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1

Diagnostic Measures for Model Criticism Cinzia Carota, Giovanni Parmigiani and Nicholas G. Polson  

E-print Network

Diagnostic Measures for Model Criticism Cinzia Carota, Giovanni Parmigiani and Nicholas G. Polson and Hal Stern offered insightful comments and criticisms. Chengchang Li made available the Markov chain criticism, with emphasis on devel­ oping summary diagnostic measures. We approach model criticism by

West, Mike

2

Complete plastid genome sequence of Daucus carota: Implications for biotechnology and phylogeny of angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Carrot (Daucus carota) is a major food crop in the US and worldwide. Its capacity for storage and its lifecycle as a biennial make it an attractive species for the introduction of foreign genes, especially for oral delivery of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. Until recently efforts to express recombinant proteins in carrot have had limited success in terms

Tracey Ruhlman; Seung-Bum Lee; Robert K Jansen; Jessica B Hostetler; Luke J Tallon; Christopher D Town; Henry Daniell

2006-01-01

3

Sequential Event Processing: Domain Specificity or Task Specificity? Commentary on Carota and Sirigu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article by Carota and Sirigu addresses a fundamental issue, namely the domain specificity of people's ability to learn and implement sequential structures of events. The authors review theoretical positions and empirical findings related to this issue, providing a useful summary of representative models of sequential event structures, and a…

Toni, Ivan

2008-01-01

4

Essential oil of Daucus carota subsp. halophilus: Composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi. Daucus carota L. is used since olden times in traditional medicine, due to recognized therapeutic properties, namely the antimicrobial activity of their essential oils.Aim of the study: In the present study the composition and the antifungal activity of the oils of Daucus

Ana Cristina Tavares; Maria José Gonçalves; Carlos Cavaleiro; Maria Teresa Cruz; Maria Celeste Lopes; Jorge Canhoto; Lígia Ribeiro Salgueiro

2008-01-01

5

Spontaneous spectinomycin resistance mutations detected after biolistic transformation of Daucus carota L.  

PubMed

Spectinomycin resistant mutant carrot (Daucus carota L.) callus lines detected in the experiments on biolistic transformation of plastome were analyzed. It has been found that this antibiotic resistance is determined by point nucleotide substitutions at two distinct sites of the chloroplast gene rrn16, coding for 16S rRNA, namely, G1012T, G1012C, and A1138G. The detected mutations are localized to the 16S rRNA region forming helix h34, which contains spectinomycin binding site, and lead to its destabilization by several kilocalories per mole. Comparative analysis of rrn16 gene sequences has demonstrated conservation of the positions of the nucleotide substitutions determining this antibiotic resistance in carrot (D. carota L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), and bladder pod (Lesquerella fendleri L.), as well as in Escherichia coli. PMID:23572997

Filipenko, Elena A; Sidorchuk, Yuri V; Titov, Igor I; Maltsev, Valery P; Deineko, Elena V

2011-03-01

6

Calcium transport in tonoplast and endoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells. [Daucus carota Danvers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two active calcium (Ca\\/sup 2 +\\/) transport systems have been identified and partially characterized in membrane vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota Danvers). Both transport systems required MgATP for activity and were enhanced by 10 millimolar oxalate. Ca\\/sup 2 +\\/ transport in membrane vesicles derived from isolated vacuoles equilibrated at 1.10 grams per cubic centimeter and comigrated with

D. R. Bush; H. Sze

1986-01-01

7

Seasonal variation in Daucus carota leaf-surface and leaf-tissue chemical profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to document seasonal changes in leaf-surface and whole-leaf chemistry of Daucus carota cohorts that differed in life-cycle phenology (winter annual, annual, or biennial), with particular focus on compounds that serve as contact oviposition stimulants for Papilio polyxenes, the black swallowtail butterfly. Cohorts of carrot plants exhibiting different life-cycle phenologies were established, and plants from

Janie S Brooks; Paul Feeny

2004-01-01

8

Comparative studies of the peroxidases from hairy roots of Daucus carota, Ipomoea batatas and Solanum aviculare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal conditions for the extraction of peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) from hairy root cultures of Daucus carota L. (carrot), Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) and Solanum aviculare Forst. (kangaroo apple) and their apparent kinetic constants with guaiacol, catechol, phenol, 2-chlorophenol and 2,6-dichlorophenol as reducing substrates were determined. The peroxidase activities in these root extracts were, respectively, 2.1 ± 0.05, 15.1

Brancilene Santos de Araujo; Juliana Omena de Oliveira; Sonia Salgueiro Machado; Marcia Pletsch

2004-01-01

9

Carrot ( Daucus carota L.) peroxidase inactivation, phenolic content and physical changes kinetics due to blanching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of peroxidase thermal inactivation, total phenolic content degradation, and colour (CIE L?a?b?) and texture changes were studied in a temperature range of 70–90°C for carrots (Daucus carota L.).Peroxidase inactivation, total phenolic content degradation and the lightness colour (L? parameter) change were successfully described by a first-order reaction model. The redness and yellowness colour (a? and b? parameters, respectively)

E. M. Gonçalves; J. Pinheiro; M. Abreu; T. R. S. Brandão; C. L. M. Silva

2010-01-01

10

[Spontaneous spectinomycin resistance mutations of the chloroplast rrn16 gene in Daucus carota callus lines].  

PubMed

Bioballistic transformation of carrot Daucus carota L. callus cultures with a plasmid containing the aadA (aminoglycoside 3'-adenyltransferase) gene and subsequent selection oftransformants on a selective medium containing spectinomycin (100-500 mg/l) yielded ten callus lines resistant to this antibiotic. PCR analysis did not detect exogenous DNA in the genomes of spectinomycin-resistant calluses. Resistance proved to be due to spontaneous mutations that occurred in two different regions of the chloroplast rrn16 gene, which codes for the 16S rRNA. Six lines displayed the G > T or G > C transverions in position 1012 of the rrn16 gene, and three lines had the A > G transition in position 1138 of the gene. Chloroplast mutations arising during passages of callus cultures in the presence of spectinomycin were described in D. carota for the first time. The cause of spectinomycin resistance was not identified in one line. The mutations observed in the D. carota plastid genome occurred in the region that is involved in the formation of a double-stranded region at the 3' end of the 16S rRNA and coincided in positions with the nucleotide substitutions found in spectinomycin-resistant plants of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and bladderpod Lesquerella fendleri L. PMID:21446181

Filipenko, E A; Sidorchuk, Iu V; De?neko, E V

2011-01-01

11

Levels of lycopene ?-cyclase 1 modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in Daucus carota.  

PubMed

Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene ?-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of ?-carotene and ?-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of ?-carotene and ?-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and ?-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots. PMID:23555569

Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

2013-01-01

12

Levels of Lycopene ?-Cyclase 1 Modulate Carotenoid Gene Expression and Accumulation in Daucus carota  

PubMed Central

Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene ?-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of ?-carotene and ?-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of ?-carotene and ?-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and ?-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots. PMID:23555569

Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

2013-01-01

13

Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David

2006-01-01

14

Modification of Seedstalk Development and Its Effects on Seed Yield and Seed Quality in Carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrot (Daucus carota L.) seeds vary greatly in maturity as a result of umbel order formation on the mother plants. The objectives of this study were to investigate the possibility of using chemical growth regulators as chemical pruning agents to modify seedstalk development in carrot plants, and to determine the effect of such modification on seed yield and quality. The

Mustafa M. A. Elballa; Daniel J. Cantliffe

1997-01-01

15

Predictions of fate from rosette size in four “biennial” plant species: Verbascum thapsus, Oenothera biennis, Daucus carota , and Tragopogon dubius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual plants were marked in field populations of four biennial plant species, Verbascum thapsus L., Oenothera biennis L., Daucus carota L., and Tragopogon dubius Scop., and followed for 2 or 3 years. The relationship of both rosette size and age to the probability of an individual dying, remaining vegetative, or flowering was determined for each species. In all four species,

Katherine L. Gross

1981-01-01

16

Effect of population densities, lines of seed per bed and root size on quality and yield of baby style carrots (Daucus carota Mill) in South Texas  

E-print Network

Baby style carrot Daucus carota Mill. Cv. "Caropak" was studied under four population densities, three different number of lines per bed and harvested under three root size harvest parameters in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Four phases...

Lazcano, Carlos Alberto

2012-06-07

17

Phospholipids of palash ( Butea monosperma ), papaya ( Carica papaya ), jangli badam ( Sterculia foetida ), coriander ( Coriandrum sativum ) and carrot ( Daucus carota ) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the phospholipids of palash(Butea monosperma), papaya(Carica papaya), jangli badam(Sterculia foetida), coriander(Coriandrum sativum) and carrot(Daucus carota) seeds are reported in the present study. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were identified\\u000a as major components in all the seeds. Small amounts of lysophosphatidylcholine in palash and papaya, and cardiolipin in palash,\\u000a papaya and carrot also were detected. The predominant fatty acids present

R. B. N. Prasad; Y. Nagender Rao; S. Venkob Rao

1987-01-01

18

Quantification of contact oviposition stimulants for black swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polyxenes , on the leaf surfaces of wild carrot, Daucus carota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovipositing black swallowtail butterflies,Papilio polyxenes, make their final host-selection decisions on the basis of compounds present on the leaf surface. Little information is available, however, on the chemistry of leaf surfaces. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to extract and quantify the concentrations of compounds from the leaf surfaces ofDaucus carota, one of the main host

J. S. Brooks; E. H. Williams; P. Feeny

1996-01-01

19

Pollination in small islands by occasional visitors: the case of Daucus carota subsp. commutatus (Apiaceae) in the Columbretes archipelago, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the pollination ecology and related floral traits of the species Daucus carota subsp. commutatus in the isolated archipelago of Columbretes, E. Spain, where bees are absent. Two populations were studied: a small population\\u000a found on a relatively large island (Grossa) inhabited nowadays by three people; and a larger population on a smaller uninhabited\\u000a island (Foradada). The plant,

Celeste Pérez-Bañón; Theodora Petanidou

2007-01-01

20

Polyamine Metabolism in Embryogenic Cells of Daucus carota: II. Changes in Arginine Decarboxylase Activity.  

PubMed

Embryogenic cultured cells of Daucus carota have been shown to synthesize putrescine from exogenously supplied [(14)C]arginine at twice the rate of control nonembryogenic cells. In the present paper, the activity of arginine decarboxylase (arginine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.19), an important enzyme in the synthesis of putrescine, was assayed and also found to be elevated by as much as 2-fold in embryogenic cells. This difference between embryogenic and nonembryogenic cells was observed as early as 6 hours after the induction of embryogenesis and appeared not to result from the presence of a diffusible inhibitor or activator. It seemed to be dependent upon concomitant RNA and protein synthesis, as judged using 6-methyl-purine and cycloheximide. After cycloheximide addition to the culture medium, arginine decarboxylase activity declined with a half-time of about 30 minutes in both embryogenic and nonembryogenic cells. It is suggested that elevated arginine decarboxylase activity is involved in the mechanism leading to elevated putrescine levels in these cells and hence may play a role in the embryogenic process. PMID:16660725

Montague, M J; Armstrong, T A; Jaworski, E G

1979-02-01

21

Synthesis and Accumulation of Calmodulin in Suspension Cultures of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) 1  

PubMed Central

The expression of calmodulin mRNA and protein were measured during a growth cycle of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells grown in suspension culture. A full-length carrot calmodulin cDNA clone isolated from a ?gt10 library was used to measure steady-state calmodulin mRNA levels. During the exponential phase of culture growth when mitotic activity and oxidative respiration rates were maximal, calmodulin mRNA levels were 4- to 5-fold higher than they were during the later stages of culture growth, when respiration rates were lower and growth was primarily by cell expansion. Net calmodulin polypeptide synthesis, as measured by pulse-labeling in vivo with [35S]methionine, paralleled the changes in calmodulin steady-state mRNA level during culture growth. As a consequence, net calmodulin polypeptide synthesis declined 5- to 10-fold during the later stages of culture growth. The qualitative spectrum of polypeptides synthesized and accumulated by the carrot cells during the course of a culture cycle, however, remained largely unchanged. Calmodulin polypeptide levels, in contrast to its net synthesis, remained relatively constant during the exponential phases of the culture growth cycle and increased during the later stages of culture growth. Our data are consistent with increased calmodulin polypeptide turnover associated with periods of rapid cell proliferation and high levels of respiration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:16653062

Perera, Imara Y.; Zielinski, Raymond E.

1992-01-01

22

Nutritional, physical, and sensory evaluation of hydroponic carrots (Daucus carota L.) from different nutrient delivery systems.  

PubMed

Carrot (Daucus carota L.) has the highest carotenoid content among foods and is consumed in large quantities worldwide, while at the same time its market demand continues to increase. Carotenoids have also been associated with protective effects against cancer and other chronic diseases. The most predominant carotenoids in carrots are beta- and alpha-carotenes. Moisture, ash, fat, texture, color, carotene content, and consumer acceptance of carrots grown in a hydroponic system with nutrient film technique (NFT) and microporous tube membrane system (MTMS) were evaluated. The moisture contents of the NFT- and MTMS-grown carrots ranged from 86.8 +/- 0.13% to 92.2 +/- 2.25% and 80.9 +/- 0.31% to 91.6 +/- 1.01%, respectively. Fat and ash contents of the carrots were negligible. NFT-grown Oxheart had the most beta-carotene (9900 +/- 20 microg/100 g) while Juwaroot had the least (248 +/- 10 microg/100 g). However, the beta-carotene content of Juwaroot from the NFT batch II carrots was 3842 +/- 6 microg/100 g. MTMS-grown carrots had less variation in the total beta-carotene contents (2434 +/- 89 to 10488 +/- 8 microg/100 g) than those from NFT. Overall, Nantes Touchan (4.8 +/- 2.3) and Nevis-F (7 +/- 1.4) from NFT were the least and most preferred by consumers. Mignon was also acceptable to consumers, and significantly (P < 0.05) more preferred than the other carrots in that NFT batch. MTMS-grown Kinko and Paramex, which were significantly (P < 0.05) more preferred than Nandrin-F and the commercial field-grown carrot, were equally liked by consumers. Nevis-F, Mignon (NFT), Paramex, and Kinko (MTMS) are potentially good cultivars to be included in NASA's food system. PMID:20492130

Gichuhi, P N; Mortley, D; Bromfield, E; Bovell-Benjamin, A C

2009-01-01

23

Influence of a loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.). Culture medium and its components on growth and somatic embryogenesis of the wild carrot ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new culture medium, originally designed and shown to grow cell suspensions from a variety of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) explants, was used to study growth and somatic embryogenesis of the wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) in cell suspensions. The new loblolly pine medium (LM) differed from the standard wild carrot medium (WCM) in having very low Ca2+, very

John D. Litvay; Devi C. Verma; Morris A. Johnson

1985-01-01

24

Complete plastid genome sequence of Daucus carota: Implications for biotechnology and phylogeny of angiosperms  

PubMed Central

Background Carrot (Daucus carota) is a major food crop in the US and worldwide. Its capacity for storage and its lifecycle as a biennial make it an attractive species for the introduction of foreign genes, especially for oral delivery of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. Until recently efforts to express recombinant proteins in carrot have had limited success in terms of protein accumulation in the edible tap roots. Plastid genetic engineering offers the potential to overcome this limitation, as demonstrated by the accumulation of BADH in chromoplasts of carrot taproots to confer exceedingly high levels of salt resistance. The complete plastid genome of carrot provides essential information required for genetic engineering. Additionally, the sequence data add to the rapidly growing database of plastid genomes for assessing phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Results The complete carrot plastid genome is 155,911 bp in length, with 115 unique genes and 21 duplicated genes within the IR. There are four ribosomal RNAs, 30 distinct tRNA genes and 18 intron-containing genes. Repeat analysis reveals 12 direct and 2 inverted repeats ? 30 bp with a sequence identity ? 90%. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for 61 protein-coding genes using both maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) were performed for 29 angiosperms. Phylogenies from both methods provide strong support for the monophyly of several major angiosperm clades, including monocots, eudicots, rosids, asterids, eurosids II, euasterids I, and euasterids II. Conclusion The carrot plastid genome contains a number of dispersed direct and inverted repeats scattered throughout coding and non-coding regions. This is the first sequenced plastid genome of the family Apiaceae and only the second published genome sequence of the species-rich euasterid II clade. Both MP and ML trees provide very strong support (100% bootstrap) for the sister relationship of Daucus with Panax in the euasterid II clade. These results provide the best taxon sampling of complete chloroplast genomes and the strongest support yet for the sister relationship of Caryophyllales to the asterids. The availability of the complete plastid genome sequence should facilitate improved transformation efficiency and foreign gene expression in carrot through utilization of endogenous flanking sequences and regulatory elements. PMID:16945140

Ruhlman, Tracey; Lee, Seung-Bum; Jansen, Robert K; Hostetler, Jessica B; Tallon, Luke J; Town, Christopher D; Daniell, Henry

2006-01-01

25

Comparison of two liquid-state NMR methods for the determination of saccharides in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots.  

PubMed

In order to determine the saccharide content of plant tissues, we studied a new non-destructive and fast analytical method that we call "direct quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy" (d q (1)H NMR): the application of quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (q (1)H NMR) to non modified plant tissues along with capillary tubes containing a reference compound (for quantification) and deuterium oxide (for locking). Using this method, the saccharide content of samples of carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots was compared to the results given from similar samples by the formerly published q (1)H NMR determination of extracts obtained by the O'Donoghue/Davis method. The content in glucose and sucrose is significantly higher with the direct method than when an extraction step is included; the content in fructose is not significantly different. If a possible detection of saccharides included in glycosylated biological compounds is to be excluded, a more complete extraction of saccharides is probably obtained using the direct method. PMID:21046086

Weberskirch, Linda; Luna, Alan; Skoglund, Sara; This, Hervé

2011-01-01

26

cDNA cloning of carrot (Daucus carota) soluble acid beta-fructofuranosidases and comparison with the cell wall isoenzyme.  

PubMed Central

Carrot (Daucus carota), like most other plants, contains various isoenzymes of acid beta-fructofuranosidase (beta F) (invertase), which either accumulate as soluble polypeptides in the vacuole (isoenzymes I and II) or are ionically bound to the cell wall (extracellular beta F). Using antibodies against isoenzyme I of carrot soluble beta F, we isolated several cDNA clones encoding polypeptides with sequences characteristic of beta Fs, from bacteria, yeast, and plants. The cDNA-derived polypeptide of one of the clones contains all partial peptide sequences of the purified isoenzyme I and thus codes for soluble acid beta F isoenzyme I. A second clone codes for a related polypeptide (63% identity and 77% similarity) with characteristics of isoenzyme II. These two soluble beta Fs, have acidic isoelectric points (3.8 and 5.7, respectively) clearly different from the extracellular enzyme, which has a basic isoelectric point of 9.9. Marked differences among the three nucleotide sequences as well as different hybridization patterns on genomic DNA gel blots prove that these three isoenzymes of carrot acid beta F are encoded by different genes and do not originate from differential splicing of a common gene, as is the case in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All three carrot acid beta Fs, are preproenzymes with signal peptides and N-terminal propeptides. A comparison of the sequences of the soluble enzymes with the sequence of the extracellular protein identified C-terminal extensions with short hydrophobic amino acid stretches that may contain the information for vacuolar targeting. PMID:8016265

Unger, C; Hardegger, M; Lienhard, S; Sturm, A

1994-01-01

27

Variation of the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of natural populations of Tunisian Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae).  

PubMed

The essential oils of Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae) seeds sampled from ten wild populations spread over northern Tunisia were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 36 compounds were identified in the D. carota seed essential oils, with a predominance of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in most samples (22.63-89.93% of the total oil composition). The main volatile compounds identified were ?-bisabolene (mean content of 39.33%), sabinene (8.53%), geranyl acetate (7.12%), and elemicin (6.26%). The volatile composition varied significantly across the populations, even for oils of populations harvested in similar areas. The chemometric principal component analysis and the hierarchical clustering identified four groups, each corresponding to a composition-specific chemotype. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the isolated essential oils was preliminarily evaluated, using the disk-diffusion method, against one Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium), as well as against a pathogenic yeast (Candida albicans). All tested essential oils exhibited interesting antibacterial and antifungal activities against the assayed microorganisms. PMID:24327447

Rokbeni, Nesrine; M'rabet, Yassine; Dziri, Salma; Chaabane, Hedia; Jemli, Marwa; Fernandez, Xavier; Boulila, Abdennacer

2013-12-01

28

Influence of Saline Irrigation on Growth, Ion Accumulation and Partitioning, and Leaf Gas Exchange of Carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

PubMed Central

Like those of many horticultural crop species, the growth and leaf gas exchange responses of carrot (Daucus carota L.) to salinity are poorly understood. In this study ion accumulation in root tissues (periderm, xylem and phloem tissues) and in leaves of different ages was assessed for carrot plants grown in the field with a low level of salinity (5·8 mm Na+ and 7·5 mm Cl–) and in a glasshouse with salinity ranging from 1–80 mm. At low levels of salinity (1–7·5 mm), in both the field and glasshouse, carrot leaves accumulated high concentrations of Cl– (140–200 mm); these appear to be the result of a high affinity for Cl– uptake and a low retention of Cl– in the root system. However, Cl– uptake is under tight control, with an 80?fold increase in external salinity resulting in only a 1·5?fold change in the Cl– concentration of the shoot and no increase in the Cl– concentration of the root xylem tissue. In contrast to Cl–, shoot Na+ concentrations were comparatively low (30–40 mm) but increased by seven?fold when salinity was increased by 80?fold. Growth over the 56?d treatment period in the glasshouse was insensitive to salinity less than 20 mm, but at higher concentrations the yield of carrot tap roots declined by 7 % for each 10 mm increase in salinity. At low levels of salinity the accumulation of high concentrations of Cl– (150 mm) in carrot laminae did not appear to limit leaf gas exchange. However, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were reduced by 38 and 53 %, respectively, for plants grown at a salinity of 80 mm compared with those grown at 1 mm. Salinity?induced reductions in both pi and carbon isotope discrimination (?) were small (2·5 Pa and 1·4 ‰, respectively, at 80 mm) indicating that the reduction in photosynthesis was only marginally influenced by CO2 supply. At a salinity of 80 mm the photosynthetic capacity was reduced, with a 30 % reduction in the CO2?saturated rate of photosynthesis (Amax) and a 40 % reduction in both the apparent rate of RuBP?carboxylase?limited CO2 fixation (Vcmax) and the electron transport rate limiting RuBP regeneration (Jmax). This study has shown that carrot growth and leaf gas exchange are insensitive to the high leaf Cl– concentrations that occur at low levels (1–7 mm) of salinity. However, growth is limited at salinity levels above 20 mm and leaf gas exchange is limited at salinity levels above 8 mm. PMID:12451027

GIBBERD, MARK R.; TURNER, NEIL C.; STOREY, RICHARD

2002-01-01

29

Sensory and health properties of steamed and boiled carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus).  

PubMed

Abstract This study examined the influences of domestic processing conditions applied by consumers on firmness, colour and amount of phytochemicals and liking and sensory attributes intensity rating of carrots. The aim was to identify a cooking method and time that yields carrots with higher amount of ?-carotene while maintaining consumer liking. Instrumentally measured firmness and colour showed comparable degradation trends between cooking methods. While boiling showed a significant decrease in the amount ?-carotene after 20?min (-19%), steaming maintained the amount (+40%). Cooking method did not show a significant effect on liking and intensity ratings for the majority of the sensory attributes. Medium firm carrots were liked the most and low firm carrots the least. This study demonstrates that for optimum liking, carrots should be in the range of medium firmness. This can be obtained through either cooking methods but steamed carrots possess a higher amount of ?-carotene and maintains liking. PMID:24964285

Bongoni, Radhika; Stieger, Markus; Dekker, Matthijs; Steenbekkers, Bea; Verkerk, Ruud

2014-11-01

30

Influence of Boron on the Membrane Potential in Elodea densa and Helianthus annuus Roots and H+ Extrusion of Suspension Cultured Daucus carota Cells 1  

PubMed Central

When following the membrane potential of Elodea densa leaf cells during a dark-light regime and analysing the different phases of the cycle, the pattern under boron deficiency resembled the one reported to occur after 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea application. The potential in the dark slowly decreased when transferring Elodea densa leaflets and Helianthus annuus roots to a B-free medium and increased in the same way after B was added again. Addition of vanadate to inhibit plasmalemma ATPases in part mimicked the effects of B deficiency. It is suggested that B directly or indirectly affects the formation of a proton gradient. The effect of B on proton secretion was observed in various experiments with Daucus carota cell cultures. The results are discussed with respect to the possible involvement of B in membrane function and transport processes. PMID:16666749

Blaser-Grill, Jurgen; Knoppik, Dietmar; Amberger, Anton; Goldbach, Heiner

1989-01-01

31

Induction of extracellular defense-related proteins in suspension cultured-cells of Daucus carota elicited with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate.  

PubMed

Suspension cultured-cells (SCC) of Daucus carota were used to evaluate the effect of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, separately or in combination, on the induction of defense responses, particularly the accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins. A comparative study of the extracellular proteome (secretome) between control and elicited carrot SCC pointed to the presence of amino acid sequences homologous to glycoproteins which have inhibitory activity against the cell-wall-degrading enzymes secreted by pathogens and/or are induced when carrot cells are exposed to a pathogen elicitor. Other amino acid sequences were homologous to Leucine-Rich Repeat domain-containing proteins, which play an essential role in defense against pathogens, as well as in the recognition of microorganisms, making them important players in the innate immunity of this plant. Also, some tryptic peptides were shown to be homologous to a thaumatin-like protein, showing high specificity to abiotic stress and to different reticuline oxidase-like proteins that displayed high levels of antifungal activity, suggesting that methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins could play a role in mediating defense-related gene product expression in SCC of D. carota. Apart from these elicitor-inducible proteins, we observed the presence of PR-proteins in both control and elicited carrot SCC, suggesting that their expression is mainly constitutive. These PR-proteins are putative class IV chitinases, which also have inhibitory activity against pathogen growth and the class III peroxidases that participate in response to environmental stress (e.g. pathogen attack and oxidative), meaning that they are involved in defense responses triggered by both biotic and abiotic factors. PMID:24589476

Sabater-Jara, Ana B; Almagro, Lorena; Pedreño, María A

2014-04-01

32

Quantification of contact oviposition stimulants for black swallowtail butterfly,Papilio polyxenes, on the leaf surfaces of wild carrot,Daucus carota.  

PubMed

Ovipositing black swallowtail butterflies,Papilio polyxenes, make their final host-selection decisions on the basis of compounds present on the leaf surface. Little information is available, however, on the chemistry of leaf surfaces. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to extract and quantify the concentrations of compounds from the leaf surfaces ofDaucus carota, one of the main host species forP. polyxenes, with particular reference to compounds already identified as contact oviposition stimulants, namelytrans-chlorogenic acid (CA) and luteolin-7-O-(6?-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside (L7MG), as well as its degradation product luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G). Plant surfaces were extracted by dipping leaves sequentially in pairs of solvents: (1) CHCl3-MeOH, (2) near-boiling H2O, (3) CHCl3-near-boiling H2O, and (4) CH2Cl2-CH2Cl2. The resulting extracts were fractionated and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The leaf-surface concentrations of each compound were calculated using regressions relating leaf surface area to leaf weight that were obtained from measurements of field-collected carrot plants. All four methods removed the three compounds from carrot leaf surfaces, but the solvent systems differed in effectiveness. The chloroform-near-boiling water solvent system performed better than the other solvent combinations, but not significantly so. This system also extracted the highest number of polar, UV-absorbing compounds. Methylene chloride was significantly less efficient than the other methods. An additional test confirmed that the chloroform-near-boiling water method removed compounds from the surface alone and probably not from the apoplast or symplast. Surface concentrations of CA (up to 600 ng/cm(2) leaf surface) were substantially greater than those of the two flavonoid compounds. No clear seasonal trend in concentrations was evident from the limited number of sampling dates. PMID:24227308

Brooks, J S; Williams, E H; Feeny, P

1996-12-01

33

Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on enzyme kinetics and thermostability of endogenous ascorbic acid oxidase in carrots (Daucus carota cv. Nantes).  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to study the enzyme kinetics and thermostability of endogenous ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) in carrot purée (Daucus carota cv. Nantes) after being treated with pulsed electric field (PEF) processing. Various PEF treatments using electric field strength between 0.2 and 1.2kV/cm and pulsed electrical energy between 1 and 520kJ/kg were conducted. The enzyme kinetics and the kinetics of AAO thermal inactivation (55-70°C) were described using Michaelis-Menten model and first order reaction model, respectively. Overall, the estimated Vmax and KM values were situated in the same order of magnitude as the untreated carrot purée after being exposed to pulsed electrical energy between 1 and 400kJ/kg, but slightly changed at pulsed electrical energy above 500kJ/kg. However, AAO presented different thermostability depending on the electric field strength applied. After PEF treatment at the electric field strength between 0.2 and 0.5kV/cm, AAO became thermolabile (i.e. increase in inactivation rate (k value) at reference temperature) but the temperature dependence of k value (Ea value) for AAO inactivation in carrot purée decreased, indicating that the changes in k values were less temperature dependent. It is obvious that PEF treatment affects the temperature stability of endogenous AAO. The changes in enzyme kinetics and thermostability of AAO in carrot purée could be related to the resulting carrot purée composition, alteration in intracellular environment and the effective concentration of AAO released after being subjected to PEF treatment. PMID:24176379

Leong, Sze Ying; Oey, Indrawati

2014-03-01

34

A plasma membrane-type Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase of 120 kilodaltons on the endoplasmic reticulum from carrot (Daucus carota) cells  

SciTech Connect

Cytosolic Ca[sup 2+] levels are regulated in part by Ca[sup 2+]-pumping ATPases that export Ca[sup 2+] from the cytoplasm; The types and properties of Ca[sup 2+] pumps in plants are not well understood. The kinetic properties of a 120-kD phosphoenzyme (PE) intermediate formed during the reaction cycle of a Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase from suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota) cells are characterized. Only one Ca[sup 2+]-dependent phosphoprotein was formed when carrot membrane vesicles were incubated with [[gamma]-[sup 32]P]ATP. Formation of this 120-kD phosphoprotein was inhibited by vanadate, enhanced by La[sup 3+], and decreased by hydroxylamine, confirming its identification as an intermediate of a phosphorylated-type Ca[sup 2+]-translocating ATPase. The 120-kD Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase was most abundant in endoplasmic reticulum-enriched fractions, in which the Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase was estimated to be 0.1% of membrane protein. Direct quantitation of Ca[sup 2+]-dependent phosphoprotein was used to examine the kinetics of PE formation. PE formation exhibited a K[sub m] for Ca[sup 2+] of 1 to 2 [mu]m and a K[sub m] for ATP of 67 nm. Relative affinities of substrates, determined by competition experiments, were 0.075 [mu]m for ATP, 1 [mu]m for ADP, 100 [mu]m for ITP, and 250 [mu]m for GTP. Thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, specific inhibitors of animal sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase, had no effect on PE formation; erythrosin B inhibited with 50% inhibition at <0.1 [mu]m. Calmodulin (1 [mu]m) stimulated PE formation by 25%. The results indicate that the carrot 120-kD Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase is similar but not identical to animal plasma membrane-type Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase and yet is located on endomembranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. This type of Ca[sup 2+] pump may reside on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum, thought to play a major role in anchoring the cytoskeleton and in facilitating secretion. 34 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Chen, F.H.; Ratterman, D.M.; Sze, H. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

1993-06-01

35

Metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium in plant cell cultures of transgenic (rhizomania-resistant) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium).  

PubMed

The metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium was investigated in heterotrophic cell suspension and callus cultures of transgenic (bar-gene) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris). Similar studies were performed with suspensions of carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium). 14C-labelled chemicals were the (racemic) glufosinate, L-glufosinate, and D-glufosinate, as well as the metabolites N-acetyl L-glufosinate and 3-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propionic acid (MPP). Cellular absorption was generally low, but depended noticeably on plant species, substance and enantiomer. Portions of non-extractable residues ranged from 0.1% to 1.2% of applied 14C. Amounts of soluble metabolites resulting from glufosinate or L-glufosinate were between 0.0% and 26.7% of absorbed 14C in non-transgenic cultures and 28.2% and 59.9% in transgenic sugarbeet. D-Glufosinate, MPP and N-acetyl L-glufosinate proved to be stable. The main metabolite in transgenic sugarbeet was N-acetyl L-glufosinate, besides traces of MPP and 4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid (MPB). In non-transgenic sugarbeet, glufosinate was transformed to a limited extent to MPP and trace amounts of MPB. In carrot, D stramonium and D purpurea, MPP was also the main product; MPB was identified as a further trace metabolite in D stramonium and D purpurea. PMID:11455632

Müller, B P; Zumdick, A; Schuphan, I; Schmidt, B

2001-01-01

36

Investigating the performance of in situ quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and applying the method to determine the distribution of saccharides in various parts of carrot roots (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

In order to explore the performance of the analytical method called in situ quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy - is q NMR - the distribution of glucose, fructose and sucrose in various parts of a carrot root (Daucus carota L.) - primary xylem, secondary xylem, phloem, cortex; top part and lower part - was determined. The influence on the quality of spectra of drying samples before analysis was studied, as well as the influence of the length of strips of tissue used in analysis. Finally samples as small as 240mm(3) could be studied directly, with minimum prior treatment (only drying), along with deuterated water for locking and a sealed capillary tube containing a solution of 0.5% of the sodium salt of (trimethylsilyl)propionic-2,2,3,3-d4 acid, used both as an internal reference and for quantification. With optimized parameters, the coefficients of variation for measurements were observed to have an average value of 0.038, with a standard deviation of 0.047. PMID:25281111

Bauchard, Elsa; This, Hervé

2015-01-01

37

Localization of Daucus carota NMCP1 to the nuclear periphery: the role of the N-terminal region and an NLS-linked sequence motif, RYNLRR, in the tail domain  

PubMed Central

Recent ultrastructural studies revealed that a structure similar to the vertebrate nuclear lamina exists in the nuclei of higher plants. However, plant genomes lack genes for lamins and intermediate-type filament proteins, and this suggests that plant-specific nuclear coiled-coil proteins make up the lamina-like structure in plants. NMCP1 is a protein, first identified in Daucus carota cells, that localizes exclusively to the nuclear periphery in interphase cells. It has a tripartite structure comprised of head, rod, and tail domains, and includes putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) motifs. We identified the functional NLS of DcNMCP1 (carrot NMCP1) and determined the protein regions required for localizing to the nuclear periphery using EGFP-fused constructs transiently expressed in Apium graveolens epidermal cells. Transcription was driven under a CaMV35S promoter, and the genes were introduced into the epidermal cells by a DNA-coated microprojectile delivery system. Of the NLS motifs, KRRRK and RRHK in the tail domain were highly functional for nuclear localization. Addition of the N-terminal 141 amino acids from DcNMCP1 shifted the localization of a region including these NLSs from the entire nucleus to the nuclear periphery. Using this same construct, the replacement of amino acids in RRHK or its preceding sequence, YNL, with alanine residues abolished localization to the nuclear periphery, while replacement of KRRRK did not affect localization. The sequence R/Q/HYNLRR/H, including YNL and the first part of the sequence of RRHK, is evolutionarily conserved in a subclass of NMCP1 sequences from many plant species. These results show that NMCP1 localizes to the nuclear periphery by a combined action of a sequence composed of R/Q/HYNLRR/H, NLS, and the N-terminal region including the head and a portion of the rod domain, suggesting that more than one binding site is implicated in localization of NMCP1. PMID:24616728

Kimura, Yuta; Fujino, Kaien; Ogawa, Kana; Masuda, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

38

Morphogenetic responses of cultured totipotent cells of carrot /Daucus carota var. carota/ at zero gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment designed to test whether embryos capable of developing from isolated somatic carrot cells could do so under conditions of weightlessness in space was performed aboard the unmanned Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 782 under the auspices of the joint United States-Soviet Biological Satellite Mission. Space flight and weightlessness seem to have had no adverse effects on the induction of embryoids or on the development of their organs. A portion of the crop of carrot plantlets originated in space and grown to maturity were not morphologically different from controls.

Krikorian, A. D.; Steward, F. C.

1978-01-01

39

Expression of rabies virus G protein in carrots ( Daucus carota )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigens derived from various pathogens can readily be synthesized at high levels in plants in their authentic forms. Such\\u000a antigens administered orally can induce an immune response and, in some cases, result in protection against a subsequent challenge.\\u000a We here report the expression of rabies virus G protein into carrots. The G gene was subcloned into the pUCpSSrabG vector\\u000a and

Edith Rojas-Anaya; Elizabeth Loza-Rubio; Maria Teresa Olivera-Flores; Miguel Gomez-Lim

2009-01-01

40

Rare trisubstituted sesquiterpenes daucanes from the wild Daucus carota  

E-print Network

of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, El-Minia University, El-Minia 61519, Egypt c Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy Assuit University, Assuit, Egypt d National Center for Natural Products Research, Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, MS 38677, USA e Department

Paré, Paul W.

41

Overexpression of Tobacco Osmotin Protein in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) to Enhance Drought Tolerance  

E-print Network

blight caused by Phytophthora infestans and delayed the development of the disease symptoms (Liu et al., 1994). Tobacco osmotin was also shown to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, Neurospora crassa, and Trichoderma reesei (Vigers et al., 1992... blight caused by Phytophthora infestans and delayed the development of the disease symptoms (Liu et al., 1994). Tobacco osmotin was also shown to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, Neurospora crassa, and Trichoderma reesei (Vigers et al., 1992...

Annon, Ali Hani Hamza

2012-10-31

42

In vitro bioaccessibility of ?-carotene, Ca, Mg and Zn in landrace carrots (Daucus carota, L.).  

PubMed

Four landrace carrots ("Becaria", "CRS", "González" and "Rodríguez") and two marketable cultivars (Kuroda and Brasilia), raw and steamed, were characterised by the total content of ?-carotene Ca, Mg and Zn, in vitro bioaccessibility and by colour and were evaluated to determine the effect of particle size in nutrient bioaccessibility. Steaming increased the content of ?-carotene extracted from "CRS" and Brasilia (29% and 75%) and decreased the content of ?-carotene extracted from "CRS" by 23% in "Rodríguez." In addition, steaming caused a loss of Ca (21%) but did not change the amount of Mg and Zn. The bioaccessibility of ?-carotene in raw and pulped carrots was very low (<0.5%). Furthermore, steaming and a smaller particle size increased the bioaccessibility of ?-carotene by 3-16 times. Additionally, cooking increased the in vitro bioaccessibility of Ca and Zn but had no effect on Mg. Moreover, homogenisation increased the bioaccessibility by 20% in Ca, 17% in Mg, and 10% in Zn compared to pulping. PMID:25053069

Zaccari, Fernanda; Cabrera, María Cristina; Ramos, Ana; Saadoun, Ali

2015-01-01

43

Inheritance of the maroon color in Brasilia-derived carrots (Daucus carota L.)  

E-print Network

homozygotes at the involved loci. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . 28 Table 7. Segregation for anthocyanin expression produced by an anthocyanin parent heterozygous at the regulation locus. 30 Table 8. Test Statistics of the six parameter... . . 22 Fig. 6 Anthocyanin content of root samples, compared to simple visual evaluation of anthocyanin presence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Fig. 7 Typical observed anthocyanin expression in the F& generation. 27 Fig. 8 Distribution...

Mes, Peter Jack

2012-06-07

44

Biological control of Senecio vulgaris in carrots (Daucus carota) with the rust fungus Puccinia lagenophorae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Senecio vulgaris is a troublesome weed in horticulture that is tolerant or resistant to a range of her- bicides, and is therefore a candidate for biological control. The rust fungus Puccinia lagenophorae is a potential control agent, but being biotrophic, it is not suitable for use as a mycoherbicide. We test- ed the effects of induced rust epidemics on S.

Blair S. Grace; Heinz Müller-Schärer

2003-01-01

45

Investigation of bitterness in carrots ( Daucus carota L.) based on quantitative chemical and sensory analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitterness is considered as an undesirable taste of carrots. Quantitative chemical analysis of potential bitter compounds of different carrot genotypes was combined with sensory analysis in order to identify key compounds likely to be responsible for the bitterness of carrots. Eight carrot genotypes (‘Bolero’, ‘Mello Yello’, ‘Nairobi’, ‘Tornado’, ‘Purple Haze’, ‘Line 1’, ‘Line 2’, and ‘Line 3’) representing extremes in

Stine Kreutzmann; Lars P. Christensen; Merete Edelenbos

2008-01-01

46

Hepatoprotective activity of carrot ( Daucus carota L.) against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in mouse liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of carrot extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver damage was evaluated. The increased serum enzyme levels (viz., glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol and glutamate dehydrogenase) by CCl4-induction were significantly lowered due to pretreatment with the extract. The extract also decreased the elevated serum bilirubin and urea content due to CCl4 administration.

Anupam Bishayee; Alok Sarkar; Malay Chatterjee

1995-01-01

47

Localization of calcium during somatic embryogenesis of carrot ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The distribution of free cytosolic Ca2+ was studied during somatic embryogenesis of carrot using confocal scanning laser microscopy with fluo-3 as a fluorescent Ca2+ indicator. Chlorotetracycline fluorescence, antimonate precipitation and proton induced X-ray emission analysis were used as additional methods to confirm the results obtained with fluo-3. The process of embryogenesis was found to coincide with a rise in

A. C. J. Timmers; H.-D. Reiss; J. Bohsung; K. Traxel; J. H. N. Schel

1996-01-01

48

The monoterpenes of Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoterpenes from three different members of the Anthemideae family, Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis were isolated and their structures determined using spectroscopic techniques. A total of 26 irregular and regular monoterpenes were identified. Among these, 20 had previously been identified in the Anthemideae family. Of the remaining six, four were known, but

K Gunawardena; S. B Rivera; W. W Epstein

2002-01-01

49

Enhanced disease resistance in transgenic carrot ( Daucus carota L.) plants over-expressing a rice cationic peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant class III peroxidases are involved in numerous responses related to pathogen resistance including controlling hydrogen\\u000a peroxide (H2O2) levels and lignin formation. Peroxidases catalyze the oxidation of organic compounds using H2O2 as an oxidant. We examined the mechanisms of disease resistance in a transgenic carrot line (P23) which constitutively over-expresses\\u000a the rice cationic peroxidase OsPrx114 (previously known as PO-C1) and

O. Wally; Z. K. Punja

2010-01-01

50

Effect of Decontamination Agents on the Microbial Population, Sensorial Quality, and Nutrient Content of Grated Carrots (Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several decontamination agents including water, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water, and chlorine dioxide gas were tested for their effectiveness to reduce the natural microflora on grated carrots. Microbial reductions of the total aerobic count obtained after the different treatments varied between 0.11 and 3.29 log colony-forming units (cfu)\\/g. Whether or not a decontamination step induced significant changes

Isabelle Vandekinderen; John Van Camp; Frank Devlieghere; Kim Veramme; Quenten Denon; Peter Ragaert; Bruno De Meulenaer

2008-01-01

51

Determination of polyacetylenes in carrot roots (Daucus carota L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection.  

PubMed

A new high-performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detection was developed for the separation and simultaneous determination of the carrot polyacetylenes falcarindiol (FaDOH), falcarindiol 3-acetate (FaDOAc) and falcarinol (FaOH) in carrot root extracts. The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a C18 column with a linear gradient elution of water and acetonitrile as mobile phases, at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. All calibration curves of the three carrot polyacetylenes showed good linear regression (R2 > 0.998) within the test ranges. The developed method showed good precision for quantification of all polyacetylenes with overall intraday and interday variation of less than 3.3% and with average recovery rates of 99.2, 96.8 and 99.7% for FaDOH, FaDOAc and FaOH, respectively. The LOD (S/N = 3) and LOQ (S/N = 10) were less than 0.19 and 0.42 microg/mL, respectively, for all analytes. The established method was successfully used to determine the spatial distribution of FaDOH, FaDOAc and FaOH in six carrot genotypes (Bolero, Independent, Line 1, Mello Yello, Purple Haze and Tornado) by analysing peeled carrots and the corresponding peels for these polyacetylenes. PMID:17444217

Christensen, Lars P; Kreutzmann, Stine

2007-03-01

52

Formation of Norisoprenoid Flavor Compounds in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Roots: Characterization of a Cyclic-Specific Carotenoid  

E-print Network

cleavage lead to the production of norisoprenoids that have profound effect on flavor and aromas, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 INTRODUCTION The aroma and flavor of fruits and vegetables are determined, such as organic acids, phenolics, and alkynes.10,11 Carotenoids are tetraterpenoid pigments and normally

Tholl, Dorothea

53

Effect of decontamination agents on the microbial population, sensorial quality, and nutrient content of grated carrots (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

Several decontamination agents including water, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water, and chlorine dioxide gas were tested for their effectiveness to reduce the natural microflora on grated carrots. Microbial reductions of the total aerobic count obtained after the different treatments varied between 0.11 and 3.29 log colony-forming units (cfu)/g. Whether or not a decontamination step induced significant changes in the sensory attributes of grated carrots is highly dependent on the type and concentration of disinfectant. To maintain the nutritional value, the influence of the decontamination agents on carotenoid content, alpha-tocopherol content, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity was studied. Besides the part of the nutrients that was leached away from the cutting areas by water, the nutrient losses caused by adding sanitizers were rather limited. Compared with the untreated carrots alpha-tocopherol content was, however, significantly reduced when 250 ppm of peroxyacetic acid (-80%) or 200 ppm of sodium hypochlorite (-59%) was used. Additional losses in carotenoid content were caused by contact with chlorine dioxide gas (-9%). On the condition of an optimized decontamination process toward time and concentration, the microbial quality of fresh-cut carrots could be improved without negatively influencing their sensory quality and nutrient content. PMID:18582083

Vandekinderen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; Devlieghere, Frank; Veramme, Kim; Denon, Quenten; Ragaert, Peter; De Meulenaer, Bruno

2008-07-23

54

The monoterpenes of Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis.  

PubMed

Monoterpenes from three different members of the Anthemideae family, Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis were isolated and their structures determined using spectroscopic techniques. A total of 26 irregular and regular monoterpenes were identified. Among these, 20 had previously been identified in the Anthemideae family. Of the remaining six, four were known, but previously unidentified in this family. 2,2-Dimethyl-6-isopropenyl-2H-pyran, 2,3-dimethyl-6-isopropyl-4H-pyran and 2-isopropenyl-5-methylhexa-trans-3,5-diene-1-ol were isolated from both A. tridentata ssp. vaseyana and A. cana ssp. viscidula. The irregular monoterpene 2,2-dimethyl-6-isopropenyl-2H-pyran has a carbon skeleton analogous to the biologically important triterpene squalene. Two additional irregular monoterpenes, artemisia triene and trans-chrysanthemal were isolated from A. cana ssp. viscidula and lavandulol was isolated from A. tridentata ssp. spiciformis. This is the first time a compound possessing a lavandulyl-skeletal type has been found in the Anthemideae family. PMID:11809456

Gunawardena, K; Rivera, S B; Epstein, W W

2002-01-01

55

Calcium and calmodulin inhibitor effects on the growth of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in nutrient culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of carrot and radish seedlings in nutrient culture was inhibited by pretreatment with three calmodulin inhibitors. There was little selective effect on specific organs, shoots, tap root and fibrous roots over a range of concentrations. Although pretreatment with CaCl2 (0.5 mM) did not affect growth of untreated seedlings, it partially reduced the inhibitory effects of trifluoperazine over the concentration

Tudor H. Thomas

1995-01-01

56

Metabolic fingerprinting reveals differences between shoots of wild and cultivated carrot ( Daucus carota L.) and suggests maternal inheritance or wild trait dominance in hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences between the metabolic content of cultivars and their related wild species not only have implications for breeding and food quality, but also for the increasingly studied area of crop to wild introgression. Wild and cultivated western carrots belong to the same outcrossing species and hybridize under natural conditions. The metabolic fingerprinting of Dutch wild carrot and of western orange

C. Grebenstein; Y. H. Choi; J. Rong; T. J. de Jong; W. L. M. Tamis

2011-01-01

57

Early Identification of Stable Transformation Events by Combined Use of Antibiotic Selection and Vital Detection of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in Carrot ( Daucus carota L.) Callus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation is a useful technique to complement conventional breeding in crop improvement. Although carrot has been a model organism for in vitro embryogenesis study, genetic transformation of carrot is still lengthy and labor intensive. An efficient transformation and detection system is desirable. Direct infection of Agrobacterium to carrot calli has provided an easy way for carrot genetic transformation. To

Yuan-Yeu Yau; Seth J Davis; Ahmet Ipek; Philipp W Simon

2008-01-01

58

Influence of field attack by carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) on sensory quality, antioxidant capacity and content of terpenes, falcarindiol and 6-methoxymellein of carrots (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

The effect of different degrees of attack by carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) on quality parameters of carrots was studied in field experiments for two years. Treatments were different degrees of physical insect protection by floating row cover. An increasing attack level of psyllids showed an enhancement effect on the antioxidant capacity (ORAC), content of falcarindiol, 6-methoxymellein, and terpenes, and scores for bitter taste, chemical flavor, terpene flavor, and toughness. Carrot psyllid attack decreased the yield, total sugar, fructose, glucose, and sensory attributes sweet taste, color hue, color strength, crispiness, and juiciness. Carrot plants at 8-10 weeks of age tolerated attack by psyllids at low levels (2% leaves with curling or discoloration). PMID:23414489

Seljåsen, Randi; Vogt, Gjermund; Olsen, Elisabeth; Lea, Per; Høgetveit, Lars Arne; Tajet, Torgeir; Meadow, Richard; Bengtsson, Gunnar B

2013-03-20

59

SSP Cable Segment Hybrid Tester G. Redlinger  

E-print Network

an examination of ``bad'' hybrids, removed from SSP's during past E787/E949 running. 1 Introduction The most current across the termination resistor has the same magnitude, but reverses direction. This tester checks resistors, R, are set by the standard to be around100# The required current of 4mA (given the termination

60

The productivity and fruit quality of the arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus ssp. Arcticus) and hybrid arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus ssp. arcticus×Rubus arcticus ssp. stellatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit biochemical content and productivity of arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus ssp. arcticus) and hybrid arctic bramble (R. arcticus ssp. arcticus×R. arcticus ssp. stellatus) cultivars were investigated during three experimental years (2001–2003) in field conditions. Rows of experimental plants were alternated with rows of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.). Finnish cultivars together with a strain from Estonian nature (E1) and Finnish

Ele Vool; Kadri Karp; Merrit Noormets; Ulvi Moor; Marge Starast

2009-01-01

61

Mating systems and interfertility of swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata ssp. incarnata and ssp. pulchra)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the breeding system and interfertility of both subspecies of Asclepias incarnata. We performed hand-pollinations in the glasshouse to compare fruit-set from self- vs. cross-pollinations and to assess interfertility in crosses between the subspecies. We also used horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis to infer mating-system parameters from open-pollinated progeny arrays in three natural populations over two consecutive years. Plants of ssp.

