Note: This page contains sample records for the topic carota ssp carota from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Essential-Oil Composition of Daucus carota ssp. major (Pastinocello Carrot) and Nine Different Commercial Varieties of Daucus carota ssp. sativus Fruits.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the pastinocello carrot, Daucus carota ssp. major (Vis.) Arcang. (flowers and achenes), and from nine different commercial varieties of D. carota L. ssp. sativus (achenes) was investigated by GC/MS analyses. Selective breeding over centuries of a naturally occurring subspecies of the wild carrot, D. carota L. ssp. sativus, has produced the common garden vegetable with reduced bitterness, increased sweetness, and minimized woody core. On the other hand, the cultivation of the pastinocello carrot has been abandoned, even if, recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of this species, which risks genetic erosion. The cultivated carrot (D. carota ssp. sativus) and the pastinocello carrot (D. carota ssp. major) were classified as different subspecies of the same species. This close relationship between the two subspecies urged us to compare the chemical composition of their essential oils, to evaluate the differences. The main essential-oil constituents isolated from the pastinocello fruits were geranyl acetate (34.2%), ?-pinene (12.9%), geraniol (6.9%), myrcene (4.7%), epi-?-bisabolol (4.5%), sabinene (3.3%), and limonene (3.0%). The fruit essential oils of the nine commercial varieties of D. carota ssp. sativus were very different from that of pastinocello, as also confirmed by multivariate statistical analyses. PMID:25044588

Flamini, Guido; Cosimi, Elena; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Molfetta, Ilaria; Braca, Alessandra

2014-07-01

2

Mitochondrial DNA diversity and male sterility in natural populations of Daucus carota ssp carota.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial variability was investigated in natural populations of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp carota) in different regions: South of France, Greece, and various sites in the Mediterranean Basin and Asia. Total DNA was digested with two restriction endonucleases (EcoRV and HindIII) and probed with three mitochondrial DMA-specific genes (coxI, atp6, and coxII). Twenty-five different mitochondrial types were found in 80 analyzed individuals. Thirteen mitotypes were found among the 7 French populations studied. On average, 4.4 different mitotypes were observed per population, and these mitotypes were well-distributed among the populations. All of the mitochondrial types were specific to a single region. However, the proportion of shared restriction fragments between 2 mitotypes from different regions was not particularly lower than that which occurred among mitotypes from a single region. On the basis of the sexual phenotype [male-sterile (MS) or hermaphrodite] of the plants studied in situ and that of their progeny, 2 mitotypes were found to be highly associated with male sterility. Eighty percent of the plants bearing these mitotypes were MS in situ, and all of these plants produced more than 30% MS plants in their progeny. This association with male sterility was consistent in several populations, suggesting an association with a cytoplasmic male-sterility system. Moreover, these two mitotypes had very similar mitochondrial DNA restriction patterns and were well-differentiated from the other mitotypes observed in wild plants and also from those observed in the two CMS types already known in the cultivated carrot. This suggests that they correspond to a third cytoplasmic sterility. PMID:24169681

Ronfort, J; Saumitou-Laprade, P; Cuguen, J; Couvet, D

1995-07-01

3

Mitochondrial genome diversity among cultivars of daucus carota (ssp. sativus) and their wild relatives.  

PubMed

Restriction fragment patterns of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from 13 carrot cultivars (Daucus carota ssp. sativus), wild carrot (ssp. carota), ssp. gummifer, and D. capillifolius were compared with each other using four restriction endonucleases. The mtDNAs of the 13 carrot cultivars could be classified into three distinct types - I, II and III - and were also clearly distinguishable from the mtDNAs of wild carrot (type IV), gummifer (V) and D. capillifolius (VI). The proportions of common restriction fragments (F values) shared by two of the three mtDNA types (I, II and III) of carrot cultivars were approximately 0.5-0.6. The F values were 0.4-0.5 for mitochondrial genomes between wild carrot, ssp. gummifer and D. capillifolius. The mitochondrial genomes between wild carrot and the carrot cultivars showed closer homologies those between wild carrot, ssp. gummifer, and D. capillifolius. The diversity of the mitochondrial genomes among the carrot cultivars is too high to presume that it was generated from the cytoplasm of only one common ancestor during the relatively short history of carrot breeding. These results suggested that the three types of cytoplasms found in the carrot cultivars might have existed in a prototype of D. carota in pre-historical times. PMID:24232471

Ichikawa, H; Tanno-Suenaga, L; Imamura, J

1989-01-01

4

Mitochondrial gene diversity associated with the atp9 stop codon in natural populations of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp. carota).  

PubMed

Mitochondrial genomes extracted from the wild populations of Daucus carota have been used as a genetic resource by breeders of cultivated carrot, yet little is known concerning the extent of their diversity in nature. Of special interest is an SNP in the putative stop codon of the mitochondrial gene atp9 that has been associated previously with male-sterile and male-fertile phenotypic variants. In this study, either the sequence or PCR/RFLP genotypes were obtained from the mitochondrial genes atp1, atp9, and cox1 found in D. carota individuals collected from 24 populations in the eastern United States. More than half of the 128 individuals surveyed had a CAA or AAA, rather than TAA, genotype at the position usually thought to function as an atp9 stop codon in this species. We also found no evidence for mitochondrial RNA editing (Cytosine to Uridine) of the CAA stop codon in either floral or leaf tissue. Evidence for intragenic recombination, as opposed to the more common intergenic recombination in plant mitochondrial genomes, in our data set is presented. Indel and SNP variants elsewhere in atp9, and in the other 2 genes surveyed, were nonrandomly associated with the 3 atp9 stop codon variants, though further analysis suggested that multilocus genotypic diversity had been enhanced by recombination. Overall the mitochondrial genetic diversity was only modestly structured among populations with an F(ST) of 0.34. PMID:22337997

Mandel, Jennifer R; McAssey, Edward V; Roland, Katherine M; McCauley, David E

2012-01-01

5

Carrot ( Daucus carota ) hypocotyl transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daucus carota hypocotyl sections were transformed withAgrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 containing CaMV 35S promoter, ß-glucuronidase coding sequence and the nopaline synthase (Nos) poly adenylation sequences in Bin 19. Sliced sterile seedling hypocotyl segments were preincubated for 2 days, co-cultivated withAgrobacterium for an additional 2 days, and then transferred to medium containing 100ug\\/ml of kanamycin and 400ug\\/ml carbenicillin. In 6 weeks kanamycin

John C. Thomas; Mark J. Guiltinan; Silvia Bustos; Terry Thomas; Craig Nessler

1989-01-01

6

Transformation and regeneration of carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol is presented for the efficient transformation of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Nantaise) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The binary vector contained the marker gene ß-glucuronidase (GUS), driven by the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus, and the nptII gene, which confers kanamycin resistance. Highest T-DNA transfer rates were obtained by co-cultivating bacteria with hypocotyl segments of dark-grown seedlings on

Markus Hardegger; Arnd Sturm

1998-01-01

7

Survival and flowering of hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots (Daucus carota) in Danish grasslands.  

PubMed

Many crop species are able to hybridize with related weedy or wild relatives, which could lead to transfer of cultivar genes, and among them transgenes, into wild populations. It is not clear, however, whether the hybrids and their descendants are able to survive and reproduce in natural habitats, as inherited cultivar traits may be maladaptive under such conditions. To test this, we produced hybrid (F(1)) seeds by controlled crosses between wild [see text for formula] and cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. carota and ssp. sativa, respectively) and sowed them into three Danish grasslands of different age, in parallel with seeds of wild carrots. Replicate plots were sown in fall and spring. Survival and flowering of the emerging plants were monitored for the following three years. Both hybrid and wild carrots survived and flowered in highest frequency at a recently disturbed site, and much less at two older sites. Hybrids emerged in higher proportions than wild carrots in the first year and survived to similar or slightly lower frequencies at the end of the experiment. Hybrids flowered as frequently or slightly less frequently than wild plants, and developed fewer and smaller umbels. Despite a somewhat lower reproductive potential compared to wild carrots, first generation hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots are likely to survive and produce offspring in natural grasslands in Denmark. This, together with other studies, suggests that cultivar genes may transfer relatively easily into wild carrot populations. PMID:18289499

Hauser, Thure P; Shim, Sang In

2007-01-01

8

Polyamine Metabolism in Embryogenic Cells of Daucus carota  

PubMed Central

Changes in the metabolism of polyamines, which seem to be involved in transcription and translation in animal systems, have been studied in cultured cells of Daucus carota (carrot) undergoing embryogenesis. Putrescine levels were elevated by as much as 2-fold over the control within 24 hours after transfer of the cells to embryogenic medium. Spermidine levels were elevated also but spermine levels appeared to be lower in embryogenic cells. Embryogenic cells incorporated [14C]arginine into putrescine at two times the rate of control cells. These changes suggest that polyamines may be involved in cellular differentiation during embryogenesis.

Montague, Michael J.; Koppenbrink, Joan W.; Jaworski, Ernest G.

1978-01-01

9

Complete plastid genome sequence of Daucus carota: Implications for biotechnology and phylogeny of angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Carrot (Daucus carota) is a major food crop in the US and worldwide. Its capacity for storage and its lifecycle as a biennial make it an attractive species for the introduction of foreign genes, especially for oral delivery of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. Until recently efforts to express recombinant proteins in carrot have had limited success in terms

Tracey Ruhlman; Seung-Bum Lee; Robert K Jansen; Jessica B Hostetler; Luke J Tallon; Christopher D Town; Henry Daniell

2006-01-01

10

Factors influencing the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop an efficient procedure for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of carrot (Daucus carota L.) the effects of several factors were studied. Parameters which significantly affected the transformation frequency were the variety, the explant type, and the co-cultivation period. Under optimal conditions, using the A. tumefaciens C58C1 containing either pGSTRN943 or pGSGluc1 and 3 days of co-cultivation, the frequency of

Nathalie Pawlicki; Rajbir S. Sangwan; Brigitte S. Sangwan-Norreel

1992-01-01

11

Daucus carota L. (Carrot): In Vitro Production of Carotenoids and Phytoalexins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Daucus carota (family Umbelliferae) is one of the most commonly used plant materials in tissue culture studies. Although various aspects\\u000a of growth and organization have been extensively studied, relatively few attempts have been made at in vitro production of\\u000a specific plant ingredients in carrot cells. Carrot root is characterized by its high content of carotenoid pigments. Carotenoids\\u000a are also found

A. Nishi; F. Kurosaki

12

Seasonal variation in Daucus carota leaf-surface and leaf-tissue chemical profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to document seasonal changes in leaf-surface and whole-leaf chemistry of Daucus carota cohorts that differed in life-cycle phenology (winter annual, annual, or biennial), with particular focus on compounds that serve as contact oviposition stimulants for Papilio polyxenes, the black swallowtail butterfly. Cohorts of carrot plants exhibiting different life-cycle phenologies were established, and plants from

Janie S Brooks; Paul Feeny

2004-01-01

13

Accumulation, subcellular localization and ecophysiological responses to copper stress in two Daucus carota L. populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper accumulation, subcellular localization and ecophysiological responses to excess copper were investigated using pot\\u000a culture experiments with two Daucus carota L. populations, from a copper mine and an uncontaminated field site, respectively. Significant differences of malondialdehyde\\u000a (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations and antioxidant enzyme [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)] activities\\u000a of leaves under Cu treatment

Wenshan Ke; Zhiting Xiong; Mingji Xie; Qin Luo

2007-01-01

14

Historical and contemporary gene dispersal in wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp. carota) populations  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Wild carrot is the ancestor of cultivated carrot and is the most important gene pool for carrot breeding. Transgenic carrot may be released into the environment in the future. The aim of the present study was to determine how far a gene can disperse in wild carrot populations, facilitating risk assessment and management of transgene introgression from cultivated to wild carrots and helping to design sampling strategies for germplasm collections. Methods Wild carrots were sampled from Meijendel and Alkmaar in The Netherlands and genotyped with 12 microsatellite markers. Spatial autocorrelation analyses were used to detect spatial genetic structures (SGSs). Historical gene dispersal estimates were based on an isolation by distance model. Mating system and contemporary pollen dispersal were estimated using 437 offspring of 20 mothers with different spatial distances and a correlated paternity analysis in the Meijendel population. Key Results Significant SGSs are found in both populations and they are not significantly different from each other. Combined SGS analysis indicated significant positive genetic correlations up to 27 m. Historical gene dispersal ?g and neighbourhood size Nb were estimated to be 4–12 m [95 % confidence interval (CI): 3–25] and 42–73 plants (95 % CI: 28–322) in Meijendel and 10–31 m (95 % CI: 7–?) and 57–198 plants (95 % CI: 28–?) in Alkmaar with longer gene dispersal in lower density populations. Contemporary pollen dispersal follows a fat-tailed exponential-power distribution, implying pollen of wild carrots could be dispersed by insects over long distance. The estimated outcrossing rate was 96 %. Conclusions SGSs in wild carrots may be the result of high outcrossing, restricted seed dispersal and long-distance pollen dispersal. High outcrossing and long-distance pollen dispersal suggest high frequency of transgene flow might occur from cultivated to wild carrots and that they could easily spread within and between populations.

