robert K Jansen; Jessica B Hostetler; Luke J Tallon; Christopher D Town; Henry Daniell

2006-01-01

24

Reassessment of practical species identifications of the USDA Daucus carota germplasm collection: Morphological data  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Daucus includes about 20 species. The most widespread and economically important species, Daucus carota L., occurs on almost every continent. Cultivated carrot, subsp. sativus, has been selected from wild populations that are extremely diverse, especially in the western Mediterranean. Obli...

25

Understanding the molecular mechanism of carotenoid accumulation in carrot (Daucus carota) using real time quantitative PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot (Daucus carota) is an important source of pro-vitamin A in the human diet, as well as other important antioxidant compounds. While essential to human health, very little is currently understood about the accumulation of carotenoids, the vitamin A precursors within the storage root that give ...

26

Construction and characterization of a deep-coverage carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The first carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library was constructed using imbred line B8503, which is nematode-resistant and accumulates carotenes in its roots. The BAC library consists of 92,160 clones comprising 22.4 haploid genome equivalents based on a genome size of 473 Mb/1C. Upon the analysis of ...

27

Reassessment of practical subspecies identifications of the USDA Daucus carota L. germplasm collection: Morphological data  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Daucus includes about 20 species. The most widespread and economically important species, Daucus carota L., occurs on almost every continent. Cultivated carrot, subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Schubl. & G. Martens, has been selected from wild populations that are extremely diverse, especially in t...

28

The effects of growth in vitro on the chromosome complement of Daucus carota (L.) suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosome number distributions and modal karyotypes of several suspension culture lines of Daucus carota L. have been analysed at various times after initiation. All lines had stable modal chromosome numbers and karyotypes, with small but significant variation about the modes. Some lines showed a predominance of diploid cells with a karyotype similar to the plant. Polyploid multiples of the

M. W. Bayliss

1975-01-01

29

Inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis by gibberellic acid in cell suspension cultures of Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In carrot cells (Daucus carota L.), cultured in the presence of gibberellic acid, anthocyanin synthesis is blocked at the level of chalcone synthase. By feeding suitable precursors for anthocyanins (naringenin, eriodictyol, dihydroquercetin) biosynthesis of cyanidin glycosides can be restored. After addition of these substrates to the culture medium in the presence of gibberellic acid, the activity of chalcone synthase remained

W. Hinderer; M. Petersen; H. U. Seitz

1984-01-01

30

Expression Analysis of Carotenoid Biosynthesis Genes in Carrot (Daucus Carota) Using Real Time Quantitative PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot (Daucus carota) is an important source of pro-vitamin A in the human diet, as well as other important antioxidant compounds. While essential to human health, very little is currently understood about the accumulation of carotenoids, the vitamin A precursors within the storage root that give ...

31

Genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus L.) (Apiaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Analyses of genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships illuminate the origin and domestication of modern crops. Despite being an important world-wide vegetable, the genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is poorly understood. We provide the first such study using a la...

32

In situMechanical Testing of Fully Hydrated Carrots ( Daucus carota) in the Environmental SEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the use of the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) forin situobservation of mechanical tests on carrot (Daucus carota)parenchymal tissue. The ESEM tolerates several Torr of water vapour in the specimen chamber, thus allowing fully hydrated specimens to be examined at high resolution, but without preparation. Three tests were performed, involving slicing, tension and compression. The manner in which

B. L. THIEL; A. M. DONALD

1998-01-01

33

Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for genotyping and mapping in carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot is one of the most important root vegetable crops grown worldwide on more than one million hectares. Its progenitor, wild Daucus carota, is a weed commonly occurring across continents in the temperate climatic zone. Diversity Array Technology (DArT) is a microarray-based molecular marker syst...

34

Chlorsulfuron resistance in Daucus carota cell lines and plants:Involvement of gene amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daucus carota L. cell lines stably resistant to the herbicide chlorsulfuron (CS) have been isolated according to a stepwise selection. Studies carried out during different selection steps show that the specific activity of the target enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) increases along with CS resistance. Southern hybridization analysis performed with aBrassica napus AHAS probe in a CS highly-resistant cell line reveals

S. Caretto; M. C. Giardina; C. Nicolodi; D. Mariotti

1994-01-01

35

Arabinogalactan-protein epitopes in somatic embryogenesis of Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two monoclonal antibodies (ZUM 15 and ZUM 18) directed against carrot (Daucus carota L.) seed arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) were used to isolate specific AGP fractions. For both carrot and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seed AGPs analyzed by crossedelectrophoresis, the ZUM 15 and ZUM 18 AGP fractions showed one identical peak. However, the Rf values for the two species were different:

Marc Kreuger; Gerrit-Jan van Hoist

1995-01-01

36

Genome-wide association of the domestication syndrome in carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrots (Daucus carota L.) were domesticated over 1,000 years ago in Central Asia. Two traits selected during domestication were increased carotenoid accumulation (white -> yellow -> orange root color) and decreased lateral root formation. While some preliminary research has been conducted on the un...

37

Diagnostic Measures for Model Criticism Cinzia Carota, Giovanni Parmigiani and Nicholas G. Polson  

E-print Network

of Business, the University of Chicago. The reviewers, Anne Gron, Wes Johnson, Peter M¨uller, Ehsan SoofiDiagnostic Measures for Model Criticism Cinzia Carota, Giovanni Parmigiani and Nicholas G. Polson is Associate Professor, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 60637, U

West, Mike

38

Imaging of polarity during zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis a study of the regulation of coordinated growth and the development of polarity during embryogenesis of carrot, Daucus carota L., is described. To this end, several microscopical techniques were used, such as light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and electron microscopy. Next to this, immunocytochemical methods were used frequently to localize proteins in plant tissue

A. C. J. Timmers

1993-01-01

39

Sequential Event Processing: Domain Specificity or Task Specificity? Commentary on Carota and Sirigu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article by Carota and Sirigu addresses a fundamental issue, namely the domain specificity of people's ability to learn and implement sequential structures of events. The authors review theoretical positions and empirical findings related to this issue, providing a useful summary of representative models of sequential event structures, and a…

Toni, Ivan

2008-01-01

40

Arabinogalactan proteins are essential in somatic embryogenesis of Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daucus carota L. cell lines secrete a characteristic set of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) into the medium. The composition of this set of AGPs changes with the age of the culture, as can be determined by crossed electrophoresis with the specific AGP-binding agent, ß-glucosyl Yariv reagent. Addition of AGPs isolated from the medium of a non-embryogenic cell line to an expiant

Marc Kreuger; Gerrit-Jan van Hoist

1993-01-01

41

The uptake of acylated anthocyanin into isolated vacuoles from a cell suspension culture of Daucus carota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanin-containing vacuoles were isolated from protoplasts of a cell suspension culture of Daucus carota. The vacuoles were stable for at least 2 h as demonstrated by the fact that they showed no efflux of anthocyanin. The uptake of radioactively labelled anthocyanin was time-dependent with a pH optimum at 7.5, and could be inhibited by the protonophore carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Furthermore, the

Wolfgang Hopp; Hanns Ulrich Seitz

1987-01-01

42

Anthocyanin accumulation and PAL activity in a suspension culture of Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells of Daucus carota grown in a liquid medium produced large amounts of cyanidin as the only flavonoid aglycon. After inoculation in fresh medium a maximum activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) was observed within 24 h. L-a-aminooxy-ß-phenylpropionic acid (L-AOPP), thought to be a competitive inhibitor of PAL, inhibited cyanidin accumulation up to 80%. In order to study

Wolfgang Noé; Christian Langebartels; Hanns Ulrich Seitz

1980-01-01

43

Characterization of a gene that is expressed early in somatic embryogenesis of Daucus carota  

Microsoft Academic Search

lhe EMB-1 mRNA of carrot (Daucus carota) was isolated as an embryo abundant cDNA clone (T.H. Ulrich, E.S. Wurtele, B.J. Nikolau (1990) Nucleic Acids Res 18: 2826). Northern analyses of RNA isolated from embryos, cultured cells, and a variety of vege- tative organs indicate that the EMB-1 mRNA specifically accumu- lates in embryos, beginning at the early stages of embryo

Eve Syrkin Wurtele; Huiqing Wang; SaDly Durgerian; Basil J. Nikolau; Thomas H. Ulrich

1993-01-01

44

Promotive and inhibitory effects of diverse arabinogalactan proteins on Daucus carota L. somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Secreted arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), isolated on the basis of specific epitopes, have been reported that can either\\u000a enhance (ZUM18 AGP fraction) or inhibit (ZUM15 AGP fraction) carrot (Daucus carota L.) somatic embryo development (Kreuger and van Holst, 1995, Planta 197: 135–141). Here, we report that addition of the ZUM18\\u000a AGP fraction to different size-fractionated cell populations isolated from embryogenic

Marcel A. J. Toonen; Ed D. L. Schmidt; Ab van Kammen; Sacco C. de Vries

1997-01-01

45

Earthworm humic matter produces auxin-like effects on Daucus carota cell growth and nitrate metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

While earthworms are known to improve plant growth by improving the structure of the soil, recent work has suggested that earthworms also produced humic substances endowed with hormone-like activity. Suspensions of Daucus carota (carrot) cells were treated with auxin derivatives (2,4-D=2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, IAA=indole-3-acetic acid and NAA=1-naphthylacetic acid) and a humic substance of low molecular weight (HEf), obtained from the faeces

A. Muscolo; F. Bovalo; F. Gionfriddo; S. Nardi

1999-01-01

46

Stimulation of Daucus carota somatic embryogenesis by inhibitors of ethylene synthesis: cobalt and nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Co2+ and Ni2+ on ethylene production and somatic embryogenesis by carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell cultures were studied. At concentrations of 10 µM to 50 µM, CoCl2 effectively inhibited ethylene production by embryogenic cultures and significantly stimulated somatic embryogenesis. The observed increase of embryo number was proportional to the inhibition level of ethylene production. However, CoCl2 had

J. P. Roustan; A. Latche; J. Fallot

1989-01-01

47

Transgenic herbicide and disease-tolerant carrot ( Daucus carota L.) plants obtained through Agrobacterium -mediated transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Transgenic carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants expressing a rice thaumatin-like protein (tlp), phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) and the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) genes were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Petiole and hypocotyl segments of three carrot cultivars were used as the explant sources. Following infection, selection was achieved on Murashige and Skoog medium with 1 mg\\/l phosphinothricin or 25 mg\\/l hygromycin B,

W. Chen; Z. Punja

2002-01-01

48

Plant regeneration from carrot ( Daucus carota L.) anther culture derived embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research concerned of the regeneration of plants from embryos obtained from anther cultures of seven carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultivars. The aim was to determine the influence of the regeneration medium on the efficiency of the regeneration process.\\u000a The optimization of the adaptation of the obtained plants was also carried out. Embryogenesis occurred on four of the tested\\u000a media:

K. Górecka; D. Krzy?anowska; W. Kiszczak; U. Kowalska

2009-01-01

49

In vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extracts of Daucus carota seeds in experimental animals  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the In vivo antioxidFant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Daucus carota (D. carota) seeds in experimental animals. Methods Methanolic extracts of D. carota seeds is used for hepatoprotection assessment. Oxidative stress were induced in rats by thioacetamide 100 mg/kg s.c, in four groups of rats (two test, standard and toxic control). Two test groups received D. carota seeds extract (DCSE) at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Standard group received silymarin (25 mg/kg) and toxic control received only thioacetamide. Control group received only vehicle. On the 8th day animals were sacrificed and liver enzyme like serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated in blood serum and antioxidant enzyme like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated in liver homogenate. Results A significant decrease in SGPT, SGOT and ALP levels was observed in all drug treated groups as compared to thioacetamide group (P < 0.001) and in case of antioxidant enzyme a significant (P < 0.001) increase in SOD, CAT, GRD, GPX and GST was observed in all drug treated groups as compared with thioacetamide group. But in case of LPO a significant (P < 0.001) reduction was observed as compared to toxic control group. Conclusions DCSE has contributed to the reduction of oxidative stress and the protection of liver in experimental rats. PMID:23569935

Singh, Kamlesh; Singh, Nisha; Chandy, Anish; Manigauha, Ashish

2012-01-01

50

Seasonal variation in Daucus carota leaf-surface and leaf-tissue chemical profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to document seasonal changes in leaf-surface and whole-leaf chemistry of Daucus carota cohorts that differed in life-cycle phenology (winter annual, annual, or biennial), with particular focus on compounds that serve as contact oviposition stimulants for Papilio polyxenes, the black swallowtail butterfly. Cohorts of carrot plants exhibiting different life-cycle phenologies were established, and plants from

Janie S Brooks; Paul Feeny

2004-01-01

51

Ginsenoside Rb 1 in asymmetric somatic hybrid calli of Daucus carota with Panax quinquefolius  

Microsoft Academic Search

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is one of the most valuable herbs in the world. Its major active components are ginsenosides. In order to produce ginsenoside\\u000a heterogeneously, somatic hybridization, a novel approach for genetic introgression, was employed in this study. Protoplasts\\u000a derived from respective calli of carrot (Daucus carota var. sativus Hoffm.) and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius L.) were used

Lu Han; Chuanen Zhou; Junying Shi; Daying Zhi; Guangmin Xia

2009-01-01

52

MyoInositol trisphosphate mobilizes calcium from fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L. ) protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether or not inositol trisphosphate (IPâ) mobilizes calcium in higher plant cells; they investigated the effect of IPâ on Ca\\/sup 2 +\\/ fluxes in fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts. The protoplasts were incubated in ⁴⁵Ca\\/sup 2 +\\/-containing medium and the ⁴⁵Ca\\/sup 2 +\\/ associated with the protoplasts was monitored with time. Addition of IPâ (20 micromolar) caused

M. Rincon; W. F. Boss

1987-01-01

53

Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David

2006-01-01

54

Carotenoid biosynthesis structural genes in carrot (Daucus carota): isolation, sequence-characterization, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and genome mapping  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carotenoid pigments are important components in plants and in the human diet. Carrots (Daucus carota var. sativus L.) are an excellent dietary source of '- and '-carotene. While the biosynthesis of carotenoid pigments has been studied in detail in several species, very little comparable informatio...

55

Bioreactor studies on the effect of dissolved oxygen concentrations on growth and differentiation of carrot ( Daucus carota L.) cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioreactor control system was used to investigate the effects of two dissolved oxygen concentrations (10% and 100%) on the growth and differentiation of Daucus carota L. cell cultures. The strategy used allowed the dissolved oxygen concentration to be controlled without the need for changing either the agitator speed or the total gas flow rate. During the proliferation phase, reducing

Véronique Jay; Simone Genestier; Jean-Claude Courduroux

1992-01-01

56

Enhancement of anthocyanin production in callus cultures of Daucus carota L. under the influence of fungal elicitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts of fungal biomass of Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium notatum, Fusarium oxysporum and the filtrates of their culture media were analysed for elicitation capability to enhance anthocyanin production in callus cultures of Daucus carota. The mycelial extract of A. flavus at the 2.5% level gave maximum elicitation, which resulted in a two-fold increase in anthocyanin with maximal productivity

L. Rajendran; G. Suvarnalatha; G. A. Ravishankar; L. V. Venkataraman

1994-01-01

57

Compatibility Relations Between the Edible Carrot Daucus Carota and D. Pusillus, a Related Wild Species from the Argentinian Pampas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To establish the feasibility of hybridization between the wild carrot species Daucus pusillus Michx. (2n = 2x = 22; 2n = 2x = 22 and 20), collected in the pampas grasslands of Argentina, and the edible carrot, Daucus carota L. (2n = 2x = 18), controlled pollinations were attempted on the plant. Due ...

58

Predictions of fate from rosette size in four “biennial” plant species: Verbascum thapsus, Oenothera biennis, Daucus carota , and Tragopogon dubius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual plants were marked in field populations of four biennial plant species, Verbascum thapsus L., Oenothera biennis L., Daucus carota L., and Tragopogon dubius Scop., and followed for 2 or 3 years. The relationship of both rosette size and age to the probability of an individual dying, remaining vegetative, or flowering was determined for each species. In all four species,

Katherine L. Gross

1981-01-01

59

Development of a high-throughput SNP resource to advance genomic, genetic and breeding research in carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rapid advancement in high-throughput SNP genotyping technologies along with next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms has decreased the cost, improved the quality of large-scale genome surveys, and allowed specialty crops with limited genomic resources such as carrot (Daucus carota) to access t...

60

Differential effects of hexaconazole and paclobutrazol on biomass, electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant potential of Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of triazole fungicides is a common practice in the cultivation of carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants. It is there for seems important to test the changes that are occurring in this food crop under triazoles, the non-traditional plant growth regulators, treatments in order to identify the extent to which it tolerate the fungicide application and thereby make it

R. Gopi; C. Abdul Jaleel; R. Sairam; G. M. A. Lakshmanan; M. Gomathinayagam; R. Panneerselvam

2007-01-01

61

Levels of Lycopene ?-Cyclase 1 Modulate Carotenoid Gene Expression and Accumulation in Daucus carota  

PubMed Central

Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene ?-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of ?-carotene and ?-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of ?-carotene and ?-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and ?-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots. PMID:23555569

Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

2013-01-01

62

Effects of methyl mercury on arrays of microtubules and macromolecular synthesis in Daucus carota cultures  

SciTech Connect

Cell suspension cultures of Daucus carota were exposed to methyl mercury at concentrations between 0 and 6 micrograms/ml for 1, 3, or 24 hr. Microtubule arrays exhibited no detectable disruption (as compared with controls) when treated with 1, 2, and 3 micrograms/ml methyl mercury. Disorganization of microtubules did occur at higher concentrations (4-6 micrograms/ml) in a concentration/time-dependent manner. No recovery of microtubule arrays was evident when cells were placed in methyl mercury-free medium for up to 7 days. Analyses of soluble protein and carbohydrate content, dry weight, and cell viability (reducing capacity) indicate that methyl mercury exposure has inhibitory effects on cell metabolism. The observed disruption of plant cell microtubules, induced by exposure to methyl mercury, may be secondary in response to an initial inhibition of synthetic pathways and membrane perturbations.

Czuba, M.; Seagull, R.W.; Tran, H.; Cloutier, L.

1987-08-01

63

Myo-Inositol trisphosphate mobilizes calcium from fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L. ) protoplasts  

SciTech Connect

To determine whether or not inositol trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/) mobilizes calcium in higher plant cells; they investigated the effect of IP/sub 3/ on Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes in fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts. The protoplasts were incubated in /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/-containing medium and the /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ associated with the protoplasts was monitored with time. Addition of IP/sub 3/ (20 micromolar) caused a 17% net loss of the accumulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ within 4 minutes. There was a reuptake of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ and the protoplasts recovered to their initial value by 10 minutes. Phytic acid (IP/sub 6/), also stimulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux from the protoplasts. Both the IP/sub 3/- and the IP/sub 6/-induced /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux were inhibited by the calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine.

Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F.

1987-02-01

64

Spatial expression of DNA topoisomerase I genes during cell proliferation in Daucus carota.  

PubMed

The spatial expression of carrot (Daucus carota L.) top1 genes encoding the two isoforms of the enzyme DNA topoisomerase I (EC 5.99.1.2) was investigated. In situ hybridization analysis performed with a probe recognizing both top1 transcripts provided evidence that in explanted hypocotyls induced to proliferate in vitro by the addition of the growth regulator 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), the mRNA accumulation parallels the proliferation of provascular cells of the stelar cylinder. During somatic embryogenesis, the histological distribution of top1 transcripts was strongly evident at the stage of torpedo-shaped embryos, but gene expression was not only restricted to meristematic regions. When the spatial localization was extended to carrot vegetative apices and the investigation was carried out with specific probes for top1alpha and top1beta, both transcripts preferentially accumulated in tissues having mitotic activity. PMID:11411862

Balestrazzi, A; Bernacchia, G; Pitto, L; Luccarini, G; Carbonera, D

2001-01-01

65

Changes in phosphatidylinositol metabolism in response to hyperosmotic stress in Daucus carota L. cells grown in suspension culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells plasmolyzed within 30 s after adding sorbitol to increase the osmotic strength of the medium from 0.2 to 0.4 or 0.6 osmolal. However, there was no significant change in the polyphosphorylated inositol phospholipids or inositol phosphates or in inositol phospholipid metabolism within 30 s of imposing the hyperosmotic stress. Maximum changes in phospha- tidylinositol 4-monophosphate

Myeon H. Cho; Stephen B. Shears; Wendy F. BOSS

1993-01-01

66

Bioreactor studies of the effect of medium pH on carrot (Daucus carota L.) somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daucus carota cell differentiation was examined under different medium pH conditions in a controlled bioreactor. Somatic embryogenesis was affected by pH changes. Embryo production was greatest when the pH of the hormone-free medium was maintained at 4.3. However, the same level was not favourable to development since most embryos did not progress to the torpedo and plantlet stages. In contrast,

Véronique Jay; Simone Genestier; Jean-Claude Courduroux

1994-01-01

67

Production and analysis of asymmetric hybrid plants between monocotyledon ( Oryza sativa L.) and dicotyledon ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asymmetric hybrid plants were obtained from fused protoplasts of a monocotyledon (Oryza sativa L.) and a dicotyledon (Daucus carota L.). X-ray-irradiated protoplasts isolated from a cytoplasmic malesterile (cms) carrot suspension culture were fused with iodoacetoamide-treated protoplasts isolated from a 5-methyltryptophan (5MT)-resistant rice suspension culture by electrofusion. The complementary recovered cells divided and formed colonies, which were then cultivated on regeneration

H. Kisaka; H. Lee; M. Kisaka; A. Kanno; K. Kang; T. Kameya

1994-01-01

68

Identification and expression of a cDNA from Daucus carota encoding a bifunctional aspartokinase-homoserine dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartokinase (EC 2.7.2.4) and homoserine dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.3) catalyze steps in the pathway for the synthesis of lysine, threonine, and methionine from aspartate. Homoserine dehydrogenase was purified from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell cultures and portions of it were subjected to amino acid sequencing. Oligonucleotides deduced from the amino acid sequences were used as primers in a polymerase chain reaction

Jane M. Weisemann; Benjamin F. Matthews

1993-01-01

69

Production and analysis of plants that are somatic hybrids of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain plants that were somatic hybrids of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.), we fused protoplasts that had been isolated from 6-month-old suspension cultures of carrot cells with protoplasts isolated\\u000a from barley mesophyll by electrofusion. After culture for 1 month at 25?C , the cells were cultured for 5 weeks at 4?C , and

H. Kisaka; M. Kisaka; A. Kanno; T. Kameya

1997-01-01

70

Quantification of contact oviposition stimulants for black swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polyxenes , on the leaf surfaces of wild carrot, Daucus carota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovipositing black swallowtail butterflies,Papilio polyxenes, make their final host-selection decisions on the basis of compounds present on the leaf surface. Little information is available, however, on the chemistry of leaf surfaces. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to extract and quantify the concentrations of compounds from the leaf surfaces ofDaucus carota, one of the main host

J. S. Brooks; E. H. Williams; P. Feeny

1996-01-01

71

Excessive phosphorus fertilization does not increase cadmium concentrations in soil or carrots (Daucus carota L.) grown in Konya (Turkey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between soil nutrient concentrations, plant nutrient contents, and soil properties were investigated in carrot (Daucus carota L.) fields in Konya-Ka??nhan? (Turkey). The soils were high in clay content, slightly alkaline, and were moderate to high in CaCO3 content. The soils had sufficient N, Ca, Mg, K, and Fe, but did not have adequate Zn or B for plant

M. Ogut; F. Er; A. Brohi

2010-01-01

72

Abscisic acid regulation of DC8, a carrot embryonic gene. [Daucus carota  

SciTech Connect

DC8 encodes a hydrophylic 66 kilodalton protein located in the cytoplasm and cell walls of carrot (Daucus carota) embryo and endosperm. During somatic embryogenesis, the levels of DC8 mRNA and protein begin to increase 5 days after removal of auxin. To study the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of DC8 gene, fluridone, 1-methyl-3-phenyl,-5(3-trifluoro-methyl-phenyl)-4(1H)-pyridinone, was used to inhibit the endogenous ABA content of the embryos. Fluridone, 50 micrograms per milliliter, effectively inhibits the accumulation of ABA in globular-tage embryos. Western and Northern analysis show that when fluridone is added to the culture medium DC8 protein and mRNA decrease to very low levels. ABA added to fluridone supplemented culture media restores the DC8 protein and mRNA to control levels. Globular-stage embryos contain 0.9 to 1.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} molar ABA while 10{sup {minus}6} molar exogenously supplied ABA is the optimal concentration for restoration of DC8 protein accumulation in fluridone-treated embryos. The mRNA level is increased after 15 minutes of ABA addition and reaches maximal levels by 60 minutes. Evidence is presented that, unlike other ABA-regulated genes, DC8 is not induced in nonembryonic tissues via desiccation nor addition of ABA.

Hatzopoulos, P.; Fong, F.; Sung, Z.R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA) Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

1990-10-01

73

Calcium transport in vesicles from carrot cells: Stimulation by calmodulin and phosphatidylserine. [Daucus carota cv. Danvers  

SciTech Connect

The transport properties of Ca-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota cv. Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP dependent Ca transport in vesicles that comigrated with an ER marker, was stimulated 3-4 fold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca transport activity; however, it had little or not effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca uptake. The results suggested the presence of two types of Ca ATPases, and ER- and a plasma membrane-type. Incubation of membranes with (gamma{sup 32}P)ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl ({sup 32}P) phosphoprotein of 120 kDa. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca, and enhanced by La {sup 3+}, characteristic of the plasma membrane CaATPase. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane CaATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca pump of 120 kDa.

Wenling Hsieh; Sze, Heven (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

1991-05-01

74

Calmodulin stimulation of calcium transport in carrot microsomal vesicles. [Daucus carota  

SciTech Connect

ATP-dependent /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake into microsomal vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota Danvers) was stimulated 2-3 fold by 5 ug/ml calmodulin (CaM). Microsomal vesicles separated with a linear sucrose gradient showed two peaks with CaM-stimulated Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake activities. One peak (at 1.12 g/cc) comigrated with the activity of the antimycin A-insensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase. This transport activity was enhanced 10-20 fold by 10 mM oxalate and appeared to be associates with vesicles derived primarily from the ER. The other peak of CaM-stimulated Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake (at 1.17 g/cc) was not affected by oxalate. These vesicles are probably derived from the plasma membrane. Preliminary experiments with the low-density vesicles (ER) vesicles, indicate that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate caused a transient reduction in intravesicular Ca/sup 2 +/. These results are consistent with the ER being an important site of intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ regulation.

Pierce, W.S.; Sze, H.

1987-04-01

75

Proteolytic and partial sequencing studies of the bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase from Daucus carota.  

PubMed

The bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) of Daucus carota has been further characterized as regards molecular weight, amino acid composition, protease digestion and microsequencing of proteolytic peptides. Data reported in this paper demonstrate that the carrot protein has a calculated Mr of 124,000 thus indicating that, contrarily to what has previously been suggested, it occurs as a dimer of identical subunits. Results of partial amino acid microsequencing show the presence of sequences highly homologous with those of the active sites of both DHFR and TS from other organisms confirming, at the structural level, the bifunctional nature of the carrot protein. As in the case of Leishmania tropica DHFR-TS, incubation of the carrot protein with V8 protease led to a rapid loss of TS activity while retaining that of DHFR. However the pattern of proteolysis did not allow to establish whether the sequence of domains is DHFR-TS as in Leishmania, or vice versa. Low homology of other amino acid sequences, as judged by computer analysis, and absence of common epitopes indicate an apparent divergence between carrot and leishmanian proteins. PMID:1863769

Cella, R; Carbonera, D; Orsi, R; Ferri, G; Iadarola, P

1991-06-01

76

Volatiles identified from five stages of embryo development separated from a heterogeneous suspension culture of Daucus carota.  

PubMed

Five stages of embryo development were fractionated from a mature culture of Daucus carota (Gelbe Rheinsche), using a series of metal sieves. The composition of the population of embryos in each fraction was determined quantitatively from microscopic investigations. Volatiles from samples of tissue from six stages of development were trapped on activated charcoal cartridges. These volatiles, some of which may play a significant role in the interaction of the plant with the carrot root fly (Psila rosae), were analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The resulting chromatograms are arranged in order of embryo development. The progressive elaboration of the volatile profile reflects the increased biosynthetic capacity of the developing embryo. PMID:24221846

Kennedy, A H; Chamberlain, D; Wilson, G; Ryan, M F

1991-11-01

77

Calcium transport in tonoplast and endoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells. [Daucus carota Danvers  

SciTech Connect

Two active calcium (Ca/sup 2 +/) transport systems have been identified and partially characterized in membrane vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota Danvers). Both transport systems required MgATP for activity and were enhanced by 10 millimolar oxalate. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport in membrane vesicles derived from isolated vacuoles equilibrated at 1.10 grams per cubic centimeter and comigrated with Cl/sup -/-stimulated, NO/sub 3//sup -/-inhibited ATPase activity on sucrose density gradients. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport in this system was insensitive to vanadate, but was inhibited by nitrate, carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), and 4,4-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulfonic acid (DIDS). The K/sub m/ for MgATP and Ca/sup 2 +/ were 0.1 mM and 21 micromolar, respectively. The predominant Ca/sup 2 +/ transport system detectable in microsomal membrane preparations equilibrated at a density of 1.13 grams per cubic centimeter and comigrated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker, antimycin A-insensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport activity and the ER marker also shifted in parallel in ER shifting experiments. This transport system was inhibited by vanadate (I/sub 50/ = 12 micromolar) and was insensitive to nitrate, CCCP, DCCD, and DIDS. Transport exhibited cooperative MgATP dependent kinetics. Ca/sup 2 +/ dependent kinetics were complex with an apparent K/sub m/ ranging from 0.7 to 2 micromolar. We conclude that the vacuolar-derived system is a Ca/sup 2 +//H/sup +/ antiport located on the tonoplast and that the microsomal transport system is a Ca,Mg-ATPase enriched on the ER. These two Ca/sup 2 +/ transport systems are proposed to restore and maintain cytoplasmic Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis under changing cellular and environmental conditions.

Bush, D.R.; Sze, H.

1986-02-01

78

Quantification of the Ratio of Plastid to Chromosomal Genome in Leaf and Root Tissue of Carrot (Daucus Carota) Using Real Time Quantitative PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot (Daucus carota), is an important horticultural crop with significant health benefits associated with providing pro-vitamin A carotenoids in the human diet. These carotenoid pigments primarily serve as photoprotectants during photosynthesis, but also provide pigment to attract pollinators and ...

79

Formation of norisoprenoid flavor compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots: characterization of a cyclic-specific carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments that upon oxidative cleavage lead to the production of norisoprenoids that have profound effect on flavor and aromas of agricultural produce. The biosynthetic pathway to norisoprenoids in carrots (Daucus carota L.) is still widely unknown. We found that geranial i...

80

Influence of a loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.). Culture medium and its components on growth and somatic embryogenesis of the wild carrot ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new culture medium, originally designed and shown to grow cell suspensions from a variety of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) explants, was used to study growth and somatic embryogenesis of the wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) in cell suspensions. The new loblolly pine medium (LM) differed from the standard wild carrot medium (WCM) in having very low Ca2+, very

John D. Litvay; Devi C. Verma; Morris A. Johnson

1985-01-01

81

Complete plastid genome sequence of Daucus carota: Implications for biotechnology and phylogeny of angiosperms  

PubMed Central

Background Carrot (Daucus carota) is a major food crop in the US and worldwide. Its capacity for storage and its lifecycle as a biennial make it an attractive species for the introduction of foreign genes, especially for oral delivery of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. Until recently efforts to express recombinant proteins in carrot have had limited success in terms of protein accumulation in the edible tap roots. Plastid genetic engineering offers the potential to overcome this limitation, as demonstrated by the accumulation of BADH in chromoplasts of carrot taproots to confer exceedingly high levels of salt resistance. The complete plastid genome of carrot provides essential information required for genetic engineering. Additionally, the sequence data add to the rapidly growing database of plastid genomes for assessing phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Results The complete carrot plastid genome is 155,911 bp in length, with 115 unique genes and 21 duplicated genes within the IR. There are four ribosomal RNAs, 30 distinct tRNA genes and 18 intron-containing genes. Repeat analysis reveals 12 direct and 2 inverted repeats ? 30 bp with a sequence identity ? 90%. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for 61 protein-coding genes using both maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) were performed for 29 angiosperms. Phylogenies from both methods provide strong support for the monophyly of several major angiosperm clades, including monocots, eudicots, rosids, asterids, eurosids II, euasterids I, and euasterids II. Conclusion The carrot plastid genome contains a number of dispersed direct and inverted repeats scattered throughout coding and non-coding regions. This is the first sequenced plastid genome of the family Apiaceae and only the second published genome sequence of the species-rich euasterid II clade. Both MP and ML trees provide very strong support (100% bootstrap) for the sister relationship of Daucus with Panax in the euasterid II clade. These results provide the best taxon sampling of complete chloroplast genomes and the strongest support yet for the sister relationship of Caryophyllales to the asterids. The availability of the complete plastid genome sequence should facilitate improved transformation efficiency and foreign gene expression in carrot through utilization of endogenous flanking sequences and regulatory elements. PMID:16945140

Ruhlman, Tracey; Lee, Seung-Bum; Jansen, Robert K; Hostetler, Jessica B; Tallon, Luke J; Town, Christopher D; Daniell, Henry

2006-01-01

82

Differential expression and co-regulation of carrot AOX genes (Daucus carota).  

PubMed

Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a mitochondrial protein encoded by the nuclear genome. In higher plants AOX genes form a small multigene family mostly consisting of the two subfamilies AOX1 and AOX2. Daucus carota L. is characterized by a unique extension pattern of AOX genes. Different from other plant species studied so far it contains two genes in both subfamilies. Therefore, carrot was recently highlighted as an important model in AOX stress research to understand the evolutionary importance of both AOX subfamilies. Here we report on the expression patterns of DcAOX1a, DcAOX1b and DcAOX2a and DcAOX2b. Our results demonstrate that all of the four carrot AOX genes are expressed. Differential expression was observed in organs, tissues and during de novo induction of secondary root phloem explants to growth and development. DcAOX1a and DcAOX2a indicated a differential transcript accumulation but a similar co-expression pattern. The genes of each carrot AOX sub-family revealed a differential regulation and responsiveness. DcAOX2a indicated high inducibility in contrast to DcAOX2b, which generally revealed low transcript abundance and rather weak responses. In search for within-gene sequence differences between both genes as a potential reason for the differential expression patterns, the structural organization of the two genes was compared. DcAOX2a and DcAOX2b showed high sequence similarity in their open reading frames (ORFs). However, length variability was observed in the N-terminal exon1 region. The predicted cleavage site of the mitochondrial targeting sequence in this locus is untypical small for both genes and consists of 35 amino acids for DcAOX2a and of 21 amino acids for DcAOX2b. The importance of structural gene organization and the relevancy of within-gene sequence variations are discussed. Our results strengthen the value of carrot as a model plant for future studies on the importance of AOX sub family evolution. PMID:19825008

Campos, Maria Doroteia; Cardoso, Hélia Guerra; Linke, Bettina; Costa, José Hélio; de Melo, Dirce Fernandes; Justo, Lígia; Frederico, António Miguel; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

2009-12-01

83

Biosynthesis of mono- and sesquiterpenes in carrot roots and leaves ( Daucus carota L.): metabolic cross talk of cytosolic mevalonate and plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosynthesis of the monoterpenes terpinolene and myrcene and the sesquiterpene ?-caryophyllene in roots and leaves of two carrot varieties (Daucus carota L. cultivars Bolero and Kazan) were investigated by in vivo feeding experiments with [5,5-2H2]-mevalonic acid lactone (d2-MVL) and [5,5-2H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose (d2-DOX). The volatiles of the tissues were extracted by stir bar sorptive extraction and analyzed using thermal desorption–multidimensional gas

Daniela Hampel; Armin Mosandl; Matthias Wüst

2005-01-01

84

Patterns of expression of the JIM4 arabinogalactan-protein epitope in cell cultures and during somatic embryogenesis in Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatiotemporal patterns of expression of the cell-surface arabinogalactan-protein epitope defined by monoclonal antibody JIM4 (J.P. Knox et al., 1989, Development 106, 47–56) have been characterized by indirect immunofluorescence during the process of somatic embryogenesis in Daucus carota L. The JIM 4 epitope (J4e) occurred on cells established in culture from hypocotyl explants which appeared to derive, at least in part,

Nicola J. Stacey; Keith Roberts; J. Paul Knox

1990-01-01

85

Acylation of anthocyanins with hydroxycinnamic acids via 1-O-acylglucosides by protein preparations from cell cultures of Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein preparations from cell-suspension cultures of an Afghan cultivar of Daucus carota (carrot) catalyzed the formation of acylated anthocyanins from a cyanidin triglycoside isolated from the carrot cultures using (1-O-sinapoyl-, 1-O-feruloyl-) and 1-O-(p-coumaroyl)-ß-glucose as acyl donors. The enzyme activities can be classified as 1-O-hydroxycinnamoyl-ß-glucose: cyanidin 3-O-(2?-O-xylosyl-6?-O-glucosylgalactoside) 6?-O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferases (EC 2.3.1.-).

Werner Gläßgen; Harms Ulrich Seitz

1992-01-01

86

Differences in protodermal cell wall structure in zygotic and somatic embryos of Daucus carota (L.) cultured on solid and in liquid media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure, cuticle, and distribution of pectic epitopes in outer periclinal walls of protodermal cells of Daucus carota zygotic and somatic embryos from solid and suspension culture were investigated. Lipid substances were present as a continuous\\u000a layer in zygotic and somatic embryos cultured on solid medium. Somatic embryos from suspension cultures were devoid of cuticle.\\u000a The ultrastructure of the outer

Izabela Dobrowolska; Oliwia Majchrzak; Timothy C. Baldwin; Ewa U. Kurczynska

87

Chlorogenic acid biosynthesis: characterization of a light-induced microsomal 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate\\/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cell suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsomal preparations from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures catalyze the formation of trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate (chlorogenate) from trans-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate. trans-5-O-(4-Coumaroyl)shikimate is converted to about the same extent to trans-5-O-caffeoylshikimate. trans-4-O-(4-Coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-3-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-4-coumarate, and cis-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate do not act as substrates. The reaction is strictly dependent on molecular oxygen and on NADPH as reducing cofactor. NADH and ascorbic acid cannot substitute for NADPH.

T. K. Kuehnl; U. Koch; W. Heller; E. Wellmann

1987-01-01

88

Calcium and phospholipid activation of a recombinant calcium-dependent protein kinase (DcCPK1) from carrot ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calmodulin-like domain protein kinase (DcCPK1, previously designated CDPK431) cloned from carrot (Daucus carota L.) was expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli and partially purified. Ca2+-induced gel mobility shift and 45Ca2+ ligand binding assays confirmed that recombinant DcCPK1 binds Ca2+ through its calmodulin-like domain and undergoes a significant conformational change. Ca2+ activated the kinase activity of recombinant DcCPK1 (K0.5=1.7

Paul K. Farmer; Jung H. Choi

1999-01-01

89

Reduced expression of top1beta gene induces programmed cell death and alters ascorbate metabolism in Daucus carota cultured cells.  

PubMed

Topoisomerase I (topo I) is a nuclear enzyme which plays a fundamental role in several pathways involving changes in DNA topology. The topo I-mediated reaction is accomplished by the transient covalent binding of the enzyme to DNA (topo I-DNA complex). Stabilization of the topo I-DNA complex, leading to irreversible double-strand breaks, has been reported to occur in animal cells under oxidative stress conditions and during apoptosis. In order to study the existence of a putative link between the topo I-mediated DNA damage and ascorbate (ASC) metabolism, also involved in the responses against oxidative stress and in the apoptotic process in plants, Daucus carota cells showing reduced expression of the top1beta gene encoding the topo Ibeta isoform were produced, using an antisense RNA strategy. Two independent transgenic lines (AT1-beta/22 and beta/36), characterized by a slow growth phenotype, resistance to camptothecin, a specific inhibitor of topo I, but sensitivity to etoposide, an inhibitor of topo II, were investigated in this study. In the absence of external stimuli, AT1-beta/22 and beta/36 cells underwent programmed cell death (PCD) in a precocious phase of the growth curve. ASC metabolism showed remarkable differences in AT1-beta/22 and beta/36 cells, compared with control, and the observed alterations were similar to those occurring in tobacco Yellow Bright-2 cells induced to enter PCD by exogenous stimuli. However, differently from other studied examples of PCD, overproduction of reactive oxygen species was not detected in AT1-beta/22 and beta/36 cells. The relevance of these findings in relation to the signalling pathways leading to PCD is discussed. PMID:16717060

Locato, Vittoria; Balestrazzi, Alma; De Gara, Laura; Carbonera, Daniela

2006-01-01

90

Altered growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. chrysanthemi in an in vitro dual culture system with the vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices growing on Daucus carota transformed roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can reduce plant disease symptoms and populations of pathogens through mechanisms that are not well understood. Glomus intraradices was grown on Daucus carota transformed roots in a two-compartment in vitro system. One compartment contained mycorrhizal roots on a complete growth medium, while the other contained a medium lacking sugar on which only mycelial growth was allowed.

M. St-Arnaud; C. Hamel; B. Vimard; M. Caron; J. A. Fortin

1995-01-01

91

Black carrot ( Daucus carota ssp. sativus) juice: Processing effects on antioxidant composition and color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black carrot, a potential source of anthocyanin pigment, has high antioxidant activity. The effect of pre-press maceration treatment with different doses of cell wall degrading enzyme pectinase (Aspergillus niger Teigh) on antioxidant composition of black carrot juice was investigated. Enzyme-assisted processing significantly (p<0.05) improved the antioxidant composition of black carrot juice. There was an overall increase of 33% in juice

Vishwanath Khandare; Shweta Walia; Meenakshi Singh; Charanjit Kaur

2011-01-01

92

Formation of norisoprenoid flavor compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots: characterization of a cyclic-specific carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene.  

PubMed

Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments that upon oxidative cleavage lead to the production of norisoprenoids that have profound effect on flavor and aromas of agricultural products. The biosynthetic pathway to norisoprenoids in carrots (Daucus carota L.) is still largely unknown. We found the volatile norisoprenoids farnesylacetone, ?-ionone, and ?-ionone accumulated in Nairobi, Rothild, and Purple Haze cultivars but not in Yellowstone and Creme de Lite in a pattern reflecting their carotenoid content. A cDNA encoding a protein with carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase activity, DcCCD1, was identified in carrot and was overexpressed in Escherichia coli strains previously engineered to produce different carotenoids. The recombinant DcCCD1 enzyme cleaves cyclic carotenes to generate ?- and ?-ionone. No cleavage products were found when DcCCD1 was co-expressed in E. coli strains accumulating non-cyclic carotenoids, such as phytoene or lycopene. Our results suggest a role for DcCCD1 in carrot flavor biosynthesis. PMID:24289159

Yahyaa, Mosaab; Bar, Einat; Dubey, Neeraj Kumar; Meir, Ayala; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Hirschberg, Joseph; Aly, Radi; Tholl, Dorothea; Simon, Philipp W; Tadmor, Yaakov; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Ibdah, Mwafaq

2013-12-18

93

Carrot (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

Plants are susceptible to infection by a broad range of fungal pathogens. A range of proteins have been evaluated that can enhance tolerance to these pathogens by heterologous expression in transgenic carrot tissues. The protocols for carrot transformation with Arabidopsis NPR1 (Non-Expressor of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins 1) are described in this chapter, using the herbicide resistance gene bar, which encodes phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, as a selectable marker. In this protocol, petiole segments (0.5-1.0 cm long) from aseptically grown carrot seedlings are exposed to Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 for 10-30 min and cocultivated for 2-3 days. Herbicide selection is then imposed for 8-12 weeks on a series of different tissue culture media until embryogenic calli are produced. The transfer of the embryogenic calli to hormone-free medium results in embryo development which eventually gives rise to transgenic plantlets. Embryogenic calli can also be propagated in suspension cultures. This protocol has yielded transgenic carrot plants with defined T-DNA inserts at the rate of between 1 and 3 Southern-positive independent events out of 100. PMID:25416249

Wally, Owen S D; Punja, Zamir K

2015-01-01

94

Apparent inhibition of. beta. -fructosidase secretion by tunicamycin may be explained by breakdown of the unglycosylated protein during secretion. [Daucus carota  

SciTech Connect

Suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota) cells synthesize and secrete {beta}-fructosidase, a glycoprotein with asparagine-linked glycans. Treatment of the cells with tunicamycin completely inhibits the apparent secretion of {beta}-fructosidase as measured by the accumulation of the {sup 35}S-labelled protein in the cell wall or the culture medium. In the past, such a result has been interpreted as an inhibition of secretion by tunicamycin, but we suggest another explanation based on the following results. In the presence of tunicamycin, unglycosylated {beta}-fructosidase is synthesized and is associated with an endoplasmic-reticulum-rich microsomal fraction. Pulse-chase experiments show that the unglycosylated {beta}-fructosidase does not remain in the cells and appears to be secreted in the same way as glycosylated {beta}-fructosidase; however, no radioactive, unglycosylated {beta}-fructosidase accumulates extracellularly (cell wall or medium). Protoplasts obtained from carrot cells secrete {beta}-fructosidase protein and activity, and treatment of the protoplasts with tunicamycin results in the synthesis of unglycosylated {beta}-fructosidase. In the presence of tunicamycin, there is no accumulation of {beta}-fructosidase activity or unglycosylated {beta}-fructosidase polypeptide in the protoplast incubation medium. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the glycans of {beta}-fructosidase are necessary for its stability, and that in these suspension-cultured cells, the unglycosylated enzyme is degraded during the last stage(s) of secretion, or immediately after its arrival in the wall.

Faye, L. (Univ. de Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan (France)); Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego (USA))

1989-03-01

95

Chlorogenic acid biosynthesis: characterization of a light-induced microsomal 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cell suspension cultures  

SciTech Connect

Microsomal preparations from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures catalyze the formation of trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate (chlorogenate) from trans-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate. trans-5-O-(4-Coumaroyl)shikimate is converted to about the same extent to trans-5-O-caffeoylshikimate. trans-4-O-(4-Coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-3-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-4-coumarate, and cis-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate do not act as substrates. The reaction is strictly dependent on molecular oxygen and on NADPH as reducing cofactor. NADH and ascorbic acid cannot substitute for NADPH. Cytochrome c, Tetcyclacis, and carbon monoxide inhibit the reaction suggesting a cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function monooxygenase. Competition experiments as well as induction and inhibition phenomena indicate that there is only one enzyme species which is responsible for the hydroxylation of the 5-O-(4-coumaric) esters of both D-quinate and shikimate. The activity of this enzyme is greatly increased by in vivo irradiation of the cells with blue/uv light. We conclude that the biosynthesis of the predominant caffeic acid conjugates in carrot cells occurs via the corresponding 4-coumaric acid esters. Thus, in this system, 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate can be seen as the final intermediate in the chlorogenic acid pathway.

Kuehnl, T.K.; Koch, U.; Heller, W.; Wellmann, E.

1987-10-01

96

Influence of variation in soil copper on the yield and nutrition of carrots grown in microplots on two organic soils. [Daucus carota  

SciTech Connect

Carrots (Daucus carota L. cv. Gold Pak 128) were grown in microplots of two organic soils at site A (a peat), and site B (a muck) in the summer of 1984. The soil surface (0 to 20 cm) varied in total Cu from 13 to 1659, and 81 to 1745 ..mu..g/g at sites A and B, respectively, mainly due to three levels of applications of CuSO/sub 4/ x 5H/sub 2/O in 1978. Neither the yield nor the nutrition (P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo and B) of the carrot crop was significantly adversely affected by the copper applications or the resultant total soil copper levels at both sites A and B. There were decreases in some foliar nutrient levels due to dilution effects attributable to the significant positive correlations between both root and leaf yields and total soil copper at site B. At both sites A and B, the copper additions appeared to have increased the availability of soil Mn, in accord with earlier evidence.

Mathur, S.P.; Belanger, A.

1987-01-01

97

Cloning of a cDNA encoding DNA topoisomerase I in Daucus carota and expression analysis in relation to cell proliferation.  

PubMed

DNA topoisomerase I is an enzyme involved in several processes related to DNA metabolism. Despite the physiological importance, the regulation of top1 gene expression has not yet been investigated in plants. In order to monitor the possible correlation between levels of top1 transcripts and the proliferative state of the cell, two partially overlapping cDNAs encoding DNA topoisomerase I from Daucus carota have been isolated from a poly(A)(+)-primed library, using an Arabidopsis thaliana probe, and from a cDNA library spanning the 5' region of the top1 transcript, which was constructed using an antisense specific oligonucleotide. The top1 nucleotide sequence encoded an open reading frame of 2370 bp, predicting a protein of 90 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a similarity of 51% with A. thaliana, 41% with S. cerevisiae, 40% with S. pombe and 31% with H. sapiens, respectively. Southern blot analysis, performed under moderate stringency conditions, showed the presence of a single-copy gene. Evaluation of the top1 mRNA steady-state level revealed, besides a constitutive expression in vegetative carrot tissues, an induced expression related to cell proliferation. PMID:8996105

Balestrazzi, A; Toscano, I; Bernacchia, G; Luo, M; Otte, S; Carbonera, D

1996-12-12

98

Quantitative analysis of aroma compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultivars by capillary gas chromatography using large-volume injection technique.  

PubMed

Dynamic headspace sampling was used to collect aroma compounds from raw samples of four carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultivars (Brasilia, Duke, Fancy, and Cortez). The collected volatiles were analyzed by capillary GC-FID and GC-MS using large-volume cool on-column injection (LVI-COC). Of the 36 compounds identified, 6 had not been previously detected in carrots. Significant differences between the carrot cultivars were found for 31 of the identified volatiles as well as for total monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and total volatile content. Mono- and sesquiterpenes accounted for about 98% of the total volatile mass in all cultivars. LVI-COC injection was used to determine the loss of carrot volatiles during concentration of headspace samples under a stream of nitrogen. The loss among major monoterpenes in the concentrated samples varied from 16% for p-cymene to >40% for alpha-pinene as compared to nonconcentrated samples. The loss among high-boiling sesquiterpenes varied from not detectable (beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, and caryophyllene oxide) to approximately 7% for (E)- and (Z)-gamma-bisabolene. PMID:11559135

Kjeldsen, F; Christensen, L P; Edelenbos, M

2001-09-01

99

Quantification of contact oviposition stimulants for black swallowtail butterfly,Papilio polyxenes, on the leaf surfaces of wild carrot,Daucus carota.  

PubMed

Ovipositing black swallowtail butterflies,Papilio polyxenes, make their final host-selection decisions on the basis of compounds present on the leaf surface. Little information is available, however, on the chemistry of leaf surfaces. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to extract and quantify the concentrations of compounds from the leaf surfaces ofDaucus carota, one of the main host species forP. polyxenes, with particular reference to compounds already identified as contact oviposition stimulants, namelytrans-chlorogenic acid (CA) and luteolin-7-O-(6?-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside (L7MG), as well as its degradation product luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G). Plant surfaces were extracted by dipping leaves sequentially in pairs of solvents: (1) CHCl3-MeOH, (2) near-boiling H2O, (3) CHCl3-near-boiling H2O, and (4) CH2Cl2-CH2Cl2. The resulting extracts were fractionated and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The leaf-surface concentrations of each compound were calculated using regressions relating leaf surface area to leaf weight that were obtained from measurements of field-collected carrot plants. All four methods removed the three compounds from carrot leaf surfaces, but the solvent systems differed in effectiveness. The chloroform-near-boiling water solvent system performed better than the other solvent combinations, but not significantly so. This system also extracted the highest number of polar, UV-absorbing compounds. Methylene chloride was significantly less efficient than the other methods. An additional test confirmed that the chloroform-near-boiling water method removed compounds from the surface alone and probably not from the apoplast or symplast. Surface concentrations of CA (up to 600 ng/cm(2) leaf surface) were substantially greater than those of the two flavonoid compounds. No clear seasonal trend in concentrations was evident from the limited number of sampling dates. PMID:24227308

Brooks, J S; Williams, E H; Feeny, P

1996-12-01

100

Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on enzyme kinetics and thermostability of endogenous ascorbic acid oxidase in carrots (Daucus carota cv. Nantes).  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to study the enzyme kinetics and thermostability of endogenous ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) in carrot purée (Daucus carota cv. Nantes) after being treated with pulsed electric field (PEF) processing. Various PEF treatments using electric field strength between 0.2 and 1.2kV/cm and pulsed electrical energy between 1 and 520kJ/kg were conducted. The enzyme kinetics and the kinetics of AAO thermal inactivation (55-70°C) were described using Michaelis-Menten model and first order reaction model, respectively. Overall, the estimated Vmax and KM values were situated in the same order of magnitude as the untreated carrot purée after being exposed to pulsed electrical energy between 1 and 400kJ/kg, but slightly changed at pulsed electrical energy above 500kJ/kg. However, AAO presented different thermostability depending on the electric field strength applied. After PEF treatment at the electric field strength between 0.2 and 0.5kV/cm, AAO became thermolabile (i.e. increase in inactivation rate (k value) at reference temperature) but the temperature dependence of k value (Ea value) for AAO inactivation in carrot purée decreased, indicating that the changes in k values were less temperature dependent. It is obvious that PEF treatment affects the temperature stability of endogenous AAO. The changes in enzyme kinetics and thermostability of AAO in carrot purée could be related to the resulting carrot purée composition, alteration in intracellular environment and the effective concentration of AAO released after being subjected to PEF treatment. PMID:24176379

Leong, Sze Ying; Oey, Indrawati

2014-03-01

101

A plasma membrane-type Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase of 120 kilodaltons on the endoplasmic reticulum from carrot (Daucus carota) cells  

SciTech Connect

Cytosolic Ca[sup 2+] levels are regulated in part by Ca[sup 2+]-pumping ATPases that export Ca[sup 2+] from the cytoplasm; The types and properties of Ca[sup 2+] pumps in plants are not well understood. The kinetic properties of a 120-kD phosphoenzyme (PE) intermediate formed during the reaction cycle of a Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase from suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota) cells are characterized. Only one Ca[sup 2+]-dependent phosphoprotein was formed when carrot membrane vesicles were incubated with [[gamma]-[sup 32]P]ATP. Formation of this 120-kD phosphoprotein was inhibited by vanadate, enhanced by La[sup 3+], and decreased by hydroxylamine, confirming its identification as an intermediate of a phosphorylated-type Ca[sup 2+]-translocating ATPase. The 120-kD Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase was most abundant in endoplasmic reticulum-enriched fractions, in which the Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase was estimated to be 0.1% of membrane protein. Direct quantitation of Ca[sup 2+]-dependent phosphoprotein was used to examine the kinetics of PE formation. PE formation exhibited a K[sub m] for Ca[sup 2+] of 1 to 2 [mu]m and a K[sub m] for ATP of 67 nm. Relative affinities of substrates, determined by competition experiments, were 0.075 [mu]m for ATP, 1 [mu]m for ADP, 100 [mu]m for ITP, and 250 [mu]m for GTP. Thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, specific inhibitors of animal sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase, had no effect on PE formation; erythrosin B inhibited with 50% inhibition at <0.1 [mu]m. Calmodulin (1 [mu]m) stimulated PE formation by 25%. The results indicate that the carrot 120-kD Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase is similar but not identical to animal plasma membrane-type Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase and yet is located on endomembranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. This type of Ca[sup 2+] pump may reside on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum, thought to play a major role in anchoring the cytoskeleton and in facilitating secretion. 34 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Chen, F.H.; Ratterman, D.M.; Sze, H. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

1993-06-01

102

Metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium in plant cell cultures of transgenic (rhizomania-resistant) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium).  

PubMed

The metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium was investigated in heterotrophic cell suspension and callus cultures of transgenic (bar-gene) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris). Similar studies were performed with suspensions of carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium). 14C-labelled chemicals were the (racemic) glufosinate, L-glufosinate, and D-glufosinate, as well as the metabolites N-acetyl L-glufosinate and 3-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propionic acid (MPP). Cellular absorption was generally low, but depended noticeably on plant species, substance and enantiomer. Portions of non-extractable residues ranged from 0.1% to 1.2% of applied 14C. Amounts of soluble metabolites resulting from glufosinate or L-glufosinate were between 0.0% and 26.7% of absorbed 14C in non-transgenic cultures and 28.2% and 59.9% in transgenic sugarbeet. D-Glufosinate, MPP and N-acetyl L-glufosinate proved to be stable. The main metabolite in transgenic sugarbeet was N-acetyl L-glufosinate, besides traces of MPP and 4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid (MPB). In non-transgenic sugarbeet, glufosinate was transformed to a limited extent to MPP and trace amounts of MPB. In carrot, D stramonium and D purpurea, MPP was also the main product; MPB was identified as a further trace metabolite in D stramonium and D purpurea. PMID:11455632

Müller, B P; Zumdick, A; Schuphan, I; Schmidt, B

2001-01-01

103

Localization of Daucus carota NMCP1 to the nuclear periphery: the role of the N-terminal region and an NLS-linked sequence motif, RYNLRR, in the tail domain  

PubMed Central

Recent ultrastructural studies revealed that a structure similar to the vertebrate nuclear lamina exists in the nuclei of higher plants. However, plant genomes lack genes for lamins and intermediate-type filament proteins, and this suggests that plant-specific nuclear coiled-coil proteins make up the lamina-like structure in plants. NMCP1 is a protein, first identified in Daucus carota cells, that localizes exclusively to the nuclear periphery in interphase cells. It has a tripartite structure comprised of head, rod, and tail domains, and includes putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) motifs. We identified the functional NLS of DcNMCP1 (carrot NMCP1) and determined the protein regions required for localizing to the nuclear periphery using EGFP-fused constructs transiently expressed in Apium graveolens epidermal cells. Transcription was driven under a CaMV35S promoter, and the genes were introduced into the epidermal cells by a DNA-coated microprojectile delivery system. Of the NLS motifs, KRRRK and RRHK in the tail domain were highly functional for nuclear localization. Addition of the N-terminal 141 amino acids from DcNMCP1 shifted the localization of a region including these NLSs from the entire nucleus to the nuclear periphery. Using this same construct, the replacement of amino acids in RRHK or its preceding sequence, YNL, with alanine residues abolished localization to the nuclear periphery, while replacement of KRRRK did not affect localization. The sequence R/Q/HYNLRR/H, including YNL and the first part of the sequence of RRHK, is evolutionarily conserved in a subclass of NMCP1 sequences from many plant species. These results show that NMCP1 localizes to the nuclear periphery by a combined action of a sequence composed of R/Q/HYNLRR/H, NLS, and the N-terminal region including the head and a portion of the rod domain, suggesting that more than one binding site is implicated in localization of NMCP1. PMID:24616728

Kimura, Yuta; Fujino, Kaien; Ogawa, Kana; Masuda, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

104

Dissimilarity of contemporary and historical gene flow in a wild carrot (Daucus carota) metapopulation under contrasting levels of human disturbance: implications for risk assessment and management of transgene introgression  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Transgene introgression from crops into wild relatives may increase the resistance of wild plants to herbicides, insects, etc. The chance of transgene introgression depends not only on the rate of hybridization and the establishment of hybrids in local wild populations, but also on the metapopulation dynamics of the wild relative. The aim of the study was to estimate gene flow in a metapopulation for assessing and managing the risks of transgene introgression. Methods Wild carrots (Daucus carota) were sampled from 12 patches in a metapopulation. Eleven microsatellites were used to genotype wild carrots. Genetic structure was estimated based on the FST statistic. Contemporary (over the last several generations) and historical (over many generations) gene flow was estimated with assignment and coalescent methods, respectively. Key Results The genetic structure in the wild carrot metapopulation was moderate (FST = 0·082) and most of the genetic variation resided within patches. A pattern of isolation by distance was detected, suggesting that most of the gene flow occurred between neighbouring patches (?1 km). The mean contemporary gene flow was 5 times higher than the historical estimate, and the correlation between them was very low. Moreover, the contemporary gene flow in roadsides was twice that in a nature reserve, and the correlation between contemporary and historical estimates was much higher in the nature reserve. Mowing of roadsides may contribute to the increase in contemporary gene flow. Simulations demonstrated that the higher contemporary gene flow could accelerate the process of transgene introgression in the metapopulation. Conclusions Human disturbance such as mowing may alter gene flow patterns in wild populations, affecting the metapopulation dynamics of wild plants and the processes of transgene introgression in the metapopulation. The risk assessment and management of transgene introgression and the control of weeds need to take metapopulation dynamics into consideration. PMID:24052560

Rong, Jun; Xu, Shuhua; Meirmans, Patrick G.; Vrieling, Klaas

2013-01-01

105

Morphogenetic responses of cultured totipotent cells of carrot /Daucus carota var. carota/ at zero gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment designed to test whether embryos capable of developing from isolated somatic carrot cells could do so under conditions of weightlessness in space was performed aboard the unmanned Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 782 under the auspices of the joint United States-Soviet Biological Satellite Mission. Space flight and weightlessness seem to have had no adverse effects on the induction of embryoids or on the development of their organs. A portion of the crop of carrot plantlets originated in space and grown to maturity were not morphologically different from controls.

Krikorian, A. D.; Steward, F. C.

1978-01-01

106

Inositol trisphosphate metabolism in carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cells  

SciTech Connect

The metabolism of exogenously added D-myo-(1-{sup 3}H)inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) has been examined in microsomal membrane and soluble fractions of carrot cells grown in suspension culture. When ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} was added to a microsomal membrane fraction, ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 2} was the primary metabolite consisting of approximately 83% of the total recovered ({sup 3}H) by electrophoresis. ({sup 3}H)IP was only 6% of the ({sup 3}H) recovered, and 10% of the ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} was not further metabolized. In contrast, when ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} was added to the soluble fraction, approximately equal amounts of ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 2} and ({sup 3}H)IP were recovered. Ca{sup 2+} (100 micromolar) tended to enhance IP{sub 3} dephosphorylation but inhibited the IP{sub 2} dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction by about 20%. MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} (1 millimolar) inhibited the dephosphorylation of IP{sub 3} by the microsomal fraction and the dephosphorylation of IP{sub 2} by the soluble fraction. MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, however, did not inhibit the dephosphorylation of IP{sub 3} by the soluble fraction. Li{sup +} (10 and 50 millimolar) had no effect on IP{sub 3} metabolism in either the soluble or membrane fraction; however, Li{sup +} (50 millimolar) inhibited IP{sub 2} dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction about 25%.

Memon, A.R.; Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

1989-10-01

107

Characterization of inositol phosphates in carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cells  

SciTech Connect

We have shown previously that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) stimulates an efflux of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from fusogenic carrot protoplasts. In light of these results, we suggested that IP{sub 3} might serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not IP{sub 3} and other inositol phosphates were present in the carrot cells, the cells were labeled with myo-(2-{sup 3}H)inositol for 18 hours and extracted with ice-cold 10% trichloroacetic acid. The inositol metabolites were separated by anion exchange chromatography and by paper electrophoresis. We found that ({sup 3}H)inositol metabolites coeluted with inositol bisphosphate (IP{sub 2}) and IP{sub 3} when separated by anion exchange chromatography. However, we could not detect IP{sub 2} or IP{sub 3} when the inositol metabolites were analyzed by paper electrophoresis even though the polyphosphoinositides, which are the source of IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3}, were present in these cells. Thus, ({sup 3}H)inositol metabolites other than IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3} had coeluted on the anion exchange columns. The data indicate that either IP{sub 3} is rapidly metabolized or that it is not present at a detectable level in the carrot cells.

Rincon, M.; Chen, Q.; Boss, W.F. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

1989-01-01

108

Obtaining carrot ( Daucus carota L.) plants in isolated microspore cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microspores were cultured on the modified B5 liquid medium containing 2.4D (0.1 mg L?1), NAA (0.1 mg L?1), L-glutamine (500 mg L?1), L-serine (100 mg L?1), and sucrose (100 g L?1). The developmental stages of microspores and divisions were observed. Initially, the formation of binuclear and multicellular\\u000a structures was noticed. Plants regenerated in the cultures in which the tetrad stage

K. Górecka; U. Kowalska; D. Krzy?anowska; W. Kiszczak

2010-01-01

109

Effect of acidification on carrot (Daucus carota) juice cloud stability.  

PubMed

Effects of acidity on cloud stability in pasteurized carrot juice were examined over the pH range of 3.5-6.2. Cloud sedimentation, particle diameter, and ? potential were measured at each pH condition to quantify juice cloud stability and clarification during 3 days of storage. Acidification below pH 4.9 resulted in a less negative ? potential, an increased particle size, and an unstable cloud, leading to juice clarification. As the acidity increased, clarification occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent. Only a weak effect of ionic strength was observed when sodium salts were added to the juice, but the addition of calcium salts significantly reduced the cloud stability. PMID:25354298

Schultz, Alison K; Barrett, Diane M; Dungan, Stephanie R

2014-11-26

110

Expression of rabies virus G protein in carrots ( Daucus carota )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigens derived from various pathogens can readily be synthesized at high levels in plants in their authentic forms. Such\\u000a antigens administered orally can induce an immune response and, in some cases, result in protection against a subsequent challenge.\\u000a We here report the expression of rabies virus G protein into carrots. The G gene was subcloned into the pUCpSSrabG vector\\u000a and

Edith Rojas-Anaya; Elizabeth Loza-Rubio; Maria Teresa Olivera-Flores; Miguel Gomez-Lim

2009-01-01

111

Obtaining carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants in isolated microspore cultures.  

PubMed

Microspores were cultured on the modified B5 liquid medium containing 2.4D (0.1 mg L(-1)), NAA (0.1 mg L(-1)), L-glutamine (500 mg L(-1), L-serine (100 mg L(-1)), and sucrose (100 g L(-1)). The developmental stages of microspores and divisions were observed. Initially, the formation of binuclear and multicellular structures was noticed. Plants regenerated in the cultures in which the tetrad stage of microsporogenesis had predominated. Embryoids were still forming 24 weeks after the cultures were set up. Six weeks after the transfer of androgenetic embryos onto the B5 regeneration medium, they were converted into complete plants. Out of 90 androgenetic plants planted in a growth chamber, 42 plants adapted to the new conditions. All of those plants proved to be diploids in cytometric analysis. PMID:20453301

Górecka, K; Kowalska, U; Krzyzanowska, D; Kiszczak, W

2010-01-01

112

7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...inspections. (5) The corn may be imported in commercial consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus ) for consumption measuring 10 to 18 millimeters (0.39 to 0.71 inches) in diameter...

2010-01-01

113

7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...inspections. (5) The corn may be imported in commercial consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus ) for consumption measuring 10 to 18 millimeters (0.39 to 0.71 inches) in diameter...

2012-01-01

114

7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...inspections. (5) The corn may be imported in commercial consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus ) for consumption measuring 10 to 18 millimeters (0.39 to 0.71 inches) in diameter...

2011-01-01

115

7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...inspections. (5) The corn may be imported in commercial consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus ) for consumption measuring 10 to 18 millimeters (0.39 to 0.71 inches) in diameter...

2014-01-01

116

7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...inspections. (5) The corn may be imported in commercial consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus ) for consumption measuring 10 to 18 millimeters (0.39 to 0.71 inches) in diameter...

2013-01-01

117

Neutralizing immunogenicity of transgenic carrot ( Daucus carota L.)-derived measles virus hemagglutinin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although edible vaccines seem to be feasible, antigens of human pathogens have mostly been expressed in plants that are not attractive for human consumption (such as potatoes) unless they are cooked. Boiling may reduce the immunogenicity of many antigens. More recently, the technology to transform fruit and vegetable plants have become perfected. We transformed carrot plants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens to

E. Marquet-Blouin; F. B. Bouche; A. Steinmetz; C. P. Muller

2003-01-01

118

Ultrastructural localization of acid phosphatase in cultured cells of Daucus carota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Acid phosphatase localization has been studied, using the lead salt method, in suspension-cultured cells of the wild carrot. Enzyme activity in most of the cells was restricted to the walls and vacuoles. However, in some senescent cells activity was also seen in the nucleus, at one face of the dictyosomes, and in nearby dictyosome-derived vesciles.

Walter Halperin

1969-01-01

119

Tissue-specific expression of two genes for sucrose synthase in carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose synthase, which cleaves sucrose in the presence of uridine diphosphate (UDP) into UDP-glucose and fructose, is thought to be a key determinant of sink strength of heterotrophic plant organs. To determine the roles of the enzyme in carrot, we characterized carrot sucrose synthase at the molecular level. Two genes (Susy*Dc1 and Susy*Dc2) were isolated. The deduced amino acid sequences

Arnd Sturm; Susanne Lienhard; Stephan Schatt; Markus Hardegger

1999-01-01

120

GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF AN AC/DS - BASED TRANSPOSON TAGGING SYSTEM IN CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize transposable elements, Activator (Ac) and Ds have been transformed into several heterologous plant species for transposon tagging of genes and they have been successfully used to taf and to clone genes in Arabidopsis, flax, pentunia, tobacco, and tomato. To investigate the possibility of tran...

121

Extracts of Marine cyanobacteria stimulated somatic embryogenesis of Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty five strains of marine cyanobacteria were screened for their ability to promote carrot somatic embryogenesis. Hot water extracts prepared from 21 of these strains promoted plantlet formation. Extracts from four strains increased plantlet numbers to an average of over 3.7-fold. Dialysates and nondialysates of each of these extracts also increased plantlet formation. For extracts from filamentous cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp.

Hitoshi Wake; Hironori Umetsu; Yoshihiro Ozeki; Koichiro Shimomura; Tadashi Matsunaga

1991-01-01

122

Hepatoprotective activity of carrot ( Daucus carota L.) against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in mouse liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of carrot extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver damage was evaluated. The increased serum enzyme levels (viz., glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol and glutamate dehydrogenase) by CCl4-induction were significantly lowered due to pretreatment with the extract. The extract also decreased the elevated serum bilirubin and urea content due to CCl4 administration.

Anupam Bishayee; Alok Sarkar; Malay Chatterjee

1995-01-01

123

Molecular and genetic analysis of an embryonic gene, DC 8, from Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the morphogenetic and physiological processes occurring during plant embryogenesis, we isolated cDNA clones homologous to genes preferentially expressed during somatic embryogenesis. One of these cDNA clones detected an embryo-specific mRNA species with a corresponding protein of 66 kDa. The expression pattern of the mRNA is similar between somatic and zygotic embryos of carrots. To characterize the gene encoding

Gerald Franz; Polydefkis Hatzopoulos; Todd J. Jones; Marc Krauss; Z. R. Sung

1989-01-01

124

Characterization of the non-specific lipid transfer protein EP2 from carrot ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracellular protein EP2 was previously identified as non-specific lipid transfer protein based on its cDNA-derived amino acid sequence. Here, the purification of the EP2 protein from the medium of somatic embryo cultures is described. After two cycles of ion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography, a single silver-stained protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 10 kDa was observed on

Ellen A. Meijer; Sacco C. de Vries; Peter Sterk; Dorus W. J. Gadella; Karel W. A. Wirtz; Theo Hendriks

1993-01-01

125

Genetic diversity of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultivars revealed by analysis of SSR loci  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this work we evaluate a collection of 88 carrot cultivars and landraces for polymorphisms at SSR loci and use the obtained markers to assess the genetic diversity, and we show molecular evidence for divergence between Asiatic and Western carrot genetic pools. The use of primer pairs flanking repe...

126

Genetic structure in cultivated and wild carrots (Daucus carota L.) revealed by AFLP analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation within and among five Danish populations of wild carrot and five cultivated varieties was investigated using\\u000a amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Ten AFLP primer combinations produced 116 polymorphic bands. Based on the marker\\u000a data an UPGMA-cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) separated the Daucus collections into three groups, consisting of the wild populations, the old varieties, and

S. I. Shim; R. B. Jørgensen

2000-01-01

127

Microencapsulation of anthocyanin pigments of black carrot ( Daucus carota L.) by spray drier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acidified ethanol extracts of black carrots which has a high anthocyanin content (125±17.22mg\\/100g) were spray dried using a range of maltodextrins [Stardri 10 (10DE), Glucodry 210 (20–23DE) and MDX 29 (28–31 DE)] as a carrier and coating agents, at 3 different inlet\\/outlet air temperatures with constant feed solid content (20%). Higher inlet\\/outlet air temperatures caused greater anthocyanin loss during

Seda Ersus; Unal Yurdagel

2007-01-01

128

ALTERNATIVE TO HANDWEEDING VOLUNTEER POTATO IN CARROT (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM) IN CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Few herbicides are used in carrot production in the U.S.A and none suppress volunteer potato, a serious weed where the two crops are grown in rotation. Handweeding is the primary method of controlling emerged volunteer potato within carrot. The objective of this work was to evaluate carrot toleran...

129

Elicitor-induced cell death and phytoalexin synthesis in Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Suspension-cultured carrot cells and intact leaves respond to crude and purified protein elicitors from the non-host fungus\\u000a Pythium aphanidermatum by activating the general phenylpropanoid pathway and incorporating de-novo-synthesized 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) into\\u000a the cell wall. The cultured cells undergo a very rapid elicitor-induced cell death. Both reactions are directly correlated\\u000a in their time course and their dose dependency. Cell

Wolfgang Koch; Claus Wagner; Hanns Ulrich Seitz

1998-01-01

130

Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of a carrot (Daucus carota) infecting begomovirus and associated betasatellite from India.  

PubMed

The yellow mosaic pattern and shortening of leaf petiole are common disease symptoms associated with begomovirus infection in carrot. DNA from field infected carrot leaves was analyzed by rolling circle amplification and sequencing. The results established the presence of ageratum enation virus (AEV), which is referred to here as ageratum enation virus-carrot (AEV-Car). Symptomatic ageratum (Ageratum conyzoides) plants, growing adjacent to the carrot fields, also showed the presence of AEV (AEV-Age). Ageratum yellow leaf curl betasatellite (AYLCB) was also detected in the AEV infected carrot and ageratum samples. AEV-Car and AEV-Age are 95-97% identical in their DNA sequences, represents groups of isolates from the respective plant hosts (carrot and ageratum). Agroinoculation using infectious clones of AEV-Car plus AYLCB or AEV-Age plus AYLCB in carrot, ageratum, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) produced yellow mosaic and curling symptoms in leaves of inoculated plants. Agroinoculation of the two isolates together, along with the betasatellite (AEV-Car plus AEV-Age plus AYLCB) resulted in the enhancement of symptoms in comparison to the plants inoculated with single isolate. Plants with more severe symptoms showed a higher level of viral DNA accumulation, suggesting synergistic interactions between the two isolates of AEV. PMID:24512752

Kumar, Jitendra; Gunapati, Samatha; Singh, Sudhir P; Gadre, Rekha; Sharma, Naresh C; Tuli, Rakesh

2013-10-24

131

Bioactive chemicals from carrot (Daucus carota) juice extracts for the treatment of leukemia.  

PubMed

Overwhelming evidence indicates that consumption of fruits and vegetables with antioxidant properties correlates with reduced risk for cancers, including leukemia. Carrots contain beneficial agents, such as ?-carotene and polyacetylenes, which could be effective in the treatment of leukemia. This study investigated the effect of carrot juice extracts on myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines together with normal hematopoietic stem cells. Leukemia cell lines and nontumor control cells were treated with carrot juice extracts for up to 72 hours in vitro. Induction of apoptosis was investigated by using annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis, and results were confirmed by using 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole morphology. Effects on cellular proliferation were investigated via cell cycle analysis and cell counts. Treatment of leukemia cell lines with carrot juice extract induced apoptosis and inhibited progression through the cell cycle. Lymphoid cell lines were affected to a greater extent than were myeloid cell lines, and normal hematopoietic stem cells were less sensitive than most cell lines. This study has shown that extracts from carrots can induce apoptosis and cause cell cycle arrest in leukemia cell lines. The findings suggest that carrots may be an excellent source of bioactive chemicals for the treatment of leukemia. PMID:21864090

Zaini, Rana; Clench, Malcolm R; Le Maitre, Christine L

2011-11-01

132

Antioxidants and Antioxidant Capacity of Biofortified Carrots (Daucus Carota, L.) of Various Colors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of seven colored carrots were determined. Five anthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and four carotenoids, were quantified by HPLC. Total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidant capacities of the hydrophilic and hyd...

133

Overexpression of Tobacco Osmotin Protein in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) to Enhance Drought Tolerance  

E-print Network

of the Middle East that shows the wide spread drought ...... 3 2 pRTL ? Osmotin ......................................................................................... 15 3 Plant transformation vector pCAMBIA2300-Osmotin... 15 Relative water content in wild-type (WT) and transgenic carrot plants subjected to water stress conditions (yellow bars) and normal condition (blue bars) for 6 d...

Annon, Ali Hani Hamza

2012-10-31

134

Response to cadmium of Daucus carota hairy roots dual cultures with Glomus intraradices or Gigaspora margarita.  

PubMed

Ri T-DNA-transformed carrot roots were cultivated in two experiments either non-inoculated or inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus intraradices or Gigaspora margarita. The influence of two concentrations of cadmium (Cd) in the medium (2 mg l(-1), 4 mg l(-1)) on both root and mycelium growth was tested. Both parameters were estimated at 10-day intervals for 70 or 100 days for G. intraradices and Gi. margarita, respectively. In the first experiment, G. intraradices showed a rapid spread of extraradical mycelium (ERM) and reached average densities per treatment of about 90 cm cm(-2) agar medium after 70 days. At the higher Cd level, the growth of ERM was delayed in comparison to the treatment without Cd addition. Root growth was inhibited by both Cd levels; the inhibition was, however, significantly lower in the treatments inoculated with G. intraradices compared to the non-inoculated control. In the second experiment, the ERM of Gi. margarita started to grow after a period of 50 days and reached average densities per treatment of only up to 27 cm cm(-2) by the end of the cultivation. The growth of Gi. margarita mycelium was not inhibited by Cd. No differences in root growth were observed between the Gi. margarita inoculated and non-inoculated treatments. The inhibitory effect of Cd on root growth differed between the non-inoculated treatments in both experiments. The study has shown that the AM fungus Glomus intraradices can alleviate Cd-induced growth inhibition to carrot hairy roots. The potential and limits of the monoxenic system in studying the interaction between AM fungi and heavy metals are discussed. PMID:15517423

Janousková, Martina; Vosátka, Miroslav

2005-05-01

135

Major Cytogenetic Landmarks and Karyotype Analysis in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and Other Apiaceace  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Karyotyping can be helpful for understanding species evolution and relationships. Cytological studies in Apiaceae have provided information on the chromosome number and morphology of several crops. However, karyological data of their wild relatives are scarce. In addition, the number of chromosomes ...

136

Tolerance and metabolism of phenol and chloroderivatives by hairy root cultures of Daucus carota L.  

PubMed

Hairy root cultures are shown to be suitable experimental systems to screen higher plants for tolerance to various inorganic and organic pollutants, and for determining the role of the root matrix in the uptake and further metabolism of contaminants. A number of clones were obtained by infection of carrot tissues with Agrobacterium rhizogenes and two (the fastest and the slowest growing root clones) were chosen for further experimentation. Both clones showed a similar degree of tolerance towards phenol and its chlorinated derivatives, i.e. the growth of root biomass was maintained in concentrations of phenol equivalent to 1000 micromol/l, whilst the chlorophenols were tolerated only at concentrations 20 times lower (50 micromol/l). Transformed carrot roots were able to remove more than 90% of the exogenous phenolic compounds from the culture medium within 120 h after treatment. Metabolism of these compounds occurred in the root tissue and was accompanied by an increase in peroxidase activity. PMID:11916048

Araujo, Brancilene Santos de; Charlwood, Barry Victor; Pletsch, Marcia

2002-01-01

137

Content of carotenoids in roots of seventeen cultivars of Daucus carota L.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the content of carotenoids in seventeen cultivars of carrots grown in Poland. Conventional orange cultivars with rarely grown were compared: white, yellow and purple with yellow core cultivars. To determine the content of carotenoids, extracts from lyophilized carrot roots were prepared and analyzed by spectrophotometric as well as HPLC methods with DAD detector. The highest content of carotenoids was found in cultivars: 'Korund F(1)' (48 mg/100g of fresh weight) and 'Salsa F(1)' (36 mg/100g of fresh weight). The antioxidant properties of selected cultivars were compared using the DPPH method. PMID:22428130

Mech-Nowak, Aleksandra; Swiderski, Adam; Kruczek, Micha?; Luczak, Irena; Kostecka-Guga?a, Anna

2012-01-01

138

Master : a novel family of PIF \\/ Harbinger -like transposable elements identified in carrot ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of a novel Master family of class II transposons were identified in the carrot genome. Two elements, 2.5 kb long DcMaster1 and 4.4 kb long DcMaster-a, are characterized by 22 bp imperfect terminal inverted repeats and by 3 bp target site duplications. GenBank search revealed\\u000a that related elements are also present in Medicago truncatula, including a 5.1 kb element MtMaster-a. Both DcMaster-a and MtMaster-a

Dariusz Grzebelus; Yuan-Yeu Yau; Philipp W. Simon

2006-01-01

139

The monoterpenes of Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoterpenes from three different members of the Anthemideae family, Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis were isolated and their structures determined using spectroscopic techniques. A total of 26 irregular and regular monoterpenes were identified. Among these, 20 had previously been identified in the Anthemideae family. Of the remaining six, four were known, but

K Gunawardena; S. B Rivera; W. W Epstein

2002-01-01

140

The SSP Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a cure for the high school chemistry student with Second Semester Poisoning (SSP), the student disease of apathy which occurs in the spring. Remedy: an outdoor (preferably) demonstration of a series of controlled combustion experiments, with accompanying explanations of the chemistry involved. (MLH)

Radakovitz, Richard

1975-01-01

141

1 2 3 4 5 6 Meanofest.Lnprobofdat  

E-print Network

and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) (Apiaceae). American Journal of Botany 100(5): 939 cultivated and wild accessions of Daucus carota subsp. carota and subsp. sativus used in this study

Spooner, David

142

L. LIMONTA, P. DIOLI, N. BONOMELLI Heteroptera on flowering spontaneous herbs in differently managed orchards (*)  

E-print Network

sativa, Daucus carota, Centaurea nigre- scens and Erigeron annuus. As foreseeable, a higher number Eterotteri sono Medicago sativa, Daucus carota, Centaurea nigrescens ed Erigeron annuus. Come prevedibile, la

Rider, David A.

143

The monoterpenes of Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis.  

PubMed

Monoterpenes from three different members of the Anthemideae family, Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis were isolated and their structures determined using spectroscopic techniques. A total of 26 irregular and regular monoterpenes were identified. Among these, 20 had previously been identified in the Anthemideae family. Of the remaining six, four were known, but previously unidentified in this family. 2,2-Dimethyl-6-isopropenyl-2H-pyran, 2,3-dimethyl-6-isopropyl-4H-pyran and 2-isopropenyl-5-methylhexa-trans-3,5-diene-1-ol were isolated from both A. tridentata ssp. vaseyana and A. cana ssp. viscidula. The irregular monoterpene 2,2-dimethyl-6-isopropenyl-2H-pyran has a carbon skeleton analogous to the biologically important triterpene squalene. Two additional irregular monoterpenes, artemisia triene and trans-chrysanthemal were isolated from A. cana ssp. viscidula and lavandulol was isolated from A. tridentata ssp. spiciformis. This is the first time a compound possessing a lavandulyl-skeletal type has been found in the Anthemideae family. PMID:11809456

Gunawardena, K; Rivera, S B; Epstein, W W

2002-01-01

144

Possible direct uptake of organic nitrogen from soil by chingensai ( Brassica campestris L.) and carrot ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On comparing the nitrogen uptake of four different kinds of vegetables, i.e., pimento, leaf lettuce, chingensai (a kind of Chinese cabbage), and carrot, from soil to which rapeseed cake (RC) or ammonium sulfate (AS) were applied at the same N concentration, different N uptake responses were observed. Chingensai and carrot took up more N from the soil with applied RC

Shingo Matsumoto; Noriharu Ae; Makoto Yamagata

2000-01-01

145

Characterization of a deep-coverage carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library and initial analysis of BAC-end sequences  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 17.3-fold redundant bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library has been synthesized for carrot, the most-economically important member of the family Apiaceae. The library consists of 92,160 clones with an average insert size of 121 kb and ~ 2 % organellar DNA content. To provide an overview of ...

146

Combined effects of gamma irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on bacterial resistance in grated carrots ( Daucus carota)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of gamma irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging as an alternative treatment to ensure the innocuity and the shelf life extension of pre-cured vegetables. Grated carrots were inoculated with Escherichia coli (10 6 CFU/g) and packed under air or under MAP condition (60% O 2, 30% CO 2 and 10% N 2). The packages were then, gamma irradiated at doses from 0.15 to 0.9 kGy and stored at 4±1°C. E. coli counts were periodically evaluated during 50 days of storage. Results showed that at day 1, an irradiation treatment at a dose of 0.15 kGy reduced by 3 and 4 log the microbial level representing a level of 3 and 2 log CFU/g when samples were irradiated under air and under MAP respectively. However, a level of 3 log CFU/g was detected in both treated samples after 7 days of storage. When samples were irradiated at doses ?0.3 kGy no E.coli were detected during the whole storage in samples treated under MAP. However, when samples were treated under air, a level of 1-2 log CFU/g of E.coli was detected after 5 days of storage.

Lacroix, M.; Lafortune, R.

2004-09-01

147

Clarification and pasteurisation effects on monomeric anthocyanins and percent polymeric colour of black carrot (Daucus carota L.) juice.  

PubMed

Black carrots (BCs) are a rich source of stable anthocyanins (ACNs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of clarification and pasteurisation on ACNs of black carrot juice (BCJ). Monomeric ACNs, ACN profile and percent polymeric colour were determined during processing of BCJ. While depectinisation and bentonite treatments resulted in 7% and 20% increases in monomeric ACN content of BCJ, respectively, gelatine-kieselsol treatment and pasteurisation resulted in 10% and 3-16% reduction. Percent polymeric colour decreased after clarification, but substantially increased in samples subjected to heat. ACNs of BCJ samples were identified by HPLC-MS. Unclarified BCJ contained cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside-ferulic acid as the major ACN, followed by cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside-coumaric acid, and cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside. After depectinisation, two more ACNs (cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside and cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside-sinapic acid) were also identified. These results indicated that depectinisation and bentonite treatment had positive effect on the colour of BCJ, while gelatin-kieselsol treatment and pasteurisation had negative effect. PMID:23107727

Türky?lmaz, Meltem; Yemi?, Oktay; Ozkan, Mehmet

2012-09-15

148

Characterization of a deep-coverage carrot ( Daucus carota L.) BAC library and initial analysis of BAC-end sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrot is the most economically important member of the Apiaceae family and a major source of provitamin A carotenoids in\\u000a the human diet. However, carrot molecular resources are relatively underdeveloped, hampering a number of genetic studies.\\u000a Here, we report on the synthesis and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of carrot. The library\\u000a is 17.3-fold redundant and consists

Pablo F. Cavagnaro; Sang-Min Chung; Marek Szklarczyk; Dariusz Grzebelus; Douglas Senalik; Anne E. Atkins; Philipp W. Simon

2009-01-01

149

Carotenoid biosynthesis structural genes in carrot ( Daucus carota ): isolation, sequence-characterization, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and genome mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoid pigments are important components of the human diet and carrots are the main dietary sources of the vitamin A precursors\\u000a ?- and ?-carotene. Carotenoids play essential biological roles in plants and the genes coding for the carotenoid pathway enzymes\\u000a are evolutionarily conserved, but little information exists about these genes for carrot. In this study, we utilized published\\u000a carrot sequences

B. J. Just; C. A. F. Santos; M. E. N. Fonseca; L. S. Boiteux; B. B. Oloizia; P. W. Simon

2007-01-01

150

The DcMaster Transposon Display maps polymorphic insertion sites in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DcMaster is a family of PIF/Harbinger-like class II transposable elements identified in carrot. We present a modified Transposon Display molecular marker system allowing amplification of genomic regions containing DcMaster elements. We scored 77 DcMaster Transposon Display (DcMTD) amplicons, of whic...