CHRISTOPHER T. IVEY; SARA R. LIPOW; Robert Wyatt

1999-01-01

62

Seed metabolites alter the development of Aspergillus ssp.  

E-print Network

SEED METABOLITES ALTER THE DEVELOPMENT OF ASERGILLUS ssp. A Senior Thesis By Lori Lynn Hinze 1997-98 University Undergraduate Research Fellow Texas ARM University Group: Biochemistry/Chemistry Seed Metabolites Alter the Development...SEED METABOLITES ALTER THE DEVELOPMENT OF ASERGILLUS ssp. A Senior Thesis By Lori Lynn Hinze 1997-98 University Undergraduate Research Fellow Texas ARM University Group: Biochemistry/Chemistry Seed Metabolites Alter the Development...

Hinze, Lori Lynn

2013-02-22

63

School Teams up for SSP Functional Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Solar Power systems appear increasingly as one of the major solutions to the upcoming global energy crisis, by collecting solar energy in space where this is most easy, and sending it by microwave beam to the surface of the planet, where the need for controlled energy is located. While fully operational systems are still decades away, the need for major development efforts is with us now. Yet, for many decision-makers and for most of the public, SSP often still sounds like science fiction. Six functional demonstration systems, based on the Japanese SPS-2000 concept, have been built as a result of a cooperation between France and Japan, and they are currently used extensively, in Japan, in Europe and in North America, for executive presentations as well as for public exhibitions. There is demand for more models, both for science museums and for use by energy dedicated groups, and a senior high school in La Reunion, France, has picked up the challenge to make the production of such models an integrated practical school project for pre-college students. In December 2001, the administration and the teachers of the school have evaluated the feasibility of the project and eventually taken the go decision for the school year 2002- 2003, when for education purposes a temporary "school business company" will be incorporated with the goal to study and manufacture a limited series of professional quality SSP demonstration models, and to sell them world- wide to institutions and advocacy groups concerned with energy problems and with the environment. The different sections of the school will act as the different services of an integrated business : based on the current existing models, the electronic section will redesign the energy management system and the microwave projector module, while the mechanical section of the school will adapt and re-conceive the whole packaging of the demonstrator. The French and foreign language sections will write up a technical manual for the operation of the model and a guide to assist users with the basics of space solar power, with versions both in French and in English. The students of the commercial section will conduct global marketing and later handle international sales. Technical and market studies will take place at the end of the year 2002, while actual production, currently estimated at some twenty units, will take place during the first part of 2003. Initial operation will be assisted by institutional support and subscription sales from already identified customers, but later the operation will be self supporting, with eventually some cash benefit the school like in any normal commercial operation, before the "company" eventually will shut down its operation at the end of the school year in June 2003. The benefits of this high level "hands-on" operation will be very important, first because of the promotion of the SSP concepts and the understanding of the potential from space that it will foster. But the greatest reward will be for the students and the teachers involved in the operation, both simple and very complex at the same time, because they will integrate all the aspects of a "real" professional activity, around the great futuristic concept of providing clean and sustainable energy for Mankind and for the Earth...

Pignolet, G.; Lallemand, R.; Celeste, A.; von Muldau, H.

2002-01-01

64

A new subspecies of Anoxybacillus flavithermus ssp. yunnanensis ssp. nov. with very high ethanol tolerance.  

PubMed

In a search for thermophilic ethanol-tolerant bacteria, water-sediment samples collected at springs in Yunnan province of China were screened by ethanol enrichment. A novel thermophilic bacterium, strain E13(T) , was isolated. It exhibits a unique and remarkable ability to preferably grow in the presence of ethanol and is able to tolerate 13% (v/v) ethanol at 60 °C. The isolate is a facultative aerobic, Gram-positive, motile, spore-forming rod that is capable of utilizing a range of carbon sources, such as xylose, arabinose and cellobiose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene similarity showed the strain to be affiliated with the species Anoxybacillus flavithermus (99.2% sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization comparisons demonstrated a 64.8% DNA-DNA relatedness between strain E13(T) and A. flavithermus DSM 2641(T) . On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it was concluded that the isolate merited classification as a novel subspecies of A. flavithermus, for which the name Anoxybacillus flavithermus ssp. yunnanensis ssp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is E13(T) (=CCTCC AB2010187(T) =KCTC 13759(T) ). PMID:21521361

Dai, Jun; Liu, Yang; Lei, Yin; Gao, Yi; Han, Fang; Xiao, Yazhong; Peng, Hui

2011-07-01

65

The genes ABI1 and ABI2 are involved in abscisic acid- and drought-inducible expression of the Daucus carota L. Dc3 promoter in guard cells of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?The ABA INSENSITIVE1 (ABI1) and ABI2 genes encode homologous type-2C protein phosphatases with redundant yet distinct functions in abscisic acid (ABA) responses.\\u000a Results from Northern blot analysis showed that ABA- and mannitol-inducible expression of the COR47 and COR78\\/LTI78\\/RD29A (COR78) genes was more impaired in the abi2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh than in the abi1 mutant. Furthermore, ABA-plus-mannitol treatments

Regina K. F. Chak; Terry L. Thomas; Ralph S. Quatrano; Christopher D. Rock

2000-01-01

66

[Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].  

PubMed

Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7]. PMID:17396957

Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

1982-10-01

67

ORIGINAL PAPER Autumn fertilization of Quercus ilex ssp. ballota (Desf.)  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Autumn fertilization of Quercus ilex ssp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. nursery seedlings this species have enjoyed only limited success, and knowledge concerning the effect of fertilization on plant fertilization using different doses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassi- um (70.0 mg N, 30.5 mg P and 58.1 mg K

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

Extensive macrosynteny between Medicago truncatula and Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first predominantly gene-based genetic linkage map of lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris) was constructed using an F5 population developed from a cross between the cultivars Digger (ILL5722) and Northfield (ILL5588) using 79 intron-targeted\\u000a amplified polymorphic (ITAP) and 18 genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Linkage analysis revealed seven linkage\\u000a groups (LGs) comprised of 5–25 markers that varied in length

Huyen T. T. Phan; Simon R. Ellwood; James K. Hane; Rebecca Ford; Michael Materne; Richard P. Oliver

2007-01-01

69

Anatomical characteristics and antioxidant properties of Euphorbia nicaeensis ssp. glareosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomical analyses found that leaves of Euphorbia nicaeensis ssp. glareosa are isolateral, amphistomatous, with two layers of palisade cells on the adaxial and one on the abaxial side. Laticifers\\u000a are present by vascular bundles, in palisade and spongy tissue. Stem laticifers are located in the pericyclic ring, adjacent\\u000a to the phloem, in cylinder parenchyma and medullar rays. The structure of

Jadranka Lukovi?; Djordje Malen?i?; Lana Zori?; Biljana Kiprovski; Ljiljana Merkulov; Pal Boža

2009-01-01

70

Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

1998-01-01

71

Response of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) to defoliation of understory grasses and drought.  

E-print Network

??Water potential, leaf conductance, growth, nitrogen content, and seedling survival of Wyoming Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) following defoliation of the herbaceous understory were… (more)

Purrington, Teal Mackenzie

1992-01-01

72

Contribution à la caractérisation et à la protection in situ des populations de Vitis vinifera L. ssp. silvestris (Gmelin) Hegi, en France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contribution to characterization and in situ perservation of Vitis vinifera L. ssp. silvestris (Gmelin) Hegi, populations in France. The wild grapevine, Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris (also called autochthonous \\

Thierry LACOMBE; Valérie LAUCOU; Manuel DI VECCHI; Louis BORDENAVE; Thibaut BOURSE; René SIRET; Jacques DAVID; Jean-Michel BOURSIQUOT; André BRONNER

73

Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa ) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The domestication of the Eurasian grape ( Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa ) from its wild ancestor ( Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris ) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and artefacts of a 'wine culture', have been excavated. Whether from Transcaucasia or

R. ARROYO-GARCÍA; L. RUIZ-GARCÍA; L. BOLLING; R. OCETE; M. A. LÓPEZ; C. ARNOLD; A. ERGUL; H. I. UZUN; F. CABELLO; J. IBÁÑEZ; M. K. ARADHYA; A. ATANASSOV; I. ATANASSOV; S. BALINT; J. L. CENIS; L. COSTANTINI

74

SSP3 Is a Novel Plasmodium yoelii Sporozoite Surface Protein with a Role in Gliding Motility.  

PubMed

Plasmodium sporozoites develop within oocysts in the mosquito midgut wall and then migrate to the salivary glands. After transmission, they embark on a complex journey to the mammalian liver, where they infect hepatocytes. Proteins on the sporozoite surface likely mediate multiple steps of this journey, yet only a few sporozoite surface proteins have been described. Here, we characterize a novel, conserved sporozoite surface protein (SSP3) in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii. SSP3 is a putative type I transmembrane protein unique to Plasmodium. By using epitope tagging and SSP3-specific antibodies in conjunction with immunofluorescence microscopy, we showed that SSP3 is expressed in mosquito midgut oocyst sporozoites, exhibiting an intracellular localization. In sporozoites derived from the mosquito salivary glands, however, SSP3 localized predominantly to the sporozoite surface as determined by immunoelectron microscopy. However, the ectodomain of SSP3 appeared to be inaccessible to antibodies in nonpermeabilized salivary gland sporozoites. Antibody-induced shedding of the major surface protein circumsporozoite protein (CSP) exposed the SSP3 ectodomain to antibodies in some sporozoites. Targeted deletion of SSP3 adversely affected in vitro sporozoite gliding motility, which, surprisingly, impacted neither their cell traversal capacity, host cell invasion in vitro, nor infectivity in vivo. Together, these data reveal a previously unappreciated complexity of the Plasmodium sporozoite surface proteome and the roles of surface proteins in distinct biological activities of sporozoites. PMID:25156733

Harupa, Anke; Sack, Brandon K; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Arang, Nadia; Douglass, Alyse N; Oliver, Brian G; Stuart, Andrew B; Sather, D Noah; Lindner, Scott E; Hybiske, Kevin; Torii, Motomi; Kappe, Stefan H I

2014-11-01

75

Binding Properties of Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB (Antigen I\\/II Family) Polypeptides Expressed on the Cell Surface of Lactococcus lactis MG1363  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii expresses two cell wall-associated polypeptides, designated SspA (1,542 amino acid residues) and SspB (1,462 amino acid residues), that have 70% sequence identity. These polypeptides are members of the antigen I\\/II family of oral streptococcal adhesins and mediate the binding of streptococci to salivary glycoproteins, collagen, and other oral microorganisms such as Actinomyces naeslundii. To determine

ANN R. HOLMES; CHRISTOPHE GILBERT; JEREMY M. WELLS; HOWARD F. JENKINSON

1998-01-01

76

Antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activity of Alnus incana (L.) ssp. incana Moench and A. viridis (Chaix) DC ssp. viridis extracts.  

PubMed

Antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities of leaves, bark, and cone extracts of Alnus incana (L.) Moench ssp. incana and endemic species A. viridis (Chaix) DC ssp. viridis were evaluated. All extracts were found to be strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavengers, exhibiting 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 3.3-18.9 microg/mL, and also showed activity in inhibition of lipid peroxidation with IC(50) values ranging from 38.5 to 157.4 microg/mL. A. incana and A. viridis extracts exhibited significant cytotoxic effects toward HeLa cells, with IC(50) values ranging from 26.02 to 68.5 microg/mL. The most active extract of A. incana bark also contained great amounts of total phenolics (316.2 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g). In our experiment all extracts were virtually nontoxic on brine shrimps. Extracts were screened for activity against 15 microorganisms, and all extracts investigated showed antimicrobial activity. The most active were dry extracts of cones of A. incana and A. viridis with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.117 to 0.129 mg/mL. PMID:20438323

Stevi?, Tatjana; Savikin, Katarina; Zduni?, Gordana; Stanojkovi?, Tatjana; Jurani?, Zorica; Jankovi?, Teodora; Menkovi?, Nebojsa

2010-06-01

77

Nutritional value of Mediterranean sheep's burnet (Sanguisorba minor ssp. muricata).  

PubMed

A survey of compositional characteristics of the aerial part of sheep's burnet (Sanguisorba minor ssp. muricata) growing in Mediterranean French pastures has been undertaken. Investigations with scanning electron microscopy gave the morphological structure of this plant, in particular for akene ornamentation. Taxonomic characters confirmed the identification of the muricata subspecies. Moisture, ash, free sugars, cellulose, amino acids, and fatty acids of the whole aerial part were determined. Besides the major component, cellulose (20.4%), amino acid analysis showed that proteins contained mainly glutamic acid plus glutamine (0.67%) and aspartic acid plus asparagine (0.56%). The main fatty acids were palmitic (29.1%), linoleic (22.6%), and linolenic (21.4%). PMID:10552864

Viano, J; Masotti, V; Gaydou, E M

1999-11-01

78

Functional characterization of gynodioecy in Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Gynodioecy is a phylogenetically widespread and important sexual system where females coexist with hermaphrodites. Because dioecy can arise from gynodioecy, characterization of gynodioecy in close relatives of dioecious and sub-dioecious species can provide insight into this transition. Thus, we sought to determine whether Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata, a close relative to F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, exhibits the functional and population genetic hallmarks of a gynodioecious species. Methods We compared reproductive allocation of females and hermaphrodites grown in the greenhouse and estimated genetic diversity (allelic diversity, heterozygosity) and inbreeding coefficients for field-collected adults of both sexes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We estimated mating system and early seed fitness from open-pollinated families of both sex morphs. Key Results Under greenhouse conditions, females and hermaphrodites allocated similarly to all reproductive traits except flower number, and, as a consequence, females produced 30 % fewer seeds per plant than hermaphrodites. Under natural conditions, hermaphrodites produce seeds by self-fertilization approx. 75 % of the time, and females produced outcrossed seeds with very little biparental inbreeding. Consistent with inbreeding depression, seeds from open-pollinated hermaphrodites were less likely to germinate than those from females, and family-level estimates of hermaphrodite selfing rates were negatively correlated with germination success and speed. Furthermore, estimates of inbreeding depression based on genetic markers and population genetic theory indicate that inbreeding depression in the field could be high. Conclusions The joint consideration of allocation and mating system suggests that compensation may be sufficient to maintain females given the current understanding of sex determination. Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata exhibited similar sex morph-dependent patterns of mating system and genetic diversity, but less reproductive trait dimorphism, than its sub-dioecious and dioecious congeners. PMID:22052984

Li, Junmin; Koski, Matthew H.; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2012-01-01

79

Comparison of Ribosomal DNA ITS Regions Among Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis from Different Geographic Areas in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis is of ecological and practical importance, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis\\u000a of the rDNA ITS region was conducted to estimate the genetic diversity of H. rhamnoides ssp. sinensis at 19 sites in Northern China. Restriction analysis divided the samples into seven RFLP patterns (I–VII), which\\u000a implied that H. rhamnoides ssp. sinensis had a degree of

Li-hong Chen; Zhuo Yu; Hai-peng Jin

2010-01-01

80

Asymmetric chromosome segregation in Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri  

PubMed Central

This study was intended to characterize the chromosome segregation process of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xac) by investigating the functionality of the ParB factor encoded on its chromosome, and its requirement for cell viability and virulence. Using TAP tagging we show that ParB is expressed in Xac. Disruption of parB increased the cell doubling time and precluded the ability of Xac to colonize the host citrus. Moreover, Xac mutant cells expressing only truncated forms of ParB exhibited the classical phenotype of aberrant chromosome organization, and seemed affected in cell division judged by their reduced growth rate and the propensity to form filaments. The ParB-GFP localization pattern in Xac was suggestive of an asymmetric mode of replicon partitioning, which together with the filamentation phenotype support the idea that Xac may control septum placement using mechanisms probably analogous to Caulobacter crescentus, and perhaps Vibrio cholerae, and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Xac exhibits asymmetric chromosome segregation, and the perturbation of this process leads to an inability to colonize the host plant. PMID:24339434

Ucci, Amanda P; Martins, Paula M M; Lau, Ivy F; Bacci, Mauricio; Belasque, Jose; Ferreira, Henrique

2014-01-01

81

Nutrient utilization during biomass and anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of wild carrot cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medium used for the growth of anthocyanin-accumulating wild carrot (D. carota) suspension cultures contained ammonia as a sole nitrogen source and was buffered with succinate. Ammonia was the first nutrient to be completely utilized.

D. K. Dougall; G. C. Frazier

1989-01-01

82

Transfer of algal chloroplasts into protoplasts of higher plants.  

PubMed

Polyethylene-glycol treatment of mixed suspensions of isolated protoplasts and of chloroplasts induces chloroplast uptake by the protoplasts. Chloroplasts of algal origin (Vaucheria dichotoma (L.) Ag.) were transferred with high frequency into protoplasts of Daucus carota L. PMID:24442619

Bonnett, H T; Eriksson, T

1974-01-01

83

40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sugar (Beta vulgaris ) 1A Burdock, edible (Arctium lappa ) 1A, 1B Canna, edible (Queensland arrowroot...Beet, sugar (Beta vulgaris ) Burdock, edible (Arctium lappa ) Carrot (Daucus carota ) Cassava,...

2012-07-01

84

40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sugar (Beta vulgaris ) 1A Burdock, edible (Arctium lappa ) 1A, 1B Canna, edible (Queensland arrowroot...Beet, sugar (Beta vulgaris ) Burdock, edible (Arctium lappa ) Carrot (Daucus carota ) Cassava,...

2010-07-01

85

UNIVERSIT DEGLI STUDI DI GENOVA ELEZIONE del COORDINATORE  

E-print Network

. FERRARI Claudio Prof. associato 26. FONTANA Federico Prof. associato 27. GARELLI Roberto Prof. associato.10.2015 90. CAROTA Alberto Rappresentante studenti Fino al 31.10.2015 91. COSTANTINO Sara Rappresentante

Robbiano, Lorenzo

86

Does SSP Plus Increase Employment? The Effect of Adding Services to the Self-Sufficiency Project's Financial Incentives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1992, Human Resources Development Canada launched the Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP), which was a research and demonstration effort involving long-term, single-parent Income Assistance (IA) recipients in New Brunswick and British Columbia. Under SSP, IA recipients who left IA and worked at least 30 hours per week were offered a generous but…

Quets, Gail; Robins, Philip K.; Pan, Elsie C.; Michalopoulos, Charles; Card, David

87

In vivo antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum capitulums in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helichrysum species (Asteraceae) are widely found in Anatolia. Decoction prepared from the capitulums of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum is used to alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. In the present study, the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum was evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats. After the oral administration

Mustafa Aslan; Didem Deliorman Orhan; Nilüfer Orhan; Ekrem Sezik; Erdem Yesilada

2007-01-01

88

Salt Tolerance of Guayule (Parthenium argentatum).  

E-print Network

included for comparison: carrot (Oaucus carota L. cv. Imperator 58), chile pepper (Capsicum annum. L. cv. New Mexico 6-4) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum M. cv. Rutgers). For guayule, cultivar 593 was used. Saline solutions (Table 1) having... included for comparison: carrot (Oaucus carota L. cv. Imperator 58), chile pepper (Capsicum annum. L. cv. New Mexico 6-4) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum M. cv. Rutgers). For guayule, cultivar 593 was used. Saline solutions (Table 1) having...

Miyamoto, S.; Davis, J.; Madrid, L.

1990-01-01

89

Allelopathic activity of Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Najas marina ssp. intermedia (Wolfgang) Casper  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the allelopathic activity of two submersed macrophytes with different growth forms and nutrient uptake modes, Ceratophyllum demersum and Najas marina ssp. intermedia. A bioassay-directed method development revealed optimal extraction solvents for allelochemicals from both macrophytes. For Najas, 50% methanol and for Ceratophyllum 50% acetone yielded the strongest inhibition in the agar-diffusion assay with various filamentous or chroococcal cyanobacteria

Elisabeth M. Gross; Daniela Erhard; Enikö Iványi

2003-01-01

90

Allee effects within small populations of Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum , a protected subspecies in northern France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Plants growing at low density can suffer from Allee effects as a result of pollen limitation. Previous studies of Allee effects have focused on the effects of variation among populations in size or density on reproduction. Here, the effects of plant distribution within populations on fitness components are explored in a rare plant, Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum, and

Solenn Le Cadre; Thomas Tully; Susan J. Mazer; Jean-Baptiste Ferdy; Jacques Moret; Nathalie Machon

2008-01-01

91

Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-?mglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-?mglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:22663564

Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles W.; Skerrett, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David

2012-01-01

92

Spatio-temporal dynamics of bumblebee nest parasites (Bombus subgenus Psythirus ssp.) and their hosts  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal dynamics of bumblebee nest parasites (Bombus subgenus Psythirus ssp Summary 1. A 39-year bumblebee data base was used to study the codistribution of six cuckoo bumblebees in the subgenus Psythirus of Bombus (hereafter called Psythirus) and their free-living bumblebee hosts

Antonovics, Janis

93

In vitro biological activity screening of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Döll  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of selected biological activities, including anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts as well as the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Döll (LCC, Lycopodiaceae) growing in Turkey. Anticholinesterase effect of the extracts was tested against both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at

Ilkay Orhan; Berrin Özçelik; Sinem Aslan; Murat Kartal; Taner Karaoglu; Bilge ?ener; Salih Terzioglu; M. Iqbal Choudhary

2009-01-01

94

Midgut glycosidases activities in monophagous larvae of Apollo butterfly, Parnassius apollo ssp. frankenbergeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parnassius apollo (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) declines on numerous localities all over Europe. Its local subspecies frankenbergeri, inhabiting the Pieniny Mts (southern Poland) and successfully recovered from extinction, is monophagous in larval stage. In natural conditions, it completes development on the orpine Sedum telephium ssp. maximum. Since proper quality and quantity of necessary nutritional compounds of the food plant ensure developmental success,

Miros?aw Nakonieczny; Katarzyna Michalczyk; Andrzej K?dziorski

2006-01-01

95

Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida  

SciTech Connect

Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-?mglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-?mglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

2012-07-06

96

Coding Sequence Divergence Between Two Closely Related Plant Species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the coding-sequence divergence of closely related genomes, we compared DNA sequence divergence between sequences from a Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis EST library isolated from flower buds and genomic sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana. The specific objectives were (i) to determine the distribution of and relationship between Ka and Ks, (ii) to identify genes with the lowest and highest Ka:Ks

Peter Tiffin; Matthew W. Hahn

2002-01-01

97

Transformation of Pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) by Agrobacterium infiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) plants were obtained in the progeny of plants infiltrated by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain carrying a gene for resistance to the herbicide phosphinotricin (Basta). Genetic analysis demonstrates the transmission of the herbicide resistant trait to the progeny. Molecular analyses show that the transgene was inserted in the plant genome and expressed. This work

Cao Ming Qing; Liu Fan; Yao Lei; David Bouchez; Colette Tourneur; Li Yan; Christophe Robaglia

2000-01-01

98

Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on

Kirk W. Davies; Jonathan D. Bates; Dustin D. Johnson; Aleta M. Nafus

2009-01-01

99

Wyoming Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) Seedling Growth and Maternal Plant Stand Position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known of maternal plant influence upon seed- ling characteristics of native shrubs. This study examined influence of maternal Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) stand position on emergence and growth of seed- lings. Seedlings from maternal plants in upslope, core, and downslope positions were grown in a common greenhouse setting. Percent germination, height, and canopy volume of

A. L. Hild; B. Christensen; A. Maier

1999-01-01

100

The influence of Artemsia tridentata ssp . wyomingensis on microsite and herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh within plant communities creates two distinct zones; underneath (subcanopy) and between shrub canopies (interspace). The purpose the study was to determine the influence of subcanopy and interspace zones on microsite characteristics and herbaceous vegetation. Study sites were located at the Northern Great Basin Experimental Range (NGBER)

K. W. Davies; J. D. Bates; R. F. Miller

2007-01-01

101

Summary of Recent Results from NASA's Space Solar Power (SSP) Programs and the Current Capabilities of Microwave WPT Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of placing enormous solar power satellite (SPS) systems in space represents one of a handful of new technological options that might provide large-scale, environmentally clean base load power into terrestrial markets. In the US, the SPS concept was examined extensively during the late 1970s by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). More recently, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the "fresh look" study, and during 1998 in an SSP "concept definition study". As a result of these efforts, in 1999-2000, NASA undertook the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program which pursued preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt SSP systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). During 2001-2002, NASA has been pursuing an SSP Concept and Technology Maturation (SCTM) program follow-on to the SERT, with special emphasis on identifying new, high-leverage technologies that might advanced the feasibility of future SSP systems. In addition, in 2001, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a major report providing the results of a peer review of NASA's SSP strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps. One of the key technologies needed to enable the future feasibility of SSP/SPS is that of wireless power transmission. Advances in phased array antennas and rectennas have provided the building blocks for a realizable WPT system. These key components include the dc-RF converters in the transmitter, the retrodirective beam control system, and the receiving rectenna. Each subject is briefly covered, and results from the SERT program that studied a 5.8 GHz SPS system are presented. This paper presents a summary results from NASA's SSP efforts, along with a summary of the status of microwave WPT technology development.

McSpadden, James; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

102

A novel protein kinase gene ssp1+ is required for alteration of growth polarity and actin localization in fission yeast.  

PubMed Central

Temperature-sensitive suppressor mutants were isolated from two fission yeast mutants defective in cell shape control: ppe1, encoding a type 2A-like protein phosphatase, and sts5, one of 11 staurosporine-supersensitive mutants. Complementation tests showed that suppression was due to two chromosomal loci, ssp1 and ssp2. Cells of the ssp1 mutant grown at the restrictive temperature arrested uniformly with an elongated cell body and a 2C content of DNA. Interestingly, these mutant cells grew only in a monopolar manner. At a specific point in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, wild-type cells exhibit a drastic alteration in growth polarity, from mono- to bipolar. This change coincides with the distribution of cortical actin from one end of the cell to both ends. In the ssp1 mutant cells, cortical actin was localized only at one end, suggesting that the mutant fails to change growth polarity. Nucleotide sequence determination showed that ssp1+ encodes a novel protein kinase. Ectopic overexpression of ssp1+ resulted in an altered cell morphology and cortical actin was randomly dispersed within the cells. Immunocytological analysis revealed that the protein was primarily localized in the cytoplasm and that half of the protein existed in an insoluble fraction. These results show that the dynamics of actin-based growth polarity during the cell cycle are regulated, at least in part, by a novel set of protein kinases and phosphatases. Images PMID:7628434

Matsusaka, T; Hirata, D; Yanagida, M; Toda, T

1995-01-01

103

BcMF21 is important for pollen development and germination in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.  

PubMed

Brassica campestris Male Fertility 21 (BcMF21) was previously isolated from the flower buds of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) and expressed specifically in tapetum and microspores during the meiosis stage and the uninucleate stage of microspore development. Here, we used antisense RNA technology to knock down the expression level of BcMF21 in B. campestris and analyzed the phenotype of the transgenic plants. Alexander staining and scanning electron microscope revealed sterility and exine deformities in the mature pollen grains of BcMF21 antisense RNA transgenic plants. The germination furrow of the BcMF21 antisense RNA transgenic pollen was covered by lipid like materials. The pollen tubes burst and could not grow normally in vitro. Therefore, we presented here BcMF21 might be an important gene for pollen development and germination. PMID:24323195

Jiang, Jingjing; Yu, Youjian; Dong, Heng; Yao, Lina; Zhang, Zhixian; Cao, Jiashu

2014-01-01

104

SSP Technology Investigation of a High-Voltage DC-DC Converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was to establish the feasibility of a high-voltage DC-DC converter based on a rod-array triggered vacuum switch (RATVS) for the Space Solar Power system. The RATVS has many advantages over silicon and silicon-carbide devices. The RATVS is attractive for this application because it is a high-voltage device that has already been demonstrated at currents in excess of the requirement for an SSP device and at much higher per-device voltages than existing or near-term solid state switching devices. The RATVS packs a much higher specific power rating than any solid-state device and it is likely to be more tolerant of its surroundings in space. In addition, pursuit of an RATVS-based system would provide NASA with a nearer-term and less expensive power converter option for the SSP.

Pappas, J. A.; Grady, W. M.; George, Patrick J. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

105

Plasticity in life-history traits of Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma Pilger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasticity in life-history characteristics was investigated in three populations of Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma (Pilger), a self-compatible, wind pollinated species with a high self-fertilization rate. The populations studied were selected for their marked differences in biomass accumulation and habitat characteristics such as nutrient availability and interspecific interaction. Plants, raised from seeds collected at three sites, were grown in a

L. A. P. Lotz; C. W. P. M. Blom

1986-01-01

106

Seasonal variation in leaf glucosinolates and insect resistance in two types of Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves from natural populations of Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata (Brassicaceae) in Denmark were examined for glucosinolate content and resistance to the crucifer specialist flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum. Two types of the plant (P- and G-type) could be recognized. Leaves of the G-type contained the glucosinolates (only side chains mentioned): (S)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl- (2S), indol-3-ylmethyl- (4) and in trace amount (R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl- (2R), 2-phenylethyl-

Niels Agerbirk; Carl E. Olsen; Jens K. Nielsen

2001-01-01

107

A descriptive model for citrate utilization by Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis bv diacetylactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the use of citrate by Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis bv diacetylactis CNRZ 125 is proposed. Citrate metabolism by this strain leads to the production of acetate, CO2 and C4 compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, 2,3-butylene glycol). The model furnishes correct simulations, consistent with published results on the pathways used and on lactose-citrate co-metabolism. Citric acid is incorporated independently of

R. Cachon; C. Divdies

1993-01-01

108

Genetic structure and history of Swiss maize ( Zea mays L. ssp. mays ) landraces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1930 and 2003 with emphasis on the 1940s maize landraces (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) from all over Switzerland were collected for maintenance and further use in a new Swiss breeding program. The genetic relationship\\u000a and diversity among these accessions stored in the Swiss gene bank is largely unknown. Our hypothesis was that due to the\\u000a unique geographic, climatic,

T. W. Eschholz; P. Stamp; R. Peter; J. Leipner; A. Hund

2010-01-01

109

A draft sequence of the rice ( Oryza sativa ssp. indica ) genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence of the rice genome holds fundamental information for its biology, including physiology, genetics, development,\\u000a and evolution, as well as information on many beneficial phenotypes of economic significance. Using a “whole genome shotgun”\\u000a approach, we have produced a draft rice genome sequence ofOryza sativa ssp.indica, the major crop rice subspecies in China and many other regions of Asia. The

Jun Yu; Songnian Hu; Jun Wang; Songgang Li; Ka-Shu Gane Wong; Bin Liu; Yajun Deng; Li Dai; Yan Zhou; Xiuqing Zhang; Mengliang Cao; Jing Liu; Jiandong Sun; Jiabin Tang; Yanjiong Chen; Xiaobing Huang; Wei Lin; Chen Ye; Wei Tong; Lijuan Cong; Jianing Geng; Yujun Han; Lin Li; Wei Li; Guangqiang Hu; Xiangang Huang; Wenjie Li; Jian Li; Zhanwei Liu; Long Li; Jianping Liu; Qiuhui Qi; Jinsong Liu; Li Li; Xuegang Wang; Hong Lu; Tingting Wu; Miao Zhu; Peixiang Ni; Hua Han; Wei Dong; Xiaoyu Ren; Xiaoli Feng; Peng Cui; Xianran Li; Hao Wang; Xin Xu; Wenxue Zhai; Zhao Xu; Jinsong Zhang; Sijie He; Jianguo Zhang; Jichen Xu; Kunlin Zhang; Xianwu Zheng; Jianhai Dong; Wanyong Zeng; Lin Tao; Xuewei Chen; Jun He; Daofeng Liu; Wei Tian; Chaoguang Tian; Hongai Xia; Gang Li; Hui Gao; Ping Li; Wei Chen; Xudong Wang; Yong Zhang; Jianfei Hu; Jing Wang; Song Liu; Jian Yang; Guangyu Zhang; Yuqing Xiong; Zhijie Li; Long Mao; Chengshu Zhou; Zhen Zhu; Runsheng Chen; Bailin Hao; Weimou Zheng; Shouyi Chen; Wei Guo; Guojie Li; Siqi Liu; Guyang Huang; Ming Tao; Jian Wang; Lihuang Zhu; Longping Yuan; Huanming Yang

2001-01-01

110

The essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare growing wild in Vilnius district (Lithuania)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plants of wild Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare were collected in 10 localities of Vilnius district (Lithuania) in 1995–1999. The main constituents of the essential oils from 8 localities were ?-ocimene (14.9–21.6%), germacrene D (10.0–16.2 ), ?-caryophyllene (10.8–15.7%) and sabinene (6.6–14.2%). The essential oils from two localities contained only three above compounds as major components: germacrene D, ?-ocimene and

Danute Mockute; Genovaite Bernotiene; Asta Judzentiene

2001-01-01

111

Mapping of a QTL for oleic acid concentration in spring turnip rape ( Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk segregant analysis was used to search for RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers linked to gene(s) affecting oleic acid concentration in an F2 population from the Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera cross Jo4002 x a high oleic acid individual from line Jo4072. Eight primers (=8 markers) out of 104 discriminated the high and low bulks consisting of extreme individuals from

P. K. Tanhuanpää; J. P. Vilkki; H. J. Vilkki

1996-01-01

112

Embryogenesis and plant regeneration from isolated microspores of Brassica rapa L. ssp. Oleifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Conditions favourable to embryogenesis from isolated microspores of Brassica rapa L. ssp. oleifera (canola quality) were identified. A population with enhanced responsiveness for microspore embryogenesis (C200) was synthesized by crossing individual plants showing microspore embryogenic potential. For optimal microspore embryogenesis, buds (2–3mm in length, containing mid-late uninucieate microspores) were collected from older plants (2 months old) and microspores isolated and

Laurie Burnett; Stephen Yarrow; Bin Huang

1992-01-01

113

A Draft Sequence of the Rice Genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a draft sequence of the rice genome for the most widely cultivated subspecies in China, Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica, by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The genome was 466 megabases in size, with an estimated 46,022 to 55,615 genes. Functional coverage in the assembled sequences was 92.0%. About 42.2% of the genome was in exact 20-nucleotide oligomer repeats,

Jun Yu; Songnian Hu; Jun Wang; Gane Ka-Shu Wong; Songgang Li; Bin Liu; Yajun Deng; Li Dai; Yan Zhou; Xiuqing Zhang; Mengliang Cao; Jing Liu; Jiandong Sun; Jiabin Tang; Yanjiong Chen; Xiaobing Huang; Wei Lin; Chen Ye; Wei Tong; Lijuan Cong; Jianing Geng; Yujun Han; Lin Li; Wei Li; Guangqiang Hu; Xiangang Huang; Wenjie Li; Jian Li; Zhanwei Liu; Long Li; Jianping Liu; Qiuhui Qi; Jinsong Liu; Li Li; Tao Li; Xuegang Wang; Hong Lu; Tingting Wu; Miao Zhu; Peixiang Ni; Hua Han; Wei Dong; Xiaoyu Ren; Xiaoli Feng; Peng Cui; Xianran Li; Hao Wang; Xin Xu; Wenxue Zhai; Zhao Xu; Jinsong Zhang; Sijie He; Jianguo Zhang; Jichen Xu; Kunlin Zhang; Xianwu Zheng; Jianhai Dong; Wanyong Zeng; Lin Tao; Jia Ye; Jun Tan; Xide Ren; Xuewei Chen; Jun He; Daofeng Liu; Wei Tian; Chaoguang Tian; Hongai Xia; Qiyu Bao; Gang Li; Hui Gao; Ting Cao; Juan Wang; Wenming Zhao; Ping Li; Wei Chen; Xudong Wang; Yong Zhang; Jianfei Hu; Jing Wang; Song Liu; Jian Yang; Guangyu Zhang; Yuqing Xiong; Zhijie Li; Long Mao; Chengshu Zhou; Zhen Zhu; Runsheng Chen; Bailin Hao; Weimou Zheng; Shouyi Chen; Wei Guo; Guojie Li; Siqi Liu; Ming Tao; Jian Wang; Lihuang Zhu; Longping Yuan; Huanming Yang

2002-01-01

114

Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production\\u000a for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter\\u000a habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on

Kirk W. Davies; Jonathan D. Bates; Dustin D. Johnson; Aleta M. Nafus

2009-01-01

115

Antinociceptive effect of some extracts from Ajuga chamaecistus Ging. ssp. tomentella (Boiss.) Rech. f. aerial parts  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Ajuga is used for the treatment of joint pain, gout, and jaundice in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM). Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella is an exclusive subspecies of Ajuga chamaecistus in the flora of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate antinociceptive properties of some extracts from aerial parts of A. chamaecistus ssp. tomentella. Methods Antinociceptive activities of total water and 80% methanol extracts, hexane, diethyl ether and n-butanolic partition fractions of the methanolic extract were analyzed using the formalin test in mice. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls, respectively. Results Oral administration of all extracts (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) 30 min before formalin injection had no effect against the acute phase (0–5 min after formalin injection) of the formalin-induced licking time, but hexane fraction (200 mg/kg) caused a significant effect (p?ssp. tomentella have an analgesic property that supports traditional use of Ajuga genus for joint pain and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:25022284

2014-01-01

116

A putative serine protease, SpSsp1, from Saprolegnia parasitica is recognised by sera of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.  

PubMed

Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by Saprolegnia sp., results in considerable economic losses in aquaculture. Current control methods are inadequate, as they are either largely ineffective or present environmental and fish health concerns. Vaccination of fish presents an attractive alternative to these control methods. Therefore we set out to identify suitable antigens that could help generate a fish vaccine against Saprolegnia parasitica. Unexpectedly, antibodies against S. parasitica were found in serum from healthy rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The antibodies detected a single band in secreted proteins that were run on a one-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel, which corresponded to two protein spots on a two-dimensional gel. The proteins were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Mascot and bioinformatic analysis resulted in the identification of a single secreted protein, SpSsp1, of 481 amino acid residues, containing a subtilisin domain. Expression analysis demonstrated that SpSsp1 is highly expressed in all tested mycelial stages of S. parasitica. Investigation of other non-infected trout from several fish farms in the United Kingdom showed similar activity in their sera towards SpSsp1. Several fish that had no visible saprolegniosis showed an antibody response towards SpSsp1 suggesting that SpSsp1 might be a useful candidate for future vaccination trial experiments. PMID:25088077

Minor, Kirsty L; Anderson, Victoria L; Davis, Katie S; Van Den Berg, Albert H; Christie, James S; Löbach, Lars; Faruk, Ali Reza; Wawra, Stephan; Secombes, Chris J; Van West, Pieter

2014-07-01

117

Chemical composition and possible in vitro phytotoxic activity of Helichrsyum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum, collected in the National Park of Cilento and Diano Valley, Southern Italy, was studied by means of GC and GC/MS. Forty four compounds of 45 constituents were identified in the oil, mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The essential oil was evaluated for its potential in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and early radicle elongation of radish and garden cress. The radicle elongation of radish was significantly inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of both seeds was not affected. PMID:21904272

Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Scognamiglio, Maria Rosa; De Feo, Vincenzo

2011-01-01

118

A Global Water Resources Assessment under RCP, SSP, and CMIP5 Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of reports have been published on climate change impact assessment on global water resources, but earlier studies need to be updated and refined due to three reasons. First, most of earlier studies were based on an old set of IPCC scenarios consists of SRES (green house gas (GHG) emission and socio-economic scenarios) and CMIP3 (climate scenarios consistent with SRES). A new set of IPCC scenarios is being released (Moss et al., 2008) that consists of RCP (GHG emission scenario), SSP (socio-economic scenario), and CMIP5 (climate scenarios consistent with RCP). In order to take the latest achievements in climate modeling, impact assessments should be based on the new scenario. Second, most of earlier studies focused more on the change in water availability (e.g. runoff and discharge), less for change in water use (agricultural, industrial, domestic water use). Because SSP consists of five scenarios delineating substantially different world, water use scenarios should be developed with care reflecting the difference among them. Third, most of earlier studies assessed water availability and use at annual time resolution. This may overlook seasonal and inter-annual shortage of water due to variability in water availability and use. Here we present a novel assessment on global water resources using a global water resources model called H08 (Hanasaki et al., 2008a,b; 2010). H08 simulates natural water cycle and major human activities, such as water withdrawals and reservoir operation. It estimates water availability and use at daily time interval, which enables to take sub-annual water shortage into account. We first developed water use scenarios for agricultural (irrigation), industrial, and domestic water withdrawal that are consistent with five SSP scenarios. Next, we set up a matrix of scenario combination of RCP, SSP, and CMIP5 for insightful global water resources assessment. Finally we conducted H08 simulation using these scenarios and assessed water stressed region, including analysis on seasonal and inter-annual shortage of water due to variability in water availability and use. The results and implication are discussed in our presentation.

Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.

2012-12-01

119

Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extract of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities, antioxidant and properties of essential oils and methanol extracts of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare plants. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled essential oil of O. vulgare ssp. vulgare was analyzed by a GC\\/MS system. A total 62 constituents were identified. Caryophyllene and spathulenol were found to be the main constituents,

F ?ahin; M Güllüce; D Daferera; A Sökmen; M Sökmen; M Polissiou; G Agar; H Özer

2004-01-01

120

Free radical scavenging activity and phenolic content in achenes and thalamus from Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis, F. vesca and F. x ananassa cv. Chandler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin content of achenes (true fruit) and thalamus (receptacle) from the native South American Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis (f. patagonica and f. chiloensis), Fragaria vesca and Fragaria x ananassa cv. Chandler was determined by spectrophotometric means. Highest phenolic content was found in F. vesca while lowest content was measured for white strawberry (F. chiloensis ssp.

José Cheel; Cristina Theoduloz; Jaime A. Rodríguez; Peter D. S. Caligari; Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

2007-01-01

121

The role of stigma peroxidases in flowering plants: insights from further characterization of a stigma-specific peroxidase (SSP) from Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiosperm stigmas have long been known to exhibit high levels of peroxidase activity when they are mature and most receptive to pollen but the biological function of stigma peroxidases is not known. A novel stigma- specific class III peroxidase gene, SSP (stigma-specific peroxidase) expressed exclusively in the stigmas of Senecio squalidus L. (Asteraceae) has recently been identified. Expression of SSP

Stephanie M. McInnis; David C. Emery; Robert Porter; Radhika Desikan; John T. Hancock; Simon J. Hiscock

2006-01-01

122

Tracking the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides.  

PubMed

The spread of nonindigenous species into new habitats is having a drastic effect on natural ecosystems and represents an increasing threat to global biodiversity. In the marine environment, where data on the movement of invasive species is scarce, the spread of alien seaweeds represents a particular problem. We have employed a combination of plastid microsatellite markers and DNA sequence data from three regions of the plastid genome to trace the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. Extremely low levels of genetic variation were detected, with only four haplotypes present in the species' native range in Japan and only two of these found in introduced populations. These invasive populations displayed a high level of geographical structuring of haplotypes, with one haplotype localized in the Mediterranean and the other found in Northwest Atlantic, northern European and South Pacific populations. Consequently, we postulate that there have been at least two separate introductions of C. fragile ssp. tomentosoides from its native range in the North Pacific. PMID:15643962

Provan, Jim; Murphy, Susan; Maggs, Christine A

2005-01-01

123

Effect of timing of surgical SSP tendon repair on muscle alterations.  

PubMed

To investigate the impacts of delayed repairs of a supraspinatus tendon tear on the supraspinatus muscle, we used an animal model data from two previously published studies in which one supraspinatus (SSP) tendon was detached. In one cohort, the rabbits were killed in groups of 10 at 4, 8, and 12?weeks. In the other cohort, a repair was done at these time points, 12 rabbits each, and the animals killed were 12 weeks later. SSP fossa volume (Muscle belly plus extramuscular fat [e-fat] volume), percentage of intramuscular fat (i-fat), and muscle tissue volume (muscle belly volume minus i-fat), as well as CT determination of e-fat and i-fat of both cohorts, were compared. Fossa volume increased (p??0.05), but early repair prevented further volume losses, a fact not seen after 8 and 12?weeks delay of repair. No reversal of e-fat or of i-fat occurred, in fact i-fat almost doubled after 4?weeks delay of repair (p?

Uhthoff, Hans K; Coletta, Elizabeth; Trudel, Guy

2014-11-01

124

Xanthones from Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta with acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase inhibitory activities.  

PubMed

Two new xanthone glycosides, corymbiferin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and swertiabisxanthone-I 8'-O-beta- d-glucopyranoside (2), were isolated from Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta, along with eight known xanthones: triptexanthoside C, veratriloside, corymbiferin 1-O-glucoside, swertianolin, norswertianolin, swertiabisxanthone-I, bellidin, and bellidifolin, four of them identified for the first time in G. amarella ssp. acuta. The isolation was conducted mainly by centrifugal partition chromatography, and the structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of spectrometric data including 2D NMR and mass spectrometry. Xanthones were weakly active against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), except triptexanthoside C, which inhibited AChE with an IC(50) of 13.8 +/- 1.6 microM. Some compounds were active against monoamine oxidases (MAO): bellidin and bellidifolin showed interesting inhibitory activity of MAO A, while swertianolin, the 8-O-glucopyranoside form of bellidifolin, gave 93.6% inhibition of MAO B activity at 10(-5) M. PMID:18336006

Urbain, A; Marston, A; Grilo, L Sintra; Bravo, J; Purev, O; Purevsuren, B; Batsuren, D; Reist, M; Carrupt, P-A; Hostettmann, K

2008-05-01

125

Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.  

PubMed

The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and artefacts of a 'wine culture', have been excavated. Whether from Transcaucasia or the nearby Taurus or Zagros Mountains, it is hypothesized that this wine culture spread southwards and eventually westwards around the Mediterranean basin, together with the transplantation of cultivated grape cuttings. However, the existence of morphological differentiation between cultivars from eastern and western ends of the modern distribution of the Eurasian grape suggests the existence of different genetic contribution from local sylvestris populations or multilocal selection and domestication of sylvestris genotypes. To tackle this issue, we analysed chlorotype variation and distribution in 1201 samples of sylvestris and sativa genotypes from the whole area of the species' distribution and studied their genetic relationships. The results suggest the existence of at least two important origins for the cultivated germplasm, one in the Near East and another in the western Mediterranean region, the latter of which gave rise to many of the current Western European cultivars. Indeed, over 70% of the Iberian Peninsula cultivars display chlorotypes that are only compatible with their having derived from western sylvestris populations. PMID:17032268

Arroyo-García, R; Ruiz-García, L; Bolling, L; Ocete, R; López, M A; Arnold, C; Ergul, A; Söylemezo?lu, G; Uzun, H I; Cabello, F; Ibáñez, J; Aradhya, M K; Atanassov, A; Atanassov, I; Balint, S; Cenis, J L; Costantini, L; Goris-Lavets, S; Grando, M S; Klein, B Y; McGovern, P E; Merdinoglu, D; Pejic, I; Pelsy, F; Primikirios, N; Risovannaya, V; Roubelakis-Angelakis, K A; Snoussi, H; Sotiri, P; Tamhankar, S; This, P; Troshin, L; Malpica, J M; Lefort, F; Martinez-Zapater, J M

2006-10-01

126

Caryophyllene oxide-rich essential oils of Lithuanian Artemisia campestris ssp. campestris and their toxicity.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oils of aerial parts of Artemisia campestris ssp. campestris, collected from ten different locations in Lithuania is detailed in this paper. The major component in all the oils was caryophyllene oxide (8.5-38.8%), whereas compounds with the caryophyllane skeleton ranged from 10.2 to 44.5%. Other representative constituents were germacrene D (< or = 15.0%), humulene epoxide II (< or = 8.1%), beta-ylangene (< or = 7.7%), spathulenol (< or = 6.8%), beta-elemene (< or = 6.8%), beta-caryophyllene (< or = 6.2%), junenol (< or = 6.1%) and alpha- or beta-pinene (< or = 5.5%). Eighty-seven compounds were identified, comprising 73.6-92.3% of the oils. The chemical composition was highly variable depending on the sample location. Toxicity of A. campestris oils was determined using the brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) assay. LC50 values ranging to 20 microg/mL were obtained for three of the oils after 24 hours of exposure. Data of this test revealed that A. campestris ssp. campestris essential oils with dominant caryophyllene oxide are notably toxic. PMID:21299136

Judzentiene, Asta; Budiene, Jurga; Butkiene, Rita; Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle; Masotti, Véronique

2010-12-01

127

The Salmonella type III effector SspH2 specifically exploits the NLR co-chaperone activity of SGT1 to subvert immunity.  

PubMed

To further its pathogenesis, S. Typhimurium delivers effector proteins into host cells, including the novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL) effector SspH2. Using model systems in a cross-kingdom approach we gained further insight into the molecular function of this effector. Here, we show that SspH2 modulates innate immunity in both mammalian and plant cells. In mammalian cell culture, SspH2 significantly enhanced Nod1-mediated IL-8 secretion when transiently expressed or bacterially delivered. In addition, SspH2 also enhanced an Rx-dependent hypersensitive response in planta. In both of these nucleotide-binding leucine rich repeat receptor (NLR) model systems, SspH2-mediated phenotypes required its catalytic E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and interaction with the conserved host protein SGT1. SGT1 has an essential cell cycle function and an additional function as an NLR co-chaperone in animal and plant cells. Interaction between SspH2 and SGT1 was restricted to SGT1 proteins that have NLR co-chaperone function and accordingly, SspH2 did not affect SGT1 cell cycle functions. Mechanistic studies revealed that SspH2 interacted with, and ubiquitinated Nod1 and could induce Nod1 activity in an agonist-independent manner if catalytically active. Interestingly, SspH2 in vitro ubiquitination activity and protein stability were enhanced by SGT1. Overall, this work adds to our understanding of the sophisticated mechanisms used by bacterial effectors to co-opt host pathways by demonstrating that SspH2 can subvert immune responses by selectively exploiting the functions of a conserved host co-chaperone. PMID:23935490

Bhavsar, Amit P; Brown, Nat F; Stoepel, Jan; Wiermer, Marcel; Martin, Dale D O; Hsu, Karolynn J; Imami, Koshi; Ross, Colin J; Hayden, Michael R; Foster, Leonard J; Li, Xin; Hieter, Phil; Finlay, B Brett

2013-01-01

128

Population genetics of duplicated disease-defense genes, hm1 and hm2, in maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) and its wild ancestor (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis).  

PubMed Central

Plant defense genes are subject to nonneutral evolutionary dynamics. Here we investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the duplicated defense genes hm1 and hm2 in maize and its wild ancestor Zea mays ssp. parviglumis. Both genes have been shown to confer resistance to the fungal pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum race 1, but the effectiveness of resistance differs between loci. The genes also display different population histories. The hm1 locus has the highest nucleotide diversity of any gene yet sampled in the wild ancestor of maize, and it contains a large number of indel polymorphisms. There is no evidence, however, that high diversity in hm1 is a product of nonneutral evolution. In contrast, hm2 has very low nucleotide diversity in the wild ancestor of maize. The distribution of hm2 polymorphic sites is consistent with nonneutral evolution, as indicated by Tajima's D and other neutrality tests. In addition, one hm2 haplotype is more frequent than expected under the equilibrium neutral model, suggesting hitchhiking selection. Both defense genes retain >80% of the level of genetic variation in maize relative to the wild ancestor, and this level is similar to other maize genes that were not subject to artificial selection during domestication. PMID:12399395

Zhang, Liqing; Peek, Andrew S; Dunams, Detiger; Gaut, Brandon S

2002-01-01

129

Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

2011-03-01

130

Conservation of Nuclear SSR Loci Reveals High Affinity of Quercus infectoria ssp. veneris A. Kern (Fagaceae) to Section Robur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of 16 nuclear microsatellite loci, originally developed for Quercus macrocarpa (section Albae), Q. petraea, Q. robur (section Robur), and Q. myrsinifolia, (subgenus Cyclobalanopsis) was tested in a Q. infectoria ssp. veneris population from Cyprus. All loci could be amplified successfully and displayed allele size and diversity patterns that match\\u000a those of oak species belonging to the section Robur. At

Ch. Neophytou; A. Dounavi; F. A. Aravanopoulos

2008-01-01

131

The inheritance of quantitative traits in Brassica napus ssp. rapifera(swedes): augmented triple test cross analysis of yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two augmented triple test crosses were produced from inbred lines of swede (Brassica napus ssp. rapifera L.) and assessed in field trials at Dundee in 1988 and 1989, respectively. The first cross was between lines derived from cvs. Criffel and Marian and the second between the same Criffel line and one from Bangholm Wilby. The genetic architectures of the two

L D Ramsay; J E Bradshaw; M J Kearsey

1994-01-01

132

Fate of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus, the causal organism of bacterial ring rot in potato, in weeds and field crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crops and weeds were tested for their ability to host Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal agent of bacterial ring rot in potato. Ten crops grown in rotation with potato in Europe, namely maize, wheat, barley, oat, bush bean, broad bean, rape, pea and onion and five cultivars of sugar beet were tested by stem and root inoculation. About

Wolf van der J. M; Beckhoven van J. R. C. M; A. Hukkanen; R. Karjalainen; P. Muller

2005-01-01

133

Assessing the effects of exposure to environmental stress on some functional properties of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effects of exposing a strain of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis to acid, bile and osmotic stresses on antagonistic properties, biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility/resistance profile. Exposure to each stress factor appeared to have no significant effect on the antagonism against Escherichia coli NCTC 12900 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. No suppression in biofilm formation due to exposure to stress was observed. Bile and osmotic stresses resulted in significantly higher biofilm formation. Expression of an exopolysaccharide synthesis gene, gtf 01207, was significantly higher when the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain was exposed to osmotic stress. Susceptibility of the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin and vancomycin, and resistance to tetracycline remained unchanged when exposed to each stress. The expression of a tetracycline resistance gene, tet(W), was significantly higher when exposed to each stress. These results may suggest that the potential for the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to provide probiotic benefit, after exposure to the stressful conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, remains intact. PMID:25097108

Amund, O D; Ouoba, L I I; Sutherland, J P; Ghoddusi, H B

2014-12-01

134

Rheological Properties of Nonfat Yogurt Stabilized Using Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus Producing Exopolysaccharide or Using Commercial Stabilizer Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of yogurts made using three strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus that produce exopolysaccharide or made with a nonproducing strain, with and without addition of commercial stabilizer blends, were compared. A simple test, deve- loped to measure the extensibility of yogurts, was able to discriminate yogurt made with exopolysaccharide-producing strains from yogurt made with the nonproducing strain and to

S. J. Hess; R. F. Roberts; G. R. Ziegler

1997-01-01

135

Comparison of nitrogen solute concentrations within alder (Alnus incana ssp.rugosa) and non-alder dominated wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined differences in nitrogen solutes and groundwater flow patterns between a riparian wetland dominated by the N2-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa, and an upstream coniferous forested riparian wetland along a stream of the Adirondack Mountains, where some surface waters are susceptible to nitrogen excess. Channel water NO3? was up to 16 µmol l? 1 greater in the

Todd M. Hurd; Dudley J. Raynal

2004-01-01

136

Abundance of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in Adirondack Mountain shrub wetlands and its influence on inorganic nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to determine the abundance of the nitrogen-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (speckled alder), in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State and to determine whether its abundance affects the concentration or accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in wetland substrates. Alder\\/willow wetlands are the second most common wetland type in the

B. D. Kiernan; T. M. Hurd; D. J. Raynal

2003-01-01

137

Growth of the dune wintergreen ( Pyrola rotundifolia ssp. maritima ) at Braunton Burrows in relation to weather factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dune wintergreen (Pyrola rotundifolia ssp.maritima) is an evergreen perennial herb which has spread extensively in recent decades to, and on, various British dune systems including Braunton Burrows, N. Devon. Its multiplication is partly vegetative, by rhizomes bearing leaf rosettes. This study primarily concerns the relation between: (i) the growth of one particular invasive colony on Braunton Burrows, as shown

R. Hunt; J. F. Hope-Simpson; J. B. Snape

1985-01-01

138

Growth of the dune wintergreen ( Pyrola rotundifolia ssp. maritima) at Braunton Burrows in relation to weather factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dune wintergreen ( Pyrola rotundifolia ssp. maritima) is an evergreen perennial herb which has spread extensively in recent decades to, and on, various British dune systems including Braunton Burrows, N. Devon. Its multiplication is partly vegetative, by rhizomes bearing leaf rosettes. This study primarily concerns the relation between: (i) the growth of one particular invasive colony on Braunton Burrows,

R. Hunt; J. F. Hope-Simpson; J. B. Snape

1985-01-01

139

The Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil and Alcoholic extract of Juniperus communis L. ssp. nana Syme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oil of Portuguese juniper berries (Juniperus communis L. ssp. nana Syme) was investigated by means of gas chromatography. This analysis was compared with that of an aqueous alcoholic extract of the juniper berries of similar origin. The qualitative composition of the oil and the alcoholic extract was found to be very similar. The major

A. Proença da Cunha; Odete L. R. Roque

1989-01-01

140

Embryogenesis and plant regeneration of pakchoi ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) via in vitro isolated microspore culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated microspores of various populations of three varieties of the Chinese cabbage pakchoi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were cultivated in vitro on NLN82 medium (Lichter 1982) and embryos and plantlets obtained with nine cultivars. The best embryo yield per bud was 57.4. A 33°C one day heat treatment was generally necessary to induce embryogenesis. Analysis of ploidy level through flow

Ming Qing Cao; Yan Li; Fan Liu; Claire Doré

1994-01-01

141

Identification of a small molecule that modifies MglA/SspA interaction and impairs intramacrophage survival of Francisella tularensis.  

PubMed

The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen's virulence and survival within host cells. In this study, we used a small molecule screening to identify quinacrine as a thermal stabilizing compound for F. tularensis SCHU S4 MglA and SspA. A bacterial two-hybrid system was used to analyze the in vivo effect of quinacrine on the heterodimer complex. The results show that quinacrine affects the interaction between MglA and SspA, indicated by decreased ?-galactosidase activity. Further in vitro analyses, using size exclusion chromatography, indicated that quinacrine does not disrupt the heterodimer formation, however, changes in the alpha helix content were confirmed by circular dichroism. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that quinacrine makes contact with amino acid residues Y63 in MglA, and K97 in SspA, both located in the "cleft" of the interacting surfaces. In F. tularensis subsp. novicida, quinacrine decreased the transcription of the FPI genes, iglA, iglD, pdpD and pdpA. As a consequence, the intramacrophage survival capabilities of the bacteria were affected. These results support use of the MglA/SspA interacting surface, and quinacrine's chemical scaffold, for the design of high affinity molecules that will function as therapeutics for the treatment of Tularemia. PMID:23372736

Wrench, Algevis P; Gardner, Christopher L; Gonzalez, Claudio F; Lorca, Graciela L

2013-01-01

142

Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Shock Test and Specification Experience for Reusable Flight Hardware Equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As commercial companies are nearing a preliminary design review level of design maturity, several companies are identifying the process for qualifying their multi-use electrical and mechanical components for various shock environments, including pyrotechnic, mortar firing, and water impact. The experience in quantifying the environments consists primarily of recommendations from Military Standard-1540, Product Verification Requirement for Launch, Upper Stage, and Space Vehicles. Therefore, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) formed a team of NASA shock experts to share the NASA experience with qualifying hardware for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and other applicable programs and projects. Several team teleconferences were held to discuss past experience and to share ideas of possible methods for qualifying components for multiple missions. This document contains the information compiled from the discussions

Larsen, Curtis E.

2012-01-01

143

Chemical variability of the needle oil of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina from Corsica.  

PubMed

The composition of 109 samples of essential oil isolated from the needles of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina growing wild in Corsica was investigated by GC (in combination with retention indices), GC/MS, and 13C-NMR. Forty-four compounds accounting for 86.7-96.7% of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, in particular, limonene (9.2-53.9%), beta-phellandrene (3.7-25.2%), alpha-pinene (1.4-33.7%), and sabinene (0.1-33.6%). The 109 oil compositions were submitted to k-means partitioning and principal component analysis, which allowed the distinction of two groups within the oil samples. The composition of the major group (92% of the samples) was dominated by limonene and beta-phellandrene, while the second group contained mainly sabinene beside limonene and beta-phellandrene. PMID:20020451

Ottavioli, Josephine; Gonny, Marcelle; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

2009-12-01

144

A new Epichloe species with interspecific hybrid origins from Poa pratensis ssp. pratensis in Liyang, China.  

PubMed

We describe a new Epichloë species found in symbiosis with Poa pratensis ssp. pratensis in Liyang, China. Stromata characteristic of Epichloë spp. were present on some of the reproductive tillers of individual host grasses. Only three of the 98 stromata observed on field plants became orange and produced perithecia. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of tubB and tefA indicated that this Epichloë sp. was an interspecific hybrid related to both E. yangzii and members in the E. typhina complex clade (ETC). Allele-1 of tefA and tubB grouped in the E. bromicola/E. yangzii clade; allele-2 of these two genes clustered in a distinct subclade in the ETC. This is the first report of an Epichloë species that has interspecific hybrid origins. We propose the name Epichloë liyangensis Z. Wang, Y. Kang et H. Miao, sp. nov. for this species. PMID:21659456

Yan, Kang; Yanling, Ji; Kunran, Zhu; Hui, Wang; Huimin, Miao; Zhiwei, Wang

2011-01-01

145

Identification of genes transcribed by Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus in infected porcine lung.  

PubMed

Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for respiratory tract infection, septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis and arthritis in swine and humans. However, the expression and regulation of SEZ genes during an infection in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the identification of SEZ genes preferentially expressed in vivo during infection in pigs. This study identified 45 SEZ genes that were upregulated in infected porcine lung tissues using the selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) technique and comparative dot-blot analysis, followed by quantitative RT-PCR validation. The identified genes were characterized into 6 functional categories: metabolism, cell wall-associated, stress response, transporters, regulators and unknown functions. Our study successfully identified multiple genes, which can deepen our understanding about SEZ pathogenesis and infer probable virulence factors. It will promote the development of novel vaccines and therapies about this pathogen for further study. PMID:23454837

Yi, Li; Wang, Yang; Ma, Zhe; Zhang, Hui; Xie, Huaidong; Yang, Yongchun; Lu, Chengping; Fan, Hongjie

2013-01-01

146

Identification of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus surface associated proteins by enzymatic shaving.  

PubMed

Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (Streptococcus zooepidemicus, SEZ) is responsible for a wide variety of infections in many species. Attempts to control the infection caused by this agent are hampered by a lack of effective vaccines and useful diagnostic kits. Surface proteins of bacterial species are usually involved in interaction with host and hopefully act as biomarkers for serodiagnosis and subunit vaccine components. In this study, the surface proteins of SEZ C55138 strain were systematically identified by surface shaving with trypsin and a total of 20 surface associated proteins were found. Further analysis of five selected novel proteins (SzM, FBP, SAP, CSP and 5'-Nu) revealed that they all expressed in vivo and their recombinant derived proteins could be reactive with convalescent sera. These identified immunogenic surface proteins have potential as SEZ vaccine candidates and diagnostic markers. PMID:22613253

Wei, Zigong; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Xiaohong; Xiao, Pingping; Lu, Zhaohui; Chen, Yaosheng

2012-10-12

147

Lignan formation in hairy root cultures of Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale ssp. alpinum (Cass.) Greuter)  

PubMed Central

A hairy root line of Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale ssp. alpinum (Cass.) Greuter) was obtained upon transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC15834. Elicitation of this line with silver nitrate, sucrose, methyl jasmonate and yeast extract at various concentrations in most cases resulted in a stimulation of lignan biosynthesis. Through elicitation with 6% sucrose the roots accumulated the pharmacologically active lignans leoligin and 5-methoxy-leoligin at levels of 0.0678% and 0.0372%, respectively, without significant growth inhibition. These lignan levels were comparable to those found in intact roots of cultivated Edelweiss. The biotechnological production of leoligin could be an attractive option for the continuous, field culture-independent production of the valuable secondary metabolites leoligin and 5-methoxy-leoligin. PMID:24932777

Wawrosch, Christoph; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Kopp, Brigitte

2014-01-01

148

Lignan formation in hairy root cultures of Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale ssp. alpinum (Cass.) Greuter).  

PubMed

A hairy root line of Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale ssp. alpinum (Cass.) Greuter) was obtained upon transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC15834. Elicitation of this line with silver nitrate, sucrose, methyl jasmonate and yeast extract at various concentrations in most cases resulted in a stimulation of lignan biosynthesis. Through elicitation with 6% sucrose the roots accumulated the pharmacologically active lignans leoligin and 5-methoxy-leoligin at levels of 0.0678% and 0.0372%, respectively, without significant growth inhibition. These lignan levels were comparable to those found in intact roots of cultivated Edelweiss. The biotechnological production of leoligin could be an attractive option for the continuous, field culture-independent production of the valuable secondary metabolites leoligin and 5-methoxy-leoligin. PMID:24932777

Wawrosch, Christoph; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Kopp, Brigitte

2014-09-01

149

Assessing the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in semiarid shrublands dominated by Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis.  

PubMed

Variation in the abiotic environment and host plant preferences can affect the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) assemblages. This study analyzed the AMF taxa present in soil and seedlings of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis collected from sagebrush steppe communities in southwestern Idaho, USA. Our aims were to determine the AMF diversity within and among these communities and the extent to which preferential AMF-plant associations develop during seedling establishment. Mycorrhizae were identified using molecular methods following DNA extraction from field and pot culture samples. The extracted DNA was amplified using Glomeromycota specific primers, and identification of AMF was based on phylogenetic analysis of sequences from the large subunit-D2 rDNA region. The phylogenetic analyses revealed seven phylotypes, two within the Claroideoglomeraceae and five within the Glomeraceae. Four phylotypes clustered with known species including Claroideoglomus claroideum, Rhizophagus irregularis, Glomus microaggregatum, and Funneliformis mosseae. The other three phylotypes were similar to several published sequences not included in the phylogenetic analysis, but all of these were from uncultured and unnamed glomeromycetes. Pairwise distance analysis revealed some phylotypes with high genetic variation. The most diverse was the phylotype that included R. irregularis, which contained sequences showing pairwise differences up to 12 %. Most of the diversity in AMF sequences occurred within sites. The smaller genetic differentiation detected among sites was correlated with differences in soil texture. In addition, multiplication in pot cultures led to differentiation of AMF communities. Comparison of sequences obtained from the soil with those from A. tridentata roots revealed no significant differences between the AMF present in these samples. Overall, the sites sampled were dominated by cosmopolitan AMF taxa, and young seedlings of A. tridentata ssp. wyomingensis were colonized in relation to the abundance of these taxa in the soil. PMID:24249492

Carter, Keith A; Smith, James F; White, Merlin M; Serpe, Marcelo D

2014-05-01

150

Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BI07 modulates the tumor necrosis factor alpha-dependent imbalances of the enterocyte-associated intestinal microbiota fraction.  

PubMed

Using a previously developed in vitro model to characterize the enterocyte-adherent microbiota fraction, we explored the potential of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BI07 to modulate the inflammation-dependent dysbioses of the enterocyte-adherent microbiota from 12 healthy human donors. According to our findings, B. animalis ssp. lactis BI07 is effective in limiting the increase of pro-inflammatory pathobionts on the inflamed mucosal site, supporting the recovery of a mutualistic community. PMID:24964713

Centanni, Manuela; Turroni, Silvia; Rampelli, Simone; Biagi, Elena; Quercia, Sara; Consolandi, Clarissa; Severgnini, Marco; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

2014-08-01

151

Genetic and physical interaction of Ssp1 CaMKK and Rad24 14-3-3 during low pH and osmotic stress in fission yeast  

PubMed Central

The Ssp1 calmodulin kinase kinase (CaMKK) is necessary for stress-induced re-organization of the actin cytoskeleton and initiation of growth at the new cell end following division in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In addition, it regulates AMP-activated kinase and functions in low glucose tolerance. ssp1? cells undergo mitotic delay at elevated temperatures and G2 arrest in the presence of additional stressors. Following hyperosmotic stress, Ssp1-GFP forms transient foci which accumulate at the cell membrane and form a band around the cell circumference, but not co-localizing with actin patches. Hyperosmolarity-induced localization to the cell membrane occurs concomitantly with a reduction of its interaction with the 14-3-3 protein Rad24, but not Rad25 which remains bound to Ssp1. The loss of rad24 in ssp1? cells reduces the severity of hyperosmotic stress response and relieves mitotic delay. Conversely, overexpression of rad24 exacerbates stress response and concomitant cell elongation. rad24? does not impair stress-induced localization of Ssp1 to the cell membrane, however this response is almost completely absent in cells overexpressing rad24. PMID:24451546

Freitag, Silja I.; Wong, Jimson; Young, Paul G.

2014-01-01

152

SSP-002392, a new 5-HT4 receptor agonist, dose-dependently reverses scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in C57Bl/6 mice.  

PubMed

5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) are suggested to affect learning and memory processes. Earlier studies have shown that animals treated with 5-HT4R agonists, often with limited selectivity, show improved learning and memory with retention memory often being assessed immediately after or within 24 h after the last training session. In this study, we characterized the effect of pre-training treatment with the selective 5-HT4R agonist SSP-002392 on memory acquisition and the associated long-term memory retrieval in animal models of impaired cognition. Pre-training treatment with SSP-002392 (0.3 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg and 7.5 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the cognitive deficits induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) in two different behavioral tasks: passive avoidance and Morris water maze. In the Morris water maze, spatial learning was significantly improved after treatment with SSP-002392 translating in an accelerated and more efficient localization of the hidden platform compared to scopolamine-treated controls. Moreover, retention memory was assessed 24 h (passive avoidance) and 72 h (Morris water maze) after the last training session of cognitive-impaired animals and this was significantly improved in animals treated with SSP-002392 prior to the training sessions. Furthermore, the effects of SSP-002392 were comparable to galanthamine hydrobromide. We conclude that SSP-002392 has potential as a memory-enhancing compound. PMID:24863046

Lo, Adrian C; De Maeyer, Joris H; Vermaercke, Ben; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Schuurkes, Jan A J; D'Hooge, Rudi

2014-10-01

153

Chemotaxonomy of Serbian Teucrium species inferred from essential oil chemical composition: the case of Teucrium scordium L. ssp. scordioides.  

PubMed

The volatile constituents of Teucrium scordium L. ssp. scordioides, T. polium, and T. montanum, obtained by hydrodistillation, were investigated by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. A total of 296 constituents were identified, representing 89.8-98.4% of the oil compositions. The oils of T. polium and T. montanum consisted mainly of sesquiterpenes (64.3 and 72.7%, resp.), with germacrene D (4; 31.0%) and ?-cadinene (10; 8.1%) as the main constituents, respectively. In contrast, the monoterpene menthofuran (1; 11.9%) predominated in the oil of T. scordium ssp. scordioides, and this clearly distinguished this species from the other Teucrium taxa investigated up to date. The chemistry of the volatiles of eight Teucrium taxa from Serbia and Montenegro were compared using multivariate statistical analysis, and this provided chemotaxonomically important conclusions. PMID:22253108

Radulovi?, Niko; Deki?, Milan; Joksovi?, Milan; Vuki?evi?, Rastko

2012-01-01

154

The inheritance of quantitative traits in Brassica napus ssp. rapifera (swedes): Augmented triple test cross analyses of production characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two F2 triple test crosses, augmented with F3s, produced from crosses between different inbred lines of swedes (Brassica napus ssp.rapifera L.) were assessed in field trials at Dundee in 1988 and 1989,respectively. This paper reports the analyses of resistance\\u000a to powdery mildew, neck length, growth cracks, sugar content and hardness; analyses of yield have been published previously.\\u000a Additive genetical variation

L. D. Ramsay; J. E. Bradshaw; D. W. Griffiths; M. J. Kearsey

2001-01-01

155

Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Tanacetum balsamita L. ssp. balsamitoides (Schultz-Bip.) Grierson. from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents of Tanacetum balsamita L. ssp. balsamitoides (Schultz-Bip.) Grierson were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The major constituents of the leaf oil were bornyl acetate (47.7%), pinocarvone (27.1%), camphor (9.3%) and terpinolene (5.4%), while the fower oil contained bornyl acetate (55.2%), pinocarvone (34.2%), camphor (2.8%) and terpinolene (2.0%) and the stem oil contained bornyl

K. Jaimand; M. B. Rezaee

2005-01-01

156

Occurrence and infective potential of the endophyte of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides in coastal sand-dune areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The infective potential (IP) of nodule homogenates from field-grownHippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp.rhamnoides was determined by counting the number of nodules formed on test plants after inoculation with various dilutions of the homogenates. The IP was almost constant,i.e. 105 to 106 per gram of fresh nodule material. Methods to store nodule material without loss of IP were tested. The IP

P. A. I. Oremus

1980-01-01

157

TP0262 is a modulator of promoter activity of tpr Subfamily II genes of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Transcriptional regulation in Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is poorly understood, primarily because this organism cannot be cultivated in vitro or geneti- cally manipulated. We have recently shown a phase variation mechanism controlling transcription initia- tion of Subfamily II tpr (T. pallidum repeat) genes (tprE, tprG and tprJ), a group of virulence factor candidates. Furthermore, the same study suggested that

Lorenzo Giacani; Charmie Godornes; Maritza Puray-Chavez; Cristina Guerra-Giraldez; Martin Tompa; Sheila A. Lukehart; Arturo Centurion-Lara

2009-01-01

158

The Status of Juniperus communis ssp. nana (dwarf juniper) communities at six sites in north and north-west Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sites with semi-natural vegetation containing Juniperus species are becoming scarce in Britain. The prostrate subspecies Juniperus communis nana (dwarf juniper) occurs in remote areas with a cool oceanic climate, in the NVC community H15 (Calluna vulgaris-Juniperus communis ssp. nana). Evidence suggests that dwarf juniper is considerably less widely distributed than in the past, and the subspecies is absent from large

G. M. McGowan; N. G. Bayfield; A. Olmo

1998-01-01

159

Identification of triplex (YYY y ) Potato Virus Y (PVY) immune progenitors derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the International Potato Center’s (CIP) virus resistance breeding strategy, a group of 182 selected clones from\\u000a intercrosses among duplex Potato Virus Y (PVY) immune progenitors derived fromSolanum tuberosum ssp.andigena (i.e., YYyy × YYyy) was sampled. These clones were test-crossed to the PVY susceptible tester 377964.5 (yyyy) to search for triplex\\u000a (YYYy) and quadruplex (YYYY) PVY immune potato

H. A. Mendoza; E. J. Mihovilovich; F. Saguma

1996-01-01

160

Selective Enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Propionibacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactoba- cillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus ther- mophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propioni- bacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS- NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (na- lidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and

N. Tharmaraj; N. P. Shah

2003-01-01

161

Effects of the aqueous extract from artemisia campestris ssp. caudata on mycorrhizal fungi colonization and growth of sand dune grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the aqueous extract fromArtemisia campesttis ssp.caudata to investigate its effects on the colonization of sand dune grass roots by mycorrhizal fungi and seedling growth. The percent\\u000a colonization decreased with higher extract concentrations, and growth of three grass species was inhibited. Colonization by\\u000a mycorrhizal fungi was more sensitive to the extract than was seedling growth, and no significant differences

Kyeong Won Yun; Anwar Maun; Jong Hee Kim

2007-01-01

162

Chemotaxonomy of Artemisia variabilis Ten. and A. campestris L. ssp. glutinosa (Ten.) Briq. et Cavill. (Asteraceae) from Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oil of Artemisia variabilis Ten. and A. campestris L. ssp. glutinosa (Ten.) Briq. et Cavill was studied in order to clarify the systematic taxonomy of these plants. GC and GC\\/MS analyses both revealed quantitative and qualitative differences in the composition of their oils. In A. variabilis oil, 1,2-dihydro acenaphthylene (30.0–77.3%) was the predominant component, while

B. Bellomaria; G. Valentini; E. Biondi

2001-01-01

163

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in several herds of Arctic Caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp.).  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a common pathogen in domestic ruminants that causes granulomatous inflammation of the small intestine leading to emaciation and wasting. Clinical disease (Johne's disease) is also reported for several wild ruminant species. Between 2007 and 2009 we collected 561 fecal samples from caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp.) representing 10 herds of migratory caribou, two herds of caribou from Greenland, and three populations of boreal woodland caribou. Feces were tested for MAP by bacterial culture and PCR targeting the IS900 insertion sequence. In total, 31 samples from eight different populations representing all three ecotypes were found positive for MAP by PCR, with one sample from the Rivière-aux-Feuilles herd also being culture positive for the type II (cattle) strain. The proportion of positive animals was particularly high in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd in Greenland, and Rivière-aux-Feuilles and Riviè re-George herds in northeastern Canada (23.4, 11.5, and 10.0%, respectively). Our results indicate that MAP is present in several caribou herds of different ecotypes in northern Canada and Greenland and that MAP circulates within wildlife populations that do not have ongoing contact with domestic livestock. The epidemiology, pathogenicity, and effects on the health of caribou in northern ecosystems remain unknown. PMID:23060493

Forde, Taya; Orsel, Karin; De Buck, Jeroen; Côté, Steeve D; Cuyler, Christine; Davison, Tracy; Elkin, Brett; Kelly, Allicia; Kienzler, Martin; Popko, Richard; Taillon, Joëlle; Veitch, Alasdair; Kutz, Susan

2012-10-01

164

Antiviral and antimicrobial activities of three sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis.  

PubMed

Three sesquiterpene lactones (centaurepensin = chlorohyssopifolin A, chlorojanerin and 13-acetyl solstitialin A) isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis (Asteraceae) were investigated for antimicrobial and antiviral activities. For the antimicrobial activity assessment, both standard and isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis were employed by the microdilution method. Herpes simplex type-1, a DNA virus, and Parainfluenza, an RNA virus, were employed for the determination of the antiviral activity of these three sesquiterpene lactones using Vero cell lines. Ampicilline, ofloxocine, ketoconazole, fluconazole, acyclovir and oseltamivir were used as the reference drugs. 13-Acetyl solstitialin A displayed remarkable antibacterial activity against isolated strains of E. faecalis at 1 microg/ml concentration, which was close to the effective concentrations of ampicillin. The same compound also showed significant activity against the DNA virus, being as potent as the reference compound acyclovir at maximum and minimum concentrations of 16-<0.00006 microg/ml. This is the first report showing that 13-acetyl solstitialin A possesses significant antiviral activity. PMID:17614269

Ozçelik, Berrin; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Karaoglu, Taner; Ye?ilada, Erdem

2009-01-01

165

Improving green roofs and rail road greening systems using Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus ssp.  

PubMed

Aim of the present study was the improvement of existing methods for green roof and rail road greening systems using soil borne bacteria. Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus ssp. alone and in combination with vinasse applied to different growing substrates were tested. The substrates were brick chips, textile mats, mineral wool mats, and a commercial available substrate for the Swedish company VegTech. All four substrates were tested along an artificial rail track on the experimental station at Humboldt University Berlin, and partly on an existing rail track in Munich, Germany. Plants selected for the experiments belong to the genus Sedum, which is relatively tolerant to dry conditions. Inoculation of plants with bacteria had no effect on plant growth parameters and on coverage of different mobile bedding systems with Sedum plants. There was no significant difference between the various treatments in Munich. In both experiments, the addition of vinasse alone improved plant growth. Plant growth was significantly different on all substrates, whereas brick chips and the commercial roof soil was the best substrate. Brick chips are a cheap substrate which can be used for rail track greening. The results indicate that the quality of the substrate is the most important factor for remediation and greening of rail tracks and roof tops. The rapid growth of plants can be influenced by the application of vinasse as additional nutrient solution (potash (K) source) or nutrient enriched substrate. PMID:17390783

Grüneberg, H; Oschmann, C; Dunya, S; Ulrichs, C

2006-01-01

166

Patterns of diversity and recombination along chromosome 1 of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.).  

PubMed Central

We investigate the interplay between genetic diversity and recombination in maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). Genetic diversity was measured in three types of markers: single-nucleotide polymorphisms, indels, and microsatellites. All three were examined in a sample of previously published DNA sequences from 21 loci on maize chromosome 1. Small indels (1-5 bp) were numerous and far more common than large indels. Furthermore, large indels (>100 bp) were infrequent in the population sample, suggesting they are slightly deleterious. The 21 loci also contained 47 microsatellites, of which 33 were polymorphic. Diversity in SNPs, indels, and microsatellites was compared to two measures of recombination: C (=4Nc) estimated from DNA sequence data and R based on a quantitative recombination nodule map of maize synaptonemal complex 1. SNP diversity was correlated with C (r = 0.65; P = 0.007) but not with R (r = -0.10; P = 0.69). Given the lack of correlation between R and SNP diversity, the correlation between SNP diversity and C may be driven by demography. In contrast to SNP diversity, microsatellite diversity was correlated with R (r = 0.45; P = 0.004) but not C (r = -0.025; P = 0.55). The correlation could arise if recombination is mutagenic for microsatellites, or it may be consistent with background selection that is apparent only in this class of rapidly evolving markers. PMID:12454083

Tenaillon, Maud I; Sawkins, Mark C; Anderson, Lorinda K; Stack, Stephen M; Doebley, John; Gaut, Brandon S

2002-01-01

167

Diversity of AMF associated with Ammophila arenaria ssp. arundinacea in Portuguese sand dunes.  

PubMed

Dune vegetation is essential for the formation and preservation of sand dunes and the protection of the coast line. Coastal sand dunes are harsh environments where arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in promoting plant establishment and growth. We present a study of the diversity of AMF associated with A. arenaria ssp. arundinacea in two locations of the Portuguese coast under a Mediterranean climate. These two locations were selected to compare a well-preserved dune system from a protected area with a degraded dune system from a public beach. AMF diversity was assessed mainly by cloning and sequencing of a fragment of the ribosomal SSU using the primer NS31 and AM1. Most of the 89 AMF clones obtained from the rhizosphere and roots of A. arenaria belonged to the genus Glomus, the largest clade within the Glomeromycota. Higher AMF diversity was found in the least disturbed site, in which spores of Scutellospora persica, Glomus constrictum and Glomus globiferum were found in the rhizosphere of A. arenaria. PMID:17043895

Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Freitas, Helena

2006-11-01

168

Adaptation of the Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 gene deletion system for modification of chromosomal loci.  

PubMed

The model archaeon Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 is an excellent system for the study of archaeal molecular biology. Unlike many other archaea, its only special growth requirement is high levels of sodium chloride and other salts; it requires neither high-temperature incubation nor anaerobic environments. Additionally, there are a number of well-developed post-genomic tools available, including whole-genome microarrays and a ura3-based gene deletion system. While some tools are available for protein expression, a system for measurement and purification of protein expressed from native promoters is lacking. We have adapted the established H. salinarum gene deletion system for this purpose, and have used this to place 8×-histidine tags on either the carboxyl or amino terminus of the protein encoded by the chromosomal rfa3 gene. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we used Western blot analysis to determine levels of the Rfa3 protein under different conditions. This system provides another powerful molecular tool for studies of native protein expression and for simple protein purification in H. salinarum. PMID:24491836

Gygli, Patrick E; DeVeaux, Linda C

2014-04-01

169

Influence of light availability on leaf structure and growth of two Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus provenances.  

PubMed

Light availability strongly affects leaf structure of the distinctive ontogenetic leaf forms of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus. Late-maturing plants from St. Marys, Tasmania and early maturing plants from Wilsons Promontory, Victoria (hereafter referred to as Wilsons Prom.) were grown for 9 months in 100, 50 or 10% sunlight. Growth, biomass and leaf area were significantly reduced when plants were grown in 10% sunlight. Provenance differences were minimal despite retention of the juvenile leaf form by the Tasmanian plants throughout the study. The time taken for initiation of vegetative phase change by the Wilsons Prom. saplings increased with decreasing light availability, but the nodal position of change on the main stem remained the same. Both juvenile and adult leaves remained horizontal in low light conditions, but became vertical with high irradiance. Leaf dimensions changed with ontogenetic development, but were unaffected by light availability. Juvenile leaves retained a dorsiventral anatomy and adult Wilsons Prom. leaves retained an isobilateral structure despite a tenfold difference in light availability. Stomatal density and distribution showed ontogenetic and treatment differences. At all irradiances, juvenile leaves produced the smallest stomata and adult leaves the largest stomata. Amphistomy decreased with decreasing irradiance. Detrended, correspondence analysis ordination highlighted the structural changes influenced by ontogenetic development and light availability. Adult leaves had characteristics similar to the xeromorphic, sun-leaf type found in arid, high-light conditions. Although juvenile leaves had characteristics typical of mesomorphic leaves, several structural features suggest that these leaves are more sun-adapted than adult leaves. PMID:11305455

James, S A; Bell, D T

2000-09-01

170

Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats  

PubMed Central

Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum) were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8??L per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24?h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration. PMID:22619588

Farkas, Agnes; Molnar, Reka; Morschhauser, Tamas; Hahn, Istvan

2012-01-01

171

Genetic and phenotypic parameters for dietary selection of mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana.  

PubMed

The heritability of diet selection for mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana [Rydb] Beetle) by grazing sheep was estimated from fecal samples collected from 549 Rambouillet ewes. Fecal samples were collected in September and October during 1996 and 1997 from free-grazing ewes on intermountain sagebrush-bunchgrass rangelands at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station in Idaho. The total number of fecal samples was 1,949. Fecal samples were evaluated for composition of big sagebrush by near-infrared spectroscopy. Percentage of sagebrush in the diet was less in September than in October (21.6 vs 31.7%, respectively). Single-trait and bivariate derivative-free REML analyses were performed to genetically compare percentage of sagebrush in the diet in September and October. Heritability estimates were similar between September and October measurements (0.25 and 0.28, respectively). The genetic correlation between September and October percentages of sagebrush in the diet was high (0.91), implying that there is strong genetic similarity between September and October measurements and that an annual measurement may be sufficient for selection. These results contribute to a greater understanding of dietary preferences in freely grazing sheep, and suggest opportunities to improve production efficiency and forage management through selection for dietary preferences. PMID:11219459

Snowder, G D; Walker, J W; Launchbaugh, K L; Van Vleck, L D

2001-02-01

172

Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 Protects against Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Permeability in Rats  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects such as erosion and increased permeability are common during the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Our objective was to assess whether Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 protects against NSAID-induced GI side effects in a rat model. A total of 120 male Wistar rats were allocated into groups designated as control, NSAID, and probiotic. The NSAID and probiotic groups were challenged with indomethacin (10?mg/kg?1; single dose). The probiotic group was also supplemented daily with 1010?CFU of B. lactis 420 for seven days prior to the indomethacin administration. The control group rats received no indomethacin or probiotic. The permeability of the rat intestine was analysed using carbohydrate probes and the visual damage of the rat stomach mucosa was graded according to severity. B. lactis 420 significantly reduced the indomethacin-induced increase in stomach permeability. However, the protective effect on the visual mucosal damage was not significant. The incidence of severe NSAID-induced lesions was, nevertheless, reduced from 50% to 33% with the probiotic treatment. To conclude, the B. lactis 420 supplementation protected the rats from an NSAID-induced increase in stomach permeability and may reduce the formation of more serious GI mucosal damage and/or enhance the recovery rate of the stomach mucosa. PMID:22848210

Lyra, Anna; Saarinen, Markku; Putaala, Heli; Olli, Kaisa; Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Madetoja, Mari; Tiihonen, Kirsti

2012-01-01

173

Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae  

PubMed Central

In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely “Baad-Avard”, collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides. PMID:24250419

Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

2011-01-01

174

Second generation bioethanol production from Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.  

PubMed

Saccharum (Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.), is a rapidly growing, wide ranging high-yield perennial, suitable for second generation bioethanol production. This study evaluated oxalic acid as a pretreatment for bioconversion. Overall sugar yields, sugar degradation products, enzymatic glucan hydrolysis and ethanol production were studied as effects of temperature (150-190 degrees C), reaction time (10-40 min) and oxalic acid concentration 2-8% (w/w). Time and temperature were combined into a single parameter, Severity Factor (SF) [Log(R(0))], and related to oxalic acid using a response surface methodology. Maximum total sugar yield was attained at a SF of 2.93 and 6.79% (w/w) oxalic acid, while maximum formation of sugar degradation products was observed at the highest SF (4.05) and 5% (w/w) oxalic acid. These were also the conditions for maximum simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the residual solids. Commercial cellulases and Saccharomyces cerevisiae attained 89.9% glucan conversion and 17.8 g/l ethanol. Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 fermented hemicellulosic hydrolysates from less severe conditions to ethanol with a yield of 0.35 (g(e)/g(s)). Maximal product yields were 69% of theoretical value and 90% of the SSF conversion efficiency for hydrolysate fermentation and SSF, respectively. PMID:20194020

Scordia, Danilo; Cosentino, Salvatore L; Jeffries, Thomas W

2010-07-01

175

Early Ovule Development Following Self? and Cross?pollinations in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus  

PubMed Central

The study was conducted to identify the self?incompatibility mechanism in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus. Controlled self? and cross?pollinations were conducted on individual flowers from three mature trees that had self?incompatibility levels of 76, 99·6 and 100 %. Flowers were harvested at 4, 6 and 8 weeks after pollination. Embryology was investigated by bright field microscopy on material harvested at 4 and 6 weeks after pollination. Fertilization had taken place at 4 weeks after pollination with zygotes and free nuclear endosperm visible. There was a greater proportion of healthy, fertilized ovules in the cross? compared with the self?pollination treatment, and approx. half the ovules examined from both pollen treatments were not fertilized or were degenerating. By 6 weeks after pollination a few zygotes were starting to divide. The number of healthy, fertilized ovules was still greater in the cross?pollination treatment, but the number of healthy fertilized ovules was lower in both treatments compared with 4 weeks after pollination, and many ovules were degenerating. Fertilized ovules were significantly larger than non?fertilized or degenerating ovules and this difference was detectable by eye at 6 and 8 weeks after pollination. The mechanism of self?incompatibility appears to have both late pre? and post?zygotic components. PMID:12099536

POUND, L. M.; WALLWORK, M. A. B.; POTTS, B. M.; SEDGLEY, M.

2002-01-01

176

Antioxidant activity of Nepeta nuda L. ssp. nuda essential oil rich in nepetalactones from Greece.  

PubMed

Essential oils from air-dried leaves and verticillasters of Nepeta nuda ssp. nuda from Greece were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The dominant constituent in the verticillaster oils was 4a?,7?,7aß-nepetalactone (75.7%). The main metabolites of the leaf oil were 1,8-cineole (16.7%), 4a?,7?,7aß-nepetalactone (24.7%), and caryophyllene oxide (16.3%). The oils were examined for their antioxidant activity. Neutralization of stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical ranged from 10.83% (2.50 ?g/mL) to 58.64% (50.00 ?g/mL) for verticillaster oil and from 6.25% (2.50 ?g/mL) to 57.79% (50.00 ?g/mL) for leaf oil. The essential oil from verticillasters had significant effects on lipid peroxidation (in the range of 41.18-59.23%), compared to tert-butylated hydroxytoluene (37.04%). In contrast, the essential oil from leaves exhibited pro-oxidant activity at the highest concentration applied. PMID:20626246

Gkinis, George; Bozin, Biljana; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Tzakou, Olga

2010-10-01

177

SSpG: A strongly orthogonal geminal method with relaxed strong orthogonality.  

PubMed

Strong orthogonality is an important constraint placed on geminal wavefunctions in order to make variational minimization tractable. However, strong orthogonality prevents certain, possibly important, excited configurations from contributing to the ground state description of chemical systems. The presented method lifts strong orthogonality constraint from geminal wavefunction by computing a perturbative-like correction to each geminal independently from the corrections to all other geminals. The method is applied to the Singlet-type Strongly orthogonal Geminals variant of the geminal wavefunction. Comparisons of this new SSpG method are made to the non-orthogonal AP1roG and the unconstrained Geminal Mean-Field Configuration Interaction method using small atomic and molecular systems. The correction is also compared to Density Matrix Renormalization Group calculations performed on long polyene chains in order to assess its scalability and applicability to large strongly correlated systems. The results of these comparisons demonstrate that although the perturbative correction is small, it may be a necessary first step in the systematic improvement of any strongly orthogonal geminal method. PMID:25362277

Cagg, Brett A; Rassolov, Vitaly A

2014-10-28

178

Identification of a surface protective antigen, CSP of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus.  

PubMed

Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (Streptococcus zooepidemicus, SEZ) is an important pathogen associated with opportunistic infections of a wide range of species, including horses, pigs and humans. The absence of suitable vaccine confounds the control of SEZ infection. Cell surface protein (CSP) has been identified as an immunogenic protein in the previous study but its protective efficacy is not clear. In the present study, the purified recombinant CSP could elicit a significant humoral antibody response and could confer significant protection against challenge with lethal dose of SEZ in mice model. CSP could adhere to the HEp-2 cells confirmed by flow cytometry and inhibit adherence of SEZ to HEp-2 cells in an adherence inhibition assay. In addition, real-time PCR demonstrated that CSP was induced in vivo following infection of mice with SEZ. Our findings suggest that CSP may play a potential role in the pathogenesis of SEZ and could be a target for the development of a novel subunit vaccine against SEZ infection. PMID:23306366

Fu, Qiang; Wei, Zigong; Chen, Yaosheng; Xiao, Pingping; Lu, Zhaohui; Liu, Xiaohong

2013-02-27

179

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an immunogenic Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus adhesion protein and protective antigen.  

PubMed

Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (Streptococcus zooepidemicus, SEZ) is an important pathogen associated with opportunistic infections of a wide range of species, including pigs and humans. The absence of a suitable vaccine makes it difficult to control SEZ infection. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has been previously identified as an immunogenic protein using immunoproteomic techniques. In the present study, we confirmed that the sequence of GAPDH was highly conserved with other Streptococcus spp. The purified recombinant GAPDH could elicit a significant humoral antibody response in mice and confer significant protection against challenge with a lethal dose of SEZ. GAPDH could adhere to the Hep-2 cells, confirmed by flow cytometry, and inhibit adherence of SEZ to Hep-2 cells in an adherence inhibition assay. In addition, real-time PCR demonstrated that GAPDH was induced in vivo following infection of mice with SEZ. These suggest that GAPDH could play an important role in the pathogenesis of SEZ infection and could be a target for vaccination against SEZ. PMID:23568215

Fu, Qiang; Wei, Zigong; Liu, Xiaohong; Xiao, Pingping; Lu, Zhaohui; Chen, Yaosheng

2013-04-01

180

Biofilm formation of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus and comparative proteomic analysis of biofilm and planktonic cells.  

PubMed

Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is responsible for a wide variety of infections in many species, including pigs, horses and humans. Biofilm formation is essential for pathogenesis, and the ability to resist antibiotic treatment results in difficult-to-treat and persistent infections. However, the ability of SEZ to form biofilms is unclear. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying SEZ biofilm formation and their attributes are poorly understood. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that SEZ strain ATCC35246 formed biofilms comprising a thick, heterogeneous layer with clumps on the coverslips when incubated for 24 h. In addition, we used a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) based approach to characterize differentially expressed protein in SEZ biofilms compared with their planktonic counterparts. The results revealed the existence of 24 protein spots of varying intensities, 13 of which were upregulated and 11 were downregulated in the SEZ biofilm compared with the planktonic controls. Most of proteins expressed during biofilm formation were associated with metabolism, adhesion, and stress conditions. These observations contribute to our understanding of the SEZ biofilm lifestyle, which may lead to more effective measures to control persistent SEZ infections. PMID:24696150

Yi, Li; Wang, Yang; Ma, Zhe; Zhang, Hui; Li, Yue; Zheng, Jun-xi; Yang, Yong-chun; Fan, Hong-jie; Lu, Cheng-ping

2014-09-01

181

Instability in mitochondrial membranes in Polima cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important factor to observe heterosis in Brassica rapa. Although several studies have documented the rearrangements of mitochondrial DNA and dysfunction in the mitochondria have been observed in most types of CMS, the basis of the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes and other effects on CMS remain unclear. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization was performed in the flowers of an alloplasmic Polima CMS system from B. rapa ssp. chinensis to identify genes that are differentially expressed between fertile and sterile plants. A total of 443 clones were isolated (156 were upregulated in fertile buds, and 287 were upregulated in sterile ones). Real-time RT-PCR further demonstrated the credibility of SSH. Among these genes, many membrane protein genes (LTP12, PIP2A, and GRP14) were inhibited in the sterile male line. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay was then performed. Results showed that the sterile MMP was unstable and failed to create a potential difference; thus, mitochondrial dysfunction occurred. Moreover, abnormal microtubules and photosynthetic pathways were found in sterile male cells. Unstable MMP, nutritional deficiency, and abnormal microtubules were the causes of Polima CMS in Brassica campestris. H2O2, MDA, and O(2-), accumulated as byproducts of energy metabolism disorder in sterile male cells. PMID:24652098

Li, Ying; Liu, Tongkun; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Shi, Gongjun; Zhang, Jingyi; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shuning; Hou, Xilin

2014-06-01

182

Improved metabolic control and hepatic oxidative biomarkers with the periconception use of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum.  

PubMed

Our aim was to investigate the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant effects of the Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum (HPsP) plant extract in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes rat model during pregnancy. Five groups (n = 8, each) were formed: (1) diabetic non-mated control, (2) non-diabetic mated control, (3) diabetic mated control, (4) diabetic non-mated treatment and (5) diabetic mated treatment. The HPsP extract was administered orally for 15 days (250 mg/kg body weight), beginning 3 days before mating. The extract led to decreased blood glucose, increased serum insulin, and decreased serum triglycerides in pregnant and non-pregnant diabetic animals. Liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) measurements in extract-treated diabetics were similar to non-diabetic pregnant controls, indicating probable reversal of increased lipid peroxidation in the liver. The mean pup number tended to increase (p = 0.06) with extract administration. In conclusion, the beneficial effects we encountered with the periconception use of the studied herbal extract warrant further investigation. PMID:20143969

Sezik, M; Aslan, M; Orhan, D D; Erdemoglu, E; Pekcan, M; Mungan, T; Sezik, E

2010-02-01

183

Establishment and characterization of a new cell line (SSP-9) derived from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar that expresses type I if n.  

PubMed

In the present work, the establishment and biological characterization of a new cell line, SSP-9, derived from the pronephros of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, are reported. These cells grew well in Leibovitz's (L15) medium supplemented with 10% foetal calf serum at temperatures from 15 to 25° C, and they have been sub-cultured over 100 passages to produce a continuous cell line with an epithelial-like morphology. The SSP-9 cells attached and spread efficiently at different plating densities, retaining 80% of cell viability after storage in liquid nitrogen. When karyotyped, the cells had 40-52 chromosomes, with a modal number of 48. Viral susceptibility tests showed that SSP-9 cells were susceptible to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus, producing infectious virus and regular cytopathic effects. Moreover, these cells could be stimulated by poly I:C, showing significant up-regulation in the expression of the genes that regulate immune responses, such as ifn and mx-1. SSP-9 cells constitutively express genes characteristic of macrophages, such as major histocompatibility complex (mhc-II) and interleukin 12b (il-12b), and flow cytometry assays confirmed that SSP-9 cells can be permanently transfected with plasmids expressing a reporter gene. Accordingly, this new cell line is apparently suitable for transgenic manipulation, and to study host cell-virus interactions and immune processes. PMID:25230295

Rodriguez Saint-Jean, S; González, C; Monrás, M; Romero, A; Ballesteros, N; Enríquez, R; Perez-Prieto, S

2014-11-01

184

Salmonella enterica ssp. arizonae infection in a 43-year-old Italian man with hypoglobulinemia: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Salmonella enterica ssp. arizonae is an uncommon human pathogen with serious infections reported in immunocompromised hosts. In Europe, only a few cases have been described. Patients with this infection usually have a history of contact with reptiles or travel abroad. We present a case report of infection in a patient with hypoglobulinemia and a literature review. Case presentation We describe the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian Italian man with hypoglobulinemia who presented to our hospital with sepsis and diarrhea. A stool culture yielded S. enterica ssp. arizonae. Our patient was treated with oral ciprofloxacin and made a full recovery. We also present a review of the cases of S. enterica ssp. arizonae infections previously reported in Europe. Conclusions The majority of infections from S. enterica ssp. arizonae occur in patients who are immunocompromised. Data from the literature suggests that it may be difficult to eradicate the bacteria and thus, prolonged antibiotic courses are often used. It would be advisable for clinicians to investigate for pre-existing immune dysfunction if S. enterica ssp. arizonae is isolated. In Italy, although there have only been a few cases, the likely route of transmission remains unclear and requires further surveillance. PMID:21781321

2011-01-01

185

Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale - A wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat  

PubMed Central

Background Chloroplast genome sequences are extremely informative about species-interrelationships owing to its non-meiotic and often uniparental inheritance over generations. The subject of our study, Fagopyrum esculentum, is a member of the family Polygonaceae belonging to the order Caryophyllales. An uncertainty remains regarding the affinity of Caryophyllales and the asterids that could be due to undersampling of the taxa. With that background, having access to the complete chloroplast genome sequence for Fagopyrum becomes quite pertinent. Results We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of a wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale. The sequence was rapidly determined using a previously described approach that utilized a PCR-based method and employed universal primers, designed on the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of chloroplast genomes. The gene content and order in buckwheat chloroplast genome is similar to Spinacia oleracea. However, some unique structural differences exist: the presence of an intron in the rpl2 gene, a frameshift mutation in the rpl23 gene and extension of the inverted repeat region to include the ycf1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of 61 protein-coding gene sequences from 44 complete plastid genomes provided strong support for the sister relationships of Caryophyllales (including Polygonaceae) to asterids. Further, our analysis also provided support for Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, but interestingly, in the bayesian phylogeny inference based on first two codon positions Amborella united with Nymphaeales. Conclusion Comparative genomics analyses revealed that the Fagopyrum chloroplast genome harbors the characteristic gene content and organization as has been described for several other chloroplast genomes. However, it has some unique structural features distinct from previously reported complete chloroplast genome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the dataset, including this new sequence from non-core Caryophyllales supports the sister relationship between Caryophyllales and asterids. PMID:18492277

Logacheva, Maria D; Samigullin, Tahir H; Dhingra, Amit; Penin, Aleksey A

2008-01-01

186

Seasonal variation in leaf glucosinolates and insect resistance in two types of Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata.  

PubMed

Leaves from natural populations of Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata (Brassicaceae) in Denmark were examined for glucosinolate content and resistance to the crucifer specialist flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum. Two types of the plant (P- and G-type) could be recognized. Leaves of the G-type contained the glucosinolates (only side chains mentioned): (S)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl- (2S), indol-3-ylmethyl- (4) and in trace amount (R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl- (2R), 2-phenylethyl- (1) and 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl- (5). Leaves of the P-type were dominated by 2R and 4, and had only trace amounts of 1, 2S, and 5 but contained in addition the previously unknown (R)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl- (3R). The epimer, (S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl- (3S) was found in populations believed to be hybrids, and in B. orthoceras. 2S, 2R, desulfo 2S,-2R, -3S and -3R were isolated and identified by NMR and MS. Acylated glucosinolates or allylglucosinolate were not detected in leaves. The glucosinolate content in August was variable, 3-46 micromol/g dry wt, but was low in most populations, 3-15 micromol/g dry wt. In general, the glucosinolate content increased during the autumn, to 35-75 micromol/g dry wt in November. The G-type was resistant to neonate larvae of Phyllotreta nemorum in August and September (survival in 3-day bioassay typically 0%), and gradually lost the resistance in October and November (survival in 3-day bioassay 40-90%), and there was no correlation between glucosinolate content and resistance. Neither did glucosinolates explain the difference in resistance between the P-type (always susceptible) and the G-type (resistant in the summer season). PMID:11524118

Agerbirk, N; Olsen, C E; Nielsen, J K

2001-09-01

187

The hydraulic architecture of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis: shrubs and trees compared.  

PubMed

Juniperus communis ssp. communis can grow like a shrub or it can develop a tree-like habit. In this study, the hydraulic architecture of these contrasting growth forms was compared. We analysed the hydraulic efficiency (leaf-specific conductivity, k(l); specific conductivity, k(s); Huber value, HV) and the vulnerability to cavitation (the water potential corresponding to a 50% loss of conductivity, Psi(50)), as well as anatomical parameters [mean tracheid diameter, d; mean hydraulic diameter, d(h); cell wall reinforcement (t/b)(h)(2)] of shrub shoots, tree stems and tree branches. Shrub shoots were similar to tree branches (especially to lower branches) in growth form and conductivity (k(l) = 1.93 +/- 0.11 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-7), k(s) = 5.71 +/- 0.19 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-4)), but were similar to tree stems in their vulnerability to cavitation (Psi(50) = -5.81 +/- 0.08 MPa). Tree stems showed extraordinarily high k(l) and k(s) values, and HV increased from the base up. Stem xylem was more vulnerable to cavitation than branch xylem, where Psi(50) increased from lower (Psi(50) = -6.44 +/- 0.19 MPa) to upper branches (Psi(50) = -5.98 +/- 0.13 MPa). Conduit diameters were correlated with k(l) and k(s). Data indicate that differences in hydraulic architecture correspond to changes in growth form. In some aspects, the xylem hydraulics of tree-like Juniperus communis differs from that of other coniferous tree species. PMID:18657057

Beikircher, Barbara; Mayr, Stefan

2008-11-01

188

In vitro biological activity screening of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Doll.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of selected biological activities, including anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts as well as the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Doll (LCC, Lycopodiaceae) growing in Turkey. Anticholinesterase effect of the extracts was tested against both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at concentrations of 0.2 and 1 mg mL(-1) using microplate-reader assay based on Ellman method. Antioxidant activity of the LCC extracts was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method at 0.2 mg mL(-1) using microplate-reader assay. Both DNA virus Herpes simplex (HSV) and RNA virus Parainfluenza (PI-3) were employed for antiviral assessment of LCC exracts using Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney and Vero cell lines. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were screened against the bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis as well as the fungi: Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. Only the petroleum ether extract of LCC possessed remarkable activity against both AChE and BChE at 1 mg mL(-1) (76.5 and 69.6%, respectively), whereas LCC extracts showed low free radical-scavenging activity. All of the extracts were found to be more effective against the ATCC strains than isolated ones, particularly S. aureus, while the extracts had moderate antifungal activity. On the other hand, we found that only the petroleum ether extract was active against HSV. In addition, we also analysed the content of the alkaloid fraction of the plant by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified lycopodine as the major alkaloid (60.8%). PMID:19384728

Orhan, Ilkay; Ozcelik, Berrin; Aslan, Sinem; Kartal, Murat; Karaoglu, Taner; Sener, Bilge; Terzioglu, Salih; Iqbal Choudhary, M

2009-01-01

189

Influence of mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on winter habitat for wildlife.  

PubMed

Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time. Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height (P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering (P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves (P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities. PMID:19159967

Davies, Kirk W; Bates, Jonathan D; Johnson, Dustin D; Nafus, Aleta M

2009-07-01

190

Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time . Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height ( P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering ( P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves ( P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

Davies, Kirk W.; Bates, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Dustin D.; Nafus, Aleta M.

2009-07-01

191

BrpSPL9 (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis SPL9) controls the earliness of heading time in Chinese cabbage.  

PubMed

The leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis), Brussels sprouts (B. oleracea ssp. gemmifera) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) comprise extremely incurved leaves that are edible vegetable products. The heading time is important for high quality and yield of these crops. Here, we report that BrpSPL9-2 (B. rapa ssp. pekinensis SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE 9-2), a target gene of microRNA brp-miR156, controls the heading time of Chinese cabbage. Quantitative measurements of leaf shapes, sizes, colour and curvature indicated that heading is a late adult phase of vegetative growth. During the vegetative period, miR156 levels gradually decreased from the seedling stage to the heading one, whereas BrpSPL9-2 and BrpSPL15-1 mRNAs increased progressively and reached the highest levels at the heading stage. Overexpression of a mutated miR156-resistant form of BrpSPL9-2 caused the significant earliness of heading, concurrent with shortening of the seedling and rosette stages. By contrast, overexpression of miR156 delayed the folding time, concomitant with prolongation of the seedling and rosette stages. Morphological analysis reveals that the significant earliness of heading in the transgenic plants overexpressing BrpSPL9-2 gene was produced because the juvenile phase was absent and the early adult phase shortened, whereas the significant delay of folding in the transgenic plants overexpressing Brp-MIR156a was due to prolongation of the juvenile and early adult phases. Thus, miR156 and BrpSPL9 genes are potentially important for genetic improvement of earliness of Chinese cabbage and other crops. PMID:24237584

Wang, Yali; Wu, Feijie; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

2014-04-01

192

Distribution of spore-positive and spore-negative nodules of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in Maine, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of spore-positive (sp+) and spore-negative (sp?) root nodules ofAlnus incana ssp.rugosa (DuRoi) Clausen (speckled alder) was examined at 29 sites with a wide range of environmental conditions in Maine, USA. These\\u000a included: pH 3.4 to 7.0, soil texture ranging from coarse gravel to clay to organic soils, elevation from 3 to 591 m and latitude\\u000a 43 to 47N.

Rosanne M. Holman; Christa R. Schwintzer

1987-01-01

193

A high-resolution karyotype of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis revealed by pachytene analysis and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular cytogenetic map of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, 2 n=20) was constructed based on the 4?-6-diamino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride-stained mitotic metaphase and pachytene chromosomes and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (McFISH), using three repetitive DNA sequences, 5S rDNA, 45S rDNA, and C11-350H. The lengths of mitotic metaphase chromosomes ranged from 1.46 ?m to 3.30 ?m. Five 45S and three 5S

Dal-Hoe Koo; Prikshit Plaha; Yong Pyo Lim; Yoonkang Hur; Jae-Wook Bang

2004-01-01

194

Effector MiSSP7 of the mutualistic fungus Laccaria bicolor stabilizes the Populus JAZ6 protein and represses jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Laccaria bicolor, support forest growth and sustainability by providing growth-limiting nutrients to their plant host through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with host roots. We have previously shown that the effector protein MiSSP7 (Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Protein 7) encoded by L. bicolor is necessary for the establishment of symbiosis with host trees, although the mechanistic reasoning behind this role was unknown. We demonstrate here that MiSSP7 interacts with the host protein PtJAZ6, a negative regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)-induced gene regulation in Populus. As with other characterized JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, PtJAZ6 interacts with PtCOI1 in the presence of the JA mimic coronatine, and PtJAZ6 is degraded in plant tissues after JA treatment. The association between MiSSP7 and PtJAZ6 is able to protect PtJAZ6 from this JA-induced degradation. Furthermore, MiSSP7 is able to block--or mitigate--the impact of JA on L. bicolor colonization of host roots. We show that the loss of MiSSP7 production by L. bicolor can be complemented by transgenically varying the transcription of PtJAZ6 or through inhibition of JA-induced gene regulation. We conclude that L. bicolor, in contrast to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biotrophic pathogens, promotes mutualism by blocking JA action through the interaction of MiSSP7 with PtJAZ6. PMID:24847068

Plett, Jonathan M; Daguerre, Yohann; Wittulsky, Sebastian; Vayssières, Alice; Deveau, Aurelie; Melton, Sarah J; Kohler, Annegret; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Brun, Annick; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Martin, Francis

2014-06-01

195

Effector MiSSP7 of the mutualistic fungus Laccaria bicolor stabilizes the Populus JAZ6 protein and represses jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes  

PubMed Central

Ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Laccaria bicolor, support forest growth and sustainability by providing growth-limiting nutrients to their plant host through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with host roots. We have previously shown that the effector protein MiSSP7 (Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Protein 7) encoded by L. bicolor is necessary for the establishment of symbiosis with host trees, although the mechanistic reasoning behind this role was unknown. We demonstrate here that MiSSP7 interacts with the host protein PtJAZ6, a negative regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)-induced gene regulation in Populus. As with other characterized JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, PtJAZ6 interacts with PtCOI1 in the presence of the JA mimic coronatine, and PtJAZ6 is degraded in plant tissues after JA treatment. The association between MiSSP7 and PtJAZ6 is able to protect PtJAZ6 from this JA-induced degradation. Furthermore, MiSSP7 is able to block—or mitigate—the impact of JA on L. bicolor colonization of host roots. We show that the loss of MiSSP7 production by L. bicolor can be complemented by transgenically varying the transcription of PtJAZ6 or through inhibition of JA-induced gene regulation. We conclude that L. bicolor, in contrast to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biotrophic pathogens, promotes mutualism by blocking JA action through the interaction of MiSSP7 with PtJAZ6. PMID:24847068

Plett, Jonathan M.; Daguerre, Yohann; Wittulsky, Sebastian; Vayssieres, Alice; Deveau, Aurelie; Melton, Sarah J.; Kohler, Annegret; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Brun, Annick; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Martin, Francis

2014-01-01

196

In vivo antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum capitulums in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Helichrysum species (Asteraceae) are widely found in Anatolia. Decoction prepared from the capitulums of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum is used to alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. In the present study, the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum was evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats. After the oral administration of water and ethanolic extracts at doses of 500mg/kg body weight prepared from the capitulums of plant, blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals. Tolbutamide was used as a reference drug at a dose of 100mg/kg. The experimental data indicated that water and ethanol extracts of capitulums demonstrate significant antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity in streptozotocin-induced rats which confirmed the folkloric utilization. In order to assess the role of polyphenolic components in the relevant activity, phenolic and flavonoid contents of each extract were also determined in terms of total phenols: 113.5+/-8.6mg (gallic acid equivalent/1g extract) and total flavanoids 50.5+/-1.9mg (quercetin equivalent/1g extract) for ethanol extract, total phenols: 75.9+/-3.7, flavonoids: 31.5+/-2.3 for water extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. PMID:16949229

Aslan, Mustafa; Deliorman Orhan, Didem; Orhan, Nilüfer; Sezik, Ekrem; Yesilada, Erdem

2007-01-01

197

Actinobacillus equuli ssp. haemolyticus in a semi-occlusively treated horse bite wound in a 2-year-old girl  

PubMed Central

We report on the isolation of Actinobacillus equuli ssp. haemolyticus from wound smears of a 2-year-old girl who was admitted to the hospital due to partial amputation of the distal phalanx of her right middle finger caused by a horse bite. A. equuli typically causes diseases in horses and only very few reports describing human infections (mostly associated with wounds) are available in the literature. Interestingly, although the bacteria could be found in consecutive samples taken at different points in time, there were no signs of advancing infection or inflammation. Moreover, the fingertip regenerated after 74 days under semi-occlusive dressings with very pleasant results. For strain identification two automated systems were employed producing discrepant results: VITEK 2 described the pathogens as Pasteurella pneumotropica while MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed A. equuli. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA gene finally confirmed A. equuli ssp. haemolyticus as the isolated strain. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to the CLSI criteria for Pasteurella spp. Additionally we conducted a test according to the EUCAST criteria. PMID:24068980

Schrottner, Percy; Schultz, Jurek; Rudolph, Wolfram; Gunzer, Florian; Thurmer, Alexander; Fitze, Guido; Jacobs, Enno

2013-01-01

198

Molecular identification of a new powdery mildew resistance gene on chromosome 2BS from Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum.  

PubMed

Powdery mildew caused by the fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a destructive foliar disease on wheat in many regions of the world. Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum (2n=4x=28) shows particular promises as a donor source of useful genetic variation for several traits, including disease resistances that could be introgressed to cultivated wheats. Accession MG5323, resistant to powdery mildew, was crossed to the susceptible durum cultivar Latino and a set of 122 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was produced. F? and F? progenies and the RIL population were tested with one isolate of Blumeria graminis and data obtained indicated that a single dominant gene, temporarily designated Ml5323, controlled resistance at the seedling stage. Molecular markers were used to characterize and map the powdery mildew resistance gene. Twelve microsatellite markers were linked to the resistance gene, and among them, EST-SSR CA695634 was tightly linked to the resistance gene, which was assigned to chromosome arm 2BS and physically mapped to the gene rich region of fragment length (FL) 0.84-1.00. An allelism test showed that the Ml5323 gene and the resistant gene Pm26 of ssp. dicoccoides localized in the same bin, are not allelic and tightly linked. PMID:23017904

Piarulli, Luciana; Gadaleta, Agata; Mangini, Giacomo; Signorile, Massimo Antonio; Pasquini, Marina; Blanco, Antonio; Simeone, Rosanna

2012-11-01

199

A comparison of isozyme and quantitative genetic variation in Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia by F{sub ST}  

SciTech Connect

We employed F-statistics to analyze quantitative and isozyme variation among five populations of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, a wind-pollinated outcrossing conifer with wide and continuous distribution in west North America. Estimates of population differentiation (F{sub ST}) for six quantitative traits were compared with the overall estimate of the differentiation (F*{sub ST}) from 19 isozymes that tested neutral to examine whether similar evolutionary processes were involved in morphological and isozyme differentiation. While the F{sub ST} estimates for specific gravity, stem diameter, stem height and branch length were significantly greater than the F*{sub ST} estimate, as judged from the 95% confidence intervals by bootstrapping, the F{sub ST} estimates for branch angle and branch diameter were indistinguishable from the F*{sub ST} estimate. Differentiation in stem height and stem diameter might reflect the inherent adaptation of the populations for rapid growth to escape suppression by neighboring plants during establishment and to regional differences in photoperiod, precipitation and temperature. In contrast, divergences in wood specific gravity and branch length might be correlated responses to population differentiation in stem growth. Possible bias in the estimation of F{sub ST} due to Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (F{sub IS} {ne} 0), linkage disequilibrium, maternal effects and nonadditive genetic effects was discussed with special reference to P. contorta ssp. latifolia. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, F.C. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Yanchuk, A.D. [British Columbia Ministry of Forests (Canada)

1996-03-01

200

Effect of organic matter additions on uptake of weathered DDT by Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo cv. Howden.  

PubMed

Greenhouse studies were conducted to assess the impact of organic matter additions on plant uptake of DDT [2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane] from weathered soil. Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo cv. Howden pumpkins were grown in 100 g of DDT contaminated soil ([DDT] - 1100 ng/g) mixed with equal volumes of either clean soil, perlite, vermiculite, peat, potting soil, or granular activated carbon (GAC) to give total organic carbon contents of 2.4%, 2.5%, 2.6%, 11.5%, 12.2%, and 27.3%, respectively. As in other studies, root DDT concentrations were significantly lower in soils with high organic matter. Root bioaccumulation factors (BAF = [DDT]root/[DDT]soil) approximated this trend. Root concentrations correlated with organic matter concentrations and not with soil DDT concentrations. Conversely, shoot DDT concentrations, shoot BAFs and translocation factors (TLF = BAF(shoot)/BAF(root)) were not significantly different between treatment groups, except for plants grown in GAC/DDT soil. This suggests that amendments with a range of organic matter contents may be added to improve soil conditions at industrial sites without significant adverse effects on phytoextraction potential of C. pepo ssp. pepo. PMID:20734916

Lunney, Alissa I; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

2010-01-01

201

Application of a Simple In-House PCR-SSP Technique for HLA-B* 27 Typing in Spondyloarthritis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. Microlymphocytotoxicity (MLCT) and flowcytometry (FC) are the conventional serological methods to detect HLA-B* 27. Due to some disadvantages in these methods, most of the HLA laboratories have now switched over to molecular methods. Molecular techniques based on commercial kits are expensive; as such many laboratories with limited funds in developing countries cannot afford these techniques. Aims. Our main aim was to standardize a simple inexpensive in-house PCR-SSP technique for HLA-B* 27 typing. Materials and Methods. Sequence Specific primers were designed to amplify all the subtypes of B* 27 using IMGT-HLA sequence database. Accuracy was checked by retyping of 90 PCR-SSOP typed controls. Results. The presence of 149?bp specific band with control band on 2% agarose gel showed B* 27 positivity. No discrepancies were found when compared with PCR-SSOP results. The frequency of HLA-B* 27 was found to be significantly increased (68.75% versus 4.40%, O.R 46.909: P value 6.62E ? 32) among 700 SpA patients as compared to controls. Clinically, 54% of patients had polyarticular arthritis with SI joints involvement (68%) and restricted spine flexion (60%). Conclusion. In-house PCR-SSP technique is very simple and inexpensive technique to detect B* 27 allele, which was strongly associated with SpA patients from Western India. PMID:24490069

Parasannanavar, Devraj J.; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

2013-01-01

202

[Analgesic activity of different nonvolatile extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta Tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire].  

PubMed

Different extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire contain mainly secondary metabolites with iridoïd lactonic and glucosidic type, also with triterpine lupan type.The aerial part of each species is crushed, then extracted in methanol by cold maceration, called global extracts. The global extracts will be extracted through various solvents: initially by hexane, then by dichloromethane, after that by ethyl acetate and at the end by buthanol. Each one of the obtained extracts will be used for the following trials: i) Tail flick trial on the rat for central morphine-like analgesic activity; ii) Koster trial on the mouse for peripheral analgesic activity. The evaluation of the central and peripheral analgesic activities for the pre-cited extracts was realized after optimal doses determination of the global extracts activities for both species.The peripheral analgesic activity test on the mouse showed that, for 60 mg/kg intra peritoneum (IP), the hexanic, dichloromethanic, ethyl acetate and butanic extracts have a protection power against abdominal cramp respectively around 89.78%, 81.73%, 70.9% et 69.05% for Nepeta atlantica Ball, and around 89.16%, 82.98%, 71.52% et 70.27% for Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata.Central morphine-like analgesic activity on the rat showed that, for both spices under 60 mg/kg IP, the central analgesic activity effect is significantly for two extracts only: dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. PMID:18937913

Bouidida, El Houcine; Alaoui, Katim; Cherrah, Yahia; Chammache, Malika; Il Idrissi, Abdelkader

2008-01-01

203

PLANT UPTAKE OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL FROM SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). lants included all fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum I.). Minimal intact...

204

Nucleolar transformation in plants grown on clinostats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cells of carrot calli (Daucus carota L.) grown on clinostats (simulated weightlessness) exhibit increases in nucleolar number and volume. In clinostat-grown whole barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Steptoe), nucleoli in ~70% of root meristem and root cortical cells in the 1 mm root apex exhibit multiple nodulations after one day of growth. The nucleolar nodules (1.1 µm mean

J. Shen-Miller; R. R. Hinchman

1995-01-01

205

Chemical composition of vegetables grown on an agricultural soil amended with sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals were analyzed in edible and nonconsumable parts of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. White Icicle), carrots (Daucus carota cv. Chantenay), cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. cv. Market Topper), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Tenderette), sweet corn (Zea mays L. rugosa cv. Silver Queen), and tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. West Virginia '63) grown on a sandy loam soil

R. F. Keefer; R. N. Singh; D. J. Horvath

2009-01-01

206

Effect of biologically active plants used as netst material and the derived benefit to starling nestlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European starling Sturnus vulgaris preferentially incorporates fresh sprigs of particular plant species for use as nesting material. Chemicals found in these plants may act to reduce pathogen and ectoparasite populations normally found in nest environments. The present experiments were performed to test this Nest Protection Hypothesis. In the fild, we experimentally determined that wild carrot Daucus carota, a plant

Larry Clark; J. Russell Mason

1988-01-01

207

Palatability of weeds from different European origins to the slugs Deroceras reticulatum Müller and Arion lusitanicus Mabille  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a study on the significance of seed provenances in schemes to enhance biodiversity in agricultural habitats, juvenile plants of Cichorium intybus, Daucus carota, Leucanthemum vulgare and Silene alba of different European origins were exposed to grazing by two slug species, Deroceras reticulatum and Arion lusitanicus. Living plants were offered in trays, either in a glasshouse (Deroceras) or

Michael Keller; Johannes Kollmann; Peter J. Edwards

1999-01-01

208

A prospective study of predictors of poststroke depression  

E-print Network

CME A prospective study of predictors of poststroke depression A. Carota, MD; A. Berney, MD; S. Aybek, MD; G. Iaria, PhD; F. Staub; F. Ghika-Schmid, MD; L. Annable, Dip Stat; P. Guex, MD; and J. Bogousslavsky, MD Abstract--Objective: To investigate the association between early depressive behavior after

Iaria, Giuseppe

209

Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

210

Functional characteristics of a tiny but specialized olfactory system: olfactory receptor neurons of carrot psyllids (Homoptera: Triozidae).  

PubMed

With only approximately 50 olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis (Homoptera: Psylloidea) may have the smallest olfactory system described in adult Neopteran insects. Using single sensillum recordings (SSR) and gas chromatograph-linked SSR, we characterized 4 olfactory sensilla forming a distinct morphological type, which together house approximately 25% of all ORNs. We recorded responses to extracts and single constituents from Daucus carota ssp. sativus, from the conifers Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, and Juniperus communis, as well as from male and female T. apicalis. Receptor neurons were highly selective; only 9 compounds in total elicited repeatable responses, and each neuron responded to at most 3 individual compounds. Chemical profiles of carrot and conifers showed significant overlap, with 4 out of 9 electrophysiologically active compounds occurring in more than one type of extract, but a carrot-specific compound elicited the most repeated responses. We identified 4 tentative neuron classes and found a rather high degree of neuronal redundancy, with 1 neuron class present in 3 and another present in all 4 of the sensilla, respectively. PMID:18653644

Kristoffersen, Lina; Larsson, Mattias C; Anderbrant, Olle

2008-11-01

211

Evaluation of the anti-ulcerogenic effect of sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis by using various in vivo and biochemical techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The guaianolide type sesquiterpene lactones chlorojanerin, 13-acetyl solstitialin A and solstitialin A were identified as the anti-ulcerogenic components of the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis (Asteraceae). In this study, these compounds were investigated by using various in vivo ulcer models in rats and mice. Chlorojanerin was shown to be significantly effective in preventing the

?lhan Gürbüz; Erdem Yesilada

2007-01-01

212

Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties.  

PubMed

Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:23579100

Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

2013-01-01

213

Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties  

PubMed Central

Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:23579100

Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

2013-01-01

214

Fumigant properties of physical preparations from mountain big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. v aseyana (Rydb.) beetle for stored grain insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapors released from foliage of mountain big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle, through a patented process, were hypothesized to have an insecticidal time of action (24h or less after time of exposure) similar to the fumigant methyl bromide. Patented preparations were more effective from plants harvested from a relatively wet site in mid to late summer (5

Florence V. Dunkel; L. Joseph Sears

1998-01-01

215

Symbiont nitrogenase, alder growth, and soil nitrate response to phosphorus addition in alder ( Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) wetlands of the Adirondack Mountains, New York State, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speckled alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) is a characteristic species of scrub-shrub 1-type wetlands, the second most common wetland type in major watersheds of the Adirondack Mountains in New York State. Speckled alder is an actinorhizal nitrogen fixer that relies heavily on N2 over soil N and fixes substantial amounts of nitrogen in wetlands, resulting in little vegetation processing of

Kemal Gökkaya; Todd M. Hurd; Dudley J. Raynal

2006-01-01

216

Sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in wild Chinese sea buckthorn ( Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) with special reference to influence of latitude and altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild berries of Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. sinensis were collected from nine natural growth sites in China in three consecutive years in order to get an overall profile of the sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid, and especially of the influence of the latitude and altitude of the growth place on these components. The contents of fructose, glucose, and

Jie Zheng; Heikki Kallio; Kaisa Linderborg; Baoru Yang

2011-01-01

217

Effects of gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine, secoiridoids from gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra), on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Wound healing properties of Gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra) extract and its main constituents, gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine (compounds 1-3, respectively) were evaluated by comparison with dexpanthenol on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts. The extract was also analyzed by HPLC to quantify its constituents. Chicken embryonic fibroblasts from fertilized eggs were incubated with the plant extract and its constituents, compounds 1-3. Using microscopy, mitotic ability, morphological changes and collagen production in the cultured fibroblasts were evaluated as parameters. Wound healing activity of Gentian seems to be mainly due to the increase in the stimulation of collagen production and the mitotic activity by compounds 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.005 in all cases). All three compounds also exhibited cytoprotective effects, which may cause a synergism in terms of wound healing activity of Gentian. The findings demonstrated the wound healing activity of Gentian, which has previously been based only on ethnomedical data. PMID:16557467

Oztürk, Nilgün; Korkmaz, Seval; Oztürk, Yusuf; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can

2006-03-01

218

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica).  

PubMed

The chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil isolated from the needles of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica) from Croatia were investigated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC and GC/MS analyses, and the main compounds identified were ?-pinene, ?-pinene, germacrene D, and ?-caryophyllene. Disc-diffusion and broth-microdilution assays were used for the in vitro antimicrobial screening. The Dalmatian black pine essential oil exhibited a great potential of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC=0.03-0.50% (v/v)) and a less pronounced activity against Gram-negative bacteria (MIC=0.12-3.2% (v/v)). The volatile compounds also inhibited the growth of all fungi tested, including yeast. PMID:21404437

Politeo, Olivera; Skocibusic, Mirjana; Maravic, Ana; Ruscic, Mirko; Milos, Mladen

2011-03-01

219

Emergence of gynodioecy in wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima L.): a genealogical approach using chloroplastic nucleotide sequences  

PubMed Central

Gynodioecy is a breeding system where both hermaphroditic and female individuals coexist within plant populations. This dimorphism is the result of a genomic interaction between maternally inherited cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and bi-parentally inherited nuclear male fertility restorers. As opposed to other gynodioecious species, where every cytoplasm seems to be associated with male sterility, wild beet Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima exhibits a minority of sterilizing cytoplasms among numerous non-sterilizing ones. Many studies on population genetics have explored the molecular diversity of different CMS cytoplasms, but questions remain concerning their evolutionary dynamics. In this paper we report one of the first investigations on phylogenetic relationships between CMS and non-CMS lineages. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships between 35 individuals exhibiting different mitochondrial haplotypes. Relying on the high linkage disequilibrium between chloroplastic and mitochondrial genomes, we chose to analyse the nucleotide sequence diversity of three chloroplastic fragments (trnK intron, trnD–trnT and trnL–trnF intergenic spacers). Nucleotide diversity appeared to be low, suggesting a recent bottleneck during the evolutionary history of B. vulgaris ssp. maritima. Statistical parsimony analyses revealed a star-like genealogy and showed that sterilizing haplotypes all belong to different lineages derived from an ancestral non-sterilizing cytoplasm. These results suggest a rapid evolution of male sterility in this taxon. The emergence of gynodioecy in wild beet is confronted with theoretical expectations, describing either gynodioecy dynamics as the maintenance of CMS factors through balancing selection or as a constant turnover of new CMSs. PMID:16777728

Fenart, Stephane; Touzet, Pascal; Arnaud, Jean-Francois; Cuguen, Joel

2006-01-01

220

A new mountain lizard from Montes de León (NW Iberian Peninsula): Iberolacerta monticola astur ssp. nov. (Squamata: Lacertidae).  

PubMed

Iberolacerta populations from the Northern Montes de Leon (NML) were studied by means of external morphology (scalation and biometry), osteology and genetics (mtDNA and microsatellites), searching for their homogeneity ("intrazonalanalysis") and, once verified, comparing them with Iberolacerta monticola s. str. (from Central Cantabrian Mountains)and/. gal ani (from Southern Montes de Leon) ("extrazonal analysis") from neighboring areas.Our "intrazonal analysis" revealed discordances between the different approaches, especially the patterns of variation of nuclear microsatellites (congruent with external morphology) and mtDNA, namely a very low nuclear differentiation between relatively highly differentiated mtDNA lineages. The morphological approach was unable to discriminate any of the populations as significantly different from the others in the NML. Mitochondrial DNA revealed a haplotype lineage closely related to I. galani (MNL-II in our text) in some specimens of Sierra de Villabandfn and Suspiron, but these populations are morphologically indistinguishable from the main part of the other populations that belong to lineage NML-1,phylogenetically closer to/. monticola. After a separation from I. manti cola ca. 1.8 Mya, the populations in this geographic region must have suffered at least two different waves of gene flow from I. gal ani, the second one not much later than 0.5 Mya. Microsatellite results indicate that all the NML populations are genetically similar in terms of their nuclear genomes,independently of their mitochondrial differentiation (NML-I vs. NML-II haplotype groups). Since all the morphological and microsatellite evidences point towards the fact that, independently of the mitochondrial haplotypes that they bear (NML-1 or NML-II), there is only one taxon in the area, we describe it as: Iberolacerta monticola astur ssp. nov.Concerning the relationships of I. m. astur ssp. nov. with I. monticola s. str. and I. gal ani ("extra zonal analysis"), in the female analyses the new taxon centroid is closer to I. monticola s. str. than to I. gal ani (more similarity with I manticolas.str.), whereas in the male analyses the relationship is just the contrary (closer to I. gal ani, paralleling the direction of the hypothesized past hybridization). Moreover, in both sexes' ANOVA, I. m. astur ssp. nov. results more similar (lessP<0.05 differences) to I. galani than to I. monticola s. str. Osteologically, I. m. astur ssp. nov. is slightly more similar toI. monticola s. str. than to I. galani, especially in the squamosal bone, which is regularly arched (primitive shape). Genetically,as indicated above, the NML populations can be subdivided in two groups according to their mitochondrial DNA,namely NML-I (bearing clearly differentiated haplotypes, phylogenetically closer to I. monticola) and NML-II (whose haplotypes could have been mistaken for those of an I. gal ani population). This mitochondrial subdivision has at most a subtle nuclear correlate, however. According to the nuclear microsatellite markers, all the NML populations belong to a single group(/. m. astur ssp. nov.), which would be more similar to I. gal ani than to I monticola, with NML-II populations lying closer to I. galani than those from the NML-I group and, correspondingly, more distant from I. monticola. The discordant phylogenetic signal of mitochondrial and nuclear markers is discussed in terms of past introgression events and sex-biases in phylopatry and dispersion in these species. Iberolacerta manti cola astur ssp. nov., inhabits the Northern Montes de Leon (Sierra de Gistreo sensu latissimo ): Gistredo,Catoute, Tambaron, Nevadfn, Villabandfn (or Macizo del Alto de Ia Canada), Arcos del Agua (or Fernan Perez),Tiendas and Suspiron, mainly in quartzite and slate rock substrates. Its current distribution, cornered in the NW of theNorthern part of the Montes de Leon, suggests a possible competitive exclusion between this taxon and/. galani, as the galani haplotypes (NML-II) appear cornered in the most harsh

Arribas, Oscar J; Galán, Pedro; Remón, Núria; Naveira, Horacio

2014-01-01

221

The impact of elevated CO 2 on growth and photosynthesis in Agrostis canina L. ssp. monteluccii adapted to contrasting atmospheric CO 2 concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to characterise growth and photosynthetic capacity in plants adapted to long-term contrasting atmospheric\\u000a CO2 concentrations (C\\u000a a). Seeds of Agrostis canina L. ssp. monteluccii were collected from a natural CO2 transect in central-western Italy and plants grown in controlled environment chambers at both ambient and elevated CO2 (350 and 700 ?mol mol?1) in nutrient-rich

J. D. Barnes; I. Bettarini; A. Polle; N. Slee; C. Raines; F. Miglietta; A. Raschi; M. Fordham

1997-01-01

222

Comparison of chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of Mentha longifolia L. ssp. longifolia essential oil from two Tunisian localities (Gabes and Sidi Bouzid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conceived to evaluate the difference in the chemical composition of the essential oil ofMentha longifolia ssp.longifolia from two ecotypes (Sidi Bouzid and Gabes) as well as the difference of the composition of the oils extracted from the leaves\\u000a and stems. The antimicrobial activity was also tested against 16 human pathogenic microorganisms. The chemical composition\\u000a of the hydrodistilled

Hafedh Hajlaoui; Mejdi Snoussi; Hichem Ben Jannet; Zine Mighri; Amina Bakhrouf

2008-01-01

223

Isolation of anti-ulcerogenic sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fresh spiny flowers of Centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis (CSS) are used for the treatment of peptic ulcers in Turkey. Ethanol (80%) extract of CSS exhibited significant anti-ulcerogenic effect on the ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis model in rats. The ethanol extract was further fractionated by successive solvent extractions with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All fractions showed significant anti-ulcerogenic activity, however,

Erdem Yesilada; Ilhan Gürbüz; Erdal Bedir; Irem Tatli; Ikhlas A. Khan

2004-01-01

224

Genetic and phenotypic parameters for dietary selection of mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb) Beetle) in Rambouillet sheep1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heritability of diet selection for mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb) Beetle) by grazing sheep was esti- mated from fecal samples collected from 549 Rambouil- let ewes. Fecal samples were collected in September and October during 1996 and 1997 from free-grazing ewes on intermountain sagebrush-bunchgrass range- lands at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station in Idaho. The

G. D. Snowder; J. W. Walker; K. L. Launchbaugh; L. D. Van Vleck

225

Generalized model of the effect of pH on lactate fermentation and citrate bioconversion in Lactococcus lactis ssp. Lactis biovar. diacetylactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aroma-imparting mesophilic lactic starter (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis) was studied in batch culture in medium with 50 g·l-1 lactose and 2 g·l-1 citrate. The effect of pH on the physiology of growth and the production of flavour compounds was investigated with a mathematical model. The specific rates of growth and of lactose fermentation obeyed a law of

R. Cachon; C. Diviés

1994-01-01

226

Generalized model of the effect of pH on lactate fermentation and citrate bioconversion in Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aroma-imparting mesophilic lactic starter ( Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis) was studied in batch culture in medium with 50?g·l –-1 lactose and 2?g·l –-1 citrate. The effect of pH on the physiology of growth and the production of flavour compounds was investigated with a mathematical model. The specific rates of growth and of lactose fermentation obeyed a law

R. Cachon; C. Diviès

1994-01-01

227

Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis at Balnaguard, Scotland: Foliar carbon discrimination (?C) and 15-N natural abundance (?N) suggest gender-linked differences in water and N use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecophysiology of stands of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis at Balnaguard was examined by the relatively non-invasive methods of analysis of foliar · C and ·N and the N and chlorophyll contents of foliar samples of genets of known sex and location in three sub-sites. The ratio of male to female plants was close to 1.0 on the two

Paul W. Hill; L. L. Handley; J. A. Raven

1996-01-01

228

Mapping and cloning of FAD2 gene to develop allele-specific PCR for oleic acid in spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously identified QTL for oleic acid content observed in an F2 population from the Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera cross Jo4002 × Jo4072 (a high-oleic-acid individual) was mapped more precisely by adding markers to the linkage group which harbours the locus. In addition, the fad2 gene, which is known to encode the 18:1 desaturase in Arabidopsis, was mapped in Brassica,

Pirjo Tanhuanpää; Juha Vilkki; Mauno Vihinen

1998-01-01

229

Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)  

PubMed Central

Background Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide, which has experienced thousands of years in cultivation and artificial selection. The entire Chinese cabbage genome sequence, and more than forty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. The genome has undergone triplication events since its divergence from Arabidopsis thaliana (13 to 17 Mya), however a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between the two species. Arabidopsis is therefore a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Variation in the number of members in gene families due to genome triplication may contribute to the broad range of phenotypic plasticity, and increased tolerance to environmental extremes observed in Brassica species. Transcription factors are important regulators involved in plant developmental and physiological processes. The AP2/ERF proteins, one of the most important families of transcriptional regulators, play a crucial role in plant growth, and in response to biotic and abiotic stressors. Our analysis will provide resources for understanding the tolerance mechanisms in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis. Results In the present study, 291 putative AP2/ERF transcription factor proteins were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database, and compared with proteins from 15 additional species. The Chinese cabbage AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into four families, including AP2, ERF, RAV, and Soloist. The ERF family was further divided into DREB and ERF subfamilies. The AP2/ERF superfamily was subsequently divided into 15 groups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns, and interaction networks of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily were predicted and analyzed. Distribution mapping results showed AP2/ERF superfamily genes were localized on the 10 Chinese cabbage chromosomes. AP2/ERF transcription factor expression levels exhibited differences among six tissue types based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs). In the AP2/ERF superfamily, 214 orthologous genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. Orthologous gene interaction networks were constructed, and included seven CBF and four AP2 genes, primarily involved in cold regulatory pathways and ovule development, respectively. Conclusions The evolution of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage resulted from genome triplication and tandem duplications. A comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of AP2/ERF superfamily genes in Chinese cabbage is required to fully elucidate AP2/ERF, which provides us with rich resources and opportunities to understand crop stress tolerance mechanisms. PMID:23972083

2013-01-01

230

Selective enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and propionibacteria.  

PubMed

Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propionibacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS-NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (nalidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and paramomycine sulfate) agar, reinforced clostridial agar, sugar-based (such as maltose, galactose, sorbitol, manitol, esculin) media, sodium lactate agar, arabinose agar, raffinose agar, xylose agar, and L. casei agar. Incubations were carried out under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 27, 30, 37, 43, and 45 degrees C for 24, 72 h, and 7 to 9 d. S. thermophilus agar and aerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 h were suitable for S. thermophilus. L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus could be enumerated using MRS agar (pH 4.58 or pH 5.20) and under anaerobic incubation at 45 degrees C for 72 h. MRS-vancomycine agar and anaerobic incubation at 43 degrees C for 72 h were suitable to enumerate L. rhamnosus. MRS-vancomycine agar and anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 h were selective for L. casei. To estimate the counts of L. casei by subtraction method, counts of L. rhamnosus on MRS-vancomycine agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h under anaerobic incubation could be subtracted from total counts of L. casei and L. rhamnosus enumerated on MRS-vancomycine agar at 37 degrees C for 72 h under anaerobic incubation. L. acidophilus could be enumerated using MRS-agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h or Basal agar-maltose agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h or BA-sorbitol agar at 37 degrees C for 72 h, under anaerobic incubation. Bifidobacteria could be enumerated on MRS-NNLP agar under anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 h. Propionibacteria could be enumerated on sodium lactate agar under anaerobic incubation at 30 degrees C for 7 to 9 d. A subtraction method was most suitable for counting propionibacteria in the presence of other lactic acid bacteria from a product. For this method, counts of lactic bacteria at d 3 on sodium lactate agar under anaerobic incubation at 30 degrees C were subtracted from counts at d 7 of lactic bacteria and propionibacteria. PMID:12906045

Tharmaraj, N; Shah, N P

2003-07-01

231

Structure of an SspH1-PKN1 Complex Reveals the Basis for Host Substrate Recognition and Mechanism of Activation for a Bacterial E3 Ubiquitin Ligase  

PubMed Central

IpaH proteins are bacterium-specific E3 enzymes that function as type three secretion system (T3SS) effectors in Salmonella, Shigella, and other Gram-negative bacteria. IpaH enzymes recruit host substrates for ubiquitination via a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, which can inhibit the catalytic domain in the absence of substrate. The basis for substrate recognition and the alleviation of autoinhibition upon substrate binding is unknown. Here, we report the X-ray structure of Salmonella SspH1 in complex with human PKN1. The LRR domain of SspH1 interacts specifically with the HR1b coiled-coil subdomain of PKN1 in a manner that sterically displaces the catalytic domain from the LRR domain, thereby activating catalytic function. SspH1 catalyzes the ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of PKN1 in cells, which attenuates androgen receptor responsiveness but not NF-?B activity. These regulatory features are conserved in other IpaH-substrate interactions. Our results explain the mechanism whereby substrate recognition and enzyme autoregulation are coupled in this class of bacterial ubiquitin ligases. PMID:24248594

Keszei, Alexander F. A.; Tang, Xiaojing; McCormick, Craig; Zeqiraj, Elton; Rohde, John R.

2014-01-01

232

Cell-to-cell communication in the populations of enterobacterium Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica SCRI1043 during adaptation to stress conditions.  

PubMed

Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica SCRI1043 is a plant pathogenic bacterium. Many species of enterobacteria including Erwinia sp. can induce the onset or the progression of opportunistic or persistent infections in humans. The existence of these bacteria within different ecological niches is related to their significant adaptive potential. The triggering of adaptive reactions, which are needed for bacterial persistence, is controlled in many cases by intercellular communication; hence, the ability to survive under unfavourable conditions is regulated in a cell-density-dependent manner. In this study, we showed that, during starvation of E. carotovora ssp. atroseptica SCRI1043, the initial stage of the response to stress was stabilization of the density of culturable cells in the range 10(6)-10(7) CFU mL(-1). The number of culturable cells increased (up to approximately 10(6) CFU mL(-1)) when cultures were inoculated at a low cell density (10(3)-10(5) CFU mL(-1)), and at the same time, acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum sensing was activated. Our results showed that the regulation of cell density in starving populations of E. carotovora ssp. atroseptica SCRI1043 occurred and this regulation was carried out with the involvement of the cell-to-cell communication. PMID:20528924

Gorshkov, Vladimir; Petrova, Olga; Gogoleva, Natalya; Gogolev, Yuri

2010-08-01

233

The CKK domain (DUF1781) binds microtubules and defines the CAMSAP/ssp4 family of animal proteins.  

PubMed

We describe a structural domain common to proteins related to human calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated protein1 (CAMSAP1). Analysis of the sequence of CAMSAP1 identified a domain near the C-terminus common to CAMSAP1 and two other mammalian proteins KIAA1078 and KIAA1543, which we term a CKK domain. This domain was also present in invertebrate CAMSAP1 homologues and was found in all available eumetazoan genomes (including cnidaria), but not in the placozoan Trichoplax adherens, nor in any nonmetazoan organism. Analysis of codon alignments by the sitewise likelihood ratio method gave evidence for strong purifying selection on all codons of mammalian CKK domains, potentially indicating conserved function. Interestingly, the Drosophila homologue of the CAMSAP family is encoded by the ssp4 gene, which is required for normal formation of mitotic spindles. To investigate function of the CKK domain, human CAMSAP1-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and fragments including the CKK domain were expressed in HeLa cells. Both whole CAMSAP1 and the CKK domain showed localization coincident with microtubules. In vitro, both whole CAMSAP1-glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and CKK-GST bound to microtubules. Immunofluorescence using anti-CAMSAP1 antibodies on cerebellar granule neurons revealed a microtubule pattern. Overexpression of the CKK domain in PC12 cells blocked production of neurites, a process that requires microtubule function. We conclude that the CKK domain binds microtubules and represents a domain that evolved with the metazoa. PMID:19508979

Baines, Anthony J; Bignone, Paola A; King, Mikayala D A; Maggs, Alison M; Bennett, Pauline M; Pinder, Jennifer C; Phillips, Gareth W

2009-09-01

234

Phenotype definition is a main point in genome-wide association studies for bovine Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection status.  

PubMed

Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes economic losses and is present in dairy herds worldwide. Different studies used different diagnostic tests to detect infection status and are the basis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies with inconsistent results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and compare genomic regions associated with MAP susceptibility in the same cohort of cattle using different diagnostic tests. The GWA study was performed in German Holsteins within a case-control assay using 305 cows tested for MAP by fecal culture and additional with four different commercial ELISA-tests. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip. The results using fecal culture or ELISA test led to the identification of different genetic loci. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed significant association with the ELISA-status. However, no significant association for MAP infection could be confirmed. Our results show that the definition of the MAP-phenotype has an important impact on the outcome of GWA studies for paratuberculosis. PMID:25231280

Küpper, J; Brandt, H; Donat, K; Erhardt, G

2014-10-01

235

Lipidation of the FPI protein IglE contributes to Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida intramacrophage replication and virulence.  

PubMed

Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for the human disease tularemia. The Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) encodes a secretion system related to type VI secretion systems (T6SS) which allows F. tularensis to escape the phagosome and replicate within the cytosol of infected macrophages and ultimately cause disease. A lipoprotein is typically found encoded within T6SS gene clusters and is believed to anchor portions of the secretion apparatus to the outer membrane. We show that the FPI protein IglE is a lipoprotein that incorporates (3) H-palmitate and localizes to the outer membrane. A C22G IglE mutant failed to be lipidated and failed to localize to the outer membrane, consistent with C22 being the site of lipidation. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida expressing IglE C22G is defective for replication in macrophages and unable to cause disease in mice. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that IglE interacts with the C-terminal portion of the FPI inner membrane protein PdpB, and PhoA fusion analysis indicated the PdpB C-terminus is located within the periplasm. We predict this interaction facilitates channel formation to allow secretion through this system. PMID:24616435

Nguyen, Jesse Q; Gilley, Ryan P; Zogaj, Xhavit; Rodriguez, Stephen A; Klose, Karl E

2014-10-01

236

Arzanol, an anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV-1 phloroglucinol alpha-Pyrone from Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum.  

PubMed

An acetone extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum afforded the phloroglucinol alpha-pyrone arzanol (1a) as a potent NF-kappaB inhibitor. Arzanol is identical with homoarenol (2a), whose structure should be revised. The phloroglucinol-type structure of arzanol and the 1,2,4-trihydroxyphenyl-type structure of the base-induced fragmentation product of homoarenol could be reconciled in light of a retro-Fries-type fragmentation that triggers a change of the hydroxylation pattern of the aromatic moiety. On the basis of these findings, the structure of arenol, the major constituent of the clinically useful antibiotic arenarin, should be revised from 2b to 1b, solving a long-standing puzzle over its biogenetic derivation. An alpha-pyrone (micropyrone, 7), the monoterpene rac-E-omega-oleoyloxylinalol (10), four known tremetones (9a-d), and the dimeric pyrone helipyrone (8) were also obtained. Arzanol inhibited HIV-1 replication in T cells and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated primary monocytes, qualifying as a novel plant-derived anti-inflammatory and antiviral chemotype worth further investigation. PMID:17315926

Appendino, Giovanni; Ottino, Michela; Marquez, Nieves; Bianchi, Federica; Giana, Anna; Ballero, Mauro; Sterner, Olov; Fiebich, Bernd L; Munoz, Eduardo

2007-04-01

237

A comprehensive analysis of flowering transition in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton by using transcriptomic and proteomic techniques.  

PubMed

Comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed to gain further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of floral initiation in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis. Samples of stem apexes were collected at three different time points including the vegetative, induced, and reproductive period. A total of 374 transcript-derived fragments and 72 proteins showed significant differential expression between the samples. The largest proportion of the identified genes and proteins are involved in metabolism, followed by signal transduction, protein fate, cellular transport, and biogenesis of cellular components. A large number of these genes and proteins were upregulated during the induced and reproductive stages. Their expression profiles demonstrate that carbohydrate metabolism provides nutrients foundation for floral initiation in Agapanthus. Furthermore, a transcription factors GAI (GA insensitive protein) that negatively regulates gibberellin signaling, auxin receptor protein TIR1 (Transport inhibitor response 1), a key enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis SAMS (S-adenosylmethionine synthase), and ethylene receptor protein ETR were isolated and identified. Expression patterns of these proteins, in combination with the results of quantitative phytohormone and immunolocalization analyses, indicated that GA, indole-acetic acid (IAA), and ethylene regulate floral morphogenesis and flowering. In conclusion, these data provide novel insight into the early regulatory steps of flowering in Agapanthus. PMID:23333928

Zhang, Di; Ren, Li; Yue, Jian-Hua; Wang, Ling; Zhuo, Li-Huan; Shen, Xiao-Hui

2013-03-27

238

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in Turkey.  

PubMed

The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the dried leaves and flowers of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas were separately identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. The main components were alpha-fenchone (41.9 +/- 1.2%), 1,8-cineole (15.6 +/- 0.8%), camphor (12.1 +/- 0.5%), and viridiflorol (4.1 +/- 0.4%) in the leaves; and alpha-fenchone (39.2 +/- 0.9%), myrtenyl acetate (9.5 +/- 0.4%), alpha-pinene (6.1 +/- 0.09%), camphor (5.9 +/- 0.05%) and 1,8-cineole (3.8 +/- 0.1%) in the flowers. Overall, 55 and 66 constituents were identified in the leaf and flower essential oils representing more than 90% and 94% of the total, respectively. In addition, the essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial and anticandidal activities by broth microdilution. The flower essential oil was found to be relatively more active than the leaf oil towards the tested pathogenic microorganisms. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to the flower oil (MIC = 31.2 microg/mL). The oils, evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity using a TLC-DPPH assay, were inactive at a concentration of 2 mg/mL. PMID:19731612

Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Demirci, Betül; Ye?ilada, Erdem; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

2009-07-01

239

Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin genes (AQPs) in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).  

PubMed

Aquaporins (AQPs) are members of a superfamily of integral membrane proteins and play a significant role in the transportation of small molecules across membranes. However, currently little is known about the AQP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, a genome-wide analysis was carried out to identify the AQP genes in Chinese cabbage. In total, 53 non-redundant AQP genes were identified that were located on all of the 10 chromosomes. The number of AQP genes in Chinese cabbage was greater than in Arabidopsis. They were classified into four subfamilies, including PIP, TIP, NIP, and SIP. Thirty-three groups of AQP orthologous genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, but orthologs corresponding to AtNIP1;1 and AtPIP2;8 were not detected. Seventeen groups of paralogous genes were identified in Chinese cabbage. Three-dimensional models of the AQPs of Chinese cabbage were constructed using Phyre2, and ar/R selectivity filters were analyzed comparatively between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. Generally, gene structure was conserved within each subfamily, especially in the SIP subfamily. Intron loss events have occurred during the evolution of the PIP, TIP, and NIP subfamilies. The expression of AQP genes in Chinese cabbage was analyzed in different organs. Most AQP genes were downregulated in response to salt stress. This work shows that the AQP genes of Chinese cabbage have undergone triplication and subsequent biased gene loss. PMID:24972664

Tao, Peng; Zhong, Xinmin; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Wuhong; Yue, Zhichen; Lei, Juanli; Guo, Weiling; Huang, Xiaoyun

2014-12-01

240

Congruence of phytochemical and morphological profiles along an altitudinal gradient in Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare from Venetian Region (NE Italy).  

PubMed

Plants of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare from the Veneto region (NE Italy) were selected to study the variability of the essential-oil composition from leaves and inflorescences throughout an elevation gradient. We investigated also the morphology of non-glandular and glandular trichomes, their distribution on the vegetative and reproductive organs, as well as the histochemistry of the secreted products, with special focus on the terpenoidic fraction. Since glandular trichomes are prerequisite for the essential-oil synthesis, the second objective was to establish whether its production is related to glandular hair number, and density. Essential-oil contents decline with increasing altitude, and the micromorphological observations revealed a decrease in trichome density along the same direction. Moreover, GC/MS analysis together with principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the three investigated populations were significantly different in chemical composition. Therefore, an important interpopulation variability for low-, mid-, and high-altitude sites was established, suggesting the likely occurrence of different biotypes associated with altitudinal levels. Hence, the involvement of abiotic factors such as temperature and drought in the chemical polymorphism of O. vulgare associated with elevation is briefly discussed. PMID:23576343

Giuliani, Claudia; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Maleci Bini, Laura

2013-04-01

241

The spatial structure of sexual and cytonuclear polymorphism in the gynodioecious Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima: I/ at a local scale.  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed the spatial distribution of the sex phenotypes and of mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear markers within two gynodioecious populations of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima. Within both populations, sexual phenotype variation is controlled mainly by the cytoplasmic genotype, although in one study population a joint polymorphism of cytonuclear factors is clearly involved. In spite of contrasts in the ecology (mainly due to different habitats), a clear common feature in both populations is the highly patchy distribution of cytoplasmic haplotypes, contrasting with the wide distribution of nuclear diversity. This high contrast between cytoplasmic vs. nuclear spatial structure may have important consequences for the maintenance of gynodioecy. It provides opportunities for differential selection since nuclear restorer alleles are expected to be selected for in the presence of their specific cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) type, but to be neutral (or selected against if there is a cost of restoration) in the absence of their CMS type. Selective processes in such a cytonuclear landscape may explain the polymorphism we observed at restorer loci for two CMS types. PMID:11290724

Laporte, V; Viard, F; Bena, G; Valero, M; Cuguen, J

2001-01-01

242

Sphenostylisins A-K: bioactive modified isoflavonoid constituents of the root bark of Sphenostylis marginata ssp. erecta.  

PubMed

Sphenostylisins A-C (1-3), three complex dimeric compounds representing two novel carbon skeletons, along with an additional eight new compounds, sphenostylisins D-K (4-11), were isolated from the active chloroform-soluble extract of the root bark of Sphenostylis marginata ssp. erecta using a bioactivity-guided isolation approach. The structures were elucidated by means of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including NMR and HRESIMS analysis, and tandem MS fragmentation was utilized to further support the structures of 1-3. The absolute configuration of sphenostylisin C (3) was established by electronic circular dichroism analysis. Plausible biogenetic relationships between the modified isoflavonoids 1-11 are proposed, and a cyclization reaction of 9 was conducted to support one of the biogenetic proposals made. All of these pure isolates were evaluated against a panel of in vitro bioassays, and among the results obtained, sphenostylisin A (1) was found to be a very potent NF-?B inhibitor (IC50 = 6 nM). PMID:24044416

Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Deng, Ye; Muñoz-Acuña, Ulyana; Yuan, Chunhua; Lai, Hongshan; Chai, Heebyung; Chagwedera, Tangai E; Farnsworth, Norman R; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J; Li, Chenglong; Soejarto, Djaja D; Kinghorn, A Douglas

2013-10-18

243

Sphenostylisins A-K, Bioactive Modified Isoflavonoid Constituents of the Root Bark of Sphenostylis marginata ssp. erecta  

PubMed Central

Sphenostylisins A–C (1–3), three complex dimeric compounds representing two novel carbon skeletons, along with an additional eight new compounds, sphenostylisins D–K (4–11), were isolated from the active chloroform-soluble extract of the root bark of S. marginata ssp. erecta using a bioactivity-guided isolation approach. The structures were elucidated by means of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including NMR and HRESIMS analysis, with tandem MS fragmentation utilized to further support the structures of 1–3. The absolute configuration of sphenostylisin C (3) was established by electronic circular dichroism analysis. Plausible biogenetic relationships between the modified isoflavonoids 1–11 are proposed, with a cyclization reaction of 9 conducted to support one of the biogenetic proposals made. All these pure isolates were evaluated against a panel of in vitro bioassays, and, among the results obtained, sphenostylisin A (1) was found to be a very potent NF-?B inhibitor (IC50 6 nM). PMID:24044416

Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Deng, Ye; Munoz-Acuna, Ulyana; Yuan, Chunhua; Lai, Hongshan; Chai, Heebyung; Chagwedera, Tangai E.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.; Li, Chenglong; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

2013-01-01

244

A suite of genetic markers useful in assessing wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.)-domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) admixture.  

PubMed

The wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.) is a conservation concern largely due to introgressive hybridization with its congener F. s. catus, the common domestic cat. Because of a recent divergence and entirely overlapping ranges, hybridization is common and pervasive between these taxa threatening the genetic integrity of remaining wildcat populations. Identifying pure wildcats for inclusion in conservation programs using current morphological discriminants is difficult because of gross similarity between them and the domestic, critically hampering conservation efforts. Here, we present a vetted panel of microsatellite loci and mitochondrial polymorphisms informative for each of the 5 naturally evolved wildcat subspecies and the derived domestic cat. We also present reference genotypes for each assignment class. Together, these marker sets and corresponding reference genotypes allow for the development of a genetic rational for defining "units of conservation" within a phylogenetically based taxonomy of the entire F. silvestris species complex. We anticipate this marker panel will allow conservators to assess genetic integrity and quantify admixture in managed wildcat populations and to be a starting point for more in-depth analysis of hybridization. PMID:21846752

Driscoll, Carlos; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'Brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

2011-01-01

245

A Suite of Genetic Markers Useful in Assessing Wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.)-- Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Admixture  

PubMed Central

The wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.) is a conservation concern largely due to introgressive hybridization with its congener F. s. catus, the common domestic cat. Because of a recent divergence and entirely overlapping ranges, hybridization is common and pervasive between these taxa threatening the genetic integrity of remaining wildcat populations. Identifying pure wildcats for inclusion in conservation programs using current morphological discriminants is difficult because of gross similarity between them and the domestic, critically hampering conservation efforts. Here, we present a vetted panel of microsatellite loci and mitochondrial polymorphisms informative for each of the 5 naturally evolved wildcat subspecies and the derived domestic cat. We also present reference genotypes for each assignment class. Together, these marker sets and corresponding reference genotypes allow for the development of a genetic rational for defining “units of conservation” within a phylogenetically based taxonomy of the entire F. silvestris species complex. We anticipate this marker panel will allow conservators to assess genetic integrity and quantify admixture in managed wildcat populations and to be a starting point for more in-depth analysis of hybridization. PMID:21846752

Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Macdonald, David W.

2011-01-01

246

Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus C5a peptidase, a putative invasin, induces protective immune response in mice.  

PubMed

Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (Streptococcus zooepidemicus, SEZ) is responsible for septicemia, meningitis, arthritis and several other serious diseases in various species with adhesive and invasive properties. The absence of suitable vaccine confounds the control of SEZ infection. The highly conserved C5a peptidase was served as an invasin to host epithelial cells and involved in the pathogenicity in other streptococcus species. In the present study, the purified recombinant SEZ C5a peptidase (rSCPZ) could adhere to Hep-2 cells and interfere with the invasion of SEZ into Hep-2 cells confirmed by adherence and invasion assay. Immunization of BALB/c mice with rSCPZ could elicit a significant humoral antibody response and could confer significant protection against challenge with a lethal dose of SEZ. In addition, the hyperimmune sera against rSCPZ could efficiently inhibit bacterial growth in a whole blood assay and confer significant protection against SEZ infection in the experiment of passive immunization. The present study suggests that SCPZ could be useful for development of subunit vaccine against SEZ. PMID:23632199

Wei, Zigong; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Yaosheng; Li, Ming; Cong, Peiqing; Mo, Delin; Liu, Xiaohong

2013-10-01

247

The evolutionary history and diagnostic utility of the CRISPR-Cas system within Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary studies of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (cas) genes can provide insights into host-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics and the frequency at which different genomic events (e.g., horizontal vs. vertical transmission) occur. Within this study, we used whole genome sequence (WGS) data to determine the evolutionary history and genetic diversity of CRISPR loci and cas genes among a diverse set of 427 Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica isolates representing 64 different serovars. We also evaluated the performance of CRISPR loci for typing when compared to whole genome and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approaches. We found that there was high diversity in array length within both CRISPR1 (median = 22; min = 3; max = 79) and CRISPR2 (median = 27; min = 2; max = 221). There was also much diversity within serovars (e.g., arrays differed by as many as 50 repeat-spacer units among Salmonella ser. Senftenberg isolates). Interestingly, we found that there are two general cas gene profiles that do not track phylogenetic relationships, which suggests that non-vertical transmission events have occurred frequently throughout the evolutionary history of the sampled isolates. There is also considerable variation among the ranges of pairwise distances estimated within each cas gene, which may be indicative of the strength of natural selection acting on those genes. We developed a novel clustering approach based on CRISPR spacer content, but found that typing based on CRISPRs was less accurate than the MLST-based alternative; typing based on WGS data was the most accurate. Notwithstanding cost and accessibility, we anticipate that draft genome sequencing, due to its greater discriminatory power, will eventually become routine for traceback investigations. PMID:24765574

Timme, Ruth E.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Toro, Magaly; Allard, Marc W.; Strain, Errol; Musser, Steven M.; Brown, Eric W.

2014-01-01

248

Heterologous expression and characterization of an N-acetyl-?-D-hexosaminidase from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403.  

PubMed

The lnbA gene of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403 encodes a polypeptide with similarity to lacto-N-biosidases and N-acetyl-?-D-hexosaminidases. The gene was cloned into the expression vector pET-21d and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21* (DE3). The recombinant purified enzyme (LnbA) was a monomer with a molecular weight of approximately 37 kDa. Studies with chromogenic substrates including p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl-?-D-glucosamine (pNP-GlcNAc) and p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl-?-D-galactosamine (pNP-GalNAc) showed that the enzyme had both N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase and N-acetyl-?-D-galactosaminidase activity, thus indicating that the enzyme is an N-acetyl-?-D-hexosaminidase. K(m) and k(cat) for pNP-GlcNAc were 2.56 mM and 26.7 s(-1), respectively, whereas kinetic parameters for pNP-GalNAc could not be determined due to the K(m) being very high (>10 mM). The optimal temperature and pH of the enzyme were 37 °C and 5.5, respectively, for both substrates. The half-life of activity at 37 °C and pH 6.0 was 53 h, but activity was completely abolished after 30 min at 50 °C, meaning that the enzyme has relatively low temperature stability. The enzyme was stable in the pH 5.5-8 range and was unstable at pH below 5.5. Studies with natural substrates showed hydrolytic activity on chito-oligosaccharides but not on colloidal chitin or chitosan. Transglycosylation products were not detected. In all, the data suggest that LnbA's role may be to degrade chito-oligosaccharides that are produced by the previously described chitinolytic system of L. lactis. PMID:22356128

Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Nguyen, Thu-Ha; K?en, Vladimír; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens K

2012-03-28

249

Using Small-Scale Studies to Prioritize Threats and Guide Recovery of a Rare Hemiparasitic Plant: Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis  

PubMed Central

Background Recovering endangered species would benefit from identifying and ranking of the factors that threaten them. Simply managing for multiple positive influences will often aid in recovery; however, the relative impacts of multiple threats and/or interactions among them are not always predictable. We used a series of experiments and quantitative observational studies to examine the importance of five potential limiting factors to the abundance of a state-listed endangered hemiparasitic annual forb, Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis (C.r.l., California, USA): host availability, mammalian herbivores, insect seed predators, fire suppression, and exotic species. While this initial assessment is certainly not a complete list, these factors stem from direct observation and can inform provisional recommendations for management and further research. Methodology and Principal Findings Studies were conducted at five sites and included assessments of the influence of host availability, exotic species, exclusion of mammalian herbivores and insect seed predators on C.r.l. productivity, and simulated effects of fire on seed germination. C.r.l. was limited by multiple threats: individuals with access to host species produced up to three times more inflorescences than those lacking hosts, mammalian herbivory reduced C.r.l. size and fecundity by more than 50% and moth larvae reduced seed production by up to 40%. Litter deposition and competition from exotic plant species also appears to work in conjunction with other factors to limit C.r.l. throughout its life cycle. Conclusions and Significance The work reported here highlights the contribution that a series of small-scale studies can make to conservation and restoration. Taken as a whole, the results can be used immediately to inform current management and species recovery strategies. Recovery of C.r.l. will require management that addresses competition with exotic plant species, herbivore pressure, and availability of preferred host species. PMID:20126657

Watts, Sean M.; Uhl, Melissa M.; Maurano, Stephen P.; Nuccio, Erin E.

2010-01-01

250

The upward shift in altitude of pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) in Switzerland—the result of climate warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) is common in natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in the alpine Rhone Valley, Switzerland. This semi-parasite, which is regarded as an indicator species for temperature, increases the drought stress on trees and may contribute to the observed pine decline in the region. We recorded mistletoes on representative plots of the Swiss National Forest Inventory ranging from 450 to 1,550 m a.s.l. We found mistletoe on 37% of the trees and on 56% of all plots. Trees infested with mistletoe had a significantly higher mortality rate than non-infested trees. We compared the current mistletoe occurrence with records from a survey in 1910. The current upper limit, 1,250 m, is roughly 200 m above the limit of 1,000-1,100 m found in the earlier survey 100 years ago. Applying a spatial model to meteorological data we obtained monthly mean temperatures for all sites. In a logistic regression mean winter temperature, pine proportion and geographic exposition significantly explained mistletoe occurrence. Using mean monthly January and July temperatures for 1961-1990, we calculated Skre's plant respiration equivalent (RE) and regressed it against elevation to obtain the RE value at the current mistletoe elevation limit. We used this RE value and temperature from 1870-1899 in the regression and found the past elevation limit to be at 1,060 m, agreeing with the 1910 survey. For the predicted temperature rise by 2030, the limit for mistletoe would increase above 1,600 m altitude.

Dobbertin, Matthias; Hilker, Nadine; Rebetez, Martine; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Rigling, Andreas

2005-09-01

251

Abundance of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in Adirondack Mountain shrub wetlands and its influence on inorganic nitrogen.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to determine the abundance of the nitrogen-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (speckled alder), in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State and to determine whether its abundance affects the concentration or accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in wetland substrates. Alder/willow wetlands are the second most common wetland type in the Adirondack region. The Adirondack Park Agency's digital GIS database of wetland types was used to determine the areal extent of alder/willow wetlands in the Adirondacks. Randomly selected wetlands were sampled to determine the size and abundance of alder. Alder densities averaged approximately 7000 stems ha(-1) and alder was present in 75% of the wetlands. As an indication of short-term accumulation of NO(3-) and NH4(+) in wetland substrates, ion exchange resins were used to sample ground water in high and low alder density wetlands as well as from wetlands lacking alder and dominated by conifers. Additionally, NO(3-) and NH(4+) concentrations in ground water samples were measured. NH(4+) accumulation levels from exchange resins were low for all wetland types while groundwater NH(4+) concentration was highest in the low-density alder sites. Wetlands with high alder density had approximately six times higher NO(3-) accumulation than other wetlands. Substrate groundwater NO(3-) concentrations in wetlands of high-density alder exceeded by three times levels in low or no alder wetlands, showing the importance of alder to local N budgets. To assess the recovery of shrub wetlands from acidification, future studies should determine the fate of fixed N in wetland systems. PMID:12667762

Kiernan, B D; Hurd, T M; Raynal, D J

2003-01-01

252

Comparison of nitrogen solute concentrations within alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) and non-alder dominated wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined differences in nitrogen solutes and groundwater flow patterns between a riparian wetland dominated by the N2-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa, and an upstream coniferous forested riparian wetland along a stream of the Adirondack Mountains, where some surface waters are susceptible to nitrogen excess. Channel water NO3- was up to 16 ?mol l-1 greater in the alder reach, with peaks following maxima in groundwater dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). NO3- at 25 cm depth was 30 ?mol greater in the alder than in the conifer reach in April, and 24 ?mol l-1 greater than channel water and 30 ?mol l-1 greater than that of 125 cm groundwater in June. Dissolved organic nitrogen and NH4+ concentrations increased between 25 and 75 cm depths in both wetlands during the growing season. Inorganic nitrogen increased between the hillslope and stream in both wetlands, with the greatest increases in the alder reach during the dormant season. Greatest subsurface DIN (120 ?mol l-1) occurred at 75 cm in the alder reach, within 1 m of the stream, between November (120 ?mol l-1 NH4+) and a January thaw (60 ?mol l-1 each of NH4+ and NO3-). Concentrations of deeper groundwater at 125 cm during this period were lower (10-30 ?mol l-1). Lateral flow from the stream channel occurred in the alder reach during the dormant season, and channel water contribution to groundwater was correlated strongly to NO3- at 25 cm. These results indicate that nitrification is stimulated in the presence of alders and oxidized exchange flow, producing NO3- that may contribute to elevated channel water NO3- during periods of peak flow.

Hurd, Todd M.; Raynal, Dudley J.

2004-10-01

253

Growth of the dune wintergreen ( Pyrola rotundifolia ssp. maritima) at Braunton Burrows in relation to weather factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dune wintergreen ( Pyrola rotundifolia ssp. maritima) is an evergreen perennial herb which has spread extensively in recent decades to, and on, various British dune systems including Braunton Burrows, N. Devon. Its multiplication is partly vegetative, by rhizomes bearing leaf rosettes. This study primarily concerns the relation between: (i) the growth of one particular invasive colony on Braunton Burrows, as shown by the numbers of living rosettes counted at midsummer from 1964 74 inclusive; and (ii) concurrent meteorological records made nearby. Monthly weather means were calculated on various quarterly bases. After de-trending the Pyrola data statistically, correlations were sought between the growth in numbers achieved in each year and the local air temperature (three bases), rainfall and duration of bright sunshine. While the annual increase in net numbers appears to have been unaffected by sunshine hours, this increase does seem to have been much diminished by cold nights, particularly in early spring and, though less strongly so, by low rainfall in the latter part of the preceding summer. Taking account of the performance of Pyrola in other habitats on the Burrows, it is suggested that the rainfall correlation may reflect the influence of atmospheric humidity rather than water supply to the roots. Local meteorological records over a 51-year period show combined temperature and rainfall conditions consistently favourable to Pyrola growth throughout a 5-year run to a degree which might be expected to occur in only three such runs out of every hundred. The favourable period (1957 61) occurred between the inferred first occurrence of Pyrola on the Burrows and its observed rapid spread.

Hunt, R.; Hope-Simpson, J. F.; Snape, J. B.

1985-12-01

254

A novel vaccine against Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) co-infection.  

PubMed

To develop a vaccine against Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) co-infection, the genes of porcine IL-18, capsid protein (Cap) of PCV2 and M-like protein (SzP) of SEZ were inserted into the swinepox virus (SPV) genome by homologous recombination. The recombinant swinepox virus rSPV-ICS was verified by PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays. To evaluate the immunogenicity of rSPV-ICS, 28 PCV2 and SEZ seronegative Bama minipigs were immunized with rSPV-ICS (n=8), commercial PCV2 vaccine and SEZ vaccine (n=8) or wild type SPV (n=8). The results showed that SzP-specific antibody and PCV2 neutralizing antibody of the rSPV-ICS immunized group increased significantly compared to the wild type SPV treated group after vaccination and increased continuously over time. The levels of IL-4 and IFN-? in the rSPV-ICS immunized group were significantly higher than the other three groups, respectively. After been co-challenged with PCV2 and SEZ, 87.5% piglets in rSPV-ICS immunized group were survived. Significant reductions in gross lung lesion score, histopathological lung lesion score, and lymph node lesion score were noticed in the rSPV-ICS immunized group compared with the wtSPV treated group. The results suggested that the recombinant rSPV-ICS provided piglets with significant protection against PCV2-SEZ co-infection; thus, it offers proof-of-principle for the development of a vaccine for the prevention of these swine diseases. PMID:24726504

Lin, Hui-xing; Ma, Zhe; Yang, Xu-qiu; Fan, Hong-jie; Lu, Cheng-ping

2014-06-25

255

?-Casein hydrolysate generated by the cell envelope-associated proteinase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581 protects against trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581, a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium used as a starter culture for the manufacture of several fermented dairy products, possesses an efficient proteolytic system that is able to release a series of potentially bioactive peptides (i.e., antihypertensive and phosphopeptides) from ?- and ?-caseins. Considering the potential beneficial health effects of the peptides released by L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581 from milk proteins, the aim of this work was to analyze the anti-mutagenic and anti-inflammatory properties of the casein hydrolysates generated by the cell envelope-associated proteinase of this bacterium. The ability of ?- and ?-casein hydrolysates to suppress the mutagenesis of a direct-acting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 increased concomitantly with the time of casein hydrolysis. The anti-inflammatory effect of the ?-casein hydrolysate was evaluated using a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced Crohn's disease murine model. The hydrolysate was administered to mice 10 d before the intrarectal inoculation of TNBS. The mice that received ?-casein hydrolysate previously to TNBS showed decreased mortality rates, faster recovery of initial body weight loss, less microbial translocation to the liver, decreased ?-glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase activities in the gut, and decreased colonic macroscopic and microscopic damage compared with the animals that did not receive this hydrolysate. In addition, ?-casein hydrolysate exerted a beneficial effect on acute intestinal inflammation by increased interleukin 10 and decreased IFN-? production in the gut. Our findings are consistent with the health-promoting attributes of the milk products fermented by L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581 and open up new opportunities for developing novel functional foods. PMID:22365194

Espeche Turbay, M B; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Perdigón, G; Savoy de Giori, G; Hebert, E M

2012-03-01

256

[Acute toxicity and analgesic activity of the global extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire].  

PubMed

The global extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire are especially rich in secondary metabolites of the type iridoid lactonique and glucosidique and of type lupane triterpine. The aerial part of each species is crushed, and then extracted by cold maceration in methanol. These total extracts are in the form of suspension in Arabic gum with 5%, they are tested on the mice for the tests of acute toxicity like for the peripheral analgesic activity according to the test of Koster; and also on the rats for the central analgesic activity of the morphine type based on the test "Tail Flick". The acute toxicity evaluation of these extracts follows upon the determination of the lethal amounts 50% of essential oils from these two species, already given it is specified here by the lethal dose 50% (DL50) of 1672 +/- 232 mg/kg with confidence limits [1030 - 2320] mg/kg for Nepeta atlantica and 1401 +/- 97.29 mg/kg with confidence limits [1130 - 1670] mg/kg for Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata. The tests of Koster in the mouse and the "Tail Flik" in the rat showed that the global extracts of the studied species have all two greatly peripheral analgesic activity with an important protection against abdominal cramp 67.91% and 75.53% for 60 mg/kg IP respectively for Nepeta atlantica and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. Reticulata, which rise up to 90.10% and 92.89% for 120 mg/kg IP. A central morphine like analgesic activity is record with 120 mg/kg IP for the two species. PMID:17243274

Bouidida, El Houcine; Alaoui, Katim; Cherrah, Yahia; Fkih-Tetouani, Souad; Idrissi, Abdelkader Il

2006-01-01

257

Chemical composition, plant genetic differences, and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum G. Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd) Nym.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil of the Sardinian dwarf curry plant [Helichrysum italicum G. Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd) Nym] was studied. Genetic analysis suggested the presence of two chemotypes; morphological and chemical differences confirmed the presence of two chemotypes (A and B). The maximum yields were 0.18 and 0.04% (v/w) for flowering tops and stems, respectively. The concentrations of nerol and its esters (acetate and propionate), limonene, and linalool reach their highest values during the flowering stage both in flowers and in stems. Besides the essential oil, type B showed an interesting antifungal activity. PMID:12568568

Angioni, Alberto; Barra, Andrea; Arlorio, Marco; Coisson, Jean Daniel; Russo, Maria T; Pirisi, Filippo M; Satta, Maurizio; Cabras, Paolo

2003-02-12

258

Characterization of Broad Spectrum Potato Virus Y Resistance in a Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena Derived Population and Select Breeding Clones Using Molecular Markers, Grafting, and Field Inoculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

PVY causes yield and quality loss in potato. The Ry\\u000a \\u000a adg\\u000a gene from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena has been shown to provide extreme resistance to PVY; defined as resistance against all strains. However, Ry\\u000a \\u000a adg\\u000a gene clones have not been screened against PVYN:O, a newly detected North America strain. Three Ry\\u000a \\u000a adg\\u000a \\u000a -diagnostic molecular markers were tested in tetraploid progeny

Jonathan L. Whitworth; Richard G. Novy; Darren G. Hall; James M. Crosslin; Charles R. Brown

2009-01-01

259

Potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 prevents weight gain and glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice.  

PubMed

Alterations of the gut microbiota and mucosal barrier are linked with metabolic diseases. Our aim was to investigate the potential benefit of the potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 in reducing high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and diabetes in mice. In the obesity model, C57Bl/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (60 energy %) for 12 weeks, and gavaged daily with B. lactis 420 (109 cfu) or vehicle. In the diabetes model, mice were fed a high-fat, ketogenic diet (72 energy % fat) for 4 weeks, with a 6-week subsequent treatment with B. lactis 420 (108-1010 cfu/day) or vehicle, after which they were analysed for body composition. We also analysed glucose tolerance, plasma lipopolysaccharide and target tissue inflammation using only one of the B. lactis 420 groups (109 cfu/day). Intestinal bacterial translocation and adhesion were analysed in a separate experiment using an Escherichia coli gavage. Body fat mass was increased in both obese (10.7±0.8 g (mean ± standard error of mean) vs. 1.86±0.21 g, P<0.001) and diabetic mice (3.01±0.4 g vs. 1.14±0.15 g, P<0.001) compared to healthy controls. Treatment with B. lactis 420 significantly decreased fat mass in obese (7.83 ± 0.67 g, P=0.007 compared to obese with vehicle) and diabetic mice (1.89 ± 0.16 g, P=0.02 for highest dose). This was reflected as reduced weight gain and improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, B. lactis 420 decreased plasma lipopolysaccharide levels (P<0.001), liver inflammation (P=0.04), and E. coli adhesion in the distal gut (P<0.05). In conclusion, B. lactis 420 reduces fat mass and glucose intolerance in both obese and diabetic mice. Reduced intestinal mucosal adherence and plasma lipopolysaccharide suggest a mechanism related to reduced translocation of gut microbes. PMID:25062610

Stenman, L K; Waget, A; Garret, C; Klopp, P; Burcelin, R; Lahtinen, S

2014-12-01

260

Ultra fast symmetry and SIMD-based projection-backprojection (SSP) algorithm for 3-D PET image reconstruction.  

PubMed

Remarkable progress in positron emission tomography (PET) development has occurred in recent years, in hardware, software, and computer implementation of image reconstruction. Recent development in PET scanners such as the high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) developed by CTI (now Siemens) represents such a case and is capable of greatly enhanced resolution as well as sensitivity. In these PET scanners, the amount of coincidence line data collected contains more than 4.5 x 10(9) coincidence lines of response generated by as many nuclear detectors as 120 000. This formidable amount of data and the reconstruction of this data set pose a real problem in HRRT and have also been of the major bottle neck in further developments of high resolution PET scanners as well as their applications. In these classes of PET scanners, therefore, obtaining one set of reconstructed images often requires many hours of image reconstruction. For example, in HRRT with full data collection in a normal brain scan (using SPAN 3), the image reconstruction time is close to 80 min, making it practically impossible to attempt any list-mode-based dynamic imaging since the image reconstruction time would take many days (as much as 43 h or more for 32-frame dynamic image reconstruction). To remedy this data-handling problem in image reconstruction, we developed a new algorithm based on the symmetry properties of the projection and backprojection processes, especially in the 3-D OSEM algorithm where multiples of projection and back-projection are required. In addition, the single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) technique also allowed us to successfully incorporate the symmetry properties mentioned above, thereby effectively reducing the total image reconstruction time to a few minutes. We refer to this technique as the symmetry and SIMD-based projection-backprojection (SSP) technique or algorithm and the details of the technique will be discussed and an example of the application of the technique to the HRRT's OSEM algorithm will be presented as a demonstration. PMID:17679330

Hong, I K; Chung, S T; Kim, H K; Kim, Y B; Son, Y D; Cho, Z H

2007-06-01

261

Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum)  

PubMed Central

Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71) from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric ‘African Slope’ of “Evolution Canyon”) formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22) were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2%) than among populations (45.8%). Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121–128 and 121–134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123–128,125–128, and 123–125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin), Dof (DNA binding with one finger), and light. Conclusions Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important determinants in the observed sequence variation of HvABCG31 promoter. Abiotic stresses may be involved in the HvABCG31 gene transcription regulations, generating more protective cuticles in plants under stresses. PMID:23006777

2012-01-01

262

Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.  

PubMed

Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods. PMID:25130676

Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

2014-08-27

263

Relationship between production of carrot somatic embryos and dissolved oxygen concentration in liquid culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the relationship between somatic embryogenesis and dissolved oxygen concentration, somatic embryo cultures of\\u000a carrot (Daucus carota L.) were cultured under various dissolved oxygen concentration levels (bubble free aeration with 4%,\\u000a 7%, 20%, 30%, and 40% oxygen in flasks). The system used allows dissolved oxygen concentration control without bubble aeration\\u000a or mixing speed modification. The total number of somatic

Teruaki Shimazu; Kenji Kurata

1999-01-01

264

Metabolic engineering of novel ketocarotenoid production in carrot plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids constitute a vast group of pigments that are ubiquitous throughout nature. Carrot (Daucus\\u000a carota L.) roots provide an important source of dietary ?-carotene (provitamin A), ?-carotene and lutein. Ketocarotenoids, such\\u000a as canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are produced by some algae and cyanobacteria but are rare in plants. Ketocarotenoids are\\u000a strong antioxidants that are chemically synthesized and used as dietary supplements

Jayaraman Jayaraj; Robert Devlin; Zamir Punja

2008-01-01

265

Green fluorescent protein as an efficient selection marker for Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated carrot transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation combined with a visual selection for green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been applied effectively\\u000a in carrot (Daucus carota L.) transformation. Carrot root discs were inoculated with A4, A4T, LBA1334 and LBA9402 strains, all bearing gfp gene in pBIN-m-gfp5-ER. The results indicate that transformed adventitious roots can be visually selected solely based on\\u000a GFP fluorescence with a

R. Baranski; E. Klocke; G. Schumann

2006-01-01

266

Carrot Antifreeze Protein Does Not Exhibit the Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Activity of PGIP Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carrot (Daucus carota) antifreeze protein (DcAFP) has a strong antifreeze activity and identified as belonging to the plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) family based on its sequence similarities, including the presence of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motif. In this study, yeast two-hybrid technology was used to analyze whether the carrot AFP could act as a PGIP. The complete DcAFP and

Dang-Quan ZHANG; Hong-Bin WANG; Bin LIU; Dong-Ru FENG; Yan-Ming HE; Jin-Fa WANG

2006-01-01

267

Glyphosate selected amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene in cultured carrot cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAR and C1, two carrot (Daucus carota L.) suspension cultures of different genotypes, were subjected to stepwise selection for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl)glycine]. The specific activity of the target enzyme, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), as well as the mRNA level and copy number of the structural gene increased with each glyphosate selection step. Therefore, the tolerance to glyphosate is

Yu-Yau Joanne Shyr; Angus G. Hepburn; Jack M. Widhohn

1992-01-01

268

Oviposition stimulants for the black swallowtail butterfly: Identification of electrophysiologically active compounds in carrot volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Headspace volatiles were collected from undamaged foliage of carrot,Daucus carota, a host-plant species of the black swallowtail butterfly,Papilio polyxenes. The volatiles were fractionated over silica on an open column, and the fractions were tested in behavioral assays withP. polyxenes females in laboratory experiments. The polar fractions, as well as the total mixture of volatiles, increased the landing frequency and the

Robert Baur; Paul Feeny; Erich Städler

1993-01-01

269

Antituberculosis Activity of Daucus littoralis Sibth. et Sm. (Apiaceae) From Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of screening for anti-mycobacterial activity, the authors detected significant activity in the essential oil of Daucus littoralis Sibth. et Sm. Composition of the oil was characterized by gas chromatographic (GC) and gas chromatographic\\/mass spectrometric (GC\\/MS) analyses. The genus Daucus (Apiaceae) is represented in Turkey by six species, one being endemic, D. conchiteae W. Greuter. Daucus carota L.

Kemal H. C. Ba?er; Mine Kurkcuo?lu; Tulin Askun; Gulendam Tumen

2009-01-01

270

cDNA cloning of an extracellular dermal glycoprotein of carrot and its expression in response to wounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspension-cultured cells of carrot (Daucus carota L.) synthesize and secrete a glycoprotein that is normally found only in dermal tissues (epidermis, endodermis and periderm). This protein, previously called GP57, is now referred to as EDGP (E xtracellular D ermal G lyco P rotein). We purified sufficient quantities of EDGP to obtain amino-acid sequences on two internal tryptic peptides and screened

Shinobu Satoh I; Arnd Sturm; Tadashi Fujii; Maarten J. Chrispeels

1992-01-01

271

Monitoring the expression of green fluorescent protein in carrot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was successfully used as a visual reporter at various stages of carrot (Daucus carota L.) transformation. GFP-fluorescence was non-invasively observed in protoplasts, callus and plants after the delivery of\\u000a mgfp5-er gene using two transformation methods: direct DNA transfer into polyethylene glycol (PEG) -treated protoplasts and inoculation\\u000a of root discs with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Transient GFP-expression was detected

Rafal Baranski; Evelyn Klocke; Ulrich Ryschka

2007-01-01

272

Pectin esterification is spatially regulated both within cell walls and between developing tissues of root apices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoclonal antibodies recognizing un-esterified (JIM5) and methyl-esterified (JIM7) epitopes of pectin have been used to locate these epitopes by indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy in the root apex of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Both antibodies labelled the walls of cells in all tissues of the developing root apex. Immunogold labelling observed at the level of the electron microscope indicated

J. Paul Knox; Paul J. Linstead; Janet King; Christine Cooper; Keith Roberts

1990-01-01

273

Crosstalk between ABA and auxin signaling pathways in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin have revealed that these pathways impinge on each other. The Daucus carota (L.) Dc3 promoter: uidA (?-glucuronidase: GUS) chimaeric reporter (ProDc3:GUS) is induced by ABA, osmoticum, and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in vegetative tissues of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Here, we describe the root tissue-specific expression of ProDc3:GUS in the ABA-insensitive-2

Christopher D. Rock; Xin Sun

2005-01-01

274

Purification and Characterization of a Wound-Inducible Cell Wall Cationic Peroxidase from Carrot Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a novel cell wall, cationic peroxidase (pI>9.3) from roots of the carrot plant,Daucus carota.The purified isozyme, referred to as CP>9.3, has a molecular mass of 45 kilodaltons and an Reinheitzahl value of 2.3. Amino-acid composition analysis and N-terminal sequencing have been performed with CP>9.3. The N-terminal sequence shows no homology to any sequence in the protein and

Ayyappan R. Nair; Allan M. Showalter

1996-01-01

275

Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum from different areas in the Southern Apennines (Italy).  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, growing wild in three different localities in the Southern Apennines, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 103 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds and all oils belonged to the chemotype carvacrol/thymol. The three essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity by determining their influence on the germination and initial radicle elongation of Sinapis arvensis L., Phalaris canariensis L., Lepidium sativum L., and Raphanus sativus L. The seed germination and radicle growth were affected in various degrees. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the three essential oils was assayed against three species causing pre- and postharvest fruit decay (Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola). At 1000?ppm, the three oils completely inhibited fungal growth. The hemolytic activity of the oils was assayed and showed no effect on the cell membranes of bovine erythrocytes. PMID:24706631

Mancini, Emilia; Camele, Ippolito; Elshafie, Hazem S; De Martino, Laura; Pellegrino, Carlo; Grulova, Daniela; De Feo, Vincenzo

2014-04-01

276

Isolation of anti-ulcerogenic sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures in rats.  

PubMed

The fresh spiny flowers of Centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis (CSS) are used for the treatment of peptic ulcers in Turkey. Ethanol (80%) extract of CSS exhibited significant anti-ulcerogenic effect on the ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis model in rats. The ethanol extract was further fractionated by successive solvent extractions with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All fractions showed significant anti-ulcerogenic activity, however, the effect of the chloroform fraction was found to be more prominent with 99.5% ulcer inhibition. Bioassay-guided fractionation yielded sesquiterpene lactones as the active components. The main components responsible for the activity of the chloroform fraction were determined as chlorojanerin and 13-acetyl solstitialin A which were elucidated by HR-ESI and (1)H, (13)C and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. PMID:15507339

Yesilada, Erdem; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Bedir, Erdal; Tatli, Irem; Khan, Ikhlas A

2004-12-01

277

Targeted sequence capture provides insight into genome structure and genetics of male sterility in a gynodioecious diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae).  

PubMed

Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3-5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function. PMID:23749450

Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2013-08-01

278

Comparative sequence analysis of the potato cyst nematode resistance locus H1 reveals a major lack of co-linearity between three haplotypes in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp.)  

PubMed Central

The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a high-resolution genetic map of the H1 locus (Bakker et al. in Theor Appl Genet 109:146–152, 2004) were used to screen a BAC library to construct a physical map covering a 341-kb region of the resistant haplotype coming from SH. For comparison, physical maps were also generated of the two haplotypes from the diploid susceptible genotype RH89-039-16 (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum/S. phureja), spanning syntenic regions of 700 and 319 kb. Gene predictions on the genomic segments resulted in the identification of a large cluster consisting of variable numbers of the CC-NB-LRR type of R genes for each haplotype. Furthermore, the regions were interspersed with numerous transposable elements and genes coding for an extensin-like protein and an amino acid transporter. Comparative analysis revealed a major lack of gene order conservation in the sequences of the three closely related haplotypes. Our data provide insight in the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the H1 locus and will facilitate the map-based cloning of the H1 resistance gene. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1472-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21049265

Bakker, Erin; de Boer, Jan; van der Vossen, Edwin; Achenbach, Ute; Golas, Tomasz; Suryaningrat, Suwardi; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

2010-01-01

279

Targeted Sequence Capture Provides Insight into Genome Structure and Genetics of Male Sterility in a Gynodioecious Diploid Strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae)  

PubMed Central

Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3?5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function. PMID:23749450

Tennessen, Jacob A.; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2013-01-01

280

Functional identification of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl-glucosinolate in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis  

PubMed Central

Background Brassica vegetables contain a class of secondary metabolites, the glucosinolates (GS), whose specific degradation products determine the characteristic flavor and smell. While some of the respective degradation products of particular GS are recognized as health promoting substances for humans, recent studies also show evidence that namely the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS might be deleterious by forming characteristic DNA adducts. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of aspects involved in the biosynthesis of indole GS is crucial to design vegetables with an improved secondary metabolite profile. Results Initially the leafy Brassica vegetable pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) was established as suitable tool to elicit very high concentrations of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS by application of methyl jasmonate. Differentially expressed candidate genes were discovered in a comparative microarray analysis using the 2 × 104 K format Brassica Array and compared to available gene expression data from the Arabidopsis AtGenExpress effort. Arabidopsis knock out mutants of the respective candidate gene homologs were subjected to a comprehensive examination of their GS profiles and confirmed the exclusive involvement of polypeptide 4 of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase subfamily CYP81F in 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS biosynthesis. Functional characterization of the two identified isoforms coding for CYP81F4 in the Brassica rapa genome was performed using expression analysis and heterologous complementation of the respective Arabidopsis mutant. Conclusions Specific differences discovered in a comparative microarray and glucosinolate profiling analysis enables the functional attribution of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis genes coding for polypeptide 4 of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase subfamily CYP81F to their metabolic role in indole glucosinolate biosynthesis. These new identified Brassica genes will enable the development of genetic tools for breeding vegetables with improved GS composition in the near future. PMID:24886080

2014-01-01

281

Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 2; Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the Appendices to the main report.

Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

2011-01-01

282

Volatile components from flower-heads of Centaurea nicaeensis All., C. parlatoris Helder and C. solstitialis L. ssp. schouwii (DC.) Dostál growing wild in southern Italy and their biological activity.  

PubMed

The volatile constituents of the flowerheads of Centaurea nicaeensis All., C. parlatoris Helder and C. solstitialis L. ssp. schouwii (DC.) Dostál were extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. Altogether 113 components were identified. Fatty acids and hydrocarbons were the most abundant components in the oils. Caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide were the main compounds of the sesquiterpene fraction. The study on the biological activity of the oils shows no significant activity. PMID:18626815

Senatore, Felice; Formisano, Carmen; Raio, Aida; Bellone, Gabriella; Bruno, Maurizio

2008-01-01

283

Coordination modes of tyrosinate-ligated catalase-type heme enzymes: Magnetic circular dichroism studies of Plexaura homomalla allene oxide synthase, Mycobacterium avium ssp . Paratuberculosis protein-2744c, and bovine liver catalase in their ferric and ferrous states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine liver catalase (BLC), catalase-related allene oxide synthase (cAOS) from Plexaura homomalla, and a recently isolated protein from the cattle pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP-2744c (MAP)) are all tyrosinate-ligated heme enzymes whose crystal structures have been reported. cAOS and MAP have low (<20%) sequence similarity to, and significantly different catalytic functions from, BLC. cAOS transforms 8R-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid to an

D. M. Indika Bandara; Masanori Sono; Grant S. Bruce; Alan R. Brash; John H. Dawson

284

Physical mapping and microsynteny of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis genome corresponding to a 222 kbp gene-rich region of Arabidopsis chromosome 4 and partially duplicated on chromosome 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, designated as KBrH, from high molecular weight genomic DNA\\u000a of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage). This library, which was constructed using HindIII-cleaved genomic DNA, consists of 56,592 clones with average insert size of 115 kbp. Using a partially duplicated DNA\\u000a sequence of Arabidopsis, represented by 19 and 9 predicted genes on chromosome

J. Y. Park; D. H. Koo; C. P. Hong; S. J. Lee; J. W. Jeon; S. H. Lee; P. Y. Yun; B. S. Park; H. R. Kim; J. W. Bang; P. Plaha; I. Bancroft; Y. P. Lim

2005-01-01

285

Esterification of bio-oil from mallee (Eucalyptus loxophleba ssp. gratiae) leaves with a solid acid catalyst: Conversion of the cyclic ether and terpenoids into hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Bio-oil from pyrolysis of mallee (Eucalyptus loxophleba ssp. gratiae) leaves differs from that obtained with wood by its content of cyclic ethers, terpenoids and N-containing organic compounds. Upgrading of the leaf bio-oil in methanol with a solid acid catalyst was investigated and it was found that the N-containing organics in the bio-oil lead to deactivation of the catalyst in the initial stage of exposure and have to be removed via employing high catalyst loading to allow the occurrence of other acid-catalysed reactions. Eucalyptol, the main cyclic ether in the bio-oil, could be converted into the aromatic hydrocarbon, p-cymene, through a series of intermediates including ?-terpineol, terpinolene, and ?-terpinene. Various steps such as ring-opening, dehydration, isomerisation, and aromatization were involved in the conversion of eucalyptol. The terpenoids in bio-oil could also be converted into aromatic hydrocarbons that can serve as starting materials for the synthesis of fine chemicals, via the similar processes. PMID:22940326

Hu, Xun; Gunawan, Richard; Mourant, Daniel; Wang, Yi; Lievens, Caroline; Chaiwat, Weerawut; Wu, Liping; Li, Chun-Zhu

2012-11-01

286

Interchangeable effects of gibberellic acid and temperature on embryo growth, seed germination and epicotyl emergence in Ribes multiflorum ssp. sandalioticum (Grossulariaceae).  

PubMed

Morphophysiological dormancy was investigated in seeds of Ribes multiflorum Kit ex Roem et Schult. ssp. sandalioticum Arrigoni, a rare mountain species endemic to Sardinia (Italy). There were no differences in imbibition rates between intact and scarified seeds, suggesting a lack of physical dormancy, while methylene blue solution (0.5%) highlighted a preferential pathway for solution entrance through the raphe. Embryos were small at seed dispersal, with an initial embryo:seed ratio (E:S) of ca. 0.2 (embryo length, ca. 0.5 mm), whereas the critical E:S ratio for germination was three times longer (ca. 0.6). Gibberellic acid (GA(3), 250 mg · l(-1)) and warm stratification (25 °C for 3 months) followed by low temperature (<15 °C) enhanced embryo growth rate (maximum of ca. 0.04 mm · day(-1) at 10 °C) and subsequent seed germination (radicle emergence; ca. 80% at 10 °C). Low germination occurred at warmer temperatures, and cold stratification (5 °C for 3 months) induced secondary dormancy. After radicle emergence, epicotyl emergence was delayed for ca. 2 months for seeds from three different populations. Mean time of epicotyl emergence was affected by GA(3) . Seeds of this species showed non-deep simple (root) - non-deep simple (epicotyl) morphophysiological dormancy, highlighting a high synchronisation with Mediterranean seasonality in all the investigated populations. PMID:21972981

Mattana, E; Pritchard, H W; Porceddu, M; Stuppy, W H; Bacchetta, G

2012-01-01

287

A 560 yr summer temperature reconstruction for the Western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio (Corsica/France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be affected strongly by current climate change. However, temperature records for the past centuries which can contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse for this region. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often mirror temperature history but their application as climate proxies is difficult due to the influence of the anthropogenic change in atmospheric CO2 on the carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthetic CO2 uptake. We tested the influence of different correction models accounting for plant response to increased atmospheric CO2 on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 yr) derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica. The different correction factors have only a minor influence on the main climate signals and resulting temperature reconstructions. Carbon isotope series show strong correlations with summer temperature and precipitation. A summer temperature reconstruction (1448-2007 AD) reveals that the Little Ice Age was characterised by low, but not extremely low temperatures on Corsica. Temperatures have been to modern temperatures at around 1500 AD. The reconstruction reveals warm summers during 1480-1520 and 1950-2007 AD and cool summers during 1580-1620 and 1820-1890 AD.

Szymczak, S.; Joachimski, M. M.; Bräuning, A.; Hetzer, T.; Kuhlemann, J.

2012-10-01

288

Induced Production of 1-Methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl Glucosinolate by Jasmonic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate in Sprouts and Leaves of Pak Choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)  

PubMed Central

Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future. PMID:23873294

Wiesner, Melanie; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Zrenner, Rita

2013-01-01

289

Induced production of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate by jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in sprouts and leaves of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).  

PubMed

Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future. PMID:23873294

Wiesner, Melanie; Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Zrenner, Rita

2013-01-01

290

Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer ssp. pruniflorum (Kurz) Gogel. (Hóng yá mù) extract induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells through caspase-dependent pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer ssp. pruniflorum (Kurz) Gogel. (Hóng yá mù) (CF) has been used for treatment of fever, cough, and peptic ulcer. Previously, a 50% ethanol-water extract from twigs of CF was shown highly selective in cytotoxicity against cancer cells. This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the apoptosis-inducing effect of CF. Methods The cytotoxicity of CF was evaluated in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cell line in comparison with a non-cancerous African green monkey kidney epithelial cell line (Vero) by a neutral red assay. The apoptosis induction mechanisms were investigated through nuclear morphological changes, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential alterations, and caspase enzyme activities. Results CF selectively induced HepG2 cell death compared with non-cancerous Vero cells. A 1.5-fold higher apoptotic effect compared with melphalan was induced by 120 ?g/mL of the 50% ethanol-water extract of CF. The apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells occurred via extrinsic and intrinsic caspase-dependent pathways in dose- and time-dependent manners by significantly increasing the activities of caspase 3/7, 8, and 9, decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, and causing apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. Conclusions CF extract induced a caspase-dependent apoptosis in HepG2 cells. PMID:24708784

2014-01-01

291

Antibacterial activity and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of Origanum vulgare ssp. viride growing wild in north-west Iran.  

PubMed

Essential oils obtained from flowers, leaves and stems of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek., growing wild in Ardabil Province (north-west Iran), were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. beta-Caryophyllene was the major constituent in all three oils (48.1%, 50.1% and 60.2%, respectively). Of the 19 components detected in the flower oil, comprising 96.3% of the total, the major components were 1,8-cineole (11.6%), alpha-pinene (6.9%), and gamma-cadinene (4.8%). 1-Octen-3-ol (23.8%), and 1,8-cineole (8.5%) predominated in the leafoil. In the stem oil, other main constituents were bicyclogermacrene (9.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), borneol (5.1%), and pinocarvone (4.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future use of certain essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their safety and positive effect on shelf life. PMID:21941913

Shafaghat, Ali

2011-09-01

292

Phenolic responses of mountain crowberry (Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum) to global climate change are compound specific and depend on grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).  

PubMed

Mountain crowberry (Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum) is a keystone species in northern ecosystems and exerts important ecosystem-level effects through high concentrations of phenolic metabolites. It has not been investigated how crowberry phenolics will respond to global climate change. In the tundra, grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) affects vegetation and soil nutrient availability, but almost nothing is known about the interactions between grazing and global climate change on plant phenolics. We performed a factorial warming and fertilization experiment in a tundra ecosystem under light grazing and heavy grazing and analyzed individual foliar phenolics and crowberry abundance. Crowberry was more abundant under light grazing than heavy grazing. Although phenolic concentrations did not differ between grazing intensities, responses of crowberry abundance and phenolic concentrations to warming varied significantly depending on grazing intensity. Under light grazing, warming increased crowberry abundance and the concentration of stilbenes, but decreased e.g., the concentrations of flavonols, condensed tannins, and batatasin-III, resulting in no change in total phenolics. Under heavy grazing, warming did not affect crowberry abundance, and induced a weak but consistent decrease among the different phenolic compound groups, resulting in a net decrease in total phenolics. Our results show that the different phenolic compound groups may show varying or even opposing responses to warming in the tundra at different levels of grazing intensity. Even when plant phenolic concentrations do not directly respond to grazing, grazers may have a key control over plant responses to changes in the abiotic environment, reflecting multiple adaptive purposes of plant phenolics and complex interactions between the biotic and the abiotic factors. PMID:24287946

Väisänen, Maria; Martz, Françoise; Kaarlejärvi, Elina; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Stark, Sari

2013-12-01

293

Evaluation of the anti-ulcerogenic effect of sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis by using various in vivo and biochemical techniques.  

PubMed

The guaianolide type sesquiterpene lactones chlorojanerin, 13-acetyl solstitialin A and solstitialin A were identified as the anti-ulcerogenic components of the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis (Asteraceae). In this study, these compounds were investigated by using various in vivo ulcer models in rats and mice. Chlorojanerin was shown to be significantly effective in preventing the induction of lesions by ethanol- (EtOH-) (both oral and subcutaneous administration), indomethacin-, indomethacin plus HCl/EtOH-, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester plus EtOH-, N-ethylmaleimide plus EtOH-, water immersion and restraint stress, and serotonin, as well as inhibiting titratable gastric acidity and acid output, and increasing gastric pH, but was ineffective in the prevention of ulcers induced by pyloric ligation, diethyldithiocarbamate, and cysteamine, and had no effect on gastric secretion volume or peptic activity. A mixture of 13-acetyl solstitialin A (95%) and solstitialin A (5%) was found to be significantly effective against EtOH-induced lesions on oral administration but was ineffective when administered subcutaneously. This mixture was also found to be effective in preventing lesions induced by EtOH, indomethacin, indomethacin plus HCl/EtOH, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester plus EtOH, N-ethylmaleimide plus EtOH, water immersion and restraint stress, serotonin and cysteamine, as well as inhibiting titratable gastric acidity and titratable acid output, and gastric pH, but was found ineffective against the pyloric ligation-induced and diethyldithiocarbamate-induced ulcerogenesis models, as well as gastric secretion volume and peptic activity. On the other hand, active compounds did not show any toxic effect on acute toxicity (3 days administration) evaluation tests in mice. PMID:17418988

Gürbüz, Ilhan; Yesilada, Erdem

2007-06-13

294

ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene apparently created by homoeologous recombination in Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides.  

PubMed

High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are of considerable interest, because they play a crucial role in determining dough viscoelastic properties and end-use quality of wheat flour. In this paper, ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric HMW-GS gene from Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (AABB, 2n=4x=28) accession D129, was isolated and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the electrophoretic mobility of the glutenin subunit encoded by ChAy/Bx was slightly faster than that of 1Dy12. The complete ORF of ChAy/Bx contained 1,671 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 555 amino acid residues (or 534 amino acid residues for the mature protein), making it the smallest HMW-GS gene known from Triticum species. Sequence analysis showed that ChAy/Bx was neither a conventional x-type nor a conventional y-type subunit gene, but a novel chimeric gene. Its first 1305 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Ay type genes, while its final 366 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Bx type genes. The mature ChAy/Bx protein consisted of the N-terminus of 1Ay type subunit (the first 414 amino acid residues) and the C-terminus of 1Bx type subunit (the final 120 amino acid residues). Secondary structure prediction showed that ChAy/Bx contained some domains of 1Ay subunit and some domains of 1Bx subunit. The special structure of this HMW glutenin chimera ChAy/Bx subunit might have unique effects on the end-use quality of wheat flour. Here we propose that homoeologous recombination might be a novel pathway for allelic variation or molecular evolution of HMW-GSs. PMID:24012818

Guo, Xiao-Hui; Bi, Zhe-Guang; Wu, Bi-Hua; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Hu, Ji-Liang; Zheng, You-Liang; Liu, Deng-Cai

2013-12-01

295

Three groups of transposable elements with contrasting copy number dynamics and host responses in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) genome.  

PubMed

Most angiosperm nuclear DNA is repetitive and derived from silenced transposable elements (TEs). TE silencing requires substantial resources from the plant host, including the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Thus, the interaction between TEs and siRNAs is a critical aspect of both the function and the evolution of plant genomes. Yet the co-evolutionary dynamics between these two entities remain poorly characterized. Here we studied the organization of TEs within the maize (Zea mays ssp mays) genome, documenting that TEs fall within three groups based on the class and copy numbers. These groups included DNA elements, low copy RNA elements and higher copy RNA elements. The three groups varied statistically in characteristics that included length, location, age, siRNA expression and 24:22 nucleotide (nt) siRNA targeting ratios. In addition, the low copy retroelements encompassed a set of TEs that had previously been shown to decrease expression within a 24 nt siRNA biogenesis mutant (mop1). To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the three groups, we estimated their abundance in two landraces, one with a genome similar in size to that of the maize reference and the other with a 30% larger genome. For all three accessions, we assessed TE abundance as well as 22 nt and 24 nt siRNA content within leaves. The high copy number retroelements are under targeted similarly by siRNAs among accessions, appear to be born of a rapid bust of activity, and may be currently transpositionally dead or limited. In contrast, the lower copy number group of retrolements are targeted more dynamically and have had a long and ongoing history of transposition in the maize genome. PMID:24743518

Diez, Concepcion M; Meca, Esteban; Tenaillon, Maud I; Gaut, Brandon S

2014-04-01

296

Three Groups of Transposable Elements with Contrasting Copy Number Dynamics and Host Responses in the Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) Genome  

PubMed Central

Most angiosperm nuclear DNA is repetitive and derived from silenced transposable elements (TEs). TE silencing requires substantial resources from the plant host, including the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Thus, the interaction between TEs and siRNAs is a critical aspect of both the function and the evolution of plant genomes. Yet the co-evolutionary dynamics between these two entities remain poorly characterized. Here we studied the organization of TEs within the maize (Zea mays ssp mays) genome, documenting that TEs fall within three groups based on the class and copy numbers. These groups included DNA elements, low copy RNA elements and higher copy RNA elements. The three groups varied statistically in characteristics that included length, location, age, siRNA expression and 24?22 nucleotide (nt) siRNA targeting ratios. In addition, the low copy retroelements encompassed a set of TEs that had previously been shown to decrease expression within a 24 nt siRNA biogenesis mutant (mop1). To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the three groups, we estimated their abundance in two landraces, one with a genome similar in size to that of the maize reference and the other with a 30% larger genome. For all three accessions, we assessed TE abundance as well as 22 nt and 24 nt siRNA content within leaves. The high copy number retroelements are under targeted similarly by siRNAs among accessions, appear to be born of a rapid bust of activity, and may be currently transpositionally dead or limited. In contrast, the lower copy number group of retrolements are targeted more dynamically and have had a long and ongoing history of transposition in the maize genome. PMID:24743518

Diez, Concepcion M.; Meca, Esteban; Tenaillon, Maud I.; Gaut, Brandon S.

2014-01-01

297

Evidence for Cross-Tolerance to Nutrient Deficiency in Three Disjunct Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata in Response to Substrate Calcium to Magnesium Ratio  

PubMed Central

Species with widespread distributions that grow in varied habitats may consist of ecotypes adapted to a particular habitat, or may exhibit cross-tolerance that enables them to exploit a variety of habitats. Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata (L.) O’Kane & Al-Shehbaz grow in a wide variety of edaphic settings including serpentine soil, limestone sand, and alluvial flood plains. While all three of these environments share some stressors, a crucial difference among these environments is soil calcium to magnesium ratio, which ranges from 25?1 in the limestone sand to 0.2?1 in serpentine soil. The three populations found on these substrates were subjected to three different Ca to Mg ratios under controlled environmental conditions during germination and rosette growth. Response to Ca to Mg ratio was evaluated through germination success and radicle growth rate, rosette growth rate, and the content of Ca and Mg in the rosette. All three populations were particularly efficient in fueling growth under nutrient deficiency, with the highest nutrient efficiency ratio for Ca under Ca deficiency and for Mg under Mg deficiency. Although the serpentine population had significantly higher leaf Ca to Mg ratio than the limestone or flood plain populations under all three Ca to Mg ratios, this increase did not result in any advantage in growth or appearance of the serpentine plants, during early life stages before the onset of flowering, even in the high Mg substrate. The three populations showed no population by substrate interaction for any of the parameters measured indicating that these populations may have cross-tolerance to substrate Ca to Mg ratio. PMID:23650547

Veatch-Blohm, Maren E.; Roche, Bernadette M.; Campbell, MaryJean

2013-01-01

298

Identification of microRNAs potentially involved in male sterility of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis using microRNA array and quantitative RT-PCR assays.  

PubMed

microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of newly identified, noncoding, small RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression. Many miRNAs are reportedly involved in plant growth, development and stress response processes. However, their roles in the sexual reproduction mechanisms in flowering plants remain unknown. Pollen development is an important process in the life cycle of a flowering plant, and it is closely related to the yield and quality of crop seeds. This study aimed to identify miRNAs involved in pollen development. A microarray assay was conducted using the known complementary sequences of plant miRNAs as probes on inflorescences of a sterile male line (Bcajh97-01A) and a fertile male line (Bcajh97-01B) of the Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis cv. 'Aijiaohuang' genic male sterility sister line system (Bcajh97-01A/B). The results showed that 44 miRNAs were differently expressed in the two lines. Of these, 15 had over 1.5-fold changes in their transcript levels, with 9 upregulated and 6 downregulated miRNAs in inflorescences of 'Bcajh97-01A' sterile line plants. We then focused on 3 of these 15 miRNAs (miR158, miR168 and miR172). Through computational methods, 13 family members were predicted for these 3 miRNAs and 22 genes were predicted to be their candidate target genes. By using 5' modified RACE, 2 target genes of miR168 and 5 target genes of miR172 were identified. Then, qRT-PCR was applied to verify the existence and expression patterns of the 3 miRNAs in the flower buds at five developmental stages. The results were generally consistent with those of the microarray. Thus, this study may give a valuable clue for further exploring the miRNA group that may function during pollen development. PMID:23864334

Jiang, Jianxia; Jiang, Jingjing; Yang, Yafei; Cao, Jiashu

2013-09-01

299

Phages of non-dairy lactococci: isolation and characterization of ?L47, a phage infecting the grass isolate Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860.  

PubMed

Lactococci isolated from non-dairy sources have been found to possess enhanced metabolic activity when compared to dairy strains. These capabilities may be harnessed through the use of these strains as starter or adjunct cultures to produce more diverse flavor profiles in cheese and other dairy products. To understand the interactions between these organisms and the phages that infect them, a number of phages were isolated against lactococcal strains of non-dairy origin. One such phage, ?L47, was isolated from a sewage sample using the grass isolate L. lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860 as a host. Visualization of phage virions by transmission electron microscopy established that this phage belongs to the family Siphoviridae and possesses a long tail fiber, previously unseen in dairy lactococcal phages. Determination of the lytic spectrum revealed a broader than expected host range, with ?L47 capable of infecting 4 industrial dairy strains, including ML8, HP and 310, and 3 additional non-dairy isolates. Whole genome sequencing of ?L47 revealed a dsDNA genome of 128, 546 bp, making it the largest sequenced lactococcal phage to date. In total, 190 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, and comparative analysis revealed that the predicted products of 117 of these ORFs shared greater than 50% amino acid identity with those of L. lactis phage ?949, a phage isolated from cheese whey. Despite their different ecological niches, the genomic content and organization of ?L47 and ?949 are quite similar, with both containing 4 gene clusters oriented in different transcriptional directions. Other features that distinguish ?L47 from ?949 and other lactococcal phages, in addition to the presence of the tail fiber and the genome length, include a low GC content (32.5%) and a high number of predicted tRNA genes (8). Comparative genome analysis supports the conclusion that ?L47 is a new member of the 949 lactococcal phage group which currently includes the dairy ?949. PMID:24454309

Cavanagh, Daniel; Guinane, Caitriona M; Neve, Horst; Coffey, Aidan; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; McAuliffe, Olivia

2014-01-13

300

Phages of non-dairy lactococci: isolation and characterization of ?L47, a phage infecting the grass isolate Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860  

PubMed Central

Lactococci isolated from non-dairy sources have been found to possess enhanced metabolic activity when compared to dairy strains. These capabilities may be harnessed through the use of these strains as starter or adjunct cultures to produce more diverse flavor profiles in cheese and other dairy products. To understand the interactions between these organisms and the phages that infect them, a number of phages were isolated against lactococcal strains of non-dairy origin. One such phage, ?L47, was isolated from a sewage sample using the grass isolate L. lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860 as a host. Visualization of phage virions by transmission electron microscopy established that this phage belongs to the family Siphoviridae and possesses a long tail fiber, previously unseen in dairy lactococcal phages. Determination of the lytic spectrum revealed a broader than expected host range, with ?L47 capable of infecting 4 industrial dairy strains, including ML8, HP and 310, and 3 additional non-dairy isolates. Whole genome sequencing of ?L47 revealed a dsDNA genome of 128, 546 bp, making it the largest sequenced lactococcal phage to date. In total, 190 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, and comparative analysis revealed that the predicted products of 117 of these ORFs shared greater than 50% amino acid identity with those of L. lactis phage ?949, a phage isolated from cheese whey. Despite their different ecological niches, the genomic content and organization of ?L47 and ?949 are quite similar, with both containing 4 gene clusters oriented in different transcriptional directions. Other features that distinguish ?L47 from ?949 and other lactococcal phages, in addition to the presence of the tail fiber and the genome length, include a low GC content (32.5%) and a high number of predicted tRNA genes (8). Comparative genome analysis supports the conclusion that ?L47 is a new member of the 949 lactococcal phage group which currently includes the dairy ?949. PMID:24454309

Cavanagh, Daniel; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Neve, Horst; Coffey, Aidan; Ross, R. Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; McAuliffe, Olivia

2014-01-01

301

Identification of novel and conserved miRNAs involved in pollen development in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis by high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis  

PubMed Central

Background microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, noncoding, small RNAs that have essential regulatory functions in plant growth, development, and stress response processes. However, limited information is available about their functions in sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Pollen development is an important process in the life cycle of a flowering plant and is a major factor that affects the yield and quality of crop seeds. Results This study aims to identify miRNAs involved in pollen development. Two independent small RNA libraries were constructed from the flower buds of the male sterile line (Bcajh97-01A) and male fertile line (Bcajh97-01B) of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis. The libraries were subjected to high-throughput sequencing by using the Illumina Solexa system. Eight novel miRNAs on the other arm of known pre-miRNAs, 54 new conserved miRNAs, and 8 novel miRNA members were identified. Twenty-five pairs of novel miRNA/miRNA* were found. Among all the identified miRNAs, 18 differentially expressed miRNAs with over two-fold change between flower buds of male sterile line (Bcajh97-01A) and male fertile line (Bcajh97-01B) were identified. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed miRNAs were preferentially expressed in flower buds of the male fertile line (Bcajh97-01B). Degradome analysis showed that a total of 15 genes were predicted to be the targets of seven miRNAs. Conclusions Our findings provide an overview of potential miRNAs involved in pollen development and interactions between miRNAs and their corresponding targets, which may provide important clues on the function of miRNAs in pollen development. PMID:24559317

2014-01-01

302

Short-term, daily intake of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24384) does not affect colonic transit time in women.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24 384) (Bf-6)-supplemented yogurt on colonic transit time (CTT). A triple-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over trial was conducted with sixty-eight women with a self-reported history of straining during bowel movements or hard or lumpy stools in the past 2 years. As per regulatory requirements for probiotic studies, eligible women were generally healthy and not actively constipated at the time of enrolment. Participants consumed both Bf-6 and placebo yogurts for 14 d each in a randomised order, with a 6-week washout period between the treatments. The primary outcome, CTT, was assessed via Sitz marker X-rays. The average CTT was 42·1 h for the active period and 43·3 h for the control period (mean difference 1·2 h, 95 % CI - 4·9, 7·4). Since the statistical tests for the cross-over study implied that the mean CTT for the active and control periods in period 2 were biased, the standard protocol suggests examining the results of only period 1 as a traditional randomised controlled trial. This showed that the mean CTT was 35·2 h for the active period v. 52·9 h for the control period (P= 0·015). Bootstrapping demonstrated that both the mean and median differences remained significant (P= 0·016 and P= 0·045, respectively). Few adverse events were noted, with no differences among the active and control periods. The paired analysis showed no differences between the active and control periods during the cross-over trial. Further trials should be conducted in populations with underlying problems associated with disordered transit to determine the potential value of probiotic supplementation more accurately. PMID:24103188

Merenstein, Daniel J; D'Amico, Frank; Palese, Caren; Hahn, Alexander; Sparenborg, Jessy; Tan, Tina; Scott, Hillary; Polzin, Kayla; Kolberg, Lore; Roberts, Robert

2014-01-28

303

Introduction to bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and assessment for bread-making quality of alleles from T. boeoticum Boiss. ssp. thaoudar at Glu-A1 encoding two high-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two alleles, Glu-A1r encoding high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits 39+40 and Glu-A1s encoding HMW glutenin subunits 41+42, were introgressed to bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Sicco from two accessions of T. boeoticum Boiss. ssp. thaoudar (A genome species, 2n=2x=14). Alleles at Glu-A1 in current commercial bread wheats encode zero or one subunit, and alleles at the homoeoloci Glu-B1 and Glu-D1

W. J. Rogers; T. E. Miller; P. I. Payne; J. A. Seekings; E. J. Sayers; L. M. Holt; C. N. Law

1997-01-01

304

Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.  

PubMed

Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may benefit from the reduction in WHP not only by reducing number of infected individuals but also by diminishing the individual losses in milk production per infected cow, and therefore should establish control measures. PMID:24589381

Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

2014-05-01

305

A 500 year early summer temperature reconstruction for the western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be severely affected by modern climate change. Strong temperature increase and precipitation decrease is expected for large regions, resulting in a northward extension of arid conditions. Information of past temperature changes which could contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often carry strong temperature information but they are critically in their application as climate proxies because of the influence by the change of atmopsheric CO2-concentration due to the fossil fuel burning effect. These changes are recorded in the chronologies by a remarkable downward trend over the last approximately 150 years and are routinely corrected. However, these correction values do not account for a plant physiological response to higher pCO2, a factor which is especially important in high mountain environments. We tested the influence of different correction models on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 years) derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica in the Western Mediterranean. A negative trend in the carbon isotope ratios during the last 150 years is still visible after correcting for changes of atmospheric CO2-concentration indicating that plant physiological responses to increased CO2 levels significantly influence the ?13C tree-ring values. Carbon isotope series corrected for both, increase in atmospheric CO2 and plant physiological response, show stronger correlations with climate parameters, especially summer temperature, and better mirror increasing temperatures in the climate data. Carbon isotope records from trees at cooler and wetter sites show generally lower ?13C-values and are more sensitive to temperature at the beginning of the vegetation period. ?13C records from drier and warmer sites are sensitive to drought stress during late summer. The strong and stable correlation of the carbon isotope ratios with May-June temperature at one study site allows a 500-year temperature reconstruction for the Western Mediterranean which will contribute to a better understanding of past climate variability in the Mediterranean basin.

Szymczak, S.; Joachimski, M. M.; Bräuning, A.; Hetzer, T.; Kuhlemann, J.

2012-04-01

306

Comparison of different preenrichment broths, egg:preenrichment broth ratios, and surface disinfection for the detection of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Enteritidis in shell eggs.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is the leading reported cause of Salmonella infections. Most Salmonella Enteritidis infections are associated with whole shell eggs and egg products. This project attempted to lay the foundation for improving the Food and Drug Administration's current Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs. Two Salmonella Enteritidis isolates were used for comparisons among different preenrichment and enrichment media and for the evaluation of egg:preenrichment broth ratios for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs. The effect of surface disinfection on the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs was also investigated. The results indicated that tryptic soy broth (TSB) was similar to TSB plus ferrous sulfate, but significantly (? = 0.05) better than nutrient broth, Universal Preenrichment broth, and buffered peptone water when used for preenrichment of Salmonella in shell eggs. Salmonella Enteritidis populations after enrichment with Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth were 0.40 to 1.11 log cfu/mL of culture lower than those in preenrichment cultures. The reduction was statistically significant (? = 0.05). Egg:broth ratios at 1:9 and 1:2 produced significantly (? = 0.05) higher Salmonella Enteritidis populations after preenrichment with TSB with inoculum levels at 4 cfu/100 g of eggs and 40 cfu/1,000 g of eggs than the ratio at 1:1. Salmonella Enteritidis populations in TSB preenrichment cultures of shell eggs surface-disinfected with 70% alcohol:iodine/potassium iodide solution and untreated control were 9.11 ± 0.11 and 9.18 ± 0.05 log cfu/mL, respectively, for SE 13-2, and 9.20 ± 0.04 and 9.16 ± 0.05 log cfu/mL, respectively, for SE CDC_2010K_1543. Surface disinfection of eggs did not reduce the sensitivity of detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid eggs. These results could improve the Food and Drug Administration's current Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for the detection of Salmonella in shell eggs by simplifying the preenrichment medium and changing the sample handling before enrichment. PMID:24135606

Zhang, G; Brown, E W; Hammack, T S

2013-11-01

307

SSP Power Management and Distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Solar Power is a NASA program sponsored by Marshall Space Flight Center. The Paper presented here represents the architectural study of a large power management and distribution (PMAD) system. The PMAD supplies power to a microwave array for power beaming to an earth rectenna (Rectifier Antenna). The power is in the GW level.

Lynch, Thomas H.; Roth, A. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

308

RhC Phenotyping, Adsorption/Elution Test, and SSP-PCR: The Combined Test for D-Elute Phenotype Screening in Thai RhD-Negative Blood Donors  

PubMed Central

The Rhesus (Rh) blood group is the most polymorphic human blood group and it is clinically significant in transfusion medicine. Especially, D antigen is the most important and highly immunogenic antigen. Due to anti-D, it is the cause of the hemolytic disease of the newborn and transfusion reaction. About 0.1%–0.5% of Asian people are RhD-negative, whereas in the Thai population, the RhD-negative blood type only occurs in 0.3%. Approximately 10%–30% of RhD-negative in Eastern Asian people actually were D-elute (DEL) phenotype, the very weak D antigen that cannot be detected by indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). There are many reports about anti-D immunization in RhD-negative recipients through the transfusion of red blood cells from individuals with DEL phenotype. D-elute phenotype screening in Thai RhD-negative blood donors was studied to distinguish true RhD-negative from DEL phenotype. A total of 254 Thai serologically RhD-negative blood donors were tested for RhCE phenotypes and anti-D adsorption/elution test. In addition, RhC(+) samples were tested for RHD 1227A allele by SSP-PCR technique. The RhD-negative phenotype samples consisted of 131 ccee, 4 ccEe, 1 ccEE, 101 Ccee, 16 CCee, and 1 CcEe. The 42 Ccee and 8 CCee phenotype samples were typed as DEL phenotype and 96% of DEL samples were positive for RHD 1227A allele. The incidence of RhC(+) was 46.4%, and 48 of the 118 RhC(+) samples were positive for both anti-D adsorption/elution test and SSP-PCR technique for RHD 1227A allele. The sensitivity and specificity were 96% and 100%, respectively, for RHD 1227A detection as compared with the adsorption/elution test. In conclusion, RhC(+) phenotype can combine with anti-D adsorption/elution test and RHD 1227A allele SSP-PCR technique for distinguishing true RhD-negative from DEL phenotype. PMID:23209920

Srijinda, Songsak; Suwanasophon, Chamaiporn; Visawapoka, Unchalee; Pongsavee, Malinee

2012-01-01

309

Differential effect of sample preservation methods on plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal DNA.  

PubMed

A wide range of methods are commonly used for preserving environmental samples prior to molecular analyses. However, the effect of these preservation methods on fungal DNA is not understood. The objective of this study was to test the effect of eight different preservation methods on the quality and yield of DNA extracted from Bromus inermis and Daucus carota roots colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus intraradices. The total DNA concentration in sample extracts was quantified using spectrophotometry. Samples that were frozen (-80 masculineC and -20 masculineC), stored in 95% ethanol, or silica gel dried yielded total (plant and fungal) DNA concentrations that were not significantly different from fresh samples. In contrast, samples stored in CTAB solution or freeze-dried resulted in significantly reduced DNA concentrations compared with fresh samples. The preservation methods had no effect on the purity of the sample extracts for both plant species. However, the DNA of the dried samples (silica gel dried, freeze-dried, heat dried) appeared to be slightly more degraded compared with samples that remained hydrated (frozen, stored in ethanol or CTAB solutions) during storage when visualized on a gel. The concentration of AM fungal DNA in sample extracts was quantified using TaqMan real time PCR. Methods that preserved samples in hydrated form had similar AM fungal DNA concentrations as fresh samples, except D. carota samples stored in ethanol. In contrast, preservation methods that involved drying the samples had very low concentrations of AM fungal DNA for B. inermis, and nearly undetectable for D. carota samples. The drying process appears to be a major factor in the degradation of AM fungal DNA while having less of an impact on plant DNA. Based on these results, samples that need to be preserved prior to molecular analysis of AM fungi should be kept frozen to minimize the degradation of plant and AM fungal DNA. PMID:20470836

Bainard, L D; Klironomos, J N; Hart, M M

2010-08-01

310

A longitudinal study to characterize the distribution patterns of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in semen, blood and faeces of a naturally infected bull by IS 900 semi-nested and quantitative real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Johne's disease is caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and has been recognized as an important bacterial infection in ruminants. Although MAP has been detected in semen and within the reproductive organs of bulls, the bacterial distribution and shedding patterns are currently not well characterized. Our investigation was performed to detect and quantify MAP in faeces, semen and blood samples repeatedly drawn from a naturally infected but asymptomatic 18-month-old German Simmental breeding bull candidate over a period of 3 years (June 2007-November 2010). Qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to correlate the presence and matrix-specific amounts of MAP. In total, 65 sampling dates were selected. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was detected intermittently in all matrices with MAP-free intervals of up to 18 weeks by an IS900 semi-nested PCR. The number of MAP-positive results from semen and blood samples was higher than from faecal samples. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction detected the highest MAP contents in faeces (10(3) -10(6) MAP/g), while lower amounts were found in semen and blood samples (10(2) -10(5) MAP/ml). Although no significant agreement was calculated between the presence of MAP in faeces and blood, a statistically significant positive correlation between its occurrence in semen and blood was determined (r = 0.38, P < 0.05, n = 29). The present study contributes to a more detailed understanding of MAP distribution patterns in faeces, semen and blood of a subclinically infected breeding bull candidate. It highlights the possible role of breeding bulls as a source of MAP transmission and indicates the need for further monitoring and hygienic measures to prevent the spread of the infection via semen. PMID:22571476

Münster, P; Völkel, I; Wemheuer, W; Schwarz, D; Döring, S; Czerny, C-P

2013-04-01

311

Anthiovulatory activity of five indigenous plants in rabbits.  

PubMed

The petroleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of 5 indigenous plants, known to have antifertility activity in female rats and mice (Areca catechu Linn, Carica papaya Linn, Daucus carota Linn, Mentha arvensis Linn and polygonum hydropiper Linn), were evaluated for their possible antiovulatory activity in rabbits with copper-induced ovulation. The alcoholic extract of Mentha arvensis (leaves) and the petroleum ether extract of the roots of Polygonum hydropiper were the most successful agents, inhibiting ovulation in 60% of the animals. All the other extracts inhibited ovulation in 40%, or less, of the animals. PMID:4442983

Kapoor, M; Garg, S K; Mathur, V S

1974-08-01

312

EPR as an analytical tool in assessing the mineral nutrients and irradiated food products-vegetables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EPR spectral investigations of some commonly available vegetables in south India, which are of global importance like Daucus carota (carrot), Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (cluster beans), Coccinia indica (little gourd) and Beta vulgaris (beet root) have been carried out. In all the vegetable samples a free radical corresponding to cellulose radical is observed. Almost all the samples under investigation exhibit Mn ions in different oxidation states. The temperature variation EPR studies are done and are discussed in view of the paramagnetic oxidation states. The radiation-induced defects have also been assessed by using the EPR spectra of such irradiated food products.

Prasuna, C. P. Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Gopal, N. O.

2008-12-01

313

On the mechanism of the uptake of Vaucheria chloroplasts by carrot protoplasts treated with polyethylene glycol.  

PubMed

Chloroplasts from the alga, Vaucheria dichotoma (L.) Ag., are taken up into protoplasts of carrot (Daucus carota L.) during polyethylene-glycol treatment. Since chloroplasts are found with equal frequency in uni- and multinucleate protoplasts, chloroplast uptake does not depend on protoplast fusion. However, higher frequencies of chloroplast uptake are observed when experimental conditions favor greater aggregation of protoplasts. The intracellular localization of chloroplasts is confirmed by electron microscopy, and it is shown that the chloroplasts, once within the protoplasts, are not surrounded by a limiting membrane of carrot origin. PMID:24424824

Bonnett, H T

1976-01-01

314

Variation inGermination andAminoAcidLeakage ofSeeds with Temperature Related toMembranePhaseChange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leakages ofaminoacids and\\/or fluorescent material asfunctions of temperature between 15and40C arereported forimbibed seeds of Avenafatua L.,Lactuca sativa L.,Barbarea vulgaris R.Br., Amaran- thus albus L.,Abutilon theophrasti Medic., Lychnis albaMill., Daucus carotaL.,Setaria faberi Herrm., Setaria viridis (L.)Beauv., and Daturastramonium L.Theleakage indicates prominent increase in permeability oftheplasmalemma inthe30to35Crange for8ofthe10 kinds ofseeds studied. Germination oftheseeds atconstant tempera- tures orwithdaily shifts intemperature isrelated tothemembrane transition

STERLING B. HENDRICKS; RAYB. TAYLORSON

315

Change in the Proportion of Two Aspartokinases in Carrot Root Tissue in Response to in Vitro Culture 1  

PubMed Central

Two isofunctional aspartokinases (EC 2.7.2.4) exist in fresh root tissue of carrot (Daucus carota, cv. Oogata sanzun). The threoninesensitive portion constitutes about 70% of the activity; the lysinesensitive, less than 20%. Culture of slices of carrot tissue for 3 days reversed the ratio as the lysine-sensitive activity preferentially increased. Inhibition by threonine and lysine was additive in both enzyme preparations from fresh and cultured tissues. The activities were resolved into two distinct fractions of different sensitivity to threonine and lysine by DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column chromatography. PMID:16660222

Sakano, Katsuhiro; Komamine, Atsushi

1978-01-01

316

Screening seeds of Scottish plants for antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Based on ethnopharmacological and taxonomic information, seeds of 21 Scottish plant species from 14 different families were obtained from authentic seed suppliers. Their n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts were assessed for antibacterial activity against 11 pathogenic bacterial species. Methanol extracts of 11 plant species showed significant antibacterial activity. Malva moschata and Prunus padus were active against five bacterial species, Reseda lutea against four, Centaurium erythraea and Crithmum maritimum against three, Calluna vulgaris against two, and Armeria maritima, Centaurea scabiosa, Daucus carota, Rosa canina and Stellaria holostea against one bacterial species. C. erythraea and P. padus were also active against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:12413709

Kumarasamy, Yashodharan; Cox, Philip John; Jaspars, Marcel; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit Dey

2002-11-01

317

Molecular evolution of flavonoid dioxygenases in the family Apiaceae.  

PubMed

Plant species of the family Apiaceae are known to accumulate flavonoids mainly in the form of flavones and flavonols. Three 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, flavone synthase or flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase are involved in the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites. The corresponding genes were cloned recently from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves. Flavone synthase I appears to be confined to the Apiaceae, and the unique occurrence as well as its high sequence similarity to flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase laid the basis for evolutionary studies. In order to examine the relationship of these two enzymes throughout the Apiaceae, RT-PCR based cloning and functional identification of flavone synthases I or flavanone 3beta-hydroxylases were accomplished from Ammi majus, Anethum graveolens, Apium graveolens, Pimpinella anisum, Conium maculatum and Daucus carota, yielding three additional synthase and three additional hydroxylase cDNAs. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of these sequences were compatible with the phylogeny based on morphological characteristics and suggested that flavone synthase I most likely resulted from gene duplication of flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase, and functional diversification at some point during the development of the apiaceae subfamilies. Furthermore, the genomic sequences from Petroselinum crispum and Daucus carota revealed two introns in each of the synthases and a lack of introns in the hydroxylases. These results might be explained by intron losses from the hydroxylases occurring at a later stage of evolution. PMID:15913674

Gebhardt, Yvonne; Witte, Simone; Forkmann, Gert; Lukacin, Richard; Matern, Ulrich; Martens, Stefan

2005-06-01

318

Influence of High-Pressure Processing on the Profile of Polyglutamyl 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate in Selected Vegetables  

PubMed Central

In plants, folate occurs predominantly as 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) polyglutamyl forms. Differences in stability and bioavailability of food folate compared to synthetic folic acid have been attributed to the presence of the polyglutamyl chain. High-pressure processing (HPP) was tested for whether it might shorten polyglutamyl chains of 5MTHF species in fresh vegetables by enabling action of native ?-glutamylhydrolase (GGH). A validated ultrahigh-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method using stable isotope as internal standard was applied for characterizing 5MTHF polyglutamyl profiles. HPP conditions included 300, 450, and 600 MPa at 30 °C for 0 or 5 min, and vegetables were vacuum-packed before treatment. Investigated vegetables included cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), baby carrots (Daucus carota), and carrot greens (D. carota). HPP treatment caused conversion of polyglutamyl 5MTHF species to short-chain and monoglutamyl forms. Maximal conversion of polyglutamyl folate to monoglutamyl folate occurred at the highest pressure/time combination investigated, 600 MPa/30 °C/5 min. Under this condition, cauliflower monoglutamyl folate increased nearly 4-fold, diglutamyl folate 32-fold, and triglutamyl folate 8-fold; carrot monoglutamyl increased 23-fold and diglutamyl 32-fold; and carrot greens monoglutamyl increased 2.5-fold and the diglutamyl form 19-fold. Although some folate degradation was observed at certain intermediate HPP conditions, total 5MTHF folate was largely preserved at 600 MPa/5 min. Thus, HPP of raw vegetables is a feasible strategy for enhancing vegetable monoglutamate 5MTHF. PMID:21770413

Wang, Chao; Riedl, Ken M.; Somerville, Jeremy; Balasubramaniam, V. M.; Schwartz, Steven J.

2013-01-01

319

Mapping genes governing flower architecture and pollen development in a double mutant population of carrot  

PubMed Central

A linkage map of carrot (Daucus carota L.) was developed in order to study reproductive traits. The F2 mapping population derived from an initial cross between a yellow leaf (yel) chlorophyll mutant and a compressed lamina (cola) mutant with unique flower defects of the sporophytic parts of male and female organs. The genetic map has a total length of 781 cM and included 285 loci. The length of the nine linkage groups (LGs) ranged between 65 and 145 cM. All LGs have been anchored to the reference map. The objective of this study was the generation of a well-saturated linkage map of D. carota. Mapping of the cola-locus associated with flower development and fertility was successfully demonstrated. Two MADS-box genes (DcMADS3, DcMADS5) with prominent roles in flowering and reproduction as well as three additional genes (DcAOX2a, DcAOX2b, DcCHS2) with further importance for male reproduction were assigned to different loci that did not co-segregate with the cola-locus. PMID:25339960

Budahn, Holger; Bara?ski, Rafa?; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Kie?kowska, Agnieszka; Straka, Petra; Metge, Kai; Linke, Bettina; Nothnagel, Thomas

2014-01-01

320

Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems. Initial assessment of plant DNA mutation spectra as a biomarker  

SciTech Connect

Munitions material can enter the environment as a result of manufacturing activities and field usage. Predictor methodologies, or biomarkers would enhance evaluation of environmental impacts. The goal of this exploratory study deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mutation frequency as a biomarker for munitions exposure. The approach e resolution of an effective repetitive sequence probe for the identification of characteristic mutations, and (2) the development of a testing media [a clonal cell line of carrot (Daucus carota) spension cells]. Commercially available probes demonstrated marginal resolution therefore a low-C{sub o}t library was then constructed. Three colonies from the low-C{sub o}t DNA library were screened and the DNA isolates sequenced. A suspension culture of carrot (Daucus carota) was developed. A mutation spectra experiment was initiated at a 10-mg TNT/L exposure concentration with the attempt to clone over 1500 single TNT-exposed cells. Over the following six months greater than 98% of the initially isolated cells were unable to survive and produce micro calluses. The remaining calli were too few to be statistically significant and the experiment was terminated. The biomarker concept itself remains to be disproved, but the need for large numbers of uniform clones to differentiate true mutations suggest that more direct techniques using whole tissues need to be developed.

Leung, F.; Cataldo, D.A.; Fellows, R.J.; Jarrell, A.E.; Harvey, S.D.

1995-09-01

321

The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), ?-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and ?-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

2014-12-01

322

Novel mechanism of modulating natural antioxidants in functional foods: involvement of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria NRRL B-30488.  

PubMed

The significance of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mediated increase in antioxidant potential in vegetables is yet unknown. The plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 (B-30488) mediated induction of dietary antioxidant in vegetables ( Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lactuca sativa, Spinacia oleracea, and Daucus carota) and fruit ( Citrus sinensis) after minimal processing (fresh, boiled, and frozen) was tested by estimating the total phenol content, level of antioxidant enzymes, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide scavenging activities along with integral radical scavenging capacity by photochemiluminescence assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Minimal processing of vegetables showed that T. foenum-graecum had the highest phenol content in B-30488-treated plants followed by L. sativa, D. carota, and S. oleracea. Thermally treated vegetables T. foenum-graecum (26-114.5 GAE microg mg (-1)) had an exceptionally high total phenolic content, followed by D. carota (25.27-101.32 GAE microg mg (-1)), L. sativa (23.22-101.10 GAE microg mg (-1)), and S. oleracea (21.87-87.57 GAE microg mg (-1)). Among the vegetables and fruit used in this study for enzymatic estimation, induction of antioxidant enzymes, namely, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD), was observed in edible parts of T. foenum-graecum, L. sativa, S. oleracea, and D. carota, after inoculation with B-30488. The scavenging capacity of the vegetables treated with B-30488 against DPPH and superoxide anion radical activity was found to be significantly high as compared to nontreated control. Mild food processing had no adverse effect on radical scavenging capacity. Photochemiluminescence also ascertains the above findings. The ability of the plant extracts to protect against lipid peroxidation and its ability to prevent oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured in rat liver homogenate, and the results suggested that the inoculated plant exhibited better activity in all of the screened plants. Significant increases in shoot length, root length, and dry weight, averaging 164, 132, and 135% in T. foenum-graecum, 174, 141, and 156% in L. sativa, 129, 141, and 59%, in S. oleracea, and 125, 146, and 42% in D. carota, respectively, over untreated controls, were attained in greenhouse trials. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of PGPR-mediated induction of antioxidant enzyme activity (PPO, APX, CAT, and SOD) along with the antioxidant activity of the extracts in both in vitro (DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide scavenging) and ex vivo conditions using the rat liver tissue (percent inhibition of lipid peroxidation and prevention of oxidation of GSH) and phenolic content. The results demonstrate the PGPR-mediated induction of antioxidant level in vegetables and fruit controls oxidative damage even after minimal processing and thus is indicative of its potential as a viable substitute of synthetic antioxidants. PMID:18491912

Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Lavania, Meeta; Pushpangadan, Palpu

2008-06-25

323

Transposon mutagenesis of the plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 revealed that the nfrA and RBAM17410 genes are involved in plant-microbe-interactions.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 represents the prototype of Gram-positive plant growth promoting and biocontrol bacteria. In this study, we applied transposon mutagenesis to generate a transposon library, which was screened for genes involved in multicellular behavior and biofilm formation on roots as a prerequisite of plant growth promoting activity. Transposon insertion sites were determined by rescue-cloning followed by DNA sequencing. As in B. subtilis, the global transcriptional regulator DegU was identified as an activator of genes necessary for swarming and biofilm formation, and the DegU-mutant of FZB42 was found impaired in efficient root colonization. Direct screening of 3,000 transposon insertion mutants for plant-growth-promotion revealed the gene products of nfrA and RBAM_017140 to be essential for beneficial effects exerted by FZB42 on plants. We analyzed the performance of GFP-labeled wild-type and transposon mutants in the colonization of lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While the wild-type strain heavily colonized root surfaces, the nfrA mutant did not colonize lettuce roots, although it was not impaired in growth in laboratory cultures, biofilm formation and swarming motility on agar plates. The RBAM17410 gene, occurring in only a few members of the B. subtilis species complex, was directly involved in plant growth promotion. None of the mutant strains were affected in producing the plant growth hormone auxin. We hypothesize that the nfrA gene product is essential for overcoming the stress caused by plant response towards bacterial root colonization. PMID:24847778

Budiharjo, Anto; Chowdhury, Soumitra Paul; Dietel, Kristin; Beator, Barbara; Dolgova, Olga; Fan, Ben; Bleiss, Wilfrid; Ziegler, Jörg; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Borriss, Rainer

2014-01-01

324

Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy of cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 demonstrates that group I cations are particularly effective in providing structure and stability to this halophilic protein.  

PubMed

Proteins from extremophiles have the ability to fold and remain stable in their extreme environment. Here, we investigate the presence of this effect in the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 (NRC-1), which was used as a model halophilic protein. The effects of salt on the structure and stability of NRC-1 and of E. coli CysRS were investigated through far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation melts. The CD of NRC-1 CysRS was examined in different group I and group II chloride salts to examine the effects of the metal ions. Potassium was observed to have the strongest effect on NRC-1 CysRS structure, with the other group I salts having reduced strength. The group II salts had little effect on the protein. This suggests that the halophilic adaptations in this protein are mediated by potassium. CD and fluorescence spectra showed structural changes taking place in NRC-1 CysRS over the concentration range of 0-3 M KCl, while the structure of E. coli CysRS was relatively unaffected. Salt was also shown to increase the thermal stability of NRC-1 CysRS since the melt temperature of the CysRS from NRC-1 was increased in the presence of high salt, whereas the E. coli enzyme showed a decrease. By characterizing these interactions, this study not only explains the stability of halophilic proteins in extremes of salt, but also helps us to understand why and how group I salts stabilize proteins in general. PMID:24594651

Reed, Christopher J; Bushnell, Sarah; Evilia, Caryn

2014-01-01

325

Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Cysteinyl-tRNA Synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 Demonstrates that Group I Cations Are Particularly Effective in Providing Structure and Stability to This Halophilic Protein  

PubMed Central

Proteins from extremophiles have the ability to fold and remain stable in their extreme environment. Here, we investigate the presence of this effect in the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 (NRC-1), which was used as a model halophilic protein. The effects of salt on the structure and stability of NRC-1 and of E. coli CysRS were investigated through far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation melts. The CD of NRC-1 CysRS was examined in different group I and group II chloride salts to examine the effects of the metal ions. Potassium was observed to have the strongest effect on NRC-1 CysRS structure, with the other group I salts having reduced strength. The group II salts had little effect on the protein. This suggests that the halophilic adaptations in this protein are mediated by potassium. CD and fluorescence spectra showed structural changes taking place in NRC-1 CysRS over the concentration range of 0–3 M KCl, while the structure of E. coli CysRS was relatively unaffected. Salt was also shown to increase the thermal stability of NRC-1 CysRS since the melt temperature of the CysRS from NRC-1 was increased in the presence of high salt, whereas the E. coli enzyme showed a decrease. By characterizing these interactions, this study not only explains the stability of halophilic proteins in extremes of salt, but also helps us to understand why and how group I salts stabilize proteins in general. PMID:24594651

Reed, Christopher J.; Bushnell, Sarah; Evilia, Caryn

2014-01-01

326

Alcataenia fraterculae sp. n. from the horned puffin, Fratercula corniculata (Naumann), Alcataenia cerorhincae sp. n. from the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas), and Alcataenia larina pacifica ssp. n. (Cestoda: Dilepididae) in the North Pacific basin.  

PubMed

Three Cestodes representing two species of the genus Alcataenia Spasskaia, 1971 and a subspecies of Alcataenia larina (Krabbe, 1869) are described. Alcataenia fraterculae sp. n. (Cestoda: Dilepididae) was found in horned puffins, Fratercula corniculata (Naumann), and other species of seabirds from localities in the western Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, and Chukchi Sea. Alcataenia cerorhincae sp. n. is described from the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas) in the eastern North Pacific Ocean and western Aleutian Islands. Alcataenia larina pacifica ssp. n. is recognized from species of Laridae and other seabirds in the North Pacific Ocean, Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea and the region of the Arctic Ocean near Bering Strait. It is distinguished from A. larina larina (Krabbe, 1869) by a greater number of testes, a longer cirrus sac, and variation in the position of the genital ducts which may be either dorsal to or between the osmoregulatory canals. A fraterculae and A. cerorhincae are most similar to A. larina and particularly to the North Pacific form A. l. pacifica. Generally specimens of A. fraterculae can be distinguished from the other taxa by larger rostellar hooks, a longer cirrus sac, and a combination of other characters. A. fraterculae, A. cerorhincae, and A. l. pacifica however represent a complex of cryptic species in which there is extensive overlap in some morphological characters. Results of a discriminant analysis among these nominal taxa were significant and, in combination with data about other morphological characters and host and geographic distribution, clearly indicated that these represent three species in the North Pacific basin. PMID:6486621

Hoberg, E P

1984-01-01

327

Effect of drying methods of microencapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris on secondary protein structure and glass transition temperature as studied by Fourier transform infrared and differential scanning calorimetry.  

PubMed

Protective mechanisms of casein-based microcapsules containing mannitol on Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, changes in their secondary protein structures, and glass transition of the microcapsules were studied after spray- or freeze-drying and after 10 wk of storage in aluminum foil pouches containing different desiccants (NaOH, LiCl, or silica gel) at 25°C. An in situ Fourier transform infrared analysis was carried out to recognize any changes in fatty acids (FA) of bacterial cell envelopes, interaction between polar site of cell envelopes and microcapsules, and alteration of their secondary protein structures. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine glass transition of microcapsules based on glass transition temperature (T(g)) values. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on functional groups of cell envelopes and secondary protein structures was also carried out to classify the microencapsulated bacteria due to the effects of spray- or freeze-drying and storage for 10 wk. The results showed that drying process did not affect FA and secondary protein structures of bacteria; however, those structures were affected during storage depending upon the type of desiccant used. Interaction between exterior of bacterial cell envelopes and microencapsulant occurred after spray- or freeze-drying; however, these structures were maintained after storage in foil pouch containing sodium hydroxide. Method of drying and type of desiccants influenced the level of similarities of microencapsulated bacteria. Desiccants and method of drying affected glass transition, yet no T(g) ?25°C was detected. This study demonstrated that the changes in FA and secondary structures of the microencapsulated bacteria still occurred during storage at T(g) above room temperature, indicating that the glassy state did not completely prevent chemical activities. PMID:23357021

Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay; Shah, Nagendra P

2013-03-01

328

Transposon Mutagenesis of the Plant-Associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 Revealed That the nfrA and RBAM17410 Genes Are Involved in Plant-Microbe-Interactions  

PubMed Central

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 represents the prototype of Gram-positive plant growth promoting and biocontrol bacteria. In this study, we applied transposon mutagenesis to generate a transposon library, which was screened for genes involved in multicellular behavior and biofilm formation on roots as a prerequisite of plant growth promoting activity. Transposon insertion sites were determined by rescue-cloning followed by DNA sequencing. As in B. subtilis, the global transcriptional regulator DegU was identified as an activator of genes necessary for swarming and biofilm formation, and the DegU-mutant of FZB42 was found impaired in efficient root colonization. Direct screening of 3,000 transposon insertion mutants for plant-growth-promotion revealed the gene products of nfrA and RBAM_017140 to be essential for beneficial effects exerted by FZB42 on plants. We analyzed the performance of GFP-labeled wild-type and transposon mutants in the colonization of lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While the wild-type strain heavily colonized root surfaces, the nfrA mutant did not colonize lettuce roots, although it was not impaired in growth in laboratory cultures, biofilm formation and swarming motility on agar plates. The RBAM17410 gene, occurring in only a few members of the B. subtilis species complex, was directly involved in plant growth promotion. None of the mutant strains were affected in producing the plant growth hormone auxin. We hypothesize that the nfrA gene product is essential for overcoming the stress caused by plant response towards bacterial root colonization. PMID:24847778

Dietel, Kristin; Beator, Barbara; Dolgova, Olga; Fan, Ben; Bleiss, Wilfrid; Ziegler, Jorg; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Borriss, Rainer

2014-01-01

329

Tungsten phosphanylarylthiolato complexes [W{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa3S,S',P} 2] and [W{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa4S,S',S",P}2]: synthesis, structures and redox chemistry.  

PubMed

PhP(2-SHC6H4)2 (PS2H2) reacts with WCl6 with reduction of tungsten to give the air-sensitive tungsten(IV) complex [W{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',P}2] (1). 1 is oxidised in air to [WO{PhPO(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',O}{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',P}] (2). The attempted synthesis of 2 by reaction of 1 with iodosobenzene as oxidising agent was unsuccessful. [W{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa(4)S,S',S",P}2] (3) was formed in the reaction of P(2-SHC6H4)3 (PS3H3) with WCl6. The W(VI) complex 3 contains two PS3(3-) ligands, each coordinated in a tetradentate fashion resulting in a tungsten coordination number of eight. The reaction of 3 with AgBF4 yields the dinuclear tungsten complex [W2{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa(4)S,S',S",P}3]BF4 (4). Complexes 1-4 were characterised by spectral methods and X-ray structure determination. PMID:19024363

Hildebrand, Alexandra; Lönnecke, Peter; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminita; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie

2008-09-14

330

Susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria ssp  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with {sup 3}H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with {sup 125}I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae.

Whiteman, L.Y.

1988-01-01

331

Concept Note Sanitation Safety Plans (SSP):  

E-print Network

A vehicle for guideline implementation This note serves as an introduction to the concept of sanitation safety plans, which aim to facilitate the implementation of the guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater in agriculture and aquaculture (WHO, 2006). It provides background information on the links between sanitation and human health, recent developments with respect to sanitation policies and updates on access and use of sanitation. This concept note also elaborates on the context, contents, and possible objectives and boundaries of sanitation safety plans, and highlights questions that remain unanswered and merit further discussion. The intention of this concept note is to serve as a basis for discussion among stakeholders in safe sanitation and wastewater use, scientists, managers and practitioners, in order to generate ideas and interest to contribute to the development of a Manual on Sanitation Safety Plans. Background Sanitation & health- the narrow picture On July 28 2010, the UN General Assembly adopted a non-binding resolution calling on states and international organisations “to scale up efforts to provide safe, clean, accessible

unknown authors

332

Survival of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis DSMZ 10140 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. animalis ATCC 25527  

E-print Network

of Food Science College of Agriculture, Pennsylvania State University Summer 2009 Abstract Probiotic benefit on the host" (FAO/WHO 2002); Based on this definition, to exert health benefits the organisms must plates incubated anaerobically at 37°C. These organisms were chosen because of their close genetic

Omiecinski, Curtis

333

An improved UHPLC-UV method for separation and quantification of carotenoids in vegetable crops.  

PubMed

Carotenoid identification and quantitation is critical for the development of improved nutrition plant varieties. Industrial analysis of carotenoids is typically carried out on multiple crops with potentially thousands of samples per crop, placing critical needs on speed and broad utility of the analytical methods. Current chromatographic methods for carotenoid analysis have had limited industrial application due to their low throughput, requiring up to 60 min for complete separation of all compounds. We have developed an improved UHPLC-UV method that resolves all major carotenoids found in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota), corn (Zea mays), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The chromatographic method is completed in 13.5 min allowing for the resolution of the 11 carotenoids of interest, including the structural isomers lutein/zeaxanthin and ?-/?-carotene. Additional minor carotenoids have also been separated and identified with this method, demonstrating the utility of this method across major commercial food crops. PMID:25038701

Maurer, Megan M; Mein, Jonathan R; Chaudhuri, Swapan K; Constant, Howard L

2014-12-15

334

Simulation of germination of pioneer species along an experimental drought gradient.  

PubMed

The germination of ten plant species from the Iberian Peninsula was assessed along a water deficit gradient between -0. 1652 (moist) and -0.4988 MPa (dry) of osmotic potential, created by addition of increasing concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) to distilled water in which plants were grown hydroponically. The level and rate of germination of Daucus carota and Thapsia villosa significantly decreased with decreasing psi. Seeds of Dactylis glomerata and Dittrichia viscosa had positive germination responses to low osmotic potentials; germination of Epilobium hirsutum was not affected by osmotic potential. Germination of Medicago arabica, Cynosurus cristatus, Cistus ladanifer and Cistus albidus, was no favored by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Germination of Foeniculum vulgare and Thapsia villosa was inhibited by PEG. PMID:17405330

Pérez-Fernández, María A; Calvo-Magro, E; Ferrer-Castán, D

2006-10-01

335

Sensitivity of Carrot Cell Cultures and RNA Polymerase II to Amatoxins 1  

PubMed Central

Protoplast and cell suspension cultures of Daucus carota L. were evaluated for their sensitivity toward the three amatoxin derivatives, ?-amanitin, 6?-deoxy-?-amanitin, and 6?-O-methyl-?-amanitin using inhibition of DNA synthesis to measure cell viability. Protoplasts appeared approximately 10-fold more refractory than suspension cells and ?-amanitin was much less effective than the other two amatoxins, even though Ki values for isolated RNA polymerase II were similar (4-5 nanomolar). Additional studies evaluating the recoveries of all three amatoxins from cell suspension supernates indicate one basis for these differences to be the selective degradation of ?-amanitin. A mechanism involving the activation of the hydroxyindole moiety of the ?-amanitin is thus invoked to explain these differences and we postulate the involvement of plant oxidases in this role. PMID:16664072

Little, Michael C.; Preston, James F.

1985-01-01

336

Transfer of resistance traits from carrot into tobacco by asymmetric somatic hybridization: Regeneration of fertile plants  

PubMed Central

Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly lower chromosome number than predicted by simple addition of parental chromosome number. The methotrexate resistance phenotype was correlated with the expression of carrot-specific dihydrofolate reductase as judged by isozyme and immunological characteristics of the enzyme. The genomic construct of these somatic hybrids made the transmission of the resistance character into the next sexual generation possible. Images PMID:16593902

Dudits, Denes; Maroy, Eszter; Praznovszky, Tunde; Olah, Zoltan; Gyorgyey, Janos; Cella, Rino

1987-01-01

337

Effects of Aspartate and Other Compounds on Glyphosate Uptake and Growth Inhibition in Cultured Carrot Cells 1  

PubMed Central

The strong correlation between glyphosate uptake and growth inhibition of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L. cv Danvers) cells incubated in the presence of aspartate suggests that aspartate reverses glyphosate inhibition of growth primarily by reducing intracellular glyphosate concentration. Other compounds which reverse glyphosate inhibition of cell growth gave a range of effects on glyphosate uptake: succinate, ?-ketoglutarate, glutamate, pyruvate, and malate at 10 millimolar and phenylalanine at 2 millimolar reduced uptake by 0, 8, 11, 16, 27, and 34%, respectively. These results suggest that more than one mechanism of reversal may operate in these cells. Glyphosate and aspartate produced only minor effects on intracellular ammonia, media pH, and cell viability. This suggests that ammonia toxicity may not be an important mechanism of action of glyphosate in this system. PMID:16662877

Nafziger, Emerson D.; Widholm, Jack M.; Slife, Fred W.

1983-01-01

338

The Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Plant Nitrogen Metabolism 12  

PubMed Central

In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, in vitro gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and automated 15N/13C mass spectrometry have been used to demonstrate that glutamate dehydrogenase is active in the oxidation of glutamate, but not in the reductive amination of 2-oxogiutarate. In cell suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv Chantenay), primary assimilation of ammonium occurs via the glutamate synthase pathway. Glutamate dehydrogenase is derepressed in carbonlimited cells and in such cells the function of glutamate dehydrogenase appears to be the oxidation of glutamate, thus ensuring sufficient carbon skeletons for effective functioning of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This catabolic role for glutamate dehydrogenase implies an important regulatory function in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:16668014

Robinson, Sharon A.; Slade, Annette P.; Fox, Gary G.; Phillips, Richard; Ratcliffe, R. George; Stewart, George R.

1991-01-01

339

Long and short term effects of plasma treatment on meristematic plant cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we will present results of plasma treatments of meristematic cells of Daucus carota. Plasma needle was used as an atmospheric pressure/gas composition source of non-equilibrium plasma in all treatments. Activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase was measured immediately after plasma treatment and after two weeks following the treatment. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased in samples immediately after the plasma treatment. On the other hand, catalase activity was much higher in treated samples when measured two weeks after plasma treatment. These results show that there is a direct proof of the triggering of signal transduction in the cells by two reactive oxygen species H2O2 and O2-, causing enzyme activity and short and long term effects even during the growth of calli, where the information is passed to newborn cells over the period of two weeks.

Pua?, N.; Živkovi?, S.; Selakovi?, N.; Milutinovi?, M.; Boljevi?, J.; Malovi?, G.; Petrovi?, Z. Lj.

2014-05-01

340

A carrot G-box binding factor-type basic region/leucine zipper factor DcBZ1 is involved in abscisic acid signal transduction in somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Carrot (Daucus carota) somatic embryogenesis has been extensively used as an experimental system for studying embryogenesis. In maturing zygotic embryos, abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in acquisition of desiccation tolerance and dormancy. On the other hand, somatic embryos contain low levels of endogenous ABA and show desiccation intolerance and lack dormancy, but tolerance and dormancy can be induced by exogenous application of ABA. In ABA-treated carrot embryos, some ABA-inducible genes are expressed. We isolated the Daucus carota bZIP1 (DcBZ1) gene encoding a G-box binding factor-type basic region/leucine zipper (GBF-type bZIP) factor from carrot somatic embryos. The expression of DcBZ1 was detected in embryogenic cells, non-embryogenic cells, somatic embryos, developing seeds, seedlings, and true leaves. Notably, higher expression was detected in embryogenic cells, true leaves, and seedlings. The expression of DcBZ1 increased in seedlings and true leaves after ABA treatment, whereas expression was not affected by differences in light conditions. During the development of zygotic and somatic embryos, increased expression of DcBZ1 was commonly detected in the later phase of development. The recombinant DcBZ1 protein showed specific binding activity to the two ABA-responsive element-like motifs (motif X and motif Y) in the promoter region of the carrot ABA-inducible gene according to results from an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Our findings suggest that the carrot GBF-type bZIP factor, DcBZ1, is involved in ABA signal transduction in embryogenesis and other vegetative tissues. PMID:18407508

Shiota, Hajime; Ko, Sukmin; Wada, Shinko; Otsu, Claudia Tomiko; Tanaka, Ichiro; Kamada, Hiroshi

2008-01-01

341

CarrotDB: a genomic and transcriptomic database for carrot.  

PubMed

Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is an economically important vegetable worldwide and is the largest source of carotenoids and provitamin A in the human diet. Given the importance of this vegetable to humans, research and breeding communities on carrot should obtain useful genomic and transcriptomic information. The first whole-genome sequences of 'DC-27' carrot were de novo assembled and analyzed. Transcriptomic sequences of 14 carrot genotypes were downloaded from the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and mapped to the whole-genome sequence before assembly. Based on these data sets, the first Web-based genomic and transcriptomic database for D. carota (CarrotDB) was developed (database homepage: http://apiaceae.njau.edu.cn/car rotdb). CarrotDB offers the tools of Genome Map and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Using these tools, users can search certain target genes and simple sequence repeats along with designed primers of 'DC-27'. Assembled transcriptomic sequences along with fragments per kilobase of transcript sequence per millions base pairs sequenced information (FPKM) information of 14 carrot genotypes are also provided. Users can download de novo assembled whole-genome sequences, putative gene sequences and putative protein sequences of 'DC-27'. Users can also download transcriptome sequence assemblies of 14 carrot genotypes along with their FPKM information. A total of 2826 transcription factor (TF) genes classified into 57 families were identified in the entire genome sequences. These TF genes were embedded in CarrotDB as an interface. The 'GERMPLASM' part of CarrotDB also offers taproot photos of 45 carrot genotypes and a table containing accession numbers, names, countries of origin and colors of cortex, phloem and xylem parts of taproots corresponding to each carrot genotype. CarrotDB will be continuously updated with new information. Database URL: http://apiaceae.njau.edu.cn/carrotdb/ PMID:25267795

Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tan, Hua-Wei; Wang, Feng; Hou, Xi-Lin; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

2014-01-01

342

CarrotDB: a genomic and transcriptomic database for carrot  

PubMed Central

Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is an economically important vegetable worldwide and is the largest source of carotenoids and provitamin A in the human diet. Given the importance of this vegetable to humans, research and breeding communities on carrot should obtain useful genomic and transcriptomic information. The first whole-genome sequences of ‘DC-27’ carrot were de novo assembled and analyzed. Transcriptomic sequences of 14 carrot genotypes were downloaded from the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and mapped to the whole-genome sequence before assembly. Based on these data sets, the first Web-based genomic and transcriptomic database for D. carota (CarrotDB) was developed (database homepage: http://apiaceae.njau.edu.cn/car rotdb). CarrotDB offers the tools of Genome Map and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Using these tools, users can search certain target genes and simple sequence repeats along with designed primers of ‘DC-27’. Assembled transcriptomic sequences along with fragments per kilobase of transcript sequence per millions base pairs sequenced information (FPKM) information of 14 carrot genotypes are also provided. Users can download de novo assembled whole-genome sequences, putative gene sequences and putative protein sequences of ‘DC-27’. Users can also download transcriptome sequence assemblies of 14 carrot genotypes along with their FPKM information. A total of 2826 transcription factor (TF) genes classified into 57 families were identified in the entire genome sequences. These TF genes were embedded in CarrotDB as an interface. The ‘GERMPLASM’ part of CarrotDB also offers taproot photos of 45 carrot genotypes and a table containing accession numbers, names, countries of origin and colors of cortex, phloem and xylem parts of taproots corresponding to each carrot genotype. CarrotDB will be continuously updated with new information. Database URL: http://apiaceae.njau.edu.cn/carrotdb/ PMID:25267795

Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tan, Hua-Wei; Wang, Feng; Hou, Xi-Lin; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

2014-01-01

343

agricultural land to Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus plantations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 10-15 years, a considerable amount of Australia's agricultural land has been converted to Eucalyptus spp. plantations, to compensate for the reduced output of pulpwood and other wood products traditionally sourced from native forests. Much of this land-conversion has occurred along the wheat-sheep belt of southern Australia, where mean annual rainfall tends to be much lower than the

T. E. Wright; L. T. Bennett; S. Kasel; M. Tausz

344

Hosts, environment, stress, phages Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus  

E-print Network

-tolerance by exposure to a mild osmotic stress. When cells were submitted, before lethal tem- perature challenge (65 °C), to a heat pre-treatment at 50 °C or to a hyper-osmotic pre-treatment, the viability of cells increased / cross-protection / osmotic stress / betaine / thermoadaptation Résumé -- Stress thermique et

Boyer, Edmond

345

Evaluation of proposed Skylab and SSP soap products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three personal hygiene cleansing agents and one laundry detergent (sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate), which are all candidates for use on long-duration space missions, were evaluated in terms of dermatological effects on human subjects and effects on microbiological species. None of the four materials exhibited adverse dermatological effects from either skin patch tests of two weeks duration or a simulated Skylab personal hygiene regimen of up to four weeks duration. No significant alterations in skin microflora during the use regimen were found. None of the four materials were found to serve as microbiological support media for the species tested, but a species of air-borne mold was observed to grow rapidly in a neutralized aqueous solution. None of the candidate agents was found to be strongly biocidal.

Whitmore, F. C.; Durfee, R. L.; Spurlock, J. M.

1973-01-01

346

Evaluation of proposed Skylab and SSP soap products.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four candidate cleansing agents evaluated in terms of potential hazards to crew members included two soaps (Neutrogena bar soap and Olive Leaf Liquid), one nonfoaming surfactant (Miranol JEM), and one laundry detergent (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate). None of the four exhibited adverse dermatological effects from skin patch tests or supported growth of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Aqueous solutions of Neutrogena did support a mold species. Neutrogena and Miranol JEM were used in a simulated Skylab personal hygiene regimen with no adverse effects on skin or skin microflora. Based on our results, each of these agents appear to be a promising candidate material for the use intended.

Durfee, R. L.; Spurlock, J. M.; Whitmore, F. C.

1973-01-01

347

[Viability and activity of the lactic bacteria (Streptococcus salivarius ssp thermophilus y Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp bulgaricus) del yogurt en Venezuela].  

PubMed

National and international legislations have agreed that the population of lactic bacteria in yogurt must be viable and not less than 10(6) ufc/g. In Venezuela, during last years, observations indicate that the number of viable cells in some commercial samples show high variations, as low levels. This research attempted to find the origin of this problem in the local industry. For this purpose 105 commercial samples were analyzed during their shelf life and 32 samples of yogurt prepared in the laboratory following the flow diagram of the local industry. The different conditions of freeze dried lactic culture, were also analyzed. These samples were evaluated for viable cell count of lactic bacteria and possible variations of pH and acidity. The absence or low number of lactic bacteria detected in some commercial samples is due to the use of inadequate working cultures that show imbalanced proportions of the two microorganisms, besides a low count below 106 ufc/g. The succesive propagation and storage time of mother culture, and the overacidification of the product, produce subletal injury to the microbial cells of the yogurt starter culture. The data indicate that manufacturing practices significantly affect the survival of the lactic flora. PMID:11510428

Briceño, A G; Martínez, R; García, K

2001-01-01

348

Rapid Purification and Thermostability of the Cytoplasmic Aspartate Aminotransferase from Carrot Suspension Cultures 1  

PubMed Central

Several isoenzymic forms of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) have been identified in protein extracts from carrot (Daucus carota) cell suspension cultures. The cellular location of the major form (form I) of AAT in carrot suspension cultures was determined by heat inactivation, subcellular fractionation, and amino acid sequence analysis. In mammalian systems, there are two forms of AAT, a heat-stable cytoplasmic form and a heat-labile form in the mitochondria. The thermostability of three isoenzymes of carrot AAT was examined, and the results showed that form I was more thermostable than forms II or III. Organelles were separated in sucrose gradients by isopynic centrifugation. Activity for form I was identified in the soluble fractions and not in fractions containing peroxisomes, proplastids, or mitochondria. Form I was purified to homogeneity and endoproteolytically cleaved, and the peptide fragments were separated by reverse phase chromatography. Analysis of the sequence data from two of the polypeptides showed that the amino acid identity of form I is more conserved to the animal cytoplasmic AAT than to animal mitochondrial AAT sequences. These data strongly suggest that form I of AAT from carrot is the cytoplasmic isoenzyme. Additionally, a rapid purification scheme for form I of AAT from carrot is presented using selective heat denaturation and anion-exchange chromatography. ImagesFigure 4Figure 6 PMID:16668442

Turano, Frank J.; Wilson, Barbara J.; Matthews, Benjamin F.

1991-01-01

349

Potyviruses, novel and known, in cultivated and wild species of the family Apiaceae in Australia.  

PubMed

Three potyviruses were identified by gene sequencing and found to be widespread in species of Apiaceae in Australia. Only celery mosaic virus was found in celery crops and in one of 180 specimens of feral carrot ( Daucus carota). Another related but distinct novel potyvirus, carrot virus Y, was the only virus found in carrot crops and all except one feral carrot. A more distantly related novel potyvirus, apium virus Y, was found in plants of sea celery ( Apium prostratum), cultivated parsley ( Petroselinum crispum) and the immigrant weed species poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum). These three potyviruses, together with celery yellow mosaic virus of South America and the closely related carrot thin leaf virus and carrot virus B of North America, form a distinct subgenus of the Potyviridae most closely related to turnip mosaic virus and two potyviruses of yam; yam mosaic virus from the Ivory Coast and Japanese yam mosaic virus. Celery mosaic and carrot virus Y are probably recent migrants to Australia, but apium virus Y may have been endemic longer. In ELISA tests using polyclonal antibodies against virions of celery mosaic virus, some isolates of carrot virus Y were indistinguishable from celery mosaic virus, whereas others gave smaller absorbancy values, and those of apium virus Y did not react. This study shows the value of virus identification based on gene sequencing for planning control measures. PMID:12376749

Moran, J; van Rijswijk, B; Traicevski, V; Kitajima, E W; Mackenzie, A M; Gibbs, A J

2002-10-01

350

Biosynthesis of carotenoids in carrot: an underground story comes to light.  

PubMed

Carrot (Daucus carota) is a biannual plant that accumulates massive amounts of carotenoid pigments in the storage root. Although the root of carrot plants was white before domestication, intensive breeding generated the currently known carotenoid-rich varieties, including the widely popular orange carrots that accumulate very high levels of the pro-vitamin A carotenoids ?-carotene and, to a lower extent, ?-carotene. Recent studies have shown that the developmental program responsible for the accumulation of these health-promoting carotenes in underground roots can be completely altered when roots are exposed to light. Illuminated root sections do not enlarge as much as dark-grown roots, and they contain chloroplasts with high levels of lutein instead of the ?-carotene-rich chromoplasts found in underground roots. Analysis of carotenoid gene expression in roots either exposed or not to light has contributed to better understand the contribution of developmental and environmental cues to the root carotenoid profile. In this review, we summarize the main conclusions of this work in the context of our current knowledge of how carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation is regulated at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in carrot roots and other model systems for the study of plant carotenogenesis such as Arabidopsis de-etiolation and tomato fruit ripening. PMID:23876238

Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel; Stange, Claudia

2013-11-15

351

Carbon Uptake and the Metabolism and Transport of Lipids in an Arbuscular Mycorrhiza1  

PubMed Central

Both the plant and the fungus benefit nutritionally in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis: The host plant enjoys enhanced mineral uptake and the fungus receives fixed carbon. In this exchange the uptake, metabolism, and translocation of carbon by the fungal partner are poorly understood. We therefore analyzed the fate of isotopically labeled substrates in an arbuscular mycorrhiza (in vitro cultures of Ri T-DNA-transformed carrot [Daucus carota] roots colonized by Glomus intraradices) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Labeling patterns observed in lipids and carbohydrates after substrates were supplied to the mycorrhizal roots or the extraradical mycelium indicated that: (a) 13C-labeled glucose and fructose (but not mannitol or succinate) are effectively taken up by the fungus within the root and are metabolized to yield labeled carbohydrates and lipids; (b) the extraradical mycelium does not use exogenous sugars for catabolism, storage, or transfer to the host; (c) the fungus converts sugars taken up in the root compartment into lipids that are then translocated to the extraradical mycelium (there being little or no lipid synthesis in the external mycelium); and (d) hexose in fungal tissue undergoes substantially higher fluxes through an oxidative pentose phosphate pathway than does hexose in the host plant. PMID:10364411

Pfeffer, Philip E.; Douds, David D.; Becard, Guillaume; Shachar-Hill, Yair

1999-01-01

352

Radical scavenging and iron-chelating activities of some greens used as traditional dishes in Mediterranean diet.  

PubMed

This study aimed at evaluating the antioxidative activity of nine different families of greens. Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish), Anchusa azurea (bugloss), Daucus carota (wild carrot), Sonchus oleraceus (sowthistle), Papaver rhoeas (corn poppy), Malva sylvestris (blue mallow), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Cichorium intybus (chicory) and Salicornia europaea (jointed glasswort) are native to the Mediterranean and are commonly consumed as a salad or an ingredient in some recipes. The antioxidative activities, including the radical scavenging effects, inhibition of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and Fe(2+)-chelating activity, were studied. All samples showed antioxidant activity as a radical scavenger in the experiment using the DPPH* radical. The ratio between the slopes of the kinetic model was used to compare antioxidant efficiency of different greens. Greens also possessed antioxidative activity toward H(2)O(2). Especially, greens exhibited a marked scavenging effect on H(2)O(2) at 0.2 g/ml concentration. The Fe(2+) ion-chelating activities of the samples except jointed glasswort were greater than 70%. The antioxidant activity of samples with different methods based on the inhibition of different reactions could not be compared. The current dietary guidelines include recommendations for an increase in the consumption of plant foods. Greens should provide an optimal supply of antioxidant substances in the diet. PMID:14630594

El, Sedef Nehir; Karakaya, Sibel

2004-02-01

353

Seed germination in response to chemicals: effect of nitrogen and pH in the media.  

PubMed

Seed germination generally presents a peak in the next growing season after a fire. Among other factors associated with fire are the increase of soil nitrogen and changes in the pH of the soil. In this study, we addressed the question, whether or not the germination response of eight species is linked with the increase in pH and nitrogenous compounds in the germination media? We assessed the separate and combined effects of nitrogenous compounds and pH on the percentage and rate of germination of seeds of Medicago arabica (L.) Hudson, Epilobium hirsutum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Daucus carota L., Thapsia villosa L., Cynosurus cristatus L., Dactylis glomerata L. and Rumex crispus L. All these species are well represented in the Mediterranean ecosystems of the central-west Spain. Water and CaCl2 were used as controls. Nitrogenous compounds increased percent germination (level) and rate in three of the species studied. High pH negatively affected the germination rate of seeds from most species, but had no effect on the per cent germination of any of the species. The higher concentration of the nutritious solutions affected negatively the germination level and rate. The different germination responses of seeds of the studied species could not be exclusively attributed to pH values in the media, whereas the amount and form of Nitrogen in the media has a greater effect on it. These differences in germination are species dependent. PMID:16850869

Pérez-Fernández, M A; Calvo-Magro, E; Montanero-Fernández, J; Oyola-Velasco, J A

2006-01-01

354

N-Acetylglucosamine and Glucosamine-Containing Arabinogalactan Proteins Control Somatic Embryogenesis1  

PubMed Central

In plants, complete embryos can develop not only from the zygote, but also from somatic cells in tissue culture. How somatic cells undergo the change in fate to become embryogenic is largely unknown. Proteins, secreted into the culture medium such as endochitinases and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are required for somatic embryogenesis. Here we show that carrot (Daucus carota) AGPs can contain glucosamine and N-acetyl-d-glucosaminyl and are sensitive to endochitinase cleavage. To determine the relevance of this observation for embryogenesis, an assay was developed based on the enzymatic removal of the cell wall from cultured cells. The resulting protoplasts had a reduced capacity for somatic embryogenesis, which could be partially restored by adding endochitinases to the protoplasts. AGPs from culture medium or from immature seeds could fully restore or even increase embryogenesis. AGPs pretreated with chitinases were more active than untreated molecules and required an intact carbohydrate constituent for activity. AGPs were only capable of promoting embryogenesis from protoplasts in a short period preceding cell wall reformation. Apart from the increase in embryogenesis, AGPs can reinitiate cell division in a subpopulation of otherwise non-dividing protoplasts. These results show that chitinase-modified AGPs are extracellular matrix molecules able to control or maintain plant cell fate. PMID:11299367

van Hengel, Arjon J.; Tadesse, Zewdie; Immerzeel, Peter; Schols, Henk; van Kammen, Ab; de Vries, Sacco C.

2001-01-01

355

Adaptation of plants to altered shoot orientation relative to the gravity vector.  

PubMed

Wheat Triticum aestivum L., carrots Daucus carota L., Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis Rupr., and African marigold Tagetes patula L. were grown at natural and inverted orientation in the Earth gravitational field. Light vector was set unidirectional or opposite directional relative to the gravity vector. Shoot orientation relative to the gravity vector was set natural or invert. Plants grew in the special pots furnished with plane or cylindrical hydrophilic porous membranes. The membrane allowed to stabilize a water potential in the root zone at the fixed level. Seeds were put into a fiber ion-exchange artificial soil overlaying horizontal hydrophilic plates of porous titanium or anchored to porous metal-ceramic tubes. Plants grew at the PPF level 550 +/- 20 micromoles/(m2 s) during 24-hr lighting and at the water potential level at the membrane surface (-1.00) +/- 0.08 kPa. Normal plants were obtained both at the natural and at the inverse shoot orientation in the all experiments. The wheat plants were yielded healthy germinating seeds no matter plant orientation. In the inverse orientation, no negative influence for plant biomass accruing was marked, but the increasing of shoot to root mass ratio was considerable. However carrot root crop mass decreasing was not revealed in the inverse orientation. The results demonstrated substantial dependence of morphological and physiological characteristics of higher plants on the gravity factor. PMID:16240510

Smolyanina, S O; Berkovich, Yu A; Ivanov, V B

2004-07-01

356

Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium.  

PubMed

We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla. PMID:25289015

Park, Jiyeong; Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

2014-09-01

357

Glycerophosphocholine Metabolism in Higher Plant Cells. Evidence of a New Glyceryl-Phosphodiester Phosphodiesterase  

PubMed Central

Glycerophosphocholine (GroPCho) is a diester that accumulates in different physiological processes leading to phospholipid remodeling. However, very little is known about its metabolism in higher plant cells. 31P-Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical analyses performed on carrot (Daucus carota) cells fed with GroPCho revealed the existence of an extracellular GroPCho phosphodiesterase. This enzymatic activity splits GroPCho into sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and free choline. In vivo, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate is further hydrolyzed into glycerol and inorganic phosphate by acid phosphatase. We visualized the incorporation and the compartmentation of choline and observed that the major choline pool was phosphorylated and accumulated in the cytosol, whereas a minor fraction was incorporated in the vacuole as free choline. Isolation of plasma membranes, culture medium, and cell wall proteins enabled us to localize this phosphodiesterase activity on the cell wall. We also report the existence of an intracellular glycerophosphodiesterase. This second activity is localized in the vacuole and hydrolyzes GroPCho in a similar fashion to the cell wall phosphodiesterase. Both extra- and intracellular phosphodiesterases are widespread among different plant species and are often enhanced during phosphate deprivation. Finally, competition experiments on the extracellular phosphodiesterase suggested a specificity for glycerophosphodiesters (apparent Km of 50 ?m), which distinguishes it from other phosphodiesterases previously described in the literature. PMID:12226504

van der Rest, Benoit; Boisson, Anne-Marie; Gout, Elisabeth; Bligny, Richard; Douce, Roland

2002-01-01

358

Phosphoglycerylethanolamine Posttranslational Modification of Plant Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1?1  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic elongation factor 1? (eEF-1A) is a multifunctional protein. There are three known posttranslational modifications of eEF-1A that could potentially affect its function. Except for phosphorylation, the other posttranslational modifications have not been demonstrated in plants. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry and peptide mass mapping, we show that carrot (Daucus carota L.) eEF-1A contains a phosphoglycerylethanolamine (PGE) posttranslational modification. eEF-1A was the only protein labeled with [14C]ethanolamine in carrot cells and was the predominant ethanolamine-labeled protein in Arabidopsis seedlings and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell cultures. In vivo-labeling studies using [3H]glycerol, [32P]Pi, [14C]myristic acid, and [14C]linoleic acid indicated that the entire phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine is covalently attached to the protein. The PGE lipid modification did not affect the partitioning of eEF-1A in Triton X-114 or its actin-binding activity in in vitro assays. Our in vitro data indicate that this newly characterized posttranslational modification alone does not affect the function of eEF-1A. Therefore, the PGE lipid modification may work in combination with other posttranslational modifications to affect the distribution and the function of eEF-1A within the cell. PMID:9662537

Ransom, Wendy D.; Lao, Pao-Chi; Gage, Douglas A.; Boss, Wendy F.

1998-01-01

359

Selection and Characterization of a Carrot Cell Line Tolerant to Glyphosate 1  

PubMed Central

Cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells were adapted to growing in 25 millimolar glyphosate by transfer into progressively higher concentrations of the herbicide. Tolerance was increased 52-fold, and the adaptation was stable in the absence of glyphosate. The uptake of glyphosate was similar for adapted and nonadapted cells. Activity of the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase was 12-fold higher in the adapted line compared to nonadapted cells, while activities of shikimate dehydrogenase and anthranilate synthase were similar in the two cell types. The adapted cells had higher levels of free amino acids—especially threonine, methionine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine, and arginine—than did nonadapted cells. Glyphosate treatment caused decreases of 50 to 65% in the levels of serine, glycine, methionine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan in nonadapted cells, but caused little change in free amino acid levels in adapted cells. The adaptation reported here supports the growing body of evidence linking tolerance to glyphosate with increased levels of the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. The elevated levels of aromatic amino acids, which may confer resistance in adapted cells, suggest that control of the shikimate pathway may be altered in these cells. PMID:16663884

Nafziger, Emerson D.; Widholm, Jack M.; Steinrücken, Hans C.; Killmer, John L.

1984-01-01

360

Variation in Germination and Amino Acid Leakage of Seeds with Temperature Related to Membrane Phase Change  

PubMed Central

Leakages of amino acids and/or fluorescent material as functions of temperature between 15 and 40 C are reported for imbibed seeds of Avena fatua L., Lactuca sativa L., Barbarea vulgaris R. Br., Amaranthus albus L., Abutilon theophrasti Medic., Lychnis alba Mill., Daucus carota L., Setaria faberi Herrm., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv., and Datura stramonium L. The leakage indicates prominent increase in permeability of the plasmalemma in the 30 to 35 C range for 8 of the 10 kinds of seeds studied. Germination of the seeds at constant temperatures or with daily shifts in temperature is related to the membrane transition temperature for permeation by amino acids. Seeds of A. albus and A. theophrasti, which did not show membrane changes in the 25 to 40 C range, germinated best at 35 to 40 C; the other seeds germinated best below 30 C. Seeds of B. vulgaris showed rapid permeation of limiting membranes upon initial wetting with water, which was indicative of membrane disorder when dry. Leakage under anaerobiosis was observed for S. faberi seeds. PMID:16659623

Hendricks, Sterling B.; Taylorson, Ray B.

1976-01-01

361

Variation in germination and amino Acid leakage of seeds with temperature related to membrane phase change.  

PubMed

Leakages of amino acids and/or fluorescent material as functions of temperature between 15 and 40 C are reported for imbibed seeds of Avena fatua L., Lactuca sativa L., Barbarea vulgaris R. Br., Amaranthus albus L., Abutilon theophrasti Medic., Lychnis alba Mill., Daucus carota L., Setaria faberi Herrm., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv., and Datura stramonium L. The leakage indicates prominent increase in permeability of the plasmalemma in the 30 to 35 C range for 8 of the 10 kinds of seeds studied. Germination of the seeds at constant temperatures or with daily shifts in temperature is related to the membrane transition temperature for permeation by amino acids. Seeds of A. albus and A. theophrasti, which did not show membrane changes in the 25 to 40 C range, germinated best at 35 to 40 C; the other seeds germinated best below 30 C. Seeds of B. vulgaris showed rapid permeation of limiting membranes upon initial wetting with water, which was indicative of membrane disorder when dry. Leakage under anaerobiosis was observed for S. faberi seeds. PMID:16659623

Hendricks, S B; Taylorson, R B

1976-07-01

362

Ozone degrades into hydroxyl radical under physiological conditions: a spin trapping study  

SciTech Connect

Defining the reactants is a critical step towards elucidating the mechanism of ozone toxicity to biomembranes. To document ozone-induced HO x radicals, the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide was used and the resulting spin adduct was monitored with electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Chelexed potassium phosphate buffer a pH 7.2 and 7.8 was exposed to ozone by directing a stream of ozone over the surface for 60 seconds. Under these conditions, no HO x was detected. Using 0.5 x 10/sup -4/ molar caffeic acid in phosphate buffer, strong DMPO x OH electron spin resonance signals were obtained, indicating HO x production. High pH (7.8) enhanced signal strength. Furthermore, with sorbitol a net HO x signal loss of 28% was observed, while a carbon-centered sorbitol radical adduct appeared. Although HO x radicals were produced, no breakage of Daucus carota protoplast plasma membranes was observed nor were differences in membrane fluidity observed as determined by 5-doxyl stearic acid.

Grimes, H.D.; Perkins, K.K.; Boss, W.F.

1983-01-01

363

Oviposition stimulants for the black swallowtail butterfly: Identification of electrophysiologically active compounds in carrot volatiles.  

PubMed

Headspace volatiles were collected from undamaged foliage of carrot,Daucus carota, a host-plant species of the black swallowtail butterfly,Papilio polyxenes. The volatiles were fractionated over silica on an open column, and the fractions were tested in behavioral assays withP. polyxenes females in laboratory experiments. The polar fractions, as well as the total mixture of volatiles, increased the landing frequency and the number of eggs laid on model plants with leaves bearing contact-oviposition stimulants. The nonpolar fraction, containing the most abundant compounds in carrot odor, was not stimulatory. Gas Chromatographic (GC) separation of the fractions was coupled with electroantennogram (EAG) recordings to identify the compounds perceived byP. polyxenes females. The EAG activity corresponded to the behavioral activity of the fractions. None of the nonpolar compounds, identified as various monoterpenes, evoked a major EAG response, but several constituents of the polar fractions elicited high EAG responses. Sabinene hydrate (both stereoisomers), 4-terpineol, bomyl acetate, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were identified by GC-MS as active compounds. PMID:24249074

Baur, R; Feeny, P; Städler, E

1993-05-01

364

[Photosynthetic characteristics and coenological survey of Lactuca serriola in its invaded area].  

PubMed

Lactuca serriola, a national class quarantine object, is a new invasive species in the coastal area of Southeast China. The coenological survey showed that because of its big individual, L. serriola could easily form dominant population in its invaded area, and its main accompany species were Conyza canadensis, C. bonarinisis, Bidentis bipinnata, Oenothera laciniata, Ipomoea hederacea, Setaria viridis, Daucus carota, Xanthium sibiricum, Erigeron annuus, L. indica, Humulus scandens, Solanum nigrum and Aster sublatus. The measurements with LCA-4 portable photosynthesis and transpiration system (ADC, England) revealed that the net photosynthetic rate of L. serriola was as high as 21.22 +/- 0.45 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1), being slightly lower than that of E. annuus and C. bonarinisis, similar to that of C. canadensis, and higher than that of Chenopodium album, Plantago virginica and L. indica. Based on the photosynthesis-light response equation, the theoretic light compensation point of L. serriola was 37.58 micromol m(-2) x s(-1), its theoretic light saturation point was 1 480 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), and theoretic maximal net photosynthetic rate was 20.81 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1). A distinct "noon break" phenomenon was observed in L. serriola photosynthesis, which might result from the high stomatal resistance against high light intensity and temperature. The main factors affecting the net photosynthetic rate of L. serriola were leaf photosynthetic active radiation, stomatal conductance, and leaf transpiration rate. PMID:17330472

Guo, Shui-Liang; Fang, Fang; Ni, Liping; Chen, Wanlin; Shi, Laidi

2006-12-01

365

Thioredoxin and NADP-thioredoxin reductase from cultured carrot cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dark-grown carrot (Daucus carota L.) tissue cultures were found to contain both protein components of the NADP/thioredoxin system--NADP-thioredoxin reductase and the thioredoxin characteristic of heterotrophic systems, thioredoxin h. Thioredoxin h was purified to apparent homogeneity and, like typical bacterial counterparts, was a 12-kdalton (kDa) acidic protein capable of activating chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.82) more effectively than fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). NADP-thioredoxin reductase (EC 1.6.4.5) was partially purified and found to be an arsenite-sensitive enzyme composed of two 34-kDa subunits. Carrot NADP-thioredoxin reductase resembled more closely its counterpart from bacteria rather than animal cells in acceptor (thioredoxin) specificity. Upon greening of the cells, the content of NADP-thioredoxin-reductase activity, and, to a lesser extent, thioredoxin h decreased. The results confirm the presence of a heterotrophic-type thioredoxin system in plant cells and raise the question of its physiological function.

Johnson, T. C.; Cao, R. Q.; Kung, J. E.; Buchanan, B. B.

1987-01-01

366

Detection and prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in the agricultural ecosystem.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of four different enrichment procedures to detect Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of high levels of Streptococcus faecalis was investigated. Defined mixed cultures of Strep. faecalis and L. monocytogenes gave better results with one-stage enrichment techniques. For manure samples, however, two-stage enrichment techniques gave the best performance. The so-called cold enrichment techniques were found to be unsatisfactory for samples from natural environments. The following materials were examined for the presence of L. monocytogenes: fresh pig faeces (16% positive), fresh cattle faeces (20% positive), stored liquid manure (0% positive), manured soil samples (0% positive) and ground water samples (5% positive). After 3 weeks of storage L. monocytogenes could be detected in only one of the initially nine positive fresh faeces samples. Two months after inoculation of stored liquid pig manure, stored liquid cattle manure and soil with L. monocytogenes, this bacterium could not be traced in any of these materials. Radishes (Raphanus sativus) and carrots (Daucus carota), sown in soil inoculated with L. monocytogenes, were gathered after 3 months and examined for the presence of L. monocytogenes. Three of six radish samples were found to be positive. Remarkably, however, all carrot samples (six) were free of L. monocytogenes. PMID:1955415

Van Renterghem, B; Huysman, F; Rygole, R; Verstraete, W

1991-09-01

367

Tissue-dependent distribution and accumulation of chlorobenzenes by vegetables in urban area.  

PubMed

Five seasonal vegetables from three growing sites in Hangzhou city, Zhejiang Province, were studied for the levels of four chlorobenzenes(CBs): o-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB), p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB), m-dichlorobenzene (m-DCB), and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB). Samples of each vegetable from each site were subdivided into leaves, stems, and roots, and these subsamples were analyzed separately for the levels of accumulated CBs. Relations between the levels of CBs in vegetables with the total organic carbon (TOC) of the soil, the lipid content of the vegetable, and the physicochemical properties of CBs were established. Results showed that o-DCB, p-DCB, m-DCB, 1,2,4-TCB were present in all vegetables analyzed. For spinaches (Spinacia oleracea), Chinese cabbages (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), and celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce), the highest level of CBs was with roots, followed by leaves. While for radishes (Raphanus sativus), and carrots (Daucus carota subsp. sativus), the highest level was with leaves, followed by stems. The accumulation of CBs was found to have a good correlation with the plant-tissue lipid content, the contaminant air-water Henry's coefficient (H), the contaminant octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)), and the physiological characteristics of the vegetables. PMID:16002141

Zhang, Jianying; Zhao, Wei; Pan, Jun; Qiu, Limin; Zhu, Yinmei

2005-08-01

368

Induced Changes in Permeability of Plant Cell Membranes to Water  

PubMed Central

The half-time for THO equilibration was three times longer for a living carrot (Daucus carota L.) cylinder than for a dead one. Furthermore, the energy of activation of THO flux was more than twice as high for the living cylinder. Passage through living membranes thus constitutes a rate-limiting step for THO flux in carrot tissue. CO2 increased the half-time (t½) for THO equilibration. Treatment with abscisic acid or with tertiary butanol decreased t½. In neither case was the selective permeability of the membrane destroyed. p-Chloromercuribenzoate and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, if supplied together with abscisic acid or tertiary butanol, abolished their action. If abscisic acid or butanol was first allowed to act alone, its effect was stable to subsequent treatment with the inhibitors. p-Chloromercuribenzoate and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone at concentrations at which they affected abscisic acid and butanol action, did not influence THO flux in control tissue. At considerably higher concentrations, however, 2, 4-dinitrophenol and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone raised t½. The CO2 effect was very rapidly reversible. Full reversal of the butanol effect required 3 hours, and that of abscisic acid required 4 days. PMID:16658009

Glinka, Z.; Reinhold, Leonora

1972-01-01

369

A family of abundant plasma membrane-associated glycoproteins related to the arabinogalactan proteins is unique to flowering plants  

PubMed Central

We have identified a family of abundant peripheral plasma membrane glycoproteins that is unique to flowering plants. They are identified by a monoclonal antibody, MAC 207, that recognizes an epitope containing L-arabinose and D-glucuronic acid. Immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling studies locate the MAC 207 epitope to the outer surface of the plasma membrane both in protoplasts and in intact tissues. In some cells MAC 207 also binds to the vacuolar membrane, probably reflecting the movement of the plasma membrane glycoproteins in the endocytic pathway. The epitope recognized by MAC 207 is also present on a distinct soluble proteoglycan secreted into the growth medium by carrot (Daucus carota) suspension culture cells. Biochemical evidence identifies this neutral proteoglycan as a member of the large class of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), and suggests a structural relationship between it and the plasma membrane glycoproteins. AGPs have the property of binding to beta-glycans, and we therefore propose that one function of the AGP-related, plasma membrane-associated glycoproteins may be to act as cell surface attachment sites for cell wall matrix polysaccharides. PMID:2469683

1989-01-01

370

Identification and Characterization of an 18-Kilodalton, VAMP-Like Protein in Suspension-Cultured Carrot Cells1  

PubMed Central

Polyclonal antibodies raised against rat vesicle associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2) recognized, in carrot (Daucus carota) microsomes, two major polypeptides of 18 and 30 kD, respectively. A biochemical separation of intracellular membranes by a sucrose density gradient co-localized the two polypeptides as resident in light, dense microsomes, corresponding to the endoplasmic reticulum-enriched fractions. Purification of coated vesicles allowed us to distinguish the subcellular location of the 18-kD polypeptide from that of 30 kD. The 18-kD polypeptide is present in the non-clathrin-coated vesicle peak. Like other VAMPs, the carrot 18-kD polypeptide is proteolyzed by tetanus toxin after separation of coatomers. Amino acid sequence analysis of peptides obtained by digestion of the 18-kD carrot polypeptide with the endoproteinase Asp-N confirms it to be a member of the VAMP family, as is suggested by its molecular weight, vesicular localization, and toxin-induced cleavage. PMID:10631246

Gasparian, Marine; Pusterla, Michele; Baldan, Barbara; Downey, Patrick M.; Rossetto, Ornella; de Laureto, Patrizia Polverino; Filippini, Francesco; Terzi, Mario; Schiavo, Fiorella Lo

2000-01-01

371

Ambispora granatensis, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, associated with Asparagus officinalis in Andalucia (Spain).  

PubMed

A new dimorphic fungal species in the arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming Glomeromycota, Ambispora granatensis, was isolated from an agricultural site in the province of Granada (Andalucía, Spain) growing in the rhizosphere of Asparagus officinalis. It was propagated in pot cultures with Trifolium pratense and Sorghum vulgare. The fungus also colonized Ri T-DNA transformed Daucus carota roots but did not form spores in these root organ cultures. The spores of the acaulosporoid morph are 90-150 ?m diam and hyaline to white to pale yellow. They have three walls and a papillae-like rough irregular surface on the outer surface of the outer wall. The irregular surface might become difficult to detect within a few hours in lactic acid-based mountings but are clearly visible in water. The structural central wall layer of the outer wall is only 0.8-1.5 ?m thick. The glomoid spores are formed singly or in small, loose spore clusters of 2-10 spores. They are hyaline to pale yellow, (25)40-70 ?m diam and have a bilayered spore wall without ornamentation. Nearly full length sequences of the 18S and the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene place the new fungus in a separate clade next to Ambispora fennica and Ambispora gerdemannii. The acaulosporoid spores of the new fungus can be distinguished easily from all other spores in genus Ambispora by the conspicuous thin outer wall. PMID:20952800

Palenzuela, Javier; Barea, José-Miguel; Ferrol, Nuria; Oehl, Fritz

2011-01-01

372

Phytotoxicity, uptake and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene by plant cells  

SciTech Connect

Phytotoxicity, uptake, and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) by carrot (Daucus carota L.), soybean (Glycine max. L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and red goosefoot (Chenopodiun rubrum L.) cell suspension cultures were studied. Sealed glass systems were utilized for the investigation because 1,4-DCB is volatile. The sealed systems affect the growth of plant cells, but do not provide different results when testing xenobiotic uptake and metabolism. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene (40 {micro}g in 40 ml medium) was taken up by carrot (49%), soybean (50%), and red goosefoot (62%) cells. Only the soybean cell cultures provided evidence of the existence of metabolites of this compound, probably conjugates of chlorophenols. Conditions for phytotoxicity tests were modified because the growth of cell cultures was affected when sealed for longer than 2 d. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene is toxic to cell cultures of the three tested plant species (tomato, soybean, and carrot). Concentrations of 0.5 mM caused 50% growth inhibition in carrot and soybean cultures. The tomato cultures were more sensitive, with 0.05 mM causing 50% growth inhibition.

Wang, M.J. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Biological Sciences]|[Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences; Bokern, M.; Boehme, C.; Harms, H. [Federal Agricultural Research Center, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science; Jones, K.C. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Biological Sciences

1996-07-01

373

Calmodulin immunolocalization to cortical microtubules is calcium independent  

SciTech Connect

Calcium affects the stability of cortical microtubules (MTs) in lysed protoplasts. This calmodulin (CaM)-mediated interaction may provide a mechanism that serves to integrate cellular behavior with MT function. To test the hypothesis that CaM associates with these MTs, monoclonal antibodies were produced against CaM, and one (designated mAb1D10), was selected for its suitability as an immunocytochemical reagent. It is shown that CaM associates with the cortical Mats of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.) cells. Inasmuch as CaM interacts with calcium and affects the behavior of these Mats, we hypothesized that calcium would alter this association. To test this, protoplasts containing taxol-stabilized Mats were lysed in the presence of various concentrations of calcium and examined for the association of Cam with cortical Mats. At 1 {mu}M calcium, many protoplasts did not have CaM in association with the cortical Mats, while at 3.6 {mu}M calcium, this association was completely abolished. The results are discussed in terms of a model in which CaM associates with Mats via two types of interactions; one calcium dependent and one independent.

Fisher, D.D.; Cyr, R.J.

1992-12-31

374

Calmodulin immunolocalization to cortical microtubules is calcium independent  

SciTech Connect

Calcium affects the stability of cortical microtubules (MTs) in lysed protoplasts. This calmodulin (CaM)-mediated interaction may provide a mechanism that serves to integrate cellular behavior with MT function. To test the hypothesis that CaM associates with these MTs, monoclonal antibodies were produced against CaM, and one (designated mAb1D10), was selected for its suitability as an immunocytochemical reagent. It is shown that CaM associates with the cortical Mats of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.) cells. Inasmuch as CaM interacts with calcium and affects the behavior of these Mats, we hypothesized that calcium would alter this association. To test this, protoplasts containing taxol-stabilized Mats were lysed in the presence of various concentrations of calcium and examined for the association of Cam with cortical Mats. At 1 [mu]M calcium, many protoplasts did not have CaM in association with the cortical Mats, while at 3.6 [mu]M calcium, this association was completely abolished. The results are discussed in terms of a model in which CaM associates with Mats via two types of interactions; one calcium dependent and one independent.

Fisher, D.D.; Cyr, R.J.

1992-01-01

375

The Potential of Five Winter-grown Crops to Reduce Root-knot Nematode Damage and Increase Yield of Tomato  

PubMed Central

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), marigold (Tagetes patula), nematode-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) were grown for three years during the winter in a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested field in Southern California. Each year in the spring, the tops of all crops were shredded and incorporated in the soil. Amendment with poultry litter was included as a sub-treatment. The soil was then covered with clear plastic for six weeks and M. incognita-susceptible tomato was grown during the summer season. Plastic tarping raised the average soil temperature at 13 cm depth by 7°C.The different winter-grown crops or the poultry litter did not affect M. incognita soil population levels. However, root galling on summer tomato was reduced by 36%, and tomato yields increased by 19% after incorporating broccoli compared to the fallow control. This crop also produced the highest amount of biomass of the five winter-grown crops. Over the three-year trial period, poultry litter increased tomato yields, but did not affect root galling caused by M. incognita. We conclude that cultivation followed by soil incorporation of broccoli reduced M. incognita damage to tomato. This effect is possibly due to delaying or preventing a portion of the nematodes to reach the host roots. We also observed that M. incognita populations did not increase under a host crop during the cool season when soil temperatures remained low (< 18°C). PMID:22736848

López-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Roubtsova, Tatiana; de Cara García, Miguel

2010-01-01

376

Characterization of a Selenocystine-Resistant Carrot Cell Line 1  

PubMed Central

A selenocystine-resistant carrot cell line, C-1, was isolated from a haploid carrot (Daucus carota) cell culture, HA. The C-1 variant takes up cystine, but not cysteine, more slowly than does HA. The selenocystine resistance is maintained in culture in the absence of selection and is expressed in regenerated plants. Results based on chromatographic separation of sulfur metabolites from cells fed with [35S]cystine suggest a block either in the uptake or reduction of cystine in the variant. Both lines can grow on cystine as sole sulfur source. Growth of the HA line on cystine suppressed the development of sulfate uptake capacity (Furner, Sung 1982 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 1149-1153), while cystine-grown C-1 cells have high levels of sulfate uptake capacity. We suggest that the C-1 line, grown on cystine, accumulates an insufficient quantity of some sulfur metabolite, which is involved in the control of sulfate uptake, to suppress the uptake. C-1 grown on cystine is more sensitive than HA to growth inhibition by the sulfate analog selenate. PMID:16662864

Furner, Ian J.; Sung, Zinmay R.

1983-01-01

377

The Effects of Exogenous Auxins on Endogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid Metabolism (The Implications for Carrot Somatic Embryogenesis).  

PubMed Central

The effect of auxin application on auxin metabolism was investigated in excised hypocotyl cultures of carrot (Daucus carota). Concentrations of both free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), [2H4]IAA, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were measured by mass spectroscopy using stable-isotope-labeled internal standards. [13C1]NAA was synthesized for this purpose, thus extending the range of auxins that can be assayed by stable-isotope techniques. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid promoted callus proliferation of the excised hypocotyls, accumulated as the free form in large quantities, and had minor effects on endogenous IAA concentrations. NAA promoted callus proliferation and the resulting callus became organogenic, producing both roots and shoots. NAA was found mostly in the conjugated form and had minor effects on endogenous IAA concentrations. [2H4]IAA had no visible effect on the growth pattern of cultured hypocotyls, possibly because it was rapidly metabolized to form inactive conjugates or possibly because it mediated a decrease in endogenous IAA concentrations by an apparent feedback mechanism. The presence of exogenous auxins did not affect tryptophan labeling of either the endogenous tryptophan or IAA pools. This suggested that exogenous auxins did not alter the IAA biosynthetic pathway, but that synthetic auxins did appear to be necessary to induce callus proliferation, which was essential for excised hypocotyls to gain the competence to form somatic embryos. PMID:12226408

Ribnicky, D. M.; Ilic, N.; Cohen, J. D.; Cooke, T. J.

1996-01-01

378

Effect of processing parameters on physico-chemical and culinary quality of dried carrot slices.  

PubMed

The investigation was carried out to evaluate the carrot (Daucus carota) cultivars, to optimize the pre-treatments, time and temperature combination for drying carrot slices and to assess the suitability of the dried product for culinary preparations. Among the 4 cultivars, ('PC-34', 'Sel-21', 'Ambala Local' and 'Nantes') the last one showed the best physico-chemical characteristics for dehydration. The dried carrot slices with highly desirable physico-chemical characteristics could be prepared from 4.5 mm thick slices, blanched in water at 95 °C for 4 min followed by 2 stage phase drying at 90?±?5 °C for 2 h and at 60?±?5 °C for 7 h in a cross-flow hot air cabinet dryer. Dipping slices in 6% potassium metabisulphite solution prior to drying improved the rehydration ratio, colour, retention of ascorbic acid and carotenoids content of dried slices. The soup and curried product prepared from dried slices had highly acceptable sensory quality with 8.5 and 8.2 scores, respectively on a 9-point Hedonic scale. PMID:23572730

Sra, Sarabjeet Kaur; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh; Ahluwalia, Preeti

2011-04-01

379

Purification and characterization of neutral and alkaline invertase from carrot.  

PubMed Central

Neutral and alkaline invertase were identified in cells of a suspension culture of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Neutral invertase is an octamer with a molecular mass of 456 kD and subunits of 57 kD, whereas alkaline invertase is a tetramer with a molecular mass of 504 kD and subunits of 126 kD. Both enzymes had sharp pH profiles, with maximal activities at pH 6.8 for neutral invertase and pH 8.0 for alkaline invertase, and both hydrolyzed sucrose with typical hyperbolic kinetics and similar Km values of about 20 mM at pH 7.5. Neutral invertase also hydrolyzed raffinose and stachyose and, therefore, is a beta-fructofuranosidase. In contrast, alkaline invertase was highly specific for sucrose. Fructose acted as a competitive inhibitor of both enzymes, with Ki values of about 15 mM. Glucose was a noncompetitive inhibitor of both neutral and alkaline invertase, with a Ki of about 30 mM. Neither enzyme was inhibited by HgCl2. Alkaline invertase was markedly inhibited by CaCl2, MgCl2, and MnCl2, and neutral invertase was not. In contrast to alkaline invertase, neutral invertase was inhibited by the nucleotides ATP, CTP, GTP, and UTP. PMID:8972597

Lee, H S; Sturm, A

1996-01-01

380

Evidence for Opposing Effects of Calmodulin on Cortical Microtubules.  

PubMed Central

Microtubule integrity within the cortical array was visualized in detergent-lysed carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts that were exposed to various exogenous levels of Ca2+ and calmodulin (CaM). CaM appears to help stabilize cortical microtubules against the destabilizing action of Ca2+/CaM complexes at low Ca2+ concentrations, but not at higher Ca2+ concentrations. The hypothesis that CaM interacts with microtubules at two different sites, determined by the concentration of Ca2+, is supported by the effects of the CaM antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfanamide (20 [mu]M) and by affinity chromatography. Two classes of proteins were identified that interact with tubulin and bind to CaM. One class required Ca2+ for CaM binding, whereas the second class bound only when Ca2+ concentrations were low (<320 nM). Thus, CaM's ability to have two opposing effects upon microtubules may be regulated by the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ and its differential interactions with microtubule-associated proteins. Experimental manipulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, as monitored by Indo-1, revealed that the effect of Ca2+ is specific to the cortical microtubules and does not affect actin microfilaments in these cells. PMID:12226434

Fisher, D. D.; Gilroy, S.; Cyr, R. J.

1996-01-01

381

Calcium Levels Affect the Ability to Immunolocalize Calmodulin to Cortical Microtubules.  

PubMed Central

Calcium affects the stability of cortical microtubules (MTs) in lysed protoplasts. This calmodulin (CaM)-mediated interaction may provide a mechanism that serves to integrate cellular behavior with MT function. To test the hypothesis that CaM associates with these MTs, monoclonal antibodies were produced against CaM, and one (designated mAb1D10) was selected for its suitability as an immunocytochemical reagent. It is shown that CaM associates with the cortical MTs of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cells. Inasmuch as CaM interacts with calcium and affects the behavior of these MTs, we hypothesized that calcium would alter this association. To test this, protoplasts containing taxol-stabilized MTs were lysed in the presence of various concentrations of calcium and examined for the association of CaM with cortical MTs. At 1 [mu]M calcium, many protoplasts did not have CaM in association with the cortical MTs, whereas at 3.6 [mu]M calcium, this association was completely abolished. Control experiments were performed to eliminate alternate explanations including differential antibody binding in the presence of calcium and/or taxol, detergent-induced redistribution of antigen, and epitope masking. The results are discussed in terms of a model in which CaM associates with MTs via two types of interactions, one that occurs in the presence of calcium and another that occurs only in its absence. PMID:12231960

Fisher, D. D.; Cyr, R. J.

1993-01-01

382

Palatability of weeds from different European origins to the slugs Deroceras reticulatum Müller and Arion lusitanicus Mabille  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a study on the significance of seed provenances in schemes to enhance biodiversity in agricultural habitats, juvenile plants of Cichorium intybus, Daucus carota, Leucanthemum vulgare and Silene alba of different European origins were exposed to grazing by two slug species, Deroceras reticulatum and Arion lusitanicus. Living plants were offered in trays, either in a glasshouse ( Deroceras) or outdoors ( Arion). The amount of herbivory was origin-dependent, with higher losses for all four species from German and Hungarian provenances compared with English and Swiss plants. The main trend was similar for both slug species except in the case of Daucus, and there was a significant 'origin × plant species' interaction. We found strong correlations between provenance-specific herbivory and certain climatic characteristics of the corresponding regions, i.e. winter minimum temperatures, and dryness in spring and late summer, which are crucial for the development of slugs. The results can be interpreted in terms of a SW-NE European climatic gradient and may be a consequence of differences in the need for plant defences against herbivory by slugs. Additionally, the data on palatability were compared with susceptibility towards two parasites which occurred in a field experiment, a leaf miner on Leucanthemum vulgare and a rust fungus on Silene alba. While specific leaf mining frequencies on Leucanthemum contrasted with the palatability of the different provenances to slugs, the rust infection on Silene was low on local and German plants, and higher on the more distant provenances from England and Hungary.

Keller, Michael; Kollmann, Johannes; Edwards, Peter J.

1999-04-01

383

Crop heterosis and herbicide  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Heterosis designates the increased growth or other augmented action resulting from crossing, however it is produced. Male sterility of female parent is an important biological mechanism for the commercial production of hybrid seed. Male sterility can be created by genetic manipulation, environmental influences, chemical induction and biological engineering. In principle, male sterility is a physiological disorder and the creation of complete male sterility either is costly or brings about other physiological disorders. Integrating the resistance gene to a non-selective herbicide into male parent and spraying the herbicide onto the hybrid population resulting from mating with the male parent for securing hybrid purity reduce the strict demand for complete male sterility. Therefore, simple and practical methodologies such as environmental and chemical means can be employed in the induction of male sterility, and the conflict of male sterility with other physiological disorders can be well balanced. The concept of this invention is applicable to all the crops and plants in which male sterility has been studied for heterosis purposes including rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor(L.) Moench], rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), pearl millet [Pennisetum typhoides (Burm) Stspf et Hubb.], alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), petunia (Petunia hybrida Hort.), and carrot (Daucus carota L.).

2000-05-23

384

Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium  

PubMed Central

We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla. PMID:25289015

Park, Jiyeong; Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

2014-01-01

385

VIABILITY AND ACTIVIVITY OF THE LACTIC BACTERIA (Streptococcus salivarius ssp thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp bulgaricus) OF YOGURT MADE IN VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

National and international legislations have agreed that the population of lactic bacteria in yogurt must be viable and not less than 10 ufc\\/g. In Venezuela, during last years, observations indicate that the number of viable cells in some commercial samples show high variations, as low levels. This research attempted to find the origin of this problem in the local industry.

Ana Graciela Briceño; Raúl Martínez; Karely García

386

INTER-MOUNTAIN BASINS BIG SAGEBRUSH SHRUBLAND extent exaggerated for display  

E-print Network

. TRIDENTATA, SSP. XERICENSIS) SHRUBLAND ALLIANCE Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata / Leymus cinereus Shrubland Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata / Pascopyrum smithii - (Elymus lanceolatus) Shrubland ssp. wyomingensis / Achnatherum hymenoides Shrubland Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis / Elymus

387

The serine carboxypeptidase like gene family of rice ( Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serine carboxypeptidases (SCPs) comprise a large family of protein hydrolyzing enzymes and have roles ranging from protein\\u000a turnover and C-terminal processing to wound responses and xenobiotic metabolism. The proteins can be classified into three\\u000a groups, namely carboxypeptidase I, II and III, based on their coding protein sequences and the fact that each family is characterized\\u000a by a central catalytic domain

Ying Feng; Qingzhong Xue

2006-01-01

388

Hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with migratory behaviour in adult but not juvenile sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys ssp.)  

PubMed Central

It has been hypothesized that individuals who have higher demands for spatially based behaviours should show increases in hippocampal attributes. Some avian species have been shown to use a spatially based representation of their environment during migration. Further, differences in hippocampal attributes have been shown between migratory and non-migratory subspecies as well as between individuals with and without migratory experience (juveniles versus adults). We tested whether migratory behaviour might also be associated with increased hippocampal neurogenesis, and whether potential differences track previously reported differences in hippocampal attributes between a migratory (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) and non-migratory subspecies (Z. l. nuttalli) of white-crowned sparrows. We found that non-migratory adults had relatively fewer numbers of immature hippocampal neurons than adult migratory birds, while adult non-migrants had a lower density of new hippocampal neurons than adult and juvenile migratory birds and juvenile non-migratory birds. Our results suggest that neurogenesis decreases with age, as juveniles, regardless of migratory status, exhibit similar and higher levels of neurogenesis than non-migratory adults. However, our results also suggest that adult migrants may either seasonally increase or maintain neurogenesis levels comparable to those found in juveniles. Our results thus suggest that migratory behaviour in adults is associated with maintained or increased neurogenesis and the differential production of new neurons may be the mechanism underpinning changes in the hippocampal architecture between adult migratory and non-migratory birds. PMID:20659933

LaDage, Lara D.; Roth, Timothy C.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

2011-01-01

389

Flower dimorphism and the maintenance of andromonoecy in Sagittaria guyanensis ssp. lappula (Alismataceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Staminate flowers of andromonoecious species are thought to be produced to increase reproductive success through enhancing male function or diverting resources from unneeded pistils to fruits. This does not explain why andromonoecy occurs within genera with monoecy, since staminate flowers of monoecious plants can also serve these functions. • Here the male allocation of staminate and perfect flowers

Shuang-Quan Huang

2003-01-01

390

Structure and anti-TB activity of trachylobanes from the liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia ssp. cordifolia.  

PubMed

In the critical search for new antituberculosis lead compounds, bryophytes represent a largely untapped resource of chemically diverse structures. From the liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia, 11 new trachylobane diterpene derivatives, as well as three known compounds, were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and full (1)H NMR spin analysis of one model compound confirmed the relative configurational assignments of the congeners. Four of the isolates exhibited noticeable activity against virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 61-24 microg/mL. This finding suggests that bryophytes in general and trachylobanes in particular deserve further attention in the search for new antimycobacterial leads. PMID:20353194

Scher, Jochen M; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Zapp, Josef; Wang, Yuehong; Franzblau, Scott G; Becker, Hans; Lankin, David C; Pauli, Guido F

2010-04-23

391

Tracking the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of nonindigenous species into new habitats is having a drastic effect on natural ecosystems and represents an increasing threat to global biodiversity. In the marine environ- ment, where data on the movement of invasive species is scarce, the spread of alien seaweeds represents a particular problem. We have employed a combination of plastid microsatellite markers and DNA sequence

JIM PROVAN; SUSAN MURPHY; CHRISTINE A. M AGGS

392

Abstract The Floral Genome Project (FGP) selected California poppy (Eschscholzia californica Cham. ssp.  

E-print Network

Abstract The Floral Genome Project (FGP) selected California poppy (Eschscholzia californica Cham to explore adaptive evolution in secondary products. Furthermore, comparison of the poppy ESTs, over 1800 unique sequences had no observable homology in the public databases. The California poppy EST

dePamphilis, Claude

393

Composition of the Essential Oil of Tanacetum balsamita L. ssp. balsamitoides (Schultz Bip.) Grierson from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of Tanacetum balsamita have been examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-one components were detected, mainly monoterpenes, of which carvone (68%) was the major one.

Aazam Monfared; Saied Saeed Hosseini Davarani; Absolhossein Rustaiyan; Shiva Masoudi

2002-01-01

394

Shuttle Ground Support Equipment (GSE) T-0 Umbilical to Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Flight Elements Consultation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked with assessing the validity of an alternate opinion that surfaced during the investigation of recurrent failures at the Space Shuttle T-0 umbilical interface. The most visible problem occurred during the Space Transportation System (STS)-112 launch when pyrotechnics used to separate Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Hold-Down Post (HDP) frangible nuts failed to fire. Subsequent investigations recommended several improvements to the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) and processing changes were implemented, including replacement of ground-half cables and connectors between flights, along with wiring modifications to make critical circuits quad-redundant across the interface. The alternate opinions maintained that insufficient data existed to exonerate the design, that additional data needed to be gathered under launch conditions, and that the interface should be further modified to ensure additional margin existed to preclude failure. The results of the assessment are contained in this report.

Wilson, Timmy R.; Kichak, Robert A.; McManamen, John P.; Kramer-White, Julie; Raju, Ivatury S.; Beil, Robert J.; Weeks, John F.; Elliott, Kenny B.

2009-01-01

395

[Determination of genetic bases of auxotrophy in Yersinia pestis ssp. caucasica strains].  

PubMed

Based on the results of computer analysis of nucleotide sequences in strains Yersinia pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis recorded in the files of NCBI GenBank database, differences between genes argA, aroG, aroF, thiH, and thiG of strain Pestoides F (subspecies caucasica) were found, compared to other strains of plaque agent and pseudotuberculosis microbe. Using PCR with calculated primers and the method of sequence analysis, the structure of variable regions of these genes was studied in 96 natural Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. It was shown that all examined strains of subspecies caucasica, unlike strains of plague-causing agent of other subspecies and pseudotubercolosis microbe, had identical mutations in genes argA (integration of the insertion sequence IS100), aroG (insertion of ten nucleotides), aroF (inserion of IS100), thiH (insertion of nucleotide T), and thiG (deletion of 13 nucleotides). These mutations are the reason for the absence in strains belonging to this subspecies of the ability to synthesize arginine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and vitamin B1 (thiamine), and cause their auxotrophy for these growth factors. PMID:22730764

Odinokov, G N; Eroshenko, G A; Kukleva, L M; Shavina, N Iu; Krasnov, Ia M; Kutyrev, V V

2012-04-01

396

ClpX interactions with ClpP, SspB, protein substrate and nucleotide  

E-print Network

ClpXP and related ATP-dependent proteases are implements of cytosolic protein destruction. They couple chemical energy, derived from ATP hydrolysis, to the selection, unfolding, and degradation of protein substrates with ...

Hersch, Greg Louis

2006-01-01

397

Life cycle of Aylax hypecoi ( Insecta: Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ), a gall inducer on Hypecoum ssp. ( Papaveraceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life cycle and developmental stages of Aylax hypecoi (Trotter, 1913, Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Aylacini) were studied in detail. Aylax hypecoi is known to induce galls in fruits of two Hypecoum species — H. imberbe and H. geslini (Papaveraceae) and the larva develops in host plant fruits. The morphology and development of egg, larva and pupa were investigated, which\\u000a has previously

Anelia M. Stojanova; Marian M. Draganov

2008-01-01

398

Interaction between the AAA+ protease CIpXP and the adaptor protein SspB  

E-print Network

Proteolysis plays a vital role in cellular processes including regulatory pathways and protein quality control in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. ATP-dependent protein degradation is mediated by multimeric protease complexes, ...

Chowdhury, Tahmeena

2010-01-01

399

Volatile oil from Guarea macrophylla ssp. tuberculata: seasonal variation and electroantennographic detection by Hypsipyla grandella.  

PubMed

GC and GC-MS analyses of the volatile oils from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae) collected during three different periods in one year (February, June and October) indicated a seasonal variation in chemical composition. Whilst sesquiterpenes were the predominant class of components present in the leaf oil, a seasonal dependent variation in the degree of oxygenation of these compounds was detected, which seemed to be associated with phenological factors. The leaf oil, and fractions thereof, were subjected to GC coupled with electroantennographic detection employing antennae of females of Hypsipyla grandella, an insect pest that attacks several meliaceous species. Five compounds elicited significant responses and these were identified as ledol, 1-cubenol, guai-6-en-10beta-ol, 1-epi-cubenol, and tau-muurolol. The results suggest that these components could be responsible for the attraction of H. grandella to G. macrophylla. PMID:16434069

Lago, João Henrique G; Soares, Marisi G; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Silva, M Fátima G F; Corrêa, Arlene G; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; Roque, Nídia F

2006-03-01

400

Characterisation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) varieties using microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Background Sugar beet is an obligate outcrossing species. Varieties consist of mixtures of plants from various parental combinations. As the number of informative morphological characteristics is limited, this leads to some problems in variety registration research. Results We have developed 25 new microsatellite markers for sugar beet. A selection of 12 markers with high quality patterns was used to characterise 40 diploid and triploid varieties. For each variety 30 individual plants were genotyped. The markers amplified 3-21 different alleles. Varieties had up to 7 different alleles at one marker locus. All varieties could be distinguished. For the diploid varieties, the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.458 to 0.744. The average inbreeding coefficient Fis was 0.282 ± 0.124, but it varied widely among marker loci, from Fis = +0.876 (heterozygote deficiency) to Fis = -0.350 (excess of heterozygotes). The genetic differentiation among diploid varieties was relatively constant among markers (Fst = 0.232 ± 0.027). Among triploid varieties the genetic differentiation was much lower (Fst = 0.100 ± 0.010). The overall genetic differentiation between diploid and triploid varieties was Fst = 0.133 across all loci. Part of this differentiation may coincide with the differentiation among breeders' gene pools, which was Fst = 0.063. Conclusions Based on a combination of scores for individual plants all varieties can be distinguished using the 12 markers developed here. The markers may also be used for mapping and in molecular breeding. In addition, they may be employed in studying gene flow from crop to wild populations. PMID:20482800

2010-01-01

401

The genetic architecture of complex traits in teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis): Evidence from association mapping  

E-print Network

): Evidence from association mapping By Allison L. Weber A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment evidence from association mapping Chapter 3 Page 91 Using association mapping to investigate the function, each with its own introduction. The phenotyping and DNA extractions described in Chapter 1 were

Doebley, John

402

Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale – A wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chloroplast genome sequences are extremely informative about species-interrelationships owing to its non-meiotic and often uniparental inheritance over generations. The subject of our study, Fagopyrum esculentum, is a member of the family Polygonaceae belonging to the order Caryophyllales. An uncertainty remains regarding the affinity of Caryophyllales and the asterids that could be due to undersampling of the taxa. With that

Maria D Logacheva; Tahir H Samigullin; Amit Dhingra; Aleksey A Penin

2008-01-01

403

[Di-C-glycosylflavones from Cerastium arvense ssp. arvense new for Caryophyllaceae.].  

PubMed

The C-galactosyl-6 C-arabinosyl-8 apigenin or isocorymboside and a C-xylosyl-6 C-arabinosyl-8 apigenin are isolated from the fresh whole plant, among many other flavonoids only present in small amounts. PMID:17396942

Dubois, M A; Zoll, A; Bouillant, M L; Delaveau, P

1982-09-01

404

Nutraceutical potential of monofloral honeys produced by the Sicilian black honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).  

PubMed

In the light of the growing interest in food and food products obtained through organic and environmentally friendly techniques, the present work represents the first approach to the evaluation of the biological profile of some Sicilian honeys produced in purity by the local black honeybees. Samples exhibited up to 10 times more total phenolics and higher antioxidant capacity than what already reported for the same variety of honeys produced by other honeybee subspecies from Sicily, other Italian regions and abroad. Noteworthy, the gallic acid contents in medlar and almond honeys represented the highest level of single phenolic acid reported in honey so far. A broad antimicrobial spectrum was showed by all of the honey samples and a good correlation between their inhibition capacity and polyphenolic contents was measured. Experimental results highlighted samples among the honeys characterised by the highest nutraceutical added value and most excellent quality. PMID:22497901

Tenore, Gian Carlo; Ritieni, Alberto; Campiglia, Pietro; Novellino, Ettore

2012-06-01

405

Kinetic Behaviour of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis bv. diacetylactis Immobilized in Calcium Alginate Gel Beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alginate beads with entrapped Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis bv. diacetylactis were used as biocatalysts in continuous fermentation and the dynamics of the system analysed. Colonization by cells changed during fermentation, concentrating at the periphery (where cell densities reach 350 g litre?1). In the steady state, colonization of the gel was interrupted while growth continued, producing cells that were released into

R. Cachon; M. Catté; R. Nommé; H. Prévost; C. Diviès

1995-01-01

406

The Complete Genome Sequence of the Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis is a nonpathogenic AT-rich gram-positive bacterium closely related to the genus Streptococcus and is the most commonly used cheese starter. It is also the best-characterized lactic acid bacterium. We sequenced the genome of the laboratory strain IL1403, using a novel two-step strategy that comprises diagnostic sequencing of the entire genome and a shotgun polishing step. The genome contains 2,365,589 base pairs and encodes 2310 proteins, including 293 protein-coding genes belonging to six prophages and 43 insertion sequence (IS) elements. Nonrandom distribution of IS elements indicates that the chromosome of the sequenced strain may be a product of recent recombination between two closely related genomes. A complete set of late competence genes is present, indicating the ability of L. lactis to undergo DNA transformation. Genomic sequence revealed new possibilities for fermentation pathways and for aerobic respiration. It also indicated a horizontal transfer of genetic information from Lactococcus to gram-negative enteric bacteria of Salmonella-Escherichia group. [The sequence data described in this paper has been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession no. AE005176.] PMID:11337471

Bolotin, Alexander; Wincker, Patrick; Mauger, Stephane; Jaillon, Olivier; Malarme, Karine; Weissenbach, Jean; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

2001-01-01

407

Hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with migratory behaviour in adult but not juvenile sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys ssp.).  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that individuals who have higher demands for spatially based behaviours should show increases in hippocampal attributes. Some avian species have been shown to use a spatially based representation of their environment during migration. Further, differences in hippocampal attributes have been shown between migratory and non-migratory subspecies as well as between individuals with and without migratory experience (juveniles versus adults). We tested whether migratory behaviour might also be associated with increased hippocampal neurogenesis, and whether potential differences track previously reported differences in hippocampal attributes between a migratory (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) and non-migratory subspecies (Z. l. nuttalli) of white-crowned sparrows. We found that non-migratory adults had relatively fewer numbers of immature hippocampal neurons than adult migratory birds, while adult non-migrants had a lower density of new hippocampal neurons than adult and juvenile migratory birds and juvenile non-migratory birds. Our results suggest that neurogenesis decreases with age, as juveniles, regardless of migratory status, exhibit similar and higher levels of neurogenesis than non-migratory adults. However, our results also suggest that adult migrants may either seasonally increase or maintain neurogenesis levels comparable to those found in juveniles. Our results thus suggest that migratory behaviour in adults is associated with maintained or increased neurogenesis and the differential production of new neurons may be the mechanism underpinning changes in the hippocampal architecture between adult migratory and non-migratory birds. PMID:20659933

LaDage, Lara D; Roth, Timothy C; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

2011-01-01

408

Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of lupin seed flour and derivatives ( Lupinus albus ssp. Graecus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate natural sources of nutritive and non-nutritive antioxidants, the methanol extracts of lupin (Lupinus albus spp. Graecus) flour (with and without alkaloids) and lupin protein isolate were first examined for their antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of these extracts was determined by a rapid spectrophotometric method based on the coupled oxidation of ?-carotene and linoleic acid and

E Tsaliki; V Lagouri; G Doxastakis

1999-01-01

409

Metabolic differentiation of diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella (L.)) resistance in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata).  

PubMed

The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a major pest responsible for destroying cabbage and other Brassica vegetable crops. A diamondback moth-resistant cabbage line was studied by comparing its metabolite profiles with those of a susceptible cabbage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, and amides were the major factors that distinguished the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiled 46 metabolites, including 19 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 8 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine in two genotypes and F1 hybrid cabbages. The levels of glycolic acid, quinic acid, inositol, fumaric acid, glyceric acid, trehalose, shikimic acid, and aspartic acid were found to be very significantly different between the resistant and susceptible genotypes with a P value of <0.0001. These results will provide a foundation for further studies on diamondback moth resistance in cabbage breeding and for the development of other herbivore-resistant crops. PMID:24144435

Kim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Su Ryun; Lee, Jeongyeo; Park, Soo-Yun; Song, Seung Yeub; Na, Jonghyun; Kim, Suk Weon; Kim, Sun-Ju; Nou, Ill-Sup; Lee, Yong Han; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Hyeran

2013-11-20

410

Genetic Analysis of Salt Stress Responses in Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) ssp. sesquipedalis Verdc.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt stress responses of 23 asparagus bean cultivars were evaluated using 14-day-old seedlings after 15-day exposure to 75 mM NaCl in a hydroponics culture system. Salt-induced changes in plant growth and morphology, photosynthetic capacity, cell membrane integrity, and cellular protection enzyme systems as well as other physiological and biochemical traits were investigated to identify genotypic variability in salt response. This

CHANYOU CHEN; C HENGXUE TAO; H AI PENG; YI DING

2007-01-01

411

SC2 Page 1 HMRC 09/08 Statutory Sick Pay (SSP)  

E-print Network

entitlement. #12;Page 2 Other help while you are sick · You can get more information about other help while you are sick in leaflet DHC1JP A guide for disabled people, those with health conditions, and carers in while you are sick, you may be able to get Income Support. Income Support is a Social Security benefit

Royal Holloway, University of London

412

High-throughput sequence analysis of small RNAs in skotomorphogenic seedlings of Brassica rapa ssp. rapa.  

PubMed

Skotomorphogenic development is the process by which seedlings adapt to a stressful dark environment. Such metabolic responses to abiotic stresses in plants are known to be regulated in part by microRNAs (miRNAs); however, little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of skotomorphogenesis. To identify miRNAs at the genome-wide level in skotomorphogenic seedlings of turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa), an important worldwide root vegetable, we used Solexa sequencing to sequence a small RNA library from seedlings grown in the dark for 4 days. Deep sequencing showed that the small RNAs (sRNAs) were predominantly 21 to 24 nucleotides long. Specifically, 13,319,035 reads produced 359,531 unique sRNAs including rRNA, tRNA, miRNA, small nuclear RNA (snRNA), small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), and unannotated sRNAs. Sequence analysis identified 96 conserved miRNAs belonging to 36 miRNA families and 576 novel miRNAs. qRT-PCR confirmed that the miRNAs were expressed during skotomorphogenesis similar to the trends shown by the Solexa sequencing results. A total of 2013 potential targets were predicted, and the targets of BrmiR157, BrmiR159 and BrmiR160 were proved to be regulated by miRNA-guided cleavage. These results show that specific regulatory miRNAs are present in skotomorphogenic seedlings of turnip and may play important roles in growth, development, and response to dark environment. PMID:25016069

Zhou, Bo; Fan, Pengzhen; Li, Yuhua

2014-09-10

413

Valladolid, May 7, 2005 Some reflections on PEP-SSP3 (1979-1981) and on  

E-print Network

to this paradox is the failure of past cloud seeding experiments to provide an adequate verification modification. It should capitalize on operational cloud seeding programs, and use them as a basis% average 17% Koloskov, Melnichuk and Sedunov, 1984 Tallin Cloud Physics Conference Burtsev

Vali, Gabor

414

Degradome sequencing reveals endogenous small RNA targets in rice ( Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. Plant miRNAs modulate their\\u000a targets mainly via messenger RNA (mRNA) cleavage. Small RNA (sRNA) targets have been extensively investigated in Arabidopsis using computational prediction, experimental validation, and degradome sequencing. However, small RNA targets are largely\\u000a unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Here, we report global identification of small RNA

Ming Zhou; Lianfeng Gu; Pingchuan Li; Xianwei Song; Liya Wei; Zhiyu Chen; Xiaofeng Cao

2010-01-01

415

Cytotoxic effect of eudesmanolides isolated from flowers of Tanacetum vulgare ssp. siculum.  

PubMed

A phytochemical analysis of the dichloromethane extract from the flowers of a subspecies of Tanacetum vulgare growing in Sicily was carried out. Five known sesquiterpene lactones with the eudesmane skeleton have been isolated and the cytotoxic activity of these compounds was tested in vitro on A549 (human lung carcinoma epithelial-like) and V79379A (Chinese hamster lung fibroblast-like) cells using the tetrazolium salt reduction (MTT) assay. All of tested compounds induced high time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects. PMID:22777187

Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio; Raimondo, Francesco Maria; Spadaro, Vivienne; Varol, Mehmet; Koparal, Ay?e Tansu; Maggio, Antonella

2012-01-01

416

Establishing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Mined Lands: Science and Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1977, the USA Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act mandated that reclaimed plant communities must be as productive or more productive than the premined plant community and must possess diversity representative of the premine community and serve the same land uses. In much of the Northern Great Plains this meant that reclaimed mined lands must support postmined land uses

Gerald E. Schuman; Laurel E. Vicklund; Scott E. Belden

2005-01-01

417

Characterization of a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) die-off on the Handford Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanford Site contains one of the few remaining contiguous areas of shrub-steppe habitat left in Washington State. This habitat is home to many native plant and wildlife species, some of which are threatened with extinction or are unique to the Site. The importance of the Hanford Site increases as other lands surrounding the Site are developed, and these native

A. Cardenas; J. Lewinsohn; C. Auger; J. L. Downs; L. L. Cadwell; R. Burrows

1997-01-01

418

Crop uptake and extractability of cadmium in soils naturally high in metals at different pH levels  

SciTech Connect

A greenhouse experiment was conducted for three years to study the effect of different pH levels on metal concentrations in plants and the cadmium (Cd) extractability by DTPA and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}. The soils used were an alum shale (clay loam) and a moraine (loam), which were adjusted to pH levels of 5.5, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.5. Wheat (Triticum aestivum), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were grown as test crops. Crop yields were not consistently affected at increasing soil pH levels. The concentration of Cd in plant species decreased with increasing soil pH in both soils and in all three years. Significant concentration differences between soil pH levels were only seen in wheat and carrot crops. Increasing soil pH also decreased the nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in plants in the first year crop but the copper (Cu) concentration was not consistently affected by soil pH. The effect of pH was more pronounced in the moraine then the alum shale soil. The DTPA-and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-extractable Cd was decreased with the increasing soil pH and the pH effect was more pronounced with NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} extractable Cd. Both extractants were found equally effective in relation to the Cd concentration in plants in this study. 33 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Singh, B.R.; Almas, A.; Narwal, R.P. [Haryana Agric. Univ., Hisar (India); Jeng, A.S.

1995-12-01

419

Plastid-Expressed Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene in Carrot Cultured Cells, Roots, and Leaves Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance1  

PubMed Central

Salinity is one of the major factors that limits geographical distribution of plants and adversely affects crop productivity and quality. We report here high-level expression of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) in cultured cells, roots, and leaves of carrot (Daucus carota) via plastid genetic engineering. Homoplasmic transgenic plants exhibiting high levels of salt tolerance were regenerated from bombarded cell cultures via somatic embryogenesis. Transformation efficiency of carrot somatic embryos was very high, with one transgenic event per approximately seven bombarded plates under optimal conditions. In vitro transgenic carrot cells transformed with the badh transgene were visually green in color when compared to untransformed carrot cells, and this offered a visual selection for transgenic lines. BADH enzyme activity was enhanced 8-fold in transgenic carrot cell cultures, grew 7-fold more, and accumulated 50- to 54-fold more betaine (93–101 ?mol g?1 dry weight of ?-Ala betaine and Gly betaine) than untransformed cells grown in liquid medium containing 100 mm NaCl. Transgenic carrot plants expressing BADH grew in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl (up to 400 mm), the highest level of salt tolerance reported so far among genetically modified crop plants. BADH expression was 74.8% in non-green edible parts (carrots) containing chromoplasts, and 53% in proplastids of cultured cells when compared to chloroplasts (100%) in leaves. Demonstration of plastid transformation via somatic embryogenesis utilizing non-green tissues as recipients of foreign DNA for the first time overcomes two of the major obstacles in extending this technology to important crop plants. PMID:15347789

Kumar, Shashi; Dhingra, Amit; Daniell, Henry

2004-01-01

420

Molecular characterisation of a calmodulin gene, VcCaM1, that is differentially expressed under aluminium stress in highbush blueberry.  

PubMed

Calmodulin (CaM), a small acidic protein, is one of the best characterised Ca(2+) sensors in eukaryotes. This Ca(2+) -regulated protein plays a critical role in decoding and transducing environmental stress signals by activating specific targets. Many environmental stresses elicit changes in intracellular Ca(2+) activity that could initiate adaptive responses under adverse conditions. We report the first molecular cloning and characterisation of a calmodulin gene, VcCaM1 (Vaccinium corymbosum Calmodulin 1), in the woody shrub, highbush blueberry. VcCaM1 was first identified as VCAL19, a gene induced by aluminium stress in V. corymbosum L. A full-length cDNA of VcCaM1 containing a 766-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 149 amino acids was cloned from root RNA. The sequence encodes four Ca(2+) -binding motifs (EF-hands) and shows high similarity (99%) with the isoform CaM 201 of Daucus carota. Expression analyses showed that following Al treatment, VcCaM1 message level decreased in roots of Brigitta, an Al-resistant cultivar, and after 48 h, was lower than in Bluegold, an Al-sensitive cultivar. VcCAM1 message also decreased in leaves of both cultivars within 2 h of treatment. Message levels in leaves then increased by 24 h to control levels in Brigitta, but not in Bluegold, but then decreased again by 48 h. In conclusion, VcCaM1 does not appear to be directly involved in Al resistance, but may be involved in improved plant performance under Al toxicity conditions through regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and antioxidant systems in leaves. PMID:23627459

Inostroza-Blancheteau, C; Aquea, F; Loyola, R; Slovin, J; Josway, S; Rengel, Z; Reyes-Díaz, M; Alberdi, M; Arce-Johnson, P

2013-11-01

421

Indirect effects on mutualisms: parasitism of bumble bees and pollination service to plants.  

PubMed

Researchers increasingly recognize the important role of mutualisms in structuring communities and view positive interactions in a