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1

The Anatomical Basis for Hygroscopic Movement in Primary Rays of Daucus carota Ssp. carota (Apiaceae)  

E-print Network

The Anatomical Basis for Hygroscopic Movement in Primary Rays of Daucus carota Ssp. carota-807 118314403-0009$02.OO T H E ANATOMICAL BASIS FOR HYGROSCOPIC MOVEMENT I N PRIMARY RAYS OF DAUCUS CAROTA SSP the cause of hygroscopic movement in umbellet pe- duncles, or primary rays, of Dauczts carota (Apiaceae

Lacey, Elizabeth P.

2

Rare trisubstituted sesquiterpenes daucanes from the wild Daucus carota.  

PubMed

Phytochemical and biological investigation of the roots of the wild Daucus carota ssp. carota afforded three new and four known compounds, including four sesquiterpenes daucane esters (1-3 [new], and 4), one polyacetylene (5), one sesquiterpene coumarin (6), and sitosterol glucoside. The structures of the new compounds were determined by comprehensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC analyses. Based on an agar diffusion assay, 1, 2 and 4-6 were screened and found to contain a range of low antibacterial activities against four gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptomyces scabies, Bacillus subtilus, Bacillus cereus) and two gram negative species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) as well as antifungal against Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger using cup agar diffusion assay. PMID:15964039

Ahmed, Ahmed A; Bishr, Mohktar M; El-Shanawany, Mohamed A; Attia, Eman Z; Ross, Samir A; Paré, Paul W

2005-07-01

3

Control of Heterodera carotae, Ditylenchus dipsaci, and Meloidogyne javanica with Fumigant and Nonfumigant Nematicides  

PubMed Central

Five field trials were conducted in Italy in 1983 and 1984 to test the efficacy of isazofos and benfuracarb in controlling Heterodera carotae on carrot, Ditylenchus dipsaci on onion, and Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Methyl isothiocyanate (MIT) was tested against H. carotae and M. javanica. Single (10 kg a.i./ha) and split (5 + 5 kg a.i./ha) applications of isazofos gave yield increases of carrot and onion similar to those obtained with DD (300 liters/ha) and aldicarb (10 kg a.i./ha). Population densities of H. carotae in carrot roots at harvest and of M. javanica in tomato roots 2 months after transplanting were also suppressed by isazofos. Benfuracarb (10 kg a.i./ha increased onion yields in a field infested with D. dipsaci, but it was not effective against H. carotae or M. javanica. The efficacy of MIT at 400 and 600 liters/ha was similar to that of MIT + DD (Di-Trapex) at 300 liters/ha. Both nematicides inhibited hatch of H. carotae eggs and decreased the soil population density of M. javanica. PMID:19294191

Greco, N.; Elia, F.; Brandonisio, A.

1986-01-01

4

Ontogeny of Daucus carota Infected with Meloidogyne hapla  

PubMed Central

The ontogeny of carrots (Daucus carota cv. 'Spartan Premium') grown under greenhouse conditions in pots of organic soil infected with Meloidogyne hapla was influenced detrimentally as early as 4 days after seeding, as determined through analysis of plant surface area, dry weight, fresh weight, net assimilation rate, relative growth rate, and leaf-area ratio. Only 58% of the diseased carrots were suitable for fresh market, compared with 97% of those grown in nematode-free soil. Growth and development of the shoot system (height, surface area, dry weight, and fresh weight) were retarded by M. hapla as early as 12 days after seeding. During the first 12 days after seeding, root dry weight was greater for diseased plants than for controls. Root growth and development (surface area, dry weight, and fresh weight) associated with this nematode, however, were retarded as early as 16 days after seeding. M. hapla caused a delay in the occurrence of 2nd-, 4th-, and 5th-order roots, and an increase in the occurrence of 6th-order roots in infected plants. Parasitized plants had 44% fewer roots (primary through 6th-order) and 50% less total root length. PMID:19305837

Slinger, L. A.; Bird, G. W.

1978-01-01

5

Ginsenoside Rb 1 in asymmetric somatic hybrid calli of Daucus carota with Panax quinquefolius  

Microsoft Academic Search

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is one of the most valuable herbs in the world. Its major active components are ginsenosides. In order to produce ginsenoside\\u000a heterogeneously, somatic hybridization, a novel approach for genetic introgression, was employed in this study. Protoplasts\\u000a derived from respective calli of carrot (Daucus carota var. sativus Hoffm.) and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius L.) were used

Lu Han; Chuanen Zhou; Junying Shi; Daying Zhi; Guangmin Xia

2009-01-01

6

Arabinogalactan proteins are essential in somatic embryogenesis of Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daucus carota L. cell lines secrete a characteristic set of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) into the medium. The composition of this set of AGPs changes with the age of the culture, as can be determined by crossed electrophoresis with the specific AGP-binding agent, ß-glucosyl Yariv reagent. Addition of AGPs isolated from the medium of a non-embryogenic cell line to an expiant

Marc Kreuger; Gerrit-Jan van Hoist

1993-01-01

7

Stimulation of Daucus carota somatic embryogenesis by inhibitors of ethylene synthesis: cobalt and nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Co2+ and Ni2+ on ethylene production and somatic embryogenesis by carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell cultures were studied. At concentrations of 10 µM to 50 µM, CoCl2 effectively inhibited ethylene production by embryogenic cultures and significantly stimulated somatic embryogenesis. The observed increase of embryo number was proportional to the inhibition level of ethylene production. However, CoCl2 had

J. P. Roustan; A. Latche; J. Fallot

1989-01-01

8

Intra-population genetic diversity of cultivated carrot (Daucus carota L.) assessed by analysis of microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Intra-population variation of 18 cultivated carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) populations of diverse origins was evaluated using codominant microsatellite (SSR) markers. Using 27 genomic and EST-derived SSR markers, 253 alleles were identified with a mean 9.4 alleles per marker. Most of the alleles (60.5%) were rare i.e., with the frequency ? 0.05 while only 3.95% of alleles occurred with frequency > 0.6. EST-derived SSR markers were less polymorphic than genomic SSR markers. Differences in allele occurrence allowed 16 out of 18 populations to be assigned to either the Western or Asian carrot gene pools with high probability. Populations could be also discriminated due to the presence of private alleles (25.3% of all alleles). Most populations had excess of alleles in the homozygous state indicating their inbreeding, although heterozygous loci were common in F1 hybrids. Genetic diversity was due to allelic variation among plants within populations (62% of total variation) and between populations (38%). Accessions originating from continental Asia and Europe had more allelic variants and higher diversity than those from Japan and USA. Also, allelic richness and variability in landraces was higher than in F1 hybrids and open-pollinated cultivars. PMID:24432327

Maksylewicz, Anna; Baranski, Rafal

2013-01-01

9

Differential effects of hexaconazole and paclobutrazol on biomass, electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant potential of Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of triazole fungicides is a common practice in the cultivation of carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants. It is there for seems important to test the changes that are occurring in this food crop under triazoles, the non-traditional plant growth regulators, treatments in order to identify the extent to which it tolerate the fungicide application and thereby make it

R. Gopi; C. Abdul Jaleel; R. Sairam; G. M. A. Lakshmanan; M. Gomathinayagam; R. Panneerselvam

2007-01-01

10

Development of a high-throughput SNP resource to advance genomic, genetic and breeding research in carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rapid advancement in high-throughput SNP genotyping technologies along with next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms has decreased the cost, improved the quality of large-scale genome surveys, and allowed specialty crops with limited genomic resources such as carrot (Daucus carota) to access t...

11

Pollination in small islands by occasional visitors: the case of Daucus carota subsp. commutatus (Apiaceae) in the Columbretes archipelago, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the pollination ecology and related floral traits of the species Daucus carota subsp. commutatus in the isolated archipelago of Columbretes, E. Spain, where bees are absent. Two populations were studied: a small population\\u000a found on a relatively large island (Grossa) inhabited nowadays by three people; and a larger population on a smaller uninhabited\\u000a island (Foradada). The plant,

Celeste Pérez-Bañón; Theodora Petanidou

2007-01-01

12

Characterisation of polyacetylenes isolated from carrot (Daucus carota) extracts by negative ion tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The potential use of negative electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in the characterisation of the three polyacetylenes common in carrots (Daucus carota) has been assessed. The MS scans have demonstrated that the polyacetylenes undergo a modest degree of in-source decomposition in the negative ionisation mode while the positive ionisation mode has shown predominantly sodiated ions and no [M+H](+) ions. Tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) studies have shown that the polyacetylenes follow two distinct fragmentation pathways: one that involves cleavage of the C3-C4 bond and the other with cleavage of the C7-C8 bond. The cleavage of the C7-C8 bond generated product ions m/z 105.0 for falcarinol, m/z 105/107.0 for falcarindiol, m/z 147.0/149.1 for falcarindiol-3-acetate. In addition to these product ions, the transitions m/z 243.2 ? 187.1 (falcarinol), m/z 259.2 ? 203.1 (falcarindiol), m/z 301.2 ? 255.2/203.1 (falcarindiol-3-acetate), mostly from the C3-C4 bond cleavage, can form the basis of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-quantitative methods which are poorly represented in the literature. The 'MS(3) ' experimental data confirmed a less pronounced homolytic cleavage site between the C11-C12 bond in the falcarinol-type polacetylenes. The optimised liquid chromatography (LC)/MS conditions have achieved a baseline chromatographic separation of the three polyacetylenes investigated within 40 min total run-time. PMID:21735506

Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel P; Koidis, Anastasios; Rawson, Ashish; McLoughlin, Padraig; Griffiths, William J

2011-08-15

13

Quantification of the relative abundance of plastome to nuclear genome in leaf and root tissues of carrot (Daucus carota L.) using quantitative PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot (Daucus carota L.), is an important horticultural crop with significant health benefits, providing pro-vitamin A carotenoids in the human diet. Carotenoids primarily serve as photoprotectants in leaves during photosynthesis where they accumulate in chloroplasts. Carotenoids can also accumulat...

14

Effects of pH and temperature of extraction medium on effective diffusion coefficient of anthocynanin pigments of black carrot ( Daucus carota var. L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restrictions imposed on artificial food colorants have resulted in extensive research on natural pigments in recent years. Among the natural colorants, anthocyanin pigments are responsible for red, purple and blue colors of many plants and black carrot (Daucus carota var. L.) has just been known as a potential source of anthocyanin due to its higher stability because of its acylation

Nüzhet Türker

2006-01-01

15

Complete plastid genome sequence of Daucus carota: Implications for biotechnology and phylogeny of angiosperms  

PubMed Central

Background Carrot (Daucus carota) is a major food crop in the US and worldwide. Its capacity for storage and its lifecycle as a biennial make it an attractive species for the introduction of foreign genes, especially for oral delivery of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. Until recently efforts to express recombinant proteins in carrot have had limited success in terms of protein accumulation in the edible tap roots. Plastid genetic engineering offers the potential to overcome this limitation, as demonstrated by the accumulation of BADH in chromoplasts of carrot taproots to confer exceedingly high levels of salt resistance. The complete plastid genome of carrot provides essential information required for genetic engineering. Additionally, the sequence data add to the rapidly growing database of plastid genomes for assessing phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Results The complete carrot plastid genome is 155,911 bp in length, with 115 unique genes and 21 duplicated genes within the IR. There are four ribosomal RNAs, 30 distinct tRNA genes and 18 intron-containing genes. Repeat analysis reveals 12 direct and 2 inverted repeats ? 30 bp with a sequence identity ? 90%. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for 61 protein-coding genes using both maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) were performed for 29 angiosperms. Phylogenies from both methods provide strong support for the monophyly of several major angiosperm clades, including monocots, eudicots, rosids, asterids, eurosids II, euasterids I, and euasterids II. Conclusion The carrot plastid genome contains a number of dispersed direct and inverted repeats scattered throughout coding and non-coding regions. This is the first sequenced plastid genome of the family Apiaceae and only the second published genome sequence of the species-rich euasterid II clade. Both MP and ML trees provide very strong support (100% bootstrap) for the sister relationship of Daucus with Panax in the euasterid II clade. These results provide the best taxon sampling of complete chloroplast genomes and the strongest support yet for the sister relationship of Caryophyllales to the asterids. The availability of the complete plastid genome sequence should facilitate improved transformation efficiency and foreign gene expression in carrot through utilization of endogenous flanking sequences and regulatory elements. PMID:16945140

Ruhlman, Tracey; Lee, Seung-Bum; Jansen, Robert K; Hostetler, Jessica B; Tallon, Luke J; Town, Christopher D; Daniell, Henry

2006-01-01

16

Patterns of expression of the JIM4 arabinogalactan-protein epitope in cell cultures and during somatic embryogenesis in Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatiotemporal patterns of expression of the cell-surface arabinogalactan-protein epitope defined by monoclonal antibody JIM4 (J.P. Knox et al., 1989, Development 106, 47–56) have been characterized by indirect immunofluorescence during the process of somatic embryogenesis in Daucus carota L. The JIM 4 epitope (J4e) occurred on cells established in culture from hypocotyl explants which appeared to derive, at least in part,

Nicola J. Stacey; Keith Roberts; J. Paul Knox

1990-01-01

17

cDNA cloning of carrot (Daucus carota) soluble acid beta-fructofuranosidases and comparison with the cell wall isoenzyme.  

PubMed Central

Carrot (Daucus carota), like most other plants, contains various isoenzymes of acid beta-fructofuranosidase (beta F) (invertase), which either accumulate as soluble polypeptides in the vacuole (isoenzymes I and II) or are ionically bound to the cell wall (extracellular beta F). Using antibodies against isoenzyme I of carrot soluble beta F, we isolated several cDNA clones encoding polypeptides with sequences characteristic of beta Fs, from bacteria, yeast, and plants. The cDNA-derived polypeptide of one of the clones contains all partial peptide sequences of the purified isoenzyme I and thus codes for soluble acid beta F isoenzyme I. A second clone codes for a related polypeptide (63% identity and 77% similarity) with characteristics of isoenzyme II. These two soluble beta Fs, have acidic isoelectric points (3.8 and 5.7, respectively) clearly different from the extracellular enzyme, which has a basic isoelectric point of 9.9. Marked differences among the three nucleotide sequences as well as different hybridization patterns on genomic DNA gel blots prove that these three isoenzymes of carrot acid beta F are encoded by different genes and do not originate from differential splicing of a common gene, as is the case in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All three carrot acid beta Fs, are preproenzymes with signal peptides and N-terminal propeptides. A comparison of the sequences of the soluble enzymes with the sequence of the extracellular protein identified C-terminal extensions with short hydrophobic amino acid stretches that may contain the information for vacuolar targeting. PMID:8016265

Unger, C; Hardegger, M; Lienhard, S; Sturm, A

1994-01-01

18

Variation of the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of natural populations of Tunisian Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae).  

PubMed

The essential oils of Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae) seeds sampled from ten wild populations spread over northern Tunisia were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 36 compounds were identified in the D. carota seed essential oils, with a predominance of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in most samples (22.63-89.93% of the total oil composition). The main volatile compounds identified were ?-bisabolene (mean content of 39.33%), sabinene (8.53%), geranyl acetate (7.12%), and elemicin (6.26%). The volatile composition varied significantly across the populations, even for oils of populations harvested in similar areas. The chemometric principal component analysis and the hierarchical clustering identified four groups, each corresponding to a composition-specific chemotype. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the isolated essential oils was preliminarily evaluated, using the disk-diffusion method, against one Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium), as well as against a pathogenic yeast (Candida albicans). All tested essential oils exhibited interesting antibacterial and antifungal activities against the assayed microorganisms. PMID:24327447

Rokbeni, Nesrine; M'rabet, Yassine; Dziri, Salma; Chaabane, Hedia; Jemli, Marwa; Fernandez, Xavier; Boulila, Abdennacer

2013-12-01

19

Influence of saline irrigation on growth, ion accumulation and partitioning, and leaf gas exchange of carrot (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

Like those of many horticultural crop species, the growth and leaf gas exchange responses of carrot (Daucus carota L.) to salinity are poorly understood. In this study ion accumulation in root tissues (periderm, xylem and phloem tissues) and in leaves of different ages was assessed for carrot plants grown in the field with a low level of salinity (5.8 mM Na(+) and 7.5 mM Cl(-)) and in a glasshouse with salinity ranging from 1-80 mM. At low levels of salinity (1-7.5 mM), in both the field and glasshouse, carrot leaves accumulated high concentrations of Cl(-) (140-200 mM); these appear to be the result of a high affinity for Cl(-) uptake and a low retention of Cl(-) in the root system. However, Cl(-) uptake is under tight control, with an 80-fold increase in external salinity resulting in only a 1.5-fold change in the Cl(-) concentration of the shoot and no increase in the Cl(-) concentration of the root xylem tissue. In contrast to Cl(-), shoot Na(+) concentrations were comparatively low (30-40 mM) but increased by seven-fold when salinity was increased by 80-fold. Growth over the 56-d treatment period in the glasshouse was insensitive to salinity less than 20 mM, but at higher concentrations the yield of carrot tap roots declined by 7 % for each 10 mM increase in salinity. At low levels of salinity the accumulation of high concentrations of Cl(-) (150 mM) in carrot laminae did not appear to limit leaf gas exchange. However, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were reduced by 38 and 53 %, respectively, for plants grown at a salinity of 80 mM compared with those grown at 1 mM. Salinity-induced reductions in both p(i) and carbon isotope discrimination (delta) were small (2.5 Pa and 1.4 per thousand, respectively, at 80 mM) indicating that the reduction in photosynthesis was only marginally influenced by CO(2) supply. At a salinity of 80 mM the photosynthetic capacity was reduced, with a 30 % reduction in the CO(2)-saturated rate of photosynthesis (A(max)) and a 40 % reduction in both the apparent rate of RuBP-carboxylase-limited CO(2) fixation (V(cmax)) and the electron transport rate limiting RuBP regeneration (J(max)). This study has shown that carrot growth and leaf gas exchange are insensitive to the high leaf Cl(-) concentrations that occur at low levels (1-7 mM) of salinity. However, growth is limited at salinity levels above 20 mM and leaf gas exchange is limited at salinity levels above 8 mM. PMID:12451027

Gibberd, Mark R; Turner, Neil C; Storey, Richard

2002-12-01

20

Carrot (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

Plants are susceptible to infection by a broad range of fungal pathogens. A range of proteins have been evaluated that can enhance tolerance to these pathogens by heterologous expression in transgenic carrot tissues. The protocols for carrot transformation with Arabidopsis NPR1 (Non-Expressor of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins 1) are described in this chapter, using the herbicide resistance gene bar, which encodes phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, as a selectable marker. In this protocol, petiole segments (0.5-1.0 cm long) from aseptically grown carrot seedlings are exposed to Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 for 10-30 min and cocultivated for 2-3 days. Herbicide selection is then imposed for 8-12 weeks on a series of different tissue culture media until embryogenic calli are produced. The transfer of the embryogenic calli to hormone-free medium results in embryo development which eventually gives rise to transgenic plantlets. Embryogenic calli can also be propagated in suspension cultures. This protocol has yielded transgenic carrot plants with defined T-DNA inserts at the rate of between 1 and 3 Southern-positive independent events out of 100. PMID:25416249

Wally, Owen S D; Punja, Zamir K

2015-01-01

21

Genome sequencing and comparative analysis of the carrot bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas hortorum pv. carotae M081, for insights into pathogenicity and applications in molecular diagnostics.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas hortorum pv. carotae (Xhc) is an economically important pathogen of carrots. Its ability to epiphytically colonize foliar surfaces and infect seeds can result in bacterial blight of carrots when grown in warm and humid regions. We used high-throughput sequencing to determine the genome sequence of isolate M081 of Xhc. The short reads were de novo assembled and the resulting contigs were ordered using a syntenic reference genome sequence from X. campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913. The improved, high-quality draft genome sequence of Xhc M081 is the first for its species. Despite its distance from other sequenced xanthomonads, Xhc M081 still shared a large inventory of orthologous genes, including many clusters of virulence genes common to other foliar pathogenic species of Xanthomonas. We also mined the genome sequence and identified at least 21 candidate type III effector genes. Two were members of the avrBs2 and xopQ families that demonstrably elicit effector-triggered immunity. We showed that expression in planta of these two type III effectors from Xhc M081 was sufficient to elicit resistance gene-mediated hypersensitive responses in heterologous plants, indicating a possibility for resistance gene-mediated control of Xhc. Finally, we identified regions unique to the Xhc M081 genome sequence, and demonstrated their potential in the design of molecular diagnostics for this pathogen. PMID:21722296

Kimbrel, Jeffrey A; Givan, Scott A; Temple, Todd N; Johnson, Kenneth B; Chang, Jeff H

2011-08-01

22

Metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium in plant cell cultures of transgenic (rhizomania-resistant) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium).  

PubMed

The metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium was investigated in heterotrophic cell suspension and callus cultures of transgenic (bar-gene) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris). Similar studies were performed with suspensions of carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium). 14C-labelled chemicals were the (racemic) glufosinate, L-glufosinate, and D-glufosinate, as well as the metabolites N-acetyl L-glufosinate and 3-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propionic acid (MPP). Cellular absorption was generally low, but depended noticeably on plant species, substance and enantiomer. Portions of non-extractable residues ranged from 0.1% to 1.2% of applied 14C. Amounts of soluble metabolites resulting from glufosinate or L-glufosinate were between 0.0% and 26.7% of absorbed 14C in non-transgenic cultures and 28.2% and 59.9% in transgenic sugarbeet. D-Glufosinate, MPP and N-acetyl L-glufosinate proved to be stable. The main metabolite in transgenic sugarbeet was N-acetyl L-glufosinate, besides traces of MPP and 4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid (MPB). In non-transgenic sugarbeet, glufosinate was transformed to a limited extent to MPP and trace amounts of MPB. In carrot, D stramonium and D purpurea, MPP was also the main product; MPB was identified as a further trace metabolite in D stramonium and D purpurea. PMID:11455632

Müller, B P; Zumdick, A; Schuphan, I; Schmidt, B

2001-01-01

23

ALTERNATIVE TO HANDWEEDING VOLUNTEER POTATO IN CARROT (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM) IN CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Few herbicides are used in carrot production in the U.S.A and none suppress volunteer potato, a serious weed where the two crops are grown in rotation. Handweeding is the primary method of controlling emerged volunteer potato within carrot. The objective of this work was to evaluate carrot toleran...

24

Major Cytogenetic Landmarks and Karyotype Analysis in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and Other Apiaceace  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Karyotyping can be helpful for understanding species evolution and relationships. Cytological studies in Apiaceae have provided information on the chromosome number and morphology of several crops. However, karyological data of their wild relatives are scarce. In addition, the number of chromosomes ...

25

Plasma membrane proteins associated with undifferentiated and embryonic Daucus carota tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Membranes and membrane proteins from undifferentiated cells and torpedo-stage embryos were compared. A comparison of marker enzyme profiles on linear sucrose gradients showed that the membrane vesicles obtained from 14-day-old embryos were consistently less dense than those obtained from undifferentiated carrot cells. The density of the endoplasmic reticulum, for instance, was 1.10g\\/cm3 in embryos and 1.12g\\/cm2 in undifferentiated cells.

R. M. Slay; H. D. Grimes; T. K. Hodges

1989-01-01

26

Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and weed control on nutritive quality of carrots (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

The nutritive quality of carrots, obtained from different herbicide-treated plots and under different levels of nitrogen application ranging from zero to 80 kg nitrogen/ha, was compared. There were significant differences in carotene content, T.S.S. (total soluble solids) and organoleptic characteristics under the influence of different treatments. The maximum carotene content, T.S.S. and organoleptic characteristics were observed with the application of 80 kg. nitrogen/ha and fluchloralin herbicide at 0.90 and 1.20 kg/ha. PMID:2852805

Sandhu, K S; Joshi, A K; Bajaj, K L

1988-01-01

27

First report of bacterial blight of carrot in Indiana caused by Xanthomonas hortorum pv. carotae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In summer 2012, bacterial blight symptoms were observed on leaves of carrot plants in 7 out of 70 plots of carrot breeding lines at the Purdue University Meig Horticulture Research Farm, Lafayette, IN. Symptoms included small to large, variably shaped, water soaked to dry, necrotic lesions, with or ...

28

The monoterpenes of Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoterpenes from three different members of the Anthemideae family, Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis were isolated and their structures determined using spectroscopic techniques. A total of 26 irregular and regular monoterpenes were identified. Among these, 20 had previously been identified in the Anthemideae family. Of the remaining six, four were known, but

K Gunawardena; S. B Rivera; W. W Epstein

2002-01-01

29

Effect of decontamination agents on the microbial population, sensorial quality, and nutrient content of grated carrots (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

Several decontamination agents including water, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water, and chlorine dioxide gas were tested for their effectiveness to reduce the natural microflora on grated carrots. Microbial reductions of the total aerobic count obtained after the different treatments varied between 0.11 and 3.29 log colony-forming units (cfu)/g. Whether or not a decontamination step induced significant changes in the sensory attributes of grated carrots is highly dependent on the type and concentration of disinfectant. To maintain the nutritional value, the influence of the decontamination agents on carotenoid content, alpha-tocopherol content, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity was studied. Besides the part of the nutrients that was leached away from the cutting areas by water, the nutrient losses caused by adding sanitizers were rather limited. Compared with the untreated carrots alpha-tocopherol content was, however, significantly reduced when 250 ppm of peroxyacetic acid (-80%) or 200 ppm of sodium hypochlorite (-59%) was used. Additional losses in carotenoid content were caused by contact with chlorine dioxide gas (-9%). On the condition of an optimized decontamination process toward time and concentration, the microbial quality of fresh-cut carrots could be improved without negatively influencing their sensory quality and nutrient content. PMID:18582083

Vandekinderen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; Devlieghere, Frank; Veramme, Kim; Denon, Quenten; Ragaert, Peter; De Meulenaer, Bruno

2008-07-23

30

A study on the effect of few eco-friendly manures on the growth attributes of carrot (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

A pot culture study was carried out at Avinashilingam Deemed University, Coimbatore to assess the effect of few organic manures (herbal microfertilizer, humic acid, farm yard manure (FYM), biofertilizer) and NPK on the growth attributes of carrot. Among the parameters observed, the germination percentage was highest in FYM treated pots on 7 DAS (Days After Sowing) and in NPK treated pots on 21, 28 and 30 DAS. The parameters, such as root length, crown length and vigour index, were studied on 30, 60, 90 and 120 DAS. The root length on 60 and 120 DAS was increased by FYM, whereas on 30 and 90 DAS, increase was observed in NPK treated plants. The crown length was increased by NPK on 30 and 120 DAS, micro herbal fertilizer showed an increase of crown length on 60 DAS and by FYM on 90 DAS. Highest vigour was in FYM treated plants on 30 DAS, in herbal micro fertilizer on 60 DAS in NPK treatment on 90 and 120 DAS. PMID:21114148

Vijayakumari, B; Yadav, R Hiranmai; Sowmya, M

2009-01-01

31

Determination of polyacetylenes in carrot roots (Daucus carota L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection.  

PubMed

A new high-performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detection was developed for the separation and simultaneous determination of the carrot polyacetylenes falcarindiol (FaDOH), falcarindiol 3-acetate (FaDOAc) and falcarinol (FaOH) in carrot root extracts. The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a C18 column with a linear gradient elution of water and acetonitrile as mobile phases, at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. All calibration curves of the three carrot polyacetylenes showed good linear regression (R2 > 0.998) within the test ranges. The developed method showed good precision for quantification of all polyacetylenes with overall intraday and interday variation of less than 3.3% and with average recovery rates of 99.2, 96.8 and 99.7% for FaDOH, FaDOAc and FaOH, respectively. The LOD (S/N = 3) and LOQ (S/N = 10) were less than 0.19 and 0.42 microg/mL, respectively, for all analytes. The established method was successfully used to determine the spatial distribution of FaDOH, FaDOAc and FaOH in six carrot genotypes (Bolero, Independent, Line 1, Mello Yello, Purple Haze and Tornado) by analysing peeled carrots and the corresponding peels for these polyacetylenes. PMID:17444217

Christensen, Lars P; Kreutzmann, Stine

2007-03-01

32

The monoterpenes of Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis.  

PubMed

Monoterpenes from three different members of the Anthemideae family, Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis were isolated and their structures determined using spectroscopic techniques. A total of 26 irregular and regular monoterpenes were identified. Among these, 20 had previously been identified in the Anthemideae family. Of the remaining six, four were known, but previously unidentified in this family. 2,2-Dimethyl-6-isopropenyl-2H-pyran, 2,3-dimethyl-6-isopropyl-4H-pyran and 2-isopropenyl-5-methylhexa-trans-3,5-diene-1-ol were isolated from both A. tridentata ssp. vaseyana and A. cana ssp. viscidula. The irregular monoterpene 2,2-dimethyl-6-isopropenyl-2H-pyran has a carbon skeleton analogous to the biologically important triterpene squalene. Two additional irregular monoterpenes, artemisia triene and trans-chrysanthemal were isolated from A. cana ssp. viscidula and lavandulol was isolated from A. tridentata ssp. spiciformis. This is the first time a compound possessing a lavandulyl-skeletal type has been found in the Anthemideae family. PMID:11809456

Gunawardena, K; Rivera, S B; Epstein, W W

2002-01-01

33

Det tværfaglige, tværsektorielle samarbejde i SSP+ København.  

E-print Network

??Resumé Denne projektrapport tager udgangspunkt i en case-undersøgelse omkring SSP+ København, en indsats indenfor det kriminalpræventive område for de 18-25-årige. Der undersøges, med udgangspunkt i… (more)

Benard, Otilia Aaskov

2014-01-01

34

Anthocyanins in purple-orange carrots (Daucus carota L.) do not influence the bioavailability of beta-carotene in young women.  

PubMed

Purple carrots contain anthocyanins in addition to the provitamin A carotenoids in typical orange carrots. Simultaneous consumption of these phytochemicals in carrots may affect the bioavailability of carotenoids. The bioavailability of beta-carotene in humans was assessed from an acute feeding of orange (OC) and purple (PC) carrots with white (WC) as a control. Carrot smoothies were served to female subjects (n = 5, aged 21-26 years) for breakfast after 1 week on a low carotenoid diet and overnight fast. OC and PC smoothies were equalized to 10.3 mg of all-trans beta-carotene. Plasma beta-carotene was measured for 144 h following treatments. Peak plasma concentrations of OC and PC treatments did not differ. The PC treatment 0-144 h area-under-the-curve for beta-carotene was 76% of the OC treatment (P < 0.05). However, when the first 24 h were compared, OC and PC treatments did not differ, suggesting that anthocyanins in purple carrots do not affect the absorption of beta-carotene postprandially. PMID:20131807

Arscott, Sara A; Simon, Philipp W; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

2010-03-10

35

APIS MELLIFERA ADAMI (n. ssp.), DIE KRETISCHE BIENE  

E-print Network

APIS MELLIFERA ADAMI (n. ssp.), DIE KRETISCHE BIENE Apis mellifera adami1 (n. ssp.), abeille (n. ssp.), THE CREATEAN BEE Elaborating on an earlier preliminary communication (1975), the bee differentiated from the other known races of bees by a large number of morphological characters and biological

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

36

Role of surface proteins SspA and SspB of Streptococcus gordonii in innate immunity.  

PubMed

Streptococcus gordonii, a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, is a potential live vaccine vehicle. Several pathogen-associated molecular patterns from S. gordonii that are recognized by antigen-presenting cells have recently been identified. In this study, we have identified that the cell-wall-anchored proteins SspA and SspB are immunostimulatory components of S. gordonii. SspA and SspB are members of the antigen I/II family of proteins widely expressed by viridans oral streptococci. The results showed that the mutant (OB219) lacking SspA and SspB had a reduced ability to induce cytokine/chemokine production in epithelial cells and bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells as compared with the parent strain (DL1). Purified SspA induced interleukin-6 and monocyte chemotatic protein-1 production from human lung epithelial A549 cells. The induction could be inhibited by a function-blocking anti-?1 integrin mAb and the purified SspA could bind to ?1 integrin precoated on microtitre plates, suggesting that the induction was effected by SspA-?1 integrin interactions. The role of SspA and SspB in innate immunity was further demonstrated in a mouse intranasal challenge experiment, which showed that the clearance of OB219, the recruitment of neutrophils (as indicated by myeloperoxidase activity), and chemokine and cytokine production in the lungs of OB219-inoculated mice were delayed or reduced as compared with the DL1-inoculated mice. In addition to the above, S. gordonii OB219 was more sensitive to polymyxin, nisin and histatin-5 than DL1, suggesting that SspA and SspB also play a role in susceptibility to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Collectively, the results indicate that SspA and SspB are immunostimulatory components of S. gordonii and play an important role in modulating the host's innate immunity. PMID:22609749

Andrian, Elisoa; Qi, Gaofu; Wang, Jun; Halperin, Scott A; Lee, Song F

2012-08-01

37

Binding Properties of Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB (Antigen I/II Family) Polypeptides Expressed on the Cell Surface of Lactococcus lactis MG1363  

PubMed Central

The oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii expresses two cell wall-associated polypeptides, designated SspA (1,542 amino acid residues) and SspB (1,462 amino acid residues), that have 70% sequence identity. These polypeptides are members of the antigen I/II family of oral streptococcal adhesins and mediate the binding of streptococci to salivary glycoproteins, collagen, and other oral microorganisms such as Actinomyces naeslundii. To determine if SspA and SspB have differential binding properties, the coding sequences of the sspA and sspB genes were cloned into expression plasmid vector pTREX1-usp45LS to generate pTREX1-sspA and pTREX1-sspB, respectively, and the Ssp polypeptides were displayed on the cell surface of Lactococcus lactis MG1363. Lactococcal cells expressing similar levels of surface SspA or SspB polypeptide were then compared for their abilities to adhere to a range of antigen I/II polypeptide substrates. More than twice as many L. lactis cells expressing SspA bound to immobilized salivary agglutinin glycoprotein (SAG) as did L. lactis cells expressing SspB. In contrast, lactococci expressing SspB adhered twice as well as lactococci producing SspA to collagen type I and to Candida albicans. The binding of A. naeslundii to lactococci was only weakly enhanced by surface expression of Ssp polypeptides. L. lactis(pTREX1-sspB) cells bound in greater numbers to SAG than did Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 cells expressing SspB from pAM401EB-5. The results suggest that SspA and SspB have markedly different binding affinities for their oral substrates and thus may function to promote site diversity in colonization by S. gordonii. PMID:9746559

Holmes, Ann R.; Gilbert, Christophe; Wells, Jeremy M.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

1998-01-01

38

KIR Genotyping by Multiplex PCR-SSP  

PubMed Central

Diversity across KIR haplotypes stems from differences in numbers of inhibitory and activating receptors, as well as allelic polymorphism of individual genes. The KIR locus has undergone large expansions and contractions over time and is believed to be coevolving with genes encoding its HLA class I ligands located within the MHC locus. KIR and HLA compound genotypes have been associated with susceptibility to or protection from infectious, autoimmune, reproductive, and malignant disorders. We describe here a simple and reliable multiplex PCR-SSP (sequence-specific priming) method for relatively rapid and inexpensive genotyping of 15 KIR genes using standard agarose gel electrophoresis. PMID:20033654

Kulkarni, Smita; Martin, Maureen P.; Carrington, Mary

2012-01-01

39

Karyotypic analysis of N-banded chromosomes of diploid alfalfa: Medicago sativa ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata and their hybrid.  

PubMed

Chromosomes of two diploid (2n = 2x = 16) subspecies of Medicago sativa, ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata, and their hybrid were studied using an N-banding technique. This study was undertaken to develop an N-banded karyotype of ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata, and determine if the same technique could be used to identify parental chromosomes in hybrids. The chromosomes of ssp. falcata have only centromeric N bands and thus individual chromosomes could not be identified. However, chromosome-specific bands were observed in ssp. caerulea enabling the identification of each of the eight pairs of chromosomes and the development of an idiogram. All chromosomes have a centromeric band and a telomeric band in the short arm. All of the chromosomes, except chromosomes 7 and 8, have interstitial bands in their long arms and chromosome 5 has two faint interstitial bands in its long arm. The satellited chromosome is easily distinguished due to the secondary constriction and characteristic band at the nucleolar organizer region. The differences in banding patterns between these subspecies makes it possible to distinguish chromosomes from each other in their hybrids. This is the first report of the use of N banding to identify the diploid chromosomes of M. sativa ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata. PMID:9542165

Bauchan, G R; Hossain, M A

1998-01-01

40

Allozyme diversity in the endangered pitcher plant Sarracenia rubra ssp. Alabamensis (Sarraceniaceae) and its close relative S. rubra ssp. rubra.  

PubMed

Genetic variability in the federally endangered pitcher plant Sarracenia rubra ssp. alabamensis was assessed in eight Alabama populations using starch gel electrophoresis. Ten populations of the more widespread Sarracenia rubra ssp. rubra were sampled in the southeastern United States for comparison. Fifteen allozyme loci representing 13 enzyme systems were scored for each species. In contrast to S. oreophila and S. jonesii, two previously analyzed endangered pitcher plants, genetic diversity was high for both S. rubra subspecies. Within ssp. alabamensis the percentage polymorphic loci (Ps) was 80.0, the mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus was (APs) = 2.58, and expected heterozygosity (Hes) was 0.209. Genetic diversity was slightly lower for ssp. rubra (Ps = 73.3, APs = 2.91, and Hes = 0.177). The proportion of total genetic diversity found among populations was fairly low for both species (GST = 0.09 for ssp. alabamensis and 0.14 for ssp. rubra). Little genetic divergence has occurred between the two subspecies as indicated by the lack of diagnostic alleles, the proportion of total genetic diversity between taxa (GST = 0.09), and the genetic identity estimate (I = 0.90). The relatively high genetic diversity found for ssp. alabamensis indicates that the maintenance of its evolutionary potential is possible if population sizes are maintained or increased. Low levels of genetic diversity found within small Georgia ssp. rubra populations indicate that genetic erosion may increase extinction risks for these populations. PMID:21684964

Godt, M; Hamrick, J

1998-06-01

41

Mating systems and interfertility of swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata ssp. incarnata and ssp. pulchra)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the breeding system and interfertility of both subspecies of Asclepias incarnata. We performed hand-pollinations in the glasshouse to compare fruit-set from self- vs. cross-pollinations and to assess interfertility in crosses between the subspecies. We also used horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis to infer mating-system parameters from open-pollinated progeny arrays in three natural populations over two consecutive years. Plants of ssp.

CHRISTOPHER T. IVEY; SARA R. LIPOW; Robert Wyatt

1999-01-01

42

Introduction of Miscanthus SSP. in Russia  

SciTech Connect

In terms of the international program on the development of new plants-sources of raw material and biomass, we have been conducting an all-round study of perennial grasses as refurbishable sources of raw materials for fuels and construction industry, and for recultivation of wastelands and technogenically deteriorated landscapes. Research activity includes: (1) search of the natural Far East population of Miscanthus and Phragmites ssp. for unique ecotypes and the establishment of an original collection of biodiversity for genetic and breeding work; (2) Development of methods for in vitro cultivation of isolated cells and tissues for inducing polymorphism and salt- and coldresistant somaclones and their microprogation; (3) to provide the monitoring of the dynamics of potential bioproduction, establishing experimental plantations for Miscanthus in ecologically different terrains of the Novosibirsk Regions; and (4) optimization of waste-free wood processing techniques with respect to Miscanthus biomass (the production of carboxymethyle cellulose and decoration materials).

Shumny, V.K.; Godovikova, V.A.; Moiseyeva, Y.A. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

1995-11-01

43

Karyotypic analysis of C-banded chromosomes of diploid alfalfa: Medicago sativa ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata and their hybrid.  

PubMed

Chromosomes of two diploid (2n = 2x = 16) subspecies of Medicago sativa ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata and their hybrid were studied by C-banding. This study was undertaken to improve the C-banding technique for alfalfa chromosomes, develop a C-banded karyotype of the ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata, and determine if the same C-banding technique could be used to identify parental chromosomes in hybrids. The chromosomes of ssp. falcata have only centromeric bands and thus individual chromosomes could not be identified. One accession of ssp. falcata displayed an interstitial band in the middle of the long arm on the satellite chromosome. However, chromosome-specific bands were observed in ssp. caerulea enabling the identification of each of the eight pairs of chromosomes and the development of a idiogram. All chromosomes had centromeric bands and a terminal band in the short arm except the satellite chromosome (chromosome 8). Interstitial bands were also observed in the short arms, with the exception of chromosome 7. Chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and 8 each had one prominent interstitial band in their long arm. The satellited chromosome is easy to identify because of the presence of the secondary constriction, two bands located on either side of the nucleolar organizer region, and a large terminal band on its long arm. The differences in banding patterns between these subspecies allowed the identification of parental chromosomes in hybrid cells. PMID:9419896

Bauchan, G R; Hossain, M A

1997-01-01

44

A new subspecies of Anoxybacillus flavithermus ssp. yunnanensis ssp. nov. with very high ethanol tolerance.  

PubMed

In a search for thermophilic ethanol-tolerant bacteria, water-sediment samples collected at springs in Yunnan province of China were screened by ethanol enrichment. A novel thermophilic bacterium, strain E13(T) , was isolated. It exhibits a unique and remarkable ability to preferably grow in the presence of ethanol and is able to tolerate 13% (v/v) ethanol at 60 °C. The isolate is a facultative aerobic, Gram-positive, motile, spore-forming rod that is capable of utilizing a range of carbon sources, such as xylose, arabinose and cellobiose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene similarity showed the strain to be affiliated with the species Anoxybacillus flavithermus (99.2% sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization comparisons demonstrated a 64.8% DNA-DNA relatedness between strain E13(T) and A. flavithermus DSM 2641(T) . On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it was concluded that the isolate merited classification as a novel subspecies of A. flavithermus, for which the name Anoxybacillus flavithermus ssp. yunnanensis ssp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is E13(T) (=CCTCC AB2010187(T) =KCTC 13759(T) ). PMID:21521361

Dai, Jun; Liu, Yang; Lei, Yin; Gao, Yi; Han, Fang; Xiao, Yazhong; Peng, Hui

2011-07-01

45

[Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].  

PubMed

Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7]. PMID:17396957

Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

1982-10-01

46

Vibrio vulnificus bacteriophage SSP002 as a possible biocontrol agent.  

PubMed

A novel Vibrio vulnificus-infecting bacteriophage, SSP002, belonging to the Siphoviridae family, was isolated from the coastal area of the Yellow Sea of South Korea. Host range analysis revealed that the growth inhibition of phage SSP002 is relatively specific to V. vulnificus strains from both clinical and environmental samples. In addition, a one-step growth curve analysis and a bacteriophage stability test revealed a latent period of 65 min, a burst size of 23 ± 2 PFU, as well as broad temperature (20°C to 60°C) and pH stability (pH 3 to 12) ranges. A Tn5 random transposon mutation of V. vulnificus and partial DNA sequencing of the inserted Tn5 regions revealed that the flhA, flhB, fliF, and fleQ mutants are resistant to SSP002 phage infection, suggesting that the flagellum may be the host receptor for infection. The subsequent construction of specific gene-inactivated mutants (flhA, flhB, fliF, and fleQ) and complementation experiments substantiated this. Previously, the genome of phage SSP002 was completely sequenced and analyzed. Comparative genomic analysis of phage SSP002 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus phage vB_VpaS_MAR10 showed differences among their tail-related genes, supporting different host ranges at the species level, even though their genome sequences are highly similar. An additional mouse survival test showed that the administration of phage SSP002 at a multiplicity of infection of 1,000 significantly protects mice from infection by V. vulnificus for up to 2 months, suggesting that this phage may be a good candidate for the development of biocontrol agents against V. vulnificus infection. PMID:24212569

Lee, Hyun Sung; Choi, Slae; Shin, Hakdong; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Choi, Sang Ho

2014-01-01

47

Vibrio vulnificus Bacteriophage SSP002 as a Possible Biocontrol Agent  

PubMed Central

A novel Vibrio vulnificus-infecting bacteriophage, SSP002, belonging to the Siphoviridae family, was isolated from the coastal area of the Yellow Sea of South Korea. Host range analysis revealed that the growth inhibition of phage SSP002 is relatively specific to V. vulnificus strains from both clinical and environmental samples. In addition, a one-step growth curve analysis and a bacteriophage stability test revealed a latent period of 65 min, a burst size of 23 ± 2 PFU, as well as broad temperature (20°C to 60°C) and pH stability (pH 3 to 12) ranges. A Tn5 random transposon mutation of V. vulnificus and partial DNA sequencing of the inserted Tn5 regions revealed that the flhA, flhB, fliF, and fleQ mutants are resistant to SSP002 phage infection, suggesting that the flagellum may be the host receptor for infection. The subsequent construction of specific gene-inactivated mutants (flhA, flhB, fliF, and fleQ) and complementation experiments substantiated this. Previously, the genome of phage SSP002 was completely sequenced and analyzed. Comparative genomic analysis of phage SSP002 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus phage vB_VpaS_MAR10 showed differences among their tail-related genes, supporting different host ranges at the species level, even though their genome sequences are highly similar. An additional mouse survival test showed that the administration of phage SSP002 at a multiplicity of infection of 1,000 significantly protects mice from infection by V. vulnificus for up to 2 months, suggesting that this phage may be a good candidate for the development of biocontrol agents against V. vulnificus infection. PMID:24212569

Lee, Hyun Sung; Choi, Slae; Shin, Hakdong

2014-01-01

48

ORIGINAL PAPER Autumn fertilization of Quercus ilex ssp. ballota (Desf.)  

E-print Network

: effects on morpho-physiology and field performance Enrique Andivia & Manuel Fernández & Javier Vázquez+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract & Background The Holm oak (Quercus ilex ssp. ballota [Desf.] Samp and field performance of Holm oak. & Results and Conclusions Autumn fertilization, especially with N, did

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

Female fertility of potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) dihaploids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of testcrosses and seed set data of the dihaploid breeding program at the Potato Research Institute in Gross Lüsewitz, Germany, indicate that the low level of female fertility could hinder success in crossing work. With the objective to reveal major components of female fertility, the behavior of 47 outstanding potato dihaploids (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum, 2n=2x=24) was assessed in

B. R. Trognitz

1995-01-01

50

Isotopomer-flux analysis of Bifidobactrium ssp. carbohydrate metabolism  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bifidobacteria are gram-positive microorganisms widely applied in fermented dairy products due to their health-promoting effects. Biofobacterium ssp. may also represent up to 91% of microbial gut population in the infant colon, but considerably less in adults. Fructose-6 phosphate phosphoketolase ...

51

Isotopomer-Flux Analysis of Bifidobacterium ssp. Carbohydrate Metabolism  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bifidobacteria are gram-positive microorganisms widely applied in fermented dairy products due to their health-promoting effects. Bifidobacterium ssp. may also represent up to 91% of microbial gut population in the infant colon, but considerably less in adults. Fructose-6 phosphate phosphoketolase...

52

ABSTRACT -Z. mays ssp. parviglumis and ssp. mexicana are the closest wild relatives to domesticated maize. Using  

E-print Network

to domesticated maize. Using isozyme and chloroplast evidence, this study examined how populations are discussed in light of Late Pleis- tocene and Holocene climate change and maize domesti- cation. KEY WORDS: Zea mays ssp. parviglumis and mexicana; Maize; Holocene/Pleistocene; Phylogeography; Dispersal

Holtsford, Tim

53

The genes ABI1 and ABI2 are involved in abscisic acid- and drought-inducible expression of the Daucus carota L. Dc3 promoter in guard cells of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?The ABA INSENSITIVE1 (ABI1) and ABI2 genes encode homologous type-2C protein phosphatases with redundant yet distinct functions in abscisic acid (ABA) responses.\\u000a Results from Northern blot analysis showed that ABA- and mannitol-inducible expression of the COR47 and COR78\\/LTI78\\/RD29A (COR78) genes was more impaired in the abi2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh than in the abi1 mutant. Furthermore, ABA-plus-mannitol treatments

Regina K. F. Chak; Terry L. Thomas; Ralph S. Quatrano; Christopher D. Rock

2000-01-01

54

Genetic basis for and inheritance of resistance to Race 1 and Race 2 of Kabatiella caulivora in Trifolium subterraneum ssp. subterraneum and ssp. yanninicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of a partial diallel involving crosses of seven cultivars of subterranean clover (Trifoliumsubterraneum ssp. subterraneum and ssp. yanninicum) was undertaken to determine the genetic basis of resistance to both Race 1 and Race 2 of Kabatiella caulivora at seedling and adult plant stages. Relationships between variance (Vr) and covariance (Wr) revealed that adult plant resistance to Race 1

Martin Barbetti; Ping Si; Phillip Nichols

2005-01-01

55

Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

1998-01-01

56

Estimation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities on Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. ssp. minus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceArctium minus (Hill) Bernh. ssp. minus (Asteraceae) leaves are used to alleviate rheumatic pain, against fever and sunstroke with externally application in Turkish folk medicine.

Nurgun Erdemoglu; Nilufer N. Turan; Esra Küpeli Akkol; Bilge Sener; Nurettin Abac?oglu

2009-01-01

57

Response of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) to defoliation of understory grasses and drought.  

E-print Network

??Water potential, leaf conductance, growth, nitrogen content, and seedling survival of Wyoming Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) following defoliation of the herbaceous understory were… (more)

Purrington, Teal Mackenzie

1992-01-01

58

Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. ssp. argenteum and T. densum (Lab.) Schultz Bip. ssp. amani heywood from Turkey.  

PubMed

Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum ssp. argenteum and T. densum ssp. amani from Turkey were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oil of T. argenteum ssp. argenteum was characterized with alpha-pinene 36.7%, beta-pinene 27.5% and 1,8-cineole 9.8%. T. densum ssp. amani was characterized with beta-pinene 27.2%, 1,8-cineole 13.1%, alpha-pinene 9.7% and p-cymene 8.9%. Antibacterial activity of the oils were evaluated for five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria by using a broth microdilution assay. The highest inhibitory activity was observed against Bacillus cereus for T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil (125 microg/mL) when compared with positive control chloramphenicol it showed the same inhibition potency. However, the same oil showed lower inhibitory activity against B. subtilis when compared. The oil of T. densum ssp. amani did not show significant activity against the tested microorganisms. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil was investigated for 15 and 10 mg/mL concentrations. However, the oil did not show significant activity when compared to positive control alpha-tocopherol. Both oils showed toxicity to Vibrio fischeri in the TLC-bioluminescence assay. PMID:20513969

Polato?lu, Kaan; Demirci, Fatih; Demirci, Betül; Gören, Nezhun; Ba?er, Kemal Hüsnü Can

2010-01-01

59

Characterization of a partial amphiploid between Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring and Thinopyrum intermedium ssp. trichophorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial amphiploid, TE-3, between Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring (CS) and Thinopyrum intermedium ssp. trichophorum was characterized by cytological observation, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), seed storage protein electrophoresis and disease resistance screening. The TE-3 plants were deeply covered with pubescence, which is characteristic of the Th. intermedium ssp. trichophorum parent. Feulgen staining of the somatic metaphases revealed that

Yang Zu-Jun; Li Guang-Rong; Chang Zhi-Jian; Zhou Jian-Ping; Ren Zheng-Long

2006-01-01

60

Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa ) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The domestication of the Eurasian grape ( Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa ) from its wild ancestor ( Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris ) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and artefacts of a 'wine culture', have been excavated. Whether from Transcaucasia or

R. ARROYO-GARCÍA; L. RUIZ-GARCÍA; L. BOLLING; R. OCETE; M. A. LÓPEZ; C. ARNOLD; A. ERGUL; H. I. UZUN; F. CABELLO; J. IBÁÑEZ; M. K. ARADHYA; A. ATANASSOV; I. ATANASSOV; S. BALINT; J. L. CENIS; L. COSTANTINI

61

The chemical constituents and biological activity of essential oil of Lavandula stoechas ssp. stoechas.  

PubMed

The composition of essential oil of the leaves of Lavandula stoechas ssp. stoechas, was analyzed by means of capillary GC-MS. The main components of L. stoechas ssp. stoechas oil were pulegone (40.4%), menthol (18.1%), menthone (12.6%). The essential oil of the plant was evaluated for antibacterial and a panel cytotoxic activities. PMID:12440714

Gören, Ahmet; Topçu, Gülaçti; Bilsel, Gökhan; Bilsel, Mine; Aydo?mu?, Zeynep; Pezzuto, John M

2002-01-01

62

A Transformational Overview of the Core Functionality of an Abstract Class Loader for the SSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SSP is a hardware implementation of a subset of the JVM for use in high consequence embedded applications. In this context, a majority of the activities belonging to class loading, as it is defined in the specification of the JVM, can be performed statically. Static class loading has the net result of dramatically simplifying the design of the SSP

Victor L. Winter; Jason Beranek; Azamatbek Mametjanov; Fares Fraij; Steve Roach; Greg Wickstrom

2005-01-01

63

Metabolism, Swimming Performance, and Tissue Biochemistry of High Desert Redband Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ssp.): Evidence for  

E-print Network

(Oncorhynchus mykiss ssp.): Evidence for Phenotypic Differences in Physiological Function A. Kurt Gamperl1, Oregon 97331-3803 Accepted 5/29/02 ABSTRACT Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ssp.) in southeastern- cle ATP-producing pathways occurs in redband trout. Introduction Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

Keeley, Ernest R.

64

Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and ar...

65

rDNA polymorphism of foxtail millet ( Setaria italica ssp. italica ) landraces in northern Pakistan and Afghanistan and in its wild ancestor ( S. italica ssp. viridis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) spacer length polymorphism was studied in foxtail millet (Setaria italica ssp. italica) landraces from Pakistan and Afghanistan and in its wild ancestor (S. italica ssp. viridis) from Pakistan by PCR-based methods. Sequence polymorphism was also investigated for accessions selected based on the observed\\u000a length polymorphism. The PCR-based length polymorphism and sequence polymorphism of rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS)

Kenji Fukunaga; Katsuyuki Ichitani; Makoto Kawase

2011-01-01

66

Constitutive heterochromatin DNA polymorphisms in diploid Medicago sativa ssp. falcata.  

PubMed

A Giemsa C-banding technique was used to study the amount and location of constitutive heterochromatin in diploid (2n = 2x = 16) Medicago sativa ssp. falcata (L.) Arcangeli. Most accessions had the standard C-banding pattern with centromeric bands on all the chromosomes and a prominent heterochromatic band at the nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) of the satellited (SAT) chromosomes. However, we observed in various accessions that constitutive heterochromatic C-bands can exist at the telomeric ends of all the chromosomes. Interstitial bands occurred on the short arms of all chromosomes except for chromosome 3 and on the long arms of chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and 6, only. Rearranged chromosomes such as isochromosomes have been observed for the short arms of chromosomes 2 and 6. This is the first report on the existence of C-banding polymorphisms and the detection of putative isochromsomes in the chromosomes of diploid ssp. falcata which could have contributed to the variation observed in cultivated alfalfa. PMID:10584312

Bauchan, G R; Hossain, M A

1999-10-01

67

Antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activity of Alnus incana (L.) ssp. incana Moench and A. viridis (Chaix) DC ssp. viridis extracts.  

PubMed

Antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities of leaves, bark, and cone extracts of Alnus incana (L.) Moench ssp. incana and endemic species A. viridis (Chaix) DC ssp. viridis were evaluated. All extracts were found to be strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavengers, exhibiting 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 3.3-18.9 microg/mL, and also showed activity in inhibition of lipid peroxidation with IC(50) values ranging from 38.5 to 157.4 microg/mL. A. incana and A. viridis extracts exhibited significant cytotoxic effects toward HeLa cells, with IC(50) values ranging from 26.02 to 68.5 microg/mL. The most active extract of A. incana bark also contained great amounts of total phenolics (316.2 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g). In our experiment all extracts were virtually nontoxic on brine shrimps. Extracts were screened for activity against 15 microorganisms, and all extracts investigated showed antimicrobial activity. The most active were dry extracts of cones of A. incana and A. viridis with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.117 to 0.129 mg/mL. PMID:20438323

Stevi?, Tatjana; Savikin, Katarina; Zduni?, Gordana; Stanojkovi?, Tatjana; Jurani?, Zorica; Jankovi?, Teodora; Menkovi?, Nebojsa

2010-06-01

68

Natural killer cell activities of synbiotic Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei in conjunction with dextran  

PubMed Central

We have reported previously that Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei, together with specific substrate dextran, exhibited an adjuvant effect of stimulating humoral immune responses against bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model antigen in BALB/c mice. In the present study, among the Lactobacillus species tested, L. casei ssp. casei with dextran significantly elevated the natural killer (NK) cell activites in spleen mononuclear cells from BALB/c mice in comparison to L. casei ssp. casei alone or other Lactobacillus species with or without dextran. Oral administration of L. casei ssp. casei together with dextran also resulted in a significant increase of NK cell activities in healthy human volunteers. Further, L. casei ssp. casei induced significant production of interleukin (IL)-12 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and IL-15 mRNA expression in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. L. casei ssp. casei with dextran in food also significantly elevated the survival rate of BALB/c mice bearing Meth-A cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that dietary synbiotic supplementation which is a combination of the L. casei ssp. casei used as a probiotic together with the dextran, a specific substrate as a prebiotic, efficiently elicits murine and human NK cell activities. PMID:16367940

Ogawa, T; Asai, Y; Tamai, R; Makimura, Y; Sakamoto, H; Hashikawa, S; Yasuda, K

2006-01-01

69

Potential SSP Perfluorooctanoic Acid Related Fluoropolymer Materials Obsolescence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative (SEA) has identified a potential for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to incur materials obsolescence issues due to agreements between the fluoro-chemical industry and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to participate in a Global Stewardship Program for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This presentation will include discussions of the chemistry, regulatory drivers, affected types of fluoropolymer and fluoroelastomer products, timeline for reformulations, and methodology for addressing the issue. It will cover the coordination of assessment efforts with the International Space Station and Head Quarters Air Force Space Command, along with some examples of impacted materials. The presentation is directed at all members of the international aerospace community concerned with identifying potential environmentally driven materials obsolescence issues.

Segars, Matt G.

2006-01-01

70

Evaluation of RO modules for the SSP ETC/LSS.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past eight years the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an Integrated Water and Waste Management System for use in the Space Station Prototype (SSP) Environmental Thermal Control/Life-Support System (ETC/LSS). This system includes the reverse osmosis (RO) process for recycling wash water and the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water and the wash water concentrated by RO. This paper summarizes the experimental work performed during the past four years to select the best commercially available RO module for this system and to also define which surfactants and germicides are most compatible with the selected module.

Jasionowski, W. J.; Bambenek, R. A.

1973-01-01

71

Functional characterization of gynodioecy in Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Gynodioecy is a phylogenetically widespread and important sexual system where females coexist with hermaphrodites. Because dioecy can arise from gynodioecy, characterization of gynodioecy in close relatives of dioecious and sub-dioecious species can provide insight into this transition. Thus, we sought to determine whether Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata, a close relative to F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, exhibits the functional and population genetic hallmarks of a gynodioecious species. Methods We compared reproductive allocation of females and hermaphrodites grown in the greenhouse and estimated genetic diversity (allelic diversity, heterozygosity) and inbreeding coefficients for field-collected adults of both sexes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We estimated mating system and early seed fitness from open-pollinated families of both sex morphs. Key Results Under greenhouse conditions, females and hermaphrodites allocated similarly to all reproductive traits except flower number, and, as a consequence, females produced 30 % fewer seeds per plant than hermaphrodites. Under natural conditions, hermaphrodites produce seeds by self-fertilization approx. 75 % of the time, and females produced outcrossed seeds with very little biparental inbreeding. Consistent with inbreeding depression, seeds from open-pollinated hermaphrodites were less likely to germinate than those from females, and family-level estimates of hermaphrodite selfing rates were negatively correlated with germination success and speed. Furthermore, estimates of inbreeding depression based on genetic markers and population genetic theory indicate that inbreeding depression in the field could be high. Conclusions The joint consideration of allocation and mating system suggests that compensation may be sufficient to maintain females given the current understanding of sex determination. Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata exhibited similar sex morph-dependent patterns of mating system and genetic diversity, but less reproductive trait dimorphism, than its sub-dioecious and dioecious congeners. PMID:22052984

Li, Junmin; Koski, Matthew H.; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2012-01-01

72

Seed germination characteristics of Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. viridulus (Astereae, Asteraceae)  

SciTech Connect

Rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pallas) Britt. ssp. viridulus) may prove to be a source of high-quality cis-isoprene rubber, but its establishment is limited by a lack of information on seed germination. Consequently, seeds were germinated at alternating temperatures (5-15, 5-25, 15-25, and 20-30 C) in light and dark as well as constant temperatures (15-40 C with 5-C increments) to determine temperature response. Seeds were also germinated in solutions of polyethylene glycol 6000, salinity regimes at all the above-mentioned temperatures to determine salinity and temperature interaction. The hormones GA/sub 3/ and kinetin were used to study their effect on overcoming salt- and temperature-induced germination inhibition. Seeds of C. nauseosus ssp. viridulus were very sensitive to low temperature. Best germination was achieved at 25 and 30 C, but these seeds also germinated at a higher temperature (35 C). The seeds of rabbit brush germinated at both constant and alternating temperatures. Light appears to play little or no role in controlling germination of the seeds of rubber rabbitbrush. However, seeds of rabbitbrush were sensitive to salinity, and seed germination was progressively inhibited by increase in salt concentration, although a few seeds still germinated at the highest saline level. Progressively higher concentrations of polyethylene glycol also progressively inhibited germination. Suppression of seed germination induced by high salt concentrations and high temperatures can be partially alleviated by the application of either GA/sub 3/ or kinetin. 34 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

Khan, M.A.; Sankhla, N.; Weber, D.J.; McArthur, E.D.

1987-04-30

73

An abstract class loader for the SSP and its implementation in TL.  

SciTech Connect

The SSP is a hardware implementation of a subset of the JVM for use in high consequence embedded applications. In this context, a majority of the activities belonging to class loading, as it is defined in the specification of the JVM, can be performed statically. Static class loading has the net result of dramatically simplifying the design of the SSP as well as increasing its performance. Due to the high consequence nature of its applications, strong evidence must be provided that all aspects of the SSP have been implemented correctly. This includes the class loader. This article explores the possibility of formally verifying a class loader for the SSP implemented in the strategic programming language TL. Specifically, an implementation of the core activities of an abstract class loader is presented and its verification in ACL2 is considered.

Wickstrom, Gregory Lloyd; Winter, Victor Lono (University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE); Fraij, Fares (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Roach, Steve (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Beranek, Jason (University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE)

2004-08-01

74

MglA/SspA Complex Interactions Are Modulated by Inorganic Polyphosphate  

PubMed Central

The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen’s virulence and survival within host cells. Our goal was to determine if an intracellular metabolite modulate these protein/protein interactions. In this study, we identified inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) as a signal molecule that promotes the interaction of MglA and SspA from F. tularensis SCHU S4. Analysis of the Mgla/SspA interaction was carried out using a two-hybrid system. The Escherichia coli reporter strain contained a deletion on the ppK-ppX operon, inhibiting polyP synthesis. The interaction between MglA and SspA was significantly impaired, as was the interaction between the MglA/SspA complex and the regulatory protein, FevR, indicating the stabilizing effect of polyP. In F. tularensis, chromatin immune precipitation studies revealed that in the absence of polyP, binding of the MglA/SspA complex to the promoter region of the pdpD, iglA, fevR and ppK genes is decreased. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that polyP binds directly to the MglA/SspA complex with high affinity (KD?=?0.3 µM). These observations directly correlated with results obtained from calorimetric scans (DSC), where a strong shift in the mid-transition temperature (Tm) of the MglA/SspA complex was observed in the presence of polyP. PMID:24116108

Siegel, Sara D.; Pagliai, Fernando A.; Malekiha, Mahsa; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Lorca, Graciela L.

2013-01-01

75

Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-mglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF

Susan M. Varnum; Bobbie-Jo M. Webb-Robertson; Joel G. Pounds; Ronald J. Moore; Richard D. Smith; Charles Frevert; Shawn J. Skerret; David S. Wunschel

2012-01-01

76

Asymmetric chromosome segregation in Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri  

PubMed Central

This study was intended to characterize the chromosome segregation process of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xac) by investigating the functionality of the ParB factor encoded on its chromosome, and its requirement for cell viability and virulence. Using TAP tagging we show that ParB is expressed in Xac. Disruption of parB increased the cell doubling time and precluded the ability of Xac to colonize the host citrus. Moreover, Xac mutant cells expressing only truncated forms of ParB exhibited the classical phenotype of aberrant chromosome organization, and seemed affected in cell division judged by their reduced growth rate and the propensity to form filaments. The ParB-GFP localization pattern in Xac was suggestive of an asymmetric mode of replicon partitioning, which together with the filamentation phenotype support the idea that Xac may control septum placement using mechanisms probably analogous to Caulobacter crescentus, and perhaps Vibrio cholerae, and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Xac exhibits asymmetric chromosome segregation, and the perturbation of this process leads to an inability to colonize the host plant. PMID:24339434

Ucci, Amanda P; Martins, Paula M M; Lau, Ivy F; Bacci, Maurício; Belasque, José; Ferreira, Henrique

2014-01-01

77

A modified method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging using [ 11 C]BF227  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) analyses have been widely used in dementia imaging studies. However,\\u000a 3D-SSP sometimes shows paradoxical results on amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) analyses. This is thought to be caused\\u000a by errors in anatomical standardization (AS) based on an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) template. We developed a new method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging, and used it

Tomohiro KanetaNobuyuki; Nobuyuki Okamura; Satoshi Minoshima; Katsutoshi Furukawa; Manabu Tashiro; Shozo Furumoto; Ren Iwata; Hiroshi Fukuda; Shoki Takahashi; Kazuhiko Yanai; Yukitsuka Kudo; Hiroyuki Arai

78

A sporulation-specific, sigF-dependent protein, SspA, affects septum positioning in Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

The RNA polymerase sigma factor SigF controls late development during sporulation in the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. The only known SigF-dependent gene identified so far, SCO5321, is found in the biosynthetic cluster encoding spore pigment synthesis. Here we identify the first direct target for SigF, the gene sspA, encoding a sporulation-specific protein. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that SspA is a secreted lipoprotein with two PepSY signature domains. The sspA deletion mutant exhibits irregular sporulation septation and altered spore shape, suggesting that SspA plays a role in septum formation and spore maturation. The fluorescent translational fusion protein SspA–mCherry localized first to septum sites, then subsequently around the surface of the spores. Both SspA protein and sspA transcription are absent from the sigF null mutant. Moreover, in vitro transcription assay confirmed that RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing SigF is sufficient for initiation of transcription from a single sspA promoter. In addition, in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that sspA is a direct target of BldD, which functions to repress sporulation genes, including whiG, ftsZ and ssgB, during vegetative growth, co-ordinating their expression during sporulation septation. PMID:24261854

Tzanis, Angelos; Dalton, Kate A; Hesketh, Andrew; den Hengst, Chris D; Buttner, Mark J; Thibessard, Annabelle; Kelemen, Gabriella H

2014-01-01

79

Assessment of Applying the PMaC Prediction Framework to NERSC-5 SSP Benchmarks  

SciTech Connect

NERSC procurement depends on application benchmarks, in particular the NERSC SSP. Machine vendors are asked to run SSP benchmarks at various scales to enable NERSC to assess system performance. However, it is often the case that the vendor cannot run the benchmarks at large concurrency as it is impractical to have that much hardware available. Additionally, there may be difficulties in porting the benchmarks to the hardware. The Performance Modeling and Characterization Lab (PMaC) at San Diego Supercomputing Center (SDSC) have developed a framework to predict the performance of codes on large parallel machines. The goal of this work was to apply the PMaC prediction framework to the NERSC-5 SSP benchmark applications and ultimately consider the accuracy of the predictions. Other tasks included identifying assumptions and simplifications in the process, determining the ease of use, and measuring the resources required to obtain predictions.

Keen, Noel

2006-09-30

80

Abstract--Ecophysiological observations were taken on big sage-brush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata) and spiny hopsage  

E-print Network

196 Abstract--Ecophysiological observations were taken on big sage- brush (Artemisia tridentata ssp, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata), under increasing seasonal wa- ter stress. Spiny. tridentata) and spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa) to assess their response to increasing seasonal water stress

81

In vivo antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum capitulums in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helichrysum species (Asteraceae) are widely found in Anatolia. Decoction prepared from the capitulums of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum is used to alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. In the present study, the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum was evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats. After the oral administration

Mustafa Aslan; Didem Deliorman Orhan; Nilüfer Orhan; Ekrem Sezik; Erdem Yesilada

2007-01-01

82

A cellular study of teosinte Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (Poaceae) caryopsis development showing several processes conserved in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although recent molecular studies elucidate the genetic background leading to changed morphology of maize female inflorescence and the structure of the caryopsis during the domestication of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) from its wild progenitor teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), the mechanisms under...

83

VizieR Online Data Catalog: SSP models for star clusters in tidal fields (Anders+, 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple Stellar Population (SSP) models for star clusters in tidal fields, based on the GALEV code (GALEV group webpage ) All models are calculated for a universal Kroupa (2001) IMF and for Padova isochrones (Isochrones from the Padova group, as described in Bertelli et al., 1994A&AS..106..275B, Cat. and references therein; with an update on TP-AGB phase 1999). Data are available at http://www.phys.uu.nl/~anders/data/SSP_varMF The site is going to be updated regularly. (4 data files).

Anders, P.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Baumgardt, H.

2009-06-01

84

Overexpression of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein 2 ( PGIP2 ) of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis ) increased resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant cell wall glycoproteins that can inhibit microbial polygalacturonase\\u000a (PG) activity. In this study, we cloned five PGIP genes from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Reverse transcription PCR expression analysis showed that the accumulation of BrPGIP transcripts differed among various tissues and in response to biotic (bacterial innoculation) and abiotic stresses (i.e.,\\u000a wounding, jasmonic acid,

Byung Ho Hwang; Hanhong Bae; Hyoun-Sub Lim; Kun Bo Kim; Shin Je Kim; Myoung-Ho Im; Beom-Suk Park; Do Sun Kim; Jongkee Kim

2010-01-01

85

Original article Honey bee (Apis mellifera L) response  

E-print Network

- cus carota L) and safflower (Carthamnus tinctoris L) was greater than the mean dis- tances bees attractive to bees than carrot or safflower flowers. Nectar is highly attractive to foraging bees. However

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

IN VITRO BINDING OF BILE ACIDS BY OKRA, BEETS, ASPARAGUS, EGGPLANT, TURNIPS, GREEN BEANS, CARROTS, AND CAULIFLOWER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The in vitro binding of bile acids by okra (abelmoschus esculentus), beets (beta vulgaris), asparagus (asparagus officinalis), eggplant (solanum malongena), turnips (brassica rapa rapifera), green beans (phaseolus vulgaris), carrots (daucus carota), and cauliflower (brassica oleracea botrytis) was d...

87

Transfer of soft kernel texture from Triticum aestivum to durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is a leading cereal grain whose primary use is the production of semolina and then pasta. Its rich culinary relationship to humans is related, in part, to its very hard kernel texture. This very hard texture is due to the loss of the Puroindoline genes whi...

88

Carbon Sequestration in Rangelands Interseeded with Yellow-Flowering Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ssp. falcata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management practices can significantly influence carbon sequestration by rangeland ecosystems. Grazing, burning, and fertilization have been shown to increase soil carbon storage in rangeland soils of the Great Plains. Research was initiated in 2001 in northwestern South Dakota to evaluate the role of interseeding a legume, Medicago sativa ssp. falcata, in northern mixed-grass rangelands on carbon sequestration. Sampling was undertaken

Matthew C. Mortenson; Lachlan J. Ingram

2004-01-01

89

In vitro biological activity screening of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Döll  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of selected biological activities, including anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts as well as the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Döll (LCC, Lycopodiaceae) growing in Turkey. Anticholinesterase effect of the extracts was tested against both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at

Ilkay Orhan; Berrin Özçelik; Sinem Aslan; Murat Kartal; Taner Karaoglu; Bilge ?ener; Salih Terzioglu; M. Iqbal Choudhary

2009-01-01

90

Occurrence of aphidborne viruses in southernmost South American populations of Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild and cultivated Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis (Fcc) plants were collected at different locations in southern Chile in order to determine the current viral status of this native strawberry. The following aphidborne viruses (ABVs): Strawberry mild yellow edge virus (SMYEV), Strawberry mottle...

91

Spatio-temporal dynamics of bumblebee nest parasites (Bombus subgenus Psythirus ssp.) and their hosts  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal dynamics of bumblebee nest parasites (Bombus subgenus Psythirus ssp in the British Isles. 2. A model of nest parasitism predicted host threshold densities and stable deterministic, parasite-free zones were evident in areas of low host abundance, but the host thresh- old for parasite

Antonovics, Janis

92

Chemical and biological study on the essential oil of Artemisia caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora (Viv.).  

PubMed

Artemisia caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora (Viv.) is a wild shrub that grows in the archipelago of La Maddalena, Sardinia, Italy. The antifungal activity of the volatile oil of this sub-species has not been evaluated earlier. This study aimed to identify the main components of the essential oil of A. caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora and to investigate its antifungal activity. Identification of the different components of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from A. caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora was done by both techniques: GC-MS and NMR analyses ((1)H, (13)C, HSQC-NMR). Antifungal activity was evaluated by agar disc diffusion technique against environmental isolates of fungal strains: two yeasts (Rhodotorula spp., Candida spp.), three moulds (Aspergillus spp., Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp.) and a mixture of moulds. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil yielded 42 compounds, out of which, 26 compounds were identified. The main compound was identified as terpinen-4-ol (22%) followed by p-cymene (7.6%) and ?-terpineol (3.02%). The significant inhibition spectrum of the essential oil of A. caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora can be considered as an alternative to common disinfectants. PMID:23244627

Petretto, Giacomo L; Chessa, Mario; Piana, Andrea; Masia, Maria D; Foddai, Marzia; Mangano, Giuseppe; Culeddu, Nicola; Afifi, Fatma U; Pintore, Giorgio

2013-01-01

93

Coding Sequence Divergence Between Two Closely Related Plant Species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the coding-sequence divergence of closely related genomes, we compared DNA sequence divergence between sequences from a Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis EST library isolated from flower buds and genomic sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana. The specific objectives were (i) to determine the distribution of and relationship between Ka and Ks, (ii) to identify genes with the lowest and highest Ka:Ks

Peter Tiffin; Matthew W. Hahn

2002-01-01

94

Transformation of Pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) by Agrobacterium infiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) plants were obtained in the progeny of plants infiltrated by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain carrying a gene for resistance to the herbicide phosphinotricin (Basta). Genetic analysis demonstrates the transmission of the herbicide resistant trait to the progeny. Molecular analyses show that the transgene was inserted in the plant genome and expressed. This work

Cao Ming Qing; Liu Fan; Yao Lei; David Bouchez; Colette Tourneur; Li Yan; Christophe Robaglia

2000-01-01

95

Analysis of the Essential Oil of Helichrysum italicum G.Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd) Nym  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of Sardinian dwarf curry plant (Helichrysum italicum G.Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd.) Nym.) essential oils was studied. Oil samples were isolated by water and steam distillation of flowering tops collected at different locations. The constituents of the oils were analyzed by GC\\/MS. Since both the chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of the oils obtained during these trials were

M. Satta; C. I. G. Tuberoso; A. Angioni; F. M. Pirisi; P. Cabras

1999-01-01

96

Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans isolated from a sourdough bread culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from four different sourdough bread cultures previously investigated for antifungal activity. A total of 116 isolates were obtained and screened for antifungal activity against a battery of molds. The most inhibitory isolate obtained was identified by API 50 CHL and 16s ribosomal RNA genotyping and found to be Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans. This isolate completely

Yousef I. Hassan; Lloyd B. Bullerman

2008-01-01

97

Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida  

SciTech Connect

Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-?mglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-?mglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

2012-07-06

98

Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-?mglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-?mglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:22663564

Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles W.; Skerrett, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David

2012-01-01

99

Reproduction and Development of the Endangered Sedum integrifolium ssp. Leedyi (Crassulaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on reproduction and life history is important for the conservation of endangered plants. We investigated rates of flowering, seed set, and germination in populations of the endangered perennial plant Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi. Germination and flowering rates differed significantly among populations, but seed set rate did not. We assayed 26 plant clusters (81 stems) from four of the five

Joel P. Olfelt; Glenn R. Furnier; James J. Luby

1998-01-01

100

Ecotypic variation in Elymus elymoides ssp. Brevifolius race C in the northern Intermountain West  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides [Raf.] Sweezey) is an important native bunchgrass for restoration of degraded rangelands of western North America. It is taxonomically complex and has diverged into as many as four subspecies, including ssp. brevifolius, for which four geographically disti...

101

The genetic architecture of complex traits in teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis): Evidence from association mapping  

E-print Network

): Evidence from association mapping By Allison L. Weber A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment Major regulatory genes in maize contribute to standing variation in teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis evidence from association mapping Chapter 3 Page 91 Using association mapping to investigate the function

Doebley, John

102

KDD-2003 Workshop on Data Mining Standards, Services and Platforms (DM-SSP 03)  

E-print Network

KDD-2003 Workshop on Data Mining Standards, Services and Platforms (DM-SSP 03) Robert Grossman National Center for Data Mining, University of Illinois at Chicago and Open Data Partners Chicago, IL mining services based on them. A theme of the workshop was that data mining standards have matured

Grossman, Robert

103

Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on

Kirk W. Davies; Jonathan D. Bates; Dustin D. Johnson; Aleta M. Nafus

2009-01-01

104

Wyoming Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) Seedling Growth and Maternal Plant Stand Position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known of maternal plant influence upon seed- ling characteristics of native shrubs. This study examined influence of maternal Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) stand position on emergence and growth of seed- lings. Seedlings from maternal plants in upslope, core, and downslope positions were grown in a common greenhouse setting. Percent germination, height, and canopy volume of

A. L. Hild; B. Christensen; A. Maier

1999-01-01

105

The influence of Artemsia tridentata ssp . wyomingensis on microsite and herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh within plant communities creates two distinct zones; underneath (subcanopy) and between shrub canopies (interspace). The purpose the study was to determine the influence of subcanopy and interspace zones on microsite characteristics and herbaceous vegetation. Study sites were located at the Northern Great Basin Experimental Range (NGBER)

K. W. Davies; J. D. Bates; R. F. Miller

2007-01-01

106

Field study of competition between medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae ssp. asperum (Simk.) Melderis) and squirreltail (Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey).  

E-print Network

??Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae ssp. asperum (Simk.) Melderis) is a Eurasian annual grass that infests large areas of U.S. rangelands, dominating former bunchgrass/shrub sites. Squirreltail (Elymus… (more)

Clausnitzer, David

1996-01-01

107

Genetic structure in fragmented populations of Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis in China investigated by ISSR and cpSSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hippophae\\u000a rhamnoides ssp. sinensis is an ecologically and economically important species that has been widely used as a pioneer plant in China. In this study,\\u000a we employed both nuclear ISSR and maternal cpSSR markers to survey the genetic diversity and structure of populations of ssp.\\u000a sinensis representing three different landscapes, the northwestern desert and grassland region, the alpine vegetation region

Yuhua WangHao; Hao Jiang; Shuming Peng; Helena Korpelainen

2011-01-01

108

A novel protein kinase gene ssp1+ is required for alteration of growth polarity and actin localization in fission yeast.  

PubMed Central

Temperature-sensitive suppressor mutants were isolated from two fission yeast mutants defective in cell shape control: ppe1, encoding a type 2A-like protein phosphatase, and sts5, one of 11 staurosporine-supersensitive mutants. Complementation tests showed that suppression was due to two chromosomal loci, ssp1 and ssp2. Cells of the ssp1 mutant grown at the restrictive temperature arrested uniformly with an elongated cell body and a 2C content of DNA. Interestingly, these mutant cells grew only in a monopolar manner. At a specific point in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, wild-type cells exhibit a drastic alteration in growth polarity, from mono- to bipolar. This change coincides with the distribution of cortical actin from one end of the cell to both ends. In the ssp1 mutant cells, cortical actin was localized only at one end, suggesting that the mutant fails to change growth polarity. Nucleotide sequence determination showed that ssp1+ encodes a novel protein kinase. Ectopic overexpression of ssp1+ resulted in an altered cell morphology and cortical actin was randomly dispersed within the cells. Immunocytological analysis revealed that the protein was primarily localized in the cytoplasm and that half of the protein existed in an insoluble fraction. These results show that the dynamics of actin-based growth polarity during the cell cycle are regulated, at least in part, by a novel set of protein kinases and phosphatases. Images PMID:7628434

Matsusaka, T; Hirata, D; Yanagida, M; Toda, T

1995-01-01

109

Applicability of Phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera to Remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of phytoextraction with a Cd-hyperaccumulator plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera) to remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols. Cd absorption potentials of this plant for Andisols were examined in pot experiments. Sequentially, phytoextraction durations for remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols were calculated from the experimental data. The results were as follows: (1) Cd concentrations in the plant shoots ranged from 170-750 mg?kg-1. (2) Cd absorption of the plant for Andisols with ALC (Autoclaved Lightweight aerated Concrete) was less than for Andisols without ALC. However, the plants absorbed the same amount of soil Cd extracted by 0.01 M HCl with or without ALC. (3) Calculations suggest that the applicability of phytoextraction with this plant is high for slightly contaminated Andisols. Therefore, phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera may be a viable option for the remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols.

Kameyama, Koji; Tani, Shigeru; Sugawara, Reiko; Ishikawa, Yuichi

110

Purification and partial characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are possessing ability to synthesize antimicrobial compounds (like bacteriocin) during their growth. In this regard, novel bacteriocin compound secreting capability of LAB isolated from Tulum Cheese in Turkey was demonstrated. The synthesized bacteriocin was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration. The molecular weight (?3.4 kDa) of obtained bacteriocin was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, which revealed single peptide band. Molecular identification of LAB strain isolated from Tulum Cheese was conducted using 16S rDNA gene sequencing as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171. The amino acid sequences (KKIDTRTGKTMEKTEKKIELSLKNMKTAT) of the bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171 was found unique and novel than reported bacteriocins. Further, the bacteriocin was possessed the thermostable property and active at wide range of pH values from 1 to 11. Thus, bacteriocin reported in this study has the potential applications property as food preservative agent. PMID:22805947

Kumari, Archana; Akkoç, Nefise; Akçelik, Mustafa

2012-04-01

111

Conservation genetics of Butte County meadowfoam ( Limnanthes floccosa ssp. californica Arroyo), an endangered vernal pool endemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endangered annual plant Limnanthes floccosa ssp. californica Arroyo is restricted to vernal pools in Butte County, California. To identify populations with unique genetic resources,\\u000a guide reintroduction efforts, and design seed collection scenarios for long-term ex situ seed storage we determined extant\\u000a genetic diversity and structure by surveying 457 individuals from 21 distinct populations using nine polymorphic microsatellite\\u000a markers. We

Christina M. Sloop; Carolina Pickens; Sarah P. Gordon

2011-01-01

112

Soil solution chemistry in lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia ) ecosystems, southeastern Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of the principal inorganic and organic solutes in the soil root-zone were measured in six contrasting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp.latifolia) forest ecosystems for five years (1979–1983). Consistent temporal changes in the principal inorganic solutes (Ca, Mg, K, Na, SO4, Cl) were observed in all the forest stands and years of study: high concentrations at the initiation of snowmelt

Timothy J. Fahey; Joseph B. Yavitt

1988-01-01

113

Extinction risk assessment for the species survival plan (SSP) population of the Bali mynah (Leucopsar rothschildi).  

PubMed

The Bali mynah Species Survival Plan (SSP), an Association of Zoos and Aquariums program, strives to maintain the genetic and demographic health of its population, avoid unplanned changes in size, and minimize the risk of population extinction. The SSP population meets current demographic and genetic objectives with a population size of 209 birds at 61 institutions and 96% genetic diversity (GD) retained from the source population. However, participating institutions have expressed concerns regarding space allocation, target population size (TPS), breeding restrictions, inbreeding depression, and harvest in relation to future population availability and viability. Based on these factors, we assess five questions with a quantitative risk assessment, specifically a population viability analysis (PVA) using ZooRisk software. Using an individual-based stochastic model, we project potential population changes under different conditions (e.g. changes in TPS and genetic management) to identify the most effective management actions. Our projections indicate that under current management conditions, population decline and extinction are unlikely and that although GD will decline over 100 years the projected loss does not exceed levels acceptable to population managers (less than 90% GD retained). Model simulations indicate that the combination of two genetic management strategies (i.e. priority breeding based on mean kinship and inbreeding avoidance) benefits the retention of GD and reduces the accumulation of inbreeding. The current TPS (250) is greater than necessary to minimize the risk of extinction for the SSP population but any reduction in TPS must be accompanied by continued application of genetic management. If carefully planned, birds can be harvested for transfer to Bali for a reintroduction program without jeopardizing the SSP population. PMID:19504596

Earnhardt, Joanne M; Thompson, Steven D; Faust, Lisa J

2009-05-01

114

A Draft Sequence of the Rice Genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a draft sequence of the rice genome for the most widely cultivated subspecies in China, Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica, by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The genome was 466 megabases in size, with an estimated 46,022 to 55,615 genes. Functional coverage in the assembled sequences was 92.0%. About 42.2% of the genome was in exact 20-nucleotide oligomer repeats,

Jun Yu; Songnian Hu; Jun Wang; Gane Ka-Shu Wong; Songgang Li; Bin Liu; Yajun Deng; Li Dai; Yan Zhou; Xiuqing Zhang; Mengliang Cao; Jing Liu; Jiandong Sun; Jiabin Tang; Yanjiong Chen; Xiaobing Huang; Wei Lin; Chen Ye; Wei Tong; Lijuan Cong; Jianing Geng; Yujun Han; Lin Li; Wei Li; Guangqiang Hu; Xiangang Huang; Wenjie Li; Jian Li; Zhanwei Liu; Long Li; Jianping Liu; Qiuhui Qi; Jinsong Liu; Li Li; Tao Li; Xuegang Wang; Hong Lu; Tingting Wu; Miao Zhu; Peixiang Ni; Hua Han; Wei Dong; Xiaoyu Ren; Xiaoli Feng; Peng Cui; Xianran Li; Hao Wang; Xin Xu; Wenxue Zhai; Zhao Xu; Jinsong Zhang; Sijie He; Jianguo Zhang; Jichen Xu; Kunlin Zhang; Xianwu Zheng; Jianhai Dong; Wanyong Zeng; Lin Tao; Jia Ye; Jun Tan; Xide Ren; Xuewei Chen; Jun He; Daofeng Liu; Wei Tian; Chaoguang Tian; Hongai Xia; Qiyu Bao; Gang Li; Hui Gao; Ting Cao; Juan Wang; Wenming Zhao; Ping Li; Wei Chen; Xudong Wang; Yong Zhang; Jianfei Hu; Jing Wang; Song Liu; Jian Yang; Guangyu Zhang; Yuqing Xiong; Zhijie Li; Long Mao; Chengshu Zhou; Zhen Zhu; Runsheng Chen; Bailin Hao; Weimou Zheng; Shouyi Chen; Wei Guo; Guojie Li; Siqi Liu; Ming Tao; Jian Wang; Lihuang Zhu; Longping Yuan; Huanming Yang

2002-01-01

115

Embryogenesis and plant regeneration from isolated microspores of Brassica rapa L. ssp. Oleifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Conditions favourable to embryogenesis from isolated microspores of Brassica rapa L. ssp. oleifera (canola quality) were identified. A population with enhanced responsiveness for microspore embryogenesis (C200) was synthesized by crossing individual plants showing microspore embryogenic potential. For optimal microspore embryogenesis, buds (2–3mm in length, containing mid-late uninucieate microspores) were collected from older plants (2 months old) and microspores isolated and

Laurie Burnett; Stephen Yarrow; Bin Huang

1992-01-01

116

Mapping of a QTL for oleic acid concentration in spring turnip rape ( Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk segregant analysis was used to search for RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers linked to gene(s) affecting oleic acid concentration in an F2 population from the Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera cross Jo4002 x a high oleic acid individual from line Jo4072. Eight primers (=8 markers) out of 104 discriminated the high and low bulks consisting of extreme individuals from

P. K. Tanhuanpää; J. P. Vilkki; H. J. Vilkki

1996-01-01

117

Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Human Bile Reveals SSP411 as a Novel Biomarker of Cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is an intractable cancer, arising from biliary epithelial cells, which has a poor prognosis and is increasing in incidence. Early diagnosis of CC is essential as surgical resection remains the only effective therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify improved biomarkers to facilitate early diagnosis and prognostication in CC. Methods A comparative expression profile of human bile samples from patients with cholangitis and CC was constructed using a classic 2D/MS/MS strategy and the expression of selected proteins was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression levels of selected candidate biomarkers in CC and matched normal tissues. Finally, spermatogenesis associated 20 (SSP411; also named SPATA20) was quantified in serum samples using an ELISA. Results We identified 97 differentially expressed protein spots, corresponding to 49 different genes, of which 38 were upregulated in bile from CC patients. Western blotting confirmed that phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (brain) (PGAM-1), protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (PDIA3), heat shock 60 kDa protein 1 (chaperonin) (HSPD1) and SSP411 were significantly upregulated in individual bile samples from CC patients. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated these proteins were also overexpressed in CC, relative to normal tissues. SSP411 displayed value as a potential serum diagnostic biomarker for CC, with a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 83.3% at a cutoff value of 0.63. Conclusions We successfully constructed a proteomic profile of CC bile proteins, providing a valuable pool novel of candidate biomarkers. SSP411 has potential as a biomarker for the diagnosis of CC. PMID:23118872

Shen, Jian; Wang, Weizhi; Wu, Jindao; Feng, Bing; Chen, Wen; Wang, Meng; Tang, Jincao; Wang, Fuqiang; Cheng, Feng; Pu, Liyong; Tang, Qiyun; Wang, Xuehao; Li, Xiangcheng

2012-01-01

118

Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production\\u000a for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter\\u000a habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on

Kirk W. Davies; Jonathan D. Bates; Dustin D. Johnson; Aleta M. Nafus

2009-01-01

119

Molecular characterization of two silenced y-type genes for Glu-B1 in Triticum aestivum ssp. yunnanese and ssp. tibetanum.  

PubMed

The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are a major class of common wheat storage proteins. The bread-making quality of common wheat flour is influenced by the composition of HMW-GSs. In the present study, two unexpressed 1By genes from Triticum aesitvum L.ssp.yunnanese AS332 and T. aesitvum ssp.tibetanum AS908 were respectively cloned and characterized. The results indicated that both of the silenced 1By genes in AS332 and AS908 were 1By9. In contrast to previously reported mechanisms for silenced genes 1Ax and 1Ay, which was due to the insertion of transposon elements or the presence of premature stop codon via base substitution of C-->T transition in trinucleotides CAA or CAG, the silence of 1By9 genes was caused by premature stop codons via the deletion of base A in trinucleotide CAA, which lead to frameshift mutation and indirectly produced several premature stop codons (TAG) downstream of the coding sequence. PMID:19166499

Yuan, Zhong-Wei; Chen, Qi-Jiao; Zhang, Lian-Quan; Yan, Ze-Hong; Zheng, You-Liang; Liu, Deng-Cai

2009-01-01

120

A putative serine protease, SpSsp1, from Saprolegnia parasitica is recognised by sera of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

PubMed Central

Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by Saprolegnia sp., results in considerable economic losses in aquaculture. Current control methods are inadequate, as they are either largely ineffective or present environmental and fish health concerns. Vaccination of fish presents an attractive alternative to these control methods. Therefore we set out to identify suitable antigens that could help generate a fish vaccine against Saprolegnia parasitica. Unexpectedly, antibodies against S. parasitica were found in serum from healthy rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The antibodies detected a single band in secreted proteins that were run on a one-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel, which corresponded to two protein spots on a two-dimensional gel. The proteins were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Mascot and bioinformatic analysis resulted in the identification of a single secreted protein, SpSsp1, of 481 amino acid residues, containing a subtilisin domain. Expression analysis demonstrated that SpSsp1 is highly expressed in all tested mycelial stages of S. parasitica. Investigation of other non-infected trout from several fish farms in the United Kingdom showed similar activity in their sera towards SpSsp1. Several fish that had no visible saprolegniosis showed an antibody response towards SpSsp1 suggesting that SpSsp1 might be a useful candidate for future vaccination trial experiments. PMID:25088077

Minor, Kirsty L.; Anderson, Victoria L.; Davis, Katie S.; Van Den Berg, Albert H.; Christie, James S.; Löbach, Lars; Faruk, Ali Reza; Wawra, Stephan; Secombes, Chris J.; Van West, Pieter

2014-01-01

121

Investigation of biological activity of polar extracts isolated from Phlomis crinita Cav ssp. mauritanica Munby.  

PubMed

The lyophilized infusion, the methanol, the ethyl acetate, and the total oligomer flavonoid (TOF)-enriched extracts prepared from the dried leaves of Phlomis crinita Cav. ssp. mauritanica Munby were investigated for the contents of flavonoids, tannins, coumarines and steroids. Antibacterial activity was investigated toward five bacterial strains. An inhibitory effect was observed against Staphyllococcus aureus and Enterococcus feacalis, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 5 mg/mL of extract. The tested extracts exhibit an important free radical scavenging activity toward the 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical; with IC(50) values of 30.5, 6, 32, and 31.5 microg/mL, respectively, in the presence of lyophilized infusion, the TOF, the methanol, and the ethyl acetate extracts. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of the different extracts were studied by using the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. The lyophilized infusion and TOF extracts obtained from P. crinita ssp. mauritanica showed no genotoxicity, whereas methanol and ethyl acetate extracts are considered as marginally genotoxic. On the other hand, we showed that each extract inhibited the mutagenicity induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (10 microg/assay) and nifuroxazide (NF) (10 microg/assay). The ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest level of protection toward the genotoxicity induced by both directly and indirectly genotoxic NF and AFB1. These tests proved that the lyophilized infusion possesses an antiradical activity likewise, it showed no genotoxic effect; that is why we choose this extract to assess its antiulcerogenic activity by using an ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis model in the rat. This test demonstrates that 300 mg/kg of a P. crinita ssp. mauritanica lyophilized infusion was more effective than the reference compound, cimetidine. PMID:19514937

Limem-Ben Amor, Ilef; Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Ben Sghaïer, Mohamed; Neffati, Aicha; Bhouri, Wissem; Bouhlel, Ines; Chouchane, Nabil; Kilani, Soumaya; Guedon, Emmanuel; Ghoul, Mohamed; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

2009-01-01

122

Establishing Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis on mined lands: Science and economics  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality enacted regulations governing the reestablishment of woody shrubs on mined lands. The regulation required that an average density of one shrub m{sup -2} be reestablished on at least 20% of the disturbed land area and that the shrub composition must include dominant premine species. In Wyoming, and much of the Northern Great Plains, that meant that Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle and Young) (Wyoming big sagebrush) had to be reestablished on mined lands. Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis had proven difficult to reestablish on mined lands because of poor quality seed, seed dormancy and a poor understanding of the seedbed ecology of this species. Research in the last two decades has produced significant knowledge in the area of direct-seed establishment of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis on mined lands. Our research has shown that reducing grass seeding rates will reduce competition and result in larger sagebrush plants that are more likely to survive and provide greater structural diversity to the plant community. Economic analyses demonstrated that big sagebrush can be established at a cost of $0.01-0.05 per seedling using direct seeding methods compared to transplanting nursery grown seedlings, estimated to cost $0.72-$1.65 per seedling (depending on size) to grow and from $1.30-$2.40 to plant (flat land to 2:1 slopes). An adequate level of precipitation will be necessary to ensure successful establishment of this species no matter what method of propagation is selected and direct seeding gives greater opportunity for success because of the demonstrated longevity of the seed to germinate 3-5 years after the initial seeding.

Schuman, G.E.; Vicklund, L.E.; Belden, S.E. [ARS, Cheyenne, WY (United States). High Plains Grasslands Research Station

2005-12-01

123

Chemical composition and possible in vitro phytotoxic activity of Helichrsyum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum, collected in the National Park of Cilento and Diano Valley, Southern Italy, was studied by means of GC and GC/MS. Forty four compounds of 45 constituents were identified in the oil, mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The essential oil was evaluated for its potential in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and early radicle elongation of radish and garden cress. The radicle elongation of radish was significantly inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of both seeds was not affected. PMID:21904272

Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Scognamiglio, Maria Rosa; De Feo, Vincenzo

2011-01-01

124

Accumulation of biologically active furanocoumarins in Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams in vitro culture.  

PubMed

The study was designed to investigate dynamics of accumulation of five linear furanocoumarins and umbelliferone in stationary liquid cultures of Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams during 6-week growth cycles. The contents of individual metabolites in biomass increased 1.8-3.5 times while their total content rose 2.3 times. Maximum contents of xanthotoxin, bergapten and isopimpinellin (112.3, 76.2 and 84.0mg/100g d.w., respectively) and maximum total content of all metabolites (283.4 mg/100 g d.w.), obtained on 35th culture day, are interesting from practical point of view. PMID:15702516

Ekiert, H; Abou-Mandour, A A; Czygan, F Ch

2005-01-01

125

Ssp1 Promotes Actin Depolymerization and Is Involved in Stress Response and New End Take-Off Control in Fission Yeast  

PubMed Central

The ssp1 gene encodes a protein kinase involved in alteration of cell polarity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. ssp1 deletion causes stress sensitivity, reminiscent of defects in the stress-activated MAP kinase, Spc1; however, the two protein kinases do not act through the same pathway. Ssp1 is localized mainly in the cytoplasm, but after a rise in external osmolarity it is rapidly recruited to the plasma membrane, preferentially to active growth zones and septa. Loss of Ssp1 function inhibits actin relocalization during osmotic stress, in cdc3 and cdc8 mutant backgrounds, and in the presence of latrunculin A, implicating Ssp1 in promotion of actin depolymerization. We propose a model in which Ssp1 can be activated independently of Spc1 and can partially compensate for its loss. The ssp1 deletion mutant exhibited monopolar actin distribution, but new end take-off (NETO) could be induced in these cells by exposure to KCl or to latrunculin A pulse treatment. This treatment induced NETO in cdc10 cells arrested in G1 but not in tea1 cells. This suggests that cells that contain intact cell end markers are competent to undergo NETO throughout interphase, and Ssp1 is involved in generating the NETO stimulus by enlarging the actin monomer pool. PMID:10233158

Rupes?, Ivan; Jia, Zhengping; Young, Paul G.

1999-01-01

126

Caryophyllene oxide-rich essential oils of Lithuanian Artemisia campestris ssp. campestris and their toxicity.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oils of aerial parts of Artemisia campestris ssp. campestris, collected from ten different locations in Lithuania is detailed in this paper. The major component in all the oils was caryophyllene oxide (8.5-38.8%), whereas compounds with the caryophyllane skeleton ranged from 10.2 to 44.5%. Other representative constituents were germacrene D (< or = 15.0%), humulene epoxide II (< or = 8.1%), beta-ylangene (< or = 7.7%), spathulenol (< or = 6.8%), beta-elemene (< or = 6.8%), beta-caryophyllene (< or = 6.2%), junenol (< or = 6.1%) and alpha- or beta-pinene (< or = 5.5%). Eighty-seven compounds were identified, comprising 73.6-92.3% of the oils. The chemical composition was highly variable depending on the sample location. Toxicity of A. campestris oils was determined using the brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) assay. LC50 values ranging to 20 microg/mL were obtained for three of the oils after 24 hours of exposure. Data of this test revealed that A. campestris ssp. campestris essential oils with dominant caryophyllene oxide are notably toxic. PMID:21299136

Judzentiene, Asta; Budiene, Jurga; Butkiene, Rita; Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle; Masotti, Véronique

2010-12-01

127

Tracking the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides.  

PubMed

The spread of nonindigenous species into new habitats is having a drastic effect on natural ecosystems and represents an increasing threat to global biodiversity. In the marine environment, where data on the movement of invasive species is scarce, the spread of alien seaweeds represents a particular problem. We have employed a combination of plastid microsatellite markers and DNA sequence data from three regions of the plastid genome to trace the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. Extremely low levels of genetic variation were detected, with only four haplotypes present in the species' native range in Japan and only two of these found in introduced populations. These invasive populations displayed a high level of geographical structuring of haplotypes, with one haplotype localized in the Mediterranean and the other found in Northwest Atlantic, northern European and South Pacific populations. Consequently, we postulate that there have been at least two separate introductions of C. fragile ssp. tomentosoides from its native range in the North Pacific. PMID:15643962

Provan, Jim; Murphy, Susan; Maggs, Christine A

2005-01-01

128

Crystalline silicon thin-film (CSiTF) solar cells on SSP and on ceramic substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CSiTF solar cells are being intensively investigated due to their cost reduction potential compared to silicon wafer solar cells. At the Fraunhofer ISE several high-temperature approaches are under investigation. Our main interest is focussed on low-cost silicon ribbons and on ceramics as substrate material for such solar cells because they match most requirements best. The silicon substrates are being prepared by a ribbon technique, namely the silicon sheets from powder (SSP) technique using silicon powder of different purity as starting material. Onto these substrates silicon layer systems for CSiTF solar cells are deposited by APCVD from SiHCl3 with high deposition rates and recrystallized by a melting step in order to achieve large crystallites in the active layer. The same layer systems have been studied on different kinds of ceramic substrates like SiSiC, SiN, graphite and mullite. To prevent diffusion of impurities from the substrates into the active silicon layer, different types of barrier layers have been used. On SSP substrates made of EG-Si powder conversion efficiencies up to 11.2% on those of UMG-Si 8.6% could be achieved. On ceramic substrates, efficiencies were up to 11% on graphite, up to 9.3% on SiSiC, up to 8.0% on SiN, and up to 8.2% on mullite.

Eyer, Achim; Haas, Fridolin; Kieliba, Thomas; Oßwald, Daniela; Reber, Stefan; Zimmermann, Walter; Warta, Wilhelm

2001-05-01

129

The effect of calcium ions on adhesion and competitive exclusion of Lactobacillus ssp. and E. coli O138  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adhesion abilities of 11 strains of Lactobacillus were determined in vitro using the IPEC-J2 cell line as a model system. Bacteria cultures included the probiotic strains L. rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri ATCC 55730, L. johnsonii NCC 533 and L. reuteri DSM 12246, and new isolates of Lactobacillus ssp. Adhesion was quantified by scintillation counting of radiolabelled bound bacteria. The

Nadja Larsen; Peter Nissen; William G. T. Willats

2007-01-01

130

Abundance of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in Adirondack Mountain shrub wetlands and its influence on inorganic nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to determine the abundance of the nitrogen-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (speckled alder), in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State and to determine whether its abundance affects the concentration or accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in wetland substrates. Alder\\/willow wetlands are the second most common wetland type in the

B. D. Kiernan; T. M. Hurd; D. J. Raynal

2003-01-01

131

Comparison of nitrogen solute concentrations within alder (Alnus incana ssp.rugosa) and non-alder dominated wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined differences in nitrogen solutes and groundwater flow patterns between a riparian wetland dominated by the N2-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa, and an upstream coniferous forested riparian wetland along a stream of the Adirondack Mountains, where some surface waters are susceptible to nitrogen excess. Channel water NO3? was up to 16 µmol l? 1 greater in the

Todd M. Hurd; Dudley J. Raynal

2004-01-01

132

Prescribed fires in Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana steppe have minor and transient effects on vegetation cover and composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Very little research has been conducted to determine the impacts of fire in mountain big sagebrush steppe of vegetation cover and frequency. Multiple prescribed fires were lit in 2002 and 2003 at the USDA-ARS U. S. Sheep Experiment Station in a mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vase...

133

A Comparison of Isozyme and Quantitative Genetic Variation in Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia by FsT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employed Fstatistics to analyze quantitative and isozyme variation among five populations of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, a wind-pollinated outcrossing conifer with wide and continuous distribution in west North America. Estimates of population differentiation (&) for six quantitative traits were compared with the overall estimate of the differentiation (fir) from 19 isozymes that tested neutral to examine whether similar evolutionary

Rong-Cai Yang; Francis C. Yeh; Alvin D. Yanchukt

134

Assessing the effects of exposure to environmental stress on some functional properties of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effects of exposing a strain of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis to acid, bile and osmotic stresses on antagonistic properties, biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility/resistance profile. Exposure to each stress factor appeared to have no significant effect on the antagonism against Escherichia coli NCTC 12900 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. No suppression in biofilm formation due to exposure to stress was observed. Bile and osmotic stresses resulted in significantly higher biofilm formation. Expression of an exopolysaccharide synthesis gene, gtf 01207, was significantly higher when the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain was exposed to osmotic stress. Susceptibility of the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin and vancomycin, and resistance to tetracycline remained unchanged when exposed to each stress. The expression of a tetracycline resistance gene, tet(W), was significantly higher when exposed to each stress. These results may suggest that the potential for the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to provide probiotic benefit, after exposure to the stressful conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, remains intact. PMID:25097108

Amund, O D; Ouoba, L I I; Sutherland, J P; Ghoddusi, H B

2014-12-01

135

Effect of wave exposure on morphology, attachment strength and survival of the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrodynamic forces are a key factor influencing morphology and survival of marine algae in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats. Since 1989, the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides has spread rapidly in Atlantic Canada, forming dense stands in intertidal pools and shallow subtidal habitats. We measured the morphology and attachment strength of Codium over 4 seasons at 3 sites

Olivier D'Amours; Robert E. Scheibling

2007-01-01

136

Endothelium-dependent induction of vasorelaxation by Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis in rat isolated thoracic aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, vasorelaxant effect produced by the aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis (MOO) (Lamiaceae) and its possible mechanism in isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine were examined. In the first series of experiments, effect of MOO on the baseline and phenylephrine (10?5M) precontracted arteries was investigated, while in the second group of experiments, endothelium

S. Ersoy; I. Orhan; N. N. Turan; G. ?ahan; M. Ark; F. Tosun

2008-01-01

137

Embryogenesis and plant regeneration of pakchoi ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) via in vitro isolated microspore culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated microspores of various populations of three varieties of the Chinese cabbage pakchoi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were cultivated in vitro on NLN82 medium (Lichter 1982) and embryos and plantlets obtained with nine cultivars. The best embryo yield per bud was 57.4. A 33°C one day heat treatment was generally necessary to induce embryogenesis. Analysis of ploidy level through flow

Ming Qing Cao; Yan Li; Fan Liu; Claire Doré

1994-01-01

138

Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the essential oils and methanol extract from Mentha longifolia L. ssp. longifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract from Mentha longifolia ssp. longifolia. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all 30 microorganisms tested whereas the methanol extract almost remained inactive. In contrast, the extract showed much better activity than the essential oil in antioxidant activity assays employed, e.g. in

M. Gulluce; F. Sahin; M. Sokmen; H. Ozer; D. Daferera; A. Sokmen; M. Polissiou; A. Adiguzel; H. Ozkan

2007-01-01

139

Fate of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus, the causal organism of bacterial ring rot in potato, in weeds and field crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crops and weeds were tested for their ability to host Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal agent of bacterial ring rot in potato. Ten crops grown in rotation with potato in Europe, namely maize, wheat, barley, oat, bush bean, broad bean, rape, pea and onion and five cultivars of sugar beet were tested by stem and root inoculation. About

Wolf van der J. M; Beckhoven van J. R. C. M; A. Hukkanen; R. Karjalainen; P. Muller

2005-01-01

140

Poplar root exudates contain compounds that induce the expression of MiSSP7 in Laccaria bicolor  

PubMed Central

Communication between organisms is crucial for their survival, especially for sessile organisms such as plants that depend upon interactions with mutualistic organisms to maximize their nutrient acquisition. This communication can take the form of the exchange of volatile compounds, metabolites or effectors—small protein signals secreted from the colonizing cell that change the biology of the host cell. We recently characterized the first mutualistic effector protein from an ectomycorrhizal fungus, a small secreted protein named MiSSP7 encoded by Laccaria bicolor. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are soil-borne mutualistic organisms whose hyphae wrap around host roots and grow into the root apoplastic space where the fungus exchanges nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in return for plant derived sugars. The MiSSP7 protein is induced by root exudates and is highly expressed throughout the root colonization process. Its presence was responsible for alterations to the plant transcriptomic profile, a mechanism by which MiSSP7 may aid in the formation of the symbiotic interface. Here we discuss the implications of these findings and, further, we demonstrate that the production of MiSSP7 is induced by two flavonoids, rutin and quercitin, a class of compounds normally found within the exudates of plant roots. We also consider the interesting similarities between the mechanisms of effector induction and action between pathogenic and mutualistic fungi. PMID:22301958

Plett, Jonathan M.; Martin, Francis

2012-01-01

141

Electroantennogram responses of the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis , to oilseed rape, Brassica napus ssp. Oleifera , volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from male and female cabbage seed weevils (Ceutorhynchus assimilis Payk.) in response to volatiles isolated and identified from the odor of oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp.oleifera DC. cv. Ariana). Relatively large EAGs were obtained on stimulation with volatiles produced by the oilseed rape crop at the time when seed weevils were actively searching for host plants.

K. A. Evans; L. J. Allen-Williams

1992-01-01

142

IMC-like Analytical H design with S/SP mixed sensitivity consideration: Utility in PID tuning guidance6  

E-print Network

IMC-like Analytical H design with S/SP mixed sensitivity consideration: Utility in PID tuning methodology is also suitable for teaching purposes. Key words: H control, Weighted Sensitivity, IMC, PID, the Proportional-Integrative-Derivative (PID) controller is recognized to be the bread and butter of automatic

Skogestad, Sigurd

143

Resistance to race TTKSK of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Emmer Wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Race TTKSK (Ug99) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is a serious threat to wheat production worldwide because of its wide virulence on many cultivars and rapid spread in eastern Africa and southwestern Asia. Emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum) is known to be a source of resistance to ste...

144

Identification of a Small Molecule That Modifies MglA/SspA Interaction and Impairs Intramacrophage Survival of Francisella tularensis  

PubMed Central

The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen’s virulence and survival within host cells. In this study, we used a small molecule screening to identify quinacrine as a thermal stabilizing compound for F. tularensis SCHU S4 MglA and SspA. A bacterial two-hybrid system was used to analyze the in vivo effect of quinacrine on the heterodimer complex. The results show that quinacrine affects the interaction between MglA and SspA, indicated by decreased ?-galactosidase activity. Further in vitro analyses, using size exclusion chromatography, indicated that quinacrine does not disrupt the heterodimer formation, however, changes in the alpha helix content were confirmed by circular dichroism. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that quinacrine makes contact with amino acid residues Y63 in MglA, and K97 in SspA, both located in the “cleft” of the interacting surfaces. In F. tularensis subsp. novicida, quinacrine decreased the transcription of the FPI genes, iglA, iglD, pdpD and pdpA. As a consequence, the intramacrophage survival capabilities of the bacteria were affected. These results support use of the MglA/SspA interacting surface, and quinacrine’s chemical scaffold, for the design of high affinity molecules that will function as therapeutics for the treatment of Tularemia. PMID:23372736

Wrench, Algevis P.; Gardner, Christopher L.; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Lorca, Graciela L.

2013-01-01

145

Lignan formation in hairy root cultures of Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale ssp. alpinum (Cass.) Greuter)  

PubMed Central

A hairy root line of Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale ssp. alpinum (Cass.) Greuter) was obtained upon transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC15834. Elicitation of this line with silver nitrate, sucrose, methyl jasmonate and yeast extract at various concentrations in most cases resulted in a stimulation of lignan biosynthesis. Through elicitation with 6% sucrose the roots accumulated the pharmacologically active lignans leoligin and 5-methoxy-leoligin at levels of 0.0678% and 0.0372%, respectively, without significant growth inhibition. These lignan levels were comparable to those found in intact roots of cultivated Edelweiss. The biotechnological production of leoligin could be an attractive option for the continuous, field culture-independent production of the valuable secondary metabolites leoligin and 5-methoxy-leoligin. PMID:24932777

Wawrosch, Christoph; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Kopp, Brigitte

2014-01-01

146

Preventative effects of a probiotic, Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius, in the TNBS model of rat colitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the intestinal anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of a probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713 in the TNBS model of rat colitis. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (180-200 g) were used in this study. A group of rats were administered orally the probiotic L. salivarius ssp. salivarius (5×108 CFU suspended in 0.5 mL of skimmed milk) daily for 3 wk. Two additional groups were used for reference, a non-colitic and a control colitic without probiotic treatment, which received orally the vehicle used to administer the probiotic. Two weeks after starting the experiment, the rats were rendered colitic by intracolonic administration of 10 mg of TNBS dissolved in 0.25 mL of 500 mL/L ethanol. One week after colitis induction, all animals were killed and colonic damage was evaluated both histologically and biochemically. The biochemical studies performed in colonic homogenates include determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, glutathione (GSH) content, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) levels, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. In addition, the luminal contents obtained from colonic samples were used for microbiological studies, in order to determine Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria counts. RESULTS: Treatment of colitic rats with L. salivarius ssp. salivarius resulted in amelioration of the inflammatory response in colitic rats, when compared with the corresponding control group without probiotic treatment. This anti-inflammatory effect was evidenced macroscopically by a significant reduction in the extent of colonic necrosis and/or inflammation induced by the administration of TNBS/ethanol (2.3±0.4 cm vs 3.4±0.3 cm in control group, P<0.01) and histologically by improvement of the colonic architecture associated with a reduction in the neutrophil infiltrate in comparison with non-treated colitic rats. The latter was confirmed biochemically by a significant reduction of colonic MPO activity (105.3±26.0 U/g vs 180.6±21.9 U/g, P<0.05), a marker of neutrophil infiltration. The beneficial effect was associated with an increase of the colonic GSH content (1 252±42 nmol/g vs 1 087±51 nmol/g, P<0.05), which is depleted in colitic rats, as a consequence of the oxidative stress induced by the inflammatory process. In addition, the treatment of colitic rats with L. salivarius resulted in a significant reduction of colonic TNF-? levels (509.4±68.2 pg/g vs 782.9±60.1 pg/g, P<0.01) and in a lower colonic iNOS expression, when compared to TNBS control animals without probiotic administration. Finally, treated colitic rats showed higher counts of Lactobacilli species in colonic contents than control colitic rats, whereas no differences were observed in Bifidobacteria counts. CONCLUSION: Administration of the probiotic L. salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713 facilitates the recovery of the inflamed tissue in the TNBS model of rat colitis, an effect associated with amelioration of the production of some of the mediators involved in the inflammatory response in the intestine, such as cytokines, including TNF-? and NO. This beneficial effect could be ascribed to its effect on the altered immune response that occurs in this inflammatory condition. PMID:16127750

Peran, Laura; Camuesco, Desiree; Comalada, Monica; Nieto, Ana; Concha, Angel; Diaz-Ropero, Maria Paz; Olivares, Monica; Xaus, Jordi; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Galvez, Julio

2005-01-01

147

A new acetophenone derivative from flowers of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum.  

PubMed

A new acetophenone derivative named gnaphaliol 9-O-propanoate (1) was isolated from the chloroform fraction of EtOH extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum flowers along with the five known acetophenones 12-acetoxytremetone (2), 13-(2-methylpropanoyloxy)toxol (3), [2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(hydroxymethyl)ethenyl]-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (4), 1-[2-[1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethenyl]-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (5) and gnaphaliol (6). The structures of compounds 1-6 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D- ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D-NMR (DQF-COSY, HSQC, HMBC, TOCSY and ROESY) experiments as well as ESIMS analysis. The isolated compounds were investigated for their cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Biological assays on human colonic epithelial cells showed that compound 2 possessed antioxidant effects reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PMID:25285382

Rigano, Daniela; Formisano, Carmen; Pagano, Ester; Senatore, Felice; Piacente, Sonia; Masullo, Milena; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca

2014-12-01

148

Type II quorum sensing regulates virulence in Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing is a process by which bacteria communicate using secreted chemical signaling molecules called autoinducers. In this study, the opportunistic plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora was observed to secrete type II signaling molecules. A homolog of luxS, the gene required for AI-2 synthesis in Vibrio harveyi, was isolated from the genome of the pathogen. To determine the potential role of AI-2 in virulence, an isogenic luxS- (ECC) mutant was constructed and tested for its ability to cause tissue maceration. The findings reported here demonstrate that the LuxS-dependent signaling affects the progression of disease symptoms during the early stages of infection by modulating the expression of pectinolytic enzymes. PMID:16640578

Laasik, Eve; Andresen, Liis; Mäe, Andres

2006-05-01

149

Rapid molecular prenatal diagnosis of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita by PCR-SSP assay.  

PubMed

Heterozygous mutations of COL2A1 gene are responsible for type II collagenopathies. The common skeletal phenotypes include achondrogenesis type II, hypochondrogenesis, Stickler dysplasia, Kniest dysplasia, late onset spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC). Prevention of SEDC can be achieved by prenatal diagnosis. This study reports the first rapid molecular prenatal diagnosis of SEDC performed in China by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) analysis. The pregnant woman we previously reported with SEDC carried the G to A substitution at nucleotide 1510 in exon 23 of COL2A1 gene, which caused a change from glycine to serine at codon 504 (G504S). By the time the woman got pregnant again, she had terminated two pregnancies and still had no child. In the first pregnancy, the molecular mutation of the family was not yet identified, and therefore prenatal diagnosis was unable to be performed by DNA analysis. In the second pregnancy, G504S mutation was found from fetal DNA. At the time of her third pregnancy, the woman and her husband became extremely worried about the potential SEDC for the fetus. For this reason, a quick and reliable molecular prenatal diagnosis of SEDC was performed by a PCR-SSP on an amniocyte sample collected at the 14th week of pregnancy. No mutation of the fetal DNA was identified. The result was obtained within 24 h after the sample was collected. The technique could be applied in confirmatory diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis for the affected family. PMID:19072565

Cui, Ying-Xia; Xia, Xin-Yi; Bu, Ying; Zhou, Guo-Hua; Yang, Bin; Lu, Hong-Yong; Shi, Yi-Chao; Pan, Lian-Jun; Huang, Yu-Feng; Li, Xiao-Jun

2008-12-01

150

Assessing the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in semiarid shrublands dominated by Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis.  

PubMed

Variation in the abiotic environment and host plant preferences can affect the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) assemblages. This study analyzed the AMF taxa present in soil and seedlings of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis collected from sagebrush steppe communities in southwestern Idaho, USA. Our aims were to determine the AMF diversity within and among these communities and the extent to which preferential AMF-plant associations develop during seedling establishment. Mycorrhizae were identified using molecular methods following DNA extraction from field and pot culture samples. The extracted DNA was amplified using Glomeromycota specific primers, and identification of AMF was based on phylogenetic analysis of sequences from the large subunit-D2 rDNA region. The phylogenetic analyses revealed seven phylotypes, two within the Claroideoglomeraceae and five within the Glomeraceae. Four phylotypes clustered with known species including Claroideoglomus claroideum, Rhizophagus irregularis, Glomus microaggregatum, and Funneliformis mosseae. The other three phylotypes were similar to several published sequences not included in the phylogenetic analysis, but all of these were from uncultured and unnamed glomeromycetes. Pairwise distance analysis revealed some phylotypes with high genetic variation. The most diverse was the phylotype that included R. irregularis, which contained sequences showing pairwise differences up to 12 %. Most of the diversity in AMF sequences occurred within sites. The smaller genetic differentiation detected among sites was correlated with differences in soil texture. In addition, multiplication in pot cultures led to differentiation of AMF communities. Comparison of sequences obtained from the soil with those from A. tridentata roots revealed no significant differences between the AMF present in these samples. Overall, the sites sampled were dominated by cosmopolitan AMF taxa, and young seedlings of A. tridentata ssp. wyomingensis were colonized in relation to the abundance of these taxa in the soil. PMID:24249492

Carter, Keith A; Smith, James F; White, Merlin M; Serpe, Marcelo D

2014-05-01

151

Comparative cDNA-AFLP analysis of Cd-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes derived from crosses between the Cd hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri and Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd) tolerance seems to be a constitutive species-level trait in Arabidopsis halleri. In order to identify genes potentially implicated in Cd tolerance, a backcross (BC1) segregating population was produced from crosses between A. halleri ssp. halleri and its closest non-tolerant relative A. lyrata ssp. petraea. The most sensitive and tolerant genotypes of the BC1 were analysed on a transcriptome-wide

Adrian Radu Craciun; Mikael Courbot; Fabienne Bourgis; Pietrino Salis; Pierre Saumitou-Laprade; Nathalie Verbruggen

2006-01-01

152

Genetic and physical interaction of Ssp1 CaMKK and Rad24 14-3-3 during low pH and osmotic stress in fission yeast  

PubMed Central

The Ssp1 calmodulin kinase kinase (CaMKK) is necessary for stress-induced re-organization of the actin cytoskeleton and initiation of growth at the new cell end following division in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In addition, it regulates AMP-activated kinase and functions in low glucose tolerance. ssp1? cells undergo mitotic delay at elevated temperatures and G2 arrest in the presence of additional stressors. Following hyperosmotic stress, Ssp1-GFP forms transient foci which accumulate at the cell membrane and form a band around the cell circumference, but not co-localizing with actin patches. Hyperosmolarity-induced localization to the cell membrane occurs concomitantly with a reduction of its interaction with the 14-3-3 protein Rad24, but not Rad25 which remains bound to Ssp1. The loss of rad24 in ssp1? cells reduces the severity of hyperosmotic stress response and relieves mitotic delay. Conversely, overexpression of rad24 exacerbates stress response and concomitant cell elongation. rad24? does not impair stress-induced localization of Ssp1 to the cell membrane, however this response is almost completely absent in cells overexpressing rad24. PMID:24451546

Freitag, Silja I.; Wong, Jimson; Young, Paul G.

2014-01-01

153

SSP-002392, a new 5-HT4 receptor agonist, dose-dependently reverses scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in C57Bl/6 mice.  

PubMed

5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) are suggested to affect learning and memory processes. Earlier studies have shown that animals treated with 5-HT4R agonists, often with limited selectivity, show improved learning and memory with retention memory often being assessed immediately after or within 24 h after the last training session. In this study, we characterized the effect of pre-training treatment with the selective 5-HT4R agonist SSP-002392 on memory acquisition and the associated long-term memory retrieval in animal models of impaired cognition. Pre-training treatment with SSP-002392 (0.3 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg and 7.5 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the cognitive deficits induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) in two different behavioral tasks: passive avoidance and Morris water maze. In the Morris water maze, spatial learning was significantly improved after treatment with SSP-002392 translating in an accelerated and more efficient localization of the hidden platform compared to scopolamine-treated controls. Moreover, retention memory was assessed 24 h (passive avoidance) and 72 h (Morris water maze) after the last training session of cognitive-impaired animals and this was significantly improved in animals treated with SSP-002392 prior to the training sessions. Furthermore, the effects of SSP-002392 were comparable to galanthamine hydrobromide. We conclude that SSP-002392 has potential as a memory-enhancing compound. PMID:24863046

Lo, Adrian C; De Maeyer, Joris H; Vermaercke, Ben; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Schuurkes, Jan A J; D'Hooge, Rudi

2014-10-01

154

Cryoprotectants lead to phenotypic adaptation to freeze-thaw stress in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus CIP 101027T.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the ability of cryoprotective chemicals to induce phenotypic cryoadaptation in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus CIP 101027T. Tolerance to negative temperature stress (freezing at -20 degrees C and thawing at 37 degrees C) was induced by pretreatment with Me(2)SO, glycerol, lactose, sucrose, and trehalose. Interestingly, Me(2)SO has a significantly greater cryoprotective effect than glycerol. Furthermore, lactose, sucrose, and trehalose, often referred to as osmotica, were shown to have greater cryoadaptive than cryoprotective properties. These results suggest that bacteria such as L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus could be phenotypically adapted to freezing and thawing by an osmotic stress applied prior to freeze-thaw stress. PMID:10860625

Panoff, J M; Thammavongs, B; Guéguen, M

2000-05-01

155

Chemotaxonomy of Artemisia variabilis Ten. and A. campestris L. ssp. glutinosa (Ten.) Briq. et Cavill. (Asteraceae) from Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oil of Artemisia variabilis Ten. and A. campestris L. ssp. glutinosa (Ten.) Briq. et Cavill was studied in order to clarify the systematic taxonomy of these plants. GC and GC\\/MS analyses both revealed quantitative and qualitative differences in the composition of their oils. In A. variabilis oil, 1,2-dihydro acenaphthylene (30.0–77.3%) was the predominant component, while

B. Bellomaria; G. Valentini; E. Biondi

2001-01-01

156

Effects of the aqueous extract from artemisia campestris ssp. caudata on mycorrhizal fungi colonization and growth of sand dune grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the aqueous extract fromArtemisia campesttis ssp.caudata to investigate its effects on the colonization of sand dune grass roots by mycorrhizal fungi and seedling growth. The percent\\u000a colonization decreased with higher extract concentrations, and growth of three grass species was inhibited. Colonization by\\u000a mycorrhizal fungi was more sensitive to the extract than was seedling growth, and no significant differences

Kyeong Won Yun; Anwar Maun; Jong Hee Kim

2007-01-01

157

SspA Is Required for Lethal Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infections in Calves but Is Not Essential for Diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) encodes virulence determinants, which are important for entero- pathogenicity in calves. To determine whether the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SPI-1 effector proteins SspA and SptP are important for enteropathogenicity, strains lacking these proteins were tested during oral infection of calves. Calves infected with a sptP mutant or its isogenic parent developed diarrhea and lethal morbidity.

RENEE M. TSOLIS; L. GARRY ADAMS; MICHAEL J. HANTMAN; CHRISTINA A. SCHERER; TYLER KIMBROUGH; ROBERT A. KINGSLEY; THOMAS A. FICHT; SAMUEL I. MILLER; ANDREAS J. BAUMLER

2000-01-01

158

Rapid and efficient transformation of diploid Medicago truncatula and Medicago sativa ssp. falcata lines improved in somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a simple and efficient protocol for regeneration-transformation of two diploid Medicago lines: the annual M. truncatula R108-1(c3) and the perennial M. sativa ssp. falcata (L.) Arcangeli PI.564263 selected previously as highly embryogenic genotypes. Here, embryo regeneration of R108-1 to complete\\u000a plants was further improved by three successive in vitro regeneration cycles resulting in the line R108-1(c3). Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated

T. H. Trinh; P. Ratet; E. Kondorosi; P. Durand; K. Kamaté; P. Bauer; A. Kondorosi

1998-01-01

159

Intraspecies variations in yield and quality determinants in Vicia species: 4. Woolly-pod vetch ( Vicia villosa ssp. dasycarpa Roth)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intra-species variations in phenology, yield and quality determinants of hay, grain and straw were examined in woolly-pod vetch (Vicia villosa ssp. dasycarpa), and accessions were selected based on yield and quality attributes. Twenty-five woolly-pod vetch accessions were grown over four cropping seasons in a Mediterranean environment in north-west Syria. Days to flowering and pod maturity, hay yield at flowering, as

A. Larbi; A. M. Abd El-Moneim; H. Nakkoul; B. Jammal; S. Hassan

2011-01-01

160

Carvone-Rich Essential Oils from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. schimperi Briq. and Mentha spicata L. Grown in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam distillation of the aerial parts of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. schimperi Briq. and Mentha spicata L. growing in Sudan yielded oil contents of 1.8% and 0.9%, respectively. Analysis of the oils by GC and GC\\/MS revealed that both oils were found to be rich in carvone. Twenty-two compounds were identified in each oil, the major ones being carvone

Younis M. H. Younis; Shadia M. Beshir

2004-01-01

161

Selective Enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Propionibacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactoba- cillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus ther- mophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propioni- bacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS- NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (na- lidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and

N. Tharmaraj; N. P. Shah

2003-01-01

162

Two important “root” foods of the Northwest Coast Indians: Springbank clover (Trifolium wormskioldii) and Pacific silverweed (Potentilla anserina ssp. pacified)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two edible “root” species, springbank clover (Trifolium wormskioldii), and Pacific silverweed (Potentilla anserina ssp. pacifica), are described and their use as food by Northwest Coast Indian peoples documented. Descriptions of traditional harvesting,\\u000a cooking and serving, and storage techniques for these foods are provided, and their future potential as a food source along\\u000a the Northwest Coast is discussed.

Nancy J. Turner; Harriet V. Kuhnlein

1982-01-01

163

Engineering and Safety Partnership Enhances Safety of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project Management must use the risk assessment documents (RADs) as tools to support their decision making process. Therefore, these documents have to be initiated, developed, and evolved parallel to the life of the project. Technical preparation and safety compliance of these documents require a great deal of resources. Updating these documents after-the-fact not only requires substantial increase in resources - Project Cost -, but this task is also not useful and perhaps an unnecessary expense. Hazard Reports (HRs), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEAs), Critical Item Lists (CILs), Risk Management process are, among others, within this category. A positive action resulting from a strong partnership between interested parties is one way to get these documents and related processes and requirements, released and updated in useful time. The Space Shuttle Program (SSP) at the Marshall Space Flight Center has implemented a process which is having positive results and gaining acceptance within the Agency. A hybrid Panel, with equal interest and responsibilities for the two larger organizations, Safety and Engineering, is the focal point of this process. Called the Marshall Safety and Engineering Review Panel (MSERP), its charter (Space Shuttle Program Directive 110 F, April 15, 2005), and its Operating Control Plan emphasizes the technical and safety responsibilities over the program risk documents: HRs; FMEA/CILs; Engineering Changes; anomalies/problem resolutions and corrective action implementations, and trend analysis. The MSERP has undertaken its responsibilities with objectivity, assertiveness, dedication, has operated with focus, and has shown significant results and promising perspectives. The MSERP has been deeply involved in propulsion systems and integration, real time technical issues and other relevant reviews, since its conception. These activities have transformed the propulsion MSERP in a truly participative and value added panel, making a difference for the safety of the Space Shuttle Vehicle, its crew, and personnel. Because of the MSERP's valuable contribution to the assessment of safety risk for the SSP, this paper also proposes an enhanced Panel concept that takes this successful partnership concept to a higher level of 'true partnership'. The proposed panel is aimed to be responsible for the review and assessment of all risk relative to Safety for new and future aerospace and related programs.

Duarte, Alberto

2007-01-01

164

Accumulation of biologically active furanocoumarins in agitated cultures of Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the dynamics of accumulation of linear furanocoumarins (psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, imperatorin) and their biogenetic precursor, umbelliferone, in agitated cultures of Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams during 6-week growth cycles. The metabolites under study were almost exclusively accumulated in the cultured biomass. The total content of all metabolites increased 4.8- and 2.0-fold, in R. graveolens and R. graveolens ssp. divaricata cultures, respectively. Xanthotoxin and bergapten, which are the most important therapeutic compounds, were the dominating metabolites in cultures of both plants. The maximum content of xanthotoxin (25.0 mg/100 g dry wt.) and bergapten (18.4 mg/100 g dry wt) and the maximum content of all metabolites (64.0 mg/100 g dry wt) in R. graveolens ssp. divaricata callus obtained on the 35th culture day were relatively low. However, maximum contents of xanthotoxin (136.8 mg/100 g dry wt), bergapten (210.4 mg/100 g dry wt.) and isopimpinellin (96.7 mg/100 g dry wt), and total content of all metabolites in R. graveolens shoots (520.8 mg/100 g dry wt) obtained on the 42nd culture day are interesting from a practical point of view. PMID:16124408

Ekiert, H; Czygan, F-Ch

2005-08-01

165

FurA contributes to the oxidative stress response regulation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The ferric uptake regulator A (FurA) is known to be involved in iron homeostasis and stress response in many bacteria. In mycobacteria the precise role of FurA is still unclear. In the presented study, we addressed the functional role of FurA in the ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by construction of a furA deletion strain (MAP?furA). RNA deep sequencing revealed that the FurA regulon consists of repressed and activated genes associated to stress response or intracellular survival. Not a single gene related to metal homeostasis was affected by furA deletion. A decisive role of FurA during intracellular survival in macrophages was shown by significantly enhanced survival of MAP?furA compared to the wildtype, indicating that a principal task of mycobacterial FurA is oxidative stress response regulation in macrophages. This resistance was not associated with altered survival of mice after long term infection with MAP. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that mycobacterial FurA is not involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. However, they provide strong evidence that FurA contributes to intracellular survival as an oxidative stress sensing regulator.

Eckelt, Elke; Meißner, Thorsten; Meens, Jochen; Laarmann, Kristin; Nerlich, Andreas; Jarek, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried; Gerlach, Gerald-F.; Goethe, Ralph

2015-01-01

166

Elemental and nutritional analysis of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica) Berries of Pakistani origin.  

PubMed

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica) is a very important medicinal plant in northern areas of Pakistan. The fruit of sea buckthorn is rich in nutrients and medicinal compounds such as vitamins, carotene, flavonoids, essential oil, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, and minerals. In order to compare various populations of sea buckthorn for chemical composition, eight populations from different areas of northern Pakistan were compared using fruit characteristics. Phytochemical analysis of berries showed vitamin C (250-333 mg/100 g), seed oil (7.69-13.7%), oil in softer pulp (19.2-29.1%), phytosterol content of seed oil (3.3-5.5%), and anthocyanin (0.5-25 mg/L), while the mineral element composition analysis revealed high contents of potassium (140-360 ppm), sodium (20-80 ppm), calcium (70-98 ppm), magnesium (150-240 ppm), iron (40-150 ppm), and phosphorus (110-133 ppm). This study established sea buckthorn berries as a good source of biochemical and mineral elements. The high variation between different populations shows the potential of selecting and breeding of the raw material for various defined purposes. PMID:16379565

Sabir, S M; Maqsood, H; Hayat, Imran; Khan, M Q; Khaliq, A

2005-01-01

167

Podophyllotoxin and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin Production in Hairy Root Cultures of Liunm mucronatum ssp. mucronatum  

PubMed Central

Aim: Two bacterial strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, A13 and 9534 were evaluated for induction of transformed hairy roots in Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum, a high value medicinal plant. Materials and Methods: The hairy roots were successfully initiated, through infecting the hypocotyl and root explants and the A13 strain performed a high transformation frequency for hairy roots induction. Transgenic status of hairy roots was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the rol genes. Growth kinetics of transgenic roots induced by two strains indicated a similar pattern of growth, with maximum growth occurring between 42 to 56 days. The lignan contents in hairy roots were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Results: Transformed cultures showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in lignan content. The highest amount of Podophyllotoxin (PTOX, 5.78 mg/g DW) and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin (MPTOX, 49.19 mg/g DW) was found in transformed lines induced by strain A13, which was four times higher than those of non-transformed roots. The results showed that hairy root cultures of L. mucronatum are rich sources of MPTOX. Conclusion: hairy root cultures from L. mucronatum can be used as a useful system for scale-up producing MPTOX and precursors for the production of antitumor agents in substitution with PTOX by considering the appropriate optimizations in future studies. PMID:24914281

Samadi, Afsaneh; Jafari, Morad; Nejhad, Nasim Mohammad; Hossenian, Farah

2014-01-01

168

Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 Protects against Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Permeability in Rats  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects such as erosion and increased permeability are common during the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Our objective was to assess whether Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 protects against NSAID-induced GI side effects in a rat model. A total of 120 male Wistar rats were allocated into groups designated as control, NSAID, and probiotic. The NSAID and probiotic groups were challenged with indomethacin (10?mg/kg?1; single dose). The probiotic group was also supplemented daily with 1010?CFU of B. lactis 420 for seven days prior to the indomethacin administration. The control group rats received no indomethacin or probiotic. The permeability of the rat intestine was analysed using carbohydrate probes and the visual damage of the rat stomach mucosa was graded according to severity. B. lactis 420 significantly reduced the indomethacin-induced increase in stomach permeability. However, the protective effect on the visual mucosal damage was not significant. The incidence of severe NSAID-induced lesions was, nevertheless, reduced from 50% to 33% with the probiotic treatment. To conclude, the B. lactis 420 supplementation protected the rats from an NSAID-induced increase in stomach permeability and may reduce the formation of more serious GI mucosal damage and/or enhance the recovery rate of the stomach mucosa. PMID:22848210

Lyra, Anna; Saarinen, Markku; Putaala, Heli; Olli, Kaisa; Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Madetoja, Mari; Tiihonen, Kirsti

2012-01-01

169

Diversity of AMF associated with Ammophila arenaria ssp. arundinacea in Portuguese sand dunes.  

PubMed

Dune vegetation is essential for the formation and preservation of sand dunes and the protection of the coast line. Coastal sand dunes are harsh environments where arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in promoting plant establishment and growth. We present a study of the diversity of AMF associated with A. arenaria ssp. arundinacea in two locations of the Portuguese coast under a Mediterranean climate. These two locations were selected to compare a well-preserved dune system from a protected area with a degraded dune system from a public beach. AMF diversity was assessed mainly by cloning and sequencing of a fragment of the ribosomal SSU using the primer NS31 and AM1. Most of the 89 AMF clones obtained from the rhizosphere and roots of A. arenaria belonged to the genus Glomus, the largest clade within the Glomeromycota. Higher AMF diversity was found in the least disturbed site, in which spores of Scutellospora persica, Glomus constrictum and Glomus globiferum were found in the rhizosphere of A. arenaria. PMID:17043895

Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Freitas, Helena

2006-11-01

170

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in several herds of Arctic Caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp.).  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a common pathogen in domestic ruminants that causes granulomatous inflammation of the small intestine leading to emaciation and wasting. Clinical disease (Johne's disease) is also reported for several wild ruminant species. Between 2007 and 2009 we collected 561 fecal samples from caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp.) representing 10 herds of migratory caribou, two herds of caribou from Greenland, and three populations of boreal woodland caribou. Feces were tested for MAP by bacterial culture and PCR targeting the IS900 insertion sequence. In total, 31 samples from eight different populations representing all three ecotypes were found positive for MAP by PCR, with one sample from the Rivière-aux-Feuilles herd also being culture positive for the type II (cattle) strain. The proportion of positive animals was particularly high in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd in Greenland, and Rivière-aux-Feuilles and Riviè re-George herds in northeastern Canada (23.4, 11.5, and 10.0%, respectively). Our results indicate that MAP is present in several caribou herds of different ecotypes in northern Canada and Greenland and that MAP circulates within wildlife populations that do not have ongoing contact with domestic livestock. The epidemiology, pathogenicity, and effects on the health of caribou in northern ecosystems remain unknown. PMID:23060493

Forde, Taya; Orsel, Karin; De Buck, Jeroen; Côté, Steeve D; Cuyler, Christine; Davison, Tracy; Elkin, Brett; Kelly, Allicia; Kienzler, Martin; Popko, Richard; Taillon, Joëlle; Veitch, Alasdair; Kutz, Susan

2012-10-01

171

Genetic and phenotypic parameters for dietary selection of mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana.  

PubMed

The heritability of diet selection for mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana [Rydb] Beetle) by grazing sheep was estimated from fecal samples collected from 549 Rambouillet ewes. Fecal samples were collected in September and October during 1996 and 1997 from free-grazing ewes on intermountain sagebrush-bunchgrass rangelands at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station in Idaho. The total number of fecal samples was 1,949. Fecal samples were evaluated for composition of big sagebrush by near-infrared spectroscopy. Percentage of sagebrush in the diet was less in September than in October (21.6 vs 31.7%, respectively). Single-trait and bivariate derivative-free REML analyses were performed to genetically compare percentage of sagebrush in the diet in September and October. Heritability estimates were similar between September and October measurements (0.25 and 0.28, respectively). The genetic correlation between September and October percentages of sagebrush in the diet was high (0.91), implying that there is strong genetic similarity between September and October measurements and that an annual measurement may be sufficient for selection. These results contribute to a greater understanding of dietary preferences in freely grazing sheep, and suggest opportunities to improve production efficiency and forage management through selection for dietary preferences. PMID:11219459

Snowder, G D; Walker, J W; Launchbaugh, K L; Van Vleck, L D

2001-02-01

172

Characterization of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes from Hordeum brevisubulatum ssp. turkestanicum.  

PubMed

Three novel low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) genes (designated as Ht1, Ht2, and Ht3) were isolated from the genomic DNA of Hordeum brevisubulatum ssp. turkestanicum by PCR amplification (accession no. Y0695). The coding regions of Ht1, Ht2, and Ht3 were 924, 924, and 903 bp, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences were 306, 306, and 299 amino acid residues each with a signal peptide, a central repetitive region rich in proline and glutamine, and N- and C-terminal non-repetitive domains. A comparison was carried out of these genes with other known B hordein genes from cultivated barley and LMW glutenin genes from wheat. The results indicated that Ht1, Ht2, and Ht3 had a more similar structure and a higher level of homology with the LMW-GS genes than the B hordein genes. In order to investigate the evolutionary relationship of the novel genes with the prolamin genes from barley and wheat, the phylogenetic tree was constructed and the subfamilies of these prolamin genes were identified. The results suggested that the three novel genes were glutenin-like proteins designated as LMW-m type genes. PMID:16521538

Hou, Y C; Liu, Q; Long, H; Wei, Y M; Zheng, Y L

2006-01-01

173

Instability in mitochondrial membranes in Polima cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important factor to observe heterosis in Brassica rapa. Although several studies have documented the rearrangements of mitochondrial DNA and dysfunction in the mitochondria have been observed in most types of CMS, the basis of the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes and other effects on CMS remain unclear. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization was performed in the flowers of an alloplasmic Polima CMS system from B. rapa ssp. chinensis to identify genes that are differentially expressed between fertile and sterile plants. A total of 443 clones were isolated (156 were upregulated in fertile buds, and 287 were upregulated in sterile ones). Real-time RT-PCR further demonstrated the credibility of SSH. Among these genes, many membrane protein genes (LTP12, PIP2A, and GRP14) were inhibited in the sterile male line. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay was then performed. Results showed that the sterile MMP was unstable and failed to create a potential difference; thus, mitochondrial dysfunction occurred. Moreover, abnormal microtubules and photosynthetic pathways were found in sterile male cells. Unstable MMP, nutritional deficiency, and abnormal microtubules were the causes of Polima CMS in Brassica campestris. H2O2, MDA, and O(2-), accumulated as byproducts of energy metabolism disorder in sterile male cells. PMID:24652098

Li, Ying; Liu, Tongkun; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Shi, Gongjun; Zhang, Jingyi; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shuning; Hou, Xilin

2014-06-01

174

Improved metabolic control and hepatic oxidative biomarkers with the periconception use of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum.  

PubMed

Our aim was to investigate the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant effects of the Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum (HPsP) plant extract in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes rat model during pregnancy. Five groups (n = 8, each) were formed: (1) diabetic non-mated control, (2) non-diabetic mated control, (3) diabetic mated control, (4) diabetic non-mated treatment and (5) diabetic mated treatment. The HPsP extract was administered orally for 15 days (250 mg/kg body weight), beginning 3 days before mating. The extract led to decreased blood glucose, increased serum insulin, and decreased serum triglycerides in pregnant and non-pregnant diabetic animals. Liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) measurements in extract-treated diabetics were similar to non-diabetic pregnant controls, indicating probable reversal of increased lipid peroxidation in the liver. The mean pup number tended to increase (p = 0.06) with extract administration. In conclusion, the beneficial effects we encountered with the periconception use of the studied herbal extract warrant further investigation. PMID:20143969

Sezik, M; Aslan, M; Orhan, D D; Erdemoglu, E; Pekcan, M; Mungan, T; Sezik, E

2010-02-01

175

Gynodioecy in structured populations: understanding fine-scale sex ratio variation in Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima.  

PubMed

Natural selection, random processes and gene flow are known to generate sex ratio variations among sexually polymorphic plant populations. In gynodioecious species, in which hermaphrodites and females coexist, the relative effect of these processes on the maintenance of sex polymorphism is still up for debate. The aim of this study was to document sex ratio and cytonuclear genetic variation at a very local scale in wind-pollinated gynodioecious Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima and attempt to elucidate which processes explained the observed variation. The study sites were characterized by geographically distinct patches of individuals and appeared to be dynamic entities, with recurrent establishment of distinct haplotypes through independent founder events. Along with substantial variation in sex ratio and unexpectedly low gene flow within study sites, our results showed a high genetic differentiation among a mosaic of genetically distinct demes, with isolation by distance or abrupt genetic discontinuities taking place within a few tens of metres. Overall, random founder events with restricted gene flow could be primary determinants of sex structure, by promoting the clumping of sex-determining genes. Such high levels of sex structure provide a landscape for differential selection acting on sex-determining genes, which could modify the conditions of maintenance of gynodioecy in structured populations. PMID:22211480

De Cauwer, Isabelle; Dufay, M; Hornoy, B; Courseaux, A; Arnaud, J-F

2012-02-01

176

Reproduction and development of the endangered Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi (Crassulaceae).  

PubMed

Information on reproduction and life history is important for the conservation of endangered plants. We investigated rates of flowering, seed set, and germination in populations of the endangered perennial plant Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi. Germination and flowering rates differed significantly among populations, but seed set rate did not. We assayed 26 plant clusters (81 stems) from four of the five known populations for evidence of clonal reproduction using 28 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Of the 81 stems, 75 had unique genotypes and three pairs had identical genotypes, suggesting that clonal reproduction is infrequent. Flowering, seed set, and germination rates were correlated with our estimates of ratios of effective to actual population sizes (Ne/N), but not with Ne. The single formally protected population may be experiencing inbreeding depression. We grew plants from seed to maturity in a greenhouse, with a germination rate of 77% and survival of 98% of the germinants at 6 mo, suggesting that this will be a viable means of ex situ propagation. Plants flowered 4-6 mo after germination and produced mature fruits 1-2 mo later, suggesting that they have the potential to sexually reproduce in their first or second season of growth. PMID:21684918

Olfelt, J; Furnier, G; Luby, J

1998-03-01

177

Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae  

PubMed Central

In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely “Baad-Avard”, collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides. PMID:24250419

Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

2011-01-01

178

Bioactivity-guided isolation of cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones of Gochnatia polymorpha ssp. floccosa.  

PubMed

Phytochemical study of Gochnatia polymorpha (Less) Cabr. ssp. floccosa Cabr. trunk bark, guided by antiproliferative assays on 10 human cancer cell lines and the VERO cell line, yielded six known compounds identified as the triterpene bauerenyl acetate, the guaianolide 11?,13-dihydrozaluzanin C and the dimeric guaianolides 10-desoxygochnatiolide A, gochnatiolide A, 8-hydroxi-10-desoxygochnatiolide A and 8-hydroxigochnatiolide A. Extracts, fractions of extracts and isolated compounds were tested in vitro against a panel of human cancer cell lines, including U251 (glioma, CNS), UACC-62 (melanoma), MCF-7 (breast), NCI-ADR/RES (drug-resistant ovarian), 786.0 (kidney), NCI-H460 (lung, no small cells), PC-3 (prostate), OVCAR-3 (ovarian), HT-29 (colon), K562 (leukemia) and against the VERO no cancer cell line. Bauerenyl acetate was inactive, while 11?,13-dihydrozaluzanin C showed weak activity against UACC62 and the VERO cell line. The most active compounds were 10-desoxygochnatiolide A and gochnatiolide A, which inhibited the growth of kidney, melanoma, ovarian-resistant and glioma cell lines with values of TGI (total growth inhibition) varying 0.21-1.09?µg/mL. This is the first report about cytotoxic activity of dimeric lactones against cell lines. PMID:22807254

Strapasson, Regiane L B; Cervi, Armando C; Carvalho, João E; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Salvador, Marcos J; Stefanello, Maria Élida A

2012-07-01

179

Characterization of a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) die-off on the Handford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site contains one of the few remaining contiguous areas of shrub-steppe habitat left in Washington State. This habitat is home to many native plant and wildlife species, some of which are threatened with extinction or are unique to the Site. The importance of the Hanford Site increases as other lands surrounding the Site are developed, and these native species and habitats are lost. Stands of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) on the Site are a particularly important component of shrub-steppe habitat, because a number of wildlife require big sagebrush for food and cover. Since 1993, researchers and field biologists have made anecdotal observations of dying and declining sagebrush in stands of shrubs near the 100 Areas. This study was initiated to delineate and document the general boundary where sagebrush stands appear to be declining. We mapped the areal extent of the die-off using a global positioning system and found that the central portion of the die-off encompasses 280 hectares. Shrub stand defoliation was estimated to be near or greater than 80% in this area. The remainder of the die-off area exhibits varying mixtures of completely defoliated, partially defoliated, and healthy-looking stands. Declining sagebrush stands comprise a total of 1776 hectares.

Cardenas, A.; Lewinsohn, J.; Auger, C.; Downs, J.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Burrows, R.

1997-09-01

180

Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats  

PubMed Central

Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum) were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8??L per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24?h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration. PMID:22619588

Farkas, Ágnes; Molnár, Réka; Morschhauser, Tamás; Hahn, István

2012-01-01

181

Salmonella enterica ssp. arizonae infection in a 43-year-old Italian man with hypoglobulinemia: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Salmonella enterica ssp. arizonae is an uncommon human pathogen with serious infections reported in immunocompromised hosts. In Europe, only a few cases have been described. Patients with this infection usually have a history of contact with reptiles or travel abroad. We present a case report of infection in a patient with hypoglobulinemia and a literature review. Case presentation We describe the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian Italian man with hypoglobulinemia who presented to our hospital with sepsis and diarrhea. A stool culture yielded S. enterica ssp. arizonae. Our patient was treated with oral ciprofloxacin and made a full recovery. We also present a review of the cases of S. enterica ssp. arizonae infections previously reported in Europe. Conclusions The majority of infections from S. enterica ssp. arizonae occur in patients who are immunocompromised. Data from the literature suggests that it may be difficult to eradicate the bacteria and thus, prolonged antibiotic courses are often used. It would be advisable for clinicians to investigate for pre-existing immune dysfunction if S. enterica ssp. arizonae is isolated. In Italy, although there have only been a few cases, the likely route of transmission remains unclear and requires further surveillance. PMID:21781321

2011-01-01

182

Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale – A wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat  

PubMed Central

Background Chloroplast genome sequences are extremely informative about species-interrelationships owing to its non-meiotic and often uniparental inheritance over generations. The subject of our study, Fagopyrum esculentum, is a member of the family Polygonaceae belonging to the order Caryophyllales. An uncertainty remains regarding the affinity of Caryophyllales and the asterids that could be due to undersampling of the taxa. With that background, having access to the complete chloroplast genome sequence for Fagopyrum becomes quite pertinent. Results We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of a wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale. The sequence was rapidly determined using a previously described approach that utilized a PCR-based method and employed universal primers, designed on the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of chloroplast genomes. The gene content and order in buckwheat chloroplast genome is similar to Spinacia oleracea. However, some unique structural differences exist: the presence of an intron in the rpl2 gene, a frameshift mutation in the rpl23 gene and extension of the inverted repeat region to include the ycf1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of 61 protein-coding gene sequences from 44 complete plastid genomes provided strong support for the sister relationships of Caryophyllales (including Polygonaceae) to asterids. Further, our analysis also provided support for Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, but interestingly, in the bayesian phylogeny inference based on first two codon positions Amborella united with Nymphaeales. Conclusion Comparative genomics analyses revealed that the Fagopyrum chloroplast genome harbors the characteristic gene content and organization as has been described for several other chloroplast genomes. However, it has some unique structural features distinct from previously reported complete chloroplast genome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the dataset, including this new sequence from non-core Caryophyllales supports the sister relationship between Caryophyllales and asterids. PMID:18492277

Logacheva, Maria D; Samigullin, Tahir H; Dhingra, Amit; Penin, Aleksey A

2008-01-01

183

In vitro biological activity screening of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Doll.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of selected biological activities, including anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts as well as the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Doll (LCC, Lycopodiaceae) growing in Turkey. Anticholinesterase effect of the extracts was tested against both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at concentrations of 0.2 and 1 mg mL(-1) using microplate-reader assay based on Ellman method. Antioxidant activity of the LCC extracts was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method at 0.2 mg mL(-1) using microplate-reader assay. Both DNA virus Herpes simplex (HSV) and RNA virus Parainfluenza (PI-3) were employed for antiviral assessment of LCC exracts using Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney and Vero cell lines. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were screened against the bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis as well as the fungi: Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. Only the petroleum ether extract of LCC possessed remarkable activity against both AChE and BChE at 1 mg mL(-1) (76.5 and 69.6%, respectively), whereas LCC extracts showed low free radical-scavenging activity. All of the extracts were found to be more effective against the ATCC strains than isolated ones, particularly S. aureus, while the extracts had moderate antifungal activity. On the other hand, we found that only the petroleum ether extract was active against HSV. In addition, we also analysed the content of the alkaloid fraction of the plant by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified lycopodine as the major alkaloid (60.8%). PMID:19384728

Orhan, Ilkay; Ozcelik, Berrin; Aslan, Sinem; Kartal, Murat; Karaoglu, Taner; Sener, Bilge; Terzioglu, Salih; Iqbal Choudhary, M

2009-01-01

184

Kinetin induces cell death in root cortex cells of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings.  

PubMed

The double fluorescence staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) revealed that treatment of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings with kinetin-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in root cortex cells. Kinetin-induced cell death reflected by the morphological changes of nuclei including their invagination, volume increase, chromatin condensation and degradation as well as formation of micronuclei showed by AO/EB and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining was accompanied by changes including increase in conductivity of cell electrolytes secreted to culture media, decrease in the number of the G1- and G2-phase cells and appearance of fraction of hypoploid cells as the effect of DNA degradation without ladder formation. Decrease in the number of mitochondria and in the activity of cellular dehydrogenases, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), appearance of small and then large lytic vacuoles and increase in the amount of cytosolic calcium ions were also observed. The PCD was also manifested by increased width and weight of apical fragments of roots as well as decreased length of cortex cells which led to shortening of the whole roots. The kinetin-induced PCD process was almost completely inhibited by adenine, an inhibitor of phosphoribosyl transferase, and mannitol, an inhibitor of ROS production. These cell-death hallmarks and pathway of this process suggested that the induction of kinetin-specific vacuolar type of death, expressed itself with similar intensity on both morphological and metabolic levels, was a transient protecting whole roots and whole seedlings against elimination. PMID:23143313

Kunikowska, Anita; Byczkowska, Anna; Ka?mierczak, Andrzej

2013-08-01

185

Starch-bound 2S proteins and kernel texture in einkorn, Triticum monococcum ssp monococcum.  

PubMed

The starch granule proteins from 113 einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp monococcum) accessions were analyzed by acidic, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE), and two-dimensional A-PAGE x SDS-PAGE. All accessions were confirmed to contain equal amounts of two polypeptide chains corresponding to puroindoline B (Pin-B), as well as a prominent component plus a faint band corresponding to puroindoline A (Pin-A). When compared with soft-textured common wheat, "monococcum" accessions showed an increase of 3.2- and 2.7-fold in Pin-A and Pin-B levels on the starch granules, respectively. In addition, all accessions contained a novel component of the 2S super-family of seed proteins named Einkorn Trypsin Inhibitor (ETI), which was found to be encoded as a pre-protein 148 residues long. Wild-type ETI encoded by allele Eti-A(m) 1a and "valine-type" ETI encoded by allele Eti-A(m) 1b, which occurred in 107 and six einkorn accessions, respectively, were found to accumulate on starch granules as a mature protein of 121 amino acids with a hydrophobic central domain. The einkorn accessions exhibited an average SKCS index as low as -2.05 +/- 11.4, which is typical of extra-soft kernels. The total surface area of starch granules in "monococcum" wheat, as determined by visual assessments in counting chambers, was estimated at 764 mm(2)/mg of starch, and was about 1.5 times higher than that for common wheat. The results are discussed in relation to the identification of factors that cause the extra-soft texture of einkorn kernels. PMID:19655123

Taddei, Federica; Gazza, Laura; Conti, Salvatore; Muccilli, Vera; Foti, Salvatore; Pogna, Norberto Edgar

2009-11-01

186

[Effects of ruta SSP on the activity of the smooth gastrointestinal muscle isolated of rat].  

PubMed

Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta chalepensis L. are plants used in folkloric medicine as antispasmodics, digestive and for intestinal gases. Animals used as experimental model were rats of the Wistar line, adult females, clinically healthy and with a weight average of 250 grams. We used strips of stomach and duodenum. Each one of the segments mounted on two stirrups in a bath of organ isolated with Ringer-lactate solution, at 37° C , pH: 7.3-7.4, and bubbled with 95% O2, 5% CO2. One of the stirrups was connected vertically to the bottom of the bath and the other to a transducer of tension connected to a Beckman polygraph. We applied 500 mgs of basal tension. After the stabilization, the ethanolic extract of Ruta ssp was added in increasing doses. At 50?l/ml the tone lower 23% in small intestine and lower 27% in stomach. However at 100 ?l/ml the tone lower 32% and 35% respectively. In the other parameters the amplitude decrease 50% in the stomach at dose of 5 ?l/ml while in the small intestine the amplitude lower 60%. With 10 ?l/ml the amplitude change in both organs ( 96% in small intestine, and 75% in stomach). The frequency changes in both organs ( 32% in small intestine, and 50% in stomach) at 10 ?l/ml Rue showed decreased effects on isolated small intestine and stomach were is dose dependent, maybe we were demonstrated the effects digestive of Ruta. PMID:21450144

Grigorjev, Carlota A; Brizuela, Nilda Y

2010-01-01

187

Systemic and Mucosal Immune Reactivity upon Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder of ruminants. Due to the similar pathology, MAP was also suggested to cause Crohn's disease (CD). Despite of intensive research, this question is still not settled, possibly due to the lack of versatile mouse models. The aim of this study was to identify basic immunologic mechanisms in response to MAP infection. Immune compromised C57BL/6 Rag2?/? mice were infected with MAP intraperitoneally. Such chronically infected mice were then reconstituted with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells 28 days after infection. A systemic inflammatory response, detected as enlargement of the spleen and granuloma formation in the liver, was observed in mice infected and reconstituted with CD4+ T cells. Whereby inflammation in infected and CD4+CD45RBhi T cell reconstituted animals was always higher than in the other groups. Reconstitution of infected animals with CD8+ T cells did not result in any inflammatory signs. Interestingly, various markers of inflammation were strongly up-regulated in the colon of infected mice reconstituted with CD4+CD45RBlo/int T cells. We propose, the usual non-colitogenic CD4+CD45RBlo/int T cells were converted into inflammatory T cells by the interaction with MAP. However, the power of such cells might be not sufficient for a fully established inflammatory response in the colon. Nevertheless, our model system appears to mirror aspects of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) like CD and Johne's diseases. Thus, it will provide an experimental platform on which further knowledge on IBD and the involvement of MAP in the induction of CD could be acquired. PMID:24728142

Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Roderfeld, Martin; Tschuschner, Annette; Rath, Timo; Gerlach, Gerald F.; Hornef, Mathias; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried; Roeb, Elke

2014-01-01

188

In vitro regeneration and genetic transformation of the berberine-producing plant, Thalictrum flavum ssp. glaucum.  

PubMed

Protocols have been developed for the in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of meadow rue, Thalictrum flavum ssp. glaucum. Ten-day-old seedlings were bisected along the embryonic axis and the cotyledons were co-cultured with various Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains for 3 days. The cotyledons were cultured on a shoot induction medium (B5 salts and vitamins, 30 g l-1 sucrose, 2 mg l-1 kinetin, and 3 g l-1 Gelrite) containing 25 mg l-1 hygromycin B as the selection agent and 250 mg l-1 timentin to facilitate the elimination of Agrobacterium. Only the oncogenic A. tumefaciens strains A281 and C58 produced transgenic T. flavum callus tissues. A281 was the most effective strain producing hygromycin-resistant callus on 85% of the explants. Transgenic callus was subcultured on the shoot induction medium every 2 weeks. After 12 weeks, hygromycin-resistant shoots that formed on explants exposed to strain A281 were transferred to a root induction medium (B5 salts and vitamins, 25 mg l-1 hygromycin B, 250 mg l-1 timentin, and 3 g l-1 Gelrite). Detection of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene using a polymerase chain reaction assay, the high levels of GUS mRNA and enzyme activity, and the cytohistochemical localization of GUS activity confirmed the genetic transformation of callus cultures and regenerated plants. The transformation process did not alter the normal content of berberine in transgenic roots or cell cultures; thus, the reported protocol is valuable to study the molecular and metabolic regulation of protoberberine alkaloid biosynthesis. PMID:12207665

Samanani, Nailish; Park, Sang-Un; Facchini, Peter J

2002-09-01

189

Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time . Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height ( P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering ( P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves ( P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

Davies, Kirk W.; Bates, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Dustin D.; Nafus, Aleta M.

2009-07-01

190

Influence of mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on winter habitat for wildlife.  

PubMed

Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time. Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height (P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering (P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves (P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities. PMID:19159967

Davies, Kirk W; Bates, Jonathan D; Johnson, Dustin D; Nafus, Aleta M

2009-07-01

191

BrpSPL9 (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis SPL9) controls the earliness of heading time in Chinese cabbage.  

PubMed

The leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis), Brussels sprouts (B. oleracea ssp. gemmifera) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) comprise extremely incurved leaves that are edible vegetable products. The heading time is important for high quality and yield of these crops. Here, we report that BrpSPL9-2 (B. rapa ssp. pekinensis SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE 9-2), a target gene of microRNA brp-miR156, controls the heading time of Chinese cabbage. Quantitative measurements of leaf shapes, sizes, colour and curvature indicated that heading is a late adult phase of vegetative growth. During the vegetative period, miR156 levels gradually decreased from the seedling stage to the heading one, whereas BrpSPL9-2 and BrpSPL15-1 mRNAs increased progressively and reached the highest levels at the heading stage. Overexpression of a mutated miR156-resistant form of BrpSPL9-2 caused the significant earliness of heading, concurrent with shortening of the seedling and rosette stages. By contrast, overexpression of miR156 delayed the folding time, concomitant with prolongation of the seedling and rosette stages. Morphological analysis reveals that the significant earliness of heading in the transgenic plants overexpressing BrpSPL9-2 gene was produced because the juvenile phase was absent and the early adult phase shortened, whereas the significant delay of folding in the transgenic plants overexpressing Brp-MIR156a was due to prolongation of the juvenile and early adult phases. Thus, miR156 and BrpSPL9 genes are potentially important for genetic improvement of earliness of Chinese cabbage and other crops. PMID:24237584

Wang, Yali; Wu, Feijie; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

2014-04-01

192

The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis] is of particular interest because the genome of this legume has experienced divergent domestication. Initially, cowpea was domesticated from wild cowpea in Africa; in Asia a vegetable form of cowpea, yardlong bean, subsequently evolved from cowpea. Information on the genetics of domestication-related traits would be useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding programmes, as well as comparative genome study among members of the genus Vigna. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean and compare them with previously reported QTLs in closely related Vigna. Methods Two linkage maps were developed from BC1F1 and F2 populations from the cross between yardlong bean (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis) accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. Using these linkage maps, QTLs for 24 domestication-related traits were analysed and mapped. QTLs were detected for traits related to seed, pod, stem and leaf. Key Results Most traits were controlled by between one and 11 QTLs. QTLs for domestication-related traits show co-location on several narrow genomic regions on almost all linkage groups (LGs), but especially on LGs 3, 7, 8 and 11. Major QTLs for sizes of seed, pod, stem and leaf were principally located on LG7. Pleiotropy or close linkage of genes for the traits is suggested in these chromosome regions. Conclusions This is the first report of QTLs for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean. The results provide a foundation for marker-assisted selection of domestication-related QTLs in yardlong bean and enhance understanding of domestication in the genus Vigna. PMID:22419763

Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Vaughan, Duncan A.; Srinives, Peerasak

2012-01-01

193

Distribution of spore-positive and spore-negative nodules of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in Maine, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of spore-positive (sp+) and spore-negative (sp?) root nodules ofAlnus incana ssp.rugosa (DuRoi) Clausen (speckled alder) was examined at 29 sites with a wide range of environmental conditions in Maine, USA. These\\u000a included: pH 3.4 to 7.0, soil texture ranging from coarse gravel to clay to organic soils, elevation from 3 to 591 m and latitude\\u000a 43 to 47N.

Rosanne M. Holman; Christa R. Schwintzer

1987-01-01

194

A study of System Interface Sets (SIS) for the host, target and integration environments of the Space Station Program (SSP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System interface sets (SIS) for large, complex, non-stop, distributed systems are examined. The SIS of the Space Station Program (SSP) was selected as the focus of this study because an appropriate virtual interface specification of the SIS is believed to have the most potential to free the project from four life cycle tyrannies which are rooted in a dependance on either a proprietary or particular instance of: operating systems, data management systems, communications systems, and instruction set architectures. The static perspective of the common Ada programming support environment interface set (CAIS) and the portable common execution environment (PCEE) activities are discussed. Also, the dynamic perspective of the PCEE is addressed.

Mckay, Charles; Auty, David; Rogers, Kathy

1987-01-01

195

Partial characterization and dynamics of synthesis of high molecular mass exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exopolysaccharide (EPS) preparations from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) strains LBB.B26 and LBB.B332 and Streptococcus thermophilus strains LBB.T54 and LBB.T6V were characterized using ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. All four preparations\\u000a contained a neutral EPS with molecular mass in the range of 1.3?1.6 × 106 Da (HMM-EPS). The EPS preparations from the two L. bulgaricus strains also contained an acidic low molecular

Z. L. Urshev; Z. P. Dimitrov; N. S. Fatchikova; I. G. Petrova; D. I. Ishlimova

2008-01-01

196

A high-resolution karyotype of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis revealed by pachytene analysis and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular cytogenetic map of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, 2 n=20) was constructed based on the 4?-6-diamino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride-stained mitotic metaphase and pachytene chromosomes and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (McFISH), using three repetitive DNA sequences, 5S rDNA, 45S rDNA, and C11-350H. The lengths of mitotic metaphase chromosomes ranged from 1.46 ?m to 3.30 ?m. Five 45S and three 5S

Dal-Hoe Koo; Prikshit Plaha; Yong Pyo Lim; Yoonkang Hur; Jae-Wook Bang

2004-01-01

197

Effector MiSSP7 of the mutualistic fungus Laccaria bicolor stabilizes the Populus JAZ6 protein and represses jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes  

PubMed Central

Ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Laccaria bicolor, support forest growth and sustainability by providing growth-limiting nutrients to their plant host through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with host roots. We have previously shown that the effector protein MiSSP7 (Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Protein 7) encoded by L. bicolor is necessary for the establishment of symbiosis with host trees, although the mechanistic reasoning behind this role was unknown. We demonstrate here that MiSSP7 interacts with the host protein PtJAZ6, a negative regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)-induced gene regulation in Populus. As with other characterized JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, PtJAZ6 interacts with PtCOI1 in the presence of the JA mimic coronatine, and PtJAZ6 is degraded in plant tissues after JA treatment. The association between MiSSP7 and PtJAZ6 is able to protect PtJAZ6 from this JA-induced degradation. Furthermore, MiSSP7 is able to block—or mitigate—the impact of JA on L. bicolor colonization of host roots. We show that the loss of MiSSP7 production by L. bicolor can be complemented by transgenically varying the transcription of PtJAZ6 or through inhibition of JA-induced gene regulation. We conclude that L. bicolor, in contrast to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biotrophic pathogens, promotes mutualism by blocking JA action through the interaction of MiSSP7 with PtJAZ6. PMID:24847068

Plett, Jonathan M.; Daguerre, Yohann; Wittulsky, Sebastian; Vayssières, Alice; Deveau, Aurelie; Melton, Sarah J.; Kohler, Annegret; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Brun, Annick; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Martin, Francis

2014-01-01

198

Effector MiSSP7 of the mutualistic fungus Laccaria bicolor stabilizes the Populus JAZ6 protein and represses jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Laccaria bicolor, support forest growth and sustainability by providing growth-limiting nutrients to their plant host through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with host roots. We have previously shown that the effector protein MiSSP7 (Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Protein 7) encoded by L. bicolor is necessary for the establishment of symbiosis with host trees, although the mechanistic reasoning behind this role was unknown. We demonstrate here that MiSSP7 interacts with the host protein PtJAZ6, a negative regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)-induced gene regulation in Populus. As with other characterized JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, PtJAZ6 interacts with PtCOI1 in the presence of the JA mimic coronatine, and PtJAZ6 is degraded in plant tissues after JA treatment. The association between MiSSP7 and PtJAZ6 is able to protect PtJAZ6 from this JA-induced degradation. Furthermore, MiSSP7 is able to block--or mitigate--the impact of JA on L. bicolor colonization of host roots. We show that the loss of MiSSP7 production by L. bicolor can be complemented by transgenically varying the transcription of PtJAZ6 or through inhibition of JA-induced gene regulation. We conclude that L. bicolor, in contrast to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biotrophic pathogens, promotes mutualism by blocking JA action through the interaction of MiSSP7 with PtJAZ6. PMID:24847068

Plett, Jonathan M; Daguerre, Yohann; Wittulsky, Sebastian; Vayssières, Alice; Deveau, Aurelie; Melton, Sarah J; Kohler, Annegret; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Brun, Annick; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Martin, Francis

2014-06-01

199

Interaction of Candida albicans cell wall Als3 protein with Streptococcus gordonii SspB adhesin promotes development of mixed-species communities.  

PubMed

Candida albicans colonizes human mucosa and prosthetic surfaces associated with artificial joints, catheters, and dentures. In the oral cavity, C. albicans coexists with numerous bacterial species, and evidence suggests that bacteria may modulate fungal growth and biofilm formation. Streptococcus gordonii is found on most oral cavity surfaces and interacts with C. albicans to promote hyphal and biofilm formation. In this study, we investigated the role of the hyphal-wall protein Als3p in interactions of C. albicans with S. gordonii. Utilizing an ALS3 deletion mutant strain, it was shown that cells were not affected in initial adherence to the salivary pellicle or in hyphal formation in the planktonic phase. However, the Als3(-) mutant was unable to form biofilms on the salivary pellicle or deposited S. gordonii DL1 wild-type cells, and after initial adherence, als3?/als3? (?ALS3) cells became detached concomitant with hyphal formation. In coaggregation assays, S. gordonii cells attached to, and accumulated around, hyphae formed by C. albicans wild-type cells. However, streptococci failed to attach to hyphae produced by the ?ALS3 mutant. Saccharomyces cerevisiae S150-2B cells expressing Als3p, but not control cells, supported binding of S. gordonii DL1. However, S. gordonii ?(sspA sspB) cells deficient in production of the surface protein adhesins SspA and SspB showed >50% reduced levels of binding to S. cerevisiae expressing Als3p. Lactococcus lactis cells expressing SspB bound avidly to S. cerevisiae expressing Als3p, but not to S150-2B wild-type cells. These results show that recognition of C. albicans by S. gordonii involves Als3 protein-SspB protein interaction, defining a novel mechanism in fungal-bacterial communication. PMID:20805332

Silverman, Richard J; Nobbs, Angela H; Vickerman, M Margaret; Barbour, Michele E; Jenkinson, Howard F

2010-11-01

200

A comparison of isozyme and quantitative genetic variation in Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia by F{sub ST}  

SciTech Connect

We employed F-statistics to analyze quantitative and isozyme variation among five populations of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, a wind-pollinated outcrossing conifer with wide and continuous distribution in west North America. Estimates of population differentiation (F{sub ST}) for six quantitative traits were compared with the overall estimate of the differentiation (F*{sub ST}) from 19 isozymes that tested neutral to examine whether similar evolutionary processes were involved in morphological and isozyme differentiation. While the F{sub ST} estimates for specific gravity, stem diameter, stem height and branch length were significantly greater than the F*{sub ST} estimate, as judged from the 95% confidence intervals by bootstrapping, the F{sub ST} estimates for branch angle and branch diameter were indistinguishable from the F*{sub ST} estimate. Differentiation in stem height and stem diameter might reflect the inherent adaptation of the populations for rapid growth to escape suppression by neighboring plants during establishment and to regional differences in photoperiod, precipitation and temperature. In contrast, divergences in wood specific gravity and branch length might be correlated responses to population differentiation in stem growth. Possible bias in the estimation of F{sub ST} due to Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (F{sub IS} {ne} 0), linkage disequilibrium, maternal effects and nonadditive genetic effects was discussed with special reference to P. contorta ssp. latifolia. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, F.C. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Yanchuk, A.D. [British Columbia Ministry of Forests (Canada)

1996-03-01

201

A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and comparison with the broader species.  

PubMed

Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level. PMID:21253606

Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

2011-01-01

202

In vivo antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum capitulums in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Helichrysum species (Asteraceae) are widely found in Anatolia. Decoction prepared from the capitulums of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum is used to alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. In the present study, the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum was evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats. After the oral administration of water and ethanolic extracts at doses of 500mg/kg body weight prepared from the capitulums of plant, blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals. Tolbutamide was used as a reference drug at a dose of 100mg/kg. The experimental data indicated that water and ethanol extracts of capitulums demonstrate significant antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity in streptozotocin-induced rats which confirmed the folkloric utilization. In order to assess the role of polyphenolic components in the relevant activity, phenolic and flavonoid contents of each extract were also determined in terms of total phenols: 113.5+/-8.6mg (gallic acid equivalent/1g extract) and total flavanoids 50.5+/-1.9mg (quercetin equivalent/1g extract) for ethanol extract, total phenols: 75.9+/-3.7, flavonoids: 31.5+/-2.3 for water extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. PMID:16949229

Aslan, Mustafa; Deliorman Orhan, Didem; Orhan, Nilüfer; Sezik, Ekrem; Yesilada, Erdem

2007-01-01

203

Actinobacillus equuli ssp. haemolyticus in a semi-occlusively treated horse bite wound in a 2-year-old girl.  

PubMed

We report on the isolation of Actinobacillus equuli ssp. haemolyticus from wound smears of a 2-year-old girl who was admitted to the hospital due to partial amputation of the distal phalanx of her right middle finger caused by a horse bite. A. equuli typically causes diseases in horses and only very few reports describing human infections (mostly associated with wounds) are available in the literature. Interestingly, although the bacteria could be found in consecutive samples taken at different points in time, there were no signs of advancing infection or inflammation. Moreover, the fingertip regenerated after 74 days under semi-occlusive dressings with very pleasant results. For strain identification two automated systems were employed producing discrepant results: VITEK 2 described the pathogens as Pasteurella pneumotropica while MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed A. equuli. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA gene finally confirmed A. equuli ssp. haemolyticus as the isolated strain. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to the CLSI criteria for Pasteurella spp. Additionally we conducted a test according to the EUCAST criteria. PMID:24068980

Schröttner, Percy; Schultz, Jurek; Rudolph, Wolfram; Gunzer, Florian; Thürmer, Alexander; Fitze, Guido; Jacobs, Enno

2013-01-01

204

Symbiont nitrogenase, alder growth, and soil nitrate response to phosphorus addition in alder ( Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) wetlands of the Adirondack Mountains, New York State, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speckled alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) is a characteristic species of scrub-shrub 1-type wetlands, the second most common wetland type in major watersheds of the Adirondack Mountains in New York State. Speckled alder is an actinorhizal nitrogen fixer that relies heavily on N2 over soil N and fixes substantial amounts of nitrogen in wetlands, resulting in little vegetation processing of

Kemal Gökkaya; Todd M. Hurd; Dudley J. Raynal

2006-01-01

205

Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties  

PubMed Central

Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:23579100

Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

2013-01-01

206

Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties.  

PubMed

Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:23579100

Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

2013-01-01

207

Fumigant properties of physical preparations from mountain big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. v aseyana (Rydb.) beetle for stored grain insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapors released from foliage of mountain big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle, through a patented process, were hypothesized to have an insecticidal time of action (24h or less after time of exposure) similar to the fumigant methyl bromide. Patented preparations were more effective from plants harvested from a relatively wet site in mid to late summer (5

Florence V. Dunkel; L. Joseph Sears

1998-01-01

208

Additive effects of genotype, nutrient availability and type of tissue damage on the compensatory response of Salix planifolia ssp. planifolia to simulated herbivory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant responses to herbivory include tolerance (i.e. compensatory growth) and defense. Several factors influence the tolerance of a plant following herbivory, including plant genetic identity, site nutrient availability, and previous and\\/or concurrent herbivory. We studied the effects of these factors on the compensatory response of Salix planifolia ssp. planifolia, a shrub species common in the boreal and subarctic regions of

Gilles Houle; Geneviève Simard

1996-01-01

209

Efficacy of a floating sustained release formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis in controlling Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in polluted water habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvicidal efficacy and residual activity of a floating sustained release formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis (Bti) was tested in polluted water habitats against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of bancroftian filariasis, breeding in cesspools and cesspits. A total of 25 habitats having 65 m2 water surface area with C. quinquefasciatus immatures were treated with the formulation at the rate of

K Gunasekaran; G Prabakaran; K Balaraman

2002-01-01

210

Growth and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus in batch and membrane bioreactor: influence of yeast extract and Tryptone enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichment of the medium with yeast extract (20 g.l ) and Tryptone (40 g.l ) increased the growth of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosusand its production of lactic acid in both batch and cell-recycle cultures without affecting glucose consumption and the lactic acid production rate.

A. Olmos-Dichara; F. Ampe; J.-L. Uribelarrea; A. Pareilleux; G. Goma

1997-01-01

211

Genetic diversity among offspring from archived Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar typhimurium (Demerec Collection): in search of survival strategies.  

PubMed

Extensive phenotypic and genomic diversity was detected among offspring of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 (nonmutator) and LT7 (mutator, mutL) strains after decades of storage in sealed nutrient agar stabs. In addition to numerous losses in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, the acquired new metabolites indicated that alternate pathways were established. Particularly striking was the array of phage types when this phenotype was expected to be a stable feature. Evidence is presented regarding the role of mutator gene mutL(-) in the establishment of diversity as well as the ability of cells to return to mutL(+) genetic stabilization. Mutations included deletions, duplications, frameshifts, inversions and transpositions. In competition tests, survivors were more fit than were wild type. Because survival strategies continue to intrigue microbiologists, observations are compared with those of others who have addressed related questions. A brief genealogy of the archived strains is also recorded. PMID:20825350

Eisenstark, Abraham

2010-01-01

212

Vitamin B12 production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii: optimization of medium composition through statistical experimental designs.  

PubMed

A two-step statistical experimental design was employed to optimize the medium for vitamin B(12) production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. In the first step, using Plackett-Burman design, five of 13 tested medium components (calcium pantothenate, NaH(2)PO(4)·2H(2)O, casein hydrolysate, glycerol and FeSO(4)·7H(2)O) were identified as factors having significant influence on vitamin production. In the second step, a central composite design was used to optimize levels of medium components selected in the first step. Valid statistical models describing the influence of significant factors on vitamin B(12) production were established for each optimization phase. The optimized medium provided a 93% increase in final vitamin concentration compared to the original medium. PMID:22178491

Ko?mider, Alicja; Bia?as, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr; Dro?d?y?ska, Agnieszka; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

2012-02-01

213

Role of Ethylene on de Novo Shoot Regeneration from Cotyledonary Explants of Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis (Lour) Olsson in Vitro  

PubMed Central

The promotive effect of AgNO3 and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) on in vitro shoot regeneration from cotyledons of Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis in relation to endogenous 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, ACC, and ethylene production was investigated. AgNO3 enhanced ACC synthase activity and ACC accumulation, which reached a maximum after 3 to 7 days of culture. ACC accumulation was concomitant with increased emanation of ethylene which peaked after 14 days. In contrast, AVG was inhibitory to endogenous ACC synthase activity and reduced ACC and ethylene production. The promotive effect of AVG on shoot regeneration was reversed by 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid at 50 micromolar or higher concentrations, whereas explants grown on AgNO3 medium were less affected by 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid. The distinctive effect of AgNO3 and AVG on endogenous ACC synthase, ACC, and ethylene production and its possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:16668148

Chi, Gek-Lan; Pua, Eng-Chong; Goh, Chong-Jin

1991-01-01

214

Whole Genome Sequence of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, Strain Mexico A, Suggests Recombination between Yaws and Syphilis Strains  

PubMed Central

Background Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA), the causative agent of syphilis, and Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE), the causative agent of yaws, are closely related spirochetes causing diseases with distinct clinical manifestations. The TPA Mexico A strain was isolated in 1953 from male, with primary syphilis, living in Mexico. Attempts to cultivate TPA Mexico A strain under in vitro conditions have revealed lower growth potential compared to other tested TPA strains. Methodology/Principal Findings The complete genome sequence of the TPA Mexico A strain was determined using the Illumina sequencing technique. The genome sequence assembly was verified using the whole genome fingerprinting technique and the final sequence was annotated. The genome size of the Mexico A strain was determined to be 1,140,038 bp with 1,035 predicted ORFs. The Mexico A genome sequence was compared to the whole genome sequences of three TPA (Nichols, SS14 and Chicago) and three TPE (CDC-2, Samoa D and Gauthier) strains. No large rearrangements in the Mexico A genome were found and the identified nucleotide changes occurred most frequently in genes encoding putative virulence factors. Nevertheless, the genome of the Mexico A strain, revealed two genes (TPAMA_0326 (tp92) and TPAMA_0488 (mcp2-1)) which combine TPA- and TPE- specific nucleotide sequences. Both genes were found to be under positive selection within TPA strains and also between TPA and TPE strains. Conclusions/Significance The observed mosaic character of the TPAMA_0326 and TPAMA_0488 loci is likely a result of inter-strain recombination between TPA and TPE strains during simultaneous infection of a single host suggesting horizontal gene transfer between treponemal subspecies. PMID:23029591

P?trošová, Helena; Zobaníková, Marie; ?ejková, Darina; Mikalová, Lenka; Pospíšilová, Petra; Strouhal, Michal; Chen, Lei; Qin, Xiang; Muzny, Donna M.; Weinstock, George M.; Šmajs, David

2012-01-01

215

A new mountain lizard from Montes de León (NW Iberian Peninsula): Iberolacerta monticola astur ssp. nov. (Squamata: Lacertidae).  

PubMed

Iberolacerta populations from the Northern Montes de Leon (NML) were studied by means of external morphology (scalation and biometry), osteology and genetics (mtDNA and microsatellites), searching for their homogeneity ("intrazonalanalysis") and, once verified, comparing them with Iberolacerta monticola s. str. (from Central Cantabrian Mountains)and/. gal ani (from Southern Montes de Leon) ("extrazonal analysis") from neighboring areas.Our "intrazonal analysis" revealed discordances between the different approaches, especially the patterns of variation of nuclear microsatellites (congruent with external morphology) and mtDNA, namely a very low nuclear differentiation between relatively highly differentiated mtDNA lineages. The morphological approach was unable to discriminate any of the populations as significantly different from the others in the NML. Mitochondrial DNA revealed a haplotype lineage closely related to I. galani (MNL-II in our text) in some specimens of Sierra de Villabandfn and Suspiron, but these populations are morphologically indistinguishable from the main part of the other populations that belong to lineage NML-1,phylogenetically closer to/. monticola. After a separation from I. manti cola ca. 1.8 Mya, the populations in this geographic region must have suffered at least two different waves of gene flow from I. gal ani, the second one not much later than 0.5 Mya. Microsatellite results indicate that all the NML populations are genetically similar in terms of their nuclear genomes,independently of their mitochondrial differentiation (NML-I vs. NML-II haplotype groups). Since all the morphological and microsatellite evidences point towards the fact that, independently of the mitochondrial haplotypes that they bear (NML-1 or NML-II), there is only one taxon in the area, we describe it as: Iberolacerta monticola astur ssp. nov.Concerning the relationships of I. m. astur ssp. nov. with I. monticola s. str. and I. gal ani ("extra zonal analysis"), in the female analyses the new taxon centroid is closer to I. monticola s. str. than to I. gal ani (more similarity with I manticolas.str.), whereas in the male analyses the relationship is just the contrary (closer to I. gal ani, paralleling the direction of the hypothesized past hybridization). Moreover, in both sexes' ANOVA, I. m. astur ssp. nov. results more similar (lessP<0.05 differences) to I. galani than to I. monticola s. str. Osteologically, I. m. astur ssp. nov. is slightly more similar toI. monticola s. str. than to I. galani, especially in the squamosal bone, which is regularly arched (primitive shape). Genetically,as indicated above, the NML populations can be subdivided in two groups according to their mitochondrial DNA,namely NML-I (bearing clearly differentiated haplotypes, phylogenetically closer to I. monticola) and NML-II (whose haplotypes could have been mistaken for those of an I. gal ani population). This mitochondrial subdivision has at most a subtle nuclear correlate, however. According to the nuclear microsatellite markers, all the NML populations belong to a single group(/. m. astur ssp. nov.), which would be more similar to I. gal ani than to I monticola, with NML-II populations lying closer to I. galani than those from the NML-I group and, correspondingly, more distant from I. monticola. The discordant phylogenetic signal of mitochondrial and nuclear markers is discussed in terms of past introgression events and sex-biases in phylopatry and dispersion in these species. Iberolacerta manti cola astur ssp. nov., inhabits the Northern Montes de Leon (Sierra de Gistreo sensu latissimo ): Gistredo,Catoute, Tambaron, Nevadfn, Villabandfn (or Macizo del Alto de Ia Canada), Arcos del Agua (or Fernan Perez),Tiendas and Suspiron, mainly in quartzite and slate rock substrates. Its current distribution, cornered in the NW of theNorthern part of the Montes de Leon, suggests a possible competitive exclusion between this taxon and/. galani, as the galani haplotypes (NML-II) appear cornered in the most harsh

Arribas, Oscar J; Galán, Pedro; Remón, Núria; Naveira, Horacio

2014-01-01

216

N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine-containing arabinogalactan proteins control somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plants, complete embryos can develop not only from the zygote, but also from somatic cells in tissue culture. How somatic cells undergo the change in fate to become embryogenic is largely unknown. Proteins, secreted into the culture medium such as endochitinases and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are required for somatic embryogenesis. Here we show that carrot (Daucus carota) AGPs can

Hengel van A. J; Zewdie Tadesse; Peter Immerzeel; Henk Schols; Ab van Kammen; Vries de S. C

2001-01-01

217

Association of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' with the Psyllid, Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Europe  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) is a serious pest of carrots (Daucus carota L.) in northern and central Europe. Carrots exhibiting symptoms of psyllid damage were observed in commercial fields in southern Finland in 2008. Symptoms in affected plants included leaf curling, yellow and purple ...

218

First Report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in Carrots in Europe  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot (Daucus carota) plants exhibiting symptoms that resembled those of carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) damage were observed in commercial fields in southern Finland in August 2008. Carrot psyllid is a serious pest of carrots in northern and central Europe, where it can cause up to 100% yield los...

219

Molecular detection of aster yellows phytoplasma and 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrots affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: triozidae) in Finland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) causes considerable damage to carrot (Daucus carota L.) in many parts of Europe. It was recently established that the new bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” is associated with carrot psyllid and plants affected by this insect pest. No other path...

220

Pinwheel inclusions in morphogenesis: A possible alternative to induction by viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Pinwheel inclusions (PWs) were found in cells of callus tissue derived from explants of secondary phloem parenchyma of carrot(Daucus carota) storage root and grown on a basal medium containing zeatin and indoleacetic acid or coconut milk, naphthalene acetic acid, or combinations of these. Preliminary attempts to demonstrate the presence of viruses in the callus tissue failed. The possibility that

H. J. Wilson; R. M. Goodman; H. W. Israel

1976-01-01

221

Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons in Rhizosphere Soil of Different Plants: Effect of Soil Properties, Plant Species, and Intensity of Anthropogenic Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to determine the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the rhizospheres of some selected plant species (Cucumis dativus, Daucus carota, Allium cepa, Cueurbita, Petroselinum sativum, Cucurbitaceae, Phaseolus vulgaris, Beta vulgaris, Apium graveolens, Allium porrum, Vicia faba). Various anthropogenic influences on the PAH content in the rhizospheres of the three species selected were

Patryk Oleszczuk; Stanis?aw Baran

2007-01-01

222

Distinct Patterns of Expression But Similar Biochemical Properties of Protein L-Isoaspartyl Methyltransferase in  

E-print Network

found that osmotic or salt stress could increase the methyltrans- ferase activity in newly germinated that this activity is expressed in developing corn (Zea mays) and carrot (Daucus carota var. Danvers Half Long of these plants, relatively high levels of activity in vegetative tissues are only found in corn and carrot

Clarke, Steven

223

Seed Protein Bodies from Several Members of the Family Umbelliferae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein bodies of the seeds of the family Umbelliferae have not been studied extensively since late in the nineteenth century. Using a variety of recent technology and methodology certain aspects of the protein bodies of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv imperator 408), caraway (Carum carvi L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), celery (Apium graveolens L. cv tall

Ernest Spitzer

1981-01-01

224

ORIGINAL ARTICLE David M. Ribnicky Jerry D. Cohen Wei-Shou Hu  

E-print Network

during early embryogenesis, with the consequence that somatic cells in young animal embryos acquire with the initial stages of zygotic embryogenesis in carrots. The concentration of free IAA increases from a basal is a critical mechanism for regulating carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Danvers 126) embryogenesis and other

Cooke, Todd J.

225

Polyamines and Ethylene: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Interactions, HE Flores, RN Arteca, JC Shannon, eds, Copyright 1990, American Society of Plant Physiologists  

E-print Network

in Relation to Somatic Embryogenesis in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Cell Cultures Subhash C. Minocha, Cheryl A accompanying somatic embryogenesis in this tissue is an increased biosynthesis ofpolyamines (1, 2, 7, 10, 11 of polyamines in somatic embryogenesis. A summary of our work on the effects of DFMO, DFMA, MGBG and CHAP

226

A clonal analysis of anthocyanin accumulation by cell cultures of wild carrot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of anthocyanin by clones and subclones from a cell suspension culture of wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) has been measured under standard conditions. Clones which accumulate low amounts of anthocyanin were shown, by recloning after maintenance by serial passage, to have become heterogenous and to contain cells with increased accumulation of anthocyanin. There appears to be a maximum

Donald K. Dougall; J. Morris Johnson; George H. Whitten

1980-01-01

227

Effect of biologically active plants used as netst material and the derived benefit to starling nestlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European starling Sturnus vulgaris preferentially incorporates fresh sprigs of particular plant species for use as nesting material. Chemicals found in these plants may act to reduce pathogen and ectoparasite populations normally found in nest environments. The present experiments were performed to test this Nest Protection Hypothesis. In the fild, we experimentally determined that wild carrot Daucus carota, a plant

Larry Clark; J. Russell Mason

1988-01-01

228

Fatty acid composition of lipids from the vacuolar membranes of the roots of root vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid (FA) composition of vacuolar membrane lipids from the storage tissues of parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.), and carrot (Daucus carota L.) was studied by gasliquid chromatography, and possible pathways of the biosynthesis of these acids are considered. A high\\u000a level of unsaturated FAs (up to 78% of the total FA amount) was characteristic of

S. P. Makarenko; T. A. Konenkina; S. V. Khotimchenko

2007-01-01

229

SplinkBES - A Splinkerette-Based Method for Generating Long End Sequences From Large Insert DNA Libraries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report on the development of a novel splinkerette-based method for generating long end-sequences from large insert library clones, using a carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library as a model. The procedure involves digestion of the BAC DNA with a 6-bp restriction enzyme, followed by ligation of spli...

230

First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Sweden  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those of the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” damage were observed in 70% of commercial fields in southern Sweden in August 2011; all cultivars grown were affected, at about 1 to 45% symptomatic plants pe...

231

Nitrogen and carbohydrate storage in biennials originating from habitats of different resource availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four biennial species (Arctium tomentosum, Cirsium vulgare, Dipsacus sylvester and Daucus carota) which originate from habitats of different nutrient availability were investigated in a 2-year experiment in a twofactorial structured block design varying light (natural daylight versus shading) and fertilizer addition. The experiment was designed to study storage as reserve formation (competing with growth) or as accumulation (see Chapin et

T. Steinlein; H. Heilmeier; E.-D. Schulze

1993-01-01

232

Yield, vitamin and mineral contents of organically and conventionally grown carrots and cabbage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was conducted for 3 years in different plot areas of a Pugwash sandy loam near Truro, N.S. Five replicates of two treatments (organic and conventional) were established annually for carrots (Daucus carota L. cv. ‘Cellobunch’) and cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var capitata cv. ‘Lennox’). The addition of pesticides, lime and NPK fertilizer to the conventional plots followed soil test

P. R. Warman; K. A. Havard

1997-01-01

233

INFLUÊNCIA DA DESIDRATAÇÃO NA RECUPERAÇÃO DA FIRMEZA E NA BROTAÇÃO EM CENOURA(1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Raízes de cenoura Daucus Carota L. Brasília recém-colhidas foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de desidratação com emprego de ventilação forçada a 25 ± 2 °C. Sob teores relativos de água inferiores a0 ,95 af irmeza dependente da pressão celular, medida com at écnica da aplanação, ficou reduzida a praticamente zero, ao passo que as raízes do tratamento controle tiveram

ADONAI GIMENEZ CALBO

234

Short communication: Genotypic and phenotypic identification of environmental streptococci and association of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis with intramammary infections among different dairy farms.  

PubMed

Lactococcus species are counted among a large and closely related group of environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria that include bovine mastitis pathogenic Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Aerococcus species. Phenotypic and biochemical identification methods can be inaccurate and unreliable for species within this group, particularly for Lactococcus spp. As a result, the incidence of Lactococcus spp. on the farm may have been historically underreported and consequently little is known about the clinical importance of this genus as a mastitis pathogen. We used molecular genetic identification methods to accurately differentiate 60 environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria isolated from cows with high somatic cell count and chronic intramammary infection (IMI; >2 somatic cell scores above 4) among 5 geographically distinct farms in New York and Minnesota that exhibited an observed increase in IMI. These isolates were phenotypically identified as Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus spp. Genetic methods identified 42 isolates (70%) as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, including all 10 isolates originally phenotypically identified as Streptococcus uberis. Antibiotic inhibition testing of all Lc. lactis ssp. lactis showed that 7 isolates were resistant to tetracycline. In the present study, a predominance of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis was identified in association with chronic, clinical bovine IMI among all 5 farms and characterized antimicrobial resistance for treatment therapies. Routine use by mastitis testing labs of molecular identification methods for environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria can further define the role and prevalence of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis in association with bovine IMI and may lead to more targeted therapies. PMID:25242419

Werner, B; Moroni, P; Gioia, G; Lavín-Alconero, L; Yousaf, A; Charter, M E; Carter, B Moslock; Bennett, J; Nydam, D V; Welcome, F; Schukken, Y H

2014-11-01

235

Genetic and phenotypic parameters for dietary selection of mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb) Beetle) in Rambouillet sheep1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heritability of diet selection for mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb) Beetle) by grazing sheep was esti- mated from fecal samples collected from 549 Rambouil- let ewes. Fecal samples were collected in September and October during 1996 and 1997 from free-grazing ewes on intermountain sagebrush-bunchgrass range- lands at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station in Idaho. The

G. D. Snowder; J. W. Walker; K. L. Launchbaugh; L. D. Van Vleck

236

Mapping and cloning of FAD2 gene to develop allele-specific PCR for oleic acid in spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously identified QTL for oleic acid content observed in an F2 population from the Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera cross Jo4002 × Jo4072 (a high-oleic-acid individual) was mapped more precisely by adding markers to the linkage group which harbours the locus. In addition, the fad2 gene, which is known to encode the 18:1 desaturase in Arabidopsis, was mapped in Brassica,

Pirjo Tanhuanpää; Juha Vilkki; Mauno Vihinen

1998-01-01

237

Comparison of chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of Mentha longifolia L. ssp. longifolia essential oil from two Tunisian localities (Gabes and Sidi Bouzid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conceived to evaluate the difference in the chemical composition of the essential oil ofMentha longifolia ssp.longifolia from two ecotypes (Sidi Bouzid and Gabes) as well as the difference of the composition of the oils extracted from the leaves\\u000a and stems. The antimicrobial activity was also tested against 16 human pathogenic microorganisms. The chemical composition\\u000a of the hydrodistilled

Hafedh Hajlaoui; Mejdi Snoussi; Hichem Ben Jannet; Zine Mighri; Amina Bakhrouf

2008-01-01

238

Developmental regulation of aldoxime formation in seedlings and mature plants of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis ) and oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ): Glucosinolate and IAA biosynthetic enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first steps in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis) involve the formation of aldoximes. In rape the formation of aldoximes from chain-extended amino acids, for aromatic and aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, is catalysed by microsomal flavin-containing monooxygenases. The formation of indole-3-aldoxime from l-tryptophan, the potential

Richard Bennett; Jutta Ludwig-Muller; Guy Kiddle; Willy Hilgenberg; Roger Wallsgrove

1995-01-01

239

Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)  

PubMed Central

Background Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide, which has experienced thousands of years in cultivation and artificial selection. The entire Chinese cabbage genome sequence, and more than forty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. The genome has undergone triplication events since its divergence from Arabidopsis thaliana (13 to 17 Mya), however a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between the two species. Arabidopsis is therefore a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Variation in the number of members in gene families due to genome triplication may contribute to the broad range of phenotypic plasticity, and increased tolerance to environmental extremes observed in Brassica species. Transcription factors are important regulators involved in plant developmental and physiological processes. The AP2/ERF proteins, one of the most important families of transcriptional regulators, play a crucial role in plant growth, and in response to biotic and abiotic stressors. Our analysis will provide resources for understanding the tolerance mechanisms in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis. Results In the present study, 291 putative AP2/ERF transcription factor proteins were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database, and compared with proteins from 15 additional species. The Chinese cabbage AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into four families, including AP2, ERF, RAV, and Soloist. The ERF family was further divided into DREB and ERF subfamilies. The AP2/ERF superfamily was subsequently divided into 15 groups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns, and interaction networks of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily were predicted and analyzed. Distribution mapping results showed AP2/ERF superfamily genes were localized on the 10 Chinese cabbage chromosomes. AP2/ERF transcription factor expression levels exhibited differences among six tissue types based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs). In the AP2/ERF superfamily, 214 orthologous genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. Orthologous gene interaction networks were constructed, and included seven CBF and four AP2 genes, primarily involved in cold regulatory pathways and ovule development, respectively. Conclusions The evolution of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage resulted from genome triplication and tandem duplications. A comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of AP2/ERF superfamily genes in Chinese cabbage is required to fully elucidate AP2/ERF, which provides us with rich resources and opportunities to understand crop stress tolerance mechanisms. PMID:23972083

2013-01-01

240

Structure of an SspH1-PKN1 Complex Reveals the Basis for Host Substrate Recognition and Mechanism of Activation for a Bacterial E3 Ubiquitin Ligase  

PubMed Central

IpaH proteins are bacterium-specific E3 enzymes that function as type three secretion system (T3SS) effectors in Salmonella, Shigella, and other Gram-negative bacteria. IpaH enzymes recruit host substrates for ubiquitination via a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, which can inhibit the catalytic domain in the absence of substrate. The basis for substrate recognition and the alleviation of autoinhibition upon substrate binding is unknown. Here, we report the X-ray structure of Salmonella SspH1 in complex with human PKN1. The LRR domain of SspH1 interacts specifically with the HR1b coiled-coil subdomain of PKN1 in a manner that sterically displaces the catalytic domain from the LRR domain, thereby activating catalytic function. SspH1 catalyzes the ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of PKN1 in cells, which attenuates androgen receptor responsiveness but not NF-?B activity. These regulatory features are conserved in other IpaH-substrate interactions. Our results explain the mechanism whereby substrate recognition and enzyme autoregulation are coupled in this class of bacterial ubiquitin ligases. PMID:24248594

Keszei, Alexander F. A.; Tang, Xiaojing; McCormick, Craig; Zeqiraj, Elton; Rohde, John R.

2014-01-01

241

Differential pathogenicity and genetic diversity among Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum isolates from monocot and dicot hosts support early genomic divergence within this taxon.  

PubMed

The capability of Pectobacterium carotovorum isolates to infect monocotyledonous plants has been previously reported; however, no full consideration was given to characterize the association between such isolates and their monocot hosts. To assess differences in aggressiveness among P. carotovorum ssp. carotovorum isolates originating from monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous plants, we used as model plants two susceptible monocot hosts, the ornamentals Zantedeschia aethiopica and Ornithogalum dubium, as well as two common dicot hosts, Solanum tuberosum and Brassica oleracea. Using virulence assays and different genetic analyses we characterized P. carotovorum ssp. carotovorum isolates from diverse geographical locations which originated from plants belonging to four unrelated orders of monocots and five orders of dicots. Invariably, isolates originating from monocots exhibited higher virulence towards the tested monocot plants than dicot isolates, independently of their geographical source. Moreover, monocot and dicot isolates were clearly differentiated by various genetic analyses, such as 16S rRNA sequence clustering, intergenic transcribed spacer-PCR (ITS-PCR) banding pattern and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). We propose that the observed relationship between pathogenicity and genetic diversity among P. carotovorum ssp. carotovorum isolates reveals a co-evolutionary specialization trend in the interaction between this pathogen and its hosts. PMID:18681897

Yishay, Moran; Burdman, Saul; Valverde, Angel; Luzzatto, Tal; Ophir, Ron; Yedidia, Iris

2008-10-01

242

The spatial structure of sexual and cytonuclear polymorphism in the gynodioecious Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima: I/ at a local scale.  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed the spatial distribution of the sex phenotypes and of mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear markers within two gynodioecious populations of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima. Within both populations, sexual phenotype variation is controlled mainly by the cytoplasmic genotype, although in one study population a joint polymorphism of cytonuclear factors is clearly involved. In spite of contrasts in the ecology (mainly due to different habitats), a clear common feature in both populations is the highly patchy distribution of cytoplasmic haplotypes, contrasting with the wide distribution of nuclear diversity. This high contrast between cytoplasmic vs. nuclear spatial structure may have important consequences for the maintenance of gynodioecy. It provides opportunities for differential selection since nuclear restorer alleles are expected to be selected for in the presence of their specific cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) type, but to be neutral (or selected against if there is a cost of restoration) in the absence of their CMS type. Selective processes in such a cytonuclear landscape may explain the polymorphism we observed at restorer loci for two CMS types. PMID:11290724

Laporte, V; Viard, F; Bena, G; Valero, M; Cuguen, J

2001-01-01

243

Antiviral potency of mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. album) extracts against human parainfluenza virus type 2 in Vero cells.  

PubMed

Various extracts from the leaves of mistletoe (Viscum album L. ssp. album) were investigated for their antiviral activity on human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV-2) growth in Vero cells. Plant extracts were prepared using distilled water, 50% ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and acetone. The 50% effective dose (ED(50)) of aqueous extract for HPIV-2 replication was 0.53 +/- 0.12 micro g/mL, and the antiviral index (AI), which was based on the ratio of the 50% inhibitory concentration (CD(50)) for host cell viability to the ED(50) for parainfluenza virus replication, was 10.05. The aqueous extract was found to be the most selective inhibitor. Furthermore, the aqueous extract at a concentration of 1 micro g/mL was found to inhibit HPIV-2 replication and the virus production was suppressed to more than 99% without any toxic effect on host cells. The chloroform extract was also found to be moderately active. In an effort to further analyse the mechanism of antiviral activity, the effectiveness of the aqueous extract on different steps of virus replication was examined. The antiviral activity could neither be attributed to the direct inactivation of the HPIV-2 nor to the inhibition of adsorption to Vero cells. The active aqueous extract has shown a dose-dependent antiviral activity on virus replication. PMID:12749000

Karagöz, Ali; Onay, Evren; Arda, Nazli; Kuru, Avni

2003-05-01

244

Sphenostylisins A-K, Bioactive Modified Isoflavonoid Constituents of the Root Bark of Sphenostylis marginata ssp. erecta  

PubMed Central

Sphenostylisins A–C (1–3), three complex dimeric compounds representing two novel carbon skeletons, along with an additional eight new compounds, sphenostylisins D–K (4–11), were isolated from the active chloroform-soluble extract of the root bark of S. marginata ssp. erecta using a bioactivity-guided isolation approach. The structures were elucidated by means of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including NMR and HRESIMS analysis, with tandem MS fragmentation utilized to further support the structures of 1–3. The absolute configuration of sphenostylisin C (3) was established by electronic circular dichroism analysis. Plausible biogenetic relationships between the modified isoflavonoids 1–11 are proposed, with a cyclization reaction of 9 conducted to support one of the biogenetic proposals made. All these pure isolates were evaluated against a panel of in vitro bioassays, and, among the results obtained, sphenostylisin A (1) was found to be a very potent NF-?B inhibitor (IC50 6 nM). PMID:24044416

Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Deng, Ye; Muñoz-Acuña, Ulyana; Yuan, Chunhua; Lai, Hongshan; Chai, Heebyung; Chagwedera, Tangai E.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.; Li, Chenglong; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

2013-01-01

245

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in Turkey.  

PubMed

The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the dried leaves and flowers of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas were separately identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. The main components were alpha-fenchone (41.9 +/- 1.2%), 1,8-cineole (15.6 +/- 0.8%), camphor (12.1 +/- 0.5%), and viridiflorol (4.1 +/- 0.4%) in the leaves; and alpha-fenchone (39.2 +/- 0.9%), myrtenyl acetate (9.5 +/- 0.4%), alpha-pinene (6.1 +/- 0.09%), camphor (5.9 +/- 0.05%) and 1,8-cineole (3.8 +/- 0.1%) in the flowers. Overall, 55 and 66 constituents were identified in the leaf and flower essential oils representing more than 90% and 94% of the total, respectively. In addition, the essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial and anticandidal activities by broth microdilution. The flower essential oil was found to be relatively more active than the leaf oil towards the tested pathogenic microorganisms. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to the flower oil (MIC = 31.2 microg/mL). The oils, evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity using a TLC-DPPH assay, were inactive at a concentration of 2 mg/mL. PMID:19731612

Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Demirci, Betül; Ye?ilada, Erdem; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

2009-07-01

246

Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin genes (AQPs) in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).  

PubMed

Aquaporins (AQPs) are members of a superfamily of integral membrane proteins and play a significant role in the transportation of small molecules across membranes. However, currently little is known about the AQP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, a genome-wide analysis was carried out to identify the AQP genes in Chinese cabbage. In total, 53 non-redundant AQP genes were identified that were located on all of the 10 chromosomes. The number of AQP genes in Chinese cabbage was greater than in Arabidopsis. They were classified into four subfamilies, including PIP, TIP, NIP, and SIP. Thirty-three groups of AQP orthologous genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, but orthologs corresponding to AtNIP1;1 and AtPIP2;8 were not detected. Seventeen groups of paralogous genes were identified in Chinese cabbage. Three-dimensional models of the AQPs of Chinese cabbage were constructed using Phyre2, and ar/R selectivity filters were analyzed comparatively between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. Generally, gene structure was conserved within each subfamily, especially in the SIP subfamily. Intron loss events have occurred during the evolution of the PIP, TIP, and NIP subfamilies. The expression of AQP genes in Chinese cabbage was analyzed in different organs. Most AQP genes were downregulated in response to salt stress. This work shows that the AQP genes of Chinese cabbage have undergone triplication and subsequent biased gene loss. PMID:24972664

Tao, Peng; Zhong, Xinmin; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Wuhong; Yue, Zhichen; Lei, Juanli; Guo, Weiling; Huang, Xiaoyun

2014-12-01

247

Phenotype definition is a main point in genome-wide association studies for bovine Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection status.  

PubMed

Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes economic losses and is present in dairy herds worldwide. Different studies used different diagnostic tests to detect infection status and are the basis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies with inconsistent results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and compare genomic regions associated with MAP susceptibility in the same cohort of cattle using different diagnostic tests. The GWA study was performed in German Holsteins within a case-control assay using 305 cows tested for MAP by fecal culture and additional with four different commercial ELISA-tests. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip. The results using fecal culture or ELISA test led to the identification of different genetic loci. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed significant association with the ELISA-status. However, no significant association for MAP infection could be confirmed. Our results show that the definition of the MAP-phenotype has an important impact on the outcome of GWA studies for paratuberculosis. PMID:25231280

Küpper, J; Brandt, H; Donat, K; Erhardt, G

2014-10-01

248

Lipidation of the FPI protein IglE contributes to Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida intramacrophage replication and virulence.  

PubMed

Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for the human disease tularemia. The Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) encodes a secretion system related to type VI secretion systems (T6SS) which allows F. tularensis to escape the phagosome and replicate within the cytosol of infected macrophages and ultimately cause disease. A lipoprotein is typically found encoded within T6SS gene clusters and is believed to anchor portions of the secretion apparatus to the outer membrane. We show that the FPI protein IglE is a lipoprotein that incorporates (3)H-palmitate and localizes to the outer membrane. A C22G IglE mutant failed to be lipidated and failed to localize to the outer membrane, consistent with C22 being the site of lipidation. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida expressing IglE C22G is defective for replication in macrophages and unable to cause disease in mice. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that IglE interacts with the C-terminal portion of the FPI inner membrane protein PdpB, and PhoA fusion analysis indicated the PdpB C-terminus is located within the periplasm. We predict this interaction facilitates channel formation to allow secretion through this system. PMID:24616435

Nguyen, Jesse Q; Gilley, Ryan P; Zogaj, Xhavit; Rodriguez, Stephen A; Klose, Karl E

2014-10-01

249

Arzanol, an anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV-1 phloroglucinol alpha-Pyrone from Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum.  

PubMed

An acetone extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum afforded the phloroglucinol alpha-pyrone arzanol (1a) as a potent NF-kappaB inhibitor. Arzanol is identical with homoarenol (2a), whose structure should be revised. The phloroglucinol-type structure of arzanol and the 1,2,4-trihydroxyphenyl-type structure of the base-induced fragmentation product of homoarenol could be reconciled in light of a retro-Fries-type fragmentation that triggers a change of the hydroxylation pattern of the aromatic moiety. On the basis of these findings, the structure of arenol, the major constituent of the clinically useful antibiotic arenarin, should be revised from 2b to 1b, solving a long-standing puzzle over its biogenetic derivation. An alpha-pyrone (micropyrone, 7), the monoterpene rac-E-omega-oleoyloxylinalol (10), four known tremetones (9a-d), and the dimeric pyrone helipyrone (8) were also obtained. Arzanol inhibited HIV-1 replication in T cells and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated primary monocytes, qualifying as a novel plant-derived anti-inflammatory and antiviral chemotype worth further investigation. PMID:17315926

Appendino, Giovanni; Ottino, Michela; Marquez, Nieves; Bianchi, Federica; Giana, Anna; Ballero, Mauro; Sterner, Olov; Fiebich, Bernd L; Munoz, Eduardo

2007-04-01

250

Susceptibility to antibiotics of Vibrio spp. and Photobacterium damsela ssp. piscicida strains isolated from Italian aquaculture farms.  

PubMed

The antibiotic resistance patterns of aetiological agents responsible for vibriosis and pasteurellosis were studied to contribute to control the spread of these two bacterial diseases in Mediterranean fish farming. Strains of Photobacterium damsela ssp. piscicida, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio metschnikovii, isolated from Italian aquaculture (fish, shellfish and crustaceans) sites, were assayed for their susceptibility to some antibacterial agents currently used in farming practices. Kirby Bauer and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (M.I.C.) tests were performed. The bacterial strains showed resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, kanamycin, cefalothin, while they were sensitive to chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin and tobramycin; the sulfadiazine-trimethoprim association was completely ineffective. Conversely, flumequine showed the lowest M.I.C. value (0.97 ?g mL-1), suggesting its marked antibiotic effect. Considering that quinolone resistance can be transmitted only by selection of mutations and not by other genetic mechanisms, this study stresses the importance of a more responsible use of this antibacterial drug in aquaculture. PMID:21344147

Laganà, Pasqualina; Caruso, Gabriella; Minutoli, Eleonora; Zaccone, Renata; Santi, Delia

2011-01-01

251

Using Small-Scale Studies to Prioritize Threats and Guide Recovery of a Rare Hemiparasitic Plant: Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis  

PubMed Central

Background Recovering endangered species would benefit from identifying and ranking of the factors that threaten them. Simply managing for multiple positive influences will often aid in recovery; however, the relative impacts of multiple threats and/or interactions among them are not always predictable. We used a series of experiments and quantitative observational studies to examine the importance of five potential limiting factors to the abundance of a state-listed endangered hemiparasitic annual forb, Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis (C.r.l., California, USA): host availability, mammalian herbivores, insect seed predators, fire suppression, and exotic species. While this initial assessment is certainly not a complete list, these factors stem from direct observation and can inform provisional recommendations for management and further research. Methodology and Principal Findings Studies were conducted at five sites and included assessments of the influence of host availability, exotic species, exclusion of mammalian herbivores and insect seed predators on C.r.l. productivity, and simulated effects of fire on seed germination. C.r.l. was limited by multiple threats: individuals with access to host species produced up to three times more inflorescences than those lacking hosts, mammalian herbivory reduced C.r.l. size and fecundity by more than 50% and moth larvae reduced seed production by up to 40%. Litter deposition and competition from exotic plant species also appears to work in conjunction with other factors to limit C.r.l. throughout its life cycle. Conclusions and Significance The work reported here highlights the contribution that a series of small-scale studies can make to conservation and restoration. Taken as a whole, the results can be used immediately to inform current management and species recovery strategies. Recovery of C.r.l. will require management that addresses competition with exotic plant species, herbivore pressure, and availability of preferred host species. PMID:20126657

Watts, Sean M.; Uhl, Melissa M.; Maurano, Stephen P.; Nuccio, Erin E.

2010-01-01

252

Comparison of nitrogen solute concentrations within alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) and non-alder dominated wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined differences in nitrogen solutes and groundwater flow patterns between a riparian wetland dominated by the N2-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa, and an upstream coniferous forested riparian wetland along a stream of the Adirondack Mountains, where some surface waters are susceptible to nitrogen excess. Channel water NO3- was up to 16 ?mol l-1 greater in the alder reach, with peaks following maxima in groundwater dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). NO3- at 25 cm depth was 30 ?mol greater in the alder than in the conifer reach in April, and 24 ?mol l-1 greater than channel water and 30 ?mol l-1 greater than that of 125 cm groundwater in June. Dissolved organic nitrogen and NH4+ concentrations increased between 25 and 75 cm depths in both wetlands during the growing season. Inorganic nitrogen increased between the hillslope and stream in both wetlands, with the greatest increases in the alder reach during the dormant season. Greatest subsurface DIN (120 ?mol l-1) occurred at 75 cm in the alder reach, within 1 m of the stream, between November (120 ?mol l-1 NH4+) and a January thaw (60 ?mol l-1 each of NH4+ and NO3-). Concentrations of deeper groundwater at 125 cm during this period were lower (10-30 ?mol l-1). Lateral flow from the stream channel occurred in the alder reach during the dormant season, and channel water contribution to groundwater was correlated strongly to NO3- at 25 cm. These results indicate that nitrification is stimulated in the presence of alders and oxidized exchange flow, producing NO3- that may contribute to elevated channel water NO3- during periods of peak flow.

Hurd, Todd M.; Raynal, Dudley J.

2004-10-01

253

Abundance of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in Adirondack Mountain shrub wetlands and its influence on inorganic nitrogen.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to determine the abundance of the nitrogen-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (speckled alder), in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State and to determine whether its abundance affects the concentration or accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in wetland substrates. Alder/willow wetlands are the second most common wetland type in the Adirondack region. The Adirondack Park Agency's digital GIS database of wetland types was used to determine the areal extent of alder/willow wetlands in the Adirondacks. Randomly selected wetlands were sampled to determine the size and abundance of alder. Alder densities averaged approximately 7000 stems ha(-1) and alder was present in 75% of the wetlands. As an indication of short-term accumulation of NO(3-) and NH4(+) in wetland substrates, ion exchange resins were used to sample ground water in high and low alder density wetlands as well as from wetlands lacking alder and dominated by conifers. Additionally, NO(3-) and NH(4+) concentrations in ground water samples were measured. NH(4+) accumulation levels from exchange resins were low for all wetland types while groundwater NH(4+) concentration was highest in the low-density alder sites. Wetlands with high alder density had approximately six times higher NO(3-) accumulation than other wetlands. Substrate groundwater NO(3-) concentrations in wetlands of high-density alder exceeded by three times levels in low or no alder wetlands, showing the importance of alder to local N budgets. To assess the recovery of shrub wetlands from acidification, future studies should determine the fate of fixed N in wetland systems. PMID:12667762

Kiernan, B D; Hurd, T M; Raynal, D J

2003-01-01

254

Step-by-step evolution of neo-sex chromosomes in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.  

PubMed Central

Geographical subspecies of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), differ considerably in sex chromosome constitution owing to sex chromosome fusions with autosomes, which leads to variation in chromosome numbers. We cloned S. cynthia orthologues of 16 Bombyx mori genes and mapped them to chromosome spreads of S. cynthia subspecies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine the origin of S. cynthia neo-sex chromosomes. FISH mapping revealed that the Z chromosome and chromosome 12 of B. mori correspond to the Z chromosome and an autosome (A1) of S. c. ricini (Vietnam population, 2n=27, Z0 in female moths), respectively. B. mori chromosome 11 corresponds partly to another autosome (A2) and partly to a chromosome carrying nucleolar organizer region (NOR) of this subspecies. The NOR chromosome of S. c. ricini is also partly homologous to B. mori chromosome 24. Furthermore, our results revealed that two A1 homologues each fused with the W and Z chromosomes in a common ancestor of both Japanese subspecies S. c. walkeri (Sapporo population, 2n=26, neo-Wneo-Z) and S. cynthia subsp. indet. (Nagano population, 2n=25, neo-WZ1Z2). One homologue, corresponding to the A2 autosome in S. c. ricini and S. c. walkeri, fused with the W chromosome in S. cynthia subsp. indet. Consequently, the other homologue became a Z2 chromosome. These results clearly showed a step-by-step evolution of the neo-sex chromosomes by repeated autosome–sex chromosome fusions. We suggest that the rearrangements of sex chromosomes may facilitate divergence of S. cynthia subspecies towards speciation. PMID:20668432

Yoshido, A; Sahara, K; Marec, F; Matsuda, Y

2011-01-01

255

The upward shift in altitude of pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) in Switzerland—the result of climate warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) is common in natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in the alpine Rhone Valley, Switzerland. This semi-parasite, which is regarded as an indicator species for temperature, increases the drought stress on trees and may contribute to the observed pine decline in the region. We recorded mistletoes on representative plots of the Swiss National Forest Inventory ranging from 450 to 1,550 m a.s.l. We found mistletoe on 37% of the trees and on 56% of all plots. Trees infested with mistletoe had a significantly higher mortality rate than non-infested trees. We compared the current mistletoe occurrence with records from a survey in 1910. The current upper limit, 1,250 m, is roughly 200 m above the limit of 1,000-1,100 m found in the earlier survey 100 years ago. Applying a spatial model to meteorological data we obtained monthly mean temperatures for all sites. In a logistic regression mean winter temperature, pine proportion and geographic exposition significantly explained mistletoe occurrence. Using mean monthly January and July temperatures for 1961-1990, we calculated Skre's plant respiration equivalent (RE) and regressed it against elevation to obtain the RE value at the current mistletoe elevation limit. We used this RE value and temperature from 1870-1899 in the regression and found the past elevation limit to be at 1,060 m, agreeing with the 1910 survey. For the predicted temperature rise by 2030, the limit for mistletoe would increase above 1,600 m altitude.

Dobbertin, Matthias; Hilker, Nadine; Rebetez, Martine; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Rigling, Andreas

2005-09-01

256

The evolutionary history and diagnostic utility of the CRISPR-Cas system within Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary studies of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (cas) genes can provide insights into host-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics and the frequency at which different genomic events (e.g., horizontal vs. vertical transmission) occur. Within this study, we used whole genome sequence (WGS) data to determine the evolutionary history and genetic diversity of CRISPR loci and cas genes among a diverse set of 427 Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica isolates representing 64 different serovars. We also evaluated the performance of CRISPR loci for typing when compared to whole genome and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approaches. We found that there was high diversity in array length within both CRISPR1 (median = 22; min = 3; max = 79) and CRISPR2 (median = 27; min = 2; max = 221). There was also much diversity within serovars (e.g., arrays differed by as many as 50 repeat-spacer units among Salmonella ser. Senftenberg isolates). Interestingly, we found that there are two general cas gene profiles that do not track phylogenetic relationships, which suggests that non-vertical transmission events have occurred frequently throughout the evolutionary history of the sampled isolates. There is also considerable variation among the ranges of pairwise distances estimated within each cas gene, which may be indicative of the strength of natural selection acting on those genes. We developed a novel clustering approach based on CRISPR spacer content, but found that typing based on CRISPRs was less accurate than the MLST-based alternative; typing based on WGS data was the most accurate. Notwithstanding cost and accessibility, we anticipate that draft genome sequencing, due to its greater discriminatory power, will eventually become routine for traceback investigations. PMID:24765574

Timme, Ruth E.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Toro, Magaly; Allard, Marc W.; Strain, Errol; Musser, Steven M.; Brown, Eric W.

2014-01-01

257

The upward shift in altitude of pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) in Switzerland--the result of climate warming?  

PubMed

Pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) is common in natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in the alpine Rhone Valley, Switzerland. This semi-parasite, which is regarded as an indicator species for temperature, increases the drought stress on trees and may contribute to the observed pine decline in the region. We recorded mistletoes on representative plots of the Swiss National Forest Inventory ranging from 450 to 1,550 m a.s.l. We found mistletoe on 37% of the trees and on 56% of all plots. Trees infested with mistletoe had a significantly higher mortality rate than non-infested trees. We compared the current mistletoe occurrence with records from a survey in 1910. The current upper limit, 1,250 m, is roughly 200 m above the limit of 1,000-1,100 m found in the earlier survey 100 years ago. Applying a spatial model to meteorological data we obtained monthly mean temperatures for all sites. In a logistic regression mean winter temperature, pine proportion and geographic exposition significantly explained mistletoe occurrence. Using mean monthly January and July temperatures for 1961-1990, we calculated Skre's plant respiration equivalent (RE) and regressed it against elevation to obtain the RE value at the current mistletoe elevation limit. We used this RE value and temperature from 1870-1899 in the regression and found the past elevation limit to be at 1,060 m, agreeing with the 1910 survey. For the predicted temperature rise by 2030, the limit for mistletoe would increase above 1,600 m altitude. PMID:15875222

Dobbertin, Matthias; Hilker, Nadine; Rebetez, Martine; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Rigling, Andreas

2005-09-01

258

Development of a rapid SNP-typing assay to differentiate Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis strains used in probiotic-supplemented dairy products.  

PubMed

Identification at the genus, species, and strain levels is desirable when a probiotic microorganism is added to foods. Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (BAL) are commonly used worldwide in dairy products supplemented with probiotic strains. However, strain discrimination is difficult because of the high degree of genome identity (99.975%) between different genomes of this subspecies. Typing of monomorphic species can be carried out efficiently by targeting informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Findings from a previous study analyzing both reference and commercial strains of BAL identified SNP that could be used to discriminate common strains into 8 groups. This paper describes development of a minisequencing assay based on the primer extension reaction (PER) targeting multiple SNP that can allow strain differentiation of BAL. Based on previous data, 6 informative SNP were selected for further testing, and a multiplex preliminary PCR was optimized to amplify the DNA regions containing the selected SNP. Extension primers (EP) annealing immediately adjacent to the selected SNP were developed and tested in simplex and multiplex PER to evaluate their performance. Twenty-five strains belonging to 9 distinct genomic clusters of B. animalis ssp. lactis were selected and analyzed using the developed minisequencing assay, simultaneously targeting the 6 selected SNP. Fragment analysis was subsequently carried out in duplicate and demonstrated that the assay yielded 8 specific profiles separating the most commonly used commercial strains. This novel multiplex PER approach provides a simple, rapid, flexible SNP-based subtyping method for proper characterization and identification of commercial probiotic strains of BAL from fermented dairy products. To assess the usefulness of this method, DNA was extracted from yogurt manufactured with and without the addition of B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12. Extracted DNA was then subjected to the minisequencing protocol, resulting in a SNP profile matching the profile for the strain BB-12. PMID:25547309

Lomonaco, Sara; Furumoto, Emily J; Loquasto, Joseph R; Morra, Patrizia; Grassi, Ausilia; Roberts, Robert F

2015-02-01

259

Variation of total phenolic content and individual low-molecular-weight phenolics in foliage of mountain birch trees ( Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied seasonal and between-tree variation in the composition and content of total and individual low-molecular-weight phenolics (LMWP) in leaves of mountain birch trees (Betula pubescens ssp.tortuosa). The major phenolic compounds were chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-(5-acetyl)-L-rhamnopyranoside, and 1-O-galloyl-?-D-(2-O-acetyl)-glucopyranose. The content of total phenolics, as well as the sum of individual LMWP, varied only slightly among trees while variation in contents

Kimmo Nurmi; Vladimir Ossipov; Erkki Haukioja; Kalevi Pihlaja

1996-01-01

260

Role of nitrification inhibitor DMPP (3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate) in NO(3-)-N accumulation in greengrocery( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) and vegetable soil.  

PubMed

The influence of nitrification inhibitor (NI) 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on nitrate accumulation in greengrocery (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) and vegetable soil at surface layer were investigated in field experiments in 2002 and 2003. Results showed that NI DMPP took no significant effect on yields of edible parts of greengrocery, but it could significantly decrease NO(3-)-N concentration in greengrocery and in vegetable soil at surface layer. In addition, NI DMPP could reduce the NO(3-)-N concentration during the prophase stage of storage. PMID:15900763

Xu, Chao; Wu, Liang-huan; Ju, Xiao-tang; Zhang, Fu-suo

2005-01-01

261

Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from Helichrysum microphyllum Cambess. ssp. tyrrhenicum Bacch., Brullo e Giusso growing in La Maddalena Archipelago, Sardinia.  

PubMed

Helichrysum microphyllum Cambess. subsp. tyrrhenicum Bacch., Brullo e Giusso (Asteraceae), previously known as Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum (Willd.) Nyman, is one of the many endemic species growing in Sardinia, Corsica and Balearic Islands. In the present work the composition of the essential oil obtained from a population of H. microphyllum ssp. thyrrenicum growing in a littoral location of La Maddalena Archipelago was investigated by GC-FID and CG-MS. The major compounds of the oil were the monoterpene ester neryl acetate (18.2%), the oxygenated sesquiterpene 5-eudesmen-11-ol (rosifoliol, 11.3%), the sequiterpene hydrocarbons ?-cadinene (8.4%) and ?-cadinene (6.7%), showing a peculiar composition in comparison with other Sardinian populations. The oil was tested for cytotoxicity on three human tumor cell lines (MDA-MB 231, HCT116 and A375) by MTT assay showing a strong inhibitory activity on human malignant melanoma cells A375 (IC50 of 16 µg/ml). In addition the oil was assessed for antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS assay. PMID:25492232

Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Maggi, Filippo; Lupidi, Giulio; Bramucci, Massimo; Quassinti, Luana; Bianco, Armandodoriano

2014-12-10

262

Determination of in vitro antioxidative and antimicrobial properties and total phenolic contents of Ziziphora clinopodioides, Cyclotrichium niveum, and Mentha longifolia ssp. typhoides var. typhoides.  

PubMed

The aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides, Cyclotrichium niveum, and Mentha longifolia ssp. typhoides var. typhoides were screened for their possible antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in addition to their penolic contents. Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems: 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and beta-carotene/linoleic acid. In the first case, Z. clinopodioides was superior to the other species with a 50% inhibitory concentration value of 37.73 +/- 1.18 microg/mg. Similar results were obtained from the beta-carotene/linoleic acid system. Inhibition capacity of the linoleic acid of Z. clinopodioides was 83.56 +/- 1.19%. Additionally, antioxidant activities of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, and ascorbic acid were determined in parallel experiments. Methanol extracts obtained from the plants studied were found to have moderate antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested. In general, Z. clinopodioides extract exhibited stronger activity than the other extracts. On the other hand, Acinetobacter lwoffii and Candida krusei were the most sensitive microorganisms for the all extracts. The amount of the total phenolics was highest in Z. clinopodioides extract (129.55 +/- 2.26 microg/mg), followed by M. longifolia ssp. typhoides var. typhoides (93.47 +/-1.84 microg/mg). It is extremely important to note that there is a positive correlation between antioxidant activity potential and amount of phenolic compounds. PMID:19627221

Gursoy, Nevcihan; Sihoglu-Tepe, Arzuhan; Tepe, Bektas

2009-06-01

263

A new phenanthrene derivative and two diarylheptanoids from the roots of Brassica rapa ssp. campestris inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines and LDL-oxidation.  

PubMed

Brassica rapa ssp. campestris (Brassicaceae) is a conical, deep purple, edible root vegetable commonly known as a turnip. We initiated phytochemical and pharmacological studies to search for biological active compounds from the roots of B. rapa ssp. campestris. We isolated a novel phenanthrene derivative, 6-methoxy-1-[10-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)phenanthren-3-yl]undecane-2,4-dione, named brassicaphenanthrene A (3) along with two known diarylheptanoid compounds, 6-paradol (1) and trans-6-shogaol (2), through the repeated silica gel (SiO2), octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic data analyses including nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and infra-red spectroscopy. All compounds exhibited high inhibitory activity against the growth of human cancer lines, HCT-116, MCF-7, and HeLa, with IC50 values ranging from 15.0 to 35.0 ?M and against LDL-oxidation with IC50 values ranging from 2.9 to 7.1 ?M. PMID:23435947

Wu, Qian; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Yoo, Ki-Hyun; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Park, Ji-Hae; Kim, Su-Yeon; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Chung, In-Sik; Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Chung, Hae-Gon; Bang, Myun-Ho; Baek, Nam-In

2013-04-01

264

1 Dcanat SSP  

E-print Network

MASTER SMS 4ème et 5ème année (2012-2014) En date du 1er août 2013, l SMS à Genève sera fermée. Les étudiants de 4ème et 5ème année master en SMS orientation enseignement ou entrainement et performance à Genève 2012

Halazonetis, Thanos

265

NEW SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO RACE RO1 GOLDEN NEMATODE (G. ROSTOCHIENSIS WOLL.) AMONG REPUTED DUPLICATE GERMPLASM ACCESSIONS OF S. TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENUM IN THE VIR (RUSSION) AND US POTATO GENEBANKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cultivated species Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum (i.e., andigena per nomenclature used at the US Potato Genebank, USPG) is well known as a rich source of valuable traits for potato breeding, especially for resistance to diseases and pests. The Potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis Wo...

266

Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum from different areas in the Southern Apennines (Italy).  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, growing wild in three different localities in the Southern Apennines, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 103 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds and all oils belonged to the chemotype carvacrol/thymol. The three essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity by determining their influence on the germination and initial radicle elongation of Sinapis arvensis L., Phalaris canariensis L., Lepidium sativum L., and Raphanus sativus L. The seed germination and radicle growth were affected in various degrees. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the three essential oils was assayed against three species causing pre- and postharvest fruit decay (Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola). At 1000?ppm, the three oils completely inhibited fungal growth. The hemolytic activity of the oils was assayed and showed no effect on the cell membranes of bovine erythrocytes. PMID:24706631

Mancini, Emilia; Camele, Ippolito; Elshafie, Hazem S; De Martino, Laura; Pellegrino, Carlo; Grulova, Daniela; De Feo, Vincenzo

2014-04-01

267

Determination of antimutagenic properties of apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. longifolia with yeast DEL assay.  

PubMed

Lamiaceae is an important plant family that has been investigated for its medicinal properties due to its large amounts of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Flavonoids have been shown to have antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in different test systems, but their certain mechanisms are still unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of apigenin 7-O-rutinoside, a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. longifolia. The possible antimutagenic potential of apigenin 7-O-rutinoside (A7R) was examined against mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and acridine (AC) in a eukaryotic cell system Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS112. The results showed that A7R has different inhibition rates against EMS and AC-induced mutagenicity. Thus, the properties of A7R are of great pharmacological importance and might be beneficial for reducing the risk of reactive oxygen species-related diseases. PMID:22491724

Gulluce, Medine; Orhan, Furkan; Adiguzel, Ahmet; Bal, Tugba; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Dermirezer, Lutfiye Omur

2013-07-01

268

Purification, virulence and characterization of an extracellular peptidase produced by Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. masoucida isolated from cultured sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.  

PubMed

Strain H1, Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. masoucida isolated from an ulcer on the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus proved to be virulent toward this holothurian at 12 degrees C. Extracellular products (ECP) of strain H1 were prepared, and an extracellular peptidase of 42 kDa was purified from the ECP using Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography and diethylaminoethyl Sepharose ion exchange chromatography. Stepwise virulence tests on sea cucumbers indicated that the 42 kDa peptidase was the virulence factor of strain H1, and its LD50 for these holothurians was 1.12 microg g(-1). A peptidase activity test using azocasein as a substrate showed that optimum pH and temperature for the peptidase are 8.0 and 40 degrees C, respectively; the peptidase was completely inactivated above 70 degrees C. The peptidase was inhibited strongly by 5 mM phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride, indicating that the enzyme is a serine peptidase. PMID:19244974

Yang, Jia-Long; Zhan, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Li; Xing, Jing

2008-12-22

269

Functional identification of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl-glucosinolate in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis  

PubMed Central

Background Brassica vegetables contain a class of secondary metabolites, the glucosinolates (GS), whose specific degradation products determine the characteristic flavor and smell. While some of the respective degradation products of particular GS are recognized as health promoting substances for humans, recent studies also show evidence that namely the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS might be deleterious by forming characteristic DNA adducts. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of aspects involved in the biosynthesis of indole GS is crucial to design vegetables with an improved secondary metabolite profile. Results Initially the leafy Brassica vegetable pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) was established as suitable tool to elicit very high concentrations of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS by application of methyl jasmonate. Differentially expressed candidate genes were discovered in a comparative microarray analysis using the 2 × 104 K format Brassica Array and compared to available gene expression data from the Arabidopsis AtGenExpress effort. Arabidopsis knock out mutants of the respective candidate gene homologs were subjected to a comprehensive examination of their GS profiles and confirmed the exclusive involvement of polypeptide 4 of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase subfamily CYP81F in 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS biosynthesis. Functional characterization of the two identified isoforms coding for CYP81F4 in the Brassica rapa genome was performed using expression analysis and heterologous complementation of the respective Arabidopsis mutant. Conclusions Specific differences discovered in a comparative microarray and glucosinolate profiling analysis enables the functional attribution of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis genes coding for polypeptide 4 of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase subfamily CYP81F to their metabolic role in indole glucosinolate biosynthesis. These new identified Brassica genes will enable the development of genetic tools for breeding vegetables with improved GS composition in the near future. PMID:24886080

2014-01-01

270

Targeted sequence capture provides insight into genome structure and genetics of male sterility in a gynodioecious diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae).  

PubMed

Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3-5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function. PMID:23749450

Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2013-08-01

271

Characterization of the intracellular survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: phagosomal pH and fusogenicity in J774 macrophages compared with other mycobacteria.  

PubMed

The phagosomes containing viable pathogenic mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium (M. avium), are known to be limited in their ability to both acidify and fuse with late (but not early) endocytic organelles. Here, we analysed the pH and fusogenicity of phagosomes containing M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis (M. ptb), the causative agent of paratuberculosis in ruminants. Using the murine J774 macrophage cell line, we compared viable and heat-killed M. ptb and, in addition, viable or dead M. avium, as well as two non-pathogenic mycobacteria, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium gordonae. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that M. ptb persisted intracellularly in phagosomes for up to 15 days. The phagosomes containing live M. ptb and M. avium were significantly reduced in their ability to acquire some markers for the endocytic pathway, such as internalized calcein, BSA-gold or the membrane protein Lamp 2. However, they were almost completely accessible to 70 kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran and Lamp 1. Overall, the phagosomes containing dead pathogenic mycobacteria behaved similarly to the ones containing live non-pathogenic mycobacteria in all experiments. Using FITC-dextran in a novel fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based method, we could also show that the bulk of endocytic compartments, including phagosomes, were only very mildly acidified to approximately pH 6.3 over at least 72 h in J774 cells infected with live M. ptb and M. avium. In contrast, J774 cells treated with heat-killed M. ptb or BSA-coated latex beads showed substantial acidification of the phagosome/endocytic compartments to a pH value of approximately 5.2. After infection with M. smegmatis and M. gordonae, acidification was initially (1-5 h after infection) inhibited, but increased after longer infection to levels similar to those with dead mycobacteria. PMID:11488816

Kuehnel, M P; Goethe, R; Habermann, A; Mueller, E; Rohde, M; Griffiths, G; Valentin-Weigand, P

2001-08-01

272

Whole Genome Sequences of Three Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue Strains: Yaws and Syphilis Treponemes Differ in Less than 0.2% of the Genome Sequence  

PubMed Central

Background The yaws treponemes, Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE) strains, are closely related to syphilis causing strains of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA). Both yaws and syphilis are distinguished on the basis of epidemiological characteristics, clinical symptoms, and several genetic signatures of the corresponding causative agents. Methodology/Principal Findings To precisely define genetic differences between TPA and TPE, high-quality whole genome sequences of three TPE strains (Samoa D, CDC-2, Gauthier) were determined using next-generation sequencing techniques. TPE genome sequences were compared to four genomes of TPA strains (Nichols, DAL-1, SS14, Chicago). The genome structure was identical in all three TPE strains with similar length ranging between 1,139,330 bp and 1,139,744 bp. No major genome rearrangements were found when compared to the four TPA genomes. The whole genome nucleotide divergence (dA) between TPA and TPE subspecies was 4.7 and 4.8 times higher than the observed nucleotide diversity (?) among TPA and TPE strains, respectively, corresponding to 99.8% identity between TPA and TPE genomes. A set of 97 (9.9%) TPE genes encoded proteins containing two or more amino acid replacements or other major sequence changes. The TPE divergent genes were mostly from the group encoding potential virulence factors and genes encoding proteins with unknown function. Conclusions/Significance Hypothetical genes, with genetic differences, consistently found between TPE and TPA strains are candidates for syphilitic treponemes virulence factors. Seventeen TPE genes were predicted under positive selection, and eleven of them coded either for predicted exported proteins or membrane proteins suggesting their possible association with the cell surface. Sequence changes between TPE and TPA strains and changes specific to individual strains represent suitable targets for subspecies- and strain-specific molecular diagnostics. PMID:22292095

Chen, Lei; Pospíšilová, Petra; Strouhal, Michal; Qin, Xiang; Mikalová, Lenka; Norris, Steven J.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Šmajs, David

2012-01-01

273

Haematophageous vector monitoring in Djibouti city from 2008 to 2009: first records of Culex pipiens ssp. torridus (IGLISCH), and Anopheles sergentii (theobald).  

PubMed

The Horn of Africa represents a region formerly known to be highly susceptible to mosquito-borne infectious diseases. In order to monitor and analyze the current presence and threat of vector mosquitoes, continuous and standardized trapping using CDC light traps without an additional CO2-generator has been carried out at six selected monitoring sites located in Djibouti City, from August 2008 until December 2009. An overall of 620 haematophageous Diptera were trapped, 603 (97.3%) were mosquitoes, 10 (1.6%) were sand flies, and 7 (1.1%) were biting midges, respectively. Genus distribution of mosquitoes revealed that 600 (99.5%) were Culex spp., 2 (0.3%) were Anopheles sergentii, and 1 (0.2%) was Aedes aegypti. Culex species were represented by Cx. quinquefasciatus (78.5%), and Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus (21.5%). The later species was first detected focally in early December 2009 showing a strongly increasing population density resulting in a maximum trap rate of 25 mosquitoes per trap night. Sand flies were all Sergentomyia antennata, and biting midges of the genus Culicoides were represented by C. nubeculosus (71.4%) and C. vexans (28.6 %). The findings included the first records for Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus and An. sergentii in Djibouti. However, none of the captured female Culex spp, the known vector for West Nile Virus, showed positive results for viral nucleic acids using WNV RT-real time PCR system. Also, females An. sergentii were Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax circumsporozoite protein negative. PMID:21246936

Faulde, Michael K; Ahmed, Ammar A

2010-08-01

274

Species richness in a successional grassland: effects of nitrogen enrichment and plant litter  

E-print Network

, Bromus inermis. The most common forb species in the community were Daucus carota, Achillea mil- lefolium, Hypericum perforatum, and Potentilla recta. Soils underlying the field site are a well-drained, Osh- temo sandy loam formed from glacial till....8 19.1 43.8 46.6 9.5 13.0 16.3NS 14.1** Daucus carota Achillea millefolium Hypericum perforatum Potentilla recta Oxalis stricta N L N 3 L NT NT NT 9.17 10.65 6.19 ··· ··· ··· 1,15 1,15 1,15 ··· ··· ··· 0.008 0.005 0.025 ··· ··· ··· 85.9 22.5 25.3 14...

Foster, Bryan L.; Gross, Katherine L.

1998-12-01

275

Host-specific races in the holoparasitic angiosperm Orobanche minor: implications for speciation in parasitic plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Orobanche minor is a root-holoparasitic angiosperm that attacks a wide range of host species, including a number of commonly cultivated crops. The extent to which genetic divergence among natural populations of O. minor is influenced by host specificity has not been determined previously. Here, the host specificity of natural populations of O. minor is quantified for the first time, and evidence that this species may comprise distinct physiological races is provided. Methods A tripartite approach was used to examine the physiological basis for the divergence of populations occurring on different hosts: (1) host–parasite interactions were cultivated in rhizotron bioassays in order to quantify the early stages of the infection and establishment processes; (2) using reciprocal-infection experiments, parasite races were cultivated on their natural and alien hosts, and their fitness determined in terms of biomass; and (3) the anatomy of the host–parasite interface was investigated using histochemical techniques, with a view to comparing the infection process on different hosts. Key Results Races occurring naturally on red clover (Trifolium pratense) and sea carrot (Daucus carota ssp. gummifer) showed distinct patterns of host specificity: parasites cultivated in cross-infection studies showed a higher fitness on their natural hosts, suggesting that races show local adaptation to specific hosts. In addition, histological evidence suggests that clover and carrot roots vary in their responses to infection. Different root anatomy and responses to infection may underpin a physiological basis for host specificity. Conclusions It is speculated that host specificity may isolate races of Orobanche on different hosts, accelerating divergence and ultimately speciation in this genus. The rapid life cycle and broad host range of O. minor make this species an ideal model with which to study the interactions of parasitic plants with their host associates. PMID:19251714

Thorogood, C. J.; Rumsey, F. J.; Hiscock, S. J.

2009-01-01

276

Effect of Picloram and Tebuthiuron on Broadleaf Weeds and Bermudagrass in East-Central Texas Pastures.  

E-print Network

Goosegrass . Horsemint (Spotted beebalm) Horseweed (Marestail) Scientific Aster pilosus Willd. Rudbeckia serotina Nutt. Senecio glabellus Pair. Medicago spp. Chaerophyllum tainturieri Hook. Stellaria media (L.) Cyrillo Cerastium vulgatum L...anceo1ata L. Diodia teres Walt. Dacus carota L. Ragweed, short (Common) (Altamisia) Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Ragwort (Texas groundsel) Senecio ampullaceus Hook. Rush spp. Juncus spp. Scarlet pimpernel Anaga1lis arvensis L. Sedge spp. Carex spp...

Bovey, R.W.; Meyer, R.E.; Baur, J.R.; Schulte, S.V.

1986-01-01

277

Nitrate reductase activity of plasma membranes from cultured carrot cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota L.) reduced nitrate to nitrite at a slow rate (0.4 µmoles\\/g dry wt · h) without any additions to the reaction medium. This rate was doubled or tripled in presence of 100 µM NADH. Ethanol and other alcohols stimulated the basal rate 8–10-fold. Isolated carrot plasma membranes also reduced nitrate to nitrite at a

R. Barr; M. Böttger; F. L. Crane; D. J. Morré

1995-01-01

278

Potential use of the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi against seed-borne fungi of Guar ( Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. (Taub.))  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils isolated from leaves and seeds of seven umbelliferous plants were tested against the growth ofAspergillus flavus. Those from seeds ofTrachyspermum ammi, Cuminum cyminum, Carum carvi, Daucus carota and from leaves ofAnethum graveolens exhibited antifungal activity against the test fungus. Amongst these, oil from seeds ofTrachyspermum ammi was most toxic. Its minimum inhibitory concentration was 300 ppm, at which

Suresh K. Dwivedi; N. K. Dubey

1993-01-01

279

Doubled haploid production via anther culture in annual, winter type of caraway ( Carum carvi L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is a traditional medicinal and spice cross-pollinated plant species. Although in vitro techniques are recently extensively\\u000a applied in plant breeding programmes, these are not commonly utilized in caraway. Therefore, based on the protocol for anther\\u000a culture in carrot (Daucus carota L., a closely related species of caraway in Daucaceae family), in vitro androgenesis in caraway has

Iva Smýkalová; Prokop Šmirous; Michaela Kubošiová; Nikol Gasmanová; Miroslav Griga

2009-01-01

280

Repression of asexual embryogenesis in vitro by some plant growth regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A factor that represses asexual embryogenesis has been observed in the Rutaceae, with particularly high concentrations in\\u000a the naturally monoembryonic cultivars. This investigation was an initial step towards identifying the factor.Citrus reticulata Blanco Ponkan mandarin nucellus explants andDaucus carota L. ‘Queen Anne's Lace’ callus were employed to examine effects of known plant growth regulators and to determine possible\\u000a identity of

Brent Tisserat; Toshio Murashige

1977-01-01

281

Distinct Patterns of Expression But Similar Biochemical Properties of Protein L-Isoaspartyl Methyltransferase in Higher Plants1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein l-isoaspartyl methyltransferase is a widely distributed repair enzyme that initiates the conversion of abnormal l-isoaspartyl residues to their normal l-aspartyl forms. Here we show that this activity is expressed in developing corn (Zea mays) and carrot (Daucus carota var. Danvers Half Long) plants in patterns distinct from those previously seen in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Augusta) and thale

Nitika Thapar; An-Keun Kim; Steven Clarke

2001-01-01

282

Pectin methylesterases: sequence-structural features and phylogenetic relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are enzymes produced by bacteria, fungi and higher plants. They belong to the carbohydrate esterase family CE-8. This study deals with comparison of 127 amino acid sequences of this family containing the five characteristic sequence segments: 44_GxYxE, 113_QAVAL, 135_QDTL, 157_DFIFG, 223_LGRPW (Daucus carota numbering). Six strictly conserved residues (Gly44, Gly154, Asp157, Gly161, Arg225 and Trp227) and six

Oskar Markovi?; Štefan Jane?ek

2004-01-01

283

Determination ofStructure andComposition ofSuberin from theRootsofCarrot, Parsnip, Rutabaga, Turnip, RedBeet, and SweetPotato byCombined Gas-Liquid Chroma tography andMassSpectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suberin fromtherootsofcarrots (Daucus carota), parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), rutabaga (Brassica napobrassica), turnip (Brassica rapa), redbeet(Betavulgaris), andsweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) wasisolated byacombination ofchemical andenzvmatic techniques. Finely powderedsuberin wasde- polymerized with14% BFsinmethanol, andsoluble monomers (20-50 % ofsuberin) werefractionated intophenolic (<10% ) andaliphatic (13-35%)fractions. The aliphatic fractions consisted mainlyofw-hydroxyacids (29-43%),dicarboxylic acids(16-27%), fatty acids (4-18%), andfatty alcohols (3- 6%). Eachfraction wassubjected tocombinedgas-liquid chromatography andmassspectrometry. Amongthefatty acids

P. E. KOLATTUKUDY; A. J. POULOSE

284

Regulation of enzymes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in carrot cell cultures in response to treatment with ultraviolet light and fungal elicitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The accumulation of anthocyanins in cell cultures of Daucus carota L. and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis were investigated under growth in the dark, continuous irradiation with\\u000a UV light, incubation with elicitors from Pythium aphanidermatum, and elicitor treatment of UV-irradiated cells. Upon UV irradiation, anthocyanin accumulation was strongly enhanced, and the\\u000a enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways,

Werner Edgar Gläßgen; Anette Rose; Johannes Madlung; Wolfgang Koch; Johannes Gleitz; Hanns Ulrich Seitz

1998-01-01

285

Carrot injury and yield response to ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Container-grown plants of carrot (Daucus carota L.) exposed intermittently to 0.19 or 0.25 ppm ozone throughout their growth increased in plant height and total number of leaves in spite of the development of chlorotic leaves. Leaf dry weight was unaffected by ozone, but root dry matter decreased 32 to 46%. As a result, the root weight\\/total dry weight ration and

J. P. Bennett; R. J. Oshima

1976-01-01

286

Carrot Antifreeze Protein Does Not Exhibit the Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Activity of PGIP Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carrot (Daucus carota) antifreeze protein (DcAFP) has a strong antifreeze activity and identified as belonging to the plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) family based on its sequence similarities, including the presence of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motif. In this study, yeast two-hybrid technology was used to analyze whether the carrot AFP could act as a PGIP. The complete DcAFP and

Dang-Quan ZHANG; Hong-Bin WANG; Bin LIU; Dong-Ru FENG; Yan-Ming HE; Jin-Fa WANG

2006-01-01

287

Differential nuclear envelope assembly at the end of mitosis in suspension-cultured Apium graveolens cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

NMCP1 is a plant protein that has a long coiled-coil domain within the molecule. Newly identified NMCP2 of Daucus carota and Apium graveolens showed similar peripheral localization in the interphase nucleus, and the sequence spanning the coiled-coil domain exhibited\\u000a significant similarity with the corresponding region of NMCP1. To better understand disassembly and assembly of the nuclear\\u000a envelope (NE) during mitosis,

Yuta Kimura; Chie Kuroda; Kiyoshi Masuda

2010-01-01

288

Glyphosate selected amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene in cultured carrot cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAR and C1, two carrot (Daucus carota L.) suspension cultures of different genotypes, were subjected to stepwise selection for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl)glycine]. The specific activity of the target enzyme, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), as well as the mRNA level and copy number of the structural gene increased with each glyphosate selection step. Therefore, the tolerance to glyphosate is

Yu-Yau Joanne Shyr; Angus G. Hepburn; Jack M. Widhohn

1992-01-01

289

Quantifying structural characteristics of partially de-esterified pectins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectins of varying degree and pattern of methylesterification were produced through controlled de-esterification of a parent citrus pectin using Daucus carota pectin methylesterase (PME), Aspergillus aculeatus PME or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) saponification (P-, F- and C-pectins respectively). Pectins from each batch were characterised in terms of degree of methylesterification (DM) and distribution of methylesters. The latter characteristic was estimated based

Doungla E. Ngouémazong; Forkwa F. Tengweh; Thomas Duvetter; Ilse Fraeye; Ann Van Loey; Paula Moldenaers; Marc Hendrickx

2011-01-01

290

Pectin esterification is spatially regulated both within cell walls and between developing tissues of root apices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoclonal antibodies recognizing un-esterified (JIM5) and methyl-esterified (JIM7) epitopes of pectin have been used to locate these epitopes by indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy in the root apex of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Both antibodies labelled the walls of cells in all tissues of the developing root apex. Immunogold labelling observed at the level of the electron microscope indicated

J. Paul Knox; Paul J. Linstead; Janet King; Christine Cooper; Keith Roberts

1990-01-01

291

The impact of Cu treatment on phenolic and polyamine levels in plant material regenerated from embryos obtained in anther culture of carrot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of copper sulphate on the regeneration of carrot (Daucus carota L.) androgenic embryos and changes in the levels of phenolic substances and polyamines that might be indicative of the response to oxidative stress were investigated. The cultivation on the regeneration medium supplemented with Cu2+ at the concentrations 1 and 10?M for 15weeks resulted in significant dose-dependent inhibition of

Krystyna Górecka; Milena Cvikrová; Urszula Kowalska; Josef Eder; Katarzyna Szafra?ska; Ryszard Górecki; Krystyna M. Janas

2007-01-01

292

Metabolic engineering of novel ketocarotenoid production in carrot plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids constitute a vast group of pigments that are ubiquitous throughout nature. Carrot (Daucus\\u000a carota L.) roots provide an important source of dietary ?-carotene (provitamin A), ?-carotene and lutein. Ketocarotenoids, such\\u000a as canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are produced by some algae and cyanobacteria but are rare in plants. Ketocarotenoids are\\u000a strong antioxidants that are chemically synthesized and used as dietary supplements

Jayaraman Jayaraj; Robert Devlin; Zamir Punja

2008-01-01

293

Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the findings and recommendations from the NESC assessment.

Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

2011-01-01

294

Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 2; Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the Appendices to the main report.

Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

2011-01-01

295

Search path of a fossorial herbivore, Geomys bursarius, foraging in structurally complex plant communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The influence of habitat patchiness and unpalatable plants on the search path of the plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius) was examined in outdoor enclosures. Separate experiments were used to evaluate how individual animals explored (by tunnel excavation) enclosures free of plants except for one or more dense patches of a palatable plant (Daucus carota), a dense patch of an unpalatable species (Pastinaca sativa) containing a few palatable plants (D. carota), or a relatively sparse mixture of palatable (D. carota) and unpalatable (Raphanus sativus) species. Only two of eight individuals tested showed the predicted pattern of concentrating search effort in patches of palatable plants. The maintenance of relatively high levels of effort in less profitable sites may reflect the security afforded food resources by the solitary social system and fossorial lifestyle of G. bursarius. Unpalatable plants repelled animals under some conditions, but search paths in the sparsely planted mixed-species treatment suggest animals can use visual or other cues to orient excavations. Evidence supporting area-restricted search was weak. More information about the use of visual cues by G. bursarius and the influence of experience on individual search mode is needed for refining current models of foraging behavior in this species.

Andersen, Douglas C.

1990-01-01

296

Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the N2-fixing bacterial diversity in soil under Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana and Balanites aegyptiaca in the dryland part of Senegal.  

PubMed

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified nifH gene fragments was used to study the diazotrophic community of soil samples under Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (legume tree) and Balanites aegyptiaca (non-legume tree), two dominant plant species growing naturally in the dryland part of Senegal. Samples were taken along transects from the stem up to 10 m distance from it, at depths of 0-0.25 m and 0.25-0.50 m. Sampling was done in the dry season (25 June 1999) and in the rainy season (28 August 1999). The community structure and diversity of the bacterial groups from the different samples was analysed further using different techniques, such as statistical analysis and diversity index evaluation of the band patterns. Diazotrophic diversity was lower under B. aegyptiaca than under A. tortilis ssp. raddiana. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and ANOSIM tests showed a significant effect of the tree on the diazotroph assemblages. SIMPER analysis showed that the major elements responsible for the dissimilarity are a member of the genus Sinorhizobium, which is characteristic of the samples taken under A. tortilis ssp. raddiana and a member of the cluster Bradyrhizobium for the samples taken under B. aegyptiaca. Forty-four major bands were partially sequenced, yielding 33 different nifH sequences, which were used in phylogenetic reconstructions. Most sequences were affiliated with the alpha- beta- and gamma-proteobacteria. Five nifH sequences were identical to those of Pseudomonas stutzeri, and one sequence showed 100% similarity to that of Azotobacter vinelandii. Four bands were affiliated with the Cyanobacteria and a single one with the Firmicutes. For both trees, there were also clear differences between the samples taken in the dry and rainy seasons. Only for the samples taken under A. tortilis ssp. raddiana was a significant difference found between the two sampling depths. PMID:15008817

Demba Diallo, Moudjahidou; Willems, Anne; Vloemans, Nele; Cousin, Sylvie; Vandekerckhove, Tom T; de Lajudie, Philippe; Neyra, Marc; Vyverman, Wim; Gillis, Monique; Van der Gucht, Katleen

2004-04-01

297

RAPD, ISSR and RFLP fingerprints as useful markers to evaluate genetic integrity of micropropagated plants of three diploid and triploid elite tea clones representing Camellia sinensis (China type) and C. assamica ssp. assamica (Assam-India type)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient in vitro propagation method using enhanced axillary branching cultures produced plants from nodal explants of three mature, elite tea clones: diploid UPASI 26 and UPASI 27 (2n=2x=30) representing Camellia sinensis (China type) and triploid UPASI 3 (2n=3x=45) representing C. assamica ssp. assamica (Assam-India type). The genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants of these three tea clones was assessed

R. M. Devarumath; S. Nandy; V. Rani; S. Marimuthu; N. Muraleedharan; S. N. Raina

2002-01-01

298

Physical mapping and microsynteny of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis genome corresponding to a 222 kbp gene-rich region of Arabidopsis chromosome 4 and partially duplicated on chromosome 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, designated as KBrH, from high molecular weight genomic DNA\\u000a of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage). This library, which was constructed using HindIII-cleaved genomic DNA, consists of 56,592 clones with average insert size of 115 kbp. Using a partially duplicated DNA\\u000a sequence of Arabidopsis, represented by 19 and 9 predicted genes on chromosome

J. Y. Park; D. H. Koo; C. P. Hong; S. J. Lee; J. W. Jeon; S. H. Lee; P. Y. Yun; B. S. Park; H. R. Kim; J. W. Bang; P. Plaha; I. Bancroft; Y. P. Lim

2005-01-01

299

Modelling the influence of pH, temperature, glucose and lactic acid concentrations on the kinetics of lactic acid production by Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis ATCC 19435 in whole-wheat flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic model of the fermentative production of lactic acid from glucose by Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis ATCC 19435 in whole-wheat flour has been developed. The model consists of terms for substrate and product inhibition as well\\u000a as for the influence of pH and temperature. Experimental data from fermentation experiments under different physical conditions\\u000a were used to fit and verify

C. Åkerberg; K. Hofvendahl; G. Zacchi; B. Hahn-Hägerdal

1998-01-01

300

Chemical composition, seasonal variability, and antifungal activity of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas essential oils from stem/leaves and flowers.  

PubMed

Essential oils from the stems/leaves (L) and flowers (F) of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in southern Sardinia (Italy) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector and ion trap mass spectrometry. The major compound was fenchone, accounting for, on average, 52.60% in L and 66.20% in F, followed by camphor (13.13% versus 27.08%, in L and F, respectively). F essential oil yields (volume per dry weight) decreased from the beginning to the end of the flowering stage, whereas L yields remained constant during the year. The nine main compounds derived from two different subpathways, A and B. The compounds that belong to the same subpathway showed a similar behavior during the year. The essential oils were tested for their antifungal activity using the paper disk diffusion method. The essential oils tested were effective on the inactivation of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum and less effective against Aspergillus flavus. Among the single compounds tested, fenchone, limonene, and myrtenal appeared to be the more effective on the inhibition of R. solani growth. PMID:16756368

Angioni, Alberto; Barra, Andrea; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessi, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

2006-06-14

301

Cell growth and proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus in milk as affected by supplementation with peptide fractions.  

PubMed

The present investigation examined the effects of supplementation of milk peptide fractions produced by enzymatic hydrolysis on the fermentation of reconstituted skim milk (RSM). Changes in pH, cell growth, proteolytic activity, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were monitored during fermentation of RSM by pure cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The study showed that supplementation with peptide fractions of different molecular weights did not significantly affect the bacterial growth in RSM. All bacteria showed an increased proteolytic activity in RSM supplemented with large peptides (>10?kDa), and L. helveticus in general exhibited the highest proteolytic activity among the bacteria studied. The ACE-inhibitory activity was observed to be the maximum in RSM supplemented with larger peptides (>10?kDa) for all bacteria. The results suggest that proteolysis by bacteria leads to increased production of ACE-inhibitory peptides compared to the supplemented peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:25095898

Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

2014-12-01

302

Evaluation of methods for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis detection in milk samples from the cattle herd showing low seroprevalence of Johne's disease.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of chronic gastroenteritis in cattle called the Johne's disease (JD). The disease causes significant economic losses in cattle production. MAP is also supposed to be involved in the Crohn's disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in people. The detection of the cattle infection based on investigations of milk samples and evaluation of the capacity of the methods used to detect the disease was the objective of the present study. Following methods were applied for milk samples testing: detection of MAP in bacterial culture, detection of the specific IS-900 fragment of MAP in the genetic material isolated directly and detection of MAP antibodies. The results obtained were compared with the "golden standard" results, i.e. the isolation of MAP from the faeces. PQStat-the program for diagnostic reliability estimation, was used for evaluation of the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value. The method based on detection of the specific IS-900 fragment of MAP in the genetic material isolated directly from milk samples was found to possess the highest sensitivity. Detection of anti-MAP antibodies on the other hand showed the lowest sensitivity. The method of detecting anti-MAP antibodies in milk was the most specific while detection of the IS-900 fragment in the genetic material was the least specific method. These results obtained may serve as a guide to choose the most appropriate method for diagnosis of MAP infections by milk sample testing. PMID:25286654

Szteyn, J; Wiszniewska-?aszczych, A; Smoli?ska, A

2014-01-01

303

Three groups of transposable elements with contrasting copy number dynamics and host responses in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) genome.  

PubMed

Most angiosperm nuclear DNA is repetitive and derived from silenced transposable elements (TEs). TE silencing requires substantial resources from the plant host, including the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Thus, the interaction between TEs and siRNAs is a critical aspect of both the function and the evolution of plant genomes. Yet the co-evolutionary dynamics between these two entities remain poorly characterized. Here we studied the organization of TEs within the maize (Zea mays ssp mays) genome, documenting that TEs fall within three groups based on the class and copy numbers. These groups included DNA elements, low copy RNA elements and higher copy RNA elements. The three groups varied statistically in characteristics that included length, location, age, siRNA expression and 24:22 nucleotide (nt) siRNA targeting ratios. In addition, the low copy retroelements encompassed a set of TEs that had previously been shown to decrease expression within a 24 nt siRNA biogenesis mutant (mop1). To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the three groups, we estimated their abundance in two landraces, one with a genome similar in size to that of the maize reference and the other with a 30% larger genome. For all three accessions, we assessed TE abundance as well as 22 nt and 24 nt siRNA content within leaves. The high copy number retroelements are under targeted similarly by siRNAs among accessions, appear to be born of a rapid bust of activity, and may be currently transpositionally dead or limited. In contrast, the lower copy number group of retrolements are targeted more dynamically and have had a long and ongoing history of transposition in the maize genome. PMID:24743518

Diez, Concepcion M; Meca, Esteban; Tenaillon, Maud I; Gaut, Brandon S

2014-04-01

304

The influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LC705 together with Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS on potentially carcinogenic bacterial activity in human colon.  

PubMed

The bacterial enzymes beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and urease may contribute to the development of colon cancer by generating carcinogens. A reduction in the activity of these enzymes by certain lactic acid bacteria is considered to be beneficial. This study examined fecal beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and urease activities during administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LC705 (LC705) together with Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp shermanii JS (PJS). Thirty-eight healthy men participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study with treatment periods of 4 weeks. Subjects consumed daily bacterial or placebo capsules. Bacterial capsules contained viable LC705 and PJS (2x10(10) CFU of each strain daily). The activities of beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase and urease, recovery of LC705 and PJS, and counts of total lactobacilli and propionibacteria were determined from feces. The mean fecal counts of total lactobacilli and propionibacteria as well as strains LC705 and PJS were significantly increased during the administration of bacteria (3.5-, 13-, 80- and 11-fold, respectively). beta-glucosidase activity decreased by 10% (P=0.18) and urease activity by 13% (P=0.16) during bacterial supplementation versus placebo. The change in beta-glucosidase activity was negatively correlated with the change in propionibacteria counts (R=-0.350, P=0.039), being -2.68 versus 0.94 nmol/min/mg protein in subjects with increased and unchanged/decreased propionibacteria, respectively (P=0.003). To conclude, the administration of LC705 and PJS was followed by an increase in the fecal counts of lactobacilli and propionibacteria and a decrease in the activity of beta-glucosidase with increasing counts of propionibacteria. PMID:18945506

Hatakka, Katja; Holma, Reetta; El-Nezami, Hani; Suomalainen, Tarja; Kuisma, Minna; Saxelin, Maija; Poussa, Tuija; Mykkänen, Hannu; Korpela, Riitta

2008-12-10

305

Distribution of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in a German zoological garden determined by IS900 semi-nested and quantitative real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Little data concerning the distribution of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in zoological gardens is available. The presence of MAP in captured wildlife might provide further information on non-ruminant hosts and expand the list of animals susceptible to MAP being potential sources of MAP transmission. Therefore, a German zoological garden with recent history of clinical paratuberculosis in Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) and an alpaca (Lama pacos) was selected to estimate the distribution of MAP infections in 21 mammalian and avian species. Pooled faecal samples from individual animals of each species were tested for the presence of MAP. A previously developed IS900 semi-nested PCR (snPCR) assay, amplifying a 587 bp and a 278 bp fragment, was used for the detection of MAP-DNA. Based on this snPCR, in 14 out of the 21 pooled faecal samples MAP-DNA was detected. MAP positive snPCR results were observed in ruminants and camelids as well as in non-ruminants such as equines, primates, rodents, and birds. Moreover, a quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that the concentration of MAP-DNA was within the range of 2.2 × 10(3)-9.6 × 10(6) MAP-DNA equivalents per gram faeces. The highest amount was shed by primates such as Black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) and Cottontop tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). This is the first survey investigating the presence of MAP in a German zoo, which includes non-ruminants. The results of the present study confirm the wide host range of MAP and demonstrate that MAP occurs more frequently in zoo animals than expected. In order to restrict further spread of MAP in European zoos, additional investigations regarding the existing transmission pathways of MAP in zoos are recommended. PMID:23298700

Münster, Pia; Fechner, Kim; Völkel, Inger; von Buchholz, Aloys; Czerny, Claus-Peter

2013-04-12

306

Phenolic responses of mountain crowberry (Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum) to global climate change are compound specific and depend on grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).  

PubMed

Mountain crowberry (Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum) is a keystone species in northern ecosystems and exerts important ecosystem-level effects through high concentrations of phenolic metabolites. It has not been investigated how crowberry phenolics will respond to global climate change. In the tundra, grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) affects vegetation and soil nutrient availability, but almost nothing is known about the interactions between grazing and global climate change on plant phenolics. We performed a factorial warming and fertilization experiment in a tundra ecosystem under light grazing and heavy grazing and analyzed individual foliar phenolics and crowberry abundance. Crowberry was more abundant under light grazing than heavy grazing. Although phenolic concentrations did not differ between grazing intensities, responses of crowberry abundance and phenolic concentrations to warming varied significantly depending on grazing intensity. Under light grazing, warming increased crowberry abundance and the concentration of stilbenes, but decreased e.g., the concentrations of flavonols, condensed tannins, and batatasin-III, resulting in no change in total phenolics. Under heavy grazing, warming did not affect crowberry abundance, and induced a weak but consistent decrease among the different phenolic compound groups, resulting in a net decrease in total phenolics. Our results show that the different phenolic compound groups may show varying or even opposing responses to warming in the tundra at different levels of grazing intensity. Even when plant phenolic concentrations do not directly respond to grazing, grazers may have a key control over plant responses to changes in the abiotic environment, reflecting multiple adaptive purposes of plant phenolics and complex interactions between the biotic and the abiotic factors. PMID:24287946

Väisänen, Maria; Martz, Françoise; Kaarlejärvi, Elina; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Stark, Sari

2013-12-01

307

MicroRNA319a-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TCP genes modulate head shape in chinese cabbage by differential cell division arrest in leaf regions.  

PubMed

Leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are composed of extremely incurved leaves. The shape of these heads often dictates the quality, and thus the commercial value, of these crops. Using quantitative trait locus mapping of head traits within a population of 150 recombinant inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, we investigated the relationship between expression levels of microRNA-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, cycloidea, and PCF transcription factor4 (BrpTCP4) genes and head shape. Here, we demonstrate that a cylindrical head shape is associated with relatively low BrpTCP4-1 expression, whereas a round head shape is associated with high BrpTCP4-1 expression. In the round-type Chinese cabbage, microRNA319 (miR319) accumulation and BrpTCP4-1 expression decrease from the apical to central regions of leaves. Overexpression of BrpMIR319a2 reduced the expression levels of BrpTCP4 and resulted in an even distribution of BrpTCP4 transcripts within all leaf regions. Changes in temporal and spatial patterns of BrpTCP4 expression appear to be associated with excess growth of both apical and interveinal regions, straightened leaf tips, and a transition from the round to the cylindrical head shape. These results suggest that the miR319a-targeted BrpTCP gene regulates the round shape of leafy heads via differential cell division arrest in leaf regions. Therefore, the manipulation of miR319a and BrpTCP4 genes is a potentially important tool for use in the genetic improvement of head shape in these crops. PMID:24351684

Mao, Yanfei; Wu, Feijie; Yu, Xiang; Bai, Jinjuan; Zhong, Weili; He, Yuke

2014-02-01

308

Characterization of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) polymorphism by sequence-based and PCR-SSP methods in Chinese Bama miniature pigs.  

PubMed

The highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genes have been repeatedly shown to influence swine immune traits, disease resistance, vaccine responsiveness and tumour penetrance. Analysis of the SLA diversity in as many pig breeds as possible is important to clarify the relationships between SLA genes and diseases or traits, and develop these pigs as valuable animal models for biomedical research. The Chinese Bama miniature pig breed is an economically significant breed that is available at several research institutions in China. In this study, we identified a total of 32 alleles at five polymorphic SLA loci (SLA-1, SLA-3, SLA-2, DRB1 and DQB1) representing nine class I and seven class II haplotypes using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) sequence-based typing (SBT) method. The possible functional sites of the SLA genes were predicted and analyzed by comparison with those of the human and mouse. Based on the sequence information, we subsequently developed a rapid PCR-based typing assay using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) to efficiently follow the SLA types of the progeny. In the studied cohort (2n = 562), the most prevalent Haplotype Hp-35.6 (SLA-1(?)1201, SLA-1(?)1301-SLA-3(?)0502-SLA-2(?)1001-DRB1(?)0501-DQB1(?)0801) was identified in 182 Bama pigs with a frequency of 32.38%. The presence of the duplicated SLA-1 locus was confirmed in five of the class I haplotypes. Moreover, we identified two crossovers within the class I region and one between the class I and class II regions, which corresponded to recombination frequencies of 0.36% and 0.18%, respectively. The information of this study is essential for an understanding of the SLA allelic architecture and diversity, and it will be helpful for studying the adaptive immune response and further developing the more effective vaccines in the context of SLA specificities. PMID:24560654

Gao, Caixia; Jiang, Qian; Guo, Dongchun; Liu, Jiasen; Han, Lingxia; Qu, Liandong

2014-07-01

309

SEASONALITY OF ANNUAL PLANT ESTABLISHMENT INFLUENCES THE INTERACTIONBETWEEN THE NON-NATIVE ANNUAL GRASS BROMUS MADRITENSIS SSP. RUBENS AND MOJAVE DESERT PERENNIALS  

SciTech Connect

Competition between native and non-native species can change the composition and structure of plant communities, but in deserts the timing of non-native plant establishment can modulate their impacts to native species. In a field experiment, we varied densities of the non-native annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens around individuals of three native perennials--Larrea iridentata, Achnatherum hymenoides, and Pleuraphis rigida--in either winter or spring. Additional plots were prepared for the Same perennial species and seasons, but with a mixture of native annual species. Relative growth rates of perennial shoots (RGRs) declined with increasing Bromus biomass when Bromus that was established in winter had 2-3 mo of growth and high water use before perennial growth began. However, this high water use did not significantly reduce water potentials for the perennials, suggesting Bromus that established earlier depleted other soil resources, such as N, otherwise used by perennial plants. Spring-established Bromus had low biomass even at higher densities and did not effectively reduce RGRs, resulting in an overall lower impact to perennials than when Bromus was established in winter. Similarly, growth and reproduction of perennials with mixed annuals as neighbors did not differ from those with Bromus neighbors of equivalent biomass, but densities of these annuals did not support the high biomass necessary to reduce perennial growth. Thus, impacts of native Mojave Desert annuals to perennials are expected to be lower than those of Bromus because seed dormancy and narrow requirements for seedling survivorship produce densities and biomass lower than those achieved by Bromus. In comparing the effects of Bromus among perennial species, the impact of increased Bromus biomass on RGR was lower for Larrea than for the two perennial grasses, probably because Lurrea maintains low growth rates throughout the year, even after Bromus has completed its life cycle. This contrasts with the perennial grasses, whose phenology overlaps completely with (Achnatherum) or closely follows (Pleuraphis) that of Bromus.

L A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; R. S. NOWAK

2004-01-01

310

Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies  

PubMed Central

Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the ‘standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the ‘non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r2) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0–2?cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (?5?cM) five times longer than the shortest (?1?cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform. PMID:22378357

Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

2012-01-01

311

Production of 3-nitropropionic acid by endophytic fungus Phomopsis longicolla isolated from Trichilia elegans A. JUSS ssp. elegans and evaluation of biological activity.  

PubMed

The compound 3-nitropropionic acid is a potent neurotoxic agent in animals and well-known as a potent inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this research, we were able to extract this compound from the endophytic fungus, Phomopsis longicolla (FJ62759), isolated from Trichilia elegans A. JUSS ssp. elegans. The aim of this study was the isolation of secondary metabolites produced by P. longicolla, the chemical identification of these compounds and evaluation of their antimicrobial and insecticidal activity. To accomplish these goals, the fungus was cultured in BD broth for 25 days without agitation at 28 °C, and then the broth was separated from the mycelium. The supernatant was partitioned with dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and butanol (BuOH) solvents resulting in 3 extracts. However, only the EtOAc extract was used for fractionation and chemical identification because it had the greatest mass. After common chromatographic procedures, the fractions were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance to elucidate the chemical components. This procedure resulted in the identification of 3-nitropropionic acid in the D fraction. Evaluation of the insecticidal and antimicrobial activity of this compound has been accomplished, and the results indicate good inhibition of the citrus pathogen Guignardia citricarpa and cocoa pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa and slight inhibition of the human bacterial pathogens Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi and slight inhibition of phytopathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli. The evaluation of insecticide activity did not show mortality of the Diatraea saccharalis larvae by the metabolite 3-nitropropionic acid in the D fraction. The results suggest that P. longicolla is a bioactive metabolic producing endophytic fungus with biotechnological properties. PMID:23296917

Flores, Andressa Caroline; Pamphile, João Alencar; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Clemente, Edmar

2013-05-01

312

The association of detection method, season, and lactation stage on identification of fecal shedding in Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infectious dairy cows.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative organism of Johne's disease. Although fecal culture is considered the standard diagnostic test, the long incubation times, costs, and intermittent shedding of MAP hinder efficient screening programs based on culture results. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the detection ability of solid culture, broth culture, and real-time PCR (qPCR) for MAP in fecal samples and to assess how shedding patterns of MAP in feces vary with lactation stage and season. This knowledge could improve the use of these diagnostic assays in Johne's management programs. For this study, 51 MAP-infectious cows from 7 Atlantic Canadian dairy farms had fecal samples collected monthly over a 12-mo period. Samples were analyzed for MAP bacterial load via solid culture, broth culture, and qPCR. For all fecal samples, 46% [95% confidence interval (CI): 40 to 51%] were positive by solid culture, 55% (95% CI: 50 to 60%) by broth culture, and 78% (95% CI: 73 to 82%) by qPCR. Sensitivity of qPCR was numerically higher in the dry and postpartum lactation periods, and qPCR detection in summer and fall was 85% of that in winter and spring. Furthermore, culture-determined moderate or light shedding categories generally corresponded to qPCR cycle threshold values <35, but heavy shedding categories corresponded to qPCR values <29. Direct fecal qPCR is a MAP detection method that is quick and less costly than culture techniques, and it avoids the use of decontamination steps that could decrease numbers of bacteria in a sample below the detection limit. This study indicates that, for known MAP-positive cows, fecal qPCR had high sensitivity of MAP detection, thereby supporting the use of direct fecal qPCR as part of a Johne's herd control program. PMID:25465628

Laurin, Emilie L; Chaffer, Marcelo; McClure, J Trenton; McKenna, Shawn L B; Keefe, Greg P

2015-01-01

313

Determination of ACC-induced cell-programmed death in roots of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining.  

PubMed

Fluorescence staining with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) showed that nuclei of cortex root cells of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-treated Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings differed in color. Measurement of resultant fluorescence intensity (RFI) showed that it increased when the color of nuclear chromatin was changed from green to red, indicating that EB moved to the nuclei via the cell membrane which lost its integrity and stained nuclei red. AO/EB staining showed that changes in color of the nuclear chromatin were accompanied by DNA condensation, nuclei fragmentation, and chromatin degradation which were also shown after 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining. These results indicate that ACC induced programmed cell death. The increasing values of RFI together with the corresponding morphological changes of nuclear chromatin were the basis to prepare the standard curve; cells with green unchanged nuclear chromatin were alive while those with dark orange and bright red nuclei were dead. The cells with nuclei with green-yellow, yellow-orange, and bright orange chromatin with or without their condensation and fragmentation chromatin were dying. The prepared curve has became the basis to draw up the digital method for detection and determination of the number of living, dying, and dead cells in an in planta system and revealed that ACC induced death in about 20% of root cortex cells. This process was accompanied by increase in ion leakage, shortening of cells and whole roots, as well as by increase in weight and width of the apical part of roots and appearance of few aerenchymatic spaces while not by internucleosomal DNA degradation. PMID:22350735

Byczkowska, Anna; Kunikowska, Anita; Ka?mierczak, Andrzej

2013-02-01

314

Molecular, Physicochemical and Rheological Characteristics of Introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum Lines with Wheat 1D/1A Chromosome Substitution  

PubMed Central

Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat) genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number) of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax), and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement. PMID:23896593

Salmanowicz, Boles?aw P.; Langner, Monika; Wi?niewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kwiatek, Micha?; B?aszczyk, Lidia

2013-01-01

315

Molecular characterization of two y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunit alleles 1Ay12 and 1Ay8 from cultivated einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum).  

PubMed

Two y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) 1Ay12 and 1Ay8 from the two accessions PI560720 and PI345186 of cultivated einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum, AA, 2n=2x=14), were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The mobility of 1Ay12 and 1Ay8 was similar to that of 1Dy12 and 1By8 from common wheat Chinese Spring, respectively. Their ORFs respectively consisted of 1812bp and 1935bp, encoding 602 and 643 amino acid residues with the four typical structural domains of HMW-GS including signal peptide, conserved N-, and C-terminal and central repetitive domains. Compared with the most similar active 1Ay alleles previous published, there were a total of 15 SNPs and 2 InDels in them. Their encoding functions were confirmed by successful heterogeneous expression. The two novel 1Ay alleles were named as 1Ay12 and 1Ay8 with the accession No. JQ318694 and JQ318695 in GenBank, respectively. The two alleles were classed into the two distinct groups, Phe-type and Cys-type, which might be relevant to the differentiation of Glu-A1-2 alleles. Of which, 1Ay8 belonged to Cys-type group, and its protein possessed an additional conserved cysteine residue in central repetitive region besides the six common ones in N- and C-terminal regions of Phe-type group, and was the second longest in all the known active 1Ay alleles. These results suggested that the subunit 1Ay8 of cultivated einkorn wheat accession PI345186 might have a potential ability to strengthen the gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for wheat quality improvement. PMID:23266635

Guo, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Bi-Hua; Hu, Xi-Gui; Bi, Zhe-Guang; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Deng-Cai; Zheng, You-Liang

2013-03-01

316

ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene apparently created by homoeologous recombination in Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides.  

PubMed

High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are of considerable interest, because they play a crucial role in determining dough viscoelastic properties and end-use quality of wheat flour. In this paper, ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric HMW-GS gene from Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (AABB, 2n=4x=28) accession D129, was isolated and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the electrophoretic mobility of the glutenin subunit encoded by ChAy/Bx was slightly faster than that of 1Dy12. The complete ORF of ChAy/Bx contained 1,671 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 555 amino acid residues (or 534 amino acid residues for the mature protein), making it the smallest HMW-GS gene known from Triticum species. Sequence analysis showed that ChAy/Bx was neither a conventional x-type nor a conventional y-type subunit gene, but a novel chimeric gene. Its first 1305 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Ay type genes, while its final 366 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Bx type genes. The mature ChAy/Bx protein consisted of the N-terminus of 1Ay type subunit (the first 414 amino acid residues) and the C-terminus of 1Bx type subunit (the final 120 amino acid residues). Secondary structure prediction showed that ChAy/Bx contained some domains of 1Ay subunit and some domains of 1Bx subunit. The special structure of this HMW glutenin chimera ChAy/Bx subunit might have unique effects on the end-use quality of wheat flour. Here we propose that homoeologous recombination might be a novel pathway for allelic variation or molecular evolution of HMW-GSs. PMID:24012818

Guo, Xiao-Hui; Bi, Zhe-Guang; Wu, Bi-Hua; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Hu, Ji-Liang; Zheng, You-Liang; Liu, Deng-Cai

2013-12-01

317

Evidence for Cross-Tolerance to Nutrient Deficiency in Three Disjunct Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata in Response to Substrate Calcium to Magnesium Ratio  

PubMed Central

Species with widespread distributions that grow in varied habitats may consist of ecotypes adapted to a particular habitat, or may exhibit cross-tolerance that enables them to exploit a variety of habitats. Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata (L.) O’Kane & Al-Shehbaz grow in a wide variety of edaphic settings including serpentine soil, limestone sand, and alluvial flood plains. While all three of these environments share some stressors, a crucial difference among these environments is soil calcium to magnesium ratio, which ranges from 25?1 in the limestone sand to 0.2?1 in serpentine soil. The three populations found on these substrates were subjected to three different Ca to Mg ratios under controlled environmental conditions during germination and rosette growth. Response to Ca to Mg ratio was evaluated through germination success and radicle growth rate, rosette growth rate, and the content of Ca and Mg in the rosette. All three populations were particularly efficient in fueling growth under nutrient deficiency, with the highest nutrient efficiency ratio for Ca under Ca deficiency and for Mg under Mg deficiency. Although the serpentine population had significantly higher leaf Ca to Mg ratio than the limestone or flood plain populations under all three Ca to Mg ratios, this increase did not result in any advantage in growth or appearance of the serpentine plants, during early life stages before the onset of flowering, even in the high Mg substrate. The three populations showed no population by substrate interaction for any of the parameters measured indicating that these populations may have cross-tolerance to substrate Ca to Mg ratio. PMID:23650547

Veatch-Blohm, Maren E.; Roche, Bernadette M.; Campbell, MaryJean

2013-01-01

318

Designing a risk-based surveillance program for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in Norwegian dairy herds using multivariate statistical process control analysis.  

PubMed

Surveillance programs for animal diseases are critical to early disease detection and risk estimation and to documenting a population's disease status at a given time. The aim of this study was to describe a risk-based surveillance program for detecting Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Norwegian dairy cattle. The included risk factors for detecting MAP were purchase of cattle, combined cattle and goat farming, and location of the cattle farm in counties containing goats with MAP. The risk indicators included production data [culling of animals >3 yr of age, carcass conformation of animals >3 yr of age, milk production decrease in older lactating cows (lactations 3, 4, and 5)], and clinical data (diarrhea, enteritis, or both, in animals >3 yr of age). Except for combined cattle and goat farming and cattle farm location, all data were collected at the cow level and summarized at the herd level. Predefined risk factors and risk indicators were extracted from different national databases and combined in a multivariate statistical process control to obtain a risk assessment for each herd. The ordinary Hotelling's T(2) statistic was applied as a multivariate, standardized measure of difference between the current observed state and the average state of the risk factors for a given herd. To make the analysis more robust and adapt it to the slowly developing nature of MAP, monthly risk calculations were based on data accumulated during a 24-mo period. Monitoring of these variables was performed to identify outliers that may indicate deviance in one or more of the underlying processes. The highest-ranked herds were scattered all over Norway and clustered in high-density dairy cattle farm areas. The resulting rankings of herds are being used in the national surveillance program for MAP in 2014 to increase the sensitivity of the ongoing surveillance program in which 5 fecal samples for bacteriological examination are collected from 25 dairy herds. The use of multivariate statistical process control for selection of herds will be beneficial when a diagnostic test suitable for mass screening is available and validated on the Norwegian cattle population, thus making it possible to increase the number of sampled herds. PMID:25200769

Whist, A C; Liland, K H; Jonsson, M E; Sæbø, S; Sviland, S; Østerås, O; Norström, M; Hopp, P

2014-11-01

319

An Ecological Friendly Dragee Technic Application on Crop Seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summary: In Brazíl, in EMBRAPA/CNPH was developing a dragée technic for seeds of crops and vegetables of carrot (Daucus carota L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), micro tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Andropogon ssp. and Eucalyptus ssp. using as inert material the dolomite (CaCO3 96%) powder fractions (0.05 to 1.00 mm) and as cementing adhesives the polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and Gumma arabicum (Ga) (0 to 80% in water). On dragée process were using fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mankoceb (1 to 5 g fungicide/kg dolomite powder) and nutrients (N, P2O5, K2O 0.05 to 0.5, MgO, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co 0.000005 to 0.1 g/ kg dolomite powder) were applied from 1990. to 1993. Best results obtained with fraction of dolomite powder of 0.07 to 0.60 mm of diameter and adhesive of polyvinyl acetate (PVA) with the concentration between 10 to 20%. The dragées obtained presented a mechanical resistance of 0.5 kg/cm2 had show a germination higher than 90% without any phytotoxical effects to the seedlings. Fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mankoceb with the concentration 3-3 and mineral nutrients N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co with the concentration 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, 0.06, 0.00045, 0.00025, 0.0011, 0.00057, 0.00045, 0.000084, 0.00001 g/kg dolomite powder were showed best reultes, respectively. With this dragée utilization we could make possible the intensive use of highest quality seeds wich because of their higher costs are prohibitive in the actual systems of production. Keywords:crops, vegetables, seeds, dragée, nutrients, fungicides Introduction: In Latin America, Brazíl is the far greatest producer of crops and vegetables, with an annual production estimated at 9.631.000 tons in the value of 1.576 million dollars. Fifty species are cultivated of which 35 are producing botanical seeds including 162 varieties commercialized. The average national production of vegetable seeds is of 1.329,73 tons per year with an additional importation of 553,14 tons (Warley and Homero 1991). Most of the seeds of species are small requiring special preparation of the soil or the formation of seedlings and transplantation limiting the possibilities to mechanized planting. Besides the small size of seeds their trichome contents their wrinkle and their sensibility to mechanical damage difficult their uniform and precise distribution at sowing. To avoid error of "stand" and excessive number of seeds is sown followed by thinning out to eliminate exceeding plants. That results in the rise of production costs leding the producer to the utilization of cheaper seeds giving up extra gains that may results from the usage of better cultivars. The dragée facilitates the uniform distribution of seeds and makes precision mechanical planting possible (Márton 1993). In the process of plant productions the use of dragéed seeds facilitates the distribution of seeds that rises productive rentability (Silva and Márton 1992). The National Research Center for Vegetable Crops was developing dragée techniques of seeds based on Hungarian technology viewing the utilization of natural resources from the Brazílian situation from 1990 to 1993 (Márton 1999, 2000). Material and Method: At the first stage an equipment was developed for the production of dragées on the laboratory scale. The apparatus was permitting different material tests of seeds of various species obtaining dragées of carrot (Daucus carota L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and micro tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Andropogon ssp. and Eucalyptus ssp. using as inert material the dolomite (CaCO3 96%) powder fractions (0.05 to 1.00 mm) and as cementing adhesives the polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and Gumma arabicum (Ga) (0 to 80% in water). On dragée process were using fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mancoceb (1 to 5 g fungicide/kg dolomite powder) and mineral nutrients (N, P2O5, K2O 0.

László, M.

2009-04-01

320

Differential effect of sample preservation methods on plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal DNA.  

PubMed

A wide range of methods are commonly used for preserving environmental samples prior to molecular analyses. However, the effect of these preservation methods on fungal DNA is not understood. The objective of this study was to test the effect of eight different preservation methods on the quality and yield of DNA extracted from Bromus inermis and Daucus carota roots colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus intraradices. The total DNA concentration in sample extracts was quantified using spectrophotometry. Samples that were frozen (-80 masculineC and -20 masculineC), stored in 95% ethanol, or silica gel dried yielded total (plant and fungal) DNA concentrations that were not significantly different from fresh samples. In contrast, samples stored in CTAB solution or freeze-dried resulted in significantly reduced DNA concentrations compared with fresh samples. The preservation methods had no effect on the purity of the sample extracts for both plant species. However, the DNA of the dried samples (silica gel dried, freeze-dried, heat dried) appeared to be slightly more degraded compared with samples that remained hydrated (frozen, stored in ethanol or CTAB solutions) during storage when visualized on a gel. The concentration of AM fungal DNA in sample extracts was quantified using TaqMan real time PCR. Methods that preserved samples in hydrated form had similar AM fungal DNA concentrations as fresh samples, except D. carota samples stored in ethanol. In contrast, preservation methods that involved drying the samples had very low concentrations of AM fungal DNA for B. inermis, and nearly undetectable for D. carota samples. The drying process appears to be a major factor in the degradation of AM fungal DNA while having less of an impact on plant DNA. Based on these results, samples that need to be preserved prior to molecular analysis of AM fungi should be kept frozen to minimize the degradation of plant and AM fungal DNA. PMID:20470836

Bainard, L D; Klironomos, J N; Hart, M M

2010-08-01

321

EPR as an analytical tool in assessing the mineral nutrients and irradiated food products-vegetables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EPR spectral investigations of some commonly available vegetables in south India, which are of global importance like Daucus carota (carrot), Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (cluster beans), Coccinia indica (little gourd) and Beta vulgaris (beet root) have been carried out. In all the vegetable samples a free radical corresponding to cellulose radical is observed. Almost all the samples under investigation exhibit Mn ions in different oxidation states. The temperature variation EPR studies are done and are discussed in view of the paramagnetic oxidation states. The radiation-induced defects have also been assessed by using the EPR spectra of such irradiated food products.

Prasuna, C. P. Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Gopal, N. O.

2008-12-01

322

Anthiovulatory activity of five indigenous plants in rabbits.  

PubMed

The petroleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of 5 indigenous plants, known to have antifertility activity in female rats and mice (Areca catechu Linn, Carica papaya Linn, Daucus carota Linn, Mentha arvensis Linn and polygonum hydropiper Linn), were evaluated for their possible antiovulatory activity in rabbits with copper-induced ovulation. The alcoholic extract of Mentha arvensis (leaves) and the petroleum ether extract of the roots of Polygonum hydropiper were the most successful agents, inhibiting ovulation in 60% of the animals. All the other extracts inhibited ovulation in 40%, or less, of the animals. PMID:4442983

Kapoor, M; Garg, S K; Mathur, V S

1974-08-01

323

Identification of betalains from petioles of differently colored Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. cicla [L.] Alef. Cv. Bright Lights) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The betalain pattern of differently colored Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. cicla [L.] Alef. cv. Bright Lights) was investigated for the first time. Nineteen betaxanthins and nine betacyanins were identified by RP-HPLC and positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry, co-injection experiments with semisynthetic reference compounds, and standards derived from authentic plant material, respectively. Histamine-betaxanthin and alanine-betaxanthin were found to be novel betaxanthins, which to the best of our knowledge have not been reported as natural compounds until now. Furthermore, tyramine-betaxanthin (miraxanthin III) and 3-methoxytyramine-betaxanthin, which to date were known only from families other than the Chenopodiaceae, were detected for the first time in colored Swiss chard. The betacyanin pattern of purple petioles was composed of betanin, isobetanin, betanidin, and isobetanidin. Although phyllocactin was present in only trace amounts, further acylated structures such as betanidin-monoferuloyl-5-O-beta-diglucoside and lampranthin II, accompanied by their corresponding C(15)-epimers, were identified. In addition, quantification of betalains and CIE LCh degrees measurements were performed with the colored extracts to correlate the visual appearance with the respective pigment patterns. Besides the novel phytochemical findings, the present study is useful for the evaluation of betalainic Swiss chard as a potential coloring foodstuff. PMID:15137842

Kugler, Florian; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

2004-05-19

324

Transposon Mutagenesis of the Plant-Associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 Revealed That the nfrA and RBAM17410 Genes Are Involved in Plant-Microbe-Interactions  

PubMed Central

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 represents the prototype of Gram-positive plant growth promoting and biocontrol bacteria. In this study, we applied transposon mutagenesis to generate a transposon library, which was screened for genes involved in multicellular behavior and biofilm formation on roots as a prerequisite of plant growth promoting activity. Transposon insertion sites were determined by rescue-cloning followed by DNA sequencing. As in B. subtilis, the global transcriptional regulator DegU was identified as an activator of genes necessary for swarming and biofilm formation, and the DegU-mutant of FZB42 was found impaired in efficient root colonization. Direct screening of 3,000 transposon insertion mutants for plant-growth-promotion revealed the gene products of nfrA and RBAM_017140 to be essential for beneficial effects exerted by FZB42 on plants. We analyzed the performance of GFP-labeled wild-type and transposon mutants in the colonization of lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While the wild-type strain heavily colonized root surfaces, the nfrA mutant did not colonize lettuce roots, although it was not impaired in growth in laboratory cultures, biofilm formation and swarming motility on agar plates. The RBAM17410 gene, occurring in only a few members of the B. subtilis species complex, was directly involved in plant growth promotion. None of the mutant strains were affected in producing the plant growth hormone auxin. We hypothesize that the nfrA gene product is essential for overcoming the stress caused by plant response towards bacterial root colonization. PMID:24847778

Dietel, Kristin; Beator, Barbara; Dolgova, Olga; Fan, Ben; Bleiss, Wilfrid; Ziegler, Jörg; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Borriss, Rainer

2014-01-01

325

Hypaphorine, an indole-3-acetic acid antagonist delivered by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius, induces reorganisation of actin and the microtubule cytoskeleton in Eucalyptus globulus ssp bicostata root hairs.  

PubMed

Hypaphorine, an indole alkaloid from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius Coker & Couch., counteracts indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) activity and controls the rate of root hair elongation in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. bicostata. The present investigation shows that hypaphorine changes cytoskeletal organisation in elongating root hairs of the host. The actin cytoskeleton was investigated by two different fixation and labelling procedures, which gave similar results. In control root hairs, actin organisation was characterised by (i) an actin cap at the very tip region, (ii) a subapical region with reduced labelling and containing fine actin filaments, and (iii) axial bundles of actin filaments running from the subapical part to the base of the root hair. In the hypaphorine-treated root hairs no actin cap was distinguished. The fine actin filaments occurring in the subapical region were replaced by a few thick actin filament bundles that extended from the subapical region toward the root hair tip. In the hypaphorine-treated hairs the total number of actin filament bundles along most of the root hair length was significantly reduced, presumably due to aggregation of pre-existing actin filaments. The first signs of alteration to the cytoskeleton could be detected as soon as 15 min after hypaphorine treatment. In hypaphorine-treated, but not in control root hairs, a patch of aggregated microtubules regularly occurred at a distance of approximately 10 microm from the tip, possibly as a consequence of changes induced by hypaphorine in the actin cytoskeleton. The hypaphorine-induced aggregations in the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons could stabilise the structure of cytoskeletal elements, which in turn could hinder the vesicle delivery at the tip necessary for elongation. Such cytoskeletal alterations may be a consequence of the antagonism between IAA and hypaphorine. The latter view was supported by restoration of the actin cytoskeleton in hypaphorine-treated root hairs by IAA application. PMID:14504925

Ditengou, Franck Anicet; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Lapeyrie, Frédéric

2003-12-01

326

Influence of high-pressure processing on the profile of polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in selected vegetables.  

PubMed

In plants, folate occurs predominantly as 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) polyglutamyl forms. Differences in stability and bioavailability of food folate compared to synthetic folic acid have been attributed to the presence of the polyglutamyl chain. High-pressure processing (HPP) was tested for whether it might shorten polyglutamyl chains of 5MTHF species in fresh vegetables by enabling action of native ?-glutamylhydrolase (GGH). A validated ultrahigh-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using stable isotope as internal standard was applied for characterizing 5MTHF polyglutamyl profiles. HPP conditions included 300, 450, and 600 MPa at 30 °C for 0 or 5 min, and vegetables were vacuum-packed before treatment. Investigated vegetables included cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), baby carrots (Daucus carota), and carrot greens (D. carota). HPP treatment caused conversion of polyglutamyl 5MTHF species to short-chain and monoglutamyl forms. Maximal conversion of polyglutamyl folate to monoglutamyl folate occurred at the highest pressure/time combination investigated, 600 MPa/30 °C/5 min. Under this condition, cauliflower monoglutamyl folate increased nearly 4-fold, diglutamyl folate 32-fold, and triglutamyl folate 8-fold; carrot monoglutamyl increased 23-fold and diglutamyl 32-fold; and carrot greens monoglutamyl increased 2.5-fold and the diglutamyl form 19-fold. Although some folate degradation was observed at certain intermediate HPP conditions, total 5MTHF folate was largely preserved at 600 MPa/5 min. Thus, HPP of raw vegetables is a feasible strategy for enhancing vegetable monoglutamate 5MTHF. PMID:21770413

Wang, Chao; Riedl, Ken M; Somerville, Jeremy; Balasubramaniam, V M; Schwartz, Steven J

2011-08-24

327

Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants.  

PubMed

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants. PMID:25548775

Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

2014-01-01

328

Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants  

PubMed Central

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

2014-01-01

329

Novel mechanism of modulating natural antioxidants in functional foods: involvement of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria NRRL B-30488.  

PubMed

The significance of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mediated increase in antioxidant potential in vegetables is yet unknown. The plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 (B-30488) mediated induction of dietary antioxidant in vegetables ( Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lactuca sativa, Spinacia oleracea, and Daucus carota) and fruit ( Citrus sinensis) after minimal processing (fresh, boiled, and frozen) was tested by estimating the total phenol content, level of antioxidant enzymes, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide scavenging activities along with integral radical scavenging capacity by photochemiluminescence assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Minimal processing of vegetables showed that T. foenum-graecum had the highest phenol content in B-30488-treated plants followed by L. sativa, D. carota, and S. oleracea. Thermally treated vegetables T. foenum-graecum (26-114.5 GAE microg mg (-1)) had an exceptionally high total phenolic content, followed by D. carota (25.27-101.32 GAE microg mg (-1)), L. sativa (23.22-101.10 GAE microg mg (-1)), and S. oleracea (21.87-87.57 GAE microg mg (-1)). Among the vegetables and fruit used in this study for enzymatic estimation, induction of antioxidant enzymes, namely, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD), was observed in edible parts of T. foenum-graecum, L. sativa, S. oleracea, and D. carota, after inoculation with B-30488. The scavenging capacity of the vegetables treated with B-30488 against DPPH and superoxide anion radical activity was found to be significantly high as compared to nontreated control. Mild food processing had no adverse effect on radical scavenging capacity. Photochemiluminescence also ascertains the above findings. The ability of the plant extracts to protect against lipid peroxidation and its ability to prevent oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured in rat liver homogenate, and the results suggested that the inoculated plant exhibited better activity in all of the screened plants. Significant increases in shoot length, root length, and dry weight, averaging 164, 132, and 135% in T. foenum-graecum, 174, 141, and 156% in L. sativa, 129, 141, and 59%, in S. oleracea, and 125, 146, and 42% in D. carota, respectively, over untreated controls, were attained in greenhouse trials. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of PGPR-mediated induction of antioxidant enzyme activity (PPO, APX, CAT, and SOD) along with the antioxidant activity of the extracts in both in vitro (DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide scavenging) and ex vivo conditions using the rat liver tissue (percent inhibition of lipid peroxidation and prevention of oxidation of GSH) and phenolic content. The results demonstrate the PGPR-mediated induction of antioxidant level in vegetables and fruit controls oxidative damage even after minimal processing and thus is indicative of its potential as a viable substitute of synthetic antioxidants. PMID:18491912

Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Lavania, Meeta; Pushpangadan, Palpu

2008-06-25

330

The NERSC Sustained System Performance (SSP) Metric  

SciTech Connect

Most plans and reports recently discuss only one of four distinct purposes benchmarks are used. The obvious purpose is selection of a system from among its competitors, something that is the main focus of this paper. This purpose is well discussed in many workshops and reports. The second use of benchmarks is validating the selected system actually works the way expected once it arrives. This purpose may be more important than the first reason. The second purpose is particularly key when systems are specified and selected based on performance projections rather than actual runs on the actual hardware. The third use of benchmarks, seldom mentioned, is to assure the system performs as expected throughout its lifetime1, (e.g. after upgrades, changes, and regular use.) Finally, benchmarks are used to guide system designs, something covered in detail in a companion paper from Berkeley's Institute for Performance Studies (BIPS).

Kramer, William; Shalf, John; Strohmaier, Erich

2005-09-18

331

Schoolhouse Systems Project: SSP. 3rd Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure provides statistical bid breakdown for Programs 1A and 2 of the Florida Schoolhouse Systems Project. Tabular information is provided on bidders, compatible building subsystems, bid tabulation by compatibility, "per school" building subsystems, nominated bidders and lump sums, and a comparison of programs 1A and 2 bids. Data presented…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

332

Susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria ssp  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with {sup 3}H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with {sup 125}I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae.

Whiteman, L.Y.

1988-01-01

333

Sensitivity of Carrot Cell Cultures and RNA Polymerase II to Amatoxins 1  

PubMed Central

Protoplast and cell suspension cultures of Daucus carota L. were evaluated for their sensitivity toward the three amatoxin derivatives, ?-amanitin, 6?-deoxy-?-amanitin, and 6?-O-methyl-?-amanitin using inhibition of DNA synthesis to measure cell viability. Protoplasts appeared approximately 10-fold more refractory than suspension cells and ?-amanitin was much less effective than the other two amatoxins, even though Ki values for isolated RNA polymerase II were similar (4-5 nanomolar). Additional studies evaluating the recoveries of all three amatoxins from cell suspension supernates indicate one basis for these differences to be the selective degradation of ?-amanitin. A mechanism involving the activation of the hydroxyindole moiety of the ?-amanitin is thus invoked to explain these differences and we postulate the involvement of plant oxidases in this role. PMID:16664072

Little, Michael C.; Preston, James F.

1985-01-01

334

Effects of Aspartate and Other Compounds on Glyphosate Uptake and Growth Inhibition in Cultured Carrot Cells 1  

PubMed Central

The strong correlation between glyphosate uptake and growth inhibition of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L. cv Danvers) cells incubated in the presence of aspartate suggests that aspartate reverses glyphosate inhibition of growth primarily by reducing intracellular glyphosate concentration. Other compounds which reverse glyphosate inhibition of cell growth gave a range of effects on glyphosate uptake: succinate, ?-ketoglutarate, glutamate, pyruvate, and malate at 10 millimolar and phenylalanine at 2 millimolar reduced uptake by 0, 8, 11, 16, 27, and 34%, respectively. These results suggest that more than one mechanism of reversal may operate in these cells. Glyphosate and aspartate produced only minor effects on intracellular ammonia, media pH, and cell viability. This suggests that ammonia toxicity may not be an important mechanism of action of glyphosate in this system. PMID:16662877

Nafziger, Emerson D.; Widholm, Jack M.; Slife, Fred W.

1983-01-01

335

Effectiveness of different EDU concentrations in ameliorating ozone stress in carrot plants.  

PubMed

Ethylenediurea (EDU) is suggested for use to evaluate plant response under ambient ozone (O(3)) concentrations. Four EDU treatments, viz. 0 (non-EDU), 150, 300 and 450 mg L(-1), applied as soil drench at 10 days interval to carrot (Daucus carota L. var. Pusa Kesar), grown at a tropical suburban site of Varanasi experiencing mean O(3) concentration of 36.1 ppb during the experimental period. EDU treated plants showed significantly higher antioxidative defense, assimilation capability and reduced membrane lipid peroxidation, which led to better growth and significant yield increments compared to non-EDU treated ones. The magnitude of positive responses was highest at 150 mg L(-1) EDU treatment at 60 DAG, representing the metabolically most active phase of root filling in carrot. This study suggests that the lowest EDU concentration was sufficient to provide protection against negative effects of O(3). PMID:20403638

Tiwari, Supriya; Agrawal, Madhoolika

2010-07-01

336

Anaerobically digested poultry slaughterhouse wastes as fertiliser in agriculture.  

PubMed

Chemical and physical analysis, 27-d plant growth assays with carrot (Daucus carota) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris var. chinensis), and 5-d phytotoxicity assays with Chinese cabbage and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) were used to investigate the suitability of anaerobically digested poultry slaughterhouse waste for fertiliser in agriculture and the effect of aerobic post-treatment on the properties of the digested material. The digested material appeared to be rich in nitrogen. In 27-d assays with digested material as nitrogen source, carrots grew almost as well as those fertilised with a commercial mineral fertiliser used as reference, whereas, the growth of Chinese cabbage was inhibited. In further 5-d phytotoxicity assays, the digested material inhibited the germination and root growth of ryegrass and Chinese cabbage, apparently because of organic acids present in it. Aerobic post-treatment of the material reduced its phytotoxicity but, probably due to the volatilisation of ammonia, resulted in loss of nitrogen. PMID:11265792

Salminen, E; Rintala, J; Härkönen, J; Kuitunen, M; Högmander, H; Oikari, A

2001-05-01

337

Long and short term effects of plasma treatment on meristematic plant cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we will present results of plasma treatments of meristematic cells of Daucus carota. Plasma needle was used as an atmospheric pressure/gas composition source of non-equilibrium plasma in all treatments. Activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase was measured immediately after plasma treatment and after two weeks following the treatment. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased in samples immediately after the plasma treatment. On the other hand, catalase activity was much higher in treated samples when measured two weeks after plasma treatment. These results show that there is a direct proof of the triggering of signal transduction in the cells by two reactive oxygen species H2O2 and O2-, causing enzyme activity and short and long term effects even during the growth of calli, where the information is passed to newborn cells over the period of two weeks.

Pua?, N.; Živkovi?, S.; Selakovi?, N.; Milutinovi?, M.; Boljevi?, J.; Malovi?, G.; Petrovi?, Z. Lj.

2014-05-01

338

The Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Plant Nitrogen Metabolism 12  

PubMed Central

In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, in vitro gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and automated 15N/13C mass spectrometry have been used to demonstrate that glutamate dehydrogenase is active in the oxidation of glutamate, but not in the reductive amination of 2-oxogiutarate. In cell suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv Chantenay), primary assimilation of ammonium occurs via the glutamate synthase pathway. Glutamate dehydrogenase is derepressed in carbonlimited cells and in such cells the function of glutamate dehydrogenase appears to be the oxidation of glutamate, thus ensuring sufficient carbon skeletons for effective functioning of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This catabolic role for glutamate dehydrogenase implies an important regulatory function in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:16668014

Robinson, Sharon A.; Slade, Annette P.; Fox, Gary G.; Phillips, Richard; Ratcliffe, R. George; Stewart, George R.

1991-01-01

339

Heat shock factors in carrot: genome-wide identification, classification, and expression profiles response to abiotic stress.  

PubMed

Heat shock factors (HSFs) play key roles in the response to abiotic stress in eukaryotes. In this study, 35 DcHSFs were identified from carrot (Daucus carota L.) based on the carrot genome database. All 35 DcHSFs were divided into three classes (A, B, and C) according to the structure and phylogenetic relationships of four different plants, namely, Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Brassica rapa, and Oryza sativa. Comparative analysis of algae, gymnosperms, and angiosperms indicated that the numbers of HSF transcription factors were related to the plant's evolution. The expression profiles of five DcHsf genes (DcHsf 01, DcHsf 02, DcHsf 09, DcHsf 10, and DcHsf 16), which selected from each subfamily (A, B, and C), were detected by quantitative real-time PCR under abiotic stresses (cold, heat, high salinity, and drought) in two carrot cultivars, D. carota L. cvs. Kurodagosun and Junchuanhong. The expression levels of DcHsfs were markedly increased by heat stress, except that of DcHsf 10, which was down regulated. The expression profiles of different DcHsfs in the same class also differed under various stress treatments. The expression profiles of these DcHsfs were also different in tissues of two carrot cultivars. This study is the first to identify and characterize the DcHSF family transcription factors in plants of Apiaceae using whole-genome analysis. The results of this study provide an in-depth understanding of the DcHSF family transcription factors' structure, function, and evolution in carrot. PMID:25403331

Huang, Ying; Li, Meng-Yao; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guang-Long; Ma, Jing; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

2014-11-19

340

THE ETHNOBOTANY OF CHAYA (CNIDOSCOLUSACONITIFOLIUS SSP. ACONITIFOLIUSBRECKON): A NUTRITIOUS  

E-print Network

ethnobotanicalinvestigationinto its use as a food plant and medicine,and discuss its botany,nomenclature,andagriculturaluse. Due, medicine, a living ' Received24 October2000;accepted15June2002. fence-post, and an ornamentalplantby origin,andperhapsits futurein otherregionsas well. METHODS Botanical collections of both cultivatedand

Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

341

Evaluation of proposed Skylab and SSP soap products.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four candidate cleansing agents evaluated in terms of potential hazards to crew members included two soaps (Neutrogena bar soap and Olive Leaf Liquid), one nonfoaming surfactant (Miranol JEM), and one laundry detergent (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate). None of the four exhibited adverse dermatological effects from skin patch tests or supported growth of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Aqueous solutions of Neutrogena did support a mold species. Neutrogena and Miranol JEM were used in a simulated Skylab personal hygiene regimen with no adverse effects on skin or skin microflora. Based on our results, each of these agents appear to be a promising candidate material for the use intended.

Durfee, R. L.; Spurlock, J. M.; Whitmore, F. C.

1973-01-01

342

Evaluation of proposed Skylab and SSP soap products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three personal hygiene cleansing agents and one laundry detergent (sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate), which are all candidates for use on long-duration space missions, were evaluated in terms of dermatological effects on human subjects and effects on microbiological species. None of the four materials exhibited adverse dermatological effects from either skin patch tests of two weeks duration or a simulated Skylab personal hygiene regimen of up to four weeks duration. No significant alterations in skin microflora during the use regimen were found. None of the four materials were found to serve as microbiological support media for the species tested, but a species of air-borne mold was observed to grow rapidly in a neutralized aqueous solution. None of the candidate agents was found to be strongly biocidal.

Whitmore, F. C.; Durfee, R. L.; Spurlock, J. M.

1973-01-01

343

Evaluation of Oil Compositions of Iranian Mints (Mentha ssp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried aerial parts of 12 accessions of Iranian mints, three of which belonged to Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. and the remaining of which belonged to Mentha spicata L., were used in this study. These were water distilled, and the essential oils analyzed by GC (FID) and GC\\/MS. Results indicated a significant variation in oil composition within the accessions. cis-Carveol (53.5–78.2%)

Hossein Zeinali; Ahmad Arzani; K. Razmjoo; Mohmmad B. Rezaee

2005-01-01

344

Beet leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) settling behavior, survival, and reproduction on selected host plants.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to determine the settling behavior, survival, and reproduction of the beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus (Baker), when maintained on selected host plants. This leafhopper was recently identified in the Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon as the probable vector of the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent phytoplasma, causal agent of several vegetable crop diseases, including potato purple top. Plants selected for study were sugar beet, Beta vulgaris L.; radish, Raphanus sativus L.; dry bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L.; potato, Solanum tuberosum L.; carrot, Daucus carota L.; and tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Leafhopper adults were confined on caged plants, and settling behavior was observed during a 72-h period and survival was monitored for 40 d. Also, oviposition and nymphal production were investigated by maintaining leafhoppers for approximately 90 d on each of the selected plants. Sixty to 100% of leafhoppers settled on all studied plants during the first 5 h, but settling on bean and tomato declined sharply thereafter. Leafhopper mortality was very high on bean and tomato, with 95 and 65% of the leafhoppers, respectively, dying in about a week. In contrast, 77, 90, and 95% of leafhoppers maintained on potato, sugar beet, and radish, respectively, survived until the end of the 40-d experimental period. Beet leafhopper oviposition and nymphal production and development only occurred on sugar beet, radish, and potato; reproduction was lower on potato. PMID:16539100

Munyaneza, J E; Upton, J E

2005-12-01

345

[Cloning and bioinformatic analysis of PqERF1 gene in Panax quinquefolius].  

PubMed

ERF family transcription factor (TF) represented ethylene-responsive protein which harbored a conserved AP2 domain. After searching the plant transcription factor database, a total of 75 unigenes was found which contained AP2 domain from the transcriptome dataset of Panax quinquefolius L. One unique sequence of ERF transcript, named as PqERF1, was cloned with entire open reading frame of 933 base pairs (bp). Protein prediction result indicated that the gene was localized in nucleus and had a conserved AP2 domain. PqERF1 gene could be induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) which was consistent to the inducing profile of triterpene ginsenosides. InterproScan prediction indicated that PqERF1 was probably a pathogenesis-related gene. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated PqERF1 was with high identity and had relative close relationship to the NtERF4 (Nicotiana tabacum), PhERF12 (Petunia x hybrida) and DcERF1 (Daucus carota) which was related to plant defense, regulation of secondary metabolism and the flower senescence respectively. Therefore, the gene was likely involved in regulation of secondary metabolism, plant defense and physical processes which would provide gene resource for further study on secondary metabolite synthesis and molecular breeding of P. quinquefolius. PMID:22007529

Sun, Yong-Zhen; Niu, Yun-Yun; Li, Ying; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Luo, Hong-Mei; Chen, Shi-Lin

2011-08-01

346

Fourier-Transform Raman and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (An Investigation of Five Higher Plant Cell Walls and Their Components).  

PubMed

Infrared and Raman spectra of sequentially extracted primary cell walls and their pectic polymers were obtained from five angiosperm plants. Fourier-transform Raman spectrometry was shown to be a powerful tool for the investigation of primary cell-wall architecture at a molecular level, providing complementary information to that obtained by Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy. The use of an extraction procedure using imidazole instead of cyclohexane trans-1,2-N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-diaminotetraacetate allows the extension of the infrared spectral window for data interpretation from 1300 to 800 cm-1, to 2000 to 800 cm-1, and allows us to obtain Raman spectra from extracted cell-wall material. Wall constituents such as pectins, proteins, aromatic phenolics, cellulose, and hemicellulose have characteristic spectral features that can be used to identify and/or fingerprint these polymers without, in most cases, the need for any physical separation. The Gramineae (rice [Oryza sativa], polypogon [Polypogon fugax steud], and sweet corn [Zea mays]) are spectroscopically very different from the nongraminaceous monocotyledon (onion [Allium cepa]) and the dicotyledon (carrot [Daucus carota]); this reflects differences in chemical composition and cross-linking of the walls. The possibility of a taxonomic classification of plant cell walls based on infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the use of spectral fingerprinting for authentication and detection of adulteration of products rich in cell-wall materials are discussed. PMID:12232436

Sene, CFB.; McCann, M. C.; Wilson, R. H.; Grinter, R.

1994-12-01

347

Isolated root caps, border cells, and mucilage from host roots stimulate hyphal branching of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Gigaspora gigantea.  

PubMed

Unlike previous reports that have shown that water soluble and volatile compounds from roots or root exudates play an important role in precolonization events during arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus-host root interactions (Bécard & Piché 1989, Giovannetti et al. 1993), the results shown here deal with particulate and viscous fractions isolated from host roots. Root caps and a slow sedimenting particulate fraction (SSPF) were rapidly isolated and separated from Ri T-DNA transformed carrot roots (D. carota) grown in liquid culture. In addition, border cells (BC) and mucilage were isolated from aseptically grown corn seedlings (Zea mays). Root caps, SSPF (composed mainly of small root cap fragments and some BCs), BCs, and mucilage all had an associated AM fungus hyphal branching stimulator. Root caps stored for 5 d at 4 degrees C appeared to either synthesize or slowly release the branching stimulator. Also, isolated root caps from roots grown in the absence of P contained more branch stimulating activity than those isolated from roots grown in the presence of P. Although the branching stimulation activity in particulate fractions was low compared to that of the exudate, the particulate fractions can stick to the root surface at considerable distances from the root tip. This may be significant during the infection and colonization of host roots at sites far removed from the primary location of exudation. PMID:15506019

Nagahashi, Gerald; Douds, David D

2004-09-01

348

[Photosynthetic characteristics and coenological survey of Lactuca serriola in its invaded area].  

PubMed

Lactuca serriola, a national class quarantine object, is a new invasive species in the coastal area of Southeast China. The coenological survey showed that because of its big individual, L. serriola could easily form dominant population in its invaded area, and its main accompany species were Conyza canadensis, C. bonarinisis, Bidentis bipinnata, Oenothera laciniata, Ipomoea hederacea, Setaria viridis, Daucus carota, Xanthium sibiricum, Erigeron annuus, L. indica, Humulus scandens, Solanum nigrum and Aster sublatus. The measurements with LCA-4 portable photosynthesis and transpiration system (ADC, England) revealed that the net photosynthetic rate of L. serriola was as high as 21.22 +/- 0.45 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1), being slightly lower than that of E. annuus and C. bonarinisis, similar to that of C. canadensis, and higher than that of Chenopodium album, Plantago virginica and L. indica. Based on the photosynthesis-light response equation, the theoretic light compensation point of L. serriola was 37.58 micromol m(-2) x s(-1), its theoretic light saturation point was 1 480 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), and theoretic maximal net photosynthetic rate was 20.81 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1). A distinct "noon break" phenomenon was observed in L. serriola photosynthesis, which might result from the high stomatal resistance against high light intensity and temperature. The main factors affecting the net photosynthetic rate of L. serriola were leaf photosynthetic active radiation, stomatal conductance, and leaf transpiration rate. PMID:17330472

Guo, Shui-Liang; Fang, Fang; Ni, Liping; Chen, Wanlin; Shi, Laidi

2006-12-01

349

Carbonaceous soil amendments to biofortify crop plants with zinc.  

PubMed

Carbonaceous soil amendments, comprising mixtures of biosolids and biochar, have been demonstrated to improve fertility while reducing nitrate leaching. We aimed to determine the efficacy of a biosolids/biochar soil amendment in biofortification of vegetables with Zn, an element that is deficient in one third of humanity. We grew beetroot (Beta vulgaris), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus), broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), leek (Allium ampeloprsum), onion (Allium cepa), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), corn (Zea mays), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and courgette (also called zucchini - Cucurbita pepo) in an unamended soil (silt loam, pH 5.6), and soil amended (by volume) with 10% biosolids, 20% biochar, and 10% biosolids+20% biochar. The biosolids and biosolids+biochar treatments significantly increased the biomass and Zn concentration of most species, with a large interspecific variation. Beetroot showed the greatest increase, with dry weight Zn concentrations of up to 178 and 1200 mg kg(-1) in the bulbs and leaves respectively. Cadmium, Cu and Pb were below guideline levels in all samples, except the leaves of spinach and beetroot, which slightly exceeded the World Health Organisation's maximum permitted concentration of 0.1 mg Cd kg(-1) fresh weight. A mixture of biosolids and biochar is an effective means to biofortify crops with edible leaves as well as beetroot with Zn. Future research should investigate the efficacy of the system in other soil types and the role of biochar in the immobilisation/inactivation of organic contaminants and pathogens contained within the biosolids. PMID:23146312

Gartler, Jörg; Robinson, Brett; Burton, Karen; Clucas, Lynne

2013-11-01

350

Evidence for Opposing Effects of Calmodulin on Cortical Microtubules.  

PubMed Central

Microtubule integrity within the cortical array was visualized in detergent-lysed carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts that were exposed to various exogenous levels of Ca2+ and calmodulin (CaM). CaM appears to help stabilize cortical microtubules against the destabilizing action of Ca2+/CaM complexes at low Ca2+ concentrations, but not at higher Ca2+ concentrations. The hypothesis that CaM interacts with microtubules at two different sites, determined by the concentration of Ca2+, is supported by the effects of the CaM antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfanamide (20 [mu]M) and by affinity chromatography. Two classes of proteins were identified that interact with tubulin and bind to CaM. One class required Ca2+ for CaM binding, whereas the second class bound only when Ca2+ concentrations were low (<320 nM). Thus, CaM's ability to have two opposing effects upon microtubules may be regulated by the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ and its differential interactions with microtubule-associated proteins. Experimental manipulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, as monitored by Indo-1, revealed that the effect of Ca2+ is specific to the cortical microtubules and does not affect actin microfilaments in these cells. PMID:12226434

Fisher, D. D.; Gilroy, S.; Cyr, R. J.

1996-01-01

351

Purification and characterization of neutral and alkaline invertase from carrot.  

PubMed Central

Neutral and alkaline invertase were identified in cells of a suspension culture of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Neutral invertase is an octamer with a molecular mass of 456 kD and subunits of 57 kD, whereas alkaline invertase is a tetramer with a molecular mass of 504 kD and subunits of 126 kD. Both enzymes had sharp pH profiles, with maximal activities at pH 6.8 for neutral invertase and pH 8.0 for alkaline invertase, and both hydrolyzed sucrose with typical hyperbolic kinetics and similar Km values of about 20 mM at pH 7.5. Neutral invertase also hydrolyzed raffinose and stachyose and, therefore, is a beta-fructofuranosidase. In contrast, alkaline invertase was highly specific for sucrose. Fructose acted as a competitive inhibitor of both enzymes, with Ki values of about 15 mM. Glucose was a noncompetitive inhibitor of both neutral and alkaline invertase, with a Ki of about 30 mM. Neither enzyme was inhibited by HgCl2. Alkaline invertase was markedly inhibited by CaCl2, MgCl2, and MnCl2, and neutral invertase was not. In contrast to alkaline invertase, neutral invertase was inhibited by the nucleotides ATP, CTP, GTP, and UTP. PMID:8972597

Lee, H S; Sturm, A

1996-01-01

352

Carotene Hydroxylase Activity Determines the Levels of Both ?-Carotene and Total Carotenoids in Orange Carrots.  

PubMed

The typically intense carotenoid accumulation in cultivated orange-rooted carrots (Daucus carota) is determined by a high protein abundance of the rate-limiting enzyme for carotenoid biosynthesis, phytoene synthase (PSY), as compared with white-rooted cultivars. However, in contrast to other carotenoid accumulating systems, orange carrots are characterized by unusually high levels of ?-carotene in addition to ?-carotene. We found similarly increased ?-carotene levels in leaves of orange carrots compared with white-rooted cultivars. This has also been observed in the Arabidopsis thaliana lut5 mutant carrying a defective carotene hydroxylase CYP97A3 gene. In fact, overexpression of CYP97A3 in orange carrots restored leaf carotenoid patterns almost to those found in white-rooted cultivars and strongly reduced ?-carotene levels in the roots. Unexpectedly, this was accompanied by a 30 to 50% reduction in total root carotenoids and correlated with reduced PSY protein levels while PSY expression was unchanged. This suggests a negative feedback emerging from carotenoid metabolites determining PSY protein levels and, thus, total carotenoid flux. Furthermore, we identified a deficient CYP97A3 allele containing a frame-shift insertion in orange carrots. Association mapping analysis using a large carrot population revealed a significant association of this polymorphism with both ?-carotene content and the ?-/?-carotene ratio and explained a large proportion of the observed variation in carrots. PMID:24858934

Arango, Jacobo; Jourdan, Matthieu; Geoffriau, Emmanuel; Beyer, Peter; Welsch, Ralf

2014-05-23

353

[Chemical, chemosensory and human-sensory experiments on taste and flavor of carrots].  

PubMed

The relationship between sensory quality of carrots and their contents and composition of essential oils and total sugars as influenced by nitrogen fertilization was investigated. Carrots (Daucus carota L.) of the variety 'Nanthya' F1 (S&G Sandoz Seeds) were grown in Weihenstephan 1996 with three levels of inorganic nitrogen fertilization (3 levels in 4 replications). Medium- and higher-boiling flavour-components were extracted as essential oils and separated gas-chromatographically (GC-FID). Lower-boiling flavour-components were taken from the headspace and analysed chemosensorially. The human sensory assessments were performed by an untrained panel of 300 people (students and employees of the TU München)--these results were compared with those of the chemical analyses. Carrots with lower nitrogen application were found to taste more intensive, more fruity, sweeter and better and at the same time less bitter and less earthy. They had higher contents of total sugar and a higher percentage of dry matter. Fertilization with nitrogen does not only affect the quantity but also the composition of the essential oils. The taste intensive was positively correlated with the quantity of essential oils, the taste sweet was positively correlated with the content of total sugars. It was possible to differentiate the carrots from each other by chemo-sensorial headspace analyses according to their N-fertilization levels. PMID:9881369

Schaller, R G; Broda, S; Schnitzler, W H

1998-12-01

354

Selecting iodine-enriched vegetables and the residual effect of iodate application to soil.  

PubMed

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to select vegetables for iodine uptake. The residual effect of iodate fertilization on the growth of and iodine uptake by spinach plants were also investigated. Six vegetables, including leafy vegetables (pakchoi [Brassica chinensis L.], spinach [Spinacia oleracea L.]), tuber vegetables (onion [Allium cepa L.]), shoot vegetables (water spinach [Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.], celery [Apium graveolens L.]), and root vegetables (carrot [Daucus carota var. sativa DC.]) were examined. Results showed that the concentrations of iodate in soil had significant effect on the biomass of edible parts of pakchoi and spinach (p<0.01), whereas the concentrations of iodate in soil had no significant effect on that of carrots, water spinach, celery, and onion. Iodine concentrations in edible parts of vegetables and the transfer factors (TFedible parts) of soil-to-edible parts of vegetables significantly increased with increasing iodine concentrations in soil (p<0.001), and iodine concentrations in edible parts and TFedible parts of spinach were much higher than those of other vegetables at any treatment. Both transfer coefficients for edible parts (TCedible parts) and for aerial parts (TCaerial parts) of vegetables changed differently with increasing iodine concentrations in the soil, and TCedible parts and TCaerial parts of spinach were higher than those of other vegetables. Therefore, spinach was considered as an efficient vegetable for iodine biofortification. Further experiment showed that there is considerable residual effect of soil fertilization with iodate. PMID:15564656

Dai, Jiu-Lan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zhang, Min; Huang, Yi-Zhong

2004-12-01

355

An improved protocol for carrot haploid and doubled haploid plant production using induced parthenogenesis and ovule excision in vitro.  

PubMed

In this work, we describe an improved protocol for induced parthenogenesis and ovule culture of carrot (Daucus carota L.). The effects of pollination with parsley pollen and/or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) treatment on the stimulation of parthenogenesis were studied using heterozygous donor plants of 30 varieties and breeding populations of carrots. Isolated ovules, cultured in vitro, enlarged and developed embryos or calli. The application of 2,4-D on pollinated flowers stimulated callus development but did not increase the frequency of embryo development from ovules and, thus, was not useful for increasing the frequency of haploid plant recovery. The efficiency of embryo development was accession-dependent and varied from 0 to 24.29%. In optimized conditions, most accessions responded by embryo development exclusively. The highest frequency of embryo development was observed from ovules excised from ovaries 20-22 d after pollination with parsley pollen. Among several media used for ovule culture, 1/2-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 0.06 ?M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was the best. It allowed the production of embryos at a similar frequency as on the media supplemented with kinetin, gibberellic acid, putrescine, or thidiazuron, but restricted callus development. Most plants obtained were haploids and diploids derived from parthenogenesis, as evidenced by homozygosity at three independent loci based on isozyme and PCR analyses. In total, considering haploids and embryo-derived homozygous diploids together, 72.6% of regenerated plants were of gametic origin. PMID:24955000

Kie?kowska, Agnieszka; Adamus, Adela; Baranski, Rafal

2014-01-01

356

Polyamines and Pectins (I. Ion Exchange and Selectivity).  

PubMed Central

The ion-binding and -exchange properties of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine on purified walls of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspensions were investigated by producing ion-exchange isotherms and comparing them with the behavior of Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+. The cation exchange capacity of the carrot cell walls was 0.8 equivalent kg-1 dry matter, and the ionic selectivity sequence of the walls for polyamines followed the sequence spermine4+ > spermidine3+ [almost equal to] Ca2+ > putrescine2+. The polyamines were subjected to only electroselectivity and probably did not induce any favorable supramolecular conformation of pectin like the one induced by Ca2+. Triangular ion exchanges were also performed with three diamines: ethanediamine, butanediamine, and octanediamine. The shorter the diamine, the higher the total adsorption and selectivity of the exchange. The lower selectivity of the cell wall for putrescine was partly attributed to its inability to access and displace Ca2+ from higher affinity sites within dimerized pectic sequences. The polyamine adsorption and exchange on pectic sequences could result in pectic signal modulation in pathogenesis and in differentiation. PMID:12223613

Messiaen, J.; Cambier, P.; Van Cutsem, P.

1997-01-01

357

A protocol to remove colored metabolites and other inhibitors from plant tissues to facilitate RNA isolation suitable for downstream applications.  

PubMed

This work developed a protocol to remove colored metabolites and other interfering substances to facilitate RNA isolation. These metabolites otherwise hinder RNA isolation and downstream applications. The developed protocol used sodium dodecyl sulphate, ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, and ethanol in a definite ratio that removed the said metabolites from the tissue and aided isolation of RNA using the existing methods. The protocol was developed for red colored roots of Arnebia euchroma and was extended to other colored tissues [rhizome of Rheum australe (Himalayan Rhubarb) and taproot of Daucus carota (purple carrot)] with success. Without inclusion of our protocol, the existing methods could not isolate good quality RNA from these tissues. RNA isolated by the developed protocol had A(260/280) ratio of 1.88-1.93, A(260/230) ratio of 1.94-2.0, and RNA integrity number of 6.3-8.0. RNA was amenable to downstream applications such as reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and primer extension assay. PMID:22736512

Singh, Ravi S; Kumar, Sanjay

2012-01-01

358

Carrot antifreeze protein does not exhibit the polygalacturonase-inhibiting activity of PGIP family.  

PubMed

The carrot (Daucus carota) antifreeze protein (DcAFP) has a strong antifreeze activity and identified as belonging to the plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) family based on its sequence similarities, including the presence of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motif. In this study, yeast two-hybrid technology was used to analyze whether the carrot AFP could act as a PGIP. The complete DcAFP and polygalacturonase (PGase; obtained from fungus Alternaria alternata by RT-PCR) coding sequences were cloned into the bait and capture vectors, respectively, and yeast two-hybrid assays were performed. The results revealed that there was no evidence of an interaction between DcAFP and PGase, which suggests that DcAFP probably lacks PGIP activity. An analysis of the electrostatic potential of DcAFP and other PGIPs revealed that a large number of nonconservative residues within the beta-helix of the DcAFP LRR motif had been substituted to basic amino acids, thus changing the surface from negative to positive. This will electrostatically prevent DcAFP from binding with the positively charged surface of PGase. This is the first report that showed the correlation between nonconservative amino acids within the LRR motif of the DcAFP and its loss of polygalacturonase inhibiting activity. PMID:17112975

Zhang, Dang-Quan; Wang, Hong-Bin; Liu, Bin; Feng, Dong-Ru; He, Yan-Ming; Wang, Jin-Fa

2006-11-01

359

Variation in germination and amino Acid leakage of seeds with temperature related to membrane phase change.  

PubMed

Leakages of amino acids and/or fluorescent material as functions of temperature between 15 and 40 C are reported for imbibed seeds of Avena fatua L., Lactuca sativa L., Barbarea vulgaris R. Br., Amaranthus albus L., Abutilon theophrasti Medic., Lychnis alba Mill., Daucus carota L., Setaria faberi Herrm., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv., and Datura stramonium L. The leakage indicates prominent increase in permeability of the plasmalemma in the 30 to 35 C range for 8 of the 10 kinds of seeds studied. Germination of the seeds at constant temperatures or with daily shifts in temperature is related to the membrane transition temperature for permeation by amino acids. Seeds of A. albus and A. theophrasti, which did not show membrane changes in the 25 to 40 C range, germinated best at 35 to 40 C; the other seeds germinated best below 30 C. Seeds of B. vulgaris showed rapid permeation of limiting membranes upon initial wetting with water, which was indicative of membrane disorder when dry. Leakage under anaerobiosis was observed for S. faberi seeds. PMID:16659623

Hendricks, S B; Taylorson, R B

1976-07-01

360

Variation in Germination and Amino Acid Leakage of Seeds with Temperature Related to Membrane Phase Change  

PubMed Central

Leakages of amino acids and/or fluorescent material as functions of temperature between 15 and 40 C are reported for imbibed seeds of Avena fatua L., Lactuca sativa L., Barbarea vulgaris R. Br., Amaranthus albus L., Abutilon theophrasti Medic., Lychnis alba Mill., Daucus carota L., Setaria faberi Herrm., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv., and Datura stramonium L. The leakage indicates prominent increase in permeability of the plasmalemma in the 30 to 35 C range for 8 of the 10 kinds of seeds studied. Germination of the seeds at constant temperatures or with daily shifts in temperature is related to the membrane transition temperature for permeation by amino acids. Seeds of A. albus and A. theophrasti, which did not show membrane changes in the 25 to 40 C range, germinated best at 35 to 40 C; the other seeds germinated best below 30 C. Seeds of B. vulgaris showed rapid permeation of limiting membranes upon initial wetting with water, which was indicative of membrane disorder when dry. Leakage under anaerobiosis was observed for S. faberi seeds. PMID:16659623

Hendricks, Sterling B.; Taylorson, Ray B.

1976-01-01

361

Selection and Characterization of a Carrot Cell Line Tolerant to Glyphosate 1  

PubMed Central

Cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells were adapted to growing in 25 millimolar glyphosate by transfer into progressively higher concentrations of the herbicide. Tolerance was increased 52-fold, and the adaptation was stable in the absence of glyphosate. The uptake of glyphosate was similar for adapted and nonadapted cells. Activity of the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase was 12-fold higher in the adapted line compared to nonadapted cells, while activities of shikimate dehydrogenase and anthranilate synthase were similar in the two cell types. The adapted cells had higher levels of free amino acids—especially threonine, methionine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine, and arginine—than did nonadapted cells. Glyphosate treatment caused decreases of 50 to 65% in the levels of serine, glycine, methionine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan in nonadapted cells, but caused little change in free amino acid levels in adapted cells. The adaptation reported here supports the growing body of evidence linking tolerance to glyphosate with increased levels of the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. The elevated levels of aromatic amino acids, which may confer resistance in adapted cells, suggest that control of the shikimate pathway may be altered in these cells. PMID:16663884

Nafziger, Emerson D.; Widholm, Jack M.; Steinrücken, Hans C.; Killmer, John L.

1984-01-01

362

Reversal of Glyphosate Inhibition of Carrot Cell Culture Growth by Glycolytic Intermediates and Organic and Amino Acids 1  

PubMed Central

Various cytokinins and purines were ineffective in reversing glyphosate (0.25 millimolar)-induced growth inhibition of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures. Aspartate was particularly effective in reversing glyphosate inhibition, but asparagine and various combinations of lysine, methionine, threonine, and homoserine (eventual products of aspartate metabolism) were not effective. When organic acids of the tricarboxylic acid cycle were added to the medium, particularly good reversal of inhibition could be obtained with ?-ketoglutarate, succinate, and malate. Citrate provided only moderate reversal but the reversal given by glutamate was comparable to that of aspartate and the more effective tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Pyruvate was somewhat toxic to cells when added early in the cell cycle but was most effective at reversing glyphosate inhibition when added at this time. If pyruvate addition was delayed, it was less toxic but was also a less effective reversing agent for glyphosate inhibition. All of the effective reversing agents for glyphosate inhibition found in this study can serve either directly or indirectly as carbon skeletons for respiration and ammonia assimilation and have previously been shown to be effective detoxifying agents for ammonia in cell culture systems. The results of this study suggest that glyphosate inhibition of growth in this system may be due to depletion of respiratory substrate which may eventually result in ammonia accumulation. PMID:16662096

Killmer, John; Widholm, Jack; Slife, Fred

1981-01-01

363

Transport and Subcellular Localization of Polyamines in Carrot Protoplasts and Vacuoles 1  

PubMed Central

Putrescine and spermidine uptake in carrot (Daucus carota L., cv “Tip top”) protoplasts and isolated vacuoles was studied. Protoplasts and vacuoles accumulated polyamines very quickly, with maximum absorption within 1 to 2 minutes. The insertion of a washing layer containing 100 millimolar unlabeled putrescine or spermidine did not change this pattern, but strongly reduced the uptake of putrescine and spermidine in protoplasts and in vacuoles. The dependence of spermidine uptake on the external concentration was linear up to the highest concentrations tested in protoplasts, while that in vacuoles showed saturation kinetics below 1 millimolar (Km = 61.8 micromolar) and a linear component from 1 to 50 millimolar. Spermidine uptake in protoplasts increased linearly between pH 5.5 and 7.0, while there was a distinct optimum at pH 7.0 for vacuoles. Preincubation of protoplasts with 1 millimolar Ca2+ affected only surface binding but not transport into the cells. Nonpermeant polycations such as La3+ and polylysine inhibited spermidine uptake into protoplasts. Compartmentation studies showed that putrescine and spermidine were partly vacuolar in location and that exogenously applied spermidine could be recovered inside the cells. The characteristics of the protoplast and vacuolar uptake system induce us to put forward the hypothesis of a passive influx of polyamines through the plasmalemma and of the presence of a carrier-mediated transport system localized in the tonoplast. PMID:16666174

Pistocchi, Rossella; Keller, Felix; Bagni, Nello; Matile, Philipe

1988-01-01

364

Specific developmental pathways underlie host specificity in the parasitic plant Orobanche  

PubMed Central

Parasitic angiosperms are an ecologically and economically important group of plants. However our understanding of the basis for host specificity in these plants is embryonic. Recently we investigated host specificity in the parasitic angiosperm Orobanche minor, and demonstrated that this host generalist parasite comprises genetically defined races that are physiologically adapted to specific hosts. Populations occurring naturally on red clover (Trifolium pratense) and sea carrot (Daucus carota subsp. gummifer) respectively, showed distinct patterns of host specificity at various developmental stages, and a higher fitness on their natural hosts, suggesting these races are locally adapted. Here we discuss the implications of our findings from a broader perspective. We suggest that differences in signal responsiveness and perception by the parasite, as well as qualitative differences in signal production by the host, may elicit host specificity in this parasitic plant. Together with our earlier demonstration that these O. minor races are genetically distinct based on molecular markers, our recent data provide a snapshot of speciation in action, driven by host specificity. Indeed, host specificity may be an underestimated catalyst for speciation in parasitic plants generally. We propose that identifying host specific races using physiological techniques will complement conventional molecular marker-based approaches to provide a framework for delineating evolutionary relationships among cryptic host-specific parasitic plants. PMID:20081361

Hiscock, Simon

2010-01-01

365

Differential Selection on Carotenoid Biosynthesis Genes as a Function of Gene Position in the Metabolic Pathway: A Study on the Carrot and Dicots  

PubMed Central

Background Selection of genes involved in metabolic pathways could target them differently depending on the position of genes in the pathway and on their role in controlling metabolic fluxes. This hypothesis was tested in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway using population genetics and phylogenetics. Methodology/Principal Findings Evolutionary rates of seven genes distributed along the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, IPI, PDS, CRTISO, LCYB, LCYE, CHXE and ZEP, were compared in seven dicot taxa. A survey of deviations from neutrality expectations at these genes was also undertaken in cultivated carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus), a species that has been intensely bred for carotenoid pattern diversification in its root during its cultivation history. Parts of sequences of these genes were obtained from 46 individuals representing a wide diversity of cultivated carrots. Downstream genes exhibited higher deviations from neutral expectations than upstream genes. Comparisons of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates between genes among dicots revealed greater constraints on upstream genes than on downstream genes. An excess of intermediate frequency polymorphisms, high nucleotide diversity and/or high differentiation of CRTISO, LCYB1 and LCYE in cultivated carrot suggest that balancing selection may have targeted genes acting centrally in the pathway. Conclusions/Significance Our results are consistent with relaxed constraints on downstream genes and selection targeting the central enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway during carrot breeding history. PMID:22737218

Clotault, Jérémy; Peltier, Didier; Soufflet-Freslon, Vanessa; Briard, Mathilde; Geoffriau, Emmanuel

2012-01-01

366

Fourier-Transform Raman and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (An Investigation of Five Higher Plant Cell Walls and Their Components).  

PubMed Central

Infrared and Raman spectra of sequentially extracted primary cell walls and their pectic polymers were obtained from five angiosperm plants. Fourier-transform Raman spectrometry was shown to be a powerful tool for the investigation of primary cell-wall architecture at a molecular level, providing complementary information to that obtained by Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy. The use of an extraction procedure using imidazole instead of cyclohexane trans-1,2-N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-diaminotetraacetate allows the extension of the infrared spectral window for data interpretation from 1300 to 800 cm-1, to 2000 to 800 cm-1, and allows us to obtain Raman spectra from extracted cell-wall material. Wall constituents such as pectins, proteins, aromatic phenolics, cellulose, and hemicellulose have characteristic spectral features that can be used to identify and/or fingerprint these polymers without, in most cases, the need for any physical separation. The Gramineae (rice [Oryza sativa], polypogon [Polypogon fugax steud], and sweet corn [Zea mays]) are spectroscopically very different from the nongraminaceous monocotyledon (onion [Allium cepa]) and the dicotyledon (carrot [Daucus carota]); this reflects differences in chemical composition and cross-linking of the walls. The possibility of a taxonomic classification of plant cell walls based on infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the use of spectral fingerprinting for authentication and detection of adulteration of products rich in cell-wall materials are discussed. PMID:12232436

Sene, CFB.; McCann, M. C.; Wilson, R. H.; Grinter, R.

1994-01-01

367

Ecological analysis of a stable hybrid zone between two big sagebrush subspecies ({\\\\it Artemisia tridentata\\\\\\/} ssp. {\\\\it tridentata\\\\\\/} and {\\\\it A.T.\\\\\\/} ssp. {\\\\it vaseyana\\\\\\/}) in Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological investigation and experiments were conducted in the big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) hybrid zones in Utah to test the two hybrid zone models. The dynamic equilibrium model posits universal hybrid unfitness resulting from the disruption of coadapted gene complexes, i.e., selection is solely caused by intrinsic genetic interactions and hence is endogenous. This model predicts that hybrid zones should occur

Zhongmin Wang

1996-01-01

368

Zinc tolerance and uptake by Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera grown in nutrient solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Zinc is an essential micronutrient element but its concentrations found in contaminated soils frequently exceed those required\\u000a by the plant and soil organisms, and thus create danger to animal and human health. Phytoremediation is a technique, often\\u000a employed in remediation of contaminated soils, which aims to remove heavy metals or other contaminants from soils or waters\\u000a using

Bal Ram Singh; Hiroshi Kubota; Reiko Sugawara; Nobuyuki Kitajima; Toshihito Kondo; Shigenao Kawai

2010-01-01

369

[Di-C-glycosylflavones from Cerastium arvense ssp. arvense new for Caryophyllaceae.].  

PubMed

The C-galactosyl-6 C-arabinosyl-8 apigenin or isocorymboside and a C-xylosyl-6 C-arabinosyl-8 apigenin are isolated from the fresh whole plant, among many other flavonoids only present in small amounts. PMID:17396942

Dubois, M A; Zoll, A; Bouillant, M L; Delaveau, P

1982-09-01

370

Metabolic differentiation of diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella (L.)) resistance in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata).  

PubMed

The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a major pest responsible for destroying cabbage and other Brassica vegetable crops. A diamondback moth-resistant cabbage line was studied by comparing its metabolite profiles with those of a susceptible cabbage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, and amides were the major factors that distinguished the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiled 46 metabolites, including 19 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 8 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine in two genotypes and F1 hybrid cabbages. The levels of glycolic acid, quinic acid, inositol, fumaric acid, glyceric acid, trehalose, shikimic acid, and aspartic acid were found to be very significantly different between the resistant and susceptible genotypes with a P value of <0.0001. These results will provide a foundation for further studies on diamondback moth resistance in cabbage breeding and for the development of other herbivore-resistant crops. PMID:24144435

Kim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Su Ryun; Lee, Jeongyeo; Park, Soo-Yun; Song, Seung Yeub; Na, Jonghyun; Kim, Suk Weon; Kim, Sun-Ju; Nou, Ill-Sup; Lee, Yong Han; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Hyeran

2013-11-20

371

Neem (Azadirachta indica a. Juss) components: candidates for the control of Crinipellis perniciosa and Phytophthora ssp.  

PubMed

Witches' broom and pod rot are the two most devastating diseases of cocoa in South America and Africa, respectively. Their control by means of phytosanitation and chemical fungicides is labor-intensive, costly and, in many cases, environmentally undesirable. Therefore efforts are made in order to identify alternative, environmentally safe and cost-efficient methods for the control of these pathogens. Promising candidates are components of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), that have been used for centuries in Asia as insecticides, fungicides, anticonceptionals in popular medicine. Here we report about tests on the effect of various concentrations of extracts from neem leaves on growth of mycelia of Crinipellis and Phytophthora and on germination of spores of Crinipellis. We show a 35% growth reduction of mycelia of Phytophthora on neem leaf extract media, whereas growth of mycelia of Crinipellis was not affected, even at the highest concentration of neem leaf extracts used (35%). However, the most dramatic effect of neem leaf extracts is observed on Crinipellis spore germination, here the extracts (20-35%) reduced germination almost completely. Based on these results, we believe that the neem tree might be a source for the production, on small and medium scale, of an effective and cheap formulation for the control of Crinipellis and Phytophthora. PMID:16872817

de Rezende Ramos, Alessandra; Lüdke Falcão, Loeni; Salviano Barbosa, Guilherme; Helena Marcellino, Lucilia; Silvano Gander, Eugen

2007-01-01

372

Efficient isolation of high-quality RNA from lotus Nelumbo nucifera ssp nucifera tissues.  

PubMed

Nelumbo nucifera is widely used as food, as an ornamental, in medicine, and as packing material; it is also reported to have anti-HIV effects and antioxidant capacity. We sought an improved method for extracting high-quality total RNA from different tissues of N. nucifera. Four methods for RNA extraction were assessed for their ability to recover high-quality RNA applicable for evaluation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene expression profiles. The recovery and quality of the RNA obtained from five different tissues by the best CTAB-LiCl method were evaluated through UV light absorbance. Both A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) absorbance ratios were more than 2.0; the yield ranged from 59.87 to 163.75 ?g/g fresh weight. The brightness of the 28S band was approximately twice that of 18S; the latter was also considered as high-quality RNA. The PPO gene fragment (606 bp) was successfully amplified by RT-PCR, demonstrating the integrity of the isolated RNA. The relative expression levels of the PPO gene based on RT-PCR in five tissues of lotus were: rhizome buds (2.66), young leaves (2.42), fresh cut rhizome (2.02), petals (1.80), and petiole (1.65), using housekeeping gene ?-actin as an internal control. We concluded that the total RNA isolated by this protocol is of sufficient quality for molecular applications. PMID:23408408

Zhang, Y J; Hao, X Y; Liang, Z S; Ke, W D; Guo, H B

2013-01-01

373

Genetic Analysis of Salt Stress Responses in Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) ssp. sesquipedalis Verdc.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt stress responses of 23 asparagus bean cultivars were evaluated using 14-day-old seedlings after 15-day exposure to 75 mM NaCl in a hydroponics culture system. Salt-induced changes in plant growth and morphology, photosynthetic capacity, cell membrane integrity, and cellular protection enzyme systems as well as other physiological and biochemical traits were investigated to identify genotypic variability in salt response. This

CHANYOU CHEN; C HENGXUE TAO; H AI PENG; YI DING

2007-01-01

374

Sampling location, herd size, and season influence Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis environmental culture results.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiologic agent of Johne's disease, a chronic progressive enteritis, is a common pathogen on dairy farms. Environmental sampling is frequently used to detect MAP-infected herds, because it does not require sample collection from individual animals. The objectives were to determine (1) location-specific odds of MAP-positive environmental sampling results and whether season or herd size affect results; (2) whether season and herd size affect the odds of collection of samples from certain locations; and (3) whether sample-set composition affects the odds of a positive set. Herd veterinarians, producer organization staff, and University of Calgary staff collected 5,588 samples on dairy farms in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Samples from sick-cow and calving pens and samples from dry-cow housing had lower odds of testing MAP-positive than lactating cow-pen samples (odds ratio=0.3 and 0.4, respectively). Samples collected from bedding packs and manure piles were less frequently MAP-positive than those collected from alleyways and lagoons, whereas samples collected in spring and summer more often tested MAP-positive than those collected in winter. Sample sets collected in summer more often included samples from all locations than samples collected in winter; therefore, we inferred that collectors had difficulties accessing certain areas in winter. Substitution of sample locations with others had minor effect on the sensitivity of sample sets containing 6 samples. However, set composition had an effect on the sensitivity of sample sets containing only 2 samples. In that regard, whereas sets with 2 manure-storage-area samples detected 81% of farms with at least one positive environmental sample, sets with only dry, sick, or calving-pen samples detected only 59%. Environmental samples should be collected from areas where manure from numerous cows accumulates and can be well mixed (e.g., alleyways and manure lagoons). Collection of samples should be performed in spring or summer when locations are easier to access and samples have higher odds for testing MAP-positive. PMID:25465568

Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

2015-01-01

375

Cytotoxic effect of eudesmanolides isolated from flowers of Tanacetum vulgare ssp. siculum.  

PubMed

A phytochemical analysis of the dichloromethane extract from the flowers of a subspecies of Tanacetum vulgare growing in Sicily was carried out. Five known sesquiterpene lactones with the eudesmane skeleton have been isolated and the cytotoxic activity of these compounds was tested in vitro on A549 (human lung carcinoma epithelial-like) and V79379A (Chinese hamster lung fibroblast-like) cells using the tetrazolium salt reduction (MTT) assay. All of tested compounds induced high time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects. PMID:22777187

Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio; Raimondo, Francesco Maria; Spadaro, Vivienne; Varol, Mehmet; Koparal, Ay?e Tansu; Maggio, Antonella

2012-01-01

376

Nutraceutical potential of monofloral honeys produced by the Sicilian black honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).  

PubMed

In the light of the growing interest in food and food products obtained through organic and environmentally friendly techniques, the present work represents the first approach to the evaluation of the biological profile of some Sicilian honeys produced in purity by the local black honeybees. Samples exhibited up to 10 times more total phenolics and higher antioxidant capacity than what already reported for the same variety of honeys produced by other honeybee subspecies from Sicily, other Italian regions and abroad. Noteworthy, the gallic acid contents in medlar and almond honeys represented the highest level of single phenolic acid reported in honey so far. A broad antimicrobial spectrum was showed by all of the honey samples and a good correlation between their inhibition capacity and polyphenolic contents was measured. Experimental results highlighted samples among the honeys characterised by the highest nutraceutical added value and most excellent quality. PMID:22497901

Tenore, Gian Carlo; Ritieni, Alberto; Campiglia, Pietro; Novellino, Ettore

2012-06-01

377

Shuttle Ground Support Equipment (GSE) T-0 Umbilical to Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Flight Elements Consultation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked with assessing the validity of an alternate opinion that surfaced during the investigation of recurrent failures at the Space Shuttle T-0 umbilical interface. The most visible problem occurred during the Space Transportation System (STS)-112 launch when pyrotechnics used to separate Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Hold-Down Post (HDP) frangible nuts failed to fire. Subsequent investigations recommended several improvements to the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) and processing changes were implemented, including replacement of ground-half cables and connectors between flights, along with wiring modifications to make critical circuits quad-redundant across the interface. The alternate opinions maintained that insufficient data existed to exonerate the design, that additional data needed to be gathered under launch conditions, and that the interface should be further modified to ensure additional margin existed to preclude failure. The results of the assessment are contained in this report.

Wilson, Timmy R.; Kichak, Robert A.; McManamen, John P.; Kramer-White, Julie; Raju, Ivatury S.; Beil, Robert J.; Weeks, John F.; Elliott, Kenny B.

2009-01-01

378

Interaction between the AAA+ protease CIpXP and the adaptor protein SspB  

E-print Network

Proteolysis plays a vital role in cellular processes including regulatory pathways and protein quality control in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. ATP-dependent protein degradation is mediated by multimeric protease complexes, ...

Chowdhury, Tahmeena

2010-01-01

379

Acoustic divergence in the communication of cryptic species of nocturnal primates (Microcebus ssp.)  

PubMed Central

Background A central question in evolutionary biology is how cryptic species maintain species cohesiveness in an area of sympatry. The coexistence of sympatrically living cryptic species requires the evolution of species-specific signalling and recognition systems. In nocturnal, dispersed living species, specific vocalisations have been suggested to act as an ideal premating isolation mechanism. We studied the structure and perception of male advertisement calls of three nocturnal, dispersed living mouse lemur species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), the golden brown mouse lemur (M. ravelobensis) and the Goodman's mouse lemur (M. lehilahytsara). The first two species occur sympatrically, the latter lives allopatrically to them. Results A multi-parameter sound analysis revealed prominent differences in the frequency contour and in the duration of advertisement calls. To test whether mouse lemurs respond specifically to calls of the different species, we conducted a playback experiment with M. murinus from the field using advertisement calls and alarm whistle calls of all three species. Individuals responded significantly stronger to conspecific than to heterospecific advertisement calls but there were no differences in response behaviour towards statistically similar whistle calls of the three species. Furthermore, sympatric calls evoked weaker interest than allopatric advertisement calls. Conclusion Our results provide the first evidence for a specific relevance of social calls for speciation in cryptic primates. They furthermore support that specific differences in signalling and recognition systems represent an efficient premating isolation mechanism contributing to species cohesiveness in sympatrically living species. PMID:18462484

Braune, Pia; Schmidt, Sabine; Zimmermann, Elke

2008-01-01

380

Non-destructive Quality Analysis of Indian Basmati Oryza Sativa SSP Indica (Rice) Using Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Agricultural industry on the whole is ancient so far. Quality assessment of grains is a very big challenge since time immemorial. The paper presents a solution for quality evaluation and grading of Rice industry using computer vision and image processing. In this paper basic problem of rice industry for quality assessment is defined which is traditionally done manually by

Chetna Vasudevbhai Maheshwari; Kavindra R. Jain; Chintan K. Modi

2012-01-01

381

High-throughput sequence analysis of small RNAs in skotomorphogenic seedlings of Brassica rapa ssp. rapa.  

PubMed

Skotomorphogenic development is the process by which seedlings adapt to a stressful dark environment. Such metabolic responses to abiotic stresses in plants are known to be regulated in part by microRNAs (miRNAs); however, little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of skotomorphogenesis. To identify miRNAs at the genome-wide level in skotomorphogenic seedlings of turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa), an important worldwide root vegetable, we used Solexa sequencing to sequence a small RNA library from seedlings grown in the dark for 4 days. Deep sequencing showed that the small RNAs (sRNAs) were predominantly 21 to 24 nucleotides long. Specifically, 13,319,035 reads produced 359,531 unique sRNAs including rRNA, tRNA, miRNA, small nuclear RNA (snRNA), small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), and unannotated sRNAs. Sequence analysis identified 96 conserved miRNAs belonging to 36 miRNA families and 576 novel miRNAs. qRT-PCR confirmed that the miRNAs were expressed during skotomorphogenesis similar to the trends shown by the Solexa sequencing results. A total of 2013 potential targets were predicted, and the targets of BrmiR157, BrmiR159 and BrmiR160 were proved to be regulated by miRNA-guided cleavage. These results show that specific regulatory miRNAs are present in skotomorphogenic seedlings of turnip and may play important roles in growth, development, and response to dark environment. PMID:25016069

Zhou, Bo; Fan, Pengzhen; Li, Yuhua

2014-09-10

382

Heavy genetic load associated with the subspecific differentiation of japonica rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica L.).  

PubMed

Genetic load in the genome of the model species, rice, was genetically dissected by mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting the radiosensitivity of 226 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) to gamma-ray- and spaceflight-induced radiation. The parents and RILs varied considerably in their radiosensitivity to gamma-ray irradiation. A total of 28 QTLs affecting the two index traits, seedling height (SH) and seed fertility (SF), of radiosensitivity were identified. The japonica parent, Lemont, was much more sensitive to gamma-ray irradiation than the indica parent, Teqing, and its alleles at almost all QTLs were associated with increased radiosensitivity, suggesting a much higher genetic load in the japonica genome of rice. Six QTLs (QSh2a, QSh2b, QSh5a, QSh7, QSf3b, and QSf10b) were located in the genomic regions particularly sensitive to radiation and thus might represent possible 'mutation hot spots' in the japonica genome. Detailed characterization of these genomic regions may shed light on the evolution and subspecific differentiation of rice. PMID:16868041

Xu, Jian-Long; Wang, Jun-Min; Sun, Ye-Qing; Wei, Li-Jun; Luo, Rong-Ting; Zhang, Ming-Xian; Li, Zhi-Kang

2006-01-01

383

Genome-wide analysis of radiation-induced mutations in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica).  

PubMed

Radiation has been efficiently used for rice germplasm innovation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which radiation induces mutations are still unclear. In this study, we performed whole genome sequencing to reveal the comprehensive mutations in rice treated with radiation. Red-1 (a rice rich in beneficial ingredients for human health) was derived from rice 9311 after ?-radiation. Solexa sequencing technology was applied to uncover the mutations. Compared with the 9311 genome, 9.19% of genome sequences were altered in the Red-1 genome. Among these alterations, there were 381,403 SNPs, 50,116 1-5 bp Indels, 1279 copy number variations, and 10,026 presence/absence variations. These alterations were located in 14,493 genes, the majority of which contained a kinase domain, leucine rich repeats, or Cyt_P450. Point mutations were the main type of variation in the Red-1 genome. Gene ontology clustering revealed that genes that are associated with cell components, binding function, catalytic activity and metabolic processes were susceptible to ?-radiation. It was also predicted that 8 mutated genes were involved in the biosynthetic pathways of beneficial products or pigment accumulation. We conclude that genome-wide analysis of mutations provides novel insights into the mechanisms by which radiation improves the beneficial ingredients in rice Red-1. PMID:24457353

Cheng, Zuxin; Lin, Juncheng; Lin, Tongxiang; Xu, Ming; Huang, Zhiwei; Yang, Zhijian; Huang, Xinying; Zheng, Jingui

2014-04-01

384

Identification of Yellow Pigmentation Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Using Br300 Microarray  

PubMed Central

The yellow color of inner leaves in Chinese cabbage depends on its lutein and carotene content. To identify responsible genes for yellow pigmentation in leaves, the transcriptome profiles of white (Kenshin) and yellow leaves (Wheessen) were examined using the Br300K oligomeric chip in Chinese cabbage. In yellow leaves, genes involved in carotene synthesis (BrPSY, BrPDS, BrCRTISO, and BrLCYE), lutein, and zeaxanthin synthesis (BrCYP97A3 and BrHYDB) were upregulated, while those associated with carotene degradation (BrNCED3, BrNCED4, and BrNCED6) were downregulated. These expression patterns might support that the content of both lutein and total carotenoid was much higher in the yellow leaves than that in the white leaves. These results indicate that the yellow leaves accumulate high levels of both lutein and ?-carotene due to stimulation of synthesis and that the degradation rate is inhibited. A large number of responsible genes as novel genes were specifically expressed in yellow inner leaves, suggesting the possible involvement in pigment synthesis. Finally, we identified three transcription factors (BrA20/AN1-like, BrBIM1, and BrZFP8) that are specifically expressed and confirmed their relatedness in carotenoid synthesis from Arabidopsis plants. PMID:25629030

Jung, Hee-Jeong; Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Park, Jong-In; Chung, Mi-Young; Lee, Jeongyeo; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

2014-01-01

385

Hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with migratory behaviour in adult but not juvenile sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys ssp.).  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that individuals who have higher demands for spatially based behaviours should show increases in hippocampal attributes. Some avian species have been shown to use a spatially based representation of their environment during migration. Further, differences in hippocampal attributes have been shown between migratory and non-migratory subspecies as well as between individuals with and without migratory experience (juveniles versus adults). We tested whether migratory behaviour might also be associated with increased hippocampal neurogenesis, and whether potential differences track previously reported differences in hippocampal attributes between a migratory (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) and non-migratory subspecies (Z. l. nuttalli) of white-crowned sparrows. We found that non-migratory adults had relatively fewer numbers of immature hippocampal neurons than adult migratory birds, while adult non-migrants had a lower density of new hippocampal neurons than adult and juvenile migratory birds and juvenile non-migratory birds. Our results suggest that neurogenesis decreases with age, as juveniles, regardless of migratory status, exhibit similar and higher levels of neurogenesis than non-migratory adults. However, our results also suggest that adult migrants may either seasonally increase or maintain neurogenesis levels comparable to those found in juveniles. Our results thus suggest that migratory behaviour in adults is associated with maintained or increased neurogenesis and the differential production of new neurons may be the mechanism underpinning changes in the hippocampal architecture between adult migratory and non-migratory birds. PMID:20659933

LaDage, Lara D; Roth, Timothy C; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

2011-01-01

386

The protection of parsley seedlings (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. ssp. microcarpum) against damping-off.  

PubMed

The experiment was carried out in the years 2003 and 2004 on parsley cultivar: 'Berlinska', 'Cukrowa', 'Vistula' and 'Kinga'. Mycological analysis of parsley seeds showed, that the most common inhabitans were fungi from genus Alternaria (mainly A. alternata and A. radicina) and Fusarium, especially F. avenaceum and F. oxysporum. The two-year study on the effectiveness of 5 substances--biopreparate Biochikol 020 PC (polymer of chitosol) and Biosept 33 SL (extract of grape-fruit); and fungicides: Amistar 250 SC (BAS azoxystrobin), Dithane M-45 80WP (mancozeb) and Zaprawa Funaben T (carbendazim+thiram) used against parsley damping-off was conducted in glasshouse and field conditions. Seeds of parsley were treated one of tested substances before sowing. The results of glasshouse experiments showed, that the best efficacy exibited Amistar and Zaprawa Funaben T for seedlings cultivar 'Berli?ska' and 'Cukrowa' and Biochikol for 'Kinga'. During field experiments Zaprawa Funaben T showed the best efficacy for seedlings 'Berli?ska' and 'Vistula'. Preparate Amistar was the best seed dressing for parsley cultivar 'Cukrowa' and 'Kinga'. During glasshouse experiments in control the highest number of decaying seedlings had cultivar 'Berlinska', in field experiments 'Kinga'. PMID:17390849

Nawrocki, J

2006-01-01

387

Pectin isolated from prickly pear (Opuntia SSP) modifies LDL metabolism in cholesterol-fed guinea pigs  

SciTech Connect

The effects of dietary pectin on plasma and hepatic cholesterol (CH) levels, plasma lipoprotein profiles, hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to hepatic membranes were investigated by feeding 1% pectin to guinea pigs on a high CH diet. Animals were fed either chow + 0.25% CH (HC diet) or the CH diet + 1% prickly pear pectin (HC-P diet) for 25 days. Plasma CH levels were decreased 26% by the HC-P with 33% decreases in LDL and KDL. LDL peak density shifted from 1.040 to 1.055 g/ml with pectin. Hepatic total, free and esterified CH levels were reduced 60, 40 and 85% respectively by the HC-P diet. In contrast, HMG-CoA reductase activity was unaffected. {sup 125}I-LDL binding to hepatic membranes was increased by intake of the HC-P diet compared to the HC diet. The affinity of the apo B/E receptor for LDL was not affected by dietary pectin while the receptor number was increased 1.5-fold in animals on the HC-P diet. These data suggest that the parameters of HC metabolism affected by dietary pectin are consistent with an increased demand on the hepatic CH pools which possibly results from increased fecal excretion of bile acids.

Fernandez, M.L.; McNamara, D.J. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

1990-02-26

388

Genome size variation in Zea mays ssp. mays adapted to different altitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have indicated a positive correlation between genome size and altitude among plant species. It has been hypothesized that increasing genome size occurs due to increasing C-banded heterochromatin. In corn, increasing altitude has been correlated with decreasing knob (C-banded) heterochromatin, suggesting that DNA content may decrease with increasing altitude. In this study, nuclear DNA content of 12 southwestern United

J. A. Auger

1990-01-01

389

Effects of complete cell recycling on product formation by Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus in continuous cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactic acid bacteriumLactobacillus casei ssprhamnosus was cultivated in a system with complete cell recycling in order to obtain information on how this cultivation technique affected the microorganisms. Cultivations at two different glucose concentrations (25 g\\/L and 50 g\\/L) were performed. Hollow fiber filters were used for separating the cells from the spent broth. The cell recycling was carried out

Sigridur Hjörleifsdottir; Sulojana Seevaratnam; Olle Holst; Bo Mattiasson

1990-01-01

390

Abstract The Floral Genome Project (FGP) selected California poppy (Eschscholzia californica Cham. ssp.  

E-print Network

and sequenced to generate a database of 9079 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). These sequences of developmental regulators. Homologs of alkaloid path- way genes were also recovered, providing opportunities, over 1800 unique sequences had no observable homology in the public databases. The California poppy EST

dePamphilis, Claude

391

Establishing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Mined Lands: Science and Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1977, the USA Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act mandated that reclaimed plant communities must be as productive or more productive than the premined plant community and must possess diversity representative of the premine community and serve the same land uses. In much of the Northern Great Plains this meant that reclaimed mined lands must support postmined land uses

Gerald E. Schuman; Laurel E. Vicklund; Scott E. Belden

2005-01-01

392

Characterization of a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) die-off on the Handford Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanford Site contains one of the few remaining contiguous areas of shrub-steppe habitat left in Washington State. This habitat is home to many native plant and wildlife species, some of which are threatened with extinction or are unique to the Site. The importance of the Hanford Site increases as other lands surrounding the Site are developed, and these native

A. Cardenas; J. Lewinsohn; C. Auger; J. L. Downs; L. L. Cadwell; R. Burrows

1997-01-01

393

Identification of bisprenylated benzoic acid derivatives from yerba santa (Eriodictyon ssp.) using sensory-guided fractionation.  

PubMed

Due to certain off-flavor problems and lacking bitter masking effects with Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon angustifolium and E. californicum) extracts, which are also described as bitter, herbal, medicinal, phenolic, or astringent, methanolic extracts were fractionated and evaluated for their taste properties using a high temperature liquid chromatography (HTLC)-based approach. The taste-guided fractionation led to the identification of a series of novel bisprenylated benzoic acids (erionic acids A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), E (5), and F (6) and eriolic acids A (7), B (8), C (9), and D (10), respectively), along with the known flavonoids eriodictyol, homoeriodictyol, hesperetin, and chrysoeriol. The new compounds were isolated in larger amounts for characterization from Narrow Leaf Yerba Santa (E. angustifolium) and California Yerba Santa (E. californicum), respectively, using fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) and HTLC. The structures were elucidated using one and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). For E. californicum, data regarding seasonal and climatic variation of the eriolic acid contents and of the flavonoids were collected. The flavor properties of some of the isolated new compounds were evaluated; they showed strong off-flavor characteristics, such as bitter, astringent, phenolic, or woody, and may contribute to the sensory effects observed for crude Yerba Santa extracts. Erionic acid C (3) was not only able to increase the absolute bitterness but also to extinguish the bitter masking effect of homoeriodictyol in a caffeine solution. PMID:20058867

Reichelt, Katharina V; Hartmann, Beate; Weber, Berthold; Ley, Jakob P; Krammer, Gerhard E; Engel, Karl-Heinz

2010-02-10

394

Flower dimorphism and the maintenance of andromonoecy in Sagittaria guyanensis ssp. lappula (Alismataceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Staminate flowers of andromonoecious species are thought to be produced to increase reproductive success through enhancing male function or diverting resources from unneeded pistils to fruits. This does not explain why andromonoecy occurs within genera with monoecy, since staminate flowers of monoecious plants can also serve these functions. • Here the male allocation of staminate and perfect flowers

Shuang-Quan Huang

2003-01-01

395

Results of a screening programme to identify plants or plant extracts that inhibit ruminal protein degradation.  

PubMed

One aim of the EC Framework V project, 'Rumen-up' (QLK5-CT-2001-00 992), was to find plants or plant extracts that would inhibit the nutritionally wasteful degradation of protein in the rumen. A total of 500 samples were screened in vitro using 14C-labelled casein in a 30-min incubation with ruminal digesta. Eight were selected for further investigation using a batch fermentation system and soya protein and bovine serum albumin as proteolysis substrates; proteolysis was monitored over 12 h by the disappearance of soluble protein and the production of branched SCFA and NH3. Freeze-dried, ground foliage of Peltiphyllum peltatum, Helianthemum canum, Arbutus unedo, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Knautia arvensis inhibited proteolysis (P < 0.05), while Daucus carota, Clematis vitalba and Erica arborea had little effect. Inhibition by the first four samples appeared to be caused by the formation of insoluble tannin-protein complexes. The samples were rich in phenolics and inhibition was reversed by polyethyleneglycol. In contrast, K. arvensis contained low concentrations of phenolics and no tannins, had no effect in the 30-min assay, yet inhibited the degradation rate of soluble protein (by 14 %, P < 0.0001) and the production of branched SCFA (by 17 %, P < 0.05) without precipitating protein in the 12-h batch fermentation. The effects showed some resemblance to those obtained in parallel incubations containing 3 mum-monensin, suggesting that K. arvensis may be a plant-derived feed additive that can suppress growth and activity of key proteolytic ruminal micro-organisms in a manner similar to that already well known for monensin. PMID:17445338

Selje, N; Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Ningrat, R; Wallace, R J; Becker, K

2007-07-01

396

Calcium-Pumping ATPases in Vesicles from Carrot Cells 1  

PubMed Central

Ca2+-ATPases keep cytoplasmic [Ca2+] low by pumping Ca2+ into intracellular compartments or out of the cell. The transport properties of Ca2+-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota cv Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport in vesicles that comigrated with an endoplasmic reticulum marker, was stimulated three- to fourfold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca2+ transport activity; however, it had no effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+ uptake driven by ATP or GTP. The results would suggest the presence of two types of Ca2+-ATPases, an endoplasmic reticulum- and a plasma membrane-type. Interestingly, incubation of membranes with [gamma32P]ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl [32P]phosphoprotein of 120 kilodaltons. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca2+, but independent of Mg2+. Its enhancement by La3+ is characteristic of a phosphorylated enzyme intermediate of a plasma membrane-type Ca-ATPase. Calmodulin stimulated Ca2+ transport was decreased by W-7 (a calmodulin antagonist), ML-7 (myosin light chain kinase inhibitor) or thyroxine. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca2+ transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+ transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca2+ pump of 120 kilodaltons. The possibility of calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+-ATPases on endomembranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and secretory vesicles, as well as the plasma membrane is suggested. ImagesFigure 5Figure 6 PMID:16668581

Hsieh, Wen-Ling; Pierce, Wayne S.; Sze, Heven

1991-01-01

397

Determination of Structure and Composition of Suberin from the Roots of Carrot, Parsnip, Rutabaga, Turnip, Red Beet, and Sweet Potato by Combined Gas-Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry 1  

PubMed Central

Suberin from the roots of carrots (Daucus carota), parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), rutabaga (Brassica napobrassica), turnip (Brassica rapa), red beet (Beta vulgaris), and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was isolated by a combination of chemical and enzymatic techniques. Finely powdered suberin was depolymerized with 14% BF3 in methanol, and soluble monomers (20-50% of suberin) were fractionated into phenolic (<10%) and aliphatic (13-35%) fractions. The aliphatic fractions consisted mainly of ?-hydroxyacids (29-43%), dicarboxylic acids (16-27%), fatty acids (4-18%), and fatty alcohols (3-6%). Each fraction was subjected to combined gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Among the fatty acids very long chain acids (>C20) were the dominant components in all six plants. In the alcohol fraction C18, C20, C22, and C24 saturated primary alcohols were the major components. C16 and C18 dicarboxylic acids were the major dicarboxylic acids of the suberin of all six plants and in all cases octadec-9-ene-1, 18-dioic acid was the major component except in rutabaga where hexadecane-1, 16-dioic acid was the major dicarboxylic acid. The composition of the ?-hydroxyacid fraction was quite similar to that of the dicarboxylic acids; 18-hydroxy-octadec-9-enoic acid was the major component in all plants except rutabaga, where equal quantities of 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid and 18-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (42% each) were found. Compounds which would be derived from 18-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid and octadec-9-ene-1, 18-dioic acid by epoxidation, and epoxidation followed by hydration of the epoxide, were also detected in most of the suberin samples. The monomer composition of the six plants showed general similarities but quite clear taxonomic differences. PMID:16659124

Kolattukudy, P. E.; Kronman, Karen; Poulose, A. J.

1975-01-01

398

Host Suitability of 32 Common Weeds to Meloidogyne hapla in Organic Soils of Southwestern Quebec  

PubMed Central

Thirty-two weeds commonly found in the organic soils of southwestern Quebec were evaluated for host suitability to a local isolate of the northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Galls were observed on the roots of 21 species. Sixteen of the 21 had a reproduction factor (Pf/Pi = final number of M. hapla eggs and juveniles per initial number of M. hapla juveniles per pot) higher than carrot (Pf/Pi = 0.37), the major host crop in this agricultural area. Tomato cv. Rutgers was also included as a susceptible host and had the highest Pf/Pi value of 13.7. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. vulgata, Erysimum cheiranthoides, Eupatorium maculatum, Matricaria matricarioides, Polygonum scabrum, Thalictrum pubescens, Veronica agrestis, and Sium suave are new host records for M. hapla. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. wulgata, D. carota, M. matricarioides, Pasticana sativa, P. scabrum, S. suave, and Thlaspi arvense sustained moderate to high galling by M. hapla and supported high M. hapla production (12.4 ? Pf/Pi ? 2.9). Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Gnaphalium uliginosum, Stellaria media, and Veronica agrestis sustained moderate galling and supported moderate M. hapla reproduction (2.8 ? Pf/Pi ? 0.5). Chenopodium album, C. glaucum, E. cheiranthoides, P. convolvulus, Portulaca oleracea, and Rorippa islandica supported low reproduction (0.25 ? Pf/Pi ? 0.02) and sustained low galling. Galling was observed on Senecio vulgaris but no eggs or juveniles; thus, S. vulgaris may be useful as a trap plant. Eupatorium maculatum, and T. pubescens harbored no distinct galling but supported low to moderate M. hapla reproduction, respectively. Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Echinochloa crusgalli, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera parviflora, Panicum capillare, Setaria glauca, S. viridis, and Solidago canadensis were nonhosts. Our results demonstrate the importance of adequate weed control in an integrated program for the management of M. hapla in organic soil. PMID:19277189

Bélair, G.; Benoit, D. L.

1996-01-01

399

Characterization of Centromeric Histone H3 (CENH3) Variants in Cultivated and Wild Carrots (Daucus sp.)  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotes, centromeres are the assembly sites for the kinetochore, a multi-protein complex to which spindle microtubules are attached at mitosis and meiosis, thereby ensuring segregation of chromosomes during cell division. They are specified by incorporation of CENH3, a centromere specific histone H3 variant which replaces canonical histone H3 in the nucleosomes of functional centromeres. To lay a first foundation of a putative alternative haploidization strategy based on centromere-mediated genome elimination in cultivated carrots, in the presented research we aimed at the identification and cloning of functional CENH3 genes in Daucus carota and three distantly related wild species of genus Daucus varying in basic chromosome numbers. Based on mining the carrot transcriptome followed by a subsequent PCR-based cloning, homologous coding sequences for CENH3s of the four Daucus species were identified. The ORFs of the CENH3 variants were very similar, and an amino acid sequence length of 146 aa was found in three out of the four species. Comparison of Daucus CENH3 amino acid sequences with those of other plant CENH3s as well as their phylogenetic arrangement among other dicot CENH3s suggest that the identified genes are authentic CENH3 homologs. To verify the location of the CENH3 protein in the kinetochore regions of the Daucus chromosomes, a polyclonal antibody based on a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of DcCENH3 was developed and used for anti-CENH3 immunostaining of mitotic root cells. The chromosomal location of CENH3 proteins in the centromere regions of the chromosomes could be confirmed. For genetic localization of the CENH3 gene in the carrot genome, a previously constructed linkage map for carrot was used for mapping a CENH3-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker, and the CENH3 locus was mapped on the carrot chromosome 9. PMID:24887084

Dunemann, Frank; Schrader, Otto; Budahn, Holger; Houben, Andreas

2014-01-01

400

Plant community characteristics and their responses to environmental factors in the water level fluctuation zone of the three gorges reservoir in China.  

PubMed

The annual water level regulating of the Three Gorges Reservoir prolonged the submerged duration (from 2 to 8 months) and resulted in the reversal of natural flood rhythms (winter submerged). These changes might alter plant community characteristics in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). The aim of this study was to determine the plant community characteristics in the WLFZ and their responses to the environmental factors (i.e., annual hydrological regulation, topographic characteristics, soil physical properties and soil nutrients). The height, coverage, frequency and biomass of each plant species and the soil properties at each elevation zone (150, 155, 160, 165 and 170 m) were measured from March to September in 2010. Univariate two-factor analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA) were used to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the community characteristics and identify the key environmental factors influencing vegetation. We found that 93.2 % of the species analysed were terrestrial vascular plants. Annual herbs made up the highest percentage of life forms at each altitude. The differences in the species number per square metre, the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the biomass of vegetation demonstrated statistical significance with respect to sampling time but not elevation. The most dominant species at altitudes of 150, 155, 160, 165 and 170 m were Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria viridis and Daucus carota, respectively. The concentrations of soil nutrients appeared to be the lowest at an altitude of 150 m, although the differences with respect to elevation were not significant. The results of the RDA indicated that the key factors that influenced the species composition of vegetation were elevation, slope, pH and the concentration of soil available phosphorus. PMID:23589274

Zhang, Zhiyong; Wan, Chengyan; Zheng, Zhiwei; Hu, Lian; Feng, Kun; Chang, Jianbo; Xie, Ping

2013-10-01

401

Availability of arsenic, copper, lead, thallium, and zinc to various vegetables grown in slag-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

To anticipate a possible hazard resulting from the plant uptake of metals from slag-contaminated soils, it is useful to study whether vegetables exist that are able to mobilize a given metal in the slag to a larger proportion than in an uncontaminated control soil. For this purpose, we studied the soil to plant transfer of arsenic, copper, lead, thallium, and zinc by the vegetables bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. 'dwarf bean Modus'), kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.), mangold (Beta vulgaris var. macrorhiza ), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. 'American gathering brown'), carrot (Daucus carota L. 'Rotin', 'Sperlings's'), and celery [Apium graveiolus var. dulce (Mill.) Pers.] from a control soil (Ap horizon of a Entisol) and from a contaminated soil (1:1 soil-slag mixtures). Two types of slags were used: an iron-rich residue from pyrite (FeS2) roasting and a residue from coal firing. The metal concentrations in the slags, soils, and plants were used to calculate for each metal and soil-slag mixture the plant-soil fractional concentration ratio (CRfractional,slag), that is, the concentration ratio of the metal that results only from the slag in the soil. With the exception of TI, the resulting values obtained for this quantity for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn and for all vegetables were significantly smaller than the corresponding plant-soil concentration ratios (CRcontrol soil) for the uncontaminated soil. The results demonstrate quantitatively that the ability of a plant to accumulate a given metal as observed for a control soil might not exist for a soil-slag mixture, and vice versa. PMID:11401283

Bunzl, K; Trautmannsheimer, M; Schramel, P; Reifenhäuser, W

2001-01-01

402

Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia)  

PubMed Central

Background Dalmatia is an interesting place to study the use of wild greens as it lies at the intersection of influence of Slavs, who do not usually use many species of wild greens, and Mediterranean culinary culture, where the use of multiple wild greens is common. The aim of the study was to document the mixtures of wild green vegetables which are sold in all the vegetable markets of Dalmatia. Methods All vendors (68) in all 11 major markets of the Dalmatian coast were interviewed. The piles of wild vegetables they sold were searched and herbarium specimens taken from them. Results The mean number of species in the mix was 5.7. The most commonly sold wild plants are: Sonchus oleraceus L., Allium ampeloprasum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Urospermum picroides F.W.Schmidt, Papaver rhoeas L., Daucus carota L., Taraxacum sp., Picris echioides L., Silene latifolia Poir. and Crepis spp. Also the cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and a few cultivated Brassicaceae varieties are frequent components. Wild vegetables from the mix are usually boiled for 20–30 minutes and dressed with olive oil and salt. Altogether at least 37 wild taxa and 13 cultivated taxa were recorded. Apart from the mixes, Asparagus acutifolius L. and Tamus communis L. shoots are sold in separate bunches (they are usually eaten with eggs), as well as some Asteraceae species, the latter are eaten raw or briefly boiled. Conclusions The rich tradition of eating many wild greens may result both from strong Venetian and Greek influences and the necessity of using all food resources available in the barren, infertile land in the past. Although the number of wild-collected green vegetables is impressive we hypothesize that it may have decreased over the years, and that further in-depth local ethnobotanical studies are needed in Dalmatia to record the disappearing knowledge of edible plants. PMID:23286393

2013-01-01

403

Impact and correlation of environmental conditions on pollen counts in karachi, pakistan.  

PubMed

A quantitative and qualitative survey of airborne pollen was performed in the city of Karachi, and the pollen counts were correlated with different climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the possible effect of meteorological factors on airborne pollen distribution in the atmosphere of Karachi city. Pollen sampling was carried out by using Burkard spore Trap for the period of August 2009 to July 2010, and a total of 2,922 pollen grains/m3 were recorded. In this survey, 22 pollen types were recognized. The highest pollen count was contributed by Poaceae pollen type (1,242 pollen grains/m3) followed by Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae (948 pollen grains/m3), Cyperus rotundus (195 pollen grains/m3) and Prosopis juliflora (169 pollen grains/m3). Peak pollen season was in August showing a total of 709 pollen grains/m3 and lowest pollen count was observed in January-2010. Pearson's chi-square test was performed for the possible correlation of pollen counts and climatic factors. The test revealed significant positive correlation of wind speed with pollen types of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae; Brassica campestris; Asteraceae; and Thuja orientalis. While the correlation of "average temperature" showed significant positive value with Asteraceae and Tamarix indica pollen types. Negative correlation was observed between humidity/ precipitation and pollen types of Brassica campestris; Daucus carota; Ephedra sp.; and Tamarix indica. In the light of above updated data one could identify various aeroallergens present in the air of Karachi city. PMID:25530143

Perveen, Anjum; Khan, Muneeba; Zeb, Shaista; Imam, Asif Ali

2015-02-01

404

Use of domestic greywater for small-scale irrigation of food crops: Effects on plants and soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of greywater presents a problem in areas served with on-site sanitation or in areas with poor service provision. Such areas often also face challenges with respect to food security. Use of greywater for irrigation of food crops represents a possible beneficial use of greywater which can contribute to household food supply and to informal income generation. In this study, an above-ground crop (Swiss chard, Betavulgaris var. cicla) and a below-ground crop (carrot, Daucus carota) were irrigated in pots with mixed greywater sourced from households in an informal settlement. A simple form of sub-surface irrigation was used. Plant growth, crop yield, and levels of macro- and micronutrients in crops and soil were monitored through six growth cycles. Equivalent treatments, irrigated with either tap water or a hydroponic nutrient solution, were conducted for comparison. The same soil was used throughout to allow accumulation of greywater-derived substances in soil to be detected. The results indicated that: (i) irrigation with greywater increased plant growth and yield relative to crops irrigated with tap water only, although crops irrigated with hydroponic nutrient solution yielded the highest growth and yield; (ii) irrigation with greywater improved plant nutrient content relative to crops irrigated with tap water; (iii) soil irrigated with greywater showed increased electrical conductivity and increased concentrations of metals over time, coupled with an increase in sodium and metal concentrations in crops. Thus, provided precautions are taken with regard to salt and metal accumulation, greywater offers a potential source of water for household crop irrigation which additionally shows some fertiliser properties.

Rodda, N.; Salukazana, L.; Jackson, S. A. F.; Smith, M. T.

405

Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood.  

PubMed

Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg(-1)) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg(-1)), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg(-1) in carrot and 32 mg kg(-1) in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. PMID:15325459

Cao, Xinde; Ma, Lena Q

2004-12-01

406

Plastid-Expressed Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene in Carrot Cultured Cells, Roots, and Leaves Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance1  

PubMed Central

Salinity is one of the major factors that limits geographical distribution of plants and adversely affects crop productivity and quality. We report here high-level expression of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) in cultured cells, roots, and leaves of carrot (Daucus carota) via plastid genetic engineering. Homoplasmic transgenic plants exhibiting high levels of salt tolerance were regenerated from bombarded cell cultures via somatic embryogenesis. Transformation efficiency of carrot somatic embryos was very high, with one transgenic event per approximately seven bombarded plates under optimal conditions. In vitro transgenic carrot cells transformed with the badh transgene were visually green in color when compared to untransformed carrot cells, and this offered a visual selection for transgenic lines. BADH enzyme activity was enhanced 8-fold in transgenic carrot cell cultures, grew 7-fold more, and accumulated 50- to 54-fold more betaine (93–101 ?mol g?1 dry weight of ?-Ala betaine and Gly betaine) than untransformed cells grown in liquid medium containing 100 mm NaCl. Transgenic carrot plants expressing BADH grew in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl (up to 400 mm), the highest level of salt tolerance reported so far among genetically modified crop plants. BADH expression was 74.8% in non-green edible parts (carrots) containing chromoplasts, and 53% in proplastids of cultured cells when compared to chloroplasts (100%) in leaves. Demonstration of plastid transformation via somatic embryogenesis utilizing non-green tissues as recipients of foreign DNA for the first time overcomes two of the major obstacles in extending this technology to important crop plants. PMID:15347789

Kumar, Shashi; Dhingra, Amit; Daniell, Henry

2004-01-01

407

Overexpressing AtPAP15 Enhances Phosphorus Efficiency in Soybean1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Low phosphorus (P) availability is a major constraint to crop growth and production, including soybean (Glycine max), on a global scale. However, 50% to 80% of the total P in agricultural soils exists as organic phosphate, which is unavailable to plants unless hydrolyzed to release inorganic phosphate. One strategy for improving crop P nutrition is the enhanced activity of acid phosphatases (APases) to obtain or remobilize inorganic phosphate from organic P sources. In this study, we overexpressed an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) purple APase gene (AtPAP15) containing a carrot (Daucus carota) extracellular targeting peptide in soybean hairy roots and found that the APase activity was increased by 1.5-fold in transgenic hairy roots. We subsequently transformed soybean plants with AtPAP15 and studied three homozygous overexpression lines of AtPAP15. The three transgenic lines exhibited significantly improved P efficiency with 117.8%, 56.5%, and 57.8% increases in plant dry weight, and 90.1%, 18.2%, and 62.6% increases in plant P content, respectively, as compared with wild-type plants grown on sand culture containing phytate as the sole P source. The transgenic soybean lines also exhibited a significant level of APase and phytase activity in leaves and root exudates, respectively. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited improved yields when grown on acid soils, with 35.9%, 41.0%, and 59.0% increases in pod number per plant, and 46.0%, 48.3%, and 66.7% increases in seed number per plant. Taken together, to our knowledge, our study is the first report on the improvement of P efficiency in soybean through constitutive expression of a plant APase gene. These findings could have significant implications for improving crop yield on soils low in available P, which is a serious agricultural limitation worldwide. PMID:19587103

Wang, Xiurong; Wang, Yingxiang; Tian, Jiang; Lim, Boon Leong; Yan, Xiaolong; Liao, Hong

2009-01-01

408

The quest for a herbal contraceptive.  

PubMed

An oral herbal contraceptive would allow couples control their fertility without consulting a health worker, which in turn would likely markedly increase the number of couples practicing family planning. Other advantages of such a contraceptive would include the familiarity rural people have with herbal medicines, the fewer side effects associated with herbal preparations, their ready availability from local sources, and protection of privacy. There are many references to plants in India with antifertility properties. Since 1966, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been conducting research to identify a herbal contraceptive, as have other organizations. Plants that have exhibited antifertility activity in clinical trials include Hibiscus rosasinensis (benzene extract of the flower petals suppresses implantation); Rudrapushpaka (extract of the flower petals prevents pregnancy); Embelia ribes (pregnancy prevention); Davcus carota, Butea monosperma, and Sapindus trifoliatis (seeds have an anti-implantation effect); and Mentha arvensis (leaves have anti-implantation effect). The Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow, India, in collaboration with the US National Institutes of Health, the World Health Organization, and the ICMR confirm anti-implantation activity in Ferula jaeschkeana, Bupleurum marginatum, Lepidium capitatum, Caesalpinia sepiaria, Lonicera japonica, Juniperus communis, Lotus corniculatus, Lamium allum, and Acacia farnesiana. In China, scientists have evaluated the cotton-seed extract gossypol as a male contraceptive. They are now studying the possible antifertility effect on men of the plant Tripterygium wilfordii. From all the aforementioned plants as well as others under investigation, three possible types of contraceptives could be developed: an anti-ovulatory contraceptive; a postcoital contraceptive; and a male contraceptive. Some obstacles to their development include difficulties in obtaining adequate quantities of the herbs, a shortage of clinical pharmacologists and clinicians interested in conducting clinical trials, and lack of long-term financial support. PMID:8241931

Chaudhury, R R

1993-01-01

409

High-Throughput Cryopreservation of Plant Cell Cultures for Functional Genomics  

PubMed Central

Suspension-cultured cell lines from plant species are useful for genetic engineering. However, maintenance of these lines is laborious, involves routine subculturing and hampers wider use of transgenic lines, especially when many lines are required for a high-throughput functional genomics application. Cryopreservation of these lines may reduce the need for subculturing. Here, we established a simple protocol for cryopreservation of cell lines from five commonly used plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, Daucus carota, Lotus japonicus, Nicotiana tabacum and Oryza sativa. The LSP solution (2 M glycerol, 0.4 M sucrose and 86.9 mM proline) protected cells from damage during freezing and was only mildly toxic to cells kept at room temperature for at least 2 h. More than 100 samples were processed for freezing simultaneously. Initially, we determined the conditions for cryopreservation using a programmable freezer; we then developed a modified simple protocol that did not require a programmable freezer. In the simple protocol, a thick expanded polystyrene (EPS) container containing the vials with the cell–LSP solution mixtures was kept at ?30°C for 6 h to cool the cells slowly (pre-freezing); samples from the EPS containers were then plunged into liquid nitrogen before long-term storage. Transgenic Arabidopsis cells were subjected to cryopreservation, thawed and then re-grown in culture; transcriptome and metabolome analyses indicated that there was no significant difference in gene expression or metabolism between cryopreserved cells and control cells. The simplicity of the protocol will accelerate the pace of research in functional plant genomics. PMID:22437846

Ogawa, Yoichi; Sakurai, Nozomu; Oikawa, Akira; Kai, Kosuke; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Mori, Kumiko; Moriya, Kanami; Fujii, Fumiko; Aoki, Koh; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Ohta, Daisaku; Saito, Kazuki; Shibata, Daisuke

2012-01-01

410

Spatial and temporal expression profiling of cell-wall invertase genes during early development in hybrid poplar.  

PubMed

Cell-wall invertase genes are spatially and temporally regulated in several plant species, including Daucus carota L., Lycopersicon esculentum L. and Solanum tuberosum L. However, few studies of cell-wall invertase genes of trees have been conducted, despite the importance of trees as a source of lignocellulosic biopolymers. We identified three putative cell-wall invertase genes in hybrid poplar (Populus alba L. x grandidentata Michx.) that showed higher homology to each other than to cell-wall invertases of other dicotyledonous species, with two of the genes (PaxgINV2 and PaxgINV3) appearing as a genomic tandem repeat. These genes are more similar to each other than to tandemly repeated cell-wall invertases of other plants, perhaps indicating parallel evolution of a duplication event with cell-wall invertases in dicotyledons. Spatial and temporal expression analyses throughout a complete annual cycle indicated that PaxgINV1 and PaxgINV2 are highly regulated in vegetative tissues during three distinct growth phases: early growth, dormancy and post-dormancy. Expression of the third gene (PaxgINV3) appears to be tightly regulated and may represent a floral-specific cell-wall invertase. Of the two genes expressed in vegetative tissues, PaxgINV1 appears to be exclusively involved in processes related to dormancy, whereas PaxgINV2 appears to encode an enzyme involved in phloem unloading and in providing actively growing tissues, such as developing xylem, with the energy and carbon skeletons necessary for respiration and cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:18450570

Canam, Thomas; Mak, Sarah W Y; Mansfield, Shawn D

2008-07-01

411

Exploring insights for virulent gene inhibition of multidrug resistant Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, and Staphylococcus areus by potential phytoligands via in silico screening.  

PubMed

In our recent studies on prevalence of multidrug resistant pathogens in Byramangala reservoir, Karnataka, India, we identified Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio cholerae which had acquired multiple drug resistance (MDR) and emerged as superbugs. Hence, there is a pressing demand to identify alternative therapeutic remedies. Our study focused on the screening of herbal leads by structure-based virtual screening. The virulent gene products of these pathogens towards Kanamycin(aph), Trimethoprim(dfrA1), Methicillin (mecI), and Vancomycin (vanH) were identified as the probable drug targets and their 3D structures were predicted by homology modeling. The predicted models showed good stereochemical validity. By extensive literature survey, we selected 58 phytoligands and their drug likeliness and pharmacokinetic properties were computationally predicted. The inhibitory properties of these ligands against drug targets were studied by molecular docking. Our studies revealed that Baicalein from S. baicalensis (baikal skullcap) and Luteolin from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) were identified as potential inhibitors against aph of S. typhi. Resveratrol from Vitis vinifera (grape vine) and Wogonin from S. baicalensis were identified as potential inhibitors against dfrA1 of S. typhi. Herniarin from Herniaria glabra (rupture worts) and Pyrocide from Daucus carota (Carrot) were identified as the best leads against dfrA1 of V. cholerae. Taraxacin of T. officinale (weber) and Luteolin were identified as potential inhibitors against Mec1. Apigenin from Coffee arabica (coffee) and Luteolin were identified as the best leads against vanH of S. aureus. Our findings pave crucial insights for exploring alternative therapeutics against MDR pathogens. PMID:23876154

Skariyachan, Sinosh; Jayaprakash, Nisha; Bharadwaj, Navya; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

2014-01-01

412

Characterization of a Xylose-Specific Antiserum That Reacts with the Complex Asparagine-Linked Glycans of Extracellular and Vacuolar Glycoproteins 1  

PubMed Central

Antibodies were raised against carrot (Daucus carota) cell wall ?-fructosidase that was either in a native configuration (this serum is called anti-?F1) or chemically deglycosylated (anti-?F2). The two antisera had completely different specificities when tested by immunoblotting. The anti-?F1 serum reacted with ?-fructosidase and many other carrot cell wall proteins as well as with many proteins in extracts of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cotyledons and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seeds. It did not react with chemically deglycosylated ?-fructosidase. The anti-?F1 serum also reacted with the bean vacuolar protein, phytohemagglutinin, but not with deglycosylated phytohemagglutinin. The anti-?F2 serum reacted with both normal and deglycosylated ?-fructosidase but not with other proteins. These results indicate that the ?F2 antibodies recognize the ?-fructosidase polypeptide, while the ?F1 antibodies recognize glycan sidechains common to many glycoproteins. We used immunoadsorption on glycoprotein-Sepharose columns and hapten inhibition of immunoblot reactions to characterize the nature of the antigenic site. Antibody binding activity was found to be associated with Man3(Xyl)(GIcNAc)2Fuc, Man3(Xyl)(GIcNAc)2, and Man(Xyl) (GIcNAc)2 glycans, but not with Man3(GIcNAc)2. Treatment of phytohemagglutinin, a glycoprotein with a Man3(Xyl)(GIcNAc)2Fuc glycan, with Charonia lampas ?-xylosidase (after treatment with jack-bean ?-mannosidase) greatly diminished the binding between the antibodies and phytohemagglutinin. We conclude, therefore, that the antibodies bind primarily to the xylose?, 1? 2mannose structure commonly found in the complex glycans of plant glycoproteins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16666870

Laurière, Michel; Laurière, Christiane; Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Johnson, Kenneth D.; Sturm, Arnd

1989-01-01

413

Volatile organic compounds of six French Dryopteris species: natural odorous and bioactive resources.  

PubMed

Aerial parts of six Dryopteris species collected in France were investigated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the first time. Fifty-three biosynthesized VOC from the shikimic, lipidic and terpenic pathways were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Many bioactive polyketide compounds as filicinic derivatives (from 8.5 to 23.5%) and phloroglucinol derivatives (from 8.2 to 53.8%) with various pharmacological activities were detected in high amount from five analysed Dryopteris species, in particular D. oreades and D. borreri, i.e., propionylfilicinic acid (> 10% in D. affinis and D. ardechensis) and 2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3-methylbutyrophenone (aspidinol) (19.1% and 14.6% in D. oreades and D. borreri, respectively). Several terpenic derivatives with a low odor threshold were identified, i.e., carota-5,8-diene (from 2.5 to 18.4%: floral, woody or fresh bark note), (E)-nerolidol (> 10% for D. borreri and D. cambrensis; floral or woody odor), alpha-selinene (> 7% for D. ardechensis; woody-spicy odor), and aristolene (12.8% in D. affinis; flower, sweet odor). The main isoprenoid derivatives were 4-hydroxy-5,6-epoxyionol, 3-oxo-alpha-ionol and 4-oxo-7,8-dihydro-beta-ionone (essentially in D. remota), whereas the main aromatic compound was 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone (20.6% and 12.6% in D. cambrensis and D. borreri, respectively) and the main lipid derivative was 1-octen-3-ol with a mushroom-like odor (from 0.4 to 8.3%). Dryopteris species resources are of great interest as a reservoir of odorous and bioactive compounds. PMID:24660483

Froissard, Didier; Rapior, Sylvie; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Fruchier, Alain; Buatois, Bruno; Fons, Françoise

2014-01-01

414

Indirect effects on mutualisms: parasitism of bumble bees and pollination service to plants.  

PubMed

Researchers increasingly recognize the important role of mutualisms in structuring communities and view positive interactions in a community context rather than as simple pairwise interactions. Indirect effects, such as those that predators have on lower trophic levels, are a key process in community ecology. However, such top-down indirect effects have rarely been extended to mutualisms. Antagonists of one mutualist have the potential to negatively affect the second mutualist through negative effects on their partner, and the magnitude of such effects should vary with mutualism strength. Bumble bees are ecologically and economically important pollinators that are an ideal system to determine if such indirect effects play an important role in mutualisms. Bumble bees are attacked by an array of parasites and predators, and they interact with a range of plants that vary in their dependence on bumble bees for reproduction. We tested whether variation in parasitism rates by Nosema bombi, Crithidia bombi, and conopid flies correlated with reproduction of greenhouse-raised plants placed in the field. At multiple sites over two years, we studied four plant species that varied in reliance on bumble bees as pollinators. We found a consistent negative relationship between Nosema parasitism and measures of pollination for Trifolium pratense and Solanum carolinense, plant species with high bumble bee visitation, whereas Rudbeckia hirta and Daucus carota, plant species with generalized pollination, experienced no impacts of Nosema. However, both Crithidia and conopids showed inconsistent relationships with pollination service. Although these patterns are correlational, they provide evidence that parasites of bumble bees may have negative indirect effects on plants, and that mutualism strength can moderate the magnitude of such effects. PMID:23691664

Gillespie, S D; Adler, L S

2013-02-01

415

Phytotoxicity evaluation of five pharmaceutical pollutants detected in surface water on germination and growth of cultivated and spontaneous plants.  

PubMed

The phytotoxicity of 5 pharmaceuticals detected in Italian rivers, atorvastatin (7-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-phenyl-4-(phenylcarbamoyl)-5-propan-2-yl-pyrrol-1-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid), gemfibrozil (5-(2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethyl-pentanoic acid), tamoxifene (2-[4-(1,2-diphenylbut-1-enyl)phenoxy]-N,N-dimethyl-ethanamine), ethinyl estradiol (17-ethynyl-13-methyl-7,8,9,11, 12,13,14,15,16,17-decahydro-6H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthrene-3,17-diol) and sildenafil (methyl-9-propyl-2,4,7,8-tetrazabicyclo[4.3.0] nona-3,8,10-trien-5-one), has been assessed in a laboratory model. The treatment system consists of three main successive sections. The first one includes the phytotoxic evaluation of the single compounds on crops, Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Dacus carota subsp. sativa (carrot), and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), until the 10(-9) M, concentration lower then the environmental amounts. The second section includes the phytotoxicity assessment of all the selected chemicals on wild species, Avena fatua (wild oats), Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), and Chenopodium album (lambsquarter), at the same concentration as previously used. The third section of the procedure includes the evaluation of the effects of the five pharmaceuticals, at 1 microM and 1 nM environmental concentrations, on the metabolism of L. sativa. The variation of the composition of the photosynthetic pigments, sugars, lipids, phenols, fatty acids and flavonoids in lettuce seedlings exposed to the pollutants in respect to the blank was evaluated. The results of the phytotoxicity assays showed the possibility of a notable impact on the different vegetal communities and evidenced different sensitivity among cultivated and wild species, probably due to the different plant physiology. PMID:18205060

D'Abrosca, Brigida; Fiorentino, Antonio; Izzo, Angelina; Cefarelli, Giuseppe; Pascarella, Maria Teresa; Uzzo, Piera; Monaco, Pietro

2008-02-15

416

Temperature Interactions with Growth Regulators and Endogenous Gibberellin-like Activity during Seedstalk Elongation in Carrots 1  

PubMed Central

Stecklings (roots) of three cultivars of carrots (Daucus carota L.) were vernalized 10 weeks at 5 C and subsequently grown at each of three greenhouse night/day temperature regimes: high (27/32 C), medium (21/27 C), and low (15/21 C). Floral differentiation occurred first in the easy bolting cv. Scarlet Nantes, intermediate in cv. Danvers 126, and last in cv. Royal Chantenay. Stem elongation arising from the subapical meristematic region always preceded floral differentiation. Extractable gibberellin-like activity in carrot stem apices increased from harvest during the 10-week vernalization period, then remained constant even though floral differentiation and stem elongation occurred during an additional 20-week cold storage period. Low temperature had both an inductive and a direct effect on reproductive development depending on length of low temperature exposure. After 10 weeks vernalization at 5 C, high greenhouse temperature severely reduced ultimate seedstalk height and the endogenous gibberellinlike activity decreased rapidly during the first 3 weeks in the greenhouse. At the low greenhouse temperature, activity remained fairly constant during the 10-week sampling period. Changes in endogenous gibberellinlike activity were related with stem elongation, but not with floral initiation. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3) applied following vernalization prevented the inhibitory effect of high greenhouse temperature on seedstalk elongation and resulted in seedstalk heights comparable to untreated controls grown at the low greenhouse temperature. Exogenous applications of succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide and chlormequat reduced seedstalk height of carrot plants grown at the medium and low greenhouse temperatures to that of untreated controls grown at high temperature. Exogenous growth regulators and greenhouse temperature affected seedstalk elongation, but did not affect the number of plants that flowered. Images PMID:16660856

Hiller, Larry K.; Kelly, William C.; Powell, Loyd E.

1979-01-01

417

Selecting and evaluating native plants for region-specific phytotoxicity testing.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated methodology to determine risks to terrestrial native plant species from potential herbecide drift, focusing on 1) selection of native species for testing, 2) growth of these species, and 3) variability in herbicide response among native species and compared with crop plants. Native plant species were selected for initial testing on the basis of spatial analysis, which indicated that species from Illinois, USA, were at potential risk for off-target effects of herbicide drift. On the basis of preliminary seed germination tests, 5 native plant species (Andropogon gerardi, Polygonum lapathifolium, Solidago canadensis, Symphyotrichum lateriflorum, and Tridens flavus) were selected for comparison with crops grown in Illinois, normally used in the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) Vegetative Vigor Test (Avena sativa, Daucus carota, Glycine max, Solanum lycopersicon, and Zea mays), or both. When treated with low concentrations of a test herbicide, sulfometuron methyl, 2 native species, P. lapathifolium and S. canadensis, were as sensitive as the 5 crop species. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in shoot dry weight (EC25) for these species, ranged from 0.00015 to 0.0014 times a field application concentration of 52 g/ha active ingredient of sulfometuron methyl. S. lateriflorum and T. flavus were less sensitive than the other native species, whereas A. gerardi was tolerant to sulfometuron methyl with no growth reduction at any herbicide concentration tested. This study indicated that native species can be successfully selected and grown, used in the suite of species used in the USEPA's phytotoxicity test to assess risks of chemical herbicides to nontarget plants. It also showed (with a limited number of species) that native species varied more in sensitivity to simulated herbicide drift than crop species often used in phytotoxicity testing and that a Weibull function was useful to calculate EC25 values when low concentrations of herbicides was used. PMID:17973566

Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Burdick, Connie; King, George; Plocher, Milton; Kern, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

418

INTER-MOUNTAIN BASINS BIG SAGEBRUSH SHRUBLAND extent exaggerated for display  

E-print Network

/ Pleuraphis jamesii Shrubland ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA SSP. WYOMINGENSIS SHRUB HERBACEOUS ALLIANCE Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis / Pascopyrum smithii Shrub Herbaceous Vegetation Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis / Pseudoroegneria spicata Shrub Herbaceous Vegetation ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA SSP. WYOMINGENSIS

419

In vitro plant regeneration of Alnus acuminata H.B.K. ssp. acuminata and its root nodulation by Frankia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for in vitro plant regeneration of Alnus acuminata from epicotyls with cotyledonary buds was developed using different media formulations with different growth regulators and carbon sources. The development of multiple buds on explants at the initiation step was obtained with MS at 1\\/2 strength with either 1 or 2µM of BAP but not without it. Multiplication gave up

Roxana J. Enrico; Silvia S. Ramírez; Luis A. Mroginski; Luis Gabriel Wall

2005-01-01

420

Influence of cow manure vermicompost on the growth, metabolite contents, and antioxidant activities of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cow manure vermicompost on plant growth, metabolite contents, and antioxidant activities of Chinese cabbage\\u000a were investigated in pot cultures. Five treatments were designed by mixing vermicompost and soil at ratio of 0:7, 1:7, 2:7,\\u000a 4:7, 7:0 (w\\/w). Marketable weight of Chinese cabbage was significantly (p?

Donghong Wang; Qinghua Shi; Xiufeng Wang; Min Wei; Jinyu Hu; Jun Liu; Fengjuan Yang

2010-01-01

421

Resistance of mixed subalpine forest to fire frequency changes: the ecological function of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo ssp. mugo)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of fuel and climate are major factors responsible for forest fire activity over time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forest ecosystems containing a high shrub biomass, which constitutes a fuel load, and affected by a warmer climate, which is associated with drier conditions and a longer fire season, are more prone to fire. Fire occurrence and woody vegetation histories were reconstructed for a subalpine site (Lago di Colbricon Inferiore) in the Dolomites, part of the eastern Italian Alps, for the past 13,000 years. The modern wet climate prevents fire in this area, in spite of the warm summers and an abundant biomass of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo) and three other conifer tree species (Pinus cembra, Picea abies, and Larix decidua). Past fire history reconstructed from sedimentary charcoal showed a median fire return interval of 140 years (30-735 yr fire-1), with a high variability (SD ± 170 years) throughout the Holocene, suggesting that the past environment was more favourable to fire than the modern one, probably due to a drier climate or to different fuel availability. The subalpine community containing P. mugo remained stable for the past 9000 years, despite the variability of the fire return interval. Interestingly, the fire frequency is higher at Lago di Colbricon than at sites in the western Alps that lack P. mugo, suggesting that this species tolerates fire disturbance. In fact, it probably favours the spread of fire due to its flammable biomass, prostrated form, and dense layering canopy, thus offsetting the influence of the wet climate. Since the 19th century, the removal of dwarf pine to promote subalpine grasslands may have suppressed fires in this region.

Leys, Bérangère; Carcaillet, Christopher; Blarquez, Olivier; Lami, Andrea; Musazzi, Simona; Trevisan, Renata

2014-04-01

422

Seasonal flooding regimes influence survival, nitrogen fixation, and the partitioning of nitrogen and biomass in Alnus incana ssp. rugosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alteration of natural flooding regimes can expose lowlands to waterlogged soil conditions during any month of the year. The seasonality of flooding may have profound effects on the carbon and nitrogen budgets of N-fixing alders (Alnus spp.), and in turn, may impact the C and N economy of extensive alder-dominated, wetland ecosystems, including those dominated by speckled alder (Alnus incana

C. M. Kaelke; J. O. Dawson

2003-01-01

423

Symbiotic N 2 fixation of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountains, New York, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface waters in forested watersheds in the Adirondack Mountains and northern New York State are susceptible to nitrogen (N) saturation. Atmospheric deposition of N to watersheds in this region has been measured but the extent of internal N inputs from symbiotic N2 fixation in alder-dominated wetlands is not known. We estimated N2 fixation by speckled alder in these wetlands by

T. M. Hurd; D. J. Raynal; C. R. Schwintzer

2001-01-01

424

Symbiotic N 2 fixation of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountains, New York, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface waters in forested watersheds in the Adirondack Mountains and northern New York State are susceptible to nitrogen (N) saturation. Atmospheric de- position of N to watersheds in this region has been mea- sured but the extent of internal N inputs from symbiotic N 2 fixation in alder-dominated wetlands is not known. We estimated N2 fixation by speckled alder in

T. M. Hurd; D. J. Raynal; C. R. Schwintzer

2001-01-01

425

GC-MS Analysis of the Extracts from Korean Cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis) and Its Seed  

PubMed Central

Korean cabbage, a member of the Brassicaceae family which also includes cauliflower, mustard, radish, and turnip plants, is a crucial leafy vegetable crop. Korean cabbage is harvested after completion of the leaf heading process and is often prepared for use in “baechu kimchi”, a traditional Korean food. Many of the components in Korean cabbage are essential for proper human nutrition; these components can be divided into two groups: primary metabolites, which include carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, and organic acids, and secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, carotenoids, sterols, phenolic acids, alkaloids, and glucosinolates (GSLs). Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, this study examined the variety of volatile compounds (including isothiocyanates) contained in Korean cabbage and its seed, which resulted in the identification of 16 and 12 volatile compounds, respectively. The primary volatile compound found in the cabbage was ethyl linoleolate (~23%), while 4,5-epithiovaleronitrile (~46%) was the primary volatile component in the seed. PMID:24471136

Hong, Eunyoung; Kim, Gun-Hee

2013-01-01

426

Genetic mapping of stem rust resistance gene Sr13 in tetraploid wheat ( Triticum turgidum ssp. durum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, can cause significant yield losses. To combat the disease, breeders have deployed resistance genes both individually and\\u000a in combinations to increase resistance durability. A new race, TTKSK (Ug99), identified in Uganda in 1999 is virulent on most\\u000a of the resistance genes currently deployed, and is rapidly spreading to other regions

Kristin Simons; Zewdie Abate; Shiaoman Chao; Wenjun Zhang; Matt Rouse; Yue Jin; Elias Elias; Jorge Dubcovsky

2011-01-01

427

Consequences of herbivory in the mountain birch ( Betula pubescens ssp tortuosa ): importance of the functional organization of the tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of experiments indicate that the functional organization of the mountain birch may influence the ways in which the tree responds to simulated or natural herbivory. The first experiment showed that herbivory to both short and long shoot leaves affects plant development but, because growth largely proceeds by resources of the previous year, is manifested only in the year

Erkki Haukioja; Kai Ruohomäki; Josef Senn; Janne Suomela; Mari Walls

1990-01-01

428

The Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits in Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis): New Evidence from Association Mapping  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our previous association analyses showed that variation at major regulatory genes contributes to standing variation for complex traits in Balsas teosinte, the progenitor of maize. This study expands our previous association mapping effort in teosinte by testing 123 markers in 52 candidate genes for ...

429

Mitochondrial COI and morphological specificity of the mealy aphids (Hyalopterus ssp.) collected from different hosts in Europe (Hemiptera, Aphididae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Forty three European population samples of mealy aphids from various winter and summer host plants were attributed to respective species of Hyalopterus by means of their partial sequences of mitochondrial COI gene. Used Hyalopterus samples emerged as monophyletic relative to outgroup and formed three major clades representing three host specific mealy aphid species in the Neighbor joining, Maximum parsimony, Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference trees. Hyalopterus pruni and Hyalopterus persikonus emerged as a sister species, whilst Hyalopterus amygdali was located basally. Samples representing different clades in the molecular trees were used for canonical discrimination analysis based on twenty two morphological characters. Length of the median dorsal head hair enabled a 97.3 % separation of Hyalopterus amygdali from the remaining two species. No single character enabled satisfactory discrimination between apterous viviparous females of Hyalopterus pruni and Hyalopterus persikonus. A modified key for the morphological identification of Hyalopterus species is suggested and their taxonomic status discussed. PMID:24039523

Rakauskas, Rimantas; Havelka, Jekaterina; Zaremba, Audrius

2013-01-01

430

Effect of environmental factors on the productivity of crimean pine (Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana) in Sutculer, Turkey.  

PubMed

This study was conducted on Pinus nigra sub sp. pallasiana commonly known as crimean pine. The purpose of this study was to determine the important site factors affecting the development of these forests in Sutculer district. This district experiences a transitional climate between Mediterranean and Continental regions. There is a strong water deficit in summer. The data was collected from 37 sample plots. It was analyzed statistically by using upper stand height as a dependent variable and some site characteristics as independent variables. The results revealed that there was only one important negative linear relationship between upper stand height and Ah organic matter. This result was uncommon. The reasons for this depend indirectly other site factors (aspect, slope position, altitude, slope degree and humus forms). This result was explained at 69.53% of total variance using these site factors by means of factor analysis (FA). After FA, these site factors were transferred to stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) to determine eigenvalue ratios of the bonitet models. As a result of SDA, three bonitets and five variables (3B5V) were found as the best model with 71.5% of variance and 0.007% significance level. PMID:20329391

Ozkan, Kursad; Gulsoy, Serkan

2009-11-01

431

Selenium, putrescine, and cadmium influence health-promoting phytochemicals and molecular-level effects on turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa).  

PubMed

The effects of selenium, putrescine, and cadmium on the contents of glucosinolates, total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, chlorophyll, anthocyanin, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and antioxidant capacities as well as gene regulation of phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and glucosinolates biosynthesis were investigated in turnip plants. Selenium dioxide (SeO2) treatment significantly induced the amount of gluconasturtiin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoallysin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2)- and putrescine-treated plants had considerably enhanced gluconasturtiin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin levels, respectively. Total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant capacities were significantly increased in SeO2-treated plants. Lutein was higher in control plants followed by, in decreasing order, SeO2-, putrescine-, and CdCl2-treated plants. The chlorophyll content was significantly decreased and anthocyanin, MDA, and H2O2 levels were significantly increased with CdCl2 treatment. Moreover, plants treated with selenium and cadmium showed significant induction of genes related to glucosinolate, phenolic, and carotenoid biosynthesis. These results demonstrated that SeO2 significantly increased the contents of health-promoting compounds and enhanced the antioxidant capacities of turnip plants. PMID:25466011

Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Chung, Ill-Min

2015-04-15

432

A Genomic Island in Salmonella enterica ssp. salamae Provides New Insights on the Genealogy of the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement  

PubMed Central

The genomic island encoding the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is an important virulence factor of the human pathogenic Escherichia coli. LEE typically encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) and secreted effectors capable of forming attaching and effacing lesions. Although prominent in the pathogenic E. coli such as serotype O157:H7, LEE has also been detected in Citrobacter rodentium, E. albertii, and although not confirmed, it is likely to also be in Shigella boydii. Previous phylogenetic analysis of LEE indicated the genomic island was evolving through stepwise acquisition of various components. This study describes a new LEE region from two strains of Salmonella enterica subspecies salamae serovar Sofia along with a phylogenetic analysis of LEE that provides new insights into the likely evolution of this genomic island. The Salmonella LEE contains 36 of the 41 genes typically observed in LEE within a genomic island of 49, 371 bp that encodes a total of 54 genes. A phylogenetic analysis was performed on the entire T3SS and four T3SS genes (escF, escJ, escN, and escV) to elucidate the genealogy of LEE. Phylogenetic analysis inferred that the previously known LEE islands are members of a single lineage distinct from the new Salmonella LEE lineage. The previously known lineage of LEE diverged between islands found in Citrobacter and those in Escherichia and Shigella. Although recombination and horizontal gene transfer are important factors in the genealogy of most genomic islands, the phylogeny of the T3SS of LEE can be interpreted with a bifurcating tree. It seems likely that the LEE island entered the Enterobacteriaceae through horizontal gene transfer as a single unit, rather than as separate subsections, which was then subjected to the forces of both mutational change and recombination. PMID:22860002

Chandry, P. Scott; Gladman, Simon; Moore, Sean C.; Seemann, Torsten; Crandall, Keith A.; Fegan, Narelle

2012-01-01

433

Climate and the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) at Mountain Birch (Betula pubecens ssp. czerepanovii) Treelines in northern Sweden.  

E-print Network

Journal of Ecology 2007 95 , 352?363 ? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ? 2007 British Ecological Society Blackwell Publishing Ltd Variability, contingency and rapid change in recent subarctic alpine tree line dynamics RYAN K.... DANBY* and DAVID S. HIK Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9 Summary 1 Boundaries between forest and tundra ecosystems, tree lines, are expected to advance in altitude and latitude in response...

Young, Amanda B.

2010-01-16

434

Enzymes encoded by the farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene family in the Big Sagebrush Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis.  

PubMed

Farnesyl diphosphate synthase catalyzes the sequential head-to-tail condensation of two molecules of isopentenyl diphosphate with dimethylallyl diphosphate. In plants the presence of farnesyl diphosphate synthase isozymes offers the possibility of differential regulation. Three full-length cDNAs encoding putative isoprenoid synthases, FDS-1, FDS-2, and FDS-5, with greater than 89% similarity were isolated from a Big Sagebrush Artemisia tridentata cDNA library using a three-step polymerase chain reaction protocol. One of the open reading frames, FDS-5, encoded a protein with an N-terminal amino acid extension that was identified as a plastidial targeting peptide. Recombinant histidine-tagged versions of three proteins were purified, and their enzymatic properties were characterized. FDS-1 and FDS-2 synthesized farnesyl diphosphate as the final chain elongation product, but their kinetic behavior varied. FDS-1 prefers geranyl diphosphate over dimethylallyl diphosphate as an allylic substrate and is active at acidic pH values compared with FDS-2. In contrast, FDS-5 synthesized two irregular monoterpenoids, chrysanthemyl diphosphate and lavandulyl diphosphate, when incubated with dimethylallyl diphosphate and an additional product, the regular monoterpene geranyl diphosphate, when incubated with isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Specific cellular functions are proposed for each of the three enzymes, and a scenario for evolution of isoprenyl synthases in plants is presented. PMID:12782626

Hemmerlin, Andrea; Rivera, Susan B; Erickson, Hans K; Poulter, C Dale

2003-08-22

435