151

Plant Pathology (2005) 54, 665670 Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01189.x 2005 BSPP 665  

E-print Network

. Keywords: Botrytis cinerea, Daucus carota, Rhizoctonia carotae, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, storage boxes., Aspergillus spp., Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium spp., Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Rhizoctonia carotae, Rhizopus with intact carrots in cold storage. Isolates of S. sclerotiorum, B. cinerea and R. carotae caused the most

Boland, Greg J.

152

An Ecological Friendly Dragee Technic Application on Crop Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: In Brazíl, in EMBRAPA\\/CNPH was developing a dragée technic for seeds of crops and vegetables of carrot (Daucus carota L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), micro tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Andropogon ssp. and Eucalyptus ssp. using as inert material the dolomite (CaCO3 96%) powder fractions (0.05 to 1.00 mm) and

M. László

2009-01-01

153

Pathologie vgtale Analyse de la flore fongique de la carotte  

E-print Network

- tée s'appuyant notamment sur la spécificité des relations hôte-parasite. Daucus carota = carotte conditions for carrot crops. Daucus carota / post-harvest diseases /Mycocentrospora acerina / cold storage

Boyer, Edmond

154

Weed Technology. 2005. Volume 19:10501055 Alternative to Hand-Weeding Volunteer Potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Carrot  

E-print Network

(Solanum tuberosum) in Carrot (Daucus carota)1 MARTIN M. WILLIAMS II and RICK A. BOYDSTON2 Abstract: Few. Nomenclature: ethofumesate; fluroxypyr; prometryn; potato, Solanum tuberosum L.; carrot, Daucus carota L

Sims, Gerald K.

155

PATHOLOGIE VGTALE La maladie de la tache de la carotte due  

E-print Network

. Plusieurs voies de recherche de moyens de lutte sont envisagées. Mots clés additionnels : Daucus carota the incidence of the problem are now being investigated. Additional key words : Daucus carota, soil

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

156

crop science, vol. 53, julyaugust 2013 www.crops.org 1 Alfalfa is widely cultivated throughout the world and is the  

E-print Network

. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the citrate synthase (CS) and the Daucus carota L@noble.org). Abbreviations: CS, citrate synthase; DcPA1, Daucus carota plasma membrane H+ -transporting adenosine

Parrott, Wayne

157

Epidemiology / pidmiologie Epidemiology of sclerotinia rot of carrot caused by  

E-print Network

and improved management of sclerotinia rot of carrot. Key words: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Daucus carota sclerotiorum, Daucus carota, maladie de la carotte, pourriture humide, pourriture blanche, épi- démiologie

Boland, Greg J.

158

LEAping to conclusions: A computational reanalysis of late embryogenesis abundant proteins and their possible roles  

E-print Network

thaliana BRANA Brassica napus CHLVU Chlorella vulgaris CICAR Cicer arietinum CITSI Citrus sinensis CITUN Citrus unshiu CRAPL Craterostigma plantagineum DAUCA Daucus carota DAUCA Daucus carota GOSHI Gossypium hirsutum HELAN Helianthus annuus HORVU Hordeum...

Wise, Michael J

2003-10-29

159

Plasmid-encoded ropiness production in Lactobacillus casei SSP. casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Genetic determinants of the Muc+ character were investigated in two ropy strains,Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp.bulgaricus 201 andL. casei ssp.casei NCIB 4114, which secrete a large amount of slime in culture media. Plasmid DNA analysis revealed the presence of two plasmids (4.5 and 2.3 Mdal) inL. casei ssp.casei, whileL. delbrueckii ssp.bulgaricus was plasmid free, suggesting a chromosomal location of Muc+ character

Marisa Vescovo; G. L. Scolari; V. Bottazzi

1989-01-01

160

ASSOCIATION OF REVERSIBLE INACTIVATION OF MAIZE TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENT, DS, WITH TISSUE-SPECIFIC PROCESSING OF THE 35S:TPASE TRANSCRIPT IN CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An Ac/Ds based two-element transposon tagging system has been introduced into carrot. F1 progeny containing both 35S:TPase and the Ds element were derived from crosses between 35S:TPase and Ds bearing parents. While excision of Ds was not detected in any F1 plants carrying both 35S:TPase and the Ds...

161

Diversity, genetic mapping, and signatures of domestication in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome, as revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, however, genetic and genomic resources supporting carrot breeding remain limited. We developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for wild and cultivated carrot and used it to investigate genetic diversity and to devel...

162

A field study on the influence of soil ph on trace element levels in spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum ), potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum ) and carrots ( Daucus carota )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil pH is one of the main factors influencing the solubility and availability of trace elements in arable soils. Thus pH can affect the trace element contents of agricultural crops and thereby indirectly influence human health. The aim of this study was to determine Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Al and Se contents in spring wheat, potatoes and carrots

I. Öborn; G. Jansson; L. Johnsson

1995-01-01

163

Physiological aspects of genome variability in tissue culture. I. Growth phase-dependent differential DNA methylation of the carrot genome ( Daucus carota L.) during primary culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were performed on growth phase-dependent EcoRII site-specific DNA methylation of the carrot genome during primary culture to elucidate physiological aspects of genome DNA variability in tissue culture. While DNA methylation of the root cambium and the secondary phloem and petioles of carrot leaves were strikingly different, the methylation level of the secondary phloem seemed to be independent of cultivar

B. Arnholdt-Schmitt; S. Herterich; K.-H. Neumann

1995-01-01

164

Embryogenic and non-embryogenic cell lines of Daucus carota cloned from meristematic cell clusters: relation with cell ploidy determined by flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of totipotent and non-totipotent cells in embryogenic carrot cell suspension cultures was examined by cloning of cell microclusters. Forty clones were isolated and the distribution of their embryogenic potential was studied. Nonembryogenic, weakly and highly embryogenic cell lines were selected. After one year of subculture a second cloning round showed that the highly embryogenic and the non-embryogenic cell

Pierre Coutos-Thevenot; Jean Pierre Jouanneau; Spencer Brown; Vincent Petiard; Jean Guern

1990-01-01

165

Flavonoids released by carrot ( Daucus carota ) seedlings stimulate hyphal development of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the presence of optimal CO 2 enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide has been previously identified as a critical volatile factor that stimulates hyphal growth ofGigaspora margarita, a vesiculararbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, and we determined the optimal concentration at 2.0%. The beneficial effect of CO2 on fungal development is also visible in the presence of stimulatory (quercetin, myricetin) or inhibitory (naringenin) flavonoids. Sterile root exudates from carrot seedlings stimulate the hyphal

M. J. Poulin; R. Bel-Rhlid; Y. Piché; R. Chênevert

1993-01-01

166

Influence of Cultivar and Harvest Year on the Volatile Profiles of Leaves and Roots of Carrots (Daucus carota spp. sativus Hoffm.).  

PubMed

The focus of the present work centers on the diversity of volatile patterns of carrots. In total 15 main volatiles were semiquantified in leaves and roots using isolation by headspace solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with FID and MS detection. Significant differences in the main number of compounds were detected between the cultivars as well as the years. Genotype-environment interactions (G × E) are discussed. The most abundant metabolites, ?-myrcene (leaves) and terpinolene (roots), differ in the sum of all interactions (cultivar × harvest year) by a factor of 22 and 62, respectively. A statistical test indicates significant metabolic differences between cultivars for nine volatiles in leaves and 10 in roots. In contrast to others the volatiles ?-pinene, ?-terpinene, limonene, and myristicine in leaves as well as ?-pinene, humulene, and bornyl acetate in roots are relatively stable over years. A correlation analysis shows no strict clustering regarding root color. While the biosynthesis in leaves and roots is independent between these two organs for nine of the 15 volatiles, a significant correlation of the myristicine content between leaves and roots was determined, which suggests the use of this compound as a bitter marker in carrot breeding. PMID:25797828

Ulrich, Detlef; Nothnagel, Thomas; Schulz, Hartwig

2015-04-01

167

Diversity, genetic mapping, and signatures of domestication in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome, as revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers.  

PubMed

Carrot is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, but genetic and genomic resources supporting carrot breeding remain limited. We developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for wild and cultivated carrot and used it to investigate genetic diversity and to develop a saturated genetic linkage map of carrot. We analyzed a set of 900 DArT markers in a collection of plant materials comprising 94 cultivated and 65 wild carrot accessions. The accessions were attributed to three separate groups: wild, Eastern cultivated and Western cultivated. Twenty-seven markers showing signatures for selection were identified. They showed a directional shift in frequency from the wild to the cultivated, likely reflecting diversifying selection imposed in the course of domestication. A genetic linkage map constructed using 188 F2 plants comprised 431 markers with an average distance of 1.1 cM, divided into nine linkage groups. Using previously anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms, the linkage groups were physically attributed to the nine carrot chromosomes. A cluster of markers mapping to chromosome 8 showed significant segregation distortion. Two of the 27 DArT markers with signatures for selection were segregating in the mapping population and were localized on chromosomes 2 and 6. Chromosome 2 was previously shown to carry the Vrn1 gene governing the biennial growth habit essential for cultivated carrot. The results reported here provide background for further research on the history of carrot domestication and identify genomic regions potentially important for modern carrot breeding. PMID:24532979

Grzebelus, Dariusz; Iorizzo, Massimo; Senalik, Douglas; Ellison, Shelby; Cavagnaro, Pablo; Macko-Podgorni, Alicja; Heller-Uszynska, Kasia; Kilian, Andrzej; Nothnagel, Thomas; Allender, Charlotte; Simon, Philipp W; Baranski, Rafal

2014-01-01

168

Effect of population densities, lines of seed per bed and root size on quality and yield of baby style carrots (Daucus carota Mill) in South Texas  

E-print Network

in the baby style carrot process were evaluated. Length of the roots at harvest and projected values for total waste and marketable yield were estimated. Length was affected by root size at harvest, the most desirable root length occurred when harvested at 25...

Lazcano, Carlos Alberto

1996-01-01

169

Development and Characterization of Novel SSR Markers in Carrot (Daucus Carota L.) and Their Application for Mapping and Diversity Analysis in Apiaceae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genomic resources in carrot and other Apiaceae are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of a large set of pcr-based codominant markers, such as simple sequence repeats (SSR), would allow integration of the different carrot genetic maps constructed to date (mainly using anonymous dominant mark...

170

[Obtaining of hairy-root, callus and suspension carrot culture (Daucus carota L.) able to accumulate human interferon alpha-2b].  

PubMed

Here we report the obtaining of suspension, callus and hairy root culture initiated from carrot plants of Nantskaya and Perfektzya variety with the highest level of recombinant human interferon alpha-2b accumulation exhibited the highest level of plant protein extract antiviral activity (up to 12.8 x 10(3) IU/mg TSP). The antiviral activity of callus extracts was significantly lower comparing to the activity of plant extracts from parent organisms. However, the antiviral activity level of suspension culture extracts (up to 4.42 x 10(3) IU/mg TSP) and Ri-root ones (up to 4.42 x 10(3) IU/mg TSP) appeared to be comparable to analogical data of antiviral activity of transgenic carrot leaf extracts, this way the described cultures could be possibly used for comparatively speedy obtaining of recombinant therapeutic protein for curing and preventing of virus diseases. PMID:22420216

Luchakivskaia, Iu S; Olevinskaia, Z M; Kishchenko, E M; Spivak, N Ia; Kuchuk, N V

2012-01-01

171

Broad-spectrum disease resistance to necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens in transgenic carrots (Daucus carota L.) expressing an Arabidopsis NPR1 gene.  

PubMed

The development of transgenic plants highly resistant to a range of pathogens using traditional signal gene expression strategies has been largely ineffective. Modification of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) through the overexpression of a controlling gene such as NPR1 (non-expressor of PR genes) offers an attractive alternative for augmenting the plants innate defense system. The Arabidopsis (At) NPR1 gene was successfully introduced into 'Nantes Coreless' carrot under control of a CaMV 35S promoter and two independent transgenic lines (NPR1-I and NPR1-XI) were identified by Southern and Northern blot hybridization. Both lines were phenotypically normal compared with non-transformed carrots. Northern analysis did not indicate constitutive or spontaneous induction in carrot cultures of SAR-related genes (DcPR-1, 2, 4, 5 or DcPAL). The duration and intensity of expression of DcPR-1, 2 and 5 genes were greatly increased compared with controls when the lines were treated with purified cell wall fragments of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum as well as with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid. The two lines were challenged with the necrotrophic pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria radicina and S. sclerotiorum on the foliage and A. radicina on the taproots. Both lines exhibited 35-50% reduction in disease symptoms on the foliage and roots when compared with non-transgenic controls. Leaves challenged with the biotrophic pathogen Erysiphe heraclei or the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas hortorum exhibited 90 and 80% reduction in disease development on the transgenic lines, respectively. The overexpression of the SAR controlling master switch in carrot tissues offers the ability to control a wide range of different pathogens, for which there is currently little genetic resistance available. PMID:19859731

Wally, Owen; Jayaraj, Jayaraman; Punja, Zamir K

2009-12-01

172

American Journal of Botany 100(5): 930938, 2013; http://www.amjbot.org/ 2013 Botanical Society of America American Journal of Botany 100(5): 930938. 2013.  

E-print Network

carrot (Daucus carota L. subsp. sativus L.) is a common vegetable with a well-known and widely distributed weedy progenitor, wild carrot or Queen Anne's lace (D. carota subsp. carota). Carrot is the most-mail: philipp.simon@ars.usda.gov) doi:10.3732/ajb.1300055 GENETIC STRUCTURE AND DOMESTICATION OF CARROT (DAUCUS

Spooner, David

173

LES INSECTES POLLINISATEURS DE QUELQUES OMBELLIFRES D'INTRT AGRICOLE  

E-print Network

., DAUCUS CAROTA L., FOENICULUM VULGARE MILLER V. AZORICUM THELL.) * Gian Carlo RICCIARDELLI D'anis (Pitpipinella anisum L.), 9,69 % sur la carotte (Daucus carota L.) et 25,64 % sur le fenouil (Foeniculurn mâle (ex. quelques variétés de Daucus carota) (PESSON et LouvEAUX, 1984). Le vent aussi peut apporter

Boyer, Edmond

174

EFFICACY OF KETONES ON THE FORAGING BEHAVIOUR OF APIS FLOREA F. IN FIELD CONDITIONS  

E-print Network

and ethyl pentyl ketone) were screened on carrot (Daucus carota) under field conditions for their repellent pentyl ketone) were tested on carrot (Daucus carota) at 1 % concentration. Eight plots of one m2 size demonstrated that the duration of stability of ketones is greater on D. carota than on A. cepa. Clearly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

175

The productivity and fruit quality of the arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus ssp. Arcticus) and hybrid arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus ssp. arcticus×Rubus arcticus ssp. stellatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit biochemical content and productivity of arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus ssp. arcticus) and hybrid arctic bramble (R. arcticus ssp. arcticus×R. arcticus ssp. stellatus) cultivars were investigated during three experimental years (2001–2003) in field conditions. Rows of experimental plants were alternated with rows of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.). Finnish cultivars together with a strain from Estonian nature (E1) and Finnish

Ele Vool; Kadri Karp; Merrit Noormets; Ulvi Moor; Marge Starast

2009-01-01

176

Karyotypic analysis of N-banded chromosomes of diploid alfalfa: Medicago sativa ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata and their hybrid.  

PubMed

Chromosomes of two diploid (2n = 2x = 16) subspecies of Medicago sativa, ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata, and their hybrid were studied using an N-banding technique. This study was undertaken to develop an N-banded karyotype of ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata, and determine if the same technique could be used to identify parental chromosomes in hybrids. The chromosomes of ssp. falcata have only centromeric N bands and thus individual chromosomes could not be identified. However, chromosome-specific bands were observed in ssp. caerulea enabling the identification of each of the eight pairs of chromosomes and the development of an idiogram. All chromosomes have a centromeric band and a telomeric band in the short arm. All of the chromosomes, except chromosomes 7 and 8, have interstitial bands in their long arms and chromosome 5 has two faint interstitial bands in its long arm. The satellited chromosome is easily distinguished due to the secondary constriction and characteristic band at the nucleolar organizer region. The differences in banding patterns between these subspecies makes it possible to distinguish chromosomes from each other in their hybrids. This is the first report of the use of N banding to identify the diploid chromosomes of M. sativa ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata. PMID:9542165

Bauchan, G R; Hossain, M A

1998-01-01

177

Role of Streptococcus gordonii Surface Proteins SspA/SspB and Hsa in Platelet Function?  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus gordonii colonization of damaged heart surfaces in infective endocarditis is dependent upon the recognition of host receptors by specific bacterial surface proteins. However, despite several attempts to identify the mechanisms involved in this interaction, the nature of the bacterial proteins required remains poorly understood. This study provides clear evidence that several S. gordonii surface proteins participate in the interaction with platelets to support platelet adhesion and induce platelet aggregation. S. gordonii strains were found to support strong (DL1-Challis, SK12, SK184, and Blackburn) or moderate (UB1545 ?hsa and CH1-Challis) adhesion or failed to support platelet adhesion (M5, M99, and Channon). In addition, under flow conditions, platelets rolled and subsequently adhered to immobilized S. gordonii at low shear (50 s?1) in an Hsa-dependent manner but did not interact with S. gordonii DL1 at any shear rate of >50 s?1. S. gordonii strains either induced (DL1-Challis, SK12, SK184, UB1545 ?hsa, and M99) or failed to induce (M5, CH1-Challis, Channon, and Blackburn) platelet aggregation. Using a proteomic approach to identify differential cell wall protein expression between aggregating (DL1) and nonaggregating (Blackburn) strains, we identified antigen I/antigen II family proteins SspA and SspB. The overexpression of SspA or SspB in platelet-nonreactive Lactococcus lactis induced GPIIb/GPIIIa-dependent platelet aggregation similar to that seen with S. gordonii DL1. However, they failed to support platelet adhesion. Thus, S. gordonii has distinct mechanisms for supporting platelet adhesion and inducing platelet aggregation. Differential protein expression between strains may be important for the pathogenesis of invasive diseases such as infective endocarditis. PMID:17893126

Kerrigan, Steven W.; Jakubovics, Nicholas S.; Keane, Ciara; Maguire, Patricia; Wynne, Kieran; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Cox, Dermot

2007-01-01

178

A Case Study of SSP for Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The market of the Solar Power Satellite must be worldwide, because it can be provide electricity anywhre in the world from the Earth's orbits. We have perform case studies of various countries to understand their benefits and disadvantages provide by the Space Solar Power, because each country has much different condition on energy from other countries. We are starting the international collaboration between Indonesia and Japan to carry out the case study for Indonesia. In Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has already organized a committee to investigate the feasibility of the Space Solar Power and to make a plan to launch a space demonstration of the Solar Power Satellite. While, Indonesia is quickly developing economy and increasing their energy demand. We are investigating the detailed energy conditions of Indonesia and the benefits and disadvantages of he SSP for Indonesia. Especially, we will perform the investigation on the receiving system for the Japanese pilot SPS.

Mostavan, A.; Kaya, N.

2002-01-01

179

Karyotypic analysis of C-banded chromosomes of diploid alfalfa: Medicago sativa ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata and their hybrid.  

PubMed

Chromosomes of two diploid (2n = 2x = 16) subspecies of Medicago sativa ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata and their hybrid were studied by C-banding. This study was undertaken to improve the C-banding technique for alfalfa chromosomes, develop a C-banded karyotype of the ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata, and determine if the same C-banding technique could be used to identify parental chromosomes in hybrids. The chromosomes of ssp. falcata have only centromeric bands and thus individual chromosomes could not be identified. One accession of ssp. falcata displayed an interstitial band in the middle of the long arm on the satellite chromosome. However, chromosome-specific bands were observed in ssp. caerulea enabling the identification of each of the eight pairs of chromosomes and the development of a idiogram. All chromosomes had centromeric bands and a terminal band in the short arm except the satellite chromosome (chromosome 8). Interstitial bands were also observed in the short arms, with the exception of chromosome 7. Chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and 8 each had one prominent interstitial band in their long arm. The satellited chromosome is easy to identify because of the presence of the secondary constriction, two bands located on either side of the nucleolar organizer region, and a large terminal band on its long arm. The differences in banding patterns between these subspecies allowed the identification of parental chromosomes in hybrid cells. PMID:9419896

Bauchan, G R; Hossain, M A

1997-01-01

180

School Teams up for SSP Functional Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Solar Power systems appear increasingly as one of the major solutions to the upcoming global energy crisis, by collecting solar energy in space where this is most easy, and sending it by microwave beam to the surface of the planet, where the need for controlled energy is located. While fully operational systems are still decades away, the need for major development efforts is with us now. Yet, for many decision-makers and for most of the public, SSP often still sounds like science fiction. Six functional demonstration systems, based on the Japanese SPS-2000 concept, have been built as a result of a cooperation between France and Japan, and they are currently used extensively, in Japan, in Europe and in North America, for executive presentations as well as for public exhibitions. There is demand for more models, both for science museums and for use by energy dedicated groups, and a senior high school in La Reunion, France, has picked up the challenge to make the production of such models an integrated practical school project for pre-college students. In December 2001, the administration and the teachers of the school have evaluated the feasibility of the project and eventually taken the go decision for the school year 2002- 2003, when for education purposes a temporary "school business company" will be incorporated with the goal to study and manufacture a limited series of professional quality SSP demonstration models, and to sell them world- wide to institutions and advocacy groups concerned with energy problems and with the environment. The different sections of the school will act as the different services of an integrated business : based on the current existing models, the electronic section will redesign the energy management system and the microwave projector module, while the mechanical section of the school will adapt and re-conceive the whole packaging of the demonstrator. The French and foreign language sections will write up a technical manual for the operation of the model and a guide to assist users with the basics of space solar power, with versions both in French and in English. The students of the commercial section will conduct global marketing and later handle international sales. Technical and market studies will take place at the end of the year 2002, while actual production, currently estimated at some twenty units, will take place during the first part of 2003. Initial operation will be assisted by institutional support and subscription sales from already identified customers, but later the operation will be self supporting, with eventually some cash benefit the school like in any normal commercial operation, before the "company" eventually will shut down its operation at the end of the school year in June 2003. The benefits of this high level "hands-on" operation will be very important, first because of the promotion of the SSP concepts and the understanding of the potential from space that it will foster. But the greatest reward will be for the students and the teachers involved in the operation, both simple and very complex at the same time, because they will integrate all the aspects of a "real" professional activity, around the great futuristic concept of providing clean and sustainable energy for Mankind and for the Earth...

Pignolet, G.; Lallemand, R.; Celeste, A.; von Muldau, H.

2002-01-01

181

Risk analysis of Safety Service Patrol (SSP) systems in Virginia.  

PubMed

The transportation infrastructure is a vital backbone of any regional economy as it supports workforce mobility, tourism, and a host of socioeconomic activities. In this article, we specifically examine the incident management function of the transportation infrastructure. In many metropolitan regions, incident management is handled primarily by safety service patrols (SSPs), which monitor and resolve roadway incidents. In Virginia, SSP allocation across highway networks is based typically on average vehicle speeds and incident volumes. This article implements a probabilistic network model that partitions "business as usual" traffic flow with extreme-event scenarios. Results of simulated network scenarios reveal that flexible SSP configurations can improve incident resolution times relative to predetermined SSP assignments. PMID:21605149

Dickey, Brett D; Santos, Joost R

2011-12-01

182

ButterfliesBrighten your yard by bringing these delightful creatures and the plants they love into your  

E-print Network

Butterfly Garden Oak (Quercus spp.) Abelia (Abelia spp.) Clover (Trifolium spp.) Queen Anne's Lace (Daucus carota) Daylily (Hemerocallis spp.) Phlox (Phlox spp.) Mexican Bush Sage (Salvia leucantha) Rosemary

Hutcheon, James M.

183

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access De novo assembly of the carrot mitochondrial  

E-print Network

structure visualization, Daucus carota, Intercompartmental DNA transfer Background To date, 23 mitochondrial of this fragment in the mitochondrial genomes and an insertion in Daucus plastid genomes, giving evidence

Spooner, David

184

Inbreeding influences herbivory in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana (Cucurbitaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of field experiments Diabrotica beetle herbivory was found to influence the magnitude of inbreeding depression in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana, an annual monoecious vine. Beetles damage flowers and fruits and chew dime-sized holes in leaf tissue between major veins. Inbred plants were found to be more likely to be damaged by beetles and to have more leaves

C. Nelson Hayes; James A. Winsor; Andrew G. Stephenson

2004-01-01

185

Bibliography of Selected SCSD, URBS, SSP, SEF, and RAS Publications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The annotated bibliography contains publications and report listings of the following sources--(1) School Construction Systems Development (SCSD), (2) University Residential Building Systems (URBS), (3) Florida Schoolhouse Systems Project (SSP), (4) Study of Educational Facilities (SEF), and (5) Recherches en Amenagements Scolaires (RAS) Building…

Stanford Univ., CA. School Planning Lab.

186

Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation within and between cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris) grapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic characterization of 502 diverse grape accessions including 342 cultivated (V. vinifera ssp. sativa) and 160 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grapes showed considerable genetic diversity among accessions. A total of 117 alleles were detected with the average of 14 alleles per locus. The tot...

187

Inbreeding influences herbivory in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana (Cucurbitaceae).  

PubMed

In a series of field experiments Diabrotica beetle herbivory was found to influence the magnitude of inbreeding depression in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana, an annual monoecious vine. Beetles damage flowers and fruits and chew dime-sized holes in leaf tissue between major veins. Inbred plants were found to be more likely to be damaged by beetles and to have more leaves damaged per plant than outcrossed plants. A positive linear association was found between the coefficient of inbreeding and the magnitude of leaf damage, whereas a negative association was found between coefficient of inbreeding and several male and female fitness traits. When pesticides were used to control beetle herbivory, the interaction between coefficient of inbreeding and pesticide treatment was significant for fruit production and marginally significant for pollen quantity per anther. Therefore, the magnitude of inbreeding depression in C. pepo ssp. texana varies depending on the severity of beetle herbivory. PMID:15252728

Hayes, C Nelson; Winsor, James A; Stephenson, Andrew G

2004-08-01

188

Chemical studies of essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf and (unripe and ripe) berry essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia (H. Gay) Debeaux grown wild in Spain have been analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS in combination with retention indices. A seasonal investigation of both leaf and berry oils was also performed. Among the approximately 80 constituents investigated (representing 90–98% of the oils) 60–68 were identified (80–97%

Sof??a Salido; Joaqu??n Altarejos; Manuel Nogueras; Adolfo Sánchez; Christophe Pannecouque; Myriam Witvrouw; Erik De Clercq

2002-01-01

189

Anatomical characteristics and antioxidant properties of Euphorbia nicaeensis ssp. glareosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomical analyses found that leaves of Euphorbia nicaeensis ssp. glareosa are isolateral, amphistomatous, with two layers of palisade cells on the adaxial and one on the abaxial side. Laticifers\\u000a are present by vascular bundles, in palisade and spongy tissue. Stem laticifers are located in the pericyclic ring, adjacent\\u000a to the phloem, in cylinder parenchyma and medullar rays. The structure of

Jadranka Lukovi?; Djordje Malen?i?; Lana Zori?; Biljana Kiprovski; Ljiljana Merkulov; Pal Boža

2009-01-01

190

Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

1998-01-01

191

Development and in-house validation of allergen-specific ELISA tests for the quantification of Dau c 1.01, Dau c 1.02 and Dau c 4 in carrot extracts ( Daucus carota )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though carrot allergy is common in Europe, the amount of different allergens in carrots is still unknown due to a lack\\u000a of methods for quantitative allergen measurements. The current study aimed at the development of quantitative ELISA tests\\u000a for the known carrot allergens, namely Dau c 1.01, Dau c 1.02, and Dau c 4 in pure carrot extracts. Monoclonal

Kay Foetisch; Lotte Dahl; Baerbel Jansen; Wolf-Meinhard Becker; Jonas Lidholm; Ronald van Ree; Hermann Broll; Susanne Kaul; Stefan Vieths; Thomas Holzhauser

2011-01-01

192

Carotenoid In Planta Development, Storage, and Bioaccessibility: A Comprehensive Approach to Nutrient Analysis  

E-print Network

........................................................................... 58 Results and Discussion ................................................................... 59 Butternut Squash (Cucurbita moschata Poir) ......................... 59 Carrot (Daucus carota subsp. Sativus... micrographs of butternut squash and yogurt meal fractions. ....... 63 Figure 16. TEM micrographs of butternut squash digesta fraction. ....................... 63 Figure 17. Light micrographs of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. Sativus) parenchyma cells...

Jeffery, Jennifer L.

2010-01-14

193

Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as

A. Charania

2002-01-01

194

Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and ar...

195

Antifeedant activity of some Tanacetum species and bioassay guided isolation of the secondary metabolites of Tanacetum cadmeum ssp. cadmeum (Compositae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antifeedant activities of Tanacetum cadmeum ssp. cadmeum, Tanacetum parthenium, Tanacetum corymbosum ssp. cinereum, Tanacetum chiliophyllum var. chiliophyllum, Tanacetum kotschyi and Tanacetum cadmeum ssp. orientale were assessed on Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lep: Noctuidae) third instar larvae. The highest antifeedant activities were found as 62 and 55.05% in the extracts of MeOH with T. cadmeum ssp. cadmeum aerial parts, MeOH with T.

Hilal Susurluk; Zerrin Çal??kan; Oktay Gürkan; Süheyla K?rm?z?gül; Nezhun Gören

2007-01-01

196

Constitutive heterochromatin DNA polymorphisms in diploid Medicago sativa ssp. falcata.  

PubMed

A Giemsa C-banding technique was used to study the amount and location of constitutive heterochromatin in diploid (2n = 2x = 16) Medicago sativa ssp. falcata (L.) Arcangeli. Most accessions had the standard C-banding pattern with centromeric bands on all the chromosomes and a prominent heterochromatic band at the nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) of the satellited (SAT) chromosomes. However, we observed in various accessions that constitutive heterochromatic C-bands can exist at the telomeric ends of all the chromosomes. Interstitial bands occurred on the short arms of all chromosomes except for chromosome 3 and on the long arms of chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and 6, only. Rearranged chromosomes such as isochromosomes have been observed for the short arms of chromosomes 2 and 6. This is the first report on the existence of C-banding polymorphisms and the detection of putative isochromsomes in the chromosomes of diploid ssp. falcata which could have contributed to the variation observed in cultivated alfalfa. PMID:10584312

Bauchan, G R; Hossain, M A

1999-10-01

197

Evaluation of RO modules for the SSP ETC/LSS.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past eight years the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an Integrated Water and Waste Management System for use in the Space Station Prototype (SSP) Environmental Thermal Control/Life-Support System (ETC/LSS). This system includes the reverse osmosis (RO) process for recycling wash water and the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water and the wash water concentrated by RO. This paper summarizes the experimental work performed during the past four years to select the best commercially available RO module for this system and to also define which surfactants and germicides are most compatible with the selected module.

Jasionowski, W. J.; Bambenek, R. A.

1973-01-01

198

Potential SSP Perfluorooctanoic Acid Related Fluoropolymer Materials Obsolescence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative (SEA) has identified a potential for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to incur materials obsolescence issues due to agreements between the fluoro-chemical industry and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to participate in a Global Stewardship Program for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This presentation will include discussions of the chemistry, regulatory drivers, affected types of fluoropolymer and fluoroelastomer products, timeline for reformulations, and methodology for addressing the issue. It will cover the coordination of assessment efforts with the International Space Station and Head Quarters Air Force Space Command, along with some examples of impacted materials. The presentation is directed at all members of the international aerospace community concerned with identifying potential environmentally driven materials obsolescence issues.

Segars, Matt G.

2006-01-01

199

Evaluation of chemical and technological characteristics of new lines of Triticum turgidum ssp dicoccum.  

PubMed

Triticum durum ssp dicoccum also called farro in Italy is gaining more and more interest from farmer due to its commercial potentiality. In this paper, thirty lines F6 of farro obtained by crossing the cvs. Triticum turgidum ssp durum Ofanto and Simeto and T. turgidum ssp dicoccum Molise population were studied. They were evaluated with special reference to chemical composition and technological characteristics in order to select genotypes suitable for the production of food commodities. The storage protein composition (High Molecular Weight and Low Molecular Weight Glutenin) was also considered by different electrophoretic techniques. PMID:11534466

Galterio, G; Cardarilli, D; Codianni, P; Acquistucci, R

2001-08-01

200

Seed germination characteristics of Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. viridulus (Astereae, Asteraceae)  

SciTech Connect

Rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pallas) Britt. ssp. viridulus) may prove to be a source of high-quality cis-isoprene rubber, but its establishment is limited by a lack of information on seed germination. Consequently, seeds were germinated at alternating temperatures (5-15, 5-25, 15-25, and 20-30 C) in light and dark as well as constant temperatures (15-40 C with 5-C increments) to determine temperature response. Seeds were also germinated in solutions of polyethylene glycol 6000, salinity regimes at all the above-mentioned temperatures to determine salinity and temperature interaction. The hormones GA/sub 3/ and kinetin were used to study their effect on overcoming salt- and temperature-induced germination inhibition. Seeds of C. nauseosus ssp. viridulus were very sensitive to low temperature. Best germination was achieved at 25 and 30 C, but these seeds also germinated at a higher temperature (35 C). The seeds of rabbit brush germinated at both constant and alternating temperatures. Light appears to play little or no role in controlling germination of the seeds of rubber rabbitbrush. However, seeds of rabbitbrush were sensitive to salinity, and seed germination was progressively inhibited by increase in salt concentration, although a few seeds still germinated at the highest saline level. Progressively higher concentrations of polyethylene glycol also progressively inhibited germination. Suppression of seed germination induced by high salt concentrations and high temperatures can be partially alleviated by the application of either GA/sub 3/ or kinetin. 34 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

Khan, M.A.; Sankhla, N.; Weber, D.J.; McArthur, E.D.

1987-04-30

201

Functional characterization of gynodioecy in Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Gynodioecy is a phylogenetically widespread and important sexual system where females coexist with hermaphrodites. Because dioecy can arise from gynodioecy, characterization of gynodioecy in close relatives of dioecious and sub-dioecious species can provide insight into this transition. Thus, we sought to determine whether Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata, a close relative to F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, exhibits the functional and population genetic hallmarks of a gynodioecious species. Methods We compared reproductive allocation of females and hermaphrodites grown in the greenhouse and estimated genetic diversity (allelic diversity, heterozygosity) and inbreeding coefficients for field-collected adults of both sexes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We estimated mating system and early seed fitness from open-pollinated families of both sex morphs. Key Results Under greenhouse conditions, females and hermaphrodites allocated similarly to all reproductive traits except flower number, and, as a consequence, females produced 30 % fewer seeds per plant than hermaphrodites. Under natural conditions, hermaphrodites produce seeds by self-fertilization approx. 75 % of the time, and females produced outcrossed seeds with very little biparental inbreeding. Consistent with inbreeding depression, seeds from open-pollinated hermaphrodites were less likely to germinate than those from females, and family-level estimates of hermaphrodite selfing rates were negatively correlated with germination success and speed. Furthermore, estimates of inbreeding depression based on genetic markers and population genetic theory indicate that inbreeding depression in the field could be high. Conclusions The joint consideration of allocation and mating system suggests that compensation may be sufficient to maintain females given the current understanding of sex determination. Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata exhibited similar sex morph-dependent patterns of mating system and genetic diversity, but less reproductive trait dimorphism, than its sub-dioecious and dioecious congeners. PMID:22052984

Li, Junmin; Koski, Matthew H.; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2012-01-01

202

An abstract class loader for the SSP and its implementation in TL.  

SciTech Connect

The SSP is a hardware implementation of a subset of the JVM for use in high consequence embedded applications. In this context, a majority of the activities belonging to class loading, as it is defined in the specification of the JVM, can be performed statically. Static class loading has the net result of dramatically simplifying the design of the SSP as well as increasing its performance. Due to the high consequence nature of its applications, strong evidence must be provided that all aspects of the SSP have been implemented correctly. This includes the class loader. This article explores the possibility of formally verifying a class loader for the SSP implemented in the strategic programming language TL. Specifically, an implementation of the core activities of an abstract class loader is presented and its verification in ACL2 is considered.

Wickstrom, Gregory Lloyd; Winter, Victor Lono (University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE); Fraij, Fares (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Roach, Steve (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Beranek, Jason (University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE)

2004-08-01

203

Fine scale genetic structure in the wild ancestor of maize (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis)  

E-print Network

Fine scale genetic structure in the wild ancestor of maize (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) JOOST VAN, BRANDON S. GAUT§ and LUIS E. EGUIARTE­ *Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA

Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

204

Biotransformation of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes by cell suspension cultures of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation capacity of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium (yarrow) cell suspension cultures was investigated using geraniol (50mg\\/l) and borneol, menthol, thymol and farnesols (25mg\\/l) as substrates. Apart from converting these substrates into several biotransformation products, the cell suspension cultures were also able to glycosylate both the substrates and the biotransformation products. aa]Key Words bb]Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium bb]Yarrow

A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. João Almendra; José G. Barroso; Johannes J. C. Scheffer

1996-01-01

205

MglA/SspA Complex Interactions Are Modulated by Inorganic Polyphosphate  

PubMed Central

The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen’s virulence and survival within host cells. Our goal was to determine if an intracellular metabolite modulate these protein/protein interactions. In this study, we identified inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) as a signal molecule that promotes the interaction of MglA and SspA from F. tularensis SCHU S4. Analysis of the Mgla/SspA interaction was carried out using a two-hybrid system. The Escherichia coli reporter strain contained a deletion on the ppK-ppX operon, inhibiting polyP synthesis. The interaction between MglA and SspA was significantly impaired, as was the interaction between the MglA/SspA complex and the regulatory protein, FevR, indicating the stabilizing effect of polyP. In F. tularensis, chromatin immune precipitation studies revealed that in the absence of polyP, binding of the MglA/SspA complex to the promoter region of the pdpD, iglA, fevR and ppK genes is decreased. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that polyP binds directly to the MglA/SspA complex with high affinity (KD?=?0.3 µM). These observations directly correlated with results obtained from calorimetric scans (DSC), where a strong shift in the mid-transition temperature (Tm) of the MglA/SspA complex was observed in the presence of polyP. PMID:24116108

Siegel, Sara D.; Pagliai, Fernando A.; Malekiha, Mahsa; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Lorca, Graciela L.

2013-01-01

206

Asymmetric chromosome segregation in Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri.  

PubMed

This study was intended to characterize the chromosome segregation process of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xac) by investigating the functionality of the ParB factor encoded on its chromosome, and its requirement for cell viability and virulence. Using TAP tagging we show that ParB is expressed in Xac. Disruption of parB increased the cell doubling time and precluded the ability of Xac to colonize the host citrus. Moreover, Xac mutant cells expressing only truncated forms of ParB exhibited the classical phenotype of aberrant chromosome organization, and seemed affected in cell division judged by their reduced growth rate and the propensity to form filaments. The ParB-GFP localization pattern in Xac was suggestive of an asymmetric mode of replicon partitioning, which together with the filamentation phenotype support the idea that Xac may control septum placement using mechanisms probably analogous to Caulobacter crescentus, and perhaps Vibrio cholerae, and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Xac exhibits asymmetric chromosome segregation, and the perturbation of this process leads to an inability to colonize the host plant. PMID:24339434

Ucci, Amanda P; Martins, Paula M M; Lau, Ivy F; Bacci, Maurício; Belasque, José; Ferreira, Henrique

2014-02-01

207

Comparison of Ribosomal DNA ITS Regions Among Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis from Different Geographic Areas in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis is of ecological and practical importance, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis\\u000a of the rDNA ITS region was conducted to estimate the genetic diversity of H. rhamnoides ssp. sinensis at 19 sites in Northern China. Restriction analysis divided the samples into seven RFLP patterns (I–VII), which\\u000a implied that H. rhamnoides ssp. sinensis had a degree of

Li-hong Chen; Zhuo Yu; Hai-peng Jin

2010-01-01

208

Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as one such candidate for consideration. A marketing roadmap is presented that reveals the potential benefits of SSP to both the space community and the global populace at large. Recognizing that scientific efficiency itself has no constituency large enough to persuade entities to outlay funds for such projects, a holistic approach is taken to positioning SSP. This includes the scientific, engineering, exploratory, economic, political, and development capabilities of the system. SSP can be seen as both space exploration related and a resource project for undeveloped nations. Coupling these two non-traditional areas yields a broader constituency for the project that each one alone could generate. Space exploration is many times seen as irrelevant to the condition of the populace of the planet from which the money comes for such projects. When in this new century, billions of people on the planet still have never made a phone call or even have access to clean water, the origins of this skepticism can be understandable. An area of concern is the problem of not living up to the claims of overeager program marketers. Just as the ISS may never live up to the claims of its advocates in terms of space research, any SSP program must be careful in not promising utopian global solutions to any future energy starved world. Technically, SSP is a very difficult problem, even harder than creating the ISS, yet the promise it can hold for both space exploration and Earth development can lead to a renaissance of the relevance of space to the lives of the citizens of the world.

Charania, A.

2002-01-01

209

Versatile modes of peptide recognition by the AAA+ adaptor protein SspB  

SciTech Connect

Energy-dependent proteases often rely on adaptor proteins to modulate substrate recognition. The SspB adaptor binds peptide sequences in the stress-response regulator RseA and in ssrA-tagged proteins and delivers these molecules to the AAA+ ClpXP protease for degradation. The structure of SspB bound to an ssrA peptide is known. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex between SspB and its recognition peptide in RseA. Notably, the RseA sequence is positioned in the peptide-binding groove of SspB in a direction opposite to the ssrA peptide, the two peptides share only one common interaction with the adaptor, and the RseA interaction site is substantially larger than the overlapping ssrA site. This marked diversity in SspB recognition of different target proteins indicates that it is capable of highly flexible and dynamic substrate delivery.

Levchenko, Igor; Grant, Robert A.; Flynn, Julia M.; Sauer, Robert T.; Baker, Tania A. (MIT)

2010-07-19

210

Comparative chemical composition, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activities of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus L. berry and wood oils from Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus) is used in European cuisine for its distinguishing flavour. J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus berry and wood essential oils were tentatively identified by GC and GC\\/MS. Fifty compounds were identified in the berry oil and 23 compounds were identified in the wood oil. The J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus berry oil was characterised by high contents of ?-pinene (27.4%)

Monica R. Loizzo; Rosa Tundis; Filomena Conforti; Antoine M. Saab; Giancarlo A. Statti; Francesco Menichini

2007-01-01

211

A cellular study of teosinte Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (Poaceae) caryopsis development showing several processes conserved in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although recent molecular studies elucidate the genetic background leading to changed morphology of maize female inflorescence and the structure of the caryopsis during the domestication of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) from its wild progenitor teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), the mechanisms under...

212

Abstract--Ecophysiological observations were taken on big sage-brush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata) and spiny hopsage  

E-print Network

196 Abstract--Ecophysiological observations were taken on big sage- brush (Artemisia tridentata ssp, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata), under increasing seasonal wa- ter stress. Spiny. tridentata) and spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa) to assess their response to increasing seasonal water stress

213

Development of microsatellite markers in a large perennial herb, Veratrum album ssp. oxysepalum.  

PubMed

We developed 11 polymorphic microsatellite [simple sequence repeat (SSR)] loci from genomic DNA of Veratrum album ssp. oxysepalum using a dual-suppression polymerase chain reaction technique and an improved method. These markers, with four to 17 alleles per locus, identified 47 genotypes in 48 samples collected from a population in Hokkaido, Japan. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.042 to 0.938 and from 0.448 to 0.909, respectively. These SSR markers will be available to identify genets and evaluate genetic diversity of V. album ssp. oxysepalum. PMID:21585952

Kato, Y; Araki, K; Kubota, S; Ohara, M

2008-09-01

214

Isolation and characterization of a novel BcMF14 gene from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A putative RALF (rapid alkalinization factor)-like gene (GenBank accession number EF523517), named BcMF14, was isolated from Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) based on a cDNA-AFLP differential fragment exclusively expressed in fertile line.\\u000a Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) discovered that BcMF14 was prominently expressed in

Yanyan Li; Chuanpeng Nie; Jiashu Cao

2011-01-01

215

A Novel Bluetooth Man-In-The-Middle Attack Based On SSP using OOB Association model  

E-print Network

As an interconnection technology, Bluetooth has to address all traditional security problems, well known from the distributed networks. Moreover, as Bluetooth networks are formed by the radio links, there are also additional security aspects whose impact is yet not well understood. In this paper, we propose a novel Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attack against Bluetooth enabled mobile phone that support Simple Secure Pairing(SSP). From the literature it was proved that the SSP association models such as Numeric comparison, Just works and passkey Entry are not more secure. Here we propose the Out Of Band (OOB) channeling with enhanced security than the previous methods.

Saravanan, K; Negesh, R K

2012-01-01

216

Multigenerational effects of inbreeding in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana (Cucurbitaceae).  

PubMed

The shape of the fitness function relating the decline in fitness with coefficient of inbreeding (f) can provide evidence concerning the genetic basis of inbreeding depression, but few studies have examined inbreeding depression across a range of f using noncultivated species. Futhermore, studies have rarely examined the effects of inbreeding depression in the maternal parent on offspring fitness. To estimate the shape of the fitness function, we examined the relationship between f and fitness across a range off from 0.000 to 0.875 for components of both male and female fitness in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana. Each measure of female fitness declined with f, including pistillate flower number, fruit number, seed number per fruit, seed mass per fruit, and percentage seed germination. Several aspects of male fitness also declined with f, including staminate flower number, pollen number per flower, and the number of days of flowering, although cumulative inbreeding depression was less severe for male (0.34) than for female function (0.39). Fitness tended to decline linearly with f between f = 0.00 and f = 0.75 for most traits and across cumulative lifetime fitness (mean = 0.66), suggesting that individual genes causing inbreeding depression are additive and the result of many alleles of small effect. However, most traits also showed a small reduction in inbreeding depression between f = 0.75 and f = 0.875, and evidence of purging or diminishing epistasis was found for in vitro pollen-tube growth rate. To examine inbreeding depression as a maternal effect, we performed outcross pollinations on f = 0.0 and f = 0.5 mothers and found that depression due to maternal inbreeding was 0.07, compared to 0.10 for offspring produced through one generation of selfing. In at least some families, maternal inbreeding reduced fruit number, seed number and mass, staminate flower number, pollen diameter, and pollen-tube growth rate. Collectively these results suggest that, while the fitness function appears to be largely linear for most traits, maternal effects may compound the effects of inbreeding depression in multigenerational studies, though this may be partially offset by purging or diminishing epistasis. PMID:15807414

Hayes, C Nelson; Winsor, James A; Stephenson, Andrew G

2005-02-01

217

Overexpression of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein 2 ( PGIP2 ) of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis ) increased resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant cell wall glycoproteins that can inhibit microbial polygalacturonase\\u000a (PG) activity. In this study, we cloned five PGIP genes from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Reverse transcription PCR expression analysis showed that the accumulation of BrPGIP transcripts differed among various tissues and in response to biotic (bacterial innoculation) and abiotic stresses (i.e.,\\u000a wounding, jasmonic acid,

Byung Ho Hwang; Hanhong Bae; Hyoun-Sub Lim; Kun Bo Kim; Shin Je Kim; Myoung-Ho Im; Beom-Suk Park; Do Sun Kim; Jongkee Kim

2010-01-01

218

Valladolid, May 7, 2005 Some reflections on PEP-SSP3 (1979-1981) and on  

E-print Network

Valladolid, May 7, 2005 Some reflections on PEP-SSP3 (1979-1981) and on where weather modification on how weather modification as science should be approached: (i) assesment based on measurements "Weather modification research appears to have stagnated. Demonstration of a better understanding

Vali, Gabor

219

In vitro biological activity screening of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Döll  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of selected biological activities, including anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts as well as the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Döll (LCC, Lycopodiaceae) growing in Turkey. Anticholinesterase effect of the extracts was tested against both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at

Ilkay Orhan; Berrin Özçelik; Sinem Aslan; Murat Kartal; Taner Karaoglu; Bilge ?ener; Salih Terzioglu; M. Iqbal Choudhary

2009-01-01

220

INFLUENCE OF MOWING ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA SSP. WYOMINGENSIS ON WINTER HABITAT FOR WILDLIFE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the in...

221

Ecotypic variation in Elymus elymoides ssp. Brevifolius race C in the northern Intermountain West  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides [Raf.] Sweezey) is an important native bunchgrass for restoration of degraded rangelands of western North America. It is taxonomically complex and has diverged into as many as four subspecies, including ssp. brevifolius, for which four geographically disti...

222

Occurrence of aphidborne viruses in southernmost South American populations of Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild and cultivated Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis (Fcc) plants were collected at different locations in southern Chile in order to determine the current viral status of this native strawberry. The following aphidborne viruses (ABVs): Strawberry mild yellow edge virus (SMYEV), Strawberry mottle...

223

Carbon Sequestration in Rangelands Interseeded with Yellow-Flowering Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ssp. falcata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management practices can significantly influence carbon sequestration by rangeland ecosystems. Grazing, burning, and fertilization have been shown to increase soil carbon storage in rangeland soils of the Great Plains. Research was initiated in 2001 in northwestern South Dakota to evaluate the role of interseeding a legume, Medicago sativa ssp. falcata, in northern mixed-grass rangelands on carbon sequestration. Sampling was undertaken

Matthew C. Mortenson; Lachlan J. Ingram

2004-01-01

224

Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida  

SciTech Connect

Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-?mglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-?mglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

2012-07-06

225

Allelopathic activity of Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Najas marina ssp. intermedia (Wolfgang) Casper  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the allelopathic activity of two submersed macrophytes with different growth forms and nutrient uptake modes, Ceratophyllum demersum and Najas marina ssp. intermedia. A bioassay-directed method development revealed optimal extraction solvents for allelochemicals from both macrophytes. For Najas, 50% methanol and for Ceratophyllum 50% acetone yielded the strongest inhibition in the agar-diffusion assay with various filamentous or chroococcal cyanobacteria

Elisabeth M. Gross; Daniela Erhard; Enikö Iványi

2003-01-01

226

Transfer of soft kernel texture from Triticum aestivum to durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is a leading cereal grain whose primary use is the production of semolina and then pasta. Its rich culinary relationship to humans is related, in part, to its very hard kernel texture. This very hard texture is due to the loss of the Puroindoline genes whi...

227

Transformation of Pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) by Agrobacterium infiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) plants were obtained in the progeny of plants infiltrated by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain carrying a gene for resistance to the herbicide phosphinotricin (Basta). Genetic analysis demonstrates the transmission of the herbicide resistant trait to the progeny. Molecular analyses show that the transgene was inserted in the plant genome and expressed. This work

Cao Ming Qing; Liu Fan; Yao Lei; David Bouchez; Colette Tourneur; Li Yan; Christophe Robaglia

2000-01-01

228

Coding Sequence Divergence Between Two Closely Related Plant Species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the coding-sequence divergence of closely related genomes, we compared DNA sequence divergence between sequences from a Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis EST library isolated from flower buds and genomic sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana. The specific objectives were (i) to determine the distribution of and relationship between Ka and Ks, (ii) to identify genes with the lowest and highest Ka:Ks

Peter Tiffin; Matthew W. Hahn

2002-01-01

229

Chemical and biological study on the essential oil of Artemisia caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora (Viv.).  

PubMed

Artemisia caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora (Viv.) is a wild shrub that grows in the archipelago of La Maddalena, Sardinia, Italy. The antifungal activity of the volatile oil of this sub-species has not been evaluated earlier. This study aimed to identify the main components of the essential oil of A. caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora and to investigate its antifungal activity. Identification of the different components of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from A. caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora was done by both techniques: GC-MS and NMR analyses ((1)H, (13)C, HSQC-NMR). Antifungal activity was evaluated by agar disc diffusion technique against environmental isolates of fungal strains: two yeasts (Rhodotorula spp., Candida spp.), three moulds (Aspergillus spp., Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp.) and a mixture of moulds. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil yielded 42 compounds, out of which, 26 compounds were identified. The main compound was identified as terpinen-4-ol (22%) followed by p-cymene (7.6%) and ?-terpineol (3.02%). The significant inhibition spectrum of the essential oil of A. caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora can be considered as an alternative to common disinfectants. PMID:23244627

Petretto, Giacomo L; Chessa, Mario; Piana, Andrea; Masia, Maria D; Foddai, Marzia; Mangano, Giuseppe; Culeddu, Nicola; Afifi, Fatma U; Pintore, Giorgio

2013-01-01

230

Development of microsatellite markers in a large perennial herb, Veratrum album ssp. oxysepalum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed 11 polymorphic microsatellite (simple sequence repeat (SSR)) loci from genomic DNA of Veratrum album ssp. oxysepalum using a dual-suppression polymerase chain reaction technique and an improved method. These markers, with four to 17 alleles per locus, identified 47 genotypes in 48 samples collected from a population in Hokkaido, Japan. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.042 to

Y. KATO; K. ARAKI; S. KUBOTA; M. OHARA

2008-01-01

231

IdeE, an IgG-endopeptidase of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi.  

PubMed

Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is the causative agent of strangles, a highly contagious and serious disease in the upper respiratory tract of horses. The present study describes the characterization of IdeE, a homolog of the secreted IgG-specific protease IdeS/Mac of Streptococcus pyogenes. The activity of IdeE is compared with the activity of IdeZ, the corresponding enzyme of the closely related S. equi ssp. zooepidemicus. A study of the proteolytic activity of recombinant IdeE and IdeZ on IgG from a selection of mammals shows that only antibodies containing the substrate site of IdeS/Mac are cleaved, indicating that the specificities of these enzymes are similar. Interestingly, IgG from horse is less effectively cleaved than IgG from e.g. dog or humans, as the dominating IgG isotype in horse sera (IgG4) lacks a distinct substrate site for IdeE/IdeZ. IgG-degradation is observed when S. equi ssp. equi is grown in the presence of horse serum, but not when grown with purified IgG. As the fraction of degraded IgG contains IgG4, the observed activity might be due to the expression of an unknown enzyme rather than IdeE. In a similar assay, no proteolysis of IgG was detected in the growth media of S. equi ssp. zooepidemicus. PMID:16923080

Lannergård, Jonas; Guss, Bengt

2006-09-01

232

Wyoming Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) Seedling Growth and Maternal Plant Stand Position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known of maternal plant influence upon seed- ling characteristics of native shrubs. This study examined influence of maternal Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) stand position on emergence and growth of seed- lings. Seedlings from maternal plants in upslope, core, and downslope positions were grown in a common greenhouse setting. Percent germination, height, and canopy volume of

A. L. Hild; B. Christensen; A. Maier

1999-01-01

233

Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on

Kirk W. Davies; Jonathan D. Bates; Dustin D. Johnson; Aleta M. Nafus

2009-01-01

234

The influence of Artemsia tridentata ssp . wyomingensis on microsite and herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh within plant communities creates two distinct zones; underneath (subcanopy) and between shrub canopies (interspace). The purpose the study was to determine the influence of subcanopy and interspace zones on microsite characteristics and herbaceous vegetation. Study sites were located at the Northern Great Basin Experimental Range (NGBER)

K. W. Davies; J. D. Bates; R. F. Miller

2007-01-01

235

A new PCR-SSP method for HLA DR-DQ risk assessment for celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSusceptibility to celiac disease is essentially restricted to carriers of specific HLA DQA1 and DQB1 alleles. We have developed a semi-automated sequence specific primer (SSP) PCR method for clinical HLA typing and compared the test results with those from a commercial method.

Ewa H. Lavant; Daniel J. Agardh; Anita Nilsson; Joyce A. Carlson

2011-01-01

236

Summary of Recent Results from NASA's Space Solar Power (SSP) Programs and the Current Capabilities of Microwave WPT Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of placing enormous solar power satellite (SPS) systems in space represents one of a handful of new technological options that might provide large-scale, environmentally clean base load power into terrestrial markets. In the US, the SPS concept was examined extensively during the late 1970s by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). More recently, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the "fresh look" study, and during 1998 in an SSP "concept definition study". As a result of these efforts, in 1999-2000, NASA undertook the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program which pursued preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt SSP systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). During 2001-2002, NASA has been pursuing an SSP Concept and Technology Maturation (SCTM) program follow-on to the SERT, with special emphasis on identifying new, high-leverage technologies that might advanced the feasibility of future SSP systems. In addition, in 2001, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a major report providing the results of a peer review of NASA's SSP strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps. One of the key technologies needed to enable the future feasibility of SSP/SPS is that of wireless power transmission. Advances in phased array antennas and rectennas have provided the building blocks for a realizable WPT system. These key components include the dc-RF converters in the transmitter, the retrodirective beam control system, and the receiving rectenna. Each subject is briefly covered, and results from the SERT program that studied a 5.8 GHz SPS system are presented. This paper presents a summary results from NASA's SSP efforts, along with a summary of the status of microwave WPT technology development.

McSpadden, James; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

237

ORIGINAL ARTICLE David M. Ribnicky Jerry D. Cohen Wei-Shou Hu  

E-print Network

is a critical mechanism for regulating carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Danvers 126) embryogenesis and other instances of plant totipotency. Keywords Daucus (totipotency) á Embryogenesis Indole-3-acetic acid

Cooke, Todd J.

238

The effects of plasticization and storage on quality of freeze-dried and compressed carrot bars  

E-print Network

10 Stress relaxation of carrots plasticized with 0, 1% butter flavor solution with microwave equili- bration at 50f. moisture . INTRODUCTION Carrots (Daucus carota) are among the more popular vegetables in the United States. In 1976...

Greaves, Donald William

1978-01-01

239

21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...liquid or the solid portion of the mixture or the mixture itself obtained by the hexane extraction of edible carrots (Daucus carota L.) with subsequent removal of the hexane by vacuum distillation. The resultant mixture of solid and...

2012-04-01

240

Intercontinental disjunctions in Cryptotaenia (Apiaceae, Oenantheae)  

E-print Network

, is not closely related to the other Macaronesian endemics but to Daucus carota. (3) The African members some Mediterranean and African species of Daucus and their relatives, or they are paraphyletic

Downie, Stephen R.

241

21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...liquid or the solid portion of the mixture or the mixture itself obtained by the hexane extraction of edible carrots (Daucus carota L.) with subsequent removal of the hexane by vacuum distillation. The resultant mixture of solid and...

2011-04-01

242

21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...liquid or the solid portion of the mixture or the mixture itself obtained by the hexane extraction of edible carrots (Daucus carota L.) with subsequent removal of the hexane by vacuum distillation. The resultant mixture of solid and...

2013-04-01

243

The effect of various thidiazuron concentrations and 2,4-d exposure on somaclonal variation and shoot morphogenesis in birch  

E-print Network

and used as artificial seeds (Redenbaugh et al. , 1984). Somatic embryogenesis was first observed by Steward et al. (1958) in Daucus carota, and the carrot system remains the most well documented. Since this initial study, somatic embryogenesis has been...

Chanon, Ann Marie

1993-01-01

244

21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...liquid or the solid portion of the mixture or the mixture itself obtained by the hexane extraction of edible carrots (Daucus carota L.) with subsequent removal of the hexane by vacuum distillation. The resultant mixture of solid and...

2010-04-01

245

21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...liquid or the solid portion of the mixture or the mixture itself obtained by the hexane extraction of edible carrots (Daucus carota L.) with subsequent removal of the hexane by vacuum distillation. The resultant mixture of solid and...

2014-04-01

246

The effect of maturation on the quality of freeze-dried compressed carrots  

E-print Network

after plantings ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 105 INTRODUCTION Carrots Daucus carota are among the more widely grown vegetables in the United States. In 1974& the com- mercial carrot crop totaled over 1. 3 billion pounds with a value of f93. 4 million...

Bennet, Richard Guy

1976-01-01

247

Quality attributes of processed strained carrots  

E-print Network

have used technological advances to improve quality characteristics of the finished product. Carrots (Daucus carota L. ) are a commodity in which increasing attention has been given to improving quality in the past ten years. Carrots represent a...

Braswell, Daniel D.

1995-01-01

248

IN VITRO BINDING OF BILE ACIDS BY OKRA, BEETS, ASPARAGUS, EGGPLANT, TURNIPS, GREEN BEANS, CARROTS, AND CAULIFLOWER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The in vitro binding of bile acids by okra (abelmoschus esculentus), beets (beta vulgaris), asparagus (asparagus officinalis), eggplant (solanum malongena), turnips (brassica rapa rapifera), green beans (phaseolus vulgaris), carrots (daucus carota), and cauliflower (brassica oleracea botrytis) was d...

249

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance tolerance to bicarbonate in Rosa multiflora cv. burr  

E-print Network

) in compartmented monoxenic cultures (system void of organisms other than the two symbionts; AMF and plant) of root inducing transferred (RiT)-DNA transformed 11 Daucus carota L. (carrot) root (Joner et al., 2000a). Hawkins et al. (2000) demonstrated that G.... intraradices transported N from glycine and glumate in compartmented monoxenic cultures RiT-DNA transformed D. carota roots. However, this uptake did not contribute significantly to N uptake by the roots, but may be important for fungal nutrition...

Cartmill, Andrew David

2005-11-01

250

The development of in vitro culture techniques for species of the Microseridinae (Compositae, Cichorieae)  

E-print Network

cultures with Salix ~ca rea and Daucus carota showed unlimited growth of plant cells on nutrient medium (Gautheret 1939; Nobecourt 1939). The initial studies utilized large explants with many cells present. The resulting mass of dividing cells... from protoplasts of ~d ffitf. li ~dt gll d, g i ~, tit sinensis, Datura innoxia, Daucus carota Nicotiana, Petunia and Ranunculus (Bajaj 1977). IV. Protoplast fusion Smith (1974) has reviewed the significance of somatic plant cell genetics...

Grumbles, Robert Matheson

1977-01-01

251

Mmoire prsent en vue de l'obtention du grade de Docteur de l'Universit d'Angers  

E-print Network

doctorale : VENAM Thèse N o 1265 Analyse des mécanismes de défense de la carotte (Daucus carota) face au2013 #12;Université d'Angers Année 2013 no 1265 Analyse des mécanismes de défense de la carotte (Daucus carota) face au champignon pathogène Alternaria dauci, responsable de l'alternariose ou brûlure foliaire

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

Assessment of the agronomic and technological characteristics of Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum Schrank and T. spelta L.  

PubMed

Recently, the peoples interest in natural and organic products led to a "rediscovery" of hulled wheat, particularly T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum, commonly known as "farro". Compared with durum wheat (T. turgidum ssp. durum), farro is characterized by low productivity and low quality semolina and flour, which makes it unsuitable for the production of bread and pasta. In this paper, the agronomic, technological and nutritional characteristics of three new varieties of farro obtained by crossing the T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum c.v. Molise with T. turgidum ssp. durum c.v. Simeto, were analysed. Data were then compared with those concerning older populations of T. turgidum and of two varieties of T. spelta. The aim of this work is to highlight the productive advantages of the new varieties and to emphasize their prospective use in the production of bread and pasta with considerable health properties due to nutritional characteristics of hulled cereals. PMID:12653440

Galterio, Giovanni; Codianni, Pasquale; Giusti, Anna Maria; Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Cannella, Carlo

2003-02-01

253

Leaf Peltate Glandular Trichomes of Vernonia galamensis ssp. galamensis var. ethiopica Gilbert: Development, Ultrastructure and Chemical Composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plants from the genus Vernonia produce a variety of flavonoids and bitter sesquiterpene lactones important for agriculture and human health. Leaf glandular trichomes of Vernonia galamensis ssp. galamensis var. ethiopica Gilbert (VGAE) were investigated for ultrastructural development and content com...

254

SSP1, a gene necessary for proper completion of meiotic divisions and spore formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

During meiosis, a diploid cell undergoes two rounds of nuclear division following one round of DNA replication to produce four haploid gametes. In yeast, haploid meiotic products are packaged into spores. To gain new insights into meiotic development and spore formation, we followed differential expression of genes in meiotic versus vegetatively growing cells in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results indicate that there are at least five different classes of transcripts representing genes expressed at different stages of the sporulation program. Here we describe one of these differentially expressed genes, SSP1, which plays an essential role in meiosis and spore formation. SSP1 is expressed midway through meiosis, and homozygous ssp1 diploid cells fail to sporulate. In the ssp1 mutant, meiotic recombination is normal but viability declines rapidly. Both meiotic divisions occur at the normal time; however, the fraction of cells completing meiosis is significantly reduced, and nuclei become fragmented soon after meiosis II. The ssp1 defect does not appear to be related to a microtubule-cytoskeletal-dependent event and is independent of two rounds of chromosome segregation. The data suggest that Ssp1 is likely to function in a pathway that controls meiotic nuclear divisions and coordinates meiosis and spore formation. PMID:9372934

Nag, D K; Koonce, M P; Axelrod, J

1997-01-01

255

BcMF21 is important for pollen development and germination in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.  

PubMed

Brassica campestris Male Fertility 21 (BcMF21) was previously isolated from the flower buds of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) and expressed specifically in tapetum and microspores during the meiosis stage and the uninucleate stage of microspore development. Here, we used antisense RNA technology to knock down the expression level of BcMF21 in B. campestris and analyzed the phenotype of the transgenic plants. Alexander staining and scanning electron microscope revealed sterility and exine deformities in the mature pollen grains of BcMF21 antisense RNA transgenic plants. The germination furrow of the BcMF21 antisense RNA transgenic pollen was covered by lipid like materials. The pollen tubes burst and could not grow normally in vitro. Therefore, we presented here BcMF21 might be an important gene for pollen development and germination. PMID:24323195

Jiang, Jingjing; Yu, Youjian; Dong, Heng; Yao, Lina; Zhang, Zhixian; Cao, Jiashu

2014-01-01

256

Isolation, purification and characterisation of low molecular weight xylanase from Bacillus pumilus SSP-34.  

PubMed

Low molecular weight endo-xylanase from Bacillus pumilus SSP-34 was purified to homogeneity using ion exchange and size exclusion chromatographies. Xylanases were isolated by novel purification protocol which includes the use of anion exchange matrix such as DEAE Sepharose CL 6B with less affinity towards enzyme protein. The purified B. pumilus SSP-34 have a molecular weight of 20 kDa, with optimum pH and temperature at 6.0 and 50 °C, respectively. The enzyme was stable at 50 °C for 30 min. It showed remarkable stability at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 9 when the reaction was carried out at 50 °C. K (m) and V (max) values, determined with oats spelts xylan were 6.5 mg ml?¹ and 1,233 ?mol min?¹ mg?¹ protein, respectively, and the specific activity was 1,723 U mg?¹. PMID:22350873

Subramaniyan, S

2012-04-01

257

Chemical, technological, and nutritional characteristics of two lines of "farro" (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum).  

PubMed

In recent years, the renewed interest for foods with a natural image has increased the demand for dry pasta produced from "hulled" wheat such as the Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum, also known as "farro". In order to contribute to the general knowledge, two lines of farro were considered in this study. To have a comparison, an old cultivar of Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Senatore Cappelli) in addition to a commercial semolina were also examined. All semolina samples were used to produce pasta samples. Results showed some differences among pasta samples that seem to be due not to the presence of specific protein subunits but especially to the quantitative ratio between the different subunits. Results also reconfirmed the role played by the drying technology that is able to affect the sensory characteristics of pasta products. PMID:15285114

Acquistucci, Rita; Aureli, Gabriella; Codianni, Pasquale; Colonna, Michaela; Galterio, Giovanni

2004-06-01

258

Applicability of Phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera to Remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of phytoextraction with a Cd-hyperaccumulator plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera) to remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols. Cd absorption potentials of this plant for Andisols were examined in pot experiments. Sequentially, phytoextraction durations for remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols were calculated from the experimental data. The results were as follows: (1) Cd concentrations in the plant shoots ranged from 170-750 mg?kg-1. (2) Cd absorption of the plant for Andisols with ALC (Autoclaved Lightweight aerated Concrete) was less than for Andisols without ALC. However, the plants absorbed the same amount of soil Cd extracted by 0.01 M HCl with or without ALC. (3) Calculations suggest that the applicability of phytoextraction with this plant is high for slightly contaminated Andisols. Therefore, phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera may be a viable option for the remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols.

Kameyama, Koji; Tani, Shigeru; Sugawara, Reiko; Ishikawa, Yuichi

259

California Lomatiums, Part VI. Composition of the Essential Oils of Lomatium foeniculaceum ssp. fimbriatu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit essential oil of Lomatium foeniculaceum ssp. fmbriatum collected from the Inyo National Forest in California contained myrcene (24.5%), ?-phellandrene\\/limonene (12.9%), germacrene D (13.9%), (E)-?-ocimene (10.4%), and (Z)-ligustilide (9.8%) as the major components. Germacrene D and (Z)-ligustilide also constituted the major components of the stem and leaf oil. (Z)-Falcarinol (38.1%) was the major component of the root essential oil.

Philip S. Beauchamp; Barbara C. Dev; Vasu Dev

2006-01-01

260

Composition of the essential oil from cell suspension cultures of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oil isolated from Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium cell suspension cultures was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The yield of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation or a simultaneous distillation -extraction of these cultures, harvested at days 8–10 (end of exponential phase), was 0.001 % (w\\/w). The analysis of the volatiles showed the presence of thirteen

A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. Salomé; S. Pais; Johannes J. C. Scheffer

1995-01-01

261

The Impact of the Weed Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata on Coastal Leaf Litter Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In coastal areas of Australia, there are extensive infestations of the environmental weed Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata (bitou bush). This study looked at the impact of long-term infestations on the abundance and assemblage composition of leaf\\u000a litter invertebrates. Assemblages were compared in weed infested and native shrublands along the New South Wales coastline\\u000a over 12 months. The total abundance was

Elizabeth A. Lindsay; Kris French

2006-01-01

262

Propionic acid fermentation of glycerol and glucose by Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was carried out in anaerobic batch cultures on 20?g\\/l of either glycerol or glucose using two propionibacteria\\u000a strains, Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. In all cases, fermentation end-products were the same and consisted of propionic acid as the major product, acetic acid\\u000a as the main by-product and two minor metabolites, n-propanol and succinic acid. Evidence

E. H. Himmi; A. Bories; A. Boussaid; L. Hassani

2000-01-01

263

Constituents of Sideritis syriaca. ssp . syriaca (Lamiaceae) and their antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerial parts of Sideritissyriaca ssp. syriaca (Lamiaceae) were extracted, after defatting, with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated through in vitro model systems, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and Co(II) EDTA-induced luminol chemiluminescence. In both model systems the ethyl acetate extract was the most effective. Phytochemical analysis of ethyl acetate extract

M. Armata; C. Gabrieli; A. Termentzi; M. Zervou; E. Kokkalou

2008-01-01

264

Polymorphic Chromosomal Specificity of Centromere Satellite Families in Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosomal localizations of repetitive DNA clusters (ribosomal DNA and centromere satellites) were analyzed by fluorescent\\u000a in situ hybridization in five strains of Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera. All five A. gemmifera strains have three chromosome pairs with 45S (5.8S-16S-26S) rDNA loci, and one pair with both 5S and 45S rDNA loci. These\\u000a localizations are different from that of A. thaliana.

Akira Kawabe; Shuhei Nasuda

2006-01-01

265

Plasticity in life-history traits of Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma Pilger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasticity in life-history characteristics was investigated in three populations of Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma (Pilger), a self-compatible, wind pollinated species with a high self-fertilization rate. The populations studied were selected for their marked differences in biomass accumulation and habitat characteristics such as nutrient availability and interspecific interaction. Plants, raised from seeds collected at three sites, were grown in a

L. A. P. Lotz; C. W. P. M. Blom

1986-01-01

266

Seasonal variation in leaf glucosinolates and insect resistance in two types of Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves from natural populations of Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata (Brassicaceae) in Denmark were examined for glucosinolate content and resistance to the crucifer specialist flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum. Two types of the plant (P- and G-type) could be recognized. Leaves of the G-type contained the glucosinolates (only side chains mentioned): (S)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl- (2S), indol-3-ylmethyl- (4) and in trace amount (R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl- (2R), 2-phenylethyl-

Niels Agerbirk; Carl E. Olsen; Jens K. Nielsen

2001-01-01

267

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of lycopodane-type alkaloids from the Icelandic Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate structures and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of lycopodane-type alkaloids isolated from an Icelandic collection of Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre. Ten alkaloids were isolated, including annotinine, annotine, lycodoline, lycoposerramine M, anhydrolycodoline, gnidioidine, lycofoline, lannotinidine D, and acrifoline, as well as a previously unknown N-oxide of annotine. 1H and 13C NMR data of several of

Elsa Steinunn Halldorsdottir; Jerzy W. Jaroszewski; Elin Soffia Olafsdottir

2010-01-01

268

(?)-1(10),11-eremophiladien-9?-ol from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha ssp. aquatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpenoid, ( ? )-1(10),11-eremophiladien-9?-ol, was isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha ssp. aquatica. Structure elucidation was performed by means of spectroscopic methods and chemical conversion to known eremophilone. The configuration was proved by NOE measurements and comparison of the products obtained by dehydration and hydrogenation of the alcohol with the hydrogenation products of both enantiomers of eremophilene

Angela Rieck; Nils Bülow; Christiane Fricke; Yücel Saritas; Wilfried A. König

1997-01-01

269

Ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids from the liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia ssp. cordifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new bis-ent-kaurane-type, exsertifolin A, two new 6,7-seco-ent-kaurane-type, secoexsertifolins A and B, and seven new ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids, exsertifolins B, C, D, E, F, G, and H, were isolated from the French liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia Steph. ssp. cordifolia (Dum.) Va'?a, together with the previously known seven ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids. These structures were determined by means of extensive NMR techniques, chemical degradation and

Fumihiro Nagashima; Hironao Tanaka; Shigeru Takaoka; Yoshinori Asakawa

1996-01-01

270

Embryogenesis and plant regeneration from isolated microspores of Brassica rapa L. ssp. Oleifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Conditions favourable to embryogenesis from isolated microspores of Brassica rapa L. ssp. oleifera (canola quality) were identified. A population with enhanced responsiveness for microspore embryogenesis (C200) was synthesized by crossing individual plants showing microspore embryogenic potential. For optimal microspore embryogenesis, buds (2–3mm in length, containing mid-late uninucieate microspores) were collected from older plants (2 months old) and microspores isolated and

Laurie Burnett; Stephen Yarrow; Bin Huang

1992-01-01

271

Mapping of a QTL for oleic acid concentration in spring turnip rape ( Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk segregant analysis was used to search for RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers linked to gene(s) affecting oleic acid concentration in an F2 population from the Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera cross Jo4002 x a high oleic acid individual from line Jo4072. Eight primers (=8 markers) out of 104 discriminated the high and low bulks consisting of extreme individuals from

P. K. Tanhuanpää; J. P. Vilkki; H. J. Vilkki

1996-01-01

272

The identification of MacSe in Streptococcus equi ssp. equi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi ssp. equi) causes equine strangles, a highly contagious and widespread purulent lymphadenitis of the head and neck. We have identified\\u000a MacSe, a novel protein of S. equi, by screening a phage library of 3–8 kb random DNA fragments of S. equi CF32. MacSe shares 62% and 67.5% amino acid homology with Mac5005 and Mac8345

Jiande Yang; Yanfei Liu; Jun Xu; Jifei Ma

2009-01-01

273

Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production\\u000a for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter\\u000a habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on

Kirk W. Davies; Jonathan D. Bates; Dustin D. Johnson; Aleta M. Nafus

2009-01-01

274

Evaluating the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to Assess the Bond between Dogs and Humans  

PubMed Central

The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) is increasingly being used to study attachment between dogs and humans. It has been developed from the Ainsworth Strange Situation Procedure, which is used extensively to investigate attachment between children and their parents. In this experiment, 12 female beagle dogs were tested in two treatments to identify possible order effects in the test, a potential weakness in the SSP. In one treatment (FS), dogs participated together with a ‘familiar person’ and a ‘stranger’. In a control treatment (SS), the same dogs participated together with two unfamiliar people, ‘stranger A’ and ‘stranger B’. Comparisons were made between episodes within as well as between treatments. As predicted in FS, dogs explored more in the presence of the familiar person than the stranger. Importantly, they also explored more in the presence of stranger A (who appeared in the same order as the familiar person and followed the same procedure) than stranger B in SS. Furthermore, comparisons between treatments, where a familiar person was present in FS and stranger A was present in SS, showed no differences in exploration. In combination, these results indicate that the effect of a familiar person on dogs' exploratory behaviour, a key feature when assessing secure attachment styles, could not be tested reliably due to the order in which the familiar person and the stranger appear. It is proposed that in the future only counterbalanced versions of the SSP are used. Alternatively, since dogs reliably initiated more contact with the familiar person compared to the strangers, it is suggested that future studies on attachment in dogs towards humans should focus either on the behaviour of the dog in those episodes of the SSP when the person returns, or on reunion behaviour in other studies, specially designed to address dog-human interactions at this time. PMID:23437277

Rehn, Therese; McGowan, Ragen T. S.; Keeling, Linda J.

2013-01-01

275

Intraspecfic variation in cold-temperature metabolic phenotypes of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric temperature is a key factor in determining the distribution of a plant species. Alongside this, plant populations\\u000a growing at the margin of their range may exhibit traits that indicate genetic differentiation and adaptation to their local\\u000a abiotic environment. We investigated whether geographically separated marginal populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea have distinct metabolic phenotypes associated with exposure to cold

Matthew P. Davey; F. Ian Woodward; W. Paul Quick

2009-01-01

276

A Draft Sequence of the Rice Genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a draft sequence of the rice genome for the most widely cultivated subspecies in China, Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica, by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The genome was 466 megabases in size, with an estimated 46,022 to 55,615 genes. Functional coverage in the assembled sequences was 92.0%. About 42.2% of the genome was in exact 20-nucleotide oligomer repeats,

Jun Yu; Songnian Hu; Jun Wang; Gane Ka-Shu Wong; Songgang Li; Bin Liu; Yajun Deng; Li Dai; Yan Zhou; Xiuqing Zhang; Mengliang Cao; Jing Liu; Jiandong Sun; Jiabin Tang; Yanjiong Chen; Xiaobing Huang; Wei Lin; Chen Ye; Wei Tong; Lijuan Cong; Jianing Geng; Yujun Han; Lin Li; Wei Li; Guangqiang Hu; Xiangang Huang; Wenjie Li; Jian Li; Zhanwei Liu; Long Li; Jianping Liu; Qiuhui Qi; Jinsong Liu; Li Li; Tao Li; Xuegang Wang; Hong Lu; Tingting Wu; Miao Zhu; Peixiang Ni; Hua Han; Wei Dong; Xiaoyu Ren; Xiaoli Feng; Peng Cui; Xianran Li; Hao Wang; Xin Xu; Wenxue Zhai; Zhao Xu; Jinsong Zhang; Sijie He; Jianguo Zhang; Jichen Xu; Kunlin Zhang; Xianwu Zheng; Jianhai Dong; Wanyong Zeng; Lin Tao; Jia Ye; Jun Tan; Xide Ren; Xuewei Chen; Jun He; Daofeng Liu; Wei Tian; Chaoguang Tian; Hongai Xia; Qiyu Bao; Gang Li; Hui Gao; Ting Cao; Juan Wang; Wenming Zhao; Ping Li; Wei Chen; Xudong Wang; Yong Zhang; Jianfei Hu; Jing Wang; Song Liu; Jian Yang; Guangyu Zhang; Yuqing Xiong; Zhijie Li; Long Mao; Chengshu Zhou; Zhen Zhu; Runsheng Chen; Bailin Hao; Weimou Zheng; Shouyi Chen; Wei Guo; Guojie Li; Siqi Liu; Ming Tao; Jian Wang; Lihuang Zhu; Longping Yuan; Huanming Yang

2002-01-01

277

A putative serine protease, SpSsp1, from Saprolegnia parasitica is recognised by sera of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

PubMed Central

Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by Saprolegnia sp., results in considerable economic losses in aquaculture. Current control methods are inadequate, as they are either largely ineffective or present environmental and fish health concerns. Vaccination of fish presents an attractive alternative to these control methods. Therefore we set out to identify suitable antigens that could help generate a fish vaccine against Saprolegnia parasitica. Unexpectedly, antibodies against S. parasitica were found in serum from healthy rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The antibodies detected a single band in secreted proteins that were run on a one-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel, which corresponded to two protein spots on a two-dimensional gel. The proteins were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Mascot and bioinformatic analysis resulted in the identification of a single secreted protein, SpSsp1, of 481 amino acid residues, containing a subtilisin domain. Expression analysis demonstrated that SpSsp1 is highly expressed in all tested mycelial stages of S. parasitica. Investigation of other non-infected trout from several fish farms in the United Kingdom showed similar activity in their sera towards SpSsp1. Several fish that had no visible saprolegniosis showed an antibody response towards SpSsp1 suggesting that SpSsp1 might be a useful candidate for future vaccination trial experiments. PMID:25088077

Minor, Kirsty L.; Anderson, Victoria L.; Davis, Katie S.; Van Den Berg, Albert H.; Christie, James S.; Löbach, Lars; Faruk, Ali Reza; Wawra, Stephan; Secombes, Chris J.; Van West, Pieter

2014-01-01

278

The SspA subtilisin-like protease of Streptococcus suis triggers a pro-inflammatory response in macrophages through a non-proteolytic mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen worldwide that causes meningitis, septicemia, arthritis, and endocarditis. Using animal models, a surface-associated subtilisin-like protease (SspA) has recently been shown to be an important virulence factor for S. suis. In this study, we hypothesized that the S. suis SspA subtilisin-like protease may modulate cytokine secretion by macrophages thus contributing to the pathogenic process of meningitis. Results Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-differentiated U937 macrophages were stimulated with recombinant SspA prior to monitor cytokine secretion by ELISA. Our results indicated that the recombinant SspA was able to dose-dependently induce IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, CXCL8 and CCL5 secretion in macrophages. The heat-inactivated protease was still able to induce cytokine secretion suggesting a non-proteolytic mechanism of macrophage activation. Using specific kinase inhibitors, evidence were bought that cytokine secretion by macrophages stimulated with the recombinant SspA involves the mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway. While stimulation of macrophages with low concentrations of recombinant SspA was associated to secretion of high amounts of CCL5, the use of recombinant SspA at a high concentration resulted in low amounts of CCL5 detected in the conditioned medium. This was found to be associated with a proteolytic degradation of CCL5 by SspA. The ability of SspA to induce cytokine secretion in macrophages was confirmed using a mutant of S. suis deficient in SspA expression. Conclusion In conclusion, this study identified a new mechanism by which the S. suis SspA may promote central nervous system inflammation associated with meningitis. PMID:21362190

2011-01-01

279

Establishing Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis on mined lands: Science and economics  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality enacted regulations governing the reestablishment of woody shrubs on mined lands. The regulation required that an average density of one shrub m{sup -2} be reestablished on at least 20% of the disturbed land area and that the shrub composition must include dominant premine species. In Wyoming, and much of the Northern Great Plains, that meant that Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle and Young) (Wyoming big sagebrush) had to be reestablished on mined lands. Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis had proven difficult to reestablish on mined lands because of poor quality seed, seed dormancy and a poor understanding of the seedbed ecology of this species. Research in the last two decades has produced significant knowledge in the area of direct-seed establishment of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis on mined lands. Our research has shown that reducing grass seeding rates will reduce competition and result in larger sagebrush plants that are more likely to survive and provide greater structural diversity to the plant community. Economic analyses demonstrated that big sagebrush can be established at a cost of $0.01-0.05 per seedling using direct seeding methods compared to transplanting nursery grown seedlings, estimated to cost $0.72-$1.65 per seedling (depending on size) to grow and from $1.30-$2.40 to plant (flat land to 2:1 slopes). An adequate level of precipitation will be necessary to ensure successful establishment of this species no matter what method of propagation is selected and direct seeding gives greater opportunity for success because of the demonstrated longevity of the seed to germinate 3-5 years after the initial seeding.

Schuman, G.E.; Vicklund, L.E.; Belden, S.E. [ARS, Cheyenne, WY (United States). High Plains Grasslands Research Station

2005-12-01

280

Variability of the essential oils composition of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium growing wild in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty samples of inflorescences and leaves of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium with white flowers were collected in 21 habitats (1999 and 2000) in Lithuania. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The volatile oils according to the cluster analysis were divided into four groups containing the same major constituents: I (four samples)—borneol (11.5–13.2%)+camphor (7.2–13.1%); II (four samples)—chamazulene (9.8–23.2%)+?-pinene (9.7–26.5%);

Danute Mockute; Asta Judzentiene

2003-01-01

281

Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans isolated from a sourdough bread culture.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from four different sourdough bread cultures previously investigated for antifungal activity. A total of 116 isolates were obtained and screened for antifungal activity against a battery of molds. The most inhibitory isolate obtained was identified by API 50 CHL and 16s ribosomal RNA genotyping and found to be Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans. This isolate completely inhibited the growth of Fusarium proliferatum M 5689, M 5991 and Fusarium graminearum R 4053 compared to controls in a dual agar plate assay. PMID:18077044

Hassan, Yousef I; Bullerman, Lloyd B

2008-01-15

282

Lineages of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi in the Irish equine industry  

PubMed Central

Background Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is the causative agent of ‘Strangles’ in horses. This is a debilitating condition leading to economic loss, yard closures and cancellation of equestrian events. There are multiple genotypes of S. equi ssp. equi which can cause disease, but to date there has been no systematic study of strains which are prevalent in Ireland. This study identified and classified Streptococcus equi ssp. equi strains isolated from within the Irish equine industry. Results Two hundred veterinary isolates were subjected to SLST (single locus sequence typing) based on an internal sequence from the seM gene of Streptococcus equi ssp equi. Of the 171 samples which successfully gave an amplicon, 162 samples (137 Irish and 24 UK strains) gave robust DNA sequence information. Analysis of the sequences allowed division of the isolates into 19 groups, 13 of which contain at least 2 isolates and 6 groups containing single isolates. There were 19 positions where a DNA SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) occurs, and one 3 bp insertion. All groups had multiple (2–8) SNPs. Of the SNPs 17 would result in an amino acid change in the encoded protein. Interestingly, the single isolate EI8, which has 6 SNPs, has the three base pair insertion which is not seen in any other isolate, this would result in the insertion of an Ile residue at position 62 in that protein sequence. Comparison of the relevant region in the determined sequences with the UK Streptococcus equi seM MLST database showed that Group B (15 isolates) and Group I (2 isolates), as well as the individual isolates EI3 and EI8, are unique to Ireland, and some groups are most likely of UK origin (Groups F and M), but many more probably passed back and forth between the two countries. Conclusions The strains occurring in Ireland are not clonal and there is a considerable degree of sequence variation seen in the seM gene. There are two major clades causing infection in Ireland and these strains are also common in the UK. PMID:23731628

2013-01-01

283

Free radical scavenging activity and phenolic content in achenes and thalamus from Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis, F. vesca and F. x ananassa cv. Chandler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin content of achenes (true fruit) and thalamus (receptacle) from the native South American Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis (f. patagonica and f. chiloensis), Fragaria vesca and Fragaria x ananassa cv. Chandler was determined by spectrophotometric means. Highest phenolic content was found in F. vesca while lowest content was measured for white strawberry (F. chiloensis ssp.

José Cheel; Cristina Theoduloz; Jaime A. Rodríguez; Peter D. S. Caligari; Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

2007-01-01

284

4-Hydroxyisoleucine production of recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum under optimal corn steep liquor limitation.  

PubMed

4-Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) is a nonproteinogenic amino acid that exhibits insulinotropic biological activity. Here, L-isoleucine dioxygenase gene (ido) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis YBT-1520 was cloned and expressed in an L-isoleucine-producing strain, Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum SN01, in order to directly convert its endogenous L-isoleucine (Ile) into 4-HIL through single-step fermentation. The effects of corn steep liquor limitation as well as ido and truncated ido?6 overexpression on 4-HIL production were researched. 4-HIL production by ido-overexpressing strain was improved to 65.44?±?2.27 mM after fermented for 144 h under corn steep liquor-subsufficient condition, obviously higher than that under corn steep liquor-rich and insufficient conditions. The conversion ratio of Ile to 4-HIL increased to 0.85 mol/mol. In addition, 4-HIL production by ido-overexpressing strain was higher than that by ido?6-overexpressing strain, in accord with the relatively higher affinity of Ido as compared to Ido?6. This research generated a novel system for 4-HIL de novo biosynthesis and demonstrated corn steep liquor limitation as a useful strategy for improving 4-HIL production in recombinant C. glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum. PMID:25725632

Shi, Feng; Niu, Tengfei; Fang, Huimin

2015-05-01

285

DeSSpOt: an instrument for stellar spin orientation determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed and constructed a special instrument to enable the determination of the stellar's spin orientation. The Differential image rotator for Stellar Spin Orientation, DeSSpOt, allows the simultaneous observations of two anti-parallel orientations of the star on the spectrum. On a high resolution échelle spectrum, the stellar rotation causes a slight line tilt visible in the spatial direction which is comparable to a rotation curve. We developed a new method, which exploits the variations in these tilts, to estimate the absolute position angle of the rotation axis. The line tilt is retrieved by a spectroastrometric extraction of the spectrum. In order to validate the method, we observed spectroscopic binaries with known orbital parameters. The determination of the orbital position angle is equivalent to the determination of the stellar position angle, but is easier to to detect. DeSSpOt was successfully implemented on the high resolution Coudé spectrograph of the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg. The observations of Capella led to the determination of the orbital position angle. Our value of 37.2° is in agreement with the values previously found in the literature. As such we verified that both method and instrument are valid.

Lesage, Anna-Lea; Schneide, Magnus; Wiedemann, Günter

2012-09-01

286

Subpopulations of Francisella tularensis ssp. tularensis and holarctica: identification and associated epidemiology.  

PubMed

Tularemia is primarily caused by two subspecies of Francisella tularensis worldwide, ssp. tularensis (type A) and ssp. holarctica (type B), which were originally delineated by phenotypic differences. Application of molecular typing methods to investigate population structure of F. tularensis has confirmed that categorizing the two subspecies via phenotypic characteristics corresponds with genotypic differentiation. In addition, genotyping methods have demonstrated that both subspecies, type A and type B, can be further distinguished into subpopulations and, in some cases, biological relevance has been ascribed to these identified subpopulations. Genetic variation among both type A and type B subpopulations has been shown to correlate with differences in geographic distribution and has also been coupled to distinct ecological niches, animal hosts and replication foci. Among type A subpopulations, strain variation is linked to differing clinical manifestations in humans and virulence in mice. This article will highlight our current understanding of F. tularensis subpopulations, including methods for their detection, their observed epidemiologic differences, implications for public health and basic research programs, as well as future challenges yet to be solved. PMID:20353304

Petersen, Jeannine M; Molins, Claudia R

2010-04-01

287

Effect of plant age on PCB accumulation by Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo.  

PubMed

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) uptake and translocation from soil over time in pumpkin plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo cv. Howden). Plants were grown in weathered soil collected from a former industrial site contaminated with Aroclor 1248 (mean [PCB](soil) = 6.5 mg kg(-1)). Plants were harvested five times over 42 d and analyzed for total PCB concentration in the root and shoot tissues. The concentration of PCBs in the root was not significantly different between harvests (mean [PCB](root) = 21.5 mg kg(-1)). The concentration of PCBs in the shoots was also relatively stable over time (mean [PCB](shoot) = 3.5 mg kg(-1)) despite increases in shoot biomass (fresh weight of 4.3 g at Day 12 to 59 g at Day 42). This suggests that PCBs were continuously accumulated throughout the growth period. The trends found in this study indicate the optimal time to harvest C. pepo ssp pepo plants to maximize PCB phytoextraction is when the plant shoot has reached its maximum biomass. PMID:20048312

Low, Jennifer E; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

2010-01-01

288

Toxicité aiguë et action analgésique des huiles essentielles de Nepeta atlantica Ball et Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé: Les huiles essentielles de Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire et Nepeta atlantica Ball, ont été étudiées. Le constituant majoritaire est commun aux deux espèces à des taux respectivement de 75 % et 50 %. Il est identifié comme étant le stérioisomère 4a?, 7?, 7a?-nepétalactone et pourrait être responsable de la toxicité à fortes doses de ces HE,

H. Bouidida; K. Alaoui; Y. Cherrah; S. Fkih-Tetouani; A. IL Idrissi

2004-01-01

289

Descent motions of the Huygens probe as measured by the Surface Science Package (SSP): Turbulent evidence for a cloud layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Huygens probe underwent vigorous short-period motions during its parachute descent through the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan in January 2005, at least some of which were excited by the Titan environment. Several sensors in the Huygens Surface Science Package (SSP) detect these motions, indicating the transition to the smaller stabilizer parachute, the changing probe spin rate, aerodynamic buffeting, and

Ralph D. Lorenz; John C. Zarnecki; Martin C. Towner; Mark R. Leese; Andrew J. Ball; Brijen Hathi; Axel Hagermann; Nadeem A. L. Ghafoor

2007-01-01

290

Abundance of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in Adirondack Mountain shrub wetlands and its influence on inorganic nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to determine the abundance of the nitrogen-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (speckled alder), in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State and to determine whether its abundance affects the concentration or accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in wetland substrates. Alder\\/willow wetlands are the second most common wetland type in the

B. D. Kiernan; T. M. Hurd; D. J. Raynal

2003-01-01

291

Prescribed fires in Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana steppe have minor and transient effects on vegetation cover and composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Very little research has been conducted to determine the impacts of fire in mountain big sagebrush steppe of vegetation cover and frequency. Multiple prescribed fires were lit in 2002 and 2003 at the USDA-ARS U. S. Sheep Experiment Station in a mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vase...

292

Genetic variation for adaptive traits in Elymus elymoides ssp. brevifolius Race C in the Northern Intermountain West, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey (bottlebrush squirreltail) and E. multisetus (J.G. Sm.) Burtt Davy (big squirreltail) are important components of sagebrush-steppe communities in the Intermountain West, USA. Elymus elymoides has diverged into 4 subspecies, and E. elymoides ssp. brevifolius includes 4...

293

Comparison of nitrogen solute concentrations within alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) and non-alder dominated wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined differences in nitrogen solutes and groundwater flow patterns between a riparian wetland dominated by the N2-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa, and an upstream coniferous forested riparian wetland along a stream of the Adirondack Mountains, where some surface waters are susceptible to nitrogen excess. Channel water NO3- was up to 16 mumol l-1 greater in the alder

Todd M. Hurd; Dudley J. Raynal

2004-01-01

294

POLYMORPHIC MICROSTAELLITE MARKERS IN POLYPLOID LEPIDIUM DRABA L. SSP. DRABA (BRASSICACEAE) AND CROSS-SPECIES AMPLIFICATION IN CLOSELY RELATED TAXA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heart-podded hoary cress, Lepidium draba L. ssp. draba (Brassicaceae) is a noxious invasive weed in the USA. DNA markers were developed to help discriminate various types of hoarycress. With these markers, Eurasian origins of this invasive weed can be determined, and this will help us find potential...

295

Assessing the effects of exposure to environmental stress on some functional properties of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effects of exposing a strain of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis to acid, bile and osmotic stresses on antagonistic properties, biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility/resistance profile. Exposure to each stress factor appeared to have no significant effect on the antagonism against Escherichia coli NCTC 12900 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. No suppression in biofilm formation due to exposure to stress was observed. Bile and osmotic stresses resulted in significantly higher biofilm formation. Expression of an exopolysaccharide synthesis gene, gtf 01207, was significantly higher when the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain was exposed to osmotic stress. Susceptibility of the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin and vancomycin, and resistance to tetracycline remained unchanged when exposed to each stress. The expression of a tetracycline resistance gene, tet(W), was significantly higher when exposed to each stress. These results may suggest that the potential for the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to provide probiotic benefit, after exposure to the stressful conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, remains intact. PMID:25097108

Amund, O D; Ouoba, L I I; Sutherland, J P; Ghoddusi, H B

2014-12-01

296

Effects of Glomus fasciculatum and isolated rhizosphere microorganisms on growth and phosphate uptake of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was set up in order to study 1) the relationship between net P uptake and dry matter production in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants and 2) the effects of isolated rhizosphere bacteria and fungi on net P uptake and growth of P. major ssp. pleiosperma. A similar relationship between net P uptake and dry matter production was found for

R. Baas

1990-01-01

297

Embryogenesis and plant regeneration of pakchoi ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) via in vitro isolated microspore culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated microspores of various populations of three varieties of the Chinese cabbage pakchoi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were cultivated in vitro on NLN82 medium (Lichter 1982) and embryos and plantlets obtained with nine cultivars. The best embryo yield per bud was 57.4. A 33°C one day heat treatment was generally necessary to induce embryogenesis. Analysis of ploidy level through flow

Ming Qing Cao; Yan Li; Fan Liu; Claire Doré

1994-01-01

298

Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011.  

PubMed

Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca. PMID:25694661

Tomczyk, Krzysztof M; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

2015-02-01

299

Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

2011-03-01

300

Identification of QTL controlling adventitious root formation during flooding conditions in teosinte ( Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis ) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adventitious root formation (ARF) at the soil surface is one of the most important adaptations to soil flooding or waterlogging. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling ARF under flooding condition were identified in a 94 F2 individual population by crossing maize (Zea mays L., B64) × teosinte (Z. mays ssp. huehuetenangensis). A base-map was constructed using 66 SSR and 42 AFLP

Yoshiro Mano; Masanori Muraki; Masahiro Fujimori; Tadashi Takamizo; Bryan Kindiger

2005-01-01

301

Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Shock Test and Specification Experience for Reusable Flight Hardware Equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As commercial companies are nearing a preliminary design review level of design maturity, several companies are identifying the process for qualifying their multi-use electrical and mechanical components for various shock environments, including pyrotechnic, mortar firing, and water impact. The experience in quantifying the environments consists primarily of recommendations from Military Standard-1540, Product Verification Requirement for Launch, Upper Stage, and Space Vehicles. Therefore, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) formed a team of NASA shock experts to share the NASA experience with qualifying hardware for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and other applicable programs and projects. Several team teleconferences were held to discuss past experience and to share ideas of possible methods for qualifying components for multiple missions. This document contains the information compiled from the discussions

Larsen, Curtis E.

2012-01-01

302

Lignan formation in hairy root cultures of Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale ssp. alpinum (Cass.) Greuter)  

PubMed Central

A hairy root line of Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale ssp. alpinum (Cass.) Greuter) was obtained upon transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC15834. Elicitation of this line with silver nitrate, sucrose, methyl jasmonate and yeast extract at various concentrations in most cases resulted in a stimulation of lignan biosynthesis. Through elicitation with 6% sucrose the roots accumulated the pharmacologically active lignans leoligin and 5-methoxy-leoligin at levels of 0.0678% and 0.0372%, respectively, without significant growth inhibition. These lignan levels were comparable to those found in intact roots of cultivated Edelweiss. The biotechnological production of leoligin could be an attractive option for the continuous, field culture-independent production of the valuable secondary metabolites leoligin and 5-methoxy-leoligin. PMID:24932777

Wawrosch, Christoph; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Kopp, Brigitte

2014-01-01

303

A new Epichloe species with interspecific hybrid origins from Poa pratensis ssp. pratensis in Liyang, China.  

PubMed

We describe a new Epichloë species found in symbiosis with Poa pratensis ssp. pratensis in Liyang, China. Stromata characteristic of Epichloë spp. were present on some of the reproductive tillers of individual host grasses. Only three of the 98 stromata observed on field plants became orange and produced perithecia. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of tubB and tefA indicated that this Epichloë sp. was an interspecific hybrid related to both E. yangzii and members in the E. typhina complex clade (ETC). Allele-1 of tefA and tubB grouped in the E. bromicola/E. yangzii clade; allele-2 of these two genes clustered in a distinct subclade in the ETC. This is the first report of an Epichloë species that has interspecific hybrid origins. We propose the name Epichloë liyangensis Z. Wang, Y. Kang et H. Miao, sp. nov. for this species. PMID:21659456

Yan, Kang; Yanling, Ji; Kunran, Zhu; Hui, Wang; Huimin, Miao; Zhiwei, Wang

2011-01-01

304

Assessing the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in semiarid shrublands dominated by Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis.  

PubMed

Variation in the abiotic environment and host plant preferences can affect the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) assemblages. This study analyzed the AMF taxa present in soil and seedlings of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis collected from sagebrush steppe communities in southwestern Idaho, USA. Our aims were to determine the AMF diversity within and among these communities and the extent to which preferential AMF-plant associations develop during seedling establishment. Mycorrhizae were identified using molecular methods following DNA extraction from field and pot culture samples. The extracted DNA was amplified using Glomeromycota specific primers, and identification of AMF was based on phylogenetic analysis of sequences from the large subunit-D2 rDNA region. The phylogenetic analyses revealed seven phylotypes, two within the Claroideoglomeraceae and five within the Glomeraceae. Four phylotypes clustered with known species including Claroideoglomus claroideum, Rhizophagus irregularis, Glomus microaggregatum, and Funneliformis mosseae. The other three phylotypes were similar to several published sequences not included in the phylogenetic analysis, but all of these were from uncultured and unnamed glomeromycetes. Pairwise distance analysis revealed some phylotypes with high genetic variation. The most diverse was the phylotype that included R. irregularis, which contained sequences showing pairwise differences up to 12 %. Most of the diversity in AMF sequences occurred within sites. The smaller genetic differentiation detected among sites was correlated with differences in soil texture. In addition, multiplication in pot cultures led to differentiation of AMF communities. Comparison of sequences obtained from the soil with those from A. tridentata roots revealed no significant differences between the AMF present in these samples. Overall, the sites sampled were dominated by cosmopolitan AMF taxa, and young seedlings of A. tridentata ssp. wyomingensis were colonized in relation to the abundance of these taxa in the soil. PMID:24249492

Carter, Keith A; Smith, James F; White, Merlin M; Serpe, Marcelo D

2014-05-01

305

Comparative cDNA-AFLP analysis of Cd-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes derived from crosses between the Cd hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri and Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd) tolerance seems to be a constitutive species-level trait in Arabidopsis halleri. In order to identify genes potentially implicated in Cd tolerance, a backcross (BC1) segregating population was produced from crosses between A. halleri ssp. halleri and its closest non-tolerant relative A. lyrata ssp. petraea. The most sensitive and tolerant genotypes of the BC1 were analysed on a transcriptome-wide

Adrian Radu Craciun; Mikael Courbot; Fabienne Bourgis; Pietrino Salis; Pierre Saumitou-Laprade; Nathalie Verbruggen

2006-01-01

306

Genetic and physical interaction of Ssp1 CaMKK and Rad24 14-3-3 during low pH and osmotic stress in fission yeast.  

PubMed

The Ssp1 calmodulin kinase kinase (CaMKK) is necessary for stress-induced re-organization of the actin cytoskeleton and initiation of growth at the new cell end following division in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In addition, it regulates AMP-activated kinase and functions in low glucose tolerance. ssp1(-) cells undergo mitotic delay at elevated temperatures and G2 arrest in the presence of additional stressors. Following hyperosmotic stress, Ssp1-GFP forms transient foci which accumulate at the cell membrane and form a band around the cell circumference, but not co-localizing with actin patches. Hyperosmolarity-induced localization to the cell membrane occurs concomitantly with a reduction of its interaction with the 14-3-3 protein Rad24, but not Rad25 which remains bound to Ssp1. The loss of rad24 in ssp1(-) cells reduces the severity of hyperosmotic stress response and relieves mitotic delay. Conversely, overexpression of rad24 exacerbates stress response and concomitant cell elongation. rad24(-) does not impair stress-induced localization of Ssp1 to the cell membrane, however this response is almost completely absent in cells overexpressing rad24. PMID:24451546

Freitag, Silja I; Wong, Jimson; Young, Paul G

2014-01-01

307

SSP-002392, a new 5-HT4 receptor agonist, dose-dependently reverses scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in C57Bl/6 mice.  

PubMed

5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) are suggested to affect learning and memory processes. Earlier studies have shown that animals treated with 5-HT4R agonists, often with limited selectivity, show improved learning and memory with retention memory often being assessed immediately after or within 24 h after the last training session. In this study, we characterized the effect of pre-training treatment with the selective 5-HT4R agonist SSP-002392 on memory acquisition and the associated long-term memory retrieval in animal models of impaired cognition. Pre-training treatment with SSP-002392 (0.3 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg and 7.5 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the cognitive deficits induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) in two different behavioral tasks: passive avoidance and Morris water maze. In the Morris water maze, spatial learning was significantly improved after treatment with SSP-002392 translating in an accelerated and more efficient localization of the hidden platform compared to scopolamine-treated controls. Moreover, retention memory was assessed 24 h (passive avoidance) and 72 h (Morris water maze) after the last training session of cognitive-impaired animals and this was significantly improved in animals treated with SSP-002392 prior to the training sessions. Furthermore, the effects of SSP-002392 were comparable to galanthamine hydrobromide. We conclude that SSP-002392 has potential as a memory-enhancing compound. PMID:24863046

Lo, Adrian C; De Maeyer, Joris H; Vermaercke, Ben; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Schuurkes, Jan A J; D'Hooge, Rudi

2014-10-01

308

Allelic variation of the HMW glutenin subunits in Spanish accessions of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. em. Thell.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. em. Thell.) is a hulled wheat of Germanic origin that survives at marginal areas in Asturias (Spain). The HMW glutenin\\u000a subunit composition of 403 accessions of spelt wheat from Spain has been analysed by SDS-PAGE. Three allelic variants were\\u000a detected for Glu-A1. For the Glu-B1 locus, two of seven alleles detected have not

L. Caballero; L. M. Martin; J. B. Alvarez

2001-01-01

309

Effects of the aqueous extract from artemisia campestris ssp. caudata on mycorrhizal fungi colonization and growth of sand dune grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the aqueous extract fromArtemisia campesttis ssp.caudata to investigate its effects on the colonization of sand dune grass roots by mycorrhizal fungi and seedling growth. The percent\\u000a colonization decreased with higher extract concentrations, and growth of three grass species was inhibited. Colonization by\\u000a mycorrhizal fungi was more sensitive to the extract than was seedling growth, and no significant differences

Kyeong Won Yun; Anwar Maun; Jong Hee Kim

2007-01-01

310

The cpsABCDE genes involved in polysaccharide production in Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus strain NCBF 2393  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4074-bp EcoRI fragment of Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus (S. thermophilus) chromosomal DNA containing genes involved in exocellular polysaccharide (EPS) was identified and cloned. The nucleotide sequence of this fragment was determined and found to contain one partial and four complete open reading frames. These were designated cpsA, cpsB, cpsC, cpsD and cpsE and encoded proteins of > 130, 243,

Annette M. Griffin; Victor J. Morris; Michael J. Gasson

1996-01-01

311

Overcoming the production limitations of Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata strain K122 bioinsecticides in low-cost medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

For low-cost production of Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata strain K122 bioinsecticide, a cheap complex medium was optimized. Diluted seawater was used as the source of micronutrients,\\u000a especially sodium chloride, involved in the improvement of cell density, culturability and oral toxicity of the bacterium\\u000a P. temperata against Ephestia kuehniella larvae. Thus, the new formulated medium was composed only of 10 g\\/l of

Wafa Jallouli; Samir Jaoua; Nabil Zouari

312

SspA Is Required for Lethal Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infections in Calves but Is Not Essential for Diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) encodes virulence determinants, which are important for entero- pathogenicity in calves. To determine whether the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SPI-1 effector proteins SspA and SptP are important for enteropathogenicity, strains lacking these proteins were tested during oral infection of calves. Calves infected with a sptP mutant or its isogenic parent developed diarrhea and lethal morbidity.

RENEE M. TSOLIS; L. GARRY ADAMS; MICHAEL J. HANTMAN; CHRISTINA A. SCHERER; TYLER KIMBROUGH; ROBERT A. KINGSLEY; THOMAS A. FICHT; SAMUEL I. MILLER; ANDREAS J. BAUMLER

2000-01-01

313

Rapid and efficient transformation of diploid Medicago truncatula and Medicago sativa ssp. falcata lines improved in somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a simple and efficient protocol for regeneration-transformation of two diploid Medicago lines: the annual M. truncatula R108-1(c3) and the perennial M. sativa ssp. falcata (L.) Arcangeli PI.564263 selected previously as highly embryogenic genotypes. Here, embryo regeneration of R108-1 to complete\\u000a plants was further improved by three successive in vitro regeneration cycles resulting in the line R108-1(c3). Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated

T. H. Trinh; P. Ratet; E. Kondorosi; P. Durand; K. Kamaté; P. Bauer; A. Kondorosi

1998-01-01

314

Effects of rhizosphere soil, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate on Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma Pilger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotic factors in the rhizosphere and their effect on the growth ofPlantago major L. ssp.pleiosperma Pilger (Great plantain) were studied. In a pot experiment the effect on shoot growth of the addition of 2.5% rhizosphere soil at four levels of phosphate was highly dependent on the availability of phosphate: a promoting effect at low phosphate levels was observed while a

R. Baas; C. VAN DIJK; S. R. Troelstra

1989-01-01

315

Selective Enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Propionibacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactoba- cillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus ther- mophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propioni- bacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS- NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (na- lidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and

N. Tharmaraj; N. P. Shah

2003-01-01

316

Identification of triplex (YYY y ) Potato Virus Y (PVY) immune progenitors derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the International Potato Center’s (CIP) virus resistance breeding strategy, a group of 182 selected clones from\\u000a intercrosses among duplex Potato Virus Y (PVY) immune progenitors derived fromSolanum tuberosum ssp.andigena (i.e., YYyy × YYyy) was sampled. These clones were test-crossed to the PVY susceptible tester 377964.5 (yyyy) to search for triplex\\u000a (YYYy) and quadruplex (YYYY) PVY immune potato

H. A. Mendoza; E. J. Mihovilovich; F. Saguma

1996-01-01

317

Seed germination ecology of the annual grass Leptochloa panicea ssp. mucronata and a comparison with L. panicoides and L. fusca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptochloa panicea ssp. mucronata is an annual grass that grows in relatively dry habitats. Requirements for dormancy loss and germination were determined for seeds of this species and compared to those of two species from wet habitats. Seeds of L. panicea were dormant at maturity in autumn, but when exposed to actual or simulated autumn temperatures (e.g. 20\\/10, 15\\/6 °C), they

Carol C. Baskin; Jerry M. Baskin; Edward W. Chester

1999-01-01

318

Engineering and Safety Partnership Enhances Safety of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project Management must use the risk assessment documents (RADs) as tools to support their decision making process. Therefore, these documents have to be initiated, developed, and evolved parallel to the life of the project. Technical preparation and safety compliance of these documents require a great deal of resources. Updating these documents after-the-fact not only requires substantial increase in resources - Project Cost -, but this task is also not useful and perhaps an unnecessary expense. Hazard Reports (HRs), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEAs), Critical Item Lists (CILs), Risk Management process are, among others, within this category. A positive action resulting from a strong partnership between interested parties is one way to get these documents and related processes and requirements, released and updated in useful time. The Space Shuttle Program (SSP) at the Marshall Space Flight Center has implemented a process which is having positive results and gaining acceptance within the Agency. A hybrid Panel, with equal interest and responsibilities for the two larger organizations, Safety and Engineering, is the focal point of this process. Called the Marshall Safety and Engineering Review Panel (MSERP), its charter (Space Shuttle Program Directive 110 F, April 15, 2005), and its Operating Control Plan emphasizes the technical and safety responsibilities over the program risk documents: HRs; FMEA/CILs; Engineering Changes; anomalies/problem resolutions and corrective action implementations, and trend analysis. The MSERP has undertaken its responsibilities with objectivity, assertiveness, dedication, has operated with focus, and has shown significant results and promising perspectives. The MSERP has been deeply involved in propulsion systems and integration, real time technical issues and other relevant reviews, since its conception. These activities have transformed the propulsion MSERP in a truly participative and value added panel, making a difference for the safety of the Space Shuttle Vehicle, its crew, and personnel. Because of the MSERP's valuable contribution to the assessment of safety risk for the SSP, this paper also proposes an enhanced Panel concept that takes this successful partnership concept to a higher level of 'true partnership'. The proposed panel is aimed to be responsible for the review and assessment of all risk relative to Safety for new and future aerospace and related programs.

Duarte, Alberto

2007-01-01

319

Bovine PGLYRP1 polymorphisms and their association with resistance to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes a chronic, granulomatous inflammatory condition of the intestines in ruminants and wild-type species. It causes significant economic losses to the dairy and beef industries owing to reduced productivity, premature culling and mortality. Bovine peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 is an important pattern recognition molecule that is capable of directly killing microorganisms. The goal of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding bovine peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 and to assess their association with susceptibility to MAP infection in dairy cattle. Blood and milk samples were collected from Holsteins in Southwestern and Eastern Ontario and tested for MAP infection using blood and milk ELISAs. A resource population consisting of 197 infected (S/P > 0.25) and 242 healthy (S/P < 0.10) cattle was constructed. Sequencing of pooled DNA was used to identify three SNPs (c.102G>C, c.480G>A and c.625C>A) that were genotyped in the resource population. Statistical analysis was performed using a logistic regression model fitting the additive and dominance effects of each SNP in the model. SNP c.480G>A (P = 0.054) was found to be associated with susceptibility to MAP infection. Cows with a copy of the major allele 'G' at this locus had an odds ratio of 1.51 (95% CI: 0.99-2.31) for being infected with MAP. PMID:21749417

Pant, S D; Verschoor, C P; Schenkel, F S; You, Q; Kelton, D F; Karrow, N A

2011-08-01

320

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in several herds of Arctic Caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp.).  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a common pathogen in domestic ruminants that causes granulomatous inflammation of the small intestine leading to emaciation and wasting. Clinical disease (Johne's disease) is also reported for several wild ruminant species. Between 2007 and 2009 we collected 561 fecal samples from caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp.) representing 10 herds of migratory caribou, two herds of caribou from Greenland, and three populations of boreal woodland caribou. Feces were tested for MAP by bacterial culture and PCR targeting the IS900 insertion sequence. In total, 31 samples from eight different populations representing all three ecotypes were found positive for MAP by PCR, with one sample from the Rivière-aux-Feuilles herd also being culture positive for the type II (cattle) strain. The proportion of positive animals was particularly high in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd in Greenland, and Rivière-aux-Feuilles and Riviè re-George herds in northeastern Canada (23.4, 11.5, and 10.0%, respectively). Our results indicate that MAP is present in several caribou herds of different ecotypes in northern Canada and Greenland and that MAP circulates within wildlife populations that do not have ongoing contact with domestic livestock. The epidemiology, pathogenicity, and effects on the health of caribou in northern ecosystems remain unknown. PMID:23060493

Forde, Taya; Orsel, Karin; De Buck, Jeroen; Côté, Steeve D; Cuyler, Christine; Davison, Tracy; Elkin, Brett; Kelly, Allicia; Kienzler, Martin; Popko, Richard; Taillon, Joëlle; Veitch, Alasdair; Kutz, Susan

2012-10-01

321

Instability in mitochondrial membranes in Polima cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important factor to observe heterosis in Brassica rapa. Although several studies have documented the rearrangements of mitochondrial DNA and dysfunction in the mitochondria have been observed in most types of CMS, the basis of the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes and other effects on CMS remain unclear. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization was performed in the flowers of an alloplasmic Polima CMS system from B. rapa ssp. chinensis to identify genes that are differentially expressed between fertile and sterile plants. A total of 443 clones were isolated (156 were upregulated in fertile buds, and 287 were upregulated in sterile ones). Real-time RT-PCR further demonstrated the credibility of SSH. Among these genes, many membrane protein genes (LTP12, PIP2A, and GRP14) were inhibited in the sterile male line. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay was then performed. Results showed that the sterile MMP was unstable and failed to create a potential difference; thus, mitochondrial dysfunction occurred. Moreover, abnormal microtubules and photosynthetic pathways were found in sterile male cells. Unstable MMP, nutritional deficiency, and abnormal microtubules were the causes of Polima CMS in Brassica campestris. H2O2, MDA, and O(2-), accumulated as byproducts of energy metabolism disorder in sterile male cells. PMID:24652098

Li, Ying; Liu, Tongkun; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Shi, Gongjun; Zhang, Jingyi; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shuning; Hou, Xilin

2014-06-01

322

Improvement of the resistance of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus to freezing by natural selection.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria are often produced as frozen or freeze-dried cultures that can be used for the direct inoculation of milk in cheese and fermented milk production processes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the resistance of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus to freezing could be improved by natural selection. Three parallel cultures of strain CFL1 were propagated for 30 cycles in which each cycle involved three serial transfers through milk, one freezing step, and one thawing step. The concentration in viable cells after thawing as well as the acidifying activity of the thawed cultures increased dramatically throughout the experiment. This may be explained by the random appearance of better-adapted mutants that can outcompete the other genotypes. However, after 30 cycles of subcultivation, freezing, and thawing, all the cultures contained subpopulations having different survival rates to freezing. Our results show that serial transfer culture experiments may be used to improve technological properties of lactic acid bacteria. Furthermore, investigation of the mutations that are responsible for an increased cryotolerance may help to define new targets for improving the resistance of lactic acid bacteria to several stresses. PMID:14594221

Monnet, C; Béal, C; Corrieu, G

2003-10-01

323

Proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in frozen-stored Kashkaval cheese.  

PubMed

Proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in Kashkaval cheeses of varying aging times, stored at -10 to -12 degrees C for 12 months, was studied. It was established that the proteolysis of Kashkaval cheese induced by the starter culture was significantly delayed by freezing. The noncasein nitrogen (NCN/TN) and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN/TN) as a percentage of total nitrogen increased slightly during frozen storage of Kashkaval. It was found that NCN/TN and NPN/TN values increased to a larger extent in frozen-stored Kashkaval samples with shorter aging time. Enhanced proteolysis was observed during ripening of thawed Kashkaval cheese. There was greater accumulation of noncasein nitrogen in thawed Kashkaval samples compared to the control samples. The enhanced proteolysis during ripening of thawed Kashkaval cheese resulted in larger amounts of high and medium molecular weight peptides and lower amounts of low molecular weight peptides and free amino acids as compared to controls. PMID:16091941

Simov, Zhelyazko I; Ivanov, Galin Y

2005-10-01

324

Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats  

PubMed Central

Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum) were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8??L per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24?h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration. PMID:22619588

Farkas, Ágnes; Molnár, Réka; Morschhauser, Tamás; Hahn, István

2012-01-01

325

FurA contributes to the oxidative stress response regulation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The ferric uptake regulator A (FurA) is known to be involved in iron homeostasis and stress response in many bacteria. In mycobacteria the precise role of FurA is still unclear. In the presented study, we addressed the functional role of FurA in the ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by construction of a furA deletion strain (MAP?furA). RNA deep sequencing revealed that the FurA regulon consists of repressed and activated genes associated to stress response or intracellular survival. Not a single gene related to metal homeostasis was affected by furA deletion. A decisive role of FurA during intracellular survival in macrophages was shown by significantly enhanced survival of MAP?furA compared to the wildtype, indicating that a principal task of mycobacterial FurA is oxidative stress response regulation in macrophages. This resistance was not associated with altered survival of mice after long term infection with MAP. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that mycobacterial FurA is not involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. However, they provide strong evidence that FurA contributes to intracellular survival as an oxidative stress sensing regulator. PMID:25705205

Eckelt, Elke; Meißner, Thorsten; Meens, Jochen; Laarmann, Kristin; Nerlich, Andreas; Jarek, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried; Gerlach, Gerald-F.; Goethe, Ralph

2015-01-01

326

Patterns of diversity and recombination along chromosome 1 of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.).  

PubMed Central

We investigate the interplay between genetic diversity and recombination in maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). Genetic diversity was measured in three types of markers: single-nucleotide polymorphisms, indels, and microsatellites. All three were examined in a sample of previously published DNA sequences from 21 loci on maize chromosome 1. Small indels (1-5 bp) were numerous and far more common than large indels. Furthermore, large indels (>100 bp) were infrequent in the population sample, suggesting they are slightly deleterious. The 21 loci also contained 47 microsatellites, of which 33 were polymorphic. Diversity in SNPs, indels, and microsatellites was compared to two measures of recombination: C (=4Nc) estimated from DNA sequence data and R based on a quantitative recombination nodule map of maize synaptonemal complex 1. SNP diversity was correlated with C (r = 0.65; P = 0.007) but not with R (r = -0.10; P = 0.69). Given the lack of correlation between R and SNP diversity, the correlation between SNP diversity and C may be driven by demography. In contrast to SNP diversity, microsatellite diversity was correlated with R (r = 0.45; P = 0.004) but not C (r = -0.025; P = 0.55). The correlation could arise if recombination is mutagenic for microsatellites, or it may be consistent with background selection that is apparent only in this class of rapidly evolving markers. PMID:12454083

Tenaillon, Maud I; Sawkins, Mark C; Anderson, Lorinda K; Stack, Stephen M; Doebley, John; Gaut, Brandon S

2002-01-01

327

Podophyllotoxin and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin Production in Hairy Root Cultures of Liunm mucronatum ssp. mucronatum  

PubMed Central

Aim: Two bacterial strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, A13 and 9534 were evaluated for induction of transformed hairy roots in Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum, a high value medicinal plant. Materials and Methods: The hairy roots were successfully initiated, through infecting the hypocotyl and root explants and the A13 strain performed a high transformation frequency for hairy roots induction. Transgenic status of hairy roots was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the rol genes. Growth kinetics of transgenic roots induced by two strains indicated a similar pattern of growth, with maximum growth occurring between 42 to 56 days. The lignan contents in hairy roots were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Results: Transformed cultures showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in lignan content. The highest amount of Podophyllotoxin (PTOX, 5.78 mg/g DW) and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin (MPTOX, 49.19 mg/g DW) was found in transformed lines induced by strain A13, which was four times higher than those of non-transformed roots. The results showed that hairy root cultures of L. mucronatum are rich sources of MPTOX. Conclusion: hairy root cultures from L. mucronatum can be used as a useful system for scale-up producing MPTOX and precursors for the production of antitumor agents in substitution with PTOX by considering the appropriate optimizations in future studies. PMID:24914281

Samadi, Afsaneh; Jafari, Morad; Nejhad, Nasim Mohammad; Hossenian, Farah

2014-01-01

328

Antiviral and antimicrobial activities of three sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis.  

PubMed

Three sesquiterpene lactones (centaurepensin = chlorohyssopifolin A, chlorojanerin and 13-acetyl solstitialin A) isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis (Asteraceae) were investigated for antimicrobial and antiviral activities. For the antimicrobial activity assessment, both standard and isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis were employed by the microdilution method. Herpes simplex type-1, a DNA virus, and Parainfluenza, an RNA virus, were employed for the determination of the antiviral activity of these three sesquiterpene lactones using Vero cell lines. Ampicilline, ofloxocine, ketoconazole, fluconazole, acyclovir and oseltamivir were used as the reference drugs. 13-Acetyl solstitialin A displayed remarkable antibacterial activity against isolated strains of E. faecalis at 1 microg/ml concentration, which was close to the effective concentrations of ampicillin. The same compound also showed significant activity against the DNA virus, being as potent as the reference compound acyclovir at maximum and minimum concentrations of 16-<0.00006 microg/ml. This is the first report showing that 13-acetyl solstitialin A possesses significant antiviral activity. PMID:17614269

Ozçelik, Berrin; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Karaoglu, Taner; Ye?ilada, Erdem

2009-01-01

329

Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae  

PubMed Central

In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely “Baad-Avard”, collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides. PMID:24250419

Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

2011-01-01

330

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of lycopodane-type alkaloids from the Icelandic Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate structures and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of lycopodane-type alkaloids isolated from an Icelandic collection of Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre. Ten alkaloids were isolated, including annotinine, annotine, lycodoline, lycoposerramine M, anhydrolycodoline, gnidioidine, lycofoline, lannotinidine D, and acrifoline, as well as a previously unknown N-oxide of annotine. 1H and 13C NMR data of several of the alkaloids were provided for the first time. Solvent-dependent equilibrium constants between ketone and hemiketal form of acrifoline were determined. Conformation of acrifoline was characterized using NOESY spectroscopy and molecular modelling. The isolated alkaloids were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Ligand docking studies based on mutated 3D structure of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase provided rationale for low inhibitory activity of the isolated alkaloids as compared to huperzine A or B, which are potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors belonging to the lycodine class. Based on the modelling studies the lycopodane-type alkaloids seem to fit well into the active site gorge of the enzyme but the position of their functional groups is not compatible with establishing strong hydrogen bonding interactions with the amino acid residues that line the binding site. The docking studies indicate possibilities of additional functionalization of the lycopodane skeleton to render potentially more active analogues. PMID:19939421

Halldorsdottir, Elsa Steinunn; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia

2010-02-01

331

Selenium alleviates chromium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.  

PubMed

The beneficial role of selenium (Se) in alleviation of chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative stress is well established. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. The impacts of exogenous Se (0.1mg/L) on Cr(1mg/L)-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in leaves of cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) were investigated by using cellular and biochemical approaches. The results showed that supplementation of the medium with Se was effective in reducing Cr-induced increased levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide free radicals (O(-)2(·)), as well as increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Meanwhile, 1mg/L Cr induced loss of plasma membrane integrity, growth inhibition, as well as ultrastructural changes of leaves were significantly reversed due to Se supplementation in the medium. In addition, Se application significantly altered the subcellular distribution of Cr which transported from mitochondria, nucleus and the cell-wall material to the soluble fraction and chloroplasts. However, Se application did no significant alteration of Cr effects on osmotic adjustment accumulating products. The study suggested that Se is able to protect leaves of cabbage against Cr toxicity by alleviation of Cr induced oxidative stress, and re-distribution of Cr in the subcellular of the leaf. Furthermore, free radicals, lipid peroxides, activity of SOD and POD, and subcellular distribution of Cr can be considered the efficient biomarkers to indicate the efficiency of Se to detoxification Cr. PMID:25638524

Qing, Xuejiao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Hu, Chengxiao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Pengcheng; Shi, Hanzhi; Jia, Fen; Qu, Chanjuan

2015-04-01

332

Early Ovule Development Following Self? and Cross?pollinations in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus  

PubMed Central

The study was conducted to identify the self?incompatibility mechanism in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus. Controlled self? and cross?pollinations were conducted on individual flowers from three mature trees that had self?incompatibility levels of 76, 99·6 and 100 %. Flowers were harvested at 4, 6 and 8 weeks after pollination. Embryology was investigated by bright field microscopy on material harvested at 4 and 6 weeks after pollination. Fertilization had taken place at 4 weeks after pollination with zygotes and free nuclear endosperm visible. There was a greater proportion of healthy, fertilized ovules in the cross? compared with the self?pollination treatment, and approx. half the ovules examined from both pollen treatments were not fertilized or were degenerating. By 6 weeks after pollination a few zygotes were starting to divide. The number of healthy, fertilized ovules was still greater in the cross?pollination treatment, but the number of healthy fertilized ovules was lower in both treatments compared with 4 weeks after pollination, and many ovules were degenerating. Fertilized ovules were significantly larger than non?fertilized or degenerating ovules and this difference was detectable by eye at 6 and 8 weeks after pollination. The mechanism of self?incompatibility appears to have both late pre? and post?zygotic components. PMID:12099536

POUND, L. M.; WALLWORK, M. A. B.; POTTS, B. M.; SEDGLEY, M.

2002-01-01

333

Characterization of a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) die-off on the Handford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site contains one of the few remaining contiguous areas of shrub-steppe habitat left in Washington State. This habitat is home to many native plant and wildlife species, some of which are threatened with extinction or are unique to the Site. The importance of the Hanford Site increases as other lands surrounding the Site are developed, and these native species and habitats are lost. Stands of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) on the Site are a particularly important component of shrub-steppe habitat, because a number of wildlife require big sagebrush for food and cover. Since 1993, researchers and field biologists have made anecdotal observations of dying and declining sagebrush in stands of shrubs near the 100 Areas. This study was initiated to delineate and document the general boundary where sagebrush stands appear to be declining. We mapped the areal extent of the die-off using a global positioning system and found that the central portion of the die-off encompasses 280 hectares. Shrub stand defoliation was estimated to be near or greater than 80% in this area. The remainder of the die-off area exhibits varying mixtures of completely defoliated, partially defoliated, and healthy-looking stands. Declining sagebrush stands comprise a total of 1776 hectares.

Cardenas, A.; Lewinsohn, J.; Auger, C.; Downs, J.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Burrows, R.

1997-09-01

334

Genetic and phenotypic parameters for dietary selection of mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana.  

PubMed

The heritability of diet selection for mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana [Rydb] Beetle) by grazing sheep was estimated from fecal samples collected from 549 Rambouillet ewes. Fecal samples were collected in September and October during 1996 and 1997 from free-grazing ewes on intermountain sagebrush-bunchgrass rangelands at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station in Idaho. The total number of fecal samples was 1,949. Fecal samples were evaluated for composition of big sagebrush by near-infrared spectroscopy. Percentage of sagebrush in the diet was less in September than in October (21.6 vs 31.7%, respectively). Single-trait and bivariate derivative-free REML analyses were performed to genetically compare percentage of sagebrush in the diet in September and October. Heritability estimates were similar between September and October measurements (0.25 and 0.28, respectively). The genetic correlation between September and October percentages of sagebrush in the diet was high (0.91), implying that there is strong genetic similarity between September and October measurements and that an annual measurement may be sufficient for selection. These results contribute to a greater understanding of dietary preferences in freely grazing sheep, and suggest opportunities to improve production efficiency and forage management through selection for dietary preferences. PMID:11219459

Snowder, G D; Walker, J W; Launchbaugh, K L; Van Vleck, L D

2001-02-01

335

SSpG: A strongly orthogonal geminal method with relaxed strong orthogonality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong orthogonality is an important constraint placed on geminal wavefunctions in order to make variational minimization tractable. However, strong orthogonality prevents certain, possibly important, excited configurations from contributing to the ground state description of chemical systems. The presented method lifts strong orthogonality constraint from geminal wavefunction by computing a perturbative-like correction to each geminal independently from the corrections to all other geminals. The method is applied to the Singlet-type Strongly orthogonal Geminals variant of the geminal wavefunction. Comparisons of this new SSpG method are made to the non-orthogonal AP1roG and the unconstrained Geminal Mean-Field Configuration Interaction method using small atomic and molecular systems. The correction is also compared to Density Matrix Renormalization Group calculations performed on long polyene chains in order to assess its scalability and applicability to large strongly correlated systems. The results of these comparisons demonstrate that although the perturbative correction is small, it may be a necessary first step in the systematic improvement of any strongly orthogonal geminal method.

Cagg, Brett A.; Rassolov, Vitaly A.

2014-10-01

336

Antioxidant activity of Nepeta nuda L. ssp. nuda essential oil rich in nepetalactones from Greece.  

PubMed

Essential oils from air-dried leaves and verticillasters of Nepeta nuda ssp. nuda from Greece were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The dominant constituent in the verticillaster oils was 4a?,7?,7aß-nepetalactone (75.7%). The main metabolites of the leaf oil were 1,8-cineole (16.7%), 4a?,7?,7aß-nepetalactone (24.7%), and caryophyllene oxide (16.3%). The oils were examined for their antioxidant activity. Neutralization of stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical ranged from 10.83% (2.50 ?g/mL) to 58.64% (50.00 ?g/mL) for verticillaster oil and from 6.25% (2.50 ?g/mL) to 57.79% (50.00 ?g/mL) for leaf oil. The essential oil from verticillasters had significant effects on lipid peroxidation (in the range of 41.18-59.23%), compared to tert-butylated hydroxytoluene (37.04%). In contrast, the essential oil from leaves exhibited pro-oxidant activity at the highest concentration applied. PMID:20626246

Gkinis, George; Bozin, Biljana; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Tzakou, Olga

2010-10-01

337

Phylogenetic relationships based on ribosomal DNA data for four species of cyst nematodes from Italy and one from syria.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of new ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data for Heterodera mediterranea, H. hordecalis, H. carotae, and H. fici from Italy and H. ciceri from Syria, along with published data for other species, showed high bootstrap support for the following relationships: (((((H. carotae H. cruciferae) H. goettingiana) (((H. trifolii H. ciceri) H. mediterranea) ((H. avenae H. latipons) H. fici))) (Cactodera betulae H. hordecalis)) (Globodera rostochiensis G. pallida)). The rDNA sequence data were for the two internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) plus the 5.8S gene between them. These inferred relationships support the classic ''Goettingiana Group'' of H. carotae, H. cruciferae, and H. goettingiana. A clade comprised of Cactodera betulae and H. hordecalis is only distantly related to the other species in the analysis. PMID:19265879

Sabo, A; Vovlas, N; Ferris, V R

2001-12-01

338

Establishment and characterization of a new cell line (SSP-9) derived from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar that expresses type I ifn.  

PubMed

In the present work, the establishment and biological characterization of a new cell line, SSP-9, derived from the pronephros of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, are reported. These cells grew well in Leibovitz's (L15) medium supplemented with 10% foetal calf serum at temperatures from 15 to 25° C, and they have been sub-cultured over 100 passages to produce a continuous cell line with an epithelial-like morphology. The SSP-9 cells attached and spread efficiently at different plating densities, retaining 80% of cell viability after storage in liquid nitrogen. When karyotyped, the cells had 40-52 chromosomes, with a modal number of 48. Viral susceptibility tests showed that SSP-9 cells were susceptible to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus, producing infectious virus and regular cytopathic effects. Moreover, these cells could be stimulated by poly I:C, showing significant up-regulation in the expression of the genes that regulate immune responses, such as ifn and mx-1. SSP-9 cells constitutively express genes characteristic of macrophages, such as major histocompatibility complex (mhc-II) and interleukin 12b (il-12b), and flow cytometry assays confirmed that SSP-9 cells can be permanently transfected with plasmids expressing a reporter gene. Accordingly, this new cell line is apparently suitable for transgenic manipulation, and to study host cell-virus interactions and immune processes. PMID:25230295

Rodriguez Saint-Jean, S; González, C; Monrás, M; Romero, A; Ballesteros, N; Enríquez, R; Perez-Prieto, S

2014-11-01

339

Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale – A wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat  

PubMed Central

Background Chloroplast genome sequences are extremely informative about species-interrelationships owing to its non-meiotic and often uniparental inheritance over generations. The subject of our study, Fagopyrum esculentum, is a member of the family Polygonaceae belonging to the order Caryophyllales. An uncertainty remains regarding the affinity of Caryophyllales and the asterids that could be due to undersampling of the taxa. With that background, having access to the complete chloroplast genome sequence for Fagopyrum becomes quite pertinent. Results We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of a wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale. The sequence was rapidly determined using a previously described approach that utilized a PCR-based method and employed universal primers, designed on the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of chloroplast genomes. The gene content and order in buckwheat chloroplast genome is similar to Spinacia oleracea. However, some unique structural differences exist: the presence of an intron in the rpl2 gene, a frameshift mutation in the rpl23 gene and extension of the inverted repeat region to include the ycf1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of 61 protein-coding gene sequences from 44 complete plastid genomes provided strong support for the sister relationships of Caryophyllales (including Polygonaceae) to asterids. Further, our analysis also provided support for Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, but interestingly, in the bayesian phylogeny inference based on first two codon positions Amborella united with Nymphaeales. Conclusion Comparative genomics analyses revealed that the Fagopyrum chloroplast genome harbors the characteristic gene content and organization as has been described for several other chloroplast genomes. However, it has some unique structural features distinct from previously reported complete chloroplast genome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the dataset, including this new sequence from non-core Caryophyllales supports the sister relationship between Caryophyllales and asterids. PMID:18492277

Logacheva, Maria D; Samigullin, Tahir H; Dhingra, Amit; Penin, Aleksey A

2008-01-01

340

Starch-bound 2S proteins and kernel texture in einkorn, Triticum monococcum ssp monococcum.  

PubMed

The starch granule proteins from 113 einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp monococcum) accessions were analyzed by acidic, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE), and two-dimensional A-PAGE x SDS-PAGE. All accessions were confirmed to contain equal amounts of two polypeptide chains corresponding to puroindoline B (Pin-B), as well as a prominent component plus a faint band corresponding to puroindoline A (Pin-A). When compared with soft-textured common wheat, "monococcum" accessions showed an increase of 3.2- and 2.7-fold in Pin-A and Pin-B levels on the starch granules, respectively. In addition, all accessions contained a novel component of the 2S super-family of seed proteins named Einkorn Trypsin Inhibitor (ETI), which was found to be encoded as a pre-protein 148 residues long. Wild-type ETI encoded by allele Eti-A(m) 1a and "valine-type" ETI encoded by allele Eti-A(m) 1b, which occurred in 107 and six einkorn accessions, respectively, were found to accumulate on starch granules as a mature protein of 121 amino acids with a hydrophobic central domain. The einkorn accessions exhibited an average SKCS index as low as -2.05 +/- 11.4, which is typical of extra-soft kernels. The total surface area of starch granules in "monococcum" wheat, as determined by visual assessments in counting chambers, was estimated at 764 mm(2)/mg of starch, and was about 1.5 times higher than that for common wheat. The results are discussed in relation to the identification of factors that cause the extra-soft texture of einkorn kernels. PMID:19655123

Taddei, Federica; Gazza, Laura; Conti, Salvatore; Muccilli, Vera; Foti, Salvatore; Pogna, Norberto Edgar

2009-11-01

341

Systemic and Mucosal Immune Reactivity upon Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder of ruminants. Due to the similar pathology, MAP was also suggested to cause Crohn's disease (CD). Despite of intensive research, this question is still not settled, possibly due to the lack of versatile mouse models. The aim of this study was to identify basic immunologic mechanisms in response to MAP infection. Immune compromised C57BL/6 Rag2?/? mice were infected with MAP intraperitoneally. Such chronically infected mice were then reconstituted with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells 28 days after infection. A systemic inflammatory response, detected as enlargement of the spleen and granuloma formation in the liver, was observed in mice infected and reconstituted with CD4+ T cells. Whereby inflammation in infected and CD4+CD45RBhi T cell reconstituted animals was always higher than in the other groups. Reconstitution of infected animals with CD8+ T cells did not result in any inflammatory signs. Interestingly, various markers of inflammation were strongly up-regulated in the colon of infected mice reconstituted with CD4+CD45RBlo/int T cells. We propose, the usual non-colitogenic CD4+CD45RBlo/int T cells were converted into inflammatory T cells by the interaction with MAP. However, the power of such cells might be not sufficient for a fully established inflammatory response in the colon. Nevertheless, our model system appears to mirror aspects of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) like CD and Johne's diseases. Thus, it will provide an experimental platform on which further knowledge on IBD and the involvement of MAP in the induction of CD could be acquired. PMID:24728142

Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Roderfeld, Martin; Tschuschner, Annette; Rath, Timo; Gerlach, Gerald F.; Hornef, Mathias; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried; Roeb, Elke

2014-01-01

342

[From farm to fork--Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) as zoonotic agent?].  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of the paratuberculosis (Para Tb) in ruminants. In addition, this pathogen has been suspected to be implicated in the pathogenesis of Morbus Crohn disease (MC), causing chronic inflammatory intestine changes of humans. The participation of MAP in this illness is discussed intensively and has very contradictory opinions. On the one hand several times succeeded in proving MAP DNA in changed human tissues as well as, in recent time, the bacteria has been isolated from patient's blood. On the other hand there are many publications which support the opposite opinion. In critical evaluation of already available data, therefore the hypothesis can be formulated that MAP could possibly take part in the MC of humans. The reliable verification of this hypothesis will only be possible, if the diagnostic procedures can be refined upon the substantial deficit concerning the sensitivity and/or specificity of the diagnostic methods. In addition, till now there is lack of optimized statistically case control studies. The conceivable transmission of the bacteria to humans by the direct animal contact has been considered as possible vector, furthermore, MAP has been detected in pasteurised milk and other food of animal origin. The prevalence data, usually estimated by ELISA for milk cattle stock show over 80% prevalence in many counties of the Federal Republic of Germany with an individual case prevalence ranging between 1% and 17% in different stocks. Comparable data are present also from other countries as well as for small ruminants. MAP has been concerned as a global problem, moreover the high spreading rate of MAP in wild animal populations as well as the considerable ability of the bacteria to survive in different stages of the infectious- and contamination-cycle, which might hardly be broken through. Thus it requires intensive research efforts for the development of the methodical diagnostic process as basis for valid epidemiological investigations of animals, humans and food. PMID:16206925

Bülte, Michael; Schönenbrücher, Holger; Abdulmawjood, Amir

2005-01-01

343

In vitro biological activity screening of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Doll.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of selected biological activities, including anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts as well as the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Doll (LCC, Lycopodiaceae) growing in Turkey. Anticholinesterase effect of the extracts was tested against both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at concentrations of 0.2 and 1 mg mL(-1) using microplate-reader assay based on Ellman method. Antioxidant activity of the LCC extracts was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method at 0.2 mg mL(-1) using microplate-reader assay. Both DNA virus Herpes simplex (HSV) and RNA virus Parainfluenza (PI-3) were employed for antiviral assessment of LCC exracts using Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney and Vero cell lines. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were screened against the bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis as well as the fungi: Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. Only the petroleum ether extract of LCC possessed remarkable activity against both AChE and BChE at 1 mg mL(-1) (76.5 and 69.6%, respectively), whereas LCC extracts showed low free radical-scavenging activity. All of the extracts were found to be more effective against the ATCC strains than isolated ones, particularly S. aureus, while the extracts had moderate antifungal activity. On the other hand, we found that only the petroleum ether extract was active against HSV. In addition, we also analysed the content of the alkaloid fraction of the plant by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified lycopodine as the major alkaloid (60.8%). PMID:19384728

Orhan, Ilkay; Ozcelik, Berrin; Aslan, Sinem; Kartal, Murat; Karaoglu, Taner; Sener, Bilge; Terzioglu, Salih; Iqbal Choudhary, M

2009-01-01

344

Kinetin induces cell death in root cortex cells of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings.  

PubMed

The double fluorescence staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) revealed that treatment of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings with kinetin-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in root cortex cells. Kinetin-induced cell death reflected by the morphological changes of nuclei including their invagination, volume increase, chromatin condensation and degradation as well as formation of micronuclei showed by AO/EB and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining was accompanied by changes including increase in conductivity of cell electrolytes secreted to culture media, decrease in the number of the G1- and G2-phase cells and appearance of fraction of hypoploid cells as the effect of DNA degradation without ladder formation. Decrease in the number of mitochondria and in the activity of cellular dehydrogenases, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), appearance of small and then large lytic vacuoles and increase in the amount of cytosolic calcium ions were also observed. The PCD was also manifested by increased width and weight of apical fragments of roots as well as decreased length of cortex cells which led to shortening of the whole roots. The kinetin-induced PCD process was almost completely inhibited by adenine, an inhibitor of phosphoribosyl transferase, and mannitol, an inhibitor of ROS production. These cell-death hallmarks and pathway of this process suggested that the induction of kinetin-specific vacuolar type of death, expressed itself with similar intensity on both morphological and metabolic levels, was a transient protecting whole roots and whole seedlings against elimination. PMID:23143313

Kunikowska, Anita; Byczkowska, Anna; Ka?mierczak, Andrzej

2013-08-01

345

Flowering time in wild beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) along a latitudinal cline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wild beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima, a perennial species from the Mediterranean and the European Atlantic coasts) shows marked variation in flowering time in terms of both the year of first flowering and flowering date in a given year. Much of this variability is related to latitude. Beta vulgaris plants flower either in the same year as they germinate or in their second year. This is mainly due to differences in their requirement for vernalization, which is determined by a single gene B/b and by quantitative trait loci. The more southern the origin of the plants, the less vernalization is required. Also the B allele, which cancels vernalization requirement completely, has a high frequency in the Mediterranean region, but is completely absent in the northern part of the distribution of this species. We found that flowering date variation in relation to the latitude of origin is maintained under greenhouse conditions but does not follow a simple clinal relationship. From the Mediterranean northwards to the west coast of Brittany, flowering occurs progressively earlier, but from Brittany northwards to south-east England and The Netherlands it is progressively later. A possible explanation for this difference is that in the southern part of the range sensitivity to daylength and warmth control flowering time, whereas further north vernalization requirement is also a key factor. A substantial part of all differences in flowering time was heritable: heritability within populations was measured as 0.33 under greenhouse conditions. The high heritability implies evolutionary change may occur in this character.

Dijk, Henk Van; Boudry, Pierre; McCombre, Helen; Vernet, Philippe

346

Seasonal variation in leaf glucosinolates and insect resistance in two types of Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata.  

PubMed

Leaves from natural populations of Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata (Brassicaceae) in Denmark were examined for glucosinolate content and resistance to the crucifer specialist flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum. Two types of the plant (P- and G-type) could be recognized. Leaves of the G-type contained the glucosinolates (only side chains mentioned): (S)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl- (2S), indol-3-ylmethyl- (4) and in trace amount (R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl- (2R), 2-phenylethyl- (1) and 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl- (5). Leaves of the P-type were dominated by 2R and 4, and had only trace amounts of 1, 2S, and 5 but contained in addition the previously unknown (R)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl- (3R). The epimer, (S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl- (3S) was found in populations believed to be hybrids, and in B. orthoceras. 2S, 2R, desulfo 2S,-2R, -3S and -3R were isolated and identified by NMR and MS. Acylated glucosinolates or allylglucosinolate were not detected in leaves. The glucosinolate content in August was variable, 3-46 micromol/g dry wt, but was low in most populations, 3-15 micromol/g dry wt. In general, the glucosinolate content increased during the autumn, to 35-75 micromol/g dry wt in November. The G-type was resistant to neonate larvae of Phyllotreta nemorum in August and September (survival in 3-day bioassay typically 0%), and gradually lost the resistance in October and November (survival in 3-day bioassay 40-90%), and there was no correlation between glucosinolate content and resistance. Neither did glucosinolates explain the difference in resistance between the P-type (always susceptible) and the G-type (resistant in the summer season). PMID:11524118

Agerbirk, N; Olsen, C E; Nielsen, J K

2001-09-01

347

Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time . Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height ( P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering ( P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves ( P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

Davies, Kirk W.; Bates, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Dustin D.; Nafus, Aleta M.

2009-07-01

348

Influence of mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on winter habitat for wildlife.  

PubMed

Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time. Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height (P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering (P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves (P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities. PMID:19159967

Davies, Kirk W; Bates, Jonathan D; Johnson, Dustin D; Nafus, Aleta M

2009-07-01

349

Identification, quantification and antioxidant activity of acylated flavonol glycosides from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis).  

PubMed

A novel acylated flavonol glycoside: isorhamnetin (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside) (1), together with two known acylated flavonol glycosides: quercetin (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside) (2) and kaempferol (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside) (3) were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) berries for the first time by chromatographic methods, and their structures were elucidated using UV, MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and 2D NMR. Compounds 1-3 showed good scavenging activities, with respective IC50 values of 8.91, 4.26 and 30.90 ?M toward the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; respective Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities of 2.89, 4.04 and 2.44 ?M ?M(-1) toward 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS) radical. The quantitative analysis of the isolated acylated flavonol glycosides was performed by HPLC-DAD method. The contents of compounds 1-3 were in the range of 12.2-31.4, 4.0-25.3, 7.5-59.7 mg/100 g dried berries and 9.1-34.5, 75.1-182.1, 29.2-113.4 mg/100 g dried leaves, respectively. PMID:23870862

Chen, Chu; Xu, Xue-Min; Chen, Yang; Yu, Meng-Yao; Wen, Fei-Yan; Zhang, Hao

2013-12-01

350

BrpSPL9 (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis SPL9) controls the earliness of heading time in Chinese cabbage.  

PubMed

The leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis), Brussels sprouts (B. oleracea ssp. gemmifera) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) comprise extremely incurved leaves that are edible vegetable products. The heading time is important for high quality and yield of these crops. Here, we report that BrpSPL9-2 (B. rapa ssp. pekinensis SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE 9-2), a target gene of microRNA brp-miR156, controls the heading time of Chinese cabbage. Quantitative measurements of leaf shapes, sizes, colour and curvature indicated that heading is a late adult phase of vegetative growth. During the vegetative period, miR156 levels gradually decreased from the seedling stage to the heading one, whereas BrpSPL9-2 and BrpSPL15-1 mRNAs increased progressively and reached the highest levels at the heading stage. Overexpression of a mutated miR156-resistant form of BrpSPL9-2 caused the significant earliness of heading, concurrent with shortening of the seedling and rosette stages. By contrast, overexpression of miR156 delayed the folding time, concomitant with prolongation of the seedling and rosette stages. Morphological analysis reveals that the significant earliness of heading in the transgenic plants overexpressing BrpSPL9-2 gene was produced because the juvenile phase was absent and the early adult phase shortened, whereas the significant delay of folding in the transgenic plants overexpressing Brp-MIR156a was due to prolongation of the juvenile and early adult phases. Thus, miR156 and BrpSPL9 genes are potentially important for genetic improvement of earliness of Chinese cabbage and other crops. PMID:24237584

Wang, Yali; Wu, Feijie; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

2014-04-01

351

The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis] is of particular interest because the genome of this legume has experienced divergent domestication. Initially, cowpea was domesticated from wild cowpea in Africa; in Asia a vegetable form of cowpea, yardlong bean, subsequently evolved from cowpea. Information on the genetics of domestication-related traits would be useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding programmes, as well as comparative genome study among members of the genus Vigna. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean and compare them with previously reported QTLs in closely related Vigna. Methods Two linkage maps were developed from BC1F1 and F2 populations from the cross between yardlong bean (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis) accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. Using these linkage maps, QTLs for 24 domestication-related traits were analysed and mapped. QTLs were detected for traits related to seed, pod, stem and leaf. Key Results Most traits were controlled by between one and 11 QTLs. QTLs for domestication-related traits show co-location on several narrow genomic regions on almost all linkage groups (LGs), but especially on LGs 3, 7, 8 and 11. Major QTLs for sizes of seed, pod, stem and leaf were principally located on LG7. Pleiotropy or close linkage of genes for the traits is suggested in these chromosome regions. Conclusions This is the first report of QTLs for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean. The results provide a foundation for marker-assisted selection of domestication-related QTLs in yardlong bean and enhance understanding of domestication in the genus Vigna. PMID:22419763

Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Vaughan, Duncan A.; Srinives, Peerasak

2012-01-01

352

A high-resolution karyotype of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis revealed by pachytene analysis and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular cytogenetic map of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, 2 n=20) was constructed based on the 4?-6-diamino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride-stained mitotic metaphase and pachytene chromosomes and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (McFISH), using three repetitive DNA sequences, 5S rDNA, 45S rDNA, and C11-350H. The lengths of mitotic metaphase chromosomes ranged from 1.46 ?m to 3.30 ?m. Five 45S and three 5S

Dal-Hoe Koo; Prikshit Plaha; Yong Pyo Lim; Yoonkang Hur; Jae-Wook Bang

2004-01-01

353

The effect of cultivar and maturity on the quality of freeze-dried carrots  

E-print Network

-dried carrots of three cultivars. . . . , . 46 INTRODUCTION Carrots, Daucus carota, are among the more widely grown vege- tables in the United States. In 1976, the commercial carrot crop totaled over 19 billion pounds with a value of $115 million (U. S. D. A... of freeze-dried carrot powders. 4. To relate subjective and objective tests to the quality of freeze-drieo carrots. LITERATURE REVIEW ~Bk B The carrot, Daucus carota, gets its name from the French word carotte, which in turn comes from the Latin...

Schadle, Edward Richard

1978-01-01

354

Effector MiSSP7 of the mutualistic fungus Laccaria bicolor stabilizes the Populus JAZ6 protein and represses jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes  

PubMed Central

Ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Laccaria bicolor, support forest growth and sustainability by providing growth-limiting nutrients to their plant host through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with host roots. We have previously shown that the effector protein MiSSP7 (Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Protein 7) encoded by L. bicolor is necessary for the establishment of symbiosis with host trees, although the mechanistic reasoning behind this role was unknown. We demonstrate here that MiSSP7 interacts with the host protein PtJAZ6, a negative regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)-induced gene regulation in Populus. As with other characterized JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, PtJAZ6 interacts with PtCOI1 in the presence of the JA mimic coronatine, and PtJAZ6 is degraded in plant tissues after JA treatment. The association between MiSSP7 and PtJAZ6 is able to protect PtJAZ6 from this JA-induced degradation. Furthermore, MiSSP7 is able to block—or mitigate—the impact of JA on L. bicolor colonization of host roots. We show that the loss of MiSSP7 production by L. bicolor can be complemented by transgenically varying the transcription of PtJAZ6 or through inhibition of JA-induced gene regulation. We conclude that L. bicolor, in contrast to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biotrophic pathogens, promotes mutualism by blocking JA action through the interaction of MiSSP7 with PtJAZ6. PMID:24847068

Plett, Jonathan M.; Daguerre, Yohann; Wittulsky, Sebastian; Vayssières, Alice; Deveau, Aurelie; Melton, Sarah J.; Kohler, Annegret; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Brun, Annick; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Martin, Francis

2014-01-01

355

Effector MiSSP7 of the mutualistic fungus Laccaria bicolor stabilizes the Populus JAZ6 protein and represses jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Laccaria bicolor, support forest growth and sustainability by providing growth-limiting nutrients to their plant host through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with host roots. We have previously shown that the effector protein MiSSP7 (Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Protein 7) encoded by L. bicolor is necessary for the establishment of symbiosis with host trees, although the mechanistic reasoning behind this role was unknown. We demonstrate here that MiSSP7 interacts with the host protein PtJAZ6, a negative regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)-induced gene regulation in Populus. As with other characterized JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, PtJAZ6 interacts with PtCOI1 in the presence of the JA mimic coronatine, and PtJAZ6 is degraded in plant tissues after JA treatment. The association between MiSSP7 and PtJAZ6 is able to protect PtJAZ6 from this JA-induced degradation. Furthermore, MiSSP7 is able to block--or mitigate--the impact of JA on L. bicolor colonization of host roots. We show that the loss of MiSSP7 production by L. bicolor can be complemented by transgenically varying the transcription of PtJAZ6 or through inhibition of JA-induced gene regulation. We conclude that L. bicolor, in contrast to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biotrophic pathogens, promotes mutualism by blocking JA action through the interaction of MiSSP7 with PtJAZ6. PMID:24847068

Plett, Jonathan M; Daguerre, Yohann; Wittulsky, Sebastian; Vayssières, Alice; Deveau, Aurelie; Melton, Sarah J; Kohler, Annegret; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Brun, Annick; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Martin, Francis

2014-06-01

356

Actinobacillus equuli ssp. haemolyticus in a semi-occlusively treated horse bite wound in a 2-year-old girl  

PubMed Central

We report on the isolation of Actinobacillus equuli ssp. haemolyticus from wound smears of a 2-year-old girl who was admitted to the hospital due to partial amputation of the distal phalanx of her right middle finger caused by a horse bite. A. equuli typically causes diseases in horses and only very few reports describing human infections (mostly associated with wounds) are available in the literature. Interestingly, although the bacteria could be found in consecutive samples taken at different points in time, there were no signs of advancing infection or inflammation. Moreover, the fingertip regenerated after 74 days under semi-occlusive dressings with very pleasant results. For strain identification two automated systems were employed producing discrepant results: VITEK 2 described the pathogens as Pasteurella pneumotropica while MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed A. equuli. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA gene finally confirmed A. equuli ssp. haemolyticus as the isolated strain. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to the CLSI criteria for Pasteurella spp. Additionally we conducted a test according to the EUCAST criteria. PMID:24068980

Schröttner, Percy; Schultz, Jurek; Rudolph, Wolfram; Gunzer, Florian; Thürmer, Alexander; Fitze, Guido; Jacobs, Enno

2013-01-01

357

A comparison of isozyme and quantitative genetic variation in Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia by F{sub ST}  

SciTech Connect

We employed F-statistics to analyze quantitative and isozyme variation among five populations of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, a wind-pollinated outcrossing conifer with wide and continuous distribution in west North America. Estimates of population differentiation (F{sub ST}) for six quantitative traits were compared with the overall estimate of the differentiation (F*{sub ST}) from 19 isozymes that tested neutral to examine whether similar evolutionary processes were involved in morphological and isozyme differentiation. While the F{sub ST} estimates for specific gravity, stem diameter, stem height and branch length were significantly greater than the F*{sub ST} estimate, as judged from the 95% confidence intervals by bootstrapping, the F{sub ST} estimates for branch angle and branch diameter were indistinguishable from the F*{sub ST} estimate. Differentiation in stem height and stem diameter might reflect the inherent adaptation of the populations for rapid growth to escape suppression by neighboring plants during establishment and to regional differences in photoperiod, precipitation and temperature. In contrast, divergences in wood specific gravity and branch length might be correlated responses to population differentiation in stem growth. Possible bias in the estimation of F{sub ST} due to Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (F{sub IS} {ne} 0), linkage disequilibrium, maternal effects and nonadditive genetic effects was discussed with special reference to P. contorta ssp. latifolia. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, F.C. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Yanchuk, A.D. [British Columbia Ministry of Forests (Canada)

1996-03-01

358

Molecular identification of a new powdery mildew resistance gene on chromosome 2BS from Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum.  

PubMed

Powdery mildew caused by the fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a destructive foliar disease on wheat in many regions of the world. Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum (2n=4x=28) shows particular promises as a donor source of useful genetic variation for several traits, including disease resistances that could be introgressed to cultivated wheats. Accession MG5323, resistant to powdery mildew, was crossed to the susceptible durum cultivar Latino and a set of 122 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was produced. F? and F? progenies and the RIL population were tested with one isolate of Blumeria graminis and data obtained indicated that a single dominant gene, temporarily designated Ml5323, controlled resistance at the seedling stage. Molecular markers were used to characterize and map the powdery mildew resistance gene. Twelve microsatellite markers were linked to the resistance gene, and among them, EST-SSR CA695634 was tightly linked to the resistance gene, which was assigned to chromosome arm 2BS and physically mapped to the gene rich region of fragment length (FL) 0.84-1.00. An allelism test showed that the Ml5323 gene and the resistant gene Pm26 of ssp. dicoccoides localized in the same bin, are not allelic and tightly linked. PMID:23017904

Piarulli, Luciana; Gadaleta, Agata; Mangini, Giacomo; Signorile, Massimo Antonio; Pasquini, Marina; Blanco, Antonio; Simeone, Rosanna

2012-11-01

359

[Analgesic activity of different nonvolatile extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta Tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire].  

PubMed

Different extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire contain mainly secondary metabolites with iridoïd lactonic and glucosidic type, also with triterpine lupan type.The aerial part of each species is crushed, then extracted in methanol by cold maceration, called global extracts. The global extracts will be extracted through various solvents: initially by hexane, then by dichloromethane, after that by ethyl acetate and at the end by buthanol. Each one of the obtained extracts will be used for the following trials: i) Tail flick trial on the rat for central morphine-like analgesic activity; ii) Koster trial on the mouse for peripheral analgesic activity. The evaluation of the central and peripheral analgesic activities for the pre-cited extracts was realized after optimal doses determination of the global extracts activities for both species.The peripheral analgesic activity test on the mouse showed that, for 60 mg/kg intra peritoneum (IP), the hexanic, dichloromethanic, ethyl acetate and butanic extracts have a protection power against abdominal cramp respectively around 89.78%, 81.73%, 70.9% et 69.05% for Nepeta atlantica Ball, and around 89.16%, 82.98%, 71.52% et 70.27% for Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata.Central morphine-like analgesic activity on the rat showed that, for both spices under 60 mg/kg IP, the central analgesic activity effect is significantly for two extracts only: dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. PMID:18937913

Bouidida, El Houcine; Alaoui, Katim; Cherrah, Yahia; Chammache, Malika; Il Idrissi, Abdelkader

2008-01-01

360

Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties.  

PubMed

Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:23579100

Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

2013-01-01

361

GLUTEN PROTEINS FROM SPELT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM SSP. SPELTA) CULTIVARS: A RHEOLOGICAL AND SIZE-EXCLUSION HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of this study was to understand protein chemistry behind gluten quality of spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta), to classify European spelt cultivars based on gluten quality, and to compare their protein composition to modern wheat. Gluten quality of two sets of 25 spelt cultivars was studi...

362

Mapping QTLs for mineral accumulation and shoot dry biomass under different Zn nutritional conditions in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetables in China. Genetic dissection of leaf mineral accumulation and tolerance to Zn stress is important for the improvement of the nutritional quality of Chinese cabbage by breeding. A mapping population with 183 doubled haploid (DH) lines was used to study the genetics of mineral accumulation and

Jian Wu; Yu-Xiang Yuan; Xiao-Wei Zhang; Xiaofei Song; Ying Li; Xiaonan Li; Rifei Sun; Maarten Koornneef; Mark G. M. Aarts; Xiao-Wu Wang

2008-01-01

363

ARE MOJAVE DESERT ANNUAL SPECIES EQUAL? RESOURCE ACQUISITION AND ALLOCATION FOR THE INVASIVE GRASS BROMUS MADRITENSIS SSP. RUBENS (POACEAE) AND TWO NATIVE SPECIES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The abundance of invasive annual grasses and forbs in the Mojave Desert is often attributed to greater competitiveness of these species compared to natives. We compared resource acquisition and allocation between the invasive grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens and two native co-occurring Mojave D...

364

A survey of fruit-feeding insects and their parasitoids occurring on wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata, in the Eastern Cape of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits of wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Cif., were collected in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, during 2003–2005 to quantify levels of fruit-infesting pests and their parasitoids. Two species of Tephritidae, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) and B. biguttula (Bezzi), were the most abundant insects recovered and were reared from most samples. Fruit infestation rates by the

Nolwazi Mkize; Kim A. Hoelmer; Martin H. Villet

2008-01-01

365

A simple and rapid DNA extraction method for the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in the vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus by Ssp I PCR assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, rapid and inexpensive method for the extraction of DNA from filarial vector, Culexquinquefasciatus, useful in Ssp I PCR assay for xenomonitoring of infection with Wuchereriabancrofti is presented. The DNA extracted by this method was found suitable for PCR detection of W. bancrofti infection in pools of 10–30 mosquitoes. The PCR assay employing the simplified DNA extraction method was

V. Vasuki; S. L. Hoti; C. Sadanandane; P. Jambulingam

2003-01-01

366

Involvement of oxidative stress and growth at high cell density in the viable but nonculturable state of Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata strain K122  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata strain K122 represents a promising source of bioinsecticide. When cultured in an optimized medium, P. temperata exhibited restricted survival in terms of colony-forming ability on solid medium, which remained lower than the total cell counts. Membrane integrity assessment by flow cytometry showed that almost 100% of P. temperata cells were viable indicating that this bacterium enters

Wafa Jallouli; Nabil Zouari; Samir Jaoua

2010-01-01

367

Evaluation of the anti-ulcerogenic effect of sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis by using various in vivo and biochemical techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The guaianolide type sesquiterpene lactones chlorojanerin, 13-acetyl solstitialin A and solstitialin A were identified as the anti-ulcerogenic components of the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis (Asteraceae). In this study, these compounds were investigated by using various in vivo ulcer models in rats and mice. Chlorojanerin was shown to be significantly effective in preventing the

?lhan Gürbüz; Erdem Yesilada

2007-01-01

368

Disjunct distribution of chloroplast DNA haplotypes in the understory perennial Veratrum album ssp. oxysepalum (Melanthiaceae) in Japan as a result of ancient introgression.  

PubMed

• The Quaternary climatic changes resulted in range shifts of species, providing chances for hybridization. However, the genetic signatures of such ancient introgression have rarely been reported. To investigate such signatures, we performed a phylogeographical study on the perennial plant Veratrum album ssp. oxysepalum, which may have hybridized long ago with another congeneric species, V. stamineum. • Sequence variations in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) were examined in 43 populations in Japan and adjacent areas. Phylogenetic analyses of different cpDNA haplotypes were conducted on the basis of cpDNA and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) variations. • In the Japanese archipelago, two major groups of haplotypes were detected, one of which was distributed in a disjunct pattern. The major haplotype, occupying the central part of the species' distribution, formed a monophyletic group with V. stamineum in phylogenetic trees on the basis of cpDNA variation, although the two species did not form a monophyletic group in phylogenetic trees on the basis of nrITS variation. • Historical hybridization between V. album ssp. oxysepalum and V. stamineum in refugia during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, and the resulting chloroplast capture of V. stamineum by V. album ssp. oxysepalum, are most probably responsible for the disjunct distribution of cpDNA in V. album ssp. oxysepalum. PMID:20659302

Kikuchi, Ryo; Jae-Hong, Pak; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Maki, Masayuki

2010-11-01

369

Fumigant properties of physical preparations from mountain big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. v aseyana (Rydb.) beetle for stored grain insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapors released from foliage of mountain big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle, through a patented process, were hypothesized to have an insecticidal time of action (24h or less after time of exposure) similar to the fumigant methyl bromide. Patented preparations were more effective from plants harvested from a relatively wet site in mid to late summer (5

Florence V. Dunkel; L. Joseph Sears

1998-01-01

370

Two intramolecular isopeptide bonds are identified in the crystal structure of the Streptococcus gordonii SspB C-terminal domain.  

PubMed

Streptococcus gordonii is a primary colonizer and is involved in the formation of dental plaque. This bacterium expresses several surface proteins. One of them is the adhesin SspB, which is a member of the Antigen I/II family of proteins. SspB is a large multi-domain protein that has interactions with surface molecules on other bacteria and on host cells, and is thus a key factor in the formation of biofilms. Here, we report the crystal structure of a truncated form of the SspB C-terminal domain, solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion to 1.5 A resolution. The structure represents the first of a C-terminal domain from a streptococcal Antigen I/II protein and is comprised of two structurally related beta-sandwich domains, C2 and C3, both with a Ca(2+) bound in equivalent positions. In each of the domains, a covalent isopeptide bond is observed between a lysine and an asparagine, a feature that is believed to be a common stabilization mechanism in Gram-positive surface proteins. S. gordonii biofilms contain attachment sites for the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and the SspB C-terminal domain has been shown to have one such recognition motif, the SspB adherence region. The motif protrudes from the protein, and serves as a handle for attachment. The structure suggests several additional putative binding surfaces, and other binding clefts may be created when the full-length protein is folded. PMID:20138058

Forsgren, Nina; Lamont, Richard J; Persson, Karina

2010-04-01

371

Effects of gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine, secoiridoids from gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra), on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Wound healing properties of Gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra) extract and its main constituents, gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine (compounds 1-3, respectively) were evaluated by comparison with dexpanthenol on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts. The extract was also analyzed by HPLC to quantify its constituents. Chicken embryonic fibroblasts from fertilized eggs were incubated with the plant extract and its constituents, compounds 1-3. Using microscopy, mitotic ability, morphological changes and collagen production in the cultured fibroblasts were evaluated as parameters. Wound healing activity of Gentian seems to be mainly due to the increase in the stimulation of collagen production and the mitotic activity by compounds 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.005 in all cases). All three compounds also exhibited cytoprotective effects, which may cause a synergism in terms of wound healing activity of Gentian. The findings demonstrated the wound healing activity of Gentian, which has previously been based only on ethnomedical data. PMID:16557467

Oztürk, Nilgün; Korkmaz, Seval; Oztürk, Yusuf; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can

2006-03-01

372

Cloning and expression of the gene encoding alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase from Acetobacter aceti ssp. xylinum in brewer's yeast.  

PubMed

Acetobacter aceti ssp. xylinum genomic library was constructed using cosmid pJB8 in Escherichia coli. The gene encoding alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (ALDC) was isolated from the library by direct measurement of ALDC activity. The ALDC gene was expressed by its own promoter in E. coli. The nucleotide sequence was determined, and an open reading frame which may encode a protein composed of 304 amino acids with a molecular weight of 33,747 was found. A brewer's yeast was transformed with the YEp-type plasmid containing the ALDC gene placed under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. The laboratory-scale growth test confirmed that the total diacetyl concentration was considerably reduced by the transformant. The analysis of the wort indicates that the Acetobacter ALDC reduces the concentration of diacetyl more effectively than that of 2,3-pentanedione. PMID:7764563

Yamano, S; Tanaka, J; Inoue, T

1994-02-14

373

Construction of a brewer's yeast having alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene from Acetobacter aceti ssp. xylinum integrated in the genome.  

PubMed

alpha-Acetolactate decarboxylase (ALDC) gene from Acetobacter aceti ssp. xylinum has several possible initiation codons in the N-terminus. To determine the initiation codon of the ALDC giving the highest expression levels, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) promoter was linked just upstream of each possible initiation codon. The ALDC whose translation starts 130 bp downstream from the first ATG codon had the highest activity in yeast cells. When expression levels of the ALDC gene were compared using three strong yeast promoters of glycolytic genes, alcohol dehydrogenase I (ADC1), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and GPD, the GPD promoter was the strongest. The ALDC gene was integrated in a ribosomal RNA gene of a brewer's yeast by co-transformation with an expression plasmid of G418-resistance gene. The laboratory-scale growth test confirmed that the total diacetyl concentration was reduced in wort. PMID:7764564

Yamano, S; Kondo, K; Tanaka, J; Inoue, T

1994-02-14

374

Whole Genome Sequence of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, Strain Mexico A, Suggests Recombination between Yaws and Syphilis Strains  

PubMed Central

Background Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA), the causative agent of syphilis, and Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE), the causative agent of yaws, are closely related spirochetes causing diseases with distinct clinical manifestations. The TPA Mexico A strain was isolated in 1953 from male, with primary syphilis, living in Mexico. Attempts to cultivate TPA Mexico A strain under in vitro conditions have revealed lower growth potential compared to other tested TPA strains. Methodology/Principal Findings The complete genome sequence of the TPA Mexico A strain was determined using the Illumina sequencing technique. The genome sequence assembly was verified using the whole genome fingerprinting technique and the final sequence was annotated. The genome size of the Mexico A strain was determined to be 1,140,038 bp with 1,035 predicted ORFs. The Mexico A genome sequence was compared to the whole genome sequences of three TPA (Nichols, SS14 and Chicago) and three TPE (CDC-2, Samoa D and Gauthier) strains. No large rearrangements in the Mexico A genome were found and the identified nucleotide changes occurred most frequently in genes encoding putative virulence factors. Nevertheless, the genome of the Mexico A strain, revealed two genes (TPAMA_0326 (tp92) and TPAMA_0488 (mcp2-1)) which combine TPA- and TPE- specific nucleotide sequences. Both genes were found to be under positive selection within TPA strains and also between TPA and TPE strains. Conclusions/Significance The observed mosaic character of the TPAMA_0326 and TPAMA_0488 loci is likely a result of inter-strain recombination between TPA and TPE strains during simultaneous infection of a single host suggesting horizontal gene transfer between treponemal subspecies. PMID:23029591

P?trošová, Helena; Zobaníková, Marie; ?ejková, Darina; Mikalová, Lenka; Pospíšilová, Petra; Strouhal, Michal; Chen, Lei; Qin, Xiang; Muzny, Donna M.; Weinstock, George M.; Šmajs, David

2012-01-01

375

Influence of washing treatment and storage atmosphere on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and phenolic acid content of minimally processed carrot sticks.  

PubMed

The influence of washing uncut and shredded carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativa var. Bangor) with chlorinated and ozonated water, respectively, as well as the storage of the produce under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively, on PAL activity and synthesis of phenolic compounds have been evaluated on pilot plant scale. Inherent raw material inhomogeneity was compensated by pooling large sized samples, and frequent sampling ensured significant data. PAL activity was induced by processing and linearly increased throughout storage under aerobic conditions, whereas an anaerobic atmosphere resulted in a maximum activity peak at storage day 2-4. The accumulation of phenolic compounds showed good correlation with the kinetics of PAL activity. Although the influence of the washing treatments was weak, the use of chlorinated water for washing shredded carrots slightly delayed the onset of PAL activity. The phenolic content of the minimally processed carrots was dominated by trans and cis isomers of chlorogenic acid ( approximately 95%). Additionally, the occurrence of p-coumaroylquinic acid ( approximately 5%) and the novel finding of three dicaffeoylquinic acid isomers were reported. The synthesis of phenolic compounds was controlled, depending on storage atmosphere. PMID:15713021

Klaiber, Ralph G; Baur, Sascha; Koblo, Arjuna; Carle, Reinhold

2005-02-23

376

Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

377

Nitrogen and carbohydrate storage in biennials originating from habitats of different resource availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four biennial species (Arctium tomentosum, Cirsium vulgare, Dipsacus sylvester and Daucus carota) which originate from habitats of different nutrient availability were investigated in a 2-year experiment in a twofactorial structured block design varying light (natural daylight versus shading) and fertilizer addition. The experiment was designed to study storage as reserve formation (competing with growth) or as accumulation (see Chapin et

T. Steinlein; H. Heilmeier; E.-D. Schulze

1993-01-01

378

FIELD EVALUATION OF CARROT CULTIVARS FOR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO FUNGAL LEAF BLIGHT DISEASES IN NEW YORK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot cultivars grown in New York were evaluated for susceptibility to the fungal leaf blight pathogens Alternaria dauci (1999) and Cercospora carotae (2000 to 2003)in an experimental field under continuous carrot cultivation since 1996. Replicated plots were established in a randomized complete b...

379

Predator-prey relationships on Apiaceae at an organic farm.  

PubMed

Orius insidiosus (Say) and O. pumilio (Champion) were confirmed to be sympatric in north central Florida as the major predators of the Florida flower thrips, Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), on flowers of Queen Anne's lace, Daucus carota L. and false Queen Anne's lace, Ammi majus L. F. bispinosa was the predominant thrips observed on both flowers but colonized D. carota to a greater extent and earlier in the season than A. majus. Despite differences in the abundance of F. bispinosa on the two plants, neither Orius species showed host plant affinities. Population profiles for the thrips and Orius spp. followed a density dependent response of prey to predator with a large initial prey population followed by a rapid decline as the predator populations increased. The temporal increases in Orius spp. populations during the flowering season suggest that they were based on reproductive activity. As observed in a previous study, O. insidiosus had a larger population than O. pumilio and also had a predominantly male population on the flowers. By examining carcasses of the prey, there appeared to be no sexual preference of the thrips as prey by the Orius spp. as the prey pattern followed the demographics of the thrips sex ratio. Few immatures of either thrips or Orius spp. were observed on D. carota or A. majus, which suggests that oviposition and nymphal development occurred elsewhere. Based on these findings, D. carota and A. majus could serve as a banker plant system for Orius spp. PMID:22732606

Shirk, Paul D; Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Reitz, Stuart R; Thomas, Jean M G; Koenig, Rosalie L; Hay-Roe, Mirian M; Buss, Lyle J

2012-06-01

380

First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Norway  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those associated with the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” were observed in 70-80% of commercial fields and experimental plots in southeastern Norway from late July to mid-September 2011; al...

381

HERITABILITIES AND MINIMUM GENE NUMBER ESTIMATES OF CARROT CAROTENOIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Estimates were made of broad sense heritabilities and the number of factors or genes involved in the production of total carotenoids and the major component carotenoids of carrot (Daucus carota L.) storage roots: phytoene, '-carotene, '-carotene, '-carotene, and lycopene. Two crosses with different ...

382

Association of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' with the Psyllid, Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Europe  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) is a serious pest of carrots (Daucus carota L.) in northern and central Europe. Carrots exhibiting symptoms of psyllid damage were observed in commercial fields in southern Finland in 2008. Symptoms in affected plants included leaf curling, yellow and purple ...

383

First Report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in Carrots in Europe  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot (Daucus carota) plants exhibiting symptoms that resembled those of carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) damage were observed in commercial fields in southern Finland in August 2008. Carrot psyllid is a serious pest of carrots in northern and central Europe, where it can cause up to 100% yield los...

384

PCR based identification of Pythium spp. causing cavity spot in carrots and sensitive detection in soil samples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cavity spot is caused by several Pythium species and is one of the most economically important diseases of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Diagnosis of the pathogens in soil and in carrot tissue has been complicated. On the bases of ITS sequences PCR primers were designed for the identification of the fi...

385

Daucus for the flora of North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Flora of North America Project will treat more than 20,000 species of plants native or naturalized in North America north of Mexico, about 7% of the world's total. This contribution presents a floristic account of the two species of wild carrots (Daucus) occurring in North America, Daucus carota...

386

The effects of temperature, moisture and soluble solids or rehydration, fragmentation and texture of freeze-dried and compressed carrot bars  

E-print Network

for the model of index of fragmentation for freeze-dried and compressed carrot bars 50 51 INTRODUCTION The commercial carrot crop in the United States in 1973 totaled over 1. 3 billion pounds with a value of $93. 4 million. Carrots, Daucus carota...

Rushing, John Earl

1975-01-01

387

PLANT UPTAKE OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL FROM SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). lants included all fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum I.). Minimal intact...

388

Survey of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrot crops affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Norway  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious insect pest of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in northern Europe, where it can cause up to 100% crop loss. Although it was long believed that T. apicalis causes damage to carrot by injection of toxins into the plant, it was re...

389

Predator-Prey Relationships on Apiaceae at an Organic Farm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Orius insidiosus and O. pumilio were confirmed to be sympatric in north central Florida as the major predators of the Florida flower thrips, Frankliniella bispinosa, on flowers of Queen Anne’s lace, Daucus carota and false Queen Anne’s lace, Ammi majus. F. bispinosa was the predominant thrips observ...

390

Molecular detection of aster yellows phytoplasma and 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrots affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: triozidae) in Finland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) causes considerable damage to carrot (Daucus carota L.) in many parts of Europe. It was recently established that the new bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” is associated with carrot psyllid and plants affected by this insect pest. No other path...

391

SplinkBES - A Splinkerette-Based Method for Generating Long End Sequences From Large Insert DNA Libraries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report on the development of a novel splinkerette-based method for generating long end-sequences from large insert library clones, using a carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library as a model. The procedure involves digestion of the BAC DNA with a 6-bp restriction enzyme, followed by ligation of spli...

392

Influence of exogenous effectors of invertase activity on rice physiology and growth  

E-print Network

was an 25 area of the root that had a relatively low concentration of sucrose. In carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots, SAI activity was closely and inversely correlated to sucrose content (Ricardo and Ap Rees, 1970) indicating that SAI hydrolyzes sucrose...

Rounds, Elliott Wilson

2009-05-15

393

Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some plant extracts and their heat, pH and storage stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, three plant foods, namely, drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera), mint leaves (Mentha spicata) and carrot tuber (Daucus carota) were extracted with ethanol and analyzed for their antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated according to the amount of malonaldehyde (MDA) formed by the FeSO4-induced oxidation of linoleic acid and a high PUFA oil (sunflower oil)

Saeedeh Arabshahi-D; D. Vishalakshi Devi; Asna Urooj

2007-01-01

394

Molecular mapping of vernalization requirement and fertility restoration genes in carrot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a cool-season vegetable normally classified as a biennial species, requiring vernalization to induce flowering. Nevertheless, some cultivars adapted to warmer climates require less vernalization and can be classified as annual. Most modern carrot cultivars are hybrids wh...

395

Fatty acid composition of lipids from the vacuolar membranes of the roots of root vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid (FA) composition of vacuolar membrane lipids from the storage tissues of parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.), and carrot (Daucus carota L.) was studied by gasliquid chromatography, and possible pathways of the biosynthesis of these acids are considered. A high\\u000a level of unsaturated FAs (up to 78% of the total FA amount) was characteristic of

S. P. Makarenko; T. A. Konenkina; S. V. Khotimchenko

2007-01-01

396

Seed Protein Bodies from Several Members of the Family Umbelliferae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein bodies of the seeds of the family Umbelliferae have not been studied extensively since late in the nineteenth century. Using a variety of recent technology and methodology certain aspects of the protein bodies of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv imperator 408), caraway (Carum carvi L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), celery (Apium graveolens L. cv tall

Ernest Spitzer

1981-01-01

397

Composition of suberin-associated waxes from the subterranean storage organs of seven plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waxes associated with the suberin in the periderm of the underground storage organs of parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), rutabaga (Brassica napobrassica Mill.), turnip (Brassica rapa L.), red beet (Beta vulgaris L.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were isolated, fractionated into hydrocarbon, wax ester, free fatty alcohol and free fatty acid

Karl E. Espelie; Nagwa Z. Sadek; P. E. Kolattukudy

1980-01-01

398

CEREBRAL CORRELATES OF MULTIMODAL POINTING: AN FMRI STUDY OF PROSODIC FOCUS, SYNTACTIC  

E-print Network

, DIGITAL- AND OCULAR- POINTING Hélène Loevenbruck1 , Coriandre Vilain1 , Francesca Carota1,2 , Monica Baciu of pointing including: 1) index finger pointing, 2) eye pointing, 3) prosodic focus production, 4) syntactic extraction (during speech production). Fifteen subjects were examined while they gave digital, ocular

Boyer, Edmond

399

Date/Time: Friday 16 Sept: to // Saturday 17 Sept: to Number of search hours (total): hours (Fri) // hours (Sat)  

E-print Network

Solidago juncea 39 Eastern Baccharis/Groundsel Tree Baccharis halimifolia 40 Eastern Red Cedar Juniperus cernua 61 Northern Bayberry Myrica pensylvanica 62 Northern Red Oak Quercus rubra 63 Oriental Bittersweet's Lace Daucus carota 80 Quickweed/Shaggy Soldier Galinsoga quadriradiata 81 Red Chokeberry Aronia

Columbia University

400

Comparative FISH mapping of Daucus species (Apiaceae family)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Daucus (Apiaceae family) contains about 20 mostly diploid species with n=9, 10 and 11, including carrot (D. carota L., 2n=18). Here, we report a pachytene chromosome-based karyotype of carrot. We integrated the carrot linkage groups with chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FI...

401

First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on carrot in Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In March of 2014, carrot plants (Daucus carota L. var. Mascot) exhibiting symptoms of yellowing, purpling, and curling of leaves, proliferation of shoots, formation of hairy secondary roots, general stunting and plant decline were observed in commercial fields in the Gharb region of Morocco. The sym...

402

Association Between Pachytene Chromosomes and Linkage Groups in Carrot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genome of carrot (Daucus carota L.) consists of ~ 480 Mb/1C organized in 9 chromosome pairs. The importance of carrots in human nutrition is triggering the development of genomic resources, including carrot linkage maps, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone library and BAC end sequence...

403

Transfer of Resistance Traits from Carrot into Tobacco by Asymmetric Somatic Hybridization: Regeneration of Fertile Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly

Denes Dudits; Eszter Maroy; Tunde Praznovszky; Zoltan Olah; Janos Gyorgyey; Rino Cella

1987-01-01

404

First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Sweden  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those of the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” damage were observed in 70% of commercial fields in southern Sweden in August 2011; all cultivars grown were affected, at about 1 to 45% symptomatic plants pe...

405

AN IPM PROGRAM FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF FUNGAL LEAF BLIGHT DISEASES OF CARROT IN NEW YORK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungal leaf blight diseases caused by Cercospora carotae and Alternaria dauci occur annually on processing carrots in New York and growers were applying up to eight fungicide sprays to manage them. The use of a 25% disease incidence threshold to prompt the first fungicide application and timing subs...

406

Density dependence of Anaphes sordidatus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) parasitism on eggs of Listronotus oregonensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listronotus oregonensis (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposits in carrot leaves and the larvae feed in carrot roots. Its eggs are parasitized by Anaphes sordidatus (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) throughout its oviposition period. This parasitoid is the major biotic mortality factor for L. oregonensis. Parasitism by A. sordidatus was studied for three years in sequentially sown plots of carrots, Daucus carota var. sativa.

Guy Boivin

1993-01-01

407

Directional transfer of a multiple-allele male sterile line in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee  

PubMed Central

To produce hybrid seeds of Wutacai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee), a “directional transfer program” was designed to breed the multiple-allele male sterile line of Wutacai. A multiple-allele male sterile line of Naibaicai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L., S01) was used as the male sterile resource, and an inbred line of Wutacai (WT01) was used as the target line. Recurrent backcrossing was employed to transfer the male sterility and other botanical traits simultaneously, while the genotype was identified through test crossing. The male sterility was successfully transferred from S01 to WT01. A new male sterile line, GMS-3, with similar botanical traits to WT01, was bred. Four hybrid combinations were generated with GMS-3 as the female parent. One hybrid (C1) that contained the most desirable traits was developed from the new male sterile line. PMID:24987301

Wang, Qiu Shi; Zhang, Xi; Li, Cheng Yu; Liu, Zhi Yong; Feng, Hui

2014-01-01

408

Grazing of the invasive alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides by the common periwinkle Littorina littorea: Effects of thallus size, age and condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the potential of herbivory by the common periwinkle Littorina littorea to limit recruitment and vegetative re-growth of the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides in a series of manipulative field experiments in tidepools on a wave-exposed rocky shore in Nova Scotia, Canada. Snails were excluded or included from circular plots (14 to 20 cm diameter) with cages to

Robert E. Scheibling; Devin A. Lyons; Catherine B. T. Sumi

2008-01-01

409

Comparison of the genetic structure of populations of wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides , from Israel and Turkey revealed by AFLP analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic variation in several Israeli and Turkish populations of wild emmer\\u000a wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, the progenitor of most domesticated wheat. Single spikes were collected in 2002 from 60 plants that grew in six different\\u000a habitats in Ammiad, northeastern Israel (8–12 plants from each habitat), and in 1998 from 56

O. Ozbek; E. Millet; Y. Anikster; O. Arslan; M. Feldman

2007-01-01

410

Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis at Balnaguard, Scotland: Foliar carbon discrimination (?C) and 15-N natural abundance (?N) suggest gender-linked differences in water and N use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecophysiology of stands of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis at Balnaguard was examined by the relatively non-invasive methods of analysis of foliar · C and ·N and the N and chlorophyll contents of foliar samples of genets of known sex and location in three sub-sites. The ratio of male to female plants was close to 1.0 on the two

Paul W. Hill; L. L. Handley; J. A. Raven

1996-01-01

411

From introduced species to invader: what determines variation in the success of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) in the North Atlantic Ocean?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green algaCodium fragile ssp.tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) has been introduced accidentally and successfully from Japan to many shores of the northern and southern hemispheres,\\u000a including those of the Northeast and Northwest Atlantic Ocean. On most European coasts,Codium occurs regularly but at low abundances in the intertidal zone and is absent from subtidal habitats. In contrast,Codium is extremely abundant in subtidal kelp

Annelise Sabine Chapman

1998-01-01

412

Isolation of anti-ulcerogenic sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fresh spiny flowers of Centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis (CSS) are used for the treatment of peptic ulcers in Turkey. Ethanol (80%) extract of CSS exhibited significant anti-ulcerogenic effect on the ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis model in rats. The ethanol extract was further fractionated by successive solvent extractions with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All fractions showed significant anti-ulcerogenic activity, however,

Erdem Yesilada; Ilhan Gürbüz; Erdal Bedir; Irem Tatli; Ikhlas A. Khan

2004-01-01

413

Short communication: Genotypic and phenotypic identification of environmental streptococci and association of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis with intramammary infections among different dairy farms.  

PubMed

Lactococcus species are counted among a large and closely related group of environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria that include bovine mastitis pathogenic Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Aerococcus species. Phenotypic and biochemical identification methods can be inaccurate and unreliable for species within this group, particularly for Lactococcus spp. As a result, the incidence of Lactococcus spp. on the farm may have been historically underreported and consequently little is known about the clinical importance of this genus as a mastitis pathogen. We used molecular genetic identification methods to accurately differentiate 60 environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria isolated from cows with high somatic cell count and chronic intramammary infection (IMI; >2 somatic cell scores above 4) among 5 geographically distinct farms in New York and Minnesota that exhibited an observed increase in IMI. These isolates were phenotypically identified as Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus spp. Genetic methods identified 42 isolates (70%) as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, including all 10 isolates originally phenotypically identified as Streptococcus uberis. Antibiotic inhibition testing of all Lc. lactis ssp. lactis showed that 7 isolates were resistant to tetracycline. In the present study, a predominance of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis was identified in association with chronic, clinical bovine IMI among all 5 farms and characterized antimicrobial resistance for treatment therapies. Routine use by mastitis testing labs of molecular identification methods for environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria can further define the role and prevalence of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis in association with bovine IMI and may lead to more targeted therapies. PMID:25242419

Werner, B; Moroni, P; Gioia, G; Lavín-Alconero, L; Yousaf, A; Charter, M E; Carter, B Moslock; Bennett, J; Nydam, D V; Welcome, F; Schukken, Y H

2014-11-01

414

Developmental regulation of aldoxime formation in seedlings and mature plants of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis ) and oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ): Glucosinolate and IAA biosynthetic enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first steps in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis) involve the formation of aldoximes. In rape the formation of aldoximes from chain-extended amino acids, for aromatic and aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, is catalysed by microsomal flavin-containing monooxygenases. The formation of indole-3-aldoxime from l-tryptophan, the potential

Richard Bennett; Jutta Ludwig-Muller; Guy Kiddle; Willy Hilgenberg; Roger Wallsgrove

1995-01-01

415

Mapping and cloning of FAD2 gene to develop allele-specific PCR for oleic acid in spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously identified QTL for oleic acid content observed in an F2 population from the Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera cross Jo4002 × Jo4072 (a high-oleic-acid individual) was mapped more precisely by adding markers to the linkage group which harbours the locus. In addition, the fad2 gene, which is known to encode the 18:1 desaturase in Arabidopsis, was mapped in Brassica,

Pirjo Tanhuanpää; Juha Vilkki; Mauno Vihinen

1998-01-01

416

Genetic and phenotypic parameters for dietary selection of mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb) Beetle) in Rambouillet sheep1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heritability of diet selection for mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb) Beetle) by grazing sheep was esti- mated from fecal samples collected from 549 Rambouil- let ewes. Fecal samples were collected in September and October during 1996 and 1997 from free-grazing ewes on intermountain sagebrush-bunchgrass range- lands at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station in Idaho. The

G. D. Snowder; J. W. Walker; K. L. Launchbaugh; L. D. Van Vleck

417

Detection of K-ras Gene Point Mutation's Style in HumanPancreatic Cancer Cell Line PANC-1 by PCR-SSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To detect the style of K-ras gene point mutation in human pancreatic cancer cell line\\u000a PANC-1 and decide the bp sequence of Ras target position interfered by RNA. Methods: Three kinds of\\u000a special sequence primers (SSP) for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with regard to the mutation styles\\u000a (GAT, CGT and GGT) at codon 12 of K-ras were used to

Wei WANG; Chunyou WANG; Jihua DONG; Gang ZHAO; Xiong CHEN; Min ZHANG

2006-01-01

418

Inactivation of Mycobacterium bovis ssp. caprae in high-temperature, short-term pasteurized pilot-plant milk.  

PubMed

Experiments to determine the efficacy of high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization of milk in terms of inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms were mainly performed between 1930 and 1960. Among the target organisms were Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a result, the Codex Alimentarius prescribes that HTST treatment of milk should lead to a significant reduction of pathogenic microorganisms during milk pasteurization. Due to the development of improved methods for the detection of survivors and of more advanced heating technology, verification of this requirement seemed to be necessary. To address recent outbreaks of tuberculosis in cattle caused by M. bovis ssp. caprae (M. caprae) in the southern regions of Germany, this organism was tested and compared with M. bovis ssp. bovis (M. bovis). Experiments were performed in a pilot plant for HTST pasteurization of milk with 3 strains of M. caprae and 1 strain of M. bovis. In preliminary trials at a fixed holding time of 25 s, the temperature at which significant inactivation occurred was 62.5°C for all strains. To determine D-values (decimal reduction times) for the inactivation kinetics, the strains were tested at 65, 62.5, and 60°C at holding times of 16.5, 25, and 35 s. At 65°C, the D-values of all strains ranged from 6.8 to 7.8 s, and at 62.5°C, D-values ranged from 14.5 to 18.1 s. Low inactivation was observed at 60°C. When the low slope of the inactivation curve allowed calculation of a D-value, these ranged from 40.8 to 129.9 s. In terms of log10 reductions, the highest values for all strains were 4.1 to 4.9 log at 65°C, with a holding time of 35 s. The tested strains of M. caprae and M. bovis showed similar low resistance to heat. Standard HTST treatment should result in a high reduction of these organisms and thus the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius for inactivation of pathogens by this process are far exceeded. PMID:25597969

Hammer, P; Richter, E; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Walte, H-G C; Matzen, S; Kiesner, C

2015-03-01

419

Selective enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and propionibacteria.  

PubMed

Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propionibacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS-NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (nalidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and paramomycine sulfate) agar, reinforced clostridial agar, sugar-based (such as maltose, galactose, sorbitol, manitol, esculin) media, sodium lactate agar, arabinose agar, raffinose agar, xylose agar, and L. casei agar. Incubations were carried out under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 27, 30, 37, 43, and 45 degrees C for 24, 72 h, and 7 to 9 d. S. thermophilus agar and aerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 h were suitable for S. thermophilus. L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus could be enumerated using MRS agar (pH 4.58 or pH 5.20) and under anaerobic incubation at 45 degrees C for 72 h. MRS-vancomycine agar and anaerobic incubation at 43 degrees C for 72 h were suitable to enumerate L. rhamnosus. MRS-vancomycine agar and anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 h were selective for L. casei. To estimate the counts of L. casei by subtraction method, counts of L. rhamnosus on MRS-vancomycine agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h under anaerobic incubation could be subtracted from total counts of L. casei and L. rhamnosus enumerated on MRS-vancomycine agar at 37 degrees C for 72 h under anaerobic incubation. L. acidophilus could be enumerated using MRS-agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h or Basal agar-maltose agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h or BA-sorbitol agar at 37 degrees C for 72 h, under anaerobic incubation. Bifidobacteria could be enumerated on MRS-NNLP agar under anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 h. Propionibacteria could be enumerated on sodium lactate agar under anaerobic incubation at 30 degrees C for 7 to 9 d. A subtraction method was most suitable for counting propionibacteria in the presence of other lactic acid bacteria from a product. For this method, counts of lactic bacteria at d 3 on sodium lactate agar under anaerobic incubation at 30 degrees C were subtracted from counts at d 7 of lactic bacteria and propionibacteria. PMID:12906045

Tharmaraj, N; Shah, N P

2003-07-01

420

A fuzzy logic-based model for the multistage high-pressure inactivation of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris MG 1363.  

PubMed

The high-pressure inactivation (200 to 600 MPa) of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris MG 1363 suspended in milk buffer was investigated with both experimental and theoretical methods. The inactivation kinetics were characterised by the determination of the viable cell counts, cell counts of undamaged cells, LmrP activity, membrane integrity, and metabolic activity. Pressures between 200 and 600 MPa were applied, and pressure holding times were varied between 0 and 120 min. Experiments were carried out in milk buffer at pH values ranging between 4.0 and 6.5, and the effect of the addition of molar concentrations of NaCl and sucrose was furthermore determined. The inactivation curves of L. lactis, as characterised by viable cell counts, exhibited typical sigmoid asymmetric shapes. Generally, inactivation of the membrane transport system LmrP was the most sensitive indicator of pressure-induced sublethal injury. Furthermore, the metabolic activity was inactivated concomitant with or prior to the loss of viability. Membrane integrity was lost concomitant with or later than cell death. For example, treatments at 200 MPa for 60 min in milk buffer did not inactivate L. lactis, but fully inactivated LmrP activity and reduced the metabolic activity by 50%. The membrane integrity was unaffected. Thus, the assay systems chosen are suitable to dissect the multistep high-pressure inactivation of L. lactis ssp. cremoris MG 1363. A fuzzy logic model accounting for the specific knowledge on the multistep pressure inactivation and allowing the prediction of the quantities of sublethally damaged cells was formulated. Furthermore, the fuzzy model could be used to accurately predict pressure inactivation of L. lactis using conditions not taken into account in model generation. It consists of 160 rules accounting for several dependent and independent variables. The rules were generated automatically with fuzzy clustering methods and rule-oriented statistical analysis. The set is open for the integration of further knowledge-based rules. A very good overall agreement between measured and predicted values was obtained. Single, deviating results have been identified and can be explained to be measurement errors or model intrinsic deficiencies. PMID:15617804

Kilimann, K V; Hartmann, C; Delgado, A; Vogel, R F; Gänzle, M G

2005-01-15

421

The cpsABCDE genes involved in polysaccharide production in Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus strain NCBF 2393.  

PubMed

A 4074-bp EcoRI fragment of Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus (S. thermophilus) chromosomal DNA containing genes involved in exocellular polysaccharide (EPS) was identified and cloned. The nucleotide sequence of this fragment was determined and found to contain one partial and four complete open reading frames. These were designated cpsA, cpsB, cpsC, cpsD and cpsE and encoded proteins of > 130, 243, 230, 246 and 455 amino acids, respectively, that showed homology with the genes of the cps cluster, involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis, in Streptococcus pneumoniae Type 19F. The cpsA gene is predicted to encode a transcriptional regulator, while cpsC and cpsD are predicted to encode proteins involved in polysaccharide polymerization and export. The cpsE gene is likely to encode the phosphate-prenyl glycosyl-1-phosphate transferase catalyzing the first step in polysaccharide biosynthesis in S. thermophilus. Southern blot analysis revealed that cpsE is found only in polysaccharide producing strains of S. thermophilus. PMID:8996082

Griffin, A M; Morris, V J; Gasson, M J

1996-12-12

422

A suite of genetic markers useful in assessing wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.)-domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) admixture.  

PubMed

The wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.) is a conservation concern largely due to introgressive hybridization with its congener F. s. catus, the common domestic cat. Because of a recent divergence and entirely overlapping ranges, hybridization is common and pervasive between these taxa threatening the genetic integrity of remaining wildcat populations. Identifying pure wildcats for inclusion in conservation programs using current morphological discriminants is difficult because of gross similarity between them and the domestic, critically hampering conservation efforts. Here, we present a vetted panel of microsatellite loci and mitochondrial polymorphisms informative for each of the 5 naturally evolved wildcat subspecies and the derived domestic cat. We also present reference genotypes for each assignment class. Together, these marker sets and corresponding reference genotypes allow for the development of a genetic rational for defining "units of conservation" within a phylogenetically based taxonomy of the entire F. silvestris species complex. We anticipate this marker panel will allow conservators to assess genetic integrity and quantify admixture in managed wildcat populations and to be a starting point for more in-depth analysis of hybridization. PMID:21846752

Driscoll, Carlos; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'Brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

2011-01-01

423

Overcoming the production limitations of Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata strain K122 bioinsecticides in low-cost medium.  

PubMed

For low-cost production of Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata strain K122 bioinsecticide, a cheap complex medium was optimized. Diluted seawater was used as the source of micronutrients, especially sodium chloride, involved in the improvement of cell density, culturability and oral toxicity of the bacterium P. temperata against Ephestia kuehniella larvae. Thus, the new formulated medium was composed only of 10 g/l of soya bean meal, used as the carbon and nitrogen main source, mixed in sevenfold diluted seawater. At such conditions, several limitations of P. temperata bioinsecticide productions were shown to be overcome. The appearance of variants small colony polymorphism was completely avoided. Thus, the strain K122 was maintained at the primary form even after prolonged incubation. Moreover, the viable but nonculturable state was partially overcome, since the ability of P. temperata cells to form colonies on the solid medium was prolonged until 78 h of incubation. In addition, when cultured in the complex medium, P. temperata cells were produced at high cell density of 12 × 10(8) cells/ml and exhibited 81.48% improvement of oral toxicity compared to those produced in the optimized medium. With such medium, the large-scale bioinsecticides production into 3-l fully controlled fermenter improved the total cell counts, CFU counts and oral toxicity by 20, 5.81 and 16.73%, respectively. This should contribute to a significant reduction of production cost of highly potent P. temperata strain K122 cells, useful as a bioinsecticide. PMID:21656156

Jallouli, Wafa; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

2011-10-01

424

Ogura-CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) causes delayed expression of many nuclear genes.  

PubMed

We investigated the mechanism regulating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis using floral bud transcriptome analyses of Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line in B. rapa 300-K oligomeric probe (Br300K) microarrays. Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage produced few and infertile pollen grains on indehiscent anthers. Compared to the maintainer line, CMS plants had shorter filaments and plant growth, and delayed flowering and pollen development. In microarray analysis, 4646 genes showed different expression, depending on floral bud size, between Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line. We found 108 and 62 genes specifically expressed in Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line, respectively. Ogura-CMS line-specific genes included stress-related, redox-related, and B. rapa novel genes. In the maintainer line, genes related to pollen coat and germination were specifically expressed in floral buds longer than 3mm, suggesting insufficient expression of these genes in Ogura-CMS is directly related to dysfunctional pollen. In addition, many nuclear genes associated with auxin response, ATP synthesis, pollen development and stress response had delayed expression in Ogura-CMS plants compared to the maintainer line, which is consistent with the delay in growth and development of Ogura-CMS plants. Delayed expression may reduce pollen grain production and/or cause sterility, implying that mitochondrial, retrograde signaling delays nuclear gene expression. PMID:23265314

Dong, Xiangshu; Kim, Wan Kyu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Hur, Yoonkang

2013-02-01

425

The Dynamic Growth Exhibition and Accumulation of Cadmium of Pak Choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) Grown in Contaminated Soils  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of heavy metals, especially cadmium (Cd), in leafy vegetables was compared with other vegetables. Pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) is a leafy vegetable consumed in Taiwan and its safety for consumption after growing in contaminated soils is a public concern. A pot experiment (50 days) was conducted to understand the dynamic accumulation of Cd by pak choi grown in artificially contaminated soils. The edible parts of pak choi were sampled and analyzed every 2–3 days. The dry weight (DW) of pak choi was an exponential function of leaf length, leaf width, and chlorophyll content. The accumulation of Cd increased when the soil Cd concentration was raised, but was kept at a constant level during different growth stages. Pak choi had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = ratio of the concentration in the edible parts to that in the soils), at values of 3.5–4.0. The consumption of pak choi grown in soils contaminated at levels used in this study would result in the ingestion of impermissible amounts of Cd and could possibly have harmful effects on health. PMID:24284350

Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching

2013-01-01

426

Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin genes (AQPs) in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).  

PubMed

Aquaporins (AQPs) are members of a superfamily of integral membrane proteins and play a significant role in the transportation of small molecules across membranes. However, currently little is known about the AQP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, a genome-wide analysis was carried out to identify the AQP genes in Chinese cabbage. In total, 53 non-redundant AQP genes were identified that were located on all of the 10 chromosomes. The number of AQP genes in Chinese cabbage was greater than in Arabidopsis. They were classified into four subfamilies, including PIP, TIP, NIP, and SIP. Thirty-three groups of AQP orthologous genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, but orthologs corresponding to AtNIP1;1 and AtPIP2;8 were not detected. Seventeen groups of paralogous genes were identified in Chinese cabbage. Three-dimensional models of the AQPs of Chinese cabbage were constructed using Phyre2, and ar/R selectivity filters were analyzed comparatively between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. Generally, gene structure was conserved within each subfamily, especially in the SIP subfamily. Intron loss events have occurred during the evolution of the PIP, TIP, and NIP subfamilies. The expression of AQP genes in Chinese cabbage was analyzed in different organs. Most AQP genes were downregulated in response to salt stress. This work shows that the AQP genes of Chinese cabbage have undergone triplication and subsequent biased gene loss. PMID:24972664

Tao, Peng; Zhong, Xinmin; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Wuhong; Yue, Zhichen; Lei, Juanli; Guo, Weiling; Huang, Xiaoyun

2014-12-01

427

Esterase SeE of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is a Novel Non-specific Carboxylic Ester Hydrolase  

PubMed Central

Extracellular carboxylic ester hydrolases are produced by many bacterial pathogens and have been shown recently to be important for virulence of some pathogens. However, these hydrolases are poorly characterized in enzymatic activity. This study prepared and characterized the secreted ester hydrolase of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (designated SeE for S. equi esterase). SeE hydrolyzes ethyl acetate, acetylsalicylic acid, and tributyrin but not ethyl butyrate. This substrate specificity pattern does not match those of the three conventional types of non-specific carboxylic ester hydrolases (carboxylesterases, arylesterases, and acetylesterases). To determine whether SeE has lipase activity, a number of triglycerides and vinyl esters were tested in SeE-catalyzed hydrolysis. SeE does not hydrolyze triglycerides and vinyl esters of long chain carboxylic acids nor display interfacial activation, indicating that SeE is not a lipase. Like the conventional carboxylesterases, SeE is inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate. These findings indicate that SeE is a novel non-specific carboxylic ester hydrolase that has broader substrate specificity than the conventional carboxylesterases. PMID:19054107

Xie, Gang; Liu, Mengyao; Zhu, Hui; Lei, Benfang

2009-01-01

428

Foraging leaf-cutting ants learn to reject Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera plants that emit herbivore-induced volatiles.  

PubMed

Leaf-cutting ants (LCAs) are dominant herbivores of the Neotropics, as well as economically important pests. Their foraging ecology and patterns/mechanisms of food selection have received considerable attention. Recently, it has been documented that LCAs exhibit a delayed rejection of previously accepted food plants following treatment with a fungicide that makes the plants unsuitable as substrate for their symbiotic fungus. Here, we investigated whether LCAs similarly reject plants with induced chemical defenses, by combining analysis of volatile emissions with dual-choice bioassays that used LCA subcolonies (Atta sexdens L.). On seven consecutive days, foraging ants were given the choice between leaf disks from untreated control plants and test plants of Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera L. treated with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) to mimic herbivore attack. Chemical analysis revealed the emission of a characteristic set of herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOC) from JA-induced plants. Dual-choice experiments indicated that workers did not show any preference initially, but that they avoided JA-treated plants from day five onwards. Our finding that A. sexdens foragers learn to avoid VOC-emitting plants, which are likely detrimental to their symbiotic fungus, represents the first evidence for avoidance learning in attine ants toward plants with induced defenses. PMID:24929941

Thiele, Theresa; Kost, Christian; Roces, Flavio; Wirth, Rainer

2014-06-01

429

Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B-30892 can inhibit cytotoxic effects and adhesion of pathogenic Clostridium difficile to Caco-2 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Probiotic microorganisms are receiving increasing interest for use in the prevention, treatment, or dietary management of certain diseases, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of AAD and the resulting C. difficile – mediated infection (CDI), is potentially deadly. C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) is manifested by severe inflammation and colitis, mostly due to the release of two exotoxins by C. difficile causing destruction of epithelial cells in the intestine. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B-30892 (LDB B-30892) on C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity using Caco-2 cells as a model. Methods Experiments were carried out to test if the cytotoxicity induced by C. difficile-conditioned-medium on Caco-2 cells can be altered by cell-free supernatant (CFS) from LDB B-30892 in different dilutions (1:2 to 1:2048). In a similar experimental setup, comparative evaluations of other probiotic strains were made by contrasting the results from these strains with the results from LDB B-30892, specifically the ability to affect C. difficile induced cytotoxicity on Caco-2 monolayers. Adhesion assays followed by quantitative analysis by Giemsa staining were conducted to test if the CFSs from LDB B-30892 and other probiotic test strains have the capability to alter the adhesion of C. difficile to the Caco-2 monolayer. Experiments were also performed to evaluate if LDB B-30892 or its released components have any bactericidal effect on C. difficile. Results and discussion Co-culturing of LDB B-30892 with C. difficile inhibited the C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells. When CFS from LDB B-30892-C. difficile co-culture was administered (up to a dilution of 1:16) on Caco-2 monolayer, there were no signs of cytotoxicity. When CFS from separately grown LDB B-30892 was mixed with the cell-free toxin preparation (CFT) of separately cultured C. difficile, the LDB B-30892 CFS was inhibitory to C. difficile CFT-mediated cytotoxicity at a ratio of 1:8 (LDB B-30892 CFS:C. difficile CFT). We failed to find any similar inhibition of C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity when other probiotic organisms were tested in parallel to LDB B-30892. Our data of cytotoxicity experiments suggest that LDB B-30892 releases one or more bioactive component(s) into the CFS, which neutralizes the cytotoxicity induced by C. difficile, probably by inactivating its toxin(s). Our data also indicate that CFS from LDB B-30892 reduced the adhesion of C. difficile by 81%, which is significantly (P <0.01) higher than all other probiotic organisms tested in this study. Conclusion This study reveals the very first findings that Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B-30892 (LDB B-30892) can eliminate C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity, using Caco-2 cells as a model. The study also demonstrates that LDB B-30892 can reduce the colonization of C. difficile cells in colorectal cells. More study is warranted to elucidate the specific mechanism of action of such reduction of cytotoxicity and colonization. PMID:19397787

Banerjee, Pratik; Merkel, Glenn J; Bhunia, Arun K

2009-01-01

430

Comparison of nitrogen solute concentrations within alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) and non-alder dominated wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined differences in nitrogen solutes and groundwater flow patterns between a riparian wetland dominated by the N2-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa, and an upstream coniferous forested riparian wetland along a stream of the Adirondack Mountains, where some surface waters are susceptible to nitrogen excess. Channel water NO3- was up to 16 ?mol l-1 greater in the alder reach, with peaks following maxima in groundwater dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). NO3- at 25 cm depth was 30 ?mol greater in the alder than in the conifer reach in April, and 24 ?mol l-1 greater than channel water and 30 ?mol l-1 greater than that of 125 cm groundwater in June. Dissolved organic nitrogen and NH4+ concentrations increased between 25 and 75 cm depths in both wetlands during the growing season. Inorganic nitrogen increased between the hillslope and stream in both wetlands, with the greatest increases in the alder reach during the dormant season. Greatest subsurface DIN (120 ?mol l-1) occurred at 75 cm in the alder reach, within 1 m of the stream, between November (120 ?mol l-1 NH4+) and a January thaw (60 ?mol l-1 each of NH4+ and NO3-). Concentrations of deeper groundwater at 125 cm during this period were lower (10-30 ?mol l-1). Lateral flow from the stream channel occurred in the alder reach during the dormant season, and channel water contribution to groundwater was correlated strongly to NO3- at 25 cm. These results indicate that nitrification is stimulated in the presence of alders and oxidized exchange flow, producing NO3- that may contribute to elevated channel water NO3- during periods of peak flow.

Hurd, Todd M.; Raynal, Dudley J.

2004-10-01

431

The upward shift in altitude of pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) in Switzerland--the result of climate warming?  

PubMed

Pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) is common in natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in the alpine Rhone Valley, Switzerland. This semi-parasite, which is regarded as an indicator species for temperature, increases the drought stress on trees and may contribute to the observed pine decline in the region. We recorded mistletoes on representative plots of the Swiss National Forest Inventory ranging from 450 to 1,550 m a.s.l. We found mistletoe on 37% of the trees and on 56% of all plots. Trees infested with mistletoe had a significantly higher mortality rate than non-infested trees. We compared the current mistletoe occurrence with records from a survey in 1910. The current upper limit, 1,250 m, is roughly 200 m above the limit of 1,000-1,100 m found in the earlier survey 100 years ago. Applying a spatial model to meteorological data we obtained monthly mean temperatures for all sites. In a logistic regression mean winter temperature, pine proportion and geographic exposition significantly explained mistletoe occurrence. Using mean monthly January and July temperatures for 1961-1990, we calculated Skre's plant respiration equivalent (RE) and regressed it against elevation to obtain the RE value at the current mistletoe elevation limit. We used this RE value and temperature from 1870-1899 in the regression and found the past elevation limit to be at 1,060 m, agreeing with the 1910 survey. For the predicted temperature rise by 2030, the limit for mistletoe would increase above 1,600 m altitude. PMID:15875222

Dobbertin, Matthias; Hilker, Nadine; Rebetez, Martine; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Rigling, Andreas

2005-09-01

432

Using Small-Scale Studies to Prioritize Threats and Guide Recovery of a Rare Hemiparasitic Plant: Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis  

PubMed Central

Background Recovering endangered species would benefit from identifying and ranking of the factors that threaten them. Simply managing for multiple positive influences will often aid in recovery; however, the relative impacts of multiple threats and/or interactions among them are not always predictable. We used a series of experiments and quantitative observational studies to examine the importance of five potential limiting factors to the abundance of a state-listed endangered hemiparasitic annual forb, Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis (C.r.l., California, USA): host availability, mammalian herbivores, insect seed predators, fire suppression, and exotic species. While this initial assessment is certainly not a complete list, these factors stem from direct observation and can inform provisional recommendations for management and further research. Methodology and Principal Findings Studies were conducted at five sites and included assessments of the influence of host availability, exotic species, exclusion of mammalian herbivores and insect seed predators on C.r.l. productivity, and simulated effects of fire on seed germination. C.r.l. was limited by multiple threats: individuals with access to host species produced up to three times more inflorescences than those lacking hosts, mammalian herbivory reduced C.r.l. size and fecundity by more than 50% and moth larvae reduced seed production by up to 40%. Litter deposition and competition from exotic plant species also appears to work in conjunction with other factors to limit C.r.l. throughout its life cycle. Conclusions and Significance The work reported here highlights the contribution that a series of small-scale studies can make to conservation and restoration. Taken as a whole, the results can be used immediately to inform current management and species recovery strategies. Recovery of C.r.l. will require management that addresses competition with exotic plant species, herbivore pressure, and availability of preferred host species. PMID:20126657

Watts, Sean M.; Uhl, Melissa M.; Maurano, Stephen P.; Nuccio, Erin E.

2010-01-01

433

Seed germination ecology of the annual grass Leptochloa panicea ssp. mucronata and a comparison with L. panicoides and L. fusca  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leptochloa panicea ssp. mucronata is an annual grass that grows in relatively dry habitats. Requirements for dormancy loss and germination were determined for seeds of this species and compared to those of two species from wet habitats. Seeds of L. panicea were dormant at maturity in autumn, but when exposed to actual or simulated autumn temperatures (e.g. 20/10, 15/6 °C), they entered conditional dormancy and thus germinated to high percentages in light at 35/20 °C. Seeds buried in non-flooded soil exposed to natural seasonal temperature changes in Kentucky (USA) were non-dormant by the following summer and germinated to 80-100 % in light at 25/15, 30/15 and 35/20 °C. Seeds buried in non-flooded soil exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, with seeds mostly germinating to 80-100 % in light at 30/15 and 35/20 °C throughout the year but to 80-100 % in light at 25/15 °C only in summer. Results for L. panicea were compared to published data for L. panicoides and L. fusca. Whereas seeds of L. panicea buried in flooded soil failed to come out of dormancy, those of L. panicoides, an annual of moist habitats such as mudflats, exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, and those of L. fusca, a semi-aquatic, required flooding for both dormancy loss and germination. Differences in dormancy breaking and germination responses of seeds of Leptochloa species may help to explain why this genus occupies a wide range of habitats with regard to soil moisture conditions.

Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Chester, Edward W.

1999-09-01

434

Comparative study of differentiation levels and valepotriate content of in vitro cultures and regenerated and wild plants of Valeriana edulis ssp.procera.  

PubMed

Valepotriate content levels in samples of in vitro cultures of Valeriana edulis ssp. procera were compared with those of roots and rhizomes of wild plants in the reproductive stage. Rhizomes and roots of regenerated and wild plants showed a similar valepotriate content. The data obtained support the hypothesis that valepotriate production in V. edulis spp. procera is closely related to rhizome and root differentiation. The large-scale propagation of this endangered plant may offer an attractive alternative for its production for medicinal purposes. PMID:11975504

Castillo, Patricia; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Márquez, Judith; Hernández, Georgina; Lara, Miguel; Alvarez, Laura

2002-04-01

435

Potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 prevents weight gain and glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice.  

PubMed

Alterations of the gut microbiota and mucosal barrier are linked with metabolic diseases. Our aim was to investigate the potential benefit of the potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 in reducing high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and diabetes in mice. In the obesity model, C57Bl/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (60 energy %) for 12 weeks, and gavaged daily with B. lactis 420 (109 cfu) or vehicle. In the diabetes model, mice were fed a high-fat, ketogenic diet (72 energy % fat) for 4 weeks, with a 6-week subsequent treatment with B. lactis 420 (108-1010 cfu/day) or vehicle, after which they were analysed for body composition. We also analysed glucose tolerance, plasma lipopolysaccharide and target tissue inflammation using only one of the B. lactis 420 groups (109 cfu/day). Intestinal bacterial translocation and adhesion were analysed in a separate experiment using an Escherichia coli gavage. Body fat mass was increased in both obese (10.7 ± 0.8 g (mean ± standard error of mean) vs. 1.86 ± 0.21 g, P<0.001) and diabetic mice (3.01 ± 0.4 g vs. 1.14 ± 0.15 g, P<0.001) compared to healthy controls. Treatment with B. lactis 420 significantly decreased fat mass in obese (7.83 ± 0.67 g, P=0.007 compared to obese with vehicle) and diabetic mice (1.89 ± 0.16 g, P=0.02 for highest dose). This was reflected as reduced weight gain and improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, B. lactis 420 decreased plasma lipopolysaccharide levels (P<0.001), liver inflammation (P=0.04), and E. coli adhesion in the distal gut (P<0.05). In conclusion, B. lactis 420 reduces fat mass and glucose intolerance in both obese and diabetic mice. Reduced intestinal mucosal adherence and plasma lipopolysaccharide suggest a mechanism related to reduced translocation of gut microbes. PMID:25062610

Stenman, L K; Waget, A; Garret, C; Klopp, P; Burcelin, R; Lahtinen, S

2014-12-01

436

Ultra fast symmetry and SIMD-based projection-backprojection (SSP) algorithm for 3-D PET image reconstruction.  

PubMed

Remarkable progress in positron emission tomography (PET) development has occurred in recent years, in hardware, software, and computer implementation of image reconstruction. Recent development in PET scanners such as the high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) developed by CTI (now Siemens) represents such a case and is capable of greatly enhanced resolution as well as sensitivity. In these PET scanners, the amount of coincidence line data collected contains more than 4.5 x 10(9) coincidence lines of response generated by as many nuclear detectors as 120 000. This formidable amount of data and the reconstruction of this data set pose a real problem in HRRT and have also been of the major bottle neck in further developments of high resolution PET scanners as well as their applications. In these classes of PET scanners, therefore, obtaining one set of reconstructed images often requires many hours of image reconstruction. For example, in HRRT with full data collection in a normal brain scan (using SPAN 3), the image reconstruction time is close to 80 min, making it practically impossible to attempt any list-mode-based dynamic imaging since the image reconstruction time would take many days (as much as 43 h or more for 32-frame dynamic image reconstruction). To remedy this data-handling problem in image reconstruction, we developed a new algorithm based on the symmetry properties of the projection and backprojection processes, especially in the 3-D OSEM algorithm where multiples of projection and back-projection are required. In addition, the single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) technique also allowed us to successfully incorporate the symmetry properties mentioned above, thereby effectively reducing the total image reconstruction time to a few minutes. We refer to this technique as the symmetry and SIMD-based projection-backprojection (SSP) technique or algorithm and the details of the technique will be discussed and an example of the application of the technique to the HRRT's OSEM algorithm will be presented as a demonstration. PMID:17679330

Hong, I K; Chung, S T; Kim, H K; Kim, Y B; Son, Y D; Cho, Z H

2007-06-01

437

A method to discriminate between closely related bovine major histocompatibility complex class I alleles by combining established PCR-SSP assays with RFLPs.  

PubMed

We have developed a polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-SSP-RFLP) method to rapidly differentiate between the A18 and A18 variant (v) BoLA haplotypes and between A14 and A15/A15v BoLA haplotypes in Holstein/Friesian cattle. We used published SSP to PCR amplify BoLA alleles expressed in animals of known haplotype and exposed the amplicons to the restriction enzyme PvuII that was predicted to cut at a unique site in the middle of BoLA-6*01302 (A18v) and BoLA-1*00901 (A15) but not in BoLA-6*01301 (A18) or BoLA-1*02301 (A14) alleles. Whereas the method does not discriminate between the A15 and A15v haplotypes, as the BoLA-1*00902 allele associated with A15v also contains a PvuII site, we are interested in cattle of A18 and A14 haplotype for vaccine related studies. Our results also indicated that the BoLA-6*01302 (A18v) allele is much more abundant than BoLA-6*01301 (A18) in the cattle that we sampled. PMID:25789713

Svitek, N; Nzau, B; Steinaa, L; Nene, V

2015-04-01

438

Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.  

PubMed

Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods. PMID:25130676

Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

2014-08-27

439

Genome-Wide Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Identifies Multiple Major Loci for Brittle Rachis and Threshability in Tibetan Semi-Wild Wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao)  

PubMed Central

Tibetan semi-wild wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao) is a semi-wild hexaploid wheat resource that is only naturally distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Brittle rachis and hard threshing are two important characters of Tibetan semi-wild wheat. A whole-genome linkage map of T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum was constructed using a recombinant inbred line population (Q1028×ZM9023) with 186 lines, 564 diversity array technology markers, and 117 simple sequence repeat markers. Phenotypic data on brittle rachis and threshability, as two quantitative traits, were evaluated on the basis of the number of average spike rachis fragments per spike and percent threshability in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping performed using inclusive composite interval mapping analysis clearly identified four QTLs for brittle rachis and three QTLs for threshability. However, three loci on 2DS, 2DL, and 5AL showed pleiotropism for brittle rachis and threshability; they respectively explained 5.3%, 18.6%, and 18.6% of phenotypic variation for brittle rachis and 17.4%, 13.2%, and 35.2% of phenotypic variation for threshability. A locus on 3DS showed an independent effect on brittle rachis, which explained 38.7% of the phenotypic variation. The loci on 2DS and 3DS probably represented the effect of Tg and Br1, respectively. The locus on 5AL was in very close proximity to the Q gene, but was different from the predicted q in Tibetan semi-wild wheat. To our knowledge, the locus on 2DL has never been reported in common wheat but was prominent in T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum accession Q1028. It remarkably interacted with the locus on 5AL to affect brittle rachis. Several major loci for brittle rachis and threshability were identified in Tibetan semi-wild wheat, improving the understanding of these two characters and suggesting the occurrence of special evolution in Tibetan semi-wild wheat. PMID:25474652

Luo, Wei; Kong, Xing-Chen; Qi, Peng-Fei; Wang, Ji-Rui; Wei, Yu-Ming; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Liu, Ya-Xi; Peng, Yuan-Ying; Chen, Guo-Yue; Dai, Shou-Fen; Zheng, You-Liang

2014-01-01

440

Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum from different areas in the Southern Apennines (Italy).  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, growing wild in three different localities in the Southern Apennines, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 103 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds and all oils belonged to the chemotype carvacrol/thymol. The three essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity by determining their influence on the germination and initial radicle elongation of Sinapis arvensis L., Phalaris canariensis L., Lepidium sativum L., and Raphanus sativus L. The seed germination and radicle growth were affected in various degrees. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the three essential oils was assayed against three species causing pre- and postharvest fruit decay (Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola). At 1000?ppm, the three oils completely inhibited fungal growth. The hemolytic activity of the oils was assayed and showed no effect on the cell membranes of bovine erythrocytes. PMID:24706631

Mancini, Emilia; Camele, Ippolito; Elshafie, Hazem S; De Martino, Laura; Pellegrino, Carlo; Grulova, Daniela; De Feo, Vincenzo

2014-04-01

441

Isolation of anti-ulcerogenic sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures in rats.  

PubMed

The fresh spiny flowers of Centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis (CSS) are used for the treatment of peptic ulcers in Turkey. Ethanol (80%) extract of CSS exhibited significant anti-ulcerogenic effect on the ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis model in rats. The ethanol extract was further fractionated by successive solvent extractions with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All fractions showed significant anti-ulcerogenic activity, however, the effect of the chloroform fraction was found to be more prominent with 99.5% ulcer inhibition. Bioassay-guided fractionation yielded sesquiterpene lactones as the active components. The main components responsible for the activity of the chloroform fraction were determined as chlorojanerin and 13-acetyl solstitialin A which were elucidated by HR-ESI and (1)H, (13)C and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. PMID:15507339

Yesilada, Erdem; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Bedir, Erdal; Tatli, Irem; Khan, Ikhlas A

2004-12-01

442

Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima—ancestor of all beet crops—and modern sugar beets  

PubMed Central

The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (?45.8%) than for sugar beet (?57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes. PMID:25206350

Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

2014-01-01

443

Comparative sequence analysis of the potato cyst nematode resistance locus H1 reveals a major lack of co-linearity between three haplotypes in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp.)  

PubMed Central

The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a high-resolution genetic map of the H1 locus (Bakker et al. in Theor Appl Genet 109:146–152, 2004) were used to screen a BAC library to construct a physical map covering a 341-kb region of the resistant haplotype coming from SH. For comparison, physical maps were also generated of the two haplotypes from the diploid susceptible genotype RH89-039-16 (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum/S. phureja), spanning syntenic regions of 700 and 319 kb. Gene predictions on the genomic segments resulted in the identification of a large cluster consisting of variable numbers of the CC-NB-LRR type of R genes for each haplotype. Furthermore, the regions were interspersed with numerous transposable elements and genes coding for an extensin-like protein and an amino acid transporter. Comparative analysis revealed a major lack of gene order conservation in the sequences of the three closely related haplotypes. Our data provide insight in the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the H1 locus and will facilitate the map-based cloning of the H1 resistance gene. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1472-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21049265

Bakker, Erin; de Boer, Jan; van der Vossen, Edwin; Achenbach, Ute; Golas, Tomasz; Suryaningrat, Suwardi; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

2010-01-01

444

Functional identification of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl-glucosinolate in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis  

PubMed Central

Background Brassica vegetables contain a class of secondary metabolites, the glucosinolates (GS), whose specific degradation products determine the characteristic flavor and smell. While some of the respective degradation products of particular GS are recognized as health promoting substances for humans, recent studies also show evidence that namely the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS might be deleterious by forming characteristic DNA adducts. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of aspects involved in the biosynthesis of indole GS is crucial to design vegetables with an improved secondary metabolite profile. Results Initially the leafy Brassica vegetable pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) was established as suitable tool to elicit very high concentrations of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS by application of methyl jasmonate. Differentially expressed candidate genes were discovered in a comparative microarray analysis using the 2 × 104 K format Brassica Array and compared to available gene expression data from the Arabidopsis AtGenExpress effort. Arabidopsis knock out mutants of the respective candidate gene homologs were subjected to a comprehensive examination of their GS profiles and confirmed the exclusive involvement of polypeptide 4 of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase subfamily CYP81F in 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS biosynthesis. Functional characterization of the two identified isoforms coding for CYP81F4 in the Brassica rapa genome was performed using expression analysis and heterologous complementation of the respective Arabidopsis mutant. Conclusions Specific differences discovered in a comparative microarray and glucosinolate profiling analysis enables the functional attribution of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis genes coding for polypeptide 4 of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase subfamily CYP81F to their metabolic role in indole glucosinolate biosynthesis. These new identified Brassica genes will enable the development of genetic tools for breeding vegetables with improved GS composition in the near future. PMID:24886080

2014-01-01

445

Haematophageous vector monitoring in Djibouti city from 2008 to 2009: first records of Culex pipiens ssp. torridus (IGLISCH), and Anopheles sergentii (theobald).  

PubMed

The Horn of Africa represents a region formerly known to be highly susceptible to mosquito-borne infectious diseases. In order to monitor and analyze the current presence and threat of vector mosquitoes, continuous and standardized trapping using CDC light traps without an additional CO2-generator has been carried out at six selected monitoring sites located in Djibouti City, from August 2008 until December 2009. An overall of 620 haematophageous Diptera were trapped, 603 (97.3%) were mosquitoes, 10 (1.6%) were sand flies, and 7 (1.1%) were biting midges, respectively. Genus distribution of mosquitoes revealed that 600 (99.5%) were Culex spp., 2 (0.3%) were Anopheles sergentii, and 1 (0.2%) was Aedes aegypti. Culex species were represented by Cx. quinquefasciatus (78.5%), and Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus (21.5%). The later species was first detected focally in early December 2009 showing a strongly increasing population density resulting in a maximum trap rate of 25 mosquitoes per trap night. Sand flies were all Sergentomyia antennata, and biting midges of the genus Culicoides were represented by C. nubeculosus (71.4%) and C. vexans (28.6 %). The findings included the first records for Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus and An. sergentii in Djibouti. However, none of the captured female Culex spp, the known vector for West Nile Virus, showed positive results for viral nucleic acids using WNV RT-real time PCR system. Also, females An. sergentii were Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax circumsporozoite protein negative. PMID:21246936

Faulde, Michael K; Ahmed, Ammar A

2010-08-01

446

Whole Genome Sequences of Three Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue Strains: Yaws and Syphilis Treponemes Differ in Less than 0.2% of the Genome Sequence  

PubMed Central

Background The yaws treponemes, Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE) strains, are closely related to syphilis causing strains of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA). Both yaws and syphilis are distinguished on the basis of epidemiological characteristics, clinical symptoms, and several genetic signatures of the corresponding causative agents. Methodology/Principal Findings To precisely define genetic differences between TPA and TPE, high-quality whole genome sequences of three TPE strains (Samoa D, CDC-2, Gauthier) were determined using next-generation sequencing techniques. TPE genome sequences were compared to four genomes of TPA strains (Nichols, DAL-1, SS14, Chicago). The genome structure was identical in all three TPE strains with similar length ranging between 1,139,330 bp and 1,139,744 bp. No major genome rearrangements were found when compared to the four TPA genomes. The whole genome nucleotide divergence (dA) between TPA and TPE subspecies was 4.7 and 4.8 times higher than the observed nucleotide diversity (?) among TPA and TPE strains, respectively, corresponding to 99.8% identity between TPA and TPE genomes. A set of 97 (9.9%) TPE genes encoded proteins containing two or more amino acid replacements or other major sequence changes. The TPE divergent genes were mostly from the group encoding potential virulence factors and genes encoding proteins with unknown function. Conclusions/Significance Hypothetical genes, with genetic differences, consistently found between TPE and TPA strains are candidates for syphilitic treponemes virulence factors. Seventeen TPE genes were predicted under positive selection, and eleven of them coded either for predicted exported proteins or membrane proteins suggesting their possible association with the cell surface. Sequence changes between TPE and TPA strains and changes specific to individual strains represent suitable targets for subspecies- and strain-specific molecular diagnostics. PMID:22292095

Chen, Lei; Pospíšilová, Petra; Strouhal, Michal; Qin, Xiang; Mikalová, Lenka; Norris, Steven J.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Šmajs, David

2012-01-01

447

Targeted sequence capture provides insight into genome structure and genetics of male sterility in a gynodioecious diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae).  

PubMed

Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3-5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function. PMID:23749450

Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2013-08-01

448

Targeted Sequence Capture Provides Insight into Genome Structure and Genetics of Male Sterility in a Gynodioecious Diploid Strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae)  

PubMed Central

Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3?5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function. PMID:23749450

Tennessen, Jacob A.; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2013-01-01

449

Host-specific races in the holoparasitic angiosperm Orobanche minor: implications for speciation in parasitic plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Orobanche minor is a root-holoparasitic angiosperm that attacks a wide range of host species, including a number of commonly cultivated crops. The extent to which genetic divergence among natural populations of O. minor is influenced by host specificity has not been determined previously. Here, the host specificity of natural populations of O. minor is quantified for the first time, and evidence that this species may comprise distinct physiological races is provided. Methods A tripartite approach was used to examine the physiological basis for the divergence of populations occurring on different hosts: (1) host–parasite interactions were cultivated in rhizotron bioassays in order to quantify the early stages of the infection and establishment processes; (2) using reciprocal-infection experiments, parasite races were cultivated on their natural and alien hosts, and their fitness determined in terms of biomass; and (3) the anatomy of the host–parasite interface was investigated using histochemical techniques, with a view to comparing the infection process on different hosts. Key Results Races occurring naturally on red clover (Trifolium pratense) and sea carrot (Daucus carota ssp. gummifer) showed distinct patterns of host specificity: parasites cultivated in cross-infection studies showed a higher fitness on their natural hosts, suggesting that races show local adaptation to specific hosts. In addition, histological evidence suggests that clover and carrot roots vary in their responses to infection. Different root anatomy and responses to infection may underpin a physiological basis for host specificity. Conclusions It is speculated that host specificity may isolate races of Orobanche on different hosts, accelerating divergence and ultimately speciation in this genus. The rapid life cycle and broad host range of O. minor make this species an ideal model with which to study the interactions of parasitic plants with their host associates. PMID:19251714

Thorogood, C. J.; Rumsey, F. J.; Hiscock, S. J.

2009-01-01

450

Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 2; Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the Appendices to the main report.

Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

2011-01-01

451

Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the findings and recommendations from the NESC assessment.

Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

2011-01-01

452

The effect of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on the anaerobic fungi Neocallimastix frontalis EB 188, Piromyces communis DC 193 and Orpinomyces ssp. RW 206: generalized effects and component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three fungi Neocallimastix frontalis EB 188, Piromyces communis DC 193 and Orpinomyces ssp. RW 206, representing the predominant cultures isolated from cattle, were shown to respond to the addition of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract (i.e., Amaferm; BioZyme Inc., St. Joseph, Mo.) stimulation. Growth rates, protein and cellulase secretion\\u000a and fungal mass production were all accelerated in the presence of the

E. G. Harper; R. P. Welch; D. Contreras Lara; J. S. Chang; R. E. Calza

1996-01-01

453

Coordination modes of tyrosinate-ligated catalase-type heme enzymes: Magnetic circular dichroism studies of Plexaura homomalla allene oxide synthase, Mycobacterium avium ssp . Paratuberculosis protein-2744c, and bovine liver catalase in their ferric and ferrous states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine liver catalase (BLC), catalase-related allene oxide synthase (cAOS) from Plexaura homomalla, and a recently isolated protein from the cattle pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP-2744c (MAP)) are all tyrosinate-ligated heme enzymes whose crystal structures have been reported. cAOS and MAP have low (<20%) sequence similarity to, and significantly different catalytic functions from, BLC. cAOS transforms 8R-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid to an

D. M. Indika Bandara; Masanori Sono; Grant S. Bruce; Alan R. Brash; John H. Dawson

454

Aromatic Plants of Yugoslavia. I. Chemical Composition of Oils of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. pannonica (Scheele) Hayak, A. crithmifolia W. et K., A. serbica Nym. and A. tanacetifolia All  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used GC\\/MS to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of wild Achillea plants native to Yugoslavia: Achillea millefolium L. ssp. pannonica (Scheele) Hayak, A. crithmifolia W. et K., A. serbica Nym. and A. tanacetifolia All. Seventy-four components were identified. All four oils contained camphor (4–16%), 1,8-cineole (6–23%) and borneol (4–16%). In addition, artemisia ketone (4%) was found

Jean-Claude Chalchat; M. S. Gorunovic; S. D. Petrovic

1999-01-01

455

Volatile components from flower-heads of Centaurea nicaeensis All., C. parlatoris Helder and C. solstitialis L. ssp. schouwii (DC.) Dostál growing wild in southern Italy and their biological activity.  

PubMed

The volatile constituents of the flowerheads of Centaurea nicaeensis All., C. parlatoris Helder and C. solstitialis L. ssp. schouwii (DC.) Dostál were extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. Altogether 113 components were identified. Fatty acids and hydrocarbons were the most abundant components in the oils. Caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide were the main compounds of the sesquiterpene fraction. The study on the biological activity of the oils shows no significant activity. PMID:18626815

Senatore, Felice; Formisano, Carmen; Raio, Aida; Bellone, Gabriella; Bruno, Maurizio

2008-01-01

456

Physical mapping and microsynteny of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis genome corresponding to a 222 kbp gene-rich region of Arabidopsis chromosome 4 and partially duplicated on chromosome 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, designated as KBrH, from high molecular weight genomic DNA\\u000a of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage). This library, which was constructed using HindIII-cleaved genomic DNA, consists of 56,592 clones with average insert size of 115 kbp. Using a partially duplicated DNA\\u000a sequence of Arabidopsis, represented by 19 and 9 predicted genes on chromosome

J. Y. Park; D. H. Koo; C. P. Hong; S. J. Lee; J. W. Jeon; S. H. Lee; P. Y. Yun; B. S. Park; H. R. Kim; J. W. Bang; P. Plaha; I. Bancroft; Y. P. Lim

2005-01-01

457

Quantitation of gibberellins and the metabolism of [ 3 H]gibberellin A 1 during somatic embryogenesis in carrot and anise cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell line lacking the ability to undergo somatic embryogenasis, and in carrot and anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) cell lines in which embryogenesis could be regulated by presence or absence of 2,4-dichlorophen-oxyacetic acid (2,4-D), in the medium (+2,4-D=no embryogenesis,-2,4-D=embryo differentiation and development), the levels of endogenous gibberellin(s) (GA) were determined by the dwarfrice bioassay, and

Masana Noma; Jochen Huber; Dieter Ernst; Richard P. Pharis

1982-01-01

458

The impact of Cu treatment on phenolic and polyamine levels in plant material regenerated from embryos obtained in anther culture of carrot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of copper sulphate on the regeneration of carrot (Daucus carota L.) androgenic embryos and changes in the levels of phenolic substances and polyamines that might be indicative of the response to oxidative stress were investigated. The cultivation on the regeneration medium supplemented with Cu2+ at the concentrations 1 and 10?M for 15weeks resulted in significant dose-dependent inhibition of

Krystyna Górecka; Milena Cvikrová; Urszula Kowalska; Josef Eder; Katarzyna Szafra?ska; Ryszard Górecki; Krystyna M. Janas

2007-01-01

459

Enhanced germination of artificial seeds by marine cynobacterial extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an improved artificial seed system by using a hot-water extract from a marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. NKBG 042902. Carrot somatic embryos (Daucus carota L.) were divided into two size categories (> 800 µm and 425–800 µm). High frequency germination (91%) was obtained using the large somatic embryos encapsulated in calcium alginate gel containing 400 mg 1-1 of

Hitoshi Wake; Akinobu Akasaka; Hironori Umetsu; Yoshihiro Ozeki; Koichiro Shimomura; Tadashi Matsunaga

1992-01-01

460

Influence of copper ions on growth, lipid peroxidation, and proline and polyamines content in carrot rosettes obtained from anther culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of Cu (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ?M) on the regeneration of carrot (Daucus carota L.) androgenic embryos of var. Feria and 1014 breeding line as well as on polyamines (PAs), proline contents, lipid peroxidation\\u000a and Cu accumulation after 16 and 24 weeks was studied. Generally, growth of Feria rosettes was better than that of the 1014\\u000a line. Significant increase in

Katarzyna SzafranskaMilena; Milena Cvikrová; Urszula Kowalska; Krystyna Górecka; Ryszard Górecki; Olga Martincová; Krystyna M. Janas

2011-01-01

461

Factors affecting transformation of cell cultures from three dicotyledonous pigment-producing species using microprojectile bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene transfer methods were established for cell suspension cultures of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), ohelo (Vaccinium pahalae) and carrot (Daucus carota, two lines) using micro-projectile bombardment. Several parameters were studied (particle size\\/type, helium pressure, stage height, DNA concentration, pre-culture period) to determine which significantly affected transformation efficiency. All the physical parameters influenced transient gene expression, with particle size and type

Simon Deroles; Mary Anne Lila Smith; Carmella Lee

2002-01-01

462

Anaerobically digested poultry slaughterhouse wastes as fertiliser in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and physical analysis, 27-d plant growth assays with carrot (Daucus carota) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris var. chinensis), and 5-d phytotoxicity assays with Chinese cabbage and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) were used to investigate the suitability of anaerobically digested poultry slaughterhouse waste for fertiliser in agriculture and the effect of aerobic post-treatment on the properties of the digested material.The

E Salminen; J Rintala; J Härkönen; M Kuitunen; H Högmander; A Oikari

2001-01-01

463

Determination ofStructure andComposition ofSuberin from theRootsofCarrot, Parsnip, Rutabaga, Turnip, RedBeet, and SweetPotato byCombined Gas-Liquid Chroma tography andMassSpectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suberin fromtherootsofcarrots (Daucus carota), parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), rutabaga (Brassica napobrassica), turnip (Brassica rapa), redbeet(Betavulgaris), andsweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) wasisolated byacombination ofchemical andenzvmatic techniques. Finely powderedsuberin wasde- polymerized with14% BFsinmethanol, andsoluble monomers (20-50 % ofsuberin) werefractionated intophenolic (<10% ) andaliphatic (13-35%)fractions. The aliphatic fractions consisted mainlyofw-hydroxyacids (29-43%),dicarboxylic acids(16-27%), fatty acids (4-18%), andfatty alcohols (3- 6%). Eachfraction wassubjected tocombinedgas-liquid chromatography andmassspectrometry. Amongthefatty acids

P. E. KOLATTUKUDY; A. J. POULOSE

464

Fatty acids of plant vacuolar membrane lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid (FA) composition of vacuolar membrane lipids from storage tissues of umbelliferous plants, viz., parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.), parsley (Petroselinium crispum L.), and carrot (Daucus carota L.) is studied by gas-liquid chromatography and the FA biosynthetic pathways are considered. Vacuolar membrane lipids are\\u000a characterized by high (78% of the total FA pool) content of unsaturated FA among which linoleic

S. P. Makarenko; T. A. Konenkina; L. V. Dudareva

2007-01-01

465

Enhanced adventive embryogenesis resulting from plasmolysis of cultured wild carrot cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adventive embryogenesis in vitro-grown somatic cells of Daucus carota L. was increased three-fold by a 45 min plasmolysis pre-treatment using 1M sucrose solutions. A high degree of synchronous development also resulted from this treatment. The enhancement of embryogenesis is interpreted as an increase in the regeneration of cells which have become physiologically somewhat isolated from the tissue of their origin

D. F. Wetherell

1984-01-01

466

Potyviruses, novel and known, in cultivated and wild species of the family Apiaceae in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Three potyviruses were identified by gene sequencing and found to be widespread in species of Apiaceae in Australia. Only celery mosaic virus was found in celery crops and in one of 180 specimens of feral carrot (Daucus carota). Another related but distinct novel potyvirus, carrot virus Y, was the only virus found in carrot crops and all except one\\u000a feral

J. Moran; B. van Rijswijk; V. Traicevski; E. W. Kitajima; A. M. Mackenzie; A. J. Gibbs

2002-01-01

467

Oviposition stimulants for the black swallowtail butterfly: Identification of electrophysiologically active compounds in carrot volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Headspace volatiles were collected from undamaged foliage of carrot,Daucus carota, a host-plant species of the black swallowtail butterfly,Papilio polyxenes. The volatiles were fractionated over silica on an open column, and the fractions were tested in behavioral assays withP. polyxenes females in laboratory experiments. The polar fractions, as well as the total mixture of volatiles, increased the landing frequency and the

Robert Baur; Paul Feeny; Erich Städler

1993-01-01

468

Biosynthesis of p -hydroxybenzoic acid in elicitor-treated carrot cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells respond to treatment with fungal elicitors by synthesizing wallbound p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA). The biosynthetic pathway to p-HBA is still hypothetical. Tracer experiments with l-phenylalanine indicate the involvement of the general phenylpropanoid pathway. 3,4 (Methylenedioxy) innamic acid, an inhibitor of hydrocycinnamate CoA ligase, inhibits the accumulation of anthocyanins in carrot, while it does not interfere with

Jörg-Peter Schnitzler; Johannes Madlung; Anette Rose; Hanns Ulrich Seitz

1992-01-01

469

The effect of fluorescent labeling on calcium-induced fusion of fusogenic carrot protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various fluorescent compounds — carboxyfluorescein, scopoletin, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC), rhodamine 123, and rhodamine B ethyl ester — were used to study their effects on calcium-induced fusion of fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts. These protoplasts normally fused at a high percentage (50–60%) in response to 10 mM calcium, pH 6.0; however, if cells had been labeled

Kamnoon Kanchanapoom; Wendy F. Boss

1986-01-01

470

Characterization of Carrot Cell Wall Protein 1  

PubMed Central

Antiserum was raised against a synthetic nona-peptide which was predicted to have considerable homology with the unhydroxylated, unglycosylated precursor of cell wall proteins from several plants. The antiserum is able to recognize the major cell wall protein of incubated carrot (Daucus carota) root discs which is produced when the discs are treated with a proline hydroxylase inhibitor and then labeled with radioactive proline. This technique has potential applications in studying cell wall biosynthesis and its regulatory control mechanisms. Images PMID:16662034

Smith, Macky A.

1981-01-01

471

Crop uptake of cadmium from phosphorus fertilizers: I. Yield and cadmium content  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of different P fertilizers on the yields and Cd contents of oat (Avena sativa L.), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). These crops were grown in the greenhouse using soils treated with lime to achieve three pHs ranging from 4.77 to 5.94 for a sandy soil and 4.97 to

Q. B. He; B. R. Singh

1994-01-01

472

Metabolic engineering of novel ketocarotenoid production in carrot plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids constitute a vast group of pigments that are ubiquitous throughout nature. Carrot (Daucus\\u000a carota L.) roots provide an important source of dietary ?-carotene (provitamin A), ?-carotene and lutein. Ketocarotenoids, such\\u000a as canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are produced by some algae and cyanobacteria but are rare in plants. Ketocarotenoids are\\u000a strong antioxidants that are chemically synthesized and used as dietary supplements

Jayaraman Jayaraj; Robert Devlin; Zamir Punja

2008-01-01

473

Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of fruits and vegetables evaluated by the Ames test and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay \\/ Mutagenicidad y citotoxicidad de frutas y vegetales evaluadas por el test de Ames y el ensayo del bromuro de 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolio (MTT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenic and cytotoxic activity of the aqueous (H2O) and ethanolic (EtOH) extracts of fruits and vegetables were studied by the Ames test and the MTT assay. A significant mutagenic activity was found for three H2O extracts of broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Dacus carota) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and for one EtOH extract of kiwi (Ananas sativus ) of the

A. Martínez; Y. Ikken; M. I. Cambero; M. L. Marín; A. I. Haza; C. Casas; P. Morales

1999-01-01

474

Insecticidal efficacy of silica gel with Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) essential oil against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).  

PubMed

Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effect of silica gel enhanced with the essential oil (EO) of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) (derived from berry specimens from Greece) against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). For that purpose, a dry mixture consisting of 500 mg of silica gel that had absorbed 2.18 mg of EO (total weight: 502.18 mg) was tested at three doses; 0.125, 0.250, and 0.5 g/kg of wheat, corresponding to 125, 250, and 500 ppm, respectively, and silica gel alone at 0.5 g/kg of wheat corresponding to 500 ppm, at different exposure intervals (24 and 48 h and 7 and 14 d for S. oryzae; 24 and 48 h and 7, 14, and 21 d for T. confusum). The chemical content of the specific EO was determined by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses indicating the presence of 31 constituents with myrcene and germacrene-D being the predominant compounds. The bioactivity results for S. oryzae indicated that 48 h of exposure in wheat resulted in an 82% mortality for treatment with 500 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. For 7 d of exposure, 100 and 98% of S. oryzae adults died when they were treated with 500 and 250 ppm of enhanced silica gel, respectively. At 14 d of exposure, all adults died both at 250 and 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. At 48 h, 7 and 14 d of exposure significantly less S. oryzae adults died in wheat treated with silica gel alone than at 250 or 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. In the case of T. confusum, at 7 d of exposure, mortality in wheat treated with silica gel only was significantly higher in comparison to the other treatments. At the 14 d of exposure mortality in wheat treated with 500 ppm of silica gel alone was significantly higher than 125 and 250 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. Similar trends were also noted at 21 d of exposure, indicating that there is no enhancement effect from the addition of the EO. Results herein suggest that the simultaneous use of silica gel and J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus EO enhances significantly its activity against S. oryzae. PMID:24020309

Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas C; Evergetis, Epameinondas; Katsoula, Anna-Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A

2013-08-01

475

Search path of a fossorial herbivore, Geomys bursarius, foraging in structurally complex plant communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The influence of habitat patchiness and unpalatable plants on the search path of the plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius) was examined in outdoor enclosures. Separate experiments were used to evaluate how individual animals explored (by tunnel excavation) enclosures free of plants except for one or more dense patches of a palatable plant (Daucus carota), a dense patch of an unpalatable species (Pastinaca sativa) containing a few palatable plants (D. carota), or a relatively sparse mixture of palatable (D. carota) and unpalatable (Raphanus sativus) species. Only two of eight individuals tested showed the predicted pattern of concentrating search effort in patches of palatable plants. The maintenance of relatively high levels of effort in less profitable sites may reflect the security afforded food resources by the solitary social system and fossorial lifestyle of G. bursarius. Unpalatable plants repelled animals under some conditions, but search paths in the sparsely planted mixed-species treatment suggest animals can use visual or other cues to orient excavations. Evidence supporting area-restricted search was weak. More information about the use of visual cues by G. bursarius and the influence of experience on individual search mode is needed for refining current models of foraging behavior in this species.

Andersen, Douglas C.

1990-01-01

476

Geosmin (2?,6?-dimethylbicyclo[4.4.0]decan-1?-ol) production associated with Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris is cultivar specific.  

PubMed

The characteristic earthy flavor and aroma of table beet [Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (garden beet group)] is due to the presence of geosmin, C??H??O, a volatile terpenoid compound commonly produced by many soil microorganisms. This study screened beet and related subspecies cultivars grown in three different environments (field, greenhouse in nonautoclaved soil, greenhouse in autoclaved soil) to evaluate the effect of cultivar and environment on geosmin level in table beet. There was no significant difference between years or between cultivars grown in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil, indicating geosmin content may not be primarily attributable to microbial associations. A significant interaction between cultivar and environment was found, but generalizations could be made for high- or low-producing cultivars, demonstrating that geosmin levels were cultivar specific. 'Bull's Blood', 'Chioggia', and sugar beet exhibited the highest geosmin levels. Cultivars grown in the field had the smallest range of geosmin production, from 4.84 to 20.82 ?g geosmin (kg root tissue)?¹. The high degree of consistency in cultivar performance across years and in ranking for geosmin levels across environments as well as the lack of a significant difference between plants grown in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil suggests characteristic levels of geosmin may be present in and produced endogenously by cultivars of table beet. It may be possible to establish breeding populations with defined geosmin levels and to identify variety-specific aroma and flavor intensities that would be durable across environments. PMID:24506519

Freidig, Amy K; Goldman, Irwin L

2014-03-01

477

Induced Production of 1-Methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl Glucosinolate by Jasmonic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate in Sprouts and Leaves of Pak Choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)  

PubMed Central

Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future. PMID:23873294

Wiesner, Melanie; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Zrenner, Rita

2013-01-01

478

Comparative proteome analysis of global effect of POS5 and zwf-ppnK overexpression in L-isoleucine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum strain JHI3-156 produces L-isoleucine (Ile). Overexpression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae-derived NADH kinase gene (POS5) and the endogenous glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NAD kinase genes (zwf-ppnK) in JHI3-156 increased Ile production by 26 and 31 %, respectively. To decipher the global effect of POS5 and zwf-ppnK overexpression on Ile biosynthesis, proteomic analysis was conducted. Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were identified in the POS5-overexpressing strain, most of which are related to inositol catabolism, central carbon metabolism, anaplerotic pathway, protein biosynthesis and the stress response. In the zwf-ppnK-overexpressing strain, seven differentially-expressed proteins, including PpnK and anaplerotic enzymes, were identified. This result indicates the involvement of a novel inositol catabolism step and the importance of the anaplerotic pathway in Ile biosynthesis. This finding will be helpful in the systematic metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for Ile biosynthesis. PMID:25650341

Shi, Feng; Li, Kun; Li, Yongfu

2015-05-01

479

From introduced species to invader: what determines variation in the success of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) in the North Atlantic Ocean?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) has been introduced accidentally and successfully from Japan to many shores of the northern and southern hemispheres, including those of the Northeast and Northwest Atlantic Ocean. On most European coasts, Codium occurs regularly but at low abundances in the intertidal zone and is absent from subtidal habitats. In contrast, Codium is extremely abundant in subtidal kelp beds in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean where it often reaches nuisance proportions. This differential success cannot be accounted for by either the properties of the invader or by physico-chemical differences between invaded coasts. A theoretical comparison between two regions on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean, i.e. Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada, and south central Britain, illustrates how the resident benthic community may determine the difference in relative abundance of Codium in subtidal habitats between northeast America and Europe. In this review, low floral species diversity, biological disturbance and facilitation by a previous species invasion are suggested as potential factors for the establishment, success and abundance of Codium in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, but these require testing in field experiments.

Chapman, Annelise Sabine

1998-09-01

480

A 560 yr summer temperature reconstruction for the Western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio (Corsica/France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be affected strongly by current climate change. However, temperature records for the past centuries which can contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse for this region. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often mirror temperature history but their application as climate proxies is difficult due to the influence of the anthropogenic change in atmospheric CO2 on the carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthetic CO2 uptake. We tested the influence of different correction models accounting for plant response to increased atmospheric CO2 on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 yr) derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica. The different correction factors have only a minor influence on the main climate signals and resulting temperature reconstructions. Carbon isotope series show strong correlations with summer temperature and precipitation. A summer temperature reconstruction (1448-2007 AD) reveals that the Little Ice Age was characterised by low, but not extremely low temperatures on Corsica. Temperatures have been to modern temperatures at around 1500 AD. The reconstruction reveals warm summers during 1480-1520 and 1950-2007 AD and cool summers during 1580-1620 and 1820-1890 AD.

Szymczak, S.; Joachimski, M. M.; Bräuning, A.; Hetzer, T.; Kuhlemann, J.

2012-10-01

481

Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer ssp. pruniflorum (Kurz) Gogel. (Hóng yá mù) extract induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells through caspase-dependent pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer ssp. pruniflorum (Kurz) Gogel. (Hóng yá mù) (CF) has been used for treatment of fever, cough, and peptic ulcer. Previously, a 50% ethanol-water extract from twigs of CF was shown highly selective in cytotoxicity against cancer cells. This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the apoptosis-inducing effect of CF. Methods The cytotoxicity of CF was evaluated in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cell line in comparison with a non-cancerous African green monkey kidney epithelial cell line (Vero) by a neutral red assay. The apoptosis induction mechanisms were investigated through nuclear morphological changes, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential alterations, and caspase enzyme activities. Results CF selectively induced HepG2 cell death compared with non-cancerous Vero cells. A 1.5-fold higher apoptotic effect compared with melphalan was induced by 120 ?g/mL of the 50% ethanol-water extract of CF. The apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells occurred via extrinsic and intrinsic caspase-dependent pathways in dose- and time-dependent manners by significantly increasing the activities of caspase 3/7, 8, and 9, decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, and causing apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. Conclusions CF extract induced a caspase-dependent apoptosis in HepG2 cells. PMID:24708784

2014-01-01

482

Molecular, Physicochemical and Rheological Characteristics of Introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum Lines with Wheat 1D/1A Chromosome Substitution  

PubMed Central

Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat) genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number) of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax), and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement. PMID:23896593

Salmanowicz, Boles?aw P.; Langner, Monika; Wi?niewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kwiatek, Micha?; B?aszczyk, Lidia

2013-01-01

483

Molecular, physicochemical and rheological characteristics of introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum lines with wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution.  

PubMed

Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat) genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number) of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax), and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement. PMID:23896593

Salmanowicz, Boles?aw P; Langner, Monika; Wi?niewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kwiatek, Micha?; B?aszczyk, Lidia

2013-01-01

484

Molecular characterization of two y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunit alleles 1Ay12 and 1Ay8 from cultivated einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum).  

PubMed

Two y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) 1Ay12 and 1Ay8 from the two accessions PI560720 and PI345186 of cultivated einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum, AA, 2n=2x=14), were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The mobility of 1Ay12 and 1Ay8 was similar to that of 1Dy12 and 1By8 from common wheat Chinese Spring, respectively. Their ORFs respectively consisted of 1812bp and 1935bp, encoding 602 and 643 amino acid residues with the four typical structural domains of HMW-GS including signal peptide, conserved N-, and C-terminal and central repetitive domains. Compared with the most similar active 1Ay alleles previous published, there were a total of 15 SNPs and 2 InDels in them. Their encoding functions were confirmed by successful heterogeneous expression. The two novel 1Ay alleles were named as 1Ay12 and 1Ay8 with the accession No. JQ318694 and JQ318695 in GenBank, respectively. The two alleles were classed into the two distinct groups, Phe-type and Cys-type, which might be relevant to the differentiation of Glu-A1-2 alleles. Of which, 1Ay8 belonged to Cys-type group, and its protein possessed an additional conserved cysteine residue in central repetitive region besides the six common ones in N- and C-terminal regions of Phe-type group, and was the second longest in all the known active 1Ay alleles. These results suggested that the subunit 1Ay8 of cultivated einkorn wheat accession PI345186 might have a potential ability to strengthen the gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for wheat quality improvement. PMID:23266635

Guo, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Bi-Hua; Hu, Xi-Gui; Bi, Zhe-Guang; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Deng-Cai; Zheng, You-Liang

2013-03-01

485

Ecological role of reindeer summer browsing in the mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests: effects on plant defense, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient cycling.  

PubMed

Mammalian herbivores commonly alter the concentrations of secondary compounds in plants and, by this mechanism, have indirect effects on litter decomposition and soil carbon and nutrient cycling. In northernmost Fennoscandia, the subarctic mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests are important pasture for the semidomestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). In the summer ranges, mountain birches are intensively browsed, whereas in the winter ranges, reindeer feed on ground lichens, and the mountain birches remain intact. We analyzed the effect of summer browsing on the concentrations of secondary substances, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient pools in areas that had been separated as summer or winter ranges for at least 20 years, and we predicted that summer browsing may reduce levels of secondary compounds in the mountain birch and, by this mechanism, have an indirect effect on the decomposition of mountain birch leaf litter and soil nutrient cycling. The effect of browsing on the concentration of secondary substances in the mountain birch leaves varied between different years and management districts, but in some cases, the concentration of condensed tannins was lower in the summer than in the winter ranges. In a reciprocal litter decomposition trial, both litter origin and emplacement significantly affected the litter decomposition rate. Decomposition rates were faster for the litter originating from and placed into the summer range. Soil inorganic nitrogen (N) concentrations were higher in the summer than in the winter ranges, which indicates that reindeer summer browsing may enhance the soil nutrient cycling. There was a tight inverse relationship between soil N and foliar tannin concentrations in the winter range but not in the summer range. This suggests that in these strongly nutrient-limited ecosystems, soil N availability regulates the patterns of resource allocation to condensed tannins in the absence but not in the presence of browsing. PMID:17123112

Stark, Sari; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Kumpula, Jouko

2007-03-01

486

Identification of novel and conserved miRNAs involved in pollen development in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis by high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis  

PubMed Central

Background microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, noncoding, small RNAs that have essential regulatory functions in plant growth, development, and stress response processes. However, limited information is available about their functions in sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Pollen development is an important process in the life cycle of a flowering plant and is a major factor that affects the yield and quality of crop seeds. Results This study aims to identify miRNAs involved in pollen development. Two independent small RNA libraries were constructed from the flower buds of the male sterile line (Bcajh97-01A) and male fertile line (Bcajh97-01B) of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis. The libraries were subjected to high-throughput sequencing by using the Illumina Solexa system. Eight novel miRNAs on the other arm of known pre-miRNAs, 54 new conserved miRNAs, and 8 novel miRNA members were identified. Twenty-five pairs of novel miRNA/miRNA* were found. Among all the identified miRNAs, 18 differentially expressed miRNAs with over two-fold change between flower buds of male sterile line (Bcajh97-01A) and male fertile line (Bcajh97-01B) were identified. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed miRNAs were preferentially expressed in flower buds of the male fertile line (Bcajh97-01B). Degradome analysis showed that a total of 15 genes were predicted to be the targets of seven miRNAs. Conclusions Our findings provide an overview of potential miRNAs involved in pollen development and interactions between miRNAs and their corresponding targets, which may provide important clues on the function of miRNAs in pollen development. PMID:24559317

2014-01-01

487

Reducing the risk of infection in the elderly by dietary intake of yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.  

PubMed

Immune senescence potentially leads to an increased risk of infections. It is desirable to augment the immune system and protect against infections by daily consumption of immunostimulatory food. The present study evaluated whether the intake of yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) OLL1073R-1 has an effect on resistance to the common cold. We conducted two independent studies, in which fifty-seven (median age 74.5 years) and eighty-five healthy elderly individuals (median age 67.7 years) were participants. In each study, the subjects were divided into two groups based on age and sex and instructed to eat 90 g yoghurt or drink 100 ml milk once per d over an 8- or 12-week period. A meta-analysis of the results of these two independent studies showed the risk of catching the common cold was about 2.6 times lower (OR 0.39; P = 0.019) in the yoghurt group than in the milk group and the increase of natural killer cell activity was significantly higher in the yoghurt group than in the milk group (P = 0.028). In addition, the quality of life score for the 'eye/nose/throat' system after intake was significantly higher in the yoghurt group than in the milk group and the improvement of the score was correlated with the promotion of natural killer cell activity. In conclusion, consumption of yoghurt fermented with L. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 augmented natural killer cell activity and reduced the risk of catching the common cold in elderly individuals. PMID:20487575

Makino, Seiya; Ikegami, Shuji; Kume, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hajime; Orii, Naoki

2010-10-01

488

Responsiveness of different citrus genotypes to the Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri-derived pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22 correlates with resistance to citrus canker.  

PubMed

The bacterial agent of citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri, Xcc) has caused tremendous economic losses to the citrus industry around the world. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) is important to plant immunity. In this study, we compared the defence responses of citrus canker-resistant and citrus canker-susceptible genotypes to the Xcc-derived PAMP flg22 (Xflg22) by analysing the expression of 20 citrus defence-associated genes. We showed that, in the most resistant genotype, 'Nagami' kumquat, there was significant induction of several defence genes (EDS1, NDR1, PBS1, RAR1, SGT1, PAL1, NPR2 and NPR3) as early as 6?h and up to 72?h after Xflg22 treatment. At the other end of the spectrum, highly susceptible 'Duncan' grapefruit showed no induction of the same defence genes, even 120?h after treatment. Citrus genotypes with partial levels of resistance showed intermediate levels of transcriptional reprogramming that correlated with their resistance level. Xflg22 also triggered a rapid oxidative burst in all genotypes which was higher and accompanied by the induction of PTI marker genes (WRKY22 and GST1) only in the more resistant genotypes.