Rong, Jun; Janson, Stef; Umehara, Mikihisa; Ono, Michiyuki; Vrieling, Klaas

2010-01-01

15

Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David

2006-01-01

16

Removal of cationic methylene blue and malachite green dyes from aqueous solution by waste materials of Daucus carota  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study adsorption capacity of waste materials of Daucus carota plant (carrot stem powder: CSP and carrot leaves powder: CLP) was explored for the removal of methylene blue (MB) malachite green (MG) dye from water. The morphology and functional groups present were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The operating variables studied were

Atul Kumar Kushwaha; Neha Gupta; M. C. Chattopadhyaya

17

Levels of Lycopene ?-Cyclase 1 Modulate Carotenoid Gene Expression and Accumulation in Daucus carota  

PubMed Central

Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene ?-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of ?-carotene and ?-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of ?-carotene and ?-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and ?-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots.

Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

2013-01-01

18

Interruption of Somatic Embryogenesis in Daucus carota L. by 5-Bromodeoxyuridine  

PubMed Central

Embryogenic Daucus carota L. cells grown in 9 micromolar 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid are resistant to greater than 5 micromolar 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). In contrast, 5 micromolar BrdU strongly inhibits somatic embryogenesis within 24 hours after transfer of cells to an auxin-free medium. DNA synthesis rates in control and BrdU-treated cultures are rapid and similar; however, the DNA content does not reach levels as great in the presence of BrdU as in control cultures. BrdU substitutes for thymidine in the DNA in 28% of the available sites 48 hours after auxin removal. Following DNA repair, somatic embryogenesis resumes. BrdU DNA incorporation leads to somatic embryogenesis inhibition and provides an alternative to auxin treatment for the interruption of carrot cell culture differentiation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 7

Thomas, John C.; Nessler, Craig; Katterman, Frank

1989-01-01

19

Methotrexate and aminopterin effects on growth and regeneration in Daucus carota.  

PubMed

Daucus carota L., callus was cultured on various levels of the folate analogs, methotrexate (4-amino-10-methylfolic acid, amethopterin) and aminopter in (4-aminofolic acid). Callus growth was inhibited as analog concentrations were increased from 0.01 ?M to 10 ?M. Methotrexate concentrations in excess of 10 ?M were lethal. In contrast, concentrations of aminopterin in the range of 10 to 100 ?M resulted in renewed growth and somatic embryogenesis leading to plant regeneration. This plant regeneration occurred even in the presence of 5.0 mg/l 2,4-D or NAA (concentrations up to fifty times higher than that required to maintain callus growth). These observations reveal that aminopterin at high concentrations, but not methotrexate, triggers somatic embryogenesis in the presence of auxin. All tested levels of aminopterin permitted regeneration in the absence of auxin. PMID:24248451

Smith, R H; Kerns, H A; Anthony, J L; Wild, J R

1987-02-01

20

Phospholipids of palash ( Butea monosperma ), papaya ( Carica papaya ), jangli badam ( Sterculia foetida ), coriander ( Coriandrum sativum ) and carrot ( Daucus carota ) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the phospholipids of palash(Butea monosperma), papaya(Carica papaya), jangli badam(Sterculia foetida), coriander(Coriandrum sativum) and carrot(Daucus carota) seeds are reported in the present study. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were identified\\u000a as major components in all the seeds. Small amounts of lysophosphatidylcholine in palash and papaya, and cardiolipin in palash,\\u000a papaya and carrot also were detected. The predominant fatty acids present

R. B. N. Prasad; Y. Nagender Rao; S. Venkob Rao

1987-01-01

21

[Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth and phoxim residue of carrot (Daucus carota L.)].  

PubMed

A pot culture experiment was carried out to study the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on the growth and phoxim residue of carrot (Daucus carota L). Four levels of phoxim (0, 200, 400, 800 mg x L(-1)) and two AM fungal inocula, Glomus intraradices BEG 141(141), Glomus mosseae BEG 167 (167),and one nonmycorrhizal inoculum (CK), were applied to the sterilized soil. The plants were harvested after 5 months of growth and phoxim was irrigated into the root zone 14 d before plant harvest. Although decreasing with the increase of phoxim dosage, root infection rates of all the mycorrhizal plants were higher than 70%. Phoxim showed no significant dose effect on shoot wet weights and root yields, which were all increased by AM inoculation at four phoxim dosages. Phoxim residues in shoots and roots increased with the increase of phoxim dosage, but decreased by AM inoculation. In general, Glomus intraradices BEG 141 showed more pronounced effects on the growth and phoxim residue of carrot than Glomus mosseae BEG 167 did. Our results show a promising potential of AM fungi in carrot production and controlling pesticide residues. PMID:21360902

Wang, Fa-Yuan; Chen, Xin; Sun, Xian-Ming; Shi, Zhao-Yong

2010-12-01

22

Purification and characterization of a soluble beta-fructofuranosidase from Daucus carota.  

PubMed

Soluble beta-fructofuranosidase with an intracellular location and an isoelectric point of 3.8 (isoenzyme I) was purified and characterized from dry seeds and seedlings of carrot (Daucus carota). The enzyme hydrolyzed sucrose with a Km of 5 mM and a broad pH optimum around 5.0. The purified protein, which was N-glycosylated with high-mannose-containing and high-xylose-containing complex glycans, eluted as a monomeric polypeptide with a molecular mass of 68,000 from a gel-filtration column. On SDS/PAGE, the protein separated in the presence of SDS and 2-mercaptoethanol into three polypeptides with molecular masses of 68, 43 and 25 kDa. The amount of the 68-kDa polypeptide was highest in dry seeds and decreased with increasing age of carrot seedlings. Amino acid sequence analysis and immunological studies showed that the 43-kDa and 25-kDa polypeptides were N-terminal and C-terminal proteolytic fragments of the 68-kDa polypeptide. A comparison of partial amino acid sequences of the soluble beta-fructofuranosidase with the complete sequence of carrot cell-wall beta-fructofuranosidase showed that their N-terminal sequences were different, whereas some of the internal tryptic peptide sequences were up to 70% identical. PMID:1541302

Unger, C; Hofsteenge, J; Sturm, A

1992-03-01

23

Characterization of a gene that is expressed early in somatic embryogenesis of Daucus carota.  

PubMed Central

The EMB-1 mRNA of carrot (Daucus carota) was isolated as an embryo abundant cDNA clone (T.H. Ulrich, E.S. Wurtele, B.J. Nikolau [1990] Nucleic Acids Res 18: 2826). Northern analyses of RNA isolated from embryos, cultured cells, and a variety of vegetative organs indicate that the EMB-1 mRNA specifically accumulates in embryos, beginning at the early stages of embryo development. In situ hybridization with both zygotic and somatic embryos show that the EMB-1 mRNA begins to accumulate at low levels throughout globular embryos. Accumulation of EMB-1 mRNA increases and becomes more localized as embryos mature; in torpedo embryos, EMB-1 mRNA preferentially accumulates in the meristematic regions, particularly the procambium. The similarity in distribution of EMB-1 mRNA in both zygotic and somatic embryos indicates that much of the spatial pattern of expression of the emb-1 gene is dependent on the developmental program of the carrot embryo and does not require maternal or endosperm factors. The EMB-1 protein (relative molecular weight 9910) is a very hydrophilic protein that is a member of a class of highly conserved proteins (typified also by the Em protein of wheat and the Lea D19 protein of cotton) that may be ubiquitous among angiosperm embryos but whose functions are as yet unknown. The carrot genome appears to contain one or two copies of the emb-1 gene. A 1313-base pair DNA fragment of the carrot genome containing the emb-1 gene was isolated and sequenced. The gene is interrupted by a single intron of 99 base pairs. Primer extension experiments identify two EMB-1 mRNAs, differing by 6 bases at their 5' ends that are transcribed from this gene.

Wurtele, E S; Wang, H; Durgerian, S; Nikolau, B J; Ulrich, T H

1993-01-01

24

Biochemical, physiological, and molecular characterization of sucrose synthase from Daucus carota.  

PubMed Central

Sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13) from carrot (Daucus carota) is a tetramer with a molecular mass of 320 kD and subunits of 80 kD. The enzyme has a pH optimum of 7.0 (cleavage direction). Maximal activities were measured at 55 degrees C. The Km for Suc was estimated as 87 mM and for UDP as 0.39 mM. Fructose acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor with an inhibition constant of 17.2 mM. In contrast, glucose inhibits carrot sucrose synthase uncompetitively with an inhibition constant of 4.3 mM. cDNA clones encoding a single class of sucrose synthase polypeptide were isolated and sequenced. DNA gel blot analysis also indicated the occurrence of only one to two genes. The deduced amino acid sequence of the carrot enzyme is highly homologous to the sucrose synthase sequences of tomato, potato, and bean. A comparison of the cDNA-derived amino acid sequence with the SS1- and SS2-type sucrose synthase sequences of the monocot plants maize, rice, and barley showed that the carrot enzyme is neither of the SS1 nor of the SS2 type. High enzyme activity was found in roots and petioles of developing carrot plants, with maximal activity in roots at the transition of primary roots to tap roots. Enzyme activity was highly correlated with both polypeptide and transcript levels, indicating that gene expression is regulated mainly at the mRNA level in the different tissues and organs of developing carrot plants.

Sebkova, V; Unger, C; Hardegger, M; Sturm, A

1995-01-01

25

Molecular characterization and functional analysis of sucrose-cleaving enzymes in carrot (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

The amount of carbon transported into storage organs of crop plants to a large degree determines crop yield. The role of sucrose-cleaving enzymes in this process is not clear and it is the main goal of our work to tackle this question. Sucrose cleavage is catalysed either by invertase or sucrose synthase both of which exist in several isoforms with different subcellular locations. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) contains three major isoenzymes of acid invertase, which either accumulate as soluble polypeptides in the vacuole (isoenzymes I and II) or are ionically bound to the cell wall. Carrot sucrose synthase is thought to be a cytoplasmic enzyme encoded by two genes. cDNA clones have been isolated and characterized for cell wall invertase, for isoenzymes I and II of vacuolar invertase, and for sucrose synthase. Gene-specific fragments of these clones were used to determine the steady-state levels of transcripts in the prominent sink and source organs of developing carrot plants. The expression patterns of each gene were different and were organ- and development-specific. Developing tap roots contained only transcripts for isoenzyme II of vacuolar invertase and sucrose synthase. The source/sink balance of these plants was manipulated and only the expression of these two genes was markedly altered, indicating their importance in sucrose partitioning. Based on these results, a model is proposed for sucrose partitioning in carrot plants with developing tap roots in which sucrose synthase regulates sucrose utilization, whereas isoenzyme II of vacuolar invertase controls sucrose storage and sugar composition. PMID:21245247

Sturm, A

1996-08-01

26

Bacterial endophytes in processing carrots ( Daucus carota L. var. sativus): their localization, population density, biodiversity and their effects on plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of endophytic bacteria colonizing roots of processing carrots (Daucus carota) was performed with two high-yielding cultivars (Carochoice, Red Core Chantenay) grown at two locations (Canning, Great Village) in Nova Scotia. Most bacterial endophyte colony-forming units (CFU) were recovered from the carrot crown tissues (96%) compared to the periderm and metaxylem tissues of carrot storage tissues irrespective of the

Monique A. Surette; Antony V. Sturz; Rajasekaran R. Lada; Jerzy Nowak

2003-01-01

27

Daucus carota L. – An old model for cell reprogramming gains new importance through a novel expansion pattern of alternative oxidase ( AOX) genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper highlights Daucus carota L. as an ideal model to complement plant stress research on Arabidopsis thaliana L. Recently, alternative oxidase (AOX) is discussed as functional marker candidate for cell reprogramming upon stress. Carrot is the most studied species for cell reprogramming and our current research reveals that it is the only one that has expanded both AOX sub-family

J. H. Costa; H. G. Cardoso; M. D. Campos; A. Zavattieri; A. M. Frederico; D. Fernandes de Melo; B. Arnholdt-Schmitt

2009-01-01

28

Influence of variation in soil copper on the yield and nutrition of carrots grown in microplots on two organic soils. [Daucus carota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrots (Daucus carota L. cv. Gold Pak 128) were grown in microplots of two organic soils at site A (a peat), and site B (a muck) in the summer of 1984. The soil surface (0 to 20 cm) varied in total Cu from 13 to 1659, and 81 to 1745 ..mu..g\\/g at sites A and B, respectively, mainly due to

S. P. Mathur; A. Belanger

1987-01-01

29

Effect of Intracellular Glutathione Level on the Production of 6-Methoxymellein in Cultured Carrot (Daucus carota) Cells.  

PubMed Central

To produce phytoalexin, 6-methoxymellein (6-MM) was induced in suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota) by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and CuCl2. Addition of BSO (a specific inhibitor of glutathione [GSH] synthesis) to the cultures lowered the cellular GSH levels. This depletion of GSH was BSO-concentration dependent, and the extent of 6-MM accumulation was dependent on the GSH depletion. The accumulation of 6-MM induced by BSO was suppressed by exogenous GSH. Exogenous H2O2 stimulated the production of 6-MM when added 1 d after BSO treatment, whereas H2O2 added at time zero or on the 4th d of BSO treatment did not. Moreover, a synergistic effect of simultaneous addition of BSO and CuCl2 was observed. These results suggest that active oxygen species may be involved in the triggering of 6-MM synthesis.

Guo, Zj.; Nakagawara, S.; Sumitani, K.; Ohta, Y.

1993-01-01

30

Studies on the introduction and mobility of the maize Activator element in Arabidopsis thaliana and Daucus carota.  

PubMed Central

We have co-transformed carrot (Daucus carota) and Arabidopsis thaliana with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens non-tumorigenic T-DNA carrying the maize transposable element Activator (Ac) and an Agrobacterium rhizogenes Ri T-DNA. We present evidence that the Ac element transposes in transformed root or root-derived callus cultures of both species. We show that fertile plants can be regenerated from transformed, root-derived callus cultures of Arabidopsis, demonstrating the utility of the Ri plasmid for introducing the maize Ac element into plants. We also present evidence that Ac elements that excise from the transforming T-DNA early after transformation continue to be mobile in carrot root cultures. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7.

Van Sluys, M A; Tempe, J; Fedoroff, N

1987-01-01

31

A Wound-Inducible Glycine-Rich Protein from Daucus carota with Homology to Single-Stranded Nucleic Acid-Binding Proteins 1  

PubMed Central

A cDNA clone was isolated that encodes a wound-inducible glycine-rich protein. The homology of the carrot (Daucus carota) protein with the A1 protein of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein complex suggests that the polypeptide plays a role in the biosynthesis and processing of heterogeneous nuclear RNA and in the maturation of specific mRNAs in response to wounding. ImagesFigure 2Figure 4

Sturm, Arnd

1992-01-01

32

Differences in protodermal cell wall structure in zygotic and somatic embryos of Daucus carota (L.) cultured on solid and in liquid media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure, cuticle, and distribution of pectic epitopes in outer periclinal walls of protodermal cells of Daucus carota zygotic and somatic embryos from solid and suspension culture were investigated. Lipid substances were present as a continuous\\u000a layer in zygotic and somatic embryos cultured on solid medium. Somatic embryos from suspension cultures were devoid of cuticle.\\u000a The ultrastructure of the outer

Izabela Dobrowolska; Oliwia Majchrzak; Timothy C. Baldwin; Ewa U. Kurczynska

33

Changes in phosphatidylinositol metabolism in response to hyperosmotic stress in Daucus carota L. cells grown in suspension culture.  

PubMed Central

Carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells plasmolyzed within 30 s after adding sorbitol to increase the osmotic strength of the medium from 0.2 to 0.4 or 0.6 osmolal. However, there was no significant change in the polyphosphorylated inositol phospholipids or inositol phosphates or in inositol phospholipid metabolism within 30 s of imposing the hyperosmotic stress. Maximum changes in phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PIP) metabolism were detected at 5 min, at which time the cells appeared to adjust to the change in osmoticum. There was a 30% decrease in [3H]inositol-labeled PIP. The specific activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of the inositol phospholipids also changed. The plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase decreased 50% and PIP-phospholipase C (PIP-PLC) increased 60% compared with the control values after 5 min of hyperosmotic stress. The PIP-PLC activity recovered to control levels by 10 min; however, the PI kinase activity remained below the control value, suggesting that the cells had reached a new steady state with regard to PIP biosynthesis. If cells were pretreated with okadaic acid, the protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitor, the differences in enzyme activity resulting from the hyperosmotic stress were no longer evident, suggesting that an okadaic acid-sensitive phosphatase was activated in response to hyperosmotic stress. Our work suggests that, in this system, PIP is not involved in the initial response to hyperosmotic stress but may be involved in the recovery phase.

Cho, M H; Shears, S B; Boss, W F

1993-01-01

34

Reinvestigation of the bitter compounds in carrots (Daucus carota L.) by using a molecular sensory science approach.  

PubMed

In order to reinvestigate the key molecules inducing bitter off-taste of carrots ( Daucus carota L.), a sensory-guided fractionation approach was applied to bitter carrot extracts. Besides the previously reported bitter compounds, 6-methoxymellein (1), falcarindiol (2), falcarinol (3), and falcarindiol-3-acetate (4), the following compounds were identified for the first time as bitter compounds in carrots with low bitter recognition thresholds between 8 and 47 micromol/L: vaginatin (5), isovaginatin (6), 2-epilaserine oxide (7), laserine oxide (8), laserine (14), 2-epilaserine (15), 6,8-O-ditigloyl- (9), 6-O-angeloyl-, 8-O-tigloyl- (10), 6-O-tigloyl-, 8-O-angeloyl- (11), and 6-, 8-O-diangeloyl-6 ss,8alpha,11-trihydroxygermacra-1(10) E,4 E-diene (12), as well as 8-O-angeloyl-tovarol (13) and alpha-angeloyloxy-latifolone (16). Among these bitter molecules, compounds 9, 10, 13, and 16 were not previously identified in carrots and compounds 6, 11, and 12 were yet not reported in the literature. PMID:18922011

Schmiech, Ludger; Uemura, Daisuke; Hofmann, Thomas

2008-11-12

35

Somatic embryogenesis induced by the simple application of abscisic acid to carrot (Daucus carota L.) seedlings in culture.  

PubMed

Seedlings of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Red Cored Chantenay) formed somatic embryos when cultured on medium containing abscisic acid (ABA) as the sole source of growth regulator. The number of embryos per number of seedlings changed depending on the concentration of ABA added to the medium, with a maximum embryo number at 1 x 10(-4) M ABA. Seedling age was critical for response to exogenous ABA; no seedling with a hypocotyl longer than 3.0 cm was able to form an embryo. Removal of shoot apices from seedlings completely inhibited the embryogenesis induced by application of exogenous ABA, suggesting that the action of ABA requires some substance(s) that is translocated basipetally from shoot apices through hypocotyls. Histologically, somatic embryos shared common epidermal cells and differentiated not through the formation of embryogenic cell clumps, but directly from epidermal cells. These morphological traits are distinct from those of embryogenesis via formation of embryogenic cell clumps, which has been found in embryogenic carrot cultures established using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or other auxins. These results suggest that ABA acts as a signal substance in stress-induced carrot seedling somatic embryogenesis. PMID:11089691

Nishiwaki, M; Fujino, K; Koda, Y; Masuda, K; Kikuta, Y

2000-10-01

36

Morphological markers for the detection of introgression from cultivated into wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) reveal dominant domestication traits.  

PubMed

Hybridisation and subsequent introgression have recently received much attention in the context of genetically modified crops. But crop-wild hybrid detection in the field can be difficult, as most domestication traits seem to be recessive, and the hybrid phenotype may also depend on the direction of the cross or environmental factors. Our aim was to develop a reliable set of morphological markers that differ between two wild and 13 cultivated carrots (Daucus carota L.) and to evaluate their inheritance in hybrid lines. We then examined these morphological markers in four F1 hybrids obtained by fertilising plants from the two wild accessions with pollen from two common carrot cultivars. Of the 16 traits that differed between the two carrot subspecies, three took intermediate values in the hybrids, eight resembled the cultivar parent (dominant domestication traits), two resembled the wild parent (domestication traits recessive), and three were not significant or growth condition-dependent. Root:shoot ratio was seven times higher for cultivars than for wild plants, while still attaining equivalent total dry weight, which shows that dry matter production by the shoot is much higher in cultivars than in wild plants. High root:shoot ratios were also present in the hybrids. While we found no maternal effects, the type of cultivar used for pollination had an impact on hybrid characteristics. The morphological markers developed here provide insights into the mode of inheritance of ecologically relevant traits and can be useful for pre-screening wild populations for hybrid detection prior to genetic analysis. PMID:23173917

Grebenstein, C; Kos, S P; de Jong, T J; Tamis, W L M; de Snoo, G R

2013-05-01

37

cDNA cloning of carrot (Daucus carota) soluble acid beta-fructofuranosidases and comparison with the cell wall isoenzyme.  

PubMed Central

Carrot (Daucus carota), like most other plants, contains various isoenzymes of acid beta-fructofuranosidase (beta F) (invertase), which either accumulate as soluble polypeptides in the vacuole (isoenzymes I and II) or are ionically bound to the cell wall (extracellular beta F). Using antibodies against isoenzyme I of carrot soluble beta F, we isolated several cDNA clones encoding polypeptides with sequences characteristic of beta Fs, from bacteria, yeast, and plants. The cDNA-derived polypeptide of one of the clones contains all partial peptide sequences of the purified isoenzyme I and thus codes for soluble acid beta F isoenzyme I. A second clone codes for a related polypeptide (63% identity and 77% similarity) with characteristics of isoenzyme II. These two soluble beta Fs, have acidic isoelectric points (3.8 and 5.7, respectively) clearly different from the extracellular enzyme, which has a basic isoelectric point of 9.9. Marked differences among the three nucleotide sequences as well as different hybridization patterns on genomic DNA gel blots prove that these three isoenzymes of carrot acid beta F are encoded by different genes and do not originate from differential splicing of a common gene, as is the case in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All three carrot acid beta Fs, are preproenzymes with signal peptides and N-terminal propeptides. A comparison of the sequences of the soluble enzymes with the sequence of the extracellular protein identified C-terminal extensions with short hydrophobic amino acid stretches that may contain the information for vacuolar targeting.

Unger, C; Hardegger, M; Lienhard, S; Sturm, A

1994-01-01

38

Differential effects of hexaconazole and paclobutrazol on biomass, electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant potential of Daucus carota L.  

PubMed

The application of triazole fungicides is a common practice in the cultivation of carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants. It is there for seems important to test the changes that are occurring in this food crop under triazoles, the non-traditional plant growth regulators, treatments in order to identify the extent to which it tolerate the fungicide application and thereby make it an economical food crop. A field experiment was conducted to find out the effects of two triazole fungicides (hexaconazole (HEX) and paclobutrazol (PBZ) at 20mg l(-1) plant(-1)) on the biomass, yield, electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant potential of carrot. The treatments were given to plants on 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing (DAS). The plants were uprooted for analyses of growth and biochemical parameters on 60 DAS. It was found that both HEX and PBZ have significant effects on the growth and biochemical parameters of this plant. Among the triazoles used, PBZ performed best in terms of anthocyanin, protein, amino acid, proline, starch and sugar, contents whereas HEX enhanced carotenoids, fresh weight, dry weight and biomass. There was no significant variation in chlorophyll ('a' and 'b') contents between the two triazole treated plants, but HEX and PBZ proved best when compared to untreated control plants. HEX and PBZ increased alpha- and beta-amylases enzymes activities to a significant level. Out of these two triazoles, PBZ performed best in increasing the starch hydrolyzing enzymes activities. The non-enzymatic antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were increased under fungicide applications. The data suggests that, the application of triazole fungicides may be a useful tool to increase the tuber quality as well as quantity in carrot plants, apart from their fungicidal properties. PMID:17644352

Gopi, R; Jaleel, C Abdul; Sairam, R; Lakshmanan, G M A; Gomathinayagam, M; Panneerselvam, R

2007-11-15

39

A Novel Hydroxyproline-Deficient Arabinogalactan Protein Secreted by Suspension-Cultured Cells of Daucus carota (Purification and Partial Characterization).  

PubMed Central

Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are secreted or membrane-associated glycoproteins that have been operationally defined as binding to [beta]-glucosyl Yariv artificial antigen, being rich in arabinose and galactose, and containing high levels of alanine, serine, and hydroxyproline. Using an anti-AGP monoclonal antibody (MAC 207) bound to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B, we have purified by immunoaffinity chromatography an extracellular AGP from the culture medium of suspension-cultured cells of carrot (Daucus carota). The apparent molecular mass of this highly glycosylated proteoglycan is 70 to 100 kD as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Although its sugar analysis, [beta]-glucosyl Yariv binding, and high alanine, serine, and proline content are consistent with it being an AGP, the amino acid composition unexpectedly revealed this molecule to have no detectable hydroxyproline. This suggests that this glycoprotein is not a "classical" AGP, but represents the first example of a new class of hydroxyproline-poor AGPs. Deglycosylation of the AGP with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride revealed that the purified proteoglycan contains probably a single core protein with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kD. Direct visualization of the native AGP in the electron microscope showed ellipsoidal putative AGP monomers, approximately 25 nm by 15 nm, that showed a strong tendency to self assemble into higher-order structures. Upon desiccation, the glycosylated AGP formed paracrystalline arrays visible in the light microscope. Polarized Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy of these arrays demonstrated a high degree of polarization of the sugar moieties under these conditions. These results put possible constraints on current models of AGP structure; a putative role for these novel AGPs as pectin-binding proteins is discussed.

Baldwin, T. C.; McCann, M. C.; Roberts, K.

1993-01-01

40

Influence of a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Culture medium and its components on growth and somatic embryogenesis of the wild carrot (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

A new culture medium, originally designed and shown to grow cell suspensions from a variety of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) explants, was used to study growth and somatic embryogenesis of the wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) in cell suspensions. The new loblolly pine medium (LM) differed from the standard wild carrot medium (WCM) in having very low Ca(2+), very high Mg(2+), and enrichment with PO inf4 (sup3-) and microelements. When WCM was altered to contain levels of Ca(2+) or Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) equivalent to LM, it supported neither growth nor embryogenesis of the wild carrot. However, growth and embryogenesis in LM was superior to WCM. The phosphate level in WCM was found to be suboptimal. PMID:24254074

Litvay, J D; Verma, D C; Johnson, M A

1985-12-01

41

Influence of saline irrigation on growth, ion accumulation and partitioning, and leaf gas exchange of carrot (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

Like those of many horticultural crop species, the growth and leaf gas exchange responses of carrot (Daucus carota L.) to salinity are poorly understood. In this study ion accumulation in root tissues (periderm, xylem and phloem tissues) and in leaves of different ages was assessed for carrot plants grown in the field with a low level of salinity (5.8 mM Na(+) and 7.5 mM Cl(-)) and in a glasshouse with salinity ranging from 1-80 mM. At low levels of salinity (1-7.5 mM), in both the field and glasshouse, carrot leaves accumulated high concentrations of Cl(-) (140-200 mM); these appear to be the result of a high affinity for Cl(-) uptake and a low retention of Cl(-) in the root system. However, Cl(-) uptake is under tight control, with an 80-fold increase in external salinity resulting in only a 1.5-fold change in the Cl(-) concentration of the shoot and no increase in the Cl(-) concentration of the root xylem tissue. In contrast to Cl(-), shoot Na(+) concentrations were comparatively low (30-40 mM) but increased by seven-fold when salinity was increased by 80-fold. Growth over the 56-d treatment period in the glasshouse was insensitive to salinity less than 20 mM, but at higher concentrations the yield of carrot tap roots declined by 7 % for each 10 mM increase in salinity. At low levels of salinity the accumulation of high concentrations of Cl(-) (150 mM) in carrot laminae did not appear to limit leaf gas exchange. However, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were reduced by 38 and 53 %, respectively, for plants grown at a salinity of 80 mM compared with those grown at 1 mM. Salinity-induced reductions in both p(i) and carbon isotope discrimination (delta) were small (2.5 Pa and 1.4 per thousand, respectively, at 80 mM) indicating that the reduction in photosynthesis was only marginally influenced by CO(2) supply. At a salinity of 80 mM the photosynthetic capacity was reduced, with a 30 % reduction in the CO(2)-saturated rate of photosynthesis (A(max)) and a 40 % reduction in both the apparent rate of RuBP-carboxylase-limited CO(2) fixation (V(cmax)) and the electron transport rate limiting RuBP regeneration (J(max)). This study has shown that carrot growth and leaf gas exchange are insensitive to the high leaf Cl(-) concentrations that occur at low levels (1-7 mM) of salinity. However, growth is limited at salinity levels above 20 mM and leaf gas exchange is limited at salinity levels above 8 mM. PMID:12451027

Gibberd, Mark R; Turner, Neil C; Storey, Richard

2002-12-01

42

Carrot (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

Plants are susceptible to infection by a broad range of fungal pathogens. Many horticulturally important crop species lack adequate genetic resistance to disease. Studies on potential mechanisms of disease resistance in plants have revealed the importance of a range of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins with antifungal activity in reducing colonization of plant tissues by pathogens. We are evaluating a range of PR-proteins, through heterologous expression in transgenic carrot tissues, for their effects on fungal disease development. The protocols for carrot transformation with a thaumatin-like protein are described. In addition, the use of herbicide resistance as a selectable marker in carrot transformation is illustrated. In this protocol, petiole segments from carrot seedlings are exposed to Agrobacterium for 10-30 min and co-cultivated for 3 d, after which herbicide selection is imposed until embryogenic calli are produced after 8-12 wk. The transfer of the embryogenic calli to hormone-free medium yields transgenic plantlets. This genetic transformation protocol has supported the generation of transgenic carrot plants with defined T-DNA inserts at the rate of between 1 and 3 Southern positive independent events out of 100. PMID:17033046

Wally, Owen; Jayaraman, Jayaraj; Punja, Zamir K

2006-01-01

43

Enzymatic preparation of 1-O-hydroxycinnamoyl-bb-D-glucoses and their application to the study of 1-O-hydroxycinnamoyl-bb-D- glucose-dependent acyltransferase in anthocyanin-producing cultured cells of Daucus carota and Glehnia littoralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four 1-O-hydroxycinnamoyl-b-D-glucoses (HCA-Glcs), sinapoyl-, feruloyl-, caffeoyl-, and 4-coumaroyl- glucoses, were synthesized using a recombinant protein of sinapate glucosyltransferase from Gomphrena globosa coupled with a recycling system of UDP-glucose by sucrose synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana. The substrate preference of HCA- Glc-dependent acyltransferase activity was examined in a protein extract prepared from anthocyanin-producing cultured cells of Daucus carota and Glehnia littoralis. The

Yuki Matsuba; Yuki Okuda; Yutaka Abe; Yoshie Kitamura; Kazuyoshi Terasaka; Hajime Mizukami; Hiroyuki Kamakura; Nobuo Kawahara; Yukihiro God; Nobuhiro Sasaki; Yoshihiro Ozeki

44

Influence of variation in soil copper on the yield and nutrition of carrots grown in microplots on two organic soils. [Daucus carota  

SciTech Connect

Carrots (Daucus carota L. cv. Gold Pak 128) were grown in microplots of two organic soils at site A (a peat), and site B (a muck) in the summer of 1984. The soil surface (0 to 20 cm) varied in total Cu from 13 to 1659, and 81 to 1745 ..mu..g/g at sites A and B, respectively, mainly due to three levels of applications of CuSO/sub 4/ x 5H/sub 2/O in 1978. Neither the yield nor the nutrition (P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo and B) of the carrot crop was significantly adversely affected by the copper applications or the resultant total soil copper levels at both sites A and B. There were decreases in some foliar nutrient levels due to dilution effects attributable to the significant positive correlations between both root and leaf yields and total soil copper at site B. At both sites A and B, the copper additions appeared to have increased the availability of soil Mn, in accord with earlier evidence.

Mathur, S.P.; Belanger, A.

1987-01-01

45

Isoforms of chalcone synthase in Daucus carota L. and their differential expression in organs from the European wild carrot and in ultraviolet-A-irradiated cell cultures.  

PubMed

Two isoforms of chalcone synthase (CHS) were isolated from cDNA libraries derived from UV-A-irradiated anthocyanin-accumulating (DCb) and non-accumulating (DCs) cell cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L.). The clones designated as DcCHS1, which were present only in the DCb library, had a deduced primary sequence of 389 amino acids and an expected molecular mass of 42.7 kDa, and seem to be alleles of those cloned by Ozeki et al. (1993). The second isoform (DcCHS2) was present in both libraries. It had the highest degree of similarity (97.7%) to parsley CHS over all 397 amino acids. The expected molecular mass of the corresponding protein was 43.6 kDa. Results obtained from Southern blot analysis indicated the existence of at least two CHS genes in carrot. A transient enhancement of the DcCHS1 mRNA level after continuous irradiation with UV-A light could only be observed in anthocyanin-accumulating cultures, whereas an increase in DcCHS2 mRNA was seen in both cell lines. The maximum accumulation of CHS mRNA occurred 48 h after the onset of UV-A irradiation. In the European wild carrot the accumulation of DcCHS1 mRNA was restricted to the red central flowers, whereas the DcCHS2 mRNA was detectable in all red and white petals, as well as leaves, but was absent in stems and roots. The expression of DcCHS1 was restricted to anthocyanin-accumulating cells or organs. The heterologous expression of both cDNAs in Escherichia coli resulted in immunostainable bands of different sizes on the Western blot and high levels of catalytic CHS activity. PMID:10872233

Hirner, A A; Seitz, H U

2000-05-01

46

Quantification of contact oviposition stimulants for black swallowtail butterfly,Papilio polyxenes, on the leaf surfaces of wild carrot,Daucus carota.  

PubMed

Ovipositing black swallowtail butterflies,Papilio polyxenes, make their final host-selection decisions on the basis of compounds present on the leaf surface. Little information is available, however, on the chemistry of leaf surfaces. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to extract and quantify the concentrations of compounds from the leaf surfaces ofDaucus carota, one of the main host species forP. polyxenes, with particular reference to compounds already identified as contact oviposition stimulants, namelytrans-chlorogenic acid (CA) and luteolin-7-O-(6?-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside (L7MG), as well as its degradation product luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G). Plant surfaces were extracted by dipping leaves sequentially in pairs of solvents: (1) CHCl3-MeOH, (2) near-boiling H2O, (3) CHCl3-near-boiling H2O, and (4) CH2Cl2-CH2Cl2. The resulting extracts were fractionated and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The leaf-surface concentrations of each compound were calculated using regressions relating leaf surface area to leaf weight that were obtained from measurements of field-collected carrot plants. All four methods removed the three compounds from carrot leaf surfaces, but the solvent systems differed in effectiveness. The chloroform-near-boiling water solvent system performed better than the other solvent combinations, but not significantly so. This system also extracted the highest number of polar, UV-absorbing compounds. Methylene chloride was significantly less efficient than the other methods. An additional test confirmed that the chloroform-near-boiling water method removed compounds from the surface alone and probably not from the apoplast or symplast. Surface concentrations of CA (up to 600 ng/cm(2) leaf surface) were substantially greater than those of the two flavonoid compounds. No clear seasonal trend in concentrations was evident from the limited number of sampling dates. PMID:24227308

Brooks, J S; Williams, E H; Feeny, P

1996-12-01

47

Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on enzyme kinetics and thermostability of endogenous ascorbic acid oxidase in carrots (Daucus carota cv. Nantes).  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to study the enzyme kinetics and thermostability of endogenous ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) in carrot purée (Daucus carota cv. Nantes) after being treated with pulsed electric field (PEF) processing. Various PEF treatments using electric field strength between 0.2 and 1.2kV/cm and pulsed electrical energy between 1 and 520kJ/kg were conducted. The enzyme kinetics and the kinetics of AAO thermal inactivation (55-70°C) were described using Michaelis-Menten model and first order reaction model, respectively. Overall, the estimated Vmax and KM values were situated in the same order of magnitude as the untreated carrot purée after being exposed to pulsed electrical energy between 1 and 400kJ/kg, but slightly changed at pulsed electrical energy above 500kJ/kg. However, AAO presented different thermostability depending on the electric field strength applied. After PEF treatment at the electric field strength between 0.2 and 0.5kV/cm, AAO became thermolabile (i.e. increase in inactivation rate (k value) at reference temperature) but the temperature dependence of k value (Ea value) for AAO inactivation in carrot purée decreased, indicating that the changes in k values were less temperature dependent. It is obvious that PEF treatment affects the temperature stability of endogenous AAO. The changes in enzyme kinetics and thermostability of AAO in carrot purée could be related to the resulting carrot purée composition, alteration in intracellular environment and the effective concentration of AAO released after being subjected to PEF treatment. PMID:24176379

Leong, Sze Ying; Oey, Indrawati

2014-03-01

48

Effect of endogenous ascorbic acid oxidase activity and stability on vitamin C in carrots (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) during thermal treatment.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to study the effect of endogenous ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) on vitamin C in carrots (Daucus carota subsp. sativus), namely Nantes, Egmont Gold and baby carrots during thermal treatment. Enzyme-substrate reaction kinetics of AAO were described using Michaelis-Menten equation. The estimated K(m) and V(max) values of AAO ranged from 50.34 to 63.54 ?M and 23.70 to 26.82 ?mol/min, respectively. Nantes carrots had the lowest AAO activity. On the other hand, Egmont Gold had the highest V(max). AAO activity in all carrot cultivars was stable up to 50 °C and inactivated above 50 °C. Irreversible thermal inactivation of AAO followed first order kinetics (55-70 °C) and the estimated activation energy of the three carrot cultivars situated between 114.33 and 191.45 kJ/mol. Regarding vitamin C stability, thermal treatment at 60-70 °C has resulted in total conversion of l-AA to DHAA due to residual AAO activity; a complete AAO inactivation was found in 80 °C-treated carrots with high vitamin C retention predominantly in l-AA form, up to 90%. On average, the carrots had a total vitamin C content amounting from 368.24 to 379.87 ?g/g dry matter and the Nantes carrots had the highest vitamin C content. The effectiveness of rapid inactivation of endogenous AAO via heating (>80 °C, 10 min) prior to matrix disruption gave protection to l-AA towards enzymatic oxidation, thus resulted in a higher vitamin C content and stability in carrots. PMID:23442658

Leong, Sze Ying; Oey, Indrawati

2012-10-15

49

Competitive inhibition and selectivity enhancement by Ca in the uptake of inorganic elements (Be, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sc, Mn, Co, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ce, Pm, Gd, Hf) by carrot (Daucus carota cv. U.S. harumakigosun).  

PubMed

We investigated the uptake of inorganic elements (Be, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sc, Mn, Co, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ce, Pm, Gd, and Hf) and the effect of Ca on their uptake in carrots (Daucus carota cv. U.S. harumakigosun) by the radioactive multitracer technique. The experimental results suggested that Na, Mg, K, and Rb competed for the functional groups outside the cells in roots with Ca but not for the transporter-binding sites on the plasma membrane of the root cortex cells. In contrast, Y, Ce, Pm, and Gd competed with Ca for the transporters on the plasma membrane. The selectivity, which was defined as the value obtained by dividing the concentration ratio of an elemental pair, K/Na, Rb/Na, Be/Sr, and Mg/Sr, in the presence of 0.2 and 2 ppm Ca by that of the corresponding elemental pair in the absence of Ca in the solution was estimated. The selectivity of K and Rb in roots was increased in the presence of Ca. The selectivity of Be in roots was not affected, whereas the selectivity of Mg was increased by Ca. These observations suggest that the presence of Ca in the uptake solution enhances the selectivity in the uptake of metabolically important elements against unwanted elements. PMID:15695849

Ozaki, Takuo; Ambe, Shizuko; Abe, Tomoko; Francis, Arokiasamy J

2005-01-01

50

Localization of Daucus carota NMCP1 to the nuclear periphery: the role of the N-terminal region and an NLS-linked sequence motif, RYNLRR, in the tail domain.  

PubMed

Recent ultrastructural studies revealed that a structure similar to the vertebrate nuclear lamina exists in the nuclei of higher plants. However, plant genomes lack genes for lamins and intermediate-type filament proteins, and this suggests that plant-specific nuclear coiled-coil proteins make up the lamina-like structure in plants. NMCP1 is a protein, first identified in Daucus carota cells, that localizes exclusively to the nuclear periphery in interphase cells. It has a tripartite structure comprised of head, rod, and tail domains, and includes putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) motifs. We identified the functional NLS of DcNMCP1 (carrot NMCP1) and determined the protein regions required for localizing to the nuclear periphery using EGFP-fused constructs transiently expressed in Apium graveolens epidermal cells. Transcription was driven under a CaMV35S promoter, and the genes were introduced into the epidermal cells by a DNA-coated microprojectile delivery system. Of the NLS motifs, KRRRK and RRHK in the tail domain were highly functional for nuclear localization. Addition of the N-terminal 141 amino acids from DcNMCP1 shifted the localization of a region including these NLSs from the entire nucleus to the nuclear periphery. Using this same construct, the replacement of amino acids in RRHK or its preceding sequence, YNL, with alanine residues abolished localization to the nuclear periphery, while replacement of KRRRK did not affect localization. The sequence R/Q/HYNLRR/H, including YNL and the first part of the sequence of RRHK, is evolutionarily conserved in a subclass of NMCP1 sequences from many plant species. These results show that NMCP1 localizes to the nuclear periphery by a combined action of a sequence composed of R/Q/HYNLRR/H, NLS, and the N-terminal region including the head and a portion of the rod domain, suggesting that more than one binding site is implicated in localization of NMCP1. PMID:24616728

Kimura, Yuta; Fujino, Kaien; Ogawa, Kana; Masuda, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

51

Localization of Daucus carota NMCP1 to the nuclear periphery: the role of the N-terminal region and an NLS-linked sequence motif, RYNLRR, in the tail domain  

PubMed Central

Recent ultrastructural studies revealed that a structure similar to the vertebrate nuclear lamina exists in the nuclei of higher plants. However, plant genomes lack genes for lamins and intermediate-type filament proteins, and this suggests that plant-specific nuclear coiled-coil proteins make up the lamina-like structure in plants. NMCP1 is a protein, first identified in Daucus carota cells, that localizes exclusively to the nuclear periphery in interphase cells. It has a tripartite structure comprised of head, rod, and tail domains, and includes putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) motifs. We identified the functional NLS of DcNMCP1 (carrot NMCP1) and determined the protein regions required for localizing to the nuclear periphery using EGFP-fused constructs transiently expressed in Apium graveolens epidermal cells. Transcription was driven under a CaMV35S promoter, and the genes were introduced into the epidermal cells by a DNA-coated microprojectile delivery system. Of the NLS motifs, KRRRK and RRHK in the tail domain were highly functional for nuclear localization. Addition of the N-terminal 141 amino acids from DcNMCP1 shifted the localization of a region including these NLSs from the entire nucleus to the nuclear periphery. Using this same construct, the replacement of amino acids in RRHK or its preceding sequence, YNL, with alanine residues abolished localization to the nuclear periphery, while replacement of KRRRK did not affect localization. The sequence R/Q/HYNLRR/H, including YNL and the first part of the sequence of RRHK, is evolutionarily conserved in a subclass of NMCP1 sequences from many plant species. These results show that NMCP1 localizes to the nuclear periphery by a combined action of a sequence composed of R/Q/HYNLRR/H, NLS, and the N-terminal region including the head and a portion of the rod domain, suggesting that more than one binding site is implicated in localization of NMCP1.

Kimura, Yuta; Fujino, Kaien; Ogawa, Kana; Masuda, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

52

Morphogenetic responses of cultured totipotent cells of carrot /Daucus carota var. carota/ at zero gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment designed to test whether embryos capable of developing from isolated somatic carrot cells could do so under conditions of weightlessness in space was performed aboard the unmanned Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 782 under the auspices of the joint United States-Soviet Biological Satellite Mission. Space flight and weightlessness seem to have had no adverse effects on the induction of embryoids or on the development of their organs. A portion of the crop of carrot plantlets originated in space and grown to maturity were not morphologically different from controls.

Krikorian, A. D.; Steward, F. C.

1978-01-01

53

Morphogenetic Responses of Cultured Totipotent Cells of Carrot (Daucus carota var. carota) at Zero Gravity.  

PubMed

An experiment designed to test whether embryos capable of developing from isolated somatic carrot cells could do so under conditions of weightlessness in space was performed aboard the unmanned Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 782 under the auspices of the joint United States-Soviet Biological Satellite Mission. Space flight and weightlessness seem to have had no adverse effects on the induction of embryoids or on the development of their organs. A portion of the crop of carrot plantlets originated in space and grown to maturity were not morphologically different from controls. PMID:17847331

Krikorian, A D; Steward, F C

1978-04-01

54

Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plant and distribution to the different plant compartments studied in cultures of carrots (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and cucumbers (Cucumis Sativus).  

PubMed

A vegetation study was carried out to investigate the carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from soil mixed with contaminated sewage sludge to potato, carrot, and cucumber plants. Analysis was done by liquid-extraction using acetonitrile with dispersive SPE cleanup and subsequent HPLC-MS/MS. In order to assess the transfer potential from soil, transfer factors (TF) were calculated for the different plant compartments: TF = [PFC](plant (wet substance))/[PFC](soil (dry weight)). The highest TF were found for the vegetative plant compartments with average values for PFOS below those for PFOA: cucumber, 0.17 (PFOS), 0.88 (PFOA); potato, 0.36 (PFOS), 0.40 (PFOA); carrot, 0.38 (PFOS), 0.53 (PFOA). Transfer of PFOA and PFOS into potato peelings (average values of TF: PFOA 0.03, PFOS 0.04) exceeded the carryover to the peeled tubers (PFOA 0.01, PFOS < 0.01). In carrots, this difference did not occur (average values of TF: PFOA 0.04, PFOS 0.04). Transfer of PFOS into the unpeeled cucumbers was low and comparable to that of peeled potatoes (TF < 0.01). For PFOA, it was higher (TF: 0.03). PMID:21905714

Lechner, Mareike; Knapp, Holger

2011-10-26

55

POLLINATORS VISITING CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA L.) SEED CROP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging activity of the pollinating insects belonging to Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera orders was observed at carrot umbels from 15 March to 15 April, 2000 at four time periods i.e., 8-9 am, 11-12 am, 2-3 pm and 5-6 pm. Number of insects belonging to Hymenoptera was higher followed by Diptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera during 8-9 and 11-12 am. Number

Munir Ahmad; Muhammad Aslam

2002-01-01

56

Polyacetylene diversity and bioactivity in orange market and locally grown colored carrots (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

Carrots contain a wide array of phytochemicals such as carotenoids, phenolics, alpha-tocopherol, and polyacetylenes. Carrots are most known for their pro-vitamin A carotenoids but also contain other phytochemicals with documented health benefits. The phytochemicals in colored carrots present a challenge and opportunity due to the wide diversity of potent bioactive compounds. Two commercial carrots, 1 wild carrot, and 13 colored carrot varieties were characterized phytochemically. The carrots were screened in an anti-inflammatory model of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production. Deep Purple carrot had the highest concentration of total polyacetylenes, alpha-tocopherol, and total phenolics. Commercial fresh market and baby orange carrots both had high concentrations of pro-vitamin A carotenoids. Purple carrots had higher antioxidant capacity values due to their anthocyanin content. Only seven carrot varieties had inhibitory activity (IC(25) = 257-1321 microg/mL) in macrophage cells. Among the varieties tested during the selected growing season, Deep Purple had the highest polyacetylene content and other important antioxidant phytochemicals. Further work is needed to identify other potential anti-inflammatory phytochemicals in colored carrots on the basis of this research. PMID:19950995

Metzger, Brandon T; Barnes, David M

2009-12-01

57

Characterization of Inositol Phosphates in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Cells 1  

PubMed Central

We have shown previously that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) stimulates an efflux of 45Ca2+ from fusogenic carrot protoplasts (M Rincón, WF Boss [1987] Plant Physiol 83: 395-398). In light of these results, we suggested that IP3 might serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not IP3 and other inositol phosphates were present in the carrot cells, the cells were labeled with myo-[2-3H]inositol for 18 hours and extracted with ice-cold 10% trichloroacetic acid. The inositol metabolites were separated by anion exchange chromatography and by paper electrophoresis. We found that [3H]inositol metabolites coeluted with inositol bisphosphate (IP2) and IP3 when separated by anion exchange chromatography. However, we could not detect IP2 or IP3 when the inositol metabolites were analyzed by paper electrophoresis even though the polyphosphoinositides, which are the source of IP2 and IP3, were present in these cells. Thus, [3H] inositol metabolites other than IP2 and IP3 had coeluted on the anion exchange columns. The data indicate that either IP3 is rapidly metabolized or that it is not present at a detectable level in the carrot cells.

Rincon, Magaly; Chen, Qiuyun; Boss, Wendy F.

1989-01-01

58

Ultrastructural localization of acid phosphatase in cultured cells ofDaucus carota.  

PubMed

Acid phosphatase localization has been studied, using the lead salt method, in suspension-cultured cells of the wild carrot. Enzyme activity in most of the cells was restricted to the walls and vacuoles. However, in some senescent cells activity was also seen in the nucleus, at one face of the dictyosomes, and in nearby dictyosome-derived vesciles.The activity in the walls was closely associated with the central portion of the wall which ultimately disintegrates in auxin-containing media. However, the large vesicles which accumulate in this portion of the wall as it breaks down never showed acid phosphatase activity, nor did the multivesicular bodies which appear to transfer vesicular material into the wall space. Although multivesicular bodies in plant cells resemble the multivesicular lysosomes of animal cells, no evidence could be obtained in this study for the presence in such bodies of hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:24504858

Halperin, W

1969-06-01

59

Antisense repression of sucrose synthase in carrot (Daucus carota L.) affects growth rather than sucrose partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

To unravel the roles of sucrose synthase in carrot, we reduced its activity in transgenic carrot plants by an antisense approach. For this purpose, the cDNA for the main form of carrot sucrose synthase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus. In independent antisense plant lines grown in soil, sucrose synthase activity was reduced

Guo-Qing Tang; Arnd Sturm

1999-01-01

60

In vitro bioaccessibility of ?-carotene, Ca, Mg and Zn in landrace carrots (Daucus carota, L.).  

PubMed

Four landrace carrots ("Becaria", "CRS", "González" and "Rodríguez") and two marketable cultivars (Kuroda and Brasilia), raw and steamed, were characterised by the total content of ?-carotene Ca, Mg and Zn, in vitro bioaccessibility and by colour and were evaluated to determine the effect of particle size in nutrient bioaccessibility. Steaming increased the content of ?-carotene extracted from "CRS" and Brasilia (29% and 75%) and decreased the content of ?-carotene extracted from "CRS" by 23% in "Rodríguez." In addition, steaming caused a loss of Ca (21%) but did not change the amount of Mg and Zn. The bioaccessibility of ?-carotene in raw and pulped carrots was very low (<0.5%). Furthermore, steaming and a smaller particle size increased the bioaccessibility of ?-carotene by 3-16 times. Additionally, cooking increased the in vitro bioaccessibility of Ca and Zn but had no effect on Mg. Moreover, homogenisation increased the bioaccessibility by 20% in Ca, 17% in Mg, and 10% in Zn compared to pulping. PMID:25053069

Zaccari, Fernanda; Cabrera, María Cristina; Ramos, Ana; Saadoun, Ali

2015-01-01

61

Potential Yield in Carrots ( Daucus carota L.): Theory, Test, and an Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little published information on the physiological behaviour of carrots at the crop level. Here we derive and test a simple model for the potential yield of carrot crops. The model calculates green leaf area index (L) using a daily time step. Dry matter production is related linearly to light interception, calculated fromL and canopy light extinction coefficient (k).

J. B. Reid; J. M. English

2000-01-01

62

Clarification and pasteurisation effects on monomeric anthocyanins and percent polymeric colour of black carrot (Daucus carota L.) juice.  

PubMed

Black carrots (BCs) are a rich source of stable anthocyanins (ACNs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of clarification and pasteurisation on ACNs of black carrot juice (BCJ). Monomeric ACNs, ACN profile and percent polymeric colour were determined during processing of BCJ. While depectinisation and bentonite treatments resulted in 7% and 20% increases in monomeric ACN content of BCJ, respectively, gelatine-kieselsol treatment and pasteurisation resulted in 10% and 3-16% reduction. Percent polymeric colour decreased after clarification, but substantially increased in samples subjected to heat. ACNs of BCJ samples were identified by HPLC-MS. Unclarified BCJ contained cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside-ferulic acid as the major ACN, followed by cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside-coumaric acid, and cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside. After depectinisation, two more ACNs (cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside and cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside-sinapic acid) were also identified. These results indicated that depectinisation and bentonite treatment had positive effect on the colour of BCJ, while gelatin-kieselsol treatment and pasteurisation had negative effect. PMID:23107727

Türky?lmaz, Meltem; Yemi?, Oktay; Ozkan, Mehmet

2012-09-15

63

Optimization of enzymatic process parameters for increased juice yield from carrot ( Daucus carota L.) using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of enzyme concentration (50–650 mg\\/kg grated carrot), pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme ratio (3:7–7:3), incubation time (30–150 min) and temperature (25–65 °C) on juice recovery and viscosity from grated carrot were studied. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used in designing the treatment combinations of four variables at five levels. The process involved in treating the blanched grated carrot with mixture

A. K. Sharma; B. C. Sarkar; H. K. Sharma

2005-01-01

64

Enhanced disease resistance in transgenic carrot ( Daucus carota L.) plants over-expressing a rice cationic peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant class III peroxidases are involved in numerous responses related to pathogen resistance including controlling hydrogen\\u000a peroxide (H2O2) levels and lignin formation. Peroxidases catalyze the oxidation of organic compounds using H2O2 as an oxidant. We examined the mechanisms of disease resistance in a transgenic carrot line (P23) which constitutively over-expresses\\u000a the rice cationic peroxidase OsPrx114 (previously known as PO-C1) and

O. Wally; Z. K. Punja

2010-01-01

65

Determination of polyacetylenes in carrot roots (Daucus carota L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection.  

PubMed

A new high-performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detection was developed for the separation and simultaneous determination of the carrot polyacetylenes falcarindiol (FaDOH), falcarindiol 3-acetate (FaDOAc) and falcarinol (FaOH) in carrot root extracts. The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a C18 column with a linear gradient elution of water and acetonitrile as mobile phases, at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. All calibration curves of the three carrot polyacetylenes showed good linear regression (R2 > 0.998) within the test ranges. The developed method showed good precision for quantification of all polyacetylenes with overall intraday and interday variation of less than 3.3% and with average recovery rates of 99.2, 96.8 and 99.7% for FaDOH, FaDOAc and FaOH, respectively. The LOD (S/N = 3) and LOQ (S/N = 10) were less than 0.19 and 0.42 microg/mL, respectively, for all analytes. The established method was successfully used to determine the spatial distribution of FaDOH, FaDOAc and FaOH in six carrot genotypes (Bolero, Independent, Line 1, Mello Yello, Purple Haze and Tornado) by analysing peeled carrots and the corresponding peels for these polyacetylenes. PMID:17444217

Christensen, Lars P; Kreutzmann, Stine

2007-03-01

66

Effect of Decontamination Agents on the Microbial Population, Sensorial Quality, and Nutrient Content of Grated Carrots (Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several decontamination agents including water, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water, and chlorine dioxide gas were tested for their effectiveness to reduce the natural microflora on grated carrots. Microbial reductions of the total aerobic count obtained after the different treatments varied between 0.11 and 3.29 log colony-forming units (cfu)\\/g. Whether or not a decontamination step induced significant changes

Isabelle Vandekinderen; John Van Camp; Frank Devlieghere; Kim Veramme; Quenten Denon; Peter Ragaert; Bruno De Meulenaer

2008-01-01

67

Effect of decontamination agents on the microbial population, sensorial quality, and nutrient content of grated carrots (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

Several decontamination agents including water, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water, and chlorine dioxide gas were tested for their effectiveness to reduce the natural microflora on grated carrots. Microbial reductions of the total aerobic count obtained after the different treatments varied between 0.11 and 3.29 log colony-forming units (cfu)/g. Whether or not a decontamination step induced significant changes in the sensory attributes of grated carrots is highly dependent on the type and concentration of disinfectant. To maintain the nutritional value, the influence of the decontamination agents on carotenoid content, alpha-tocopherol content, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity was studied. Besides the part of the nutrients that was leached away from the cutting areas by water, the nutrient losses caused by adding sanitizers were rather limited. Compared with the untreated carrots alpha-tocopherol content was, however, significantly reduced when 250 ppm of peroxyacetic acid (-80%) or 200 ppm of sodium hypochlorite (-59%) was used. Additional losses in carotenoid content were caused by contact with chlorine dioxide gas (-9%). On the condition of an optimized decontamination process toward time and concentration, the microbial quality of fresh-cut carrots could be improved without negatively influencing their sensory quality and nutrient content. PMID:18582083

Vandekinderen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; Devlieghere, Frank; Veramme, Kim; Denon, Quenten; Ragaert, Peter; De Meulenaer, Bruno

2008-07-23

68

PCR-based markers to differentiate the mitochondrial genomes of petaloid and male fertile carrot ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is essential for the development of highly adapted and uniform hybrid varieties of carrot\\u000a and other crops. The most widely used type of CMS in carrot is petaloidy, in which the stamens are replaced by petals or bract-like\\u000a structures. We have developed a series of mitochondria-specific PCR markers to distinguish cytoplasms inducing petaloidy (Sp)\\u000a and male-fertility

Inga C. Bach; Annette Olesen; Philipp W. Simon

2002-01-01

69

An Ecological Friendly Dragee Technic Application on Crop Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: In Brazíl, in EMBRAPA\\/CNPH was developing a dragée technic for seeds of crops and vegetables of carrot (Daucus carota L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), micro tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Andropogon ssp. and Eucalyptus ssp. using as inert material the dolomite (CaCO3 96%) powder fractions (0.05 to 1.00 mm) and

M. László

2009-01-01

70

Chemical Studies of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. gracile (Koch) letswaart and Origanum vulgare L. ssp. virens (Hoffm. et Link) letswaart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of oil from two clones of Origanum vulgare ssp. gracile and ssp. virens was determined. Forty compounds were identified by GC and GC\\/MS in both oils. The oils from O. vulgare ssp. gracile and O. vulgare ssp. virens were characterized by high levels of sabinene (6.5–26.0%) and germacrene D (13.7–25.7%).

Jean-Claude Chalchat; Bernard Pasquier

1999-01-01

71

Metabolic fingerprinting reveals differences between shoots of wild and cultivated carrot (Daucus carota L.) and suggests maternal inheritance or wild trait dominance in hybrids.  

PubMed

Differences between the metabolic content of cultivars and their related wild species not only have implications for breeding and food quality, but also for the increasingly studied area of crop to wild introgression. Wild and cultivated western carrots belong to the same outcrossing species and hybridize under natural conditions. The metabolic fingerprinting of Dutch wild carrot and of western orange carrot cultivar shoots using (1)H NMR showed only quantitative differences in chemical content, indicating relatively low divergence after domestication. Main differences reside in the primary metabolite content and in the concentrations of chlorogenic acid and feruloyl quinic acid in the shoots of the different carrot types. Wild×cultivar hybrids cannot be distinguished from wild plants based on the metabolome, suggesting maternal, maternal environment, or dominance effects, and indicating high hybrid fitness in wild conditions. Considering these similarities, introgression is a real possibility in carrots, but understanding its consequences would require further studies using backcrosses in a multiple environments. PMID:21601898

Grebenstein, C; Choi, Y H; Rong, J; de Jong, T J; Tamis, W L M

2011-08-01

72

Broad-spectrum disease resistance to necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens in transgenic carrots (Daucus carota L.) expressing an Arabidopsis NPR1 gene.  

PubMed

The development of transgenic plants highly resistant to a range of pathogens using traditional signal gene expression strategies has been largely ineffective. Modification of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) through the overexpression of a controlling gene such as NPR1 (non-expressor of PR genes) offers an attractive alternative for augmenting the plants innate defense system. The Arabidopsis (At) NPR1 gene was successfully introduced into 'Nantes Coreless' carrot under control of a CaMV 35S promoter and two independent transgenic lines (NPR1-I and NPR1-XI) were identified by Southern and Northern blot hybridization. Both lines were phenotypically normal compared with non-transformed carrots. Northern analysis did not indicate constitutive or spontaneous induction in carrot cultures of SAR-related genes (DcPR-1, 2, 4, 5 or DcPAL). The duration and intensity of expression of DcPR-1, 2 and 5 genes were greatly increased compared with controls when the lines were treated with purified cell wall fragments of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum as well as with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid. The two lines were challenged with the necrotrophic pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria radicina and S. sclerotiorum on the foliage and A. radicina on the taproots. Both lines exhibited 35-50% reduction in disease symptoms on the foliage and roots when compared with non-transgenic controls. Leaves challenged with the biotrophic pathogen Erysiphe heraclei or the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas hortorum exhibited 90 and 80% reduction in disease development on the transgenic lines, respectively. The overexpression of the SAR controlling master switch in carrot tissues offers the ability to control a wide range of different pathogens, for which there is currently little genetic resistance available. PMID:19859731

Wally, Owen; Jayaraj, Jayaraman; Punja, Zamir K

2009-12-01

73

Influence of thermal processing on hydrolysis and stability of folate poly-gamma-glutamates in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).  

PubMed

The folate poly-gamma-glutamate profile, their concentrations, and hydrolysis by endogenous gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) were evaluated in broccoli, carrot and tomato. Further studies on the effect of time and temperature on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis and stability were carried out in broccoli since this vegetable showed the highest long-chain and total folate poly-gamma-glutamate concentration. The evolution of l-ascorbic acid, total phenols and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values was evaluated in parallel. Upon thermal inactivation of GGH prior to crushing, it was observed that broccoli, carrot and tomato contained poly-gamma-glutamates with one to seven glutamate residues but differed in the predominant poly-gamma-glutamates. Crushing of raw broccoli, carrot and tomato resulted in significant poly-gamma-glutamate profile changes in broccoli and carrot (indicating GGH-catalyzed hydrolysis) but not in tomato. In this study, the actual crushing of raw broccoli matrix had a greater effect on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis than incubation conditions (0-30 min at 25-55 degrees C). During treatments at 25-140 degrees C, folate retention was higher at 80 and 100 degrees C than at the other temperatures. A similar trend in thermal stability was observed for folates, vitamin C, total phenols and TEAC value, an indication that conditions that result in endogenous antioxidants degradation might also result in folate degradation. PMID:20329724

Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Verlinde, Philippe; Mukisa, Ivan Muzira; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

2010-04-14

74

The influence of the fungal pathogen Mycocentrospora acerina on the proteome and polyacetylenes and 6-methoxymellein in organic and conventionally cultivated carrots (Daucus carota) during post harvest storage.  

PubMed

Many carrots are discarded during post harvest cold storage due to development of fungal infections, caused by, e.g., Mycocentrospora acerina (liquorice rot). We compared the susceptibility of carrots grown under conventional and organic agricultural practices. In one year, organically cultivated carrots showed 3× to 7× more symptoms than conventionally cultivated, when studying naturally occurring disease at 4 and 6 months, respectively. On the other hand, we have developed a bioassay for infection studies of M. acerina on carrots and observed that organic roots were more susceptible after one month of storage than conventional ones, but no differences were apparent after four or six months storage. Levels of polyacetylenes (falcarinol, falcarindiol and falcarindiol-3-acetate) did not change, whereas the isocoumarin phytoalexin (6-methoxymellein) accumulated in infected tissue as well as in healthy tissue opposite the infection. The proteomes of carrot and M. acerina were characterized, the intensity of 33 plant protein spots was significantly changed in infected roots including up regulation of defence and stress response proteins but also a decrease of proteins involved in energy metabolism. This combined metabolic and proteomic study indicates that roots respond to fungal infection through altered metabolism: simultaneous induction of 6-methoxymellein and synthesis of defence related proteins. PMID:22075166

Louarn, Sébastien; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Edelenbos, Merete; Jensen, Dan F; Jensen, Ole N; Collinge, David B; Jensen, Birgit

2012-01-01

75

Influence of field attack by carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) on sensory quality, antioxidant capacity and content of terpenes, falcarindiol and 6-methoxymellein of carrots (Daucus carota L.).  

PubMed

The effect of different degrees of attack by carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) on quality parameters of carrots was studied in field experiments for two years. Treatments were different degrees of physical insect protection by floating row cover. An increasing attack level of psyllids showed an enhancement effect on the antioxidant capacity (ORAC), content of falcarindiol, 6-methoxymellein, and terpenes, and scores for bitter taste, chemical flavor, terpene flavor, and toughness. Carrot psyllid attack decreased the yield, total sugar, fructose, glucose, and sensory attributes sweet taste, color hue, color strength, crispiness, and juiciness. Carrot plants at 8-10 weeks of age tolerated attack by psyllids at low levels (2% leaves with curling or discoloration). PMID:23414489

Seljåsen, Randi; Vogt, Gjermund; Olsen, Elisabeth; Lea, Per; Høgetveit, Lars Arne; Tajet, Torgeir; Meadow, Richard; Bengtsson, Gunnar B

2013-03-20

76

Role of surface proteins SspA and SspB of Streptococcus gordonii in innate immunity.  

PubMed

Streptococcus gordonii, a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, is a potential live vaccine vehicle. Several pathogen-associated molecular patterns from S. gordonii that are recognized by antigen-presenting cells have recently been identified. In this study, we have identified that the cell-wall-anchored proteins SspA and SspB are immunostimulatory components of S. gordonii. SspA and SspB are members of the antigen I/II family of proteins widely expressed by viridans oral streptococci. The results showed that the mutant (OB219) lacking SspA and SspB had a reduced ability to induce cytokine/chemokine production in epithelial cells and bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells as compared with the parent strain (DL1). Purified SspA induced interleukin-6 and monocyte chemotatic protein-1 production from human lung epithelial A549 cells. The induction could be inhibited by a function-blocking anti-?1 integrin mAb and the purified SspA could bind to ?1 integrin precoated on microtitre plates, suggesting that the induction was effected by SspA-?1 integrin interactions. The role of SspA and SspB in innate immunity was further demonstrated in a mouse intranasal challenge experiment, which showed that the clearance of OB219, the recruitment of neutrophils (as indicated by myeloperoxidase activity), and chemokine and cytokine production in the lungs of OB219-inoculated mice were delayed or reduced as compared with the DL1-inoculated mice. In addition to the above, S. gordonii OB219 was more sensitive to polymyxin, nisin and histatin-5 than DL1, suggesting that SspA and SspB also play a role in susceptibility to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Collectively, the results indicate that SspA and SspB are immunostimulatory components of S. gordonii and play an important role in modulating the host's innate immunity. PMID:22609749

Andrian, Elisoa; Qi, Gaofu; Wang, Jun; Halperin, Scott A; Lee, Song F

2012-08-01

77

Composition and chemical variability of Mentha suaveolens ssp. suaveolens and M. suaveolens ssp. insularis from Corsica.  

PubMed

A detailed analysis of two essential oils from individual plants of Mentha suaveolens ssp. suaveolens growing wild in Corsica was carried out by combination of GC(RI), GC/MS, and (13)C-NMR analyses. One oil sample is characterized by the pre-eminence of piperitenone oxide, and the second is dominated by piperitenone. In contrast, it was reported that the essential oil of M. suaveolens ssp. insularis, an endemic species to Corsica and Sardinia, contained pulegone and cis-cis-p-menthenolide as main components. A principal-component analysis (PCA) carried out on the composition of the essential oil of 59 individual plants of M. suaveolens sp. allowed the classification into three well-defined groups. All the oil samples from Mentha suaveolens ssp. insularis belonged to the same group, while the oils from M. suaveolens ssp. suaveolens were distributed in the two other groups. The composition of the essential oil isolated from aerial parts of M. suaveolens ssp. has been shown to be an additional tool to differentiate the botanically close subspecies suaveolens and insularis. PMID:20397217

Sutour, Sylvain; Bradesi, Pascale; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

2010-04-01

78

Identification and characterisation of the fur genes in Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida and ssp. damselae.  

PubMed

The gene encoding the ferric uptake regulator protein (fur gene) of the fish pathogenic bacterium Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida Strain D121 was partially amplified using degenerate oligonucleotides. Complete sequencing of the fur gene and neighbouring DNA was accomplished by primer walking. An open reading frame of 447 bp, coding for a protein of 148 amino acids, and with high homology to previously described Fur proteins, was identified. The fur gene of P. damselae ssp. damselae ATCC 35083 was subsequently amplified by PCR with specific primers and its sequence determined, showing a 99.3% similarity to the P. damselae ssp. piscicida fur gene. The P. damselae fur gene was able to complement the fur mutation of Escherichia coli Strain H1681 in an iron-dependent fashion. PMID:15109136

Juiz-Río, Sandra; Osorio, Carlos R; Lemos, Manuel L

2004-03-10

79

[Chemical constituents of Girardinia palmata ssp ciliata].  

PubMed

Thirteen constituents were identified from Girardinia palmata ssp ciliata C. J. Chen by using GC-MS, which amounted to 84.5% of the total peaks, the main constituent were linoleic acid (52.01%) and dimethyl fumarate (10.05%). The dissociated amino acids and KNO(3) in the sample amounted to 43.30 mg/100 g and 3.0%. Five compounds were isolated and elucidated as octadecane, hexadecylic acid, beta-sitosterol, p-coumaric acid and potasium nitrate. PMID:12575105

Yuan, Y; Ai, K; Chen, G

1999-04-01

80

Studies on the Growth and Fructification of Vegetables in Culture for Seed Production. Part 1. Observations on the Biology of Growth and Fructification of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) (Studia nad Wzrostem i Owocowaniem Roslin Warzyqnych w Uprawie na Nasiona. Czesc I. Obserwacje Biologii Wzrostu i Owocowania Marchwi (Daucus carota L.)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The studies reported concerned the influence of: (a) The habit of carrot plants in culture for seed production; (b) the size of stecklings; and (c) spacing and fertilization on the yield of achenes (seeds) and their reproductive value.

M. Litynski M. Peplinska

1974-01-01

81

Allozyme diversity in the endangered pitcher plant Sarracenia rubra ssp. Alabamensis (Sarraceniaceae) and its close relative S. rubra ssp. rubra.  

PubMed

Genetic variability in the federally endangered pitcher plant Sarracenia rubra ssp. alabamensis was assessed in eight Alabama populations using starch gel electrophoresis. Ten populations of the more widespread Sarracenia rubra ssp. rubra were sampled in the southeastern United States for comparison. Fifteen allozyme loci representing 13 enzyme systems were scored for each species. In contrast to S. oreophila and S. jonesii, two previously analyzed endangered pitcher plants, genetic diversity was high for both S. rubra subspecies. Within ssp. alabamensis the percentage polymorphic loci (Ps) was 80.0, the mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus was (APs) = 2.58, and expected heterozygosity (Hes) was 0.209. Genetic diversity was slightly lower for ssp. rubra (Ps = 73.3, APs = 2.91, and Hes = 0.177). The proportion of total genetic diversity found among populations was fairly low for both species (GST = 0.09 for ssp. alabamensis and 0.14 for ssp. rubra). Little genetic divergence has occurred between the two subspecies as indicated by the lack of diagnostic alleles, the proportion of total genetic diversity between taxa (GST = 0.09), and the genetic identity estimate (I = 0.90). The relatively high genetic diversity found for ssp. alabamensis indicates that the maintenance of its evolutionary potential is possible if population sizes are maintained or increased. Low levels of genetic diversity found within small Georgia ssp. rubra populations indicate that genetic erosion may increase extinction risks for these populations. PMID:21684964

Godt, M; Hamrick, J

1998-06-01

82

Role of Streptococcus gordonii surface proteins SspA/SspB and Hsa in platelet function.  

PubMed

Streptococcus gordonii colonization of damaged heart surfaces in infective endocarditis is dependent upon the recognition of host receptors by specific bacterial surface proteins. However, despite several attempts to identify the mechanisms involved in this interaction, the nature of the bacterial proteins required remains poorly understood. This study provides clear evidence that several S. gordonii surface proteins participate in the interaction with platelets to support platelet adhesion and induce platelet aggregation. S. gordonii strains were found to support strong (DL1-Challis, SK12, SK184, and Blackburn) or moderate (UB1545 delta hsa and CH1-Challis) adhesion or failed to support platelet adhesion (M5, M99, and Channon). In addition, under flow conditions, platelets rolled and subsequently adhered to immobilized S. gordonii at low shear (50 s(-1)) in an Hsa-dependent manner but did not interact with S. gordonii DL1 at any shear rate of >50 s(-1). S. gordonii strains either induced (DL1-Challis, SK12, SK184, UB1545 delta hsa, and M99) or failed to induce (M5, CH1-Challis, Channon, and Blackburn) platelet aggregation. Using a proteomic approach to identify differential cell wall protein expression between aggregating (DL1) and nonaggregating (Blackburn) strains, we identified antigen I/antigen II family proteins SspA and SspB. The overexpression of SspA or SspB in platelet-nonreactive Lactococcus lactis induced GPIIb/GPIIIa-dependent platelet aggregation similar to that seen with S. gordonii DL1. However, they failed to support platelet adhesion. Thus, S. gordonii has distinct mechanisms for supporting platelet adhesion and inducing platelet aggregation. Differential protein expression between strains may be important for the pathogenesis of invasive diseases such as infective endocarditis. PMID:17893126

Kerrigan, Steven W; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Keane, Ciara; Maguire, Patricia; Wynne, Kieran; Jenkinson, Howard F; Cox, Dermot

2007-12-01

83

Cold shock response in Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acquired freeze-thaw tolerance was investigated forLactococcus lactis ssp.diacetylactis. Pretreatment of microorganisms at less severe temperatures to initiate cold tolerance gaveL. lactis ssp.diacetylactis improved cell viability after successive freezings and thawings. The ability of cells to survive freeze-thaw was dependent\\u000a on factors experienced prior to freezing. Factors affecting lactic acid bacteria survival during freeze-thaw cycles were found\\u000a to be different

Ki Beom Lee; Russell Cail; Seung-Hyeon Moon; Man Bock Gu

1999-01-01

84

School Teams up for SSP Functional Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Solar Power systems appear increasingly as one of the major solutions to the upcoming global energy crisis, by collecting solar energy in space where this is most easy, and sending it by microwave beam to the surface of the planet, where the need for controlled energy is located. While fully operational systems are still decades away, the need for major development efforts is with us now. Yet, for many decision-makers and for most of the public, SSP often still sounds like science fiction. Six functional demonstration systems, based on the Japanese SPS-2000 concept, have been built as a result of a cooperation between France and Japan, and they are currently used extensively, in Japan, in Europe and in North America, for executive presentations as well as for public exhibitions. There is demand for more models, both for science museums and for use by energy dedicated groups, and a senior high school in La Reunion, France, has picked up the challenge to make the production of such models an integrated practical school project for pre-college students. In December 2001, the administration and the teachers of the school have evaluated the feasibility of the project and eventually taken the go decision for the school year 2002- 2003, when for education purposes a temporary "school business company" will be incorporated with the goal to study and manufacture a limited series of professional quality SSP demonstration models, and to sell them world- wide to institutions and advocacy groups concerned with energy problems and with the environment. The different sections of the school will act as the different services of an integrated business : based on the current existing models, the electronic section will redesign the energy management system and the microwave projector module, while the mechanical section of the school will adapt and re-conceive the whole packaging of the demonstrator. The French and foreign language sections will write up a technical manual for the operation of the model and a guide to assist users with the basics of space solar power, with versions both in French and in English. The students of the commercial section will conduct global marketing and later handle international sales. Technical and market studies will take place at the end of the year 2002, while actual production, currently estimated at some twenty units, will take place during the first part of 2003. Initial operation will be assisted by institutional support and subscription sales from already identified customers, but later the operation will be self supporting, with eventually some cash benefit the school like in any normal commercial operation, before the "company" eventually will shut down its operation at the end of the school year in June 2003. The benefits of this high level "hands-on" operation will be very important, first because of the promotion of the SSP concepts and the understanding of the potential from space that it will foster. But the greatest reward will be for the students and the teachers involved in the operation, both simple and very complex at the same time, because they will integrate all the aspects of a "real" professional activity, around the great futuristic concept of providing clean and sustainable energy for Mankind and for the Earth...

Pignolet, G.; Lallemand, R.; Celeste, A.; von Muldau, H.

2002-01-01

85

Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in UV-A-irradiated cell cultures of carrot and in organs of intact carrot plants.  

PubMed

Two cell lines of Daucus carota are known to differ with respect to anthocyanin accumulation. cDNA clones encoding enzymes involved in anthocyanidin biosynthesis, namely phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5), chalcone synthase (CHS; EC 2.3.1.74), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H; EC 1.14.11.9), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR; EC 1.1.1.219) and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX; EC 1.14.11.-), were isolated from libraries derived from cell cultures. Northern blot analysis of anthocyanin-accumulating (DCb) and non-accumulating (DCs) cell cultures of carrot showed that the anthocyanin pathway in these anthocyanin-free DCs cells is blocked. The expression of CHS1, DFR1 and LDOX is not detectable. However, F3H and DFR2 behave differently. In the European wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp. carota) the structural genes coding for the enzymes responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis are strongly expressed in organs which accumulate anthocyanins. Only the dark-purple coloured petals of the central flowers of the inflorescence and to a certain extent the white flowers and the leaves but not the stems and the roots transcribe these genes. To study the effect of anthocyanins as UV-screens the expression of a protein indispensable for cell proliferation like alpha-tubulin (TUB) was monitored. PMID:11448762

Hirner, A A.; Veit, S; Seitz, H U.

2001-07-01

86

The antioxidant and anticancer effects of wild carrot oil extract.  

PubMed

Daucus carota L. ssp. carota (Apiacea) is used in traditional medicine in Lebanon and in different regions throughout the world. The present study investigates the in vitro anticancer activities of Daucus carota oil extract (DCOE) on four human cancer cell lines as well as its in vitro antioxidant activity. DCOE was extracted from the dried umbels with 50:50 acetone-methanol. The oil extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and screened for its antioxidant properties in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical scavenging assay (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating assay (FIC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The anticancer activity of the oil extract against human colon (HT-29, Caco-2) and breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines was evaluated using the trypan blue exclusion method and the WST-1 cell proliferation assay. DCOE exhibited antioxidant activity in all assays used. The FRAP value was 164?±?5.5?µmol FeSO4 /g, and the IC50 values for DPPH and FIC assays were 2.1?±?0.03?mg/ml and 0.43?±?0.02?mg/ml, respectively. Also, DCOE demonstrated a significant increase in cell death and decrease in cell proliferation. The effect of DCOE on the cell lines exhibited time and dose-dependent responses. The present study established that DCOE possesses both antioxidant and promising anticancer activities. PMID:22815230

Shebaby, Wassim Nasri; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Smith, Kikki Bodman-; Karam, Marc Christoph; Mroueh, Mohamad; Daher, Costantine F

2013-05-01

87

Vibrio vulnificus Bacteriophage SSP002 as a Possible Biocontrol Agent  

PubMed Central

A novel Vibrio vulnificus-infecting bacteriophage, SSP002, belonging to the Siphoviridae family, was isolated from the coastal area of the Yellow Sea of South Korea. Host range analysis revealed that the growth inhibition of phage SSP002 is relatively specific to V. vulnificus strains from both clinical and environmental samples. In addition, a one-step growth curve analysis and a bacteriophage stability test revealed a latent period of 65 min, a burst size of 23 ± 2 PFU, as well as broad temperature (20°C to 60°C) and pH stability (pH 3 to 12) ranges. A Tn5 random transposon mutation of V. vulnificus and partial DNA sequencing of the inserted Tn5 regions revealed that the flhA, flhB, fliF, and fleQ mutants are resistant to SSP002 phage infection, suggesting that the flagellum may be the host receptor for infection. The subsequent construction of specific gene-inactivated mutants (flhA, flhB, fliF, and fleQ) and complementation experiments substantiated this. Previously, the genome of phage SSP002 was completely sequenced and analyzed. Comparative genomic analysis of phage SSP002 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus phage vB_VpaS_MAR10 showed differences among their tail-related genes, supporting different host ranges at the species level, even though their genome sequences are highly similar. An additional mouse survival test showed that the administration of phage SSP002 at a multiplicity of infection of 1,000 significantly protects mice from infection by V. vulnificus for up to 2 months, suggesting that this phage may be a good candidate for the development of biocontrol agents against V. vulnificus infection.

Lee, Hyun Sung; Choi, Slae; Shin, Hakdong

2014-01-01

88

Vibrio vulnificus bacteriophage SSP002 as a possible biocontrol agent.  

PubMed

A novel Vibrio vulnificus-infecting bacteriophage, SSP002, belonging to the Siphoviridae family, was isolated from the coastal area of the Yellow Sea of South Korea. Host range analysis revealed that the growth inhibition of phage SSP002 is relatively specific to V. vulnificus strains from both clinical and environmental samples. In addition, a one-step growth curve analysis and a bacteriophage stability test revealed a latent period of 65 min, a burst size of 23 ± 2 PFU, as well as broad temperature (20°C to 60°C) and pH stability (pH 3 to 12) ranges. A Tn5 random transposon mutation of V. vulnificus and partial DNA sequencing of the inserted Tn5 regions revealed that the flhA, flhB, fliF, and fleQ mutants are resistant to SSP002 phage infection, suggesting that the flagellum may be the host receptor for infection. The subsequent construction of specific gene-inactivated mutants (flhA, flhB, fliF, and fleQ) and complementation experiments substantiated this. Previously, the genome of phage SSP002 was completely sequenced and analyzed. Comparative genomic analysis of phage SSP002 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus phage vB_VpaS_MAR10 showed differences among their tail-related genes, supporting different host ranges at the species level, even though their genome sequences are highly similar. An additional mouse survival test showed that the administration of phage SSP002 at a multiplicity of infection of 1,000 significantly protects mice from infection by V. vulnificus for up to 2 months, suggesting that this phage may be a good candidate for the development of biocontrol agents against V. vulnificus infection. PMID:24212569

Lee, Hyun Sung; Choi, Slae; Shin, Hakdong; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Choi, Sang Ho

2014-01-01

89

Inbreeding influences herbivory in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana (Cucurbitaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of field experiments Diabrotica beetle herbivory was found to influence the magnitude of inbreeding depression in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana, an annual monoecious vine. Beetles damage flowers and fruits and chew dime-sized holes in leaf tissue between major veins. Inbred plants were found to be more likely to be damaged by beetles and to have more leaves

C. Nelson Hayes; James A. Winsor; Andrew G. Stephenson

2004-01-01

90

An Alternative Building Component, Stressed Skin Panel (SSP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stressed skin panel (SSP) is one of the traditional wood products that is finding commercial acceptance and becoming popular again in the forest products market. It has been used for over seventy years for structural and non-structural uses. It may be produced using low-cost equipment locally and can also be assembled onsite if needed. The optimal design and construction of

Ramazan KURT

2005-01-01

91

Isolation and structures of eudesmanolides from Tanacetum cadmeum ssp. cadmeum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight sesquiterpene lactones, two coumarins, and two flavonoid derivatives were isolated from Tanacetum cadmeum (Boiss.) Heywood ssp. cadmeum. All compounds have been found previously in other plant species. The crystal structures of artesin and taurin are reported. Crystals of artesin (C15H22O3) belong to the monoclinic space group P21: a = 8.300(1), b = 6.304(1), c = 13.118(2) Å, ß =

Zerrin Çali?kan; Nezhun Gören; William H. Watson

2004-01-01

92

Chemical studies of essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf and (unripe and ripe) berry essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia (H. Gay) Debeaux grown wild in Spain have been analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS in combination with retention indices. A seasonal investigation of both leaf and berry oils was also performed. Among the approximately 80 constituents investigated (representing 90–98% of the oils) 60–68 were identified (80–97%

Sof??a Salido; Joaqu??n Altarejos; Manuel Nogueras; Adolfo Sánchez; Christophe Pannecouque; Myriam Witvrouw; Erik De Clercq

2002-01-01

93

Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

1998-01-01

94

Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida.  

PubMed

The ability of a set of Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida strains isolated from different fish species to produce different superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase enzymes was determined. Unlike other bacterial pathogens, P. damselae ssp. piscicida is not able to produce different isoforms of SOD or catalase containing different metal cofactors when cultured under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide or methyl viologen, or under iron depleted conditions. However, iron content of the growth medium influenced the levels of SOD and catalase activity in cells, these levels decreasing with iron availability of the medium. Comparison of virulent and non-virulent strains of P. damselae ssp. piscicida showed similar contents of SOD, but higher levels of catalase were detected in cells of the virulent strain. Incubation of bacteria with sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup), phagocytes has shown that survival rates range from 19% to 62%, these rates being higher for the virulent strain. The increased levels of catalase activity detected in the virulent strain indicates a possible role for this enzyme in bacterial survival. PMID:16768716

Díaz-Rosales, P; Chabrillón, M; Arijo, S; Martinez-Manzanares, E; Moriñigo, M A; Balebona, M C

2006-06-01

95

The genes ABI1 and ABI2 are involved in abscisic acid- and drought-inducible expression of the Daucus carota L. Dc3 promoter in guard cells of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?The ABA INSENSITIVE1 (ABI1) and ABI2 genes encode homologous type-2C protein phosphatases with redundant yet distinct functions in abscisic acid (ABA) responses.\\u000a Results from Northern blot analysis showed that ABA- and mannitol-inducible expression of the COR47 and COR78\\/LTI78\\/RD29A (COR78) genes was more impaired in the abi2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh than in the abi1 mutant. Furthermore, ABA-plus-mannitol treatments

Regina K. F. Chak; Terry L. Thomas; Ralph S. Quatrano; Christopher D. Rock

2000-01-01

96

Effects on the growth of carrots (Daucus carota L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.) of restricting the ability of the plants to intercept resources.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to assess the size and penetration of edge effects in carrot, cabbage and onion field crops and the extent to which these edge effects are modified by the presence of aerial or soil competition between the crop rows. In all three crops, large weight differences developed between the plants in the edge rows and those in the central rows. There was no indication of plant weight fluctuating between large and small values with each successive row in from the edge, as suggested by others. In carrot and onion, edge effects were greatly reduced by the presence of either white reflective aerial partitions or soil partitions, indicating that these species competed for both light and soil resources in UK field conditions. In cabbage, the mere presence of clear aerial partitions between rows reduced edge effects and there was little effect of soil partitions. This indicates the predominance of shoot over root competition in this species. The differences between species are possibly related to the architectural flexibility of their shoots. These results suggest that, within crops, carrot and onion plants compete for light over a distance of about 20 cm in each direction and for below-ground resources over a distance of about 50 cm in each direction. For cabbage, interactions between plants appeared to be dominated by the requirement for sufficient space to deploy the shoots for efficient light interception. PMID:10938817

Peach, L; Benjamin, L R; Mead, A

2000-03-01

97

Detection of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis in tomato seeds by immunofluorescence microscopy and dilution plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for detectingClavibacter michiganensis ssp.michiganensis in tomato seeds was evaluated. The method is based on rapid screening of tomato seed lots using indirect immunofluorescence staining (IF), followed by dilution plating of IF positive seed lots. Different polyclonal antisera, prepared againstC. michiganensis ssp.michiganensis were tested for their specificity using IF. All strains ofC. michiganensis ssp.michiganensis tested reacted with the polyclonal

A. A. J. M. Franken; G. C. Kamminga; W. Snijders; P. S. Van Der Zouwen; Y. E. Birnbaum

1993-01-01

98

Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. ssp. argenteum and T. densum (Lab.) Schultz Bip. ssp. amani heywood from Turkey.  

PubMed

Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum ssp. argenteum and T. densum ssp. amani from Turkey were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oil of T. argenteum ssp. argenteum was characterized with alpha-pinene 36.7%, beta-pinene 27.5% and 1,8-cineole 9.8%. T. densum ssp. amani was characterized with beta-pinene 27.2%, 1,8-cineole 13.1%, alpha-pinene 9.7% and p-cymene 8.9%. Antibacterial activity of the oils were evaluated for five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria by using a broth microdilution assay. The highest inhibitory activity was observed against Bacillus cereus for T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil (125 microg/mL) when compared with positive control chloramphenicol it showed the same inhibition potency. However, the same oil showed lower inhibitory activity against B. subtilis when compared. The oil of T. densum ssp. amani did not show significant activity against the tested microorganisms. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil was investigated for 15 and 10 mg/mL concentrations. However, the oil did not show significant activity when compared to positive control alpha-tocopherol. Both oils showed toxicity to Vibrio fischeri in the TLC-bioluminescence assay. PMID:20513969

Polato?lu, Kaan; Demirci, Fatih; Demirci, Betül; Gören, Nezhun; Ba?er, Kemal Hüsnü Can

2010-01-01

99

Investigation of the composition and stability of the essential oils of origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare L. and O. vulgare ssp. hirtum (Link) letswaart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The essential oils ofOriganum vulgare L. ssp.hirtum (Link) letswaart andOriganum vulgare L ssp.vulgare (Fam. Lamiaceae), cultivated in Hungary, have been studied by GC and GC-MS and the qualitative and quantitative chemical\\u000a composition of the essential oils in the two species have been compared.O. vulgare ssp.hirtum oil was found to contain carvacrol (76.4%), ?-terpinene (6.6%), thymol (0.23%), andp-cymene (4.7%) as the

K. Veres; E. Varga; Á. Dobos; Zs. Hajdú; I. Máthé; É. Németh; K. Szabó

2003-01-01

100

Development of a growth medium suitable for exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus RR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex media are commonly used in studies examining exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. However, quantification of exopolysaccharide in complex medium can be complicated by interference due to carbohydrate polymers contained in media components. This study was undertaken to identify components of MRS, a common medium for cultivation of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, that interfere with exopolysaccharide quantification, to

Stacy A Kimmel; Robert F Roberts

1998-01-01

101

The 172-kb genomic DNA region of the O. rufipogon yld1.1 locus: comparative sequence analysis with O. sativa ssp. japonica and O. sativa ssp. indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) plays an important role by contributing to modern rice breeding. In this paper, we report the sequence and analysis of a\\u000a 172-kb genomic DNA region of wild rice around the RM5 locus, which is associated with the yield QTL yld1.1. Comparative sequence analysis between orthologous RM5 regions from Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, O. sativa ssp.

Beng-Kah Song; Ingo Hein; Arnis Druka; Robbie Waugh; David Marshall; Kalaivani Nadarajah; Soon-Joo Yap; Wickneswari Ratnam

2009-01-01

102

Binding Properties of Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB (Antigen I\\/II Family) Polypeptides Expressed on the Cell Surface of Lactococcus lactis MG1363  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii expresses two cell wall-associated polypeptides, designated SspA (1,542 amino acid residues) and SspB (1,462 amino acid residues), that have 70% sequence identity. These polypeptides are members of the antigen I\\/II family of oral streptococcal adhesins and mediate the binding of streptococci to salivary glycoproteins, collagen, and other oral microorganisms such as Actinomyces naeslundii. To determine

ANN R. HOLMES; CHRISTOPHE GILBERT; JEREMY M. WELLS; HOWARD F. JENKINSON

1998-01-01

103

Major constituents and cytotoxic effects of Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella.  

PubMed

The n-butanolic fraction of a methanolic extract (80%) from aerial parts of Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella was analysed using different chromatographic methods. Column (CC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for isolation and purification. 13C, H NMR, H-H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ESI-MS were employed for identification of the compounds isolated from this fraction. The structures of the compounds were determined to be cis-melilotoside (1), trans-melilotoside (2), lavandulifolioside (3), 20-hydroxyecdysone (4), leonoside B (5), martynoside (6), ajugalactone (7), makisterone A (8), and 24-dehydroprecyasterone (9). This is the first report on the presence of cis- and trans-melilotoside in Ajuga species. Cytotoxic evaluation of the n-butanolic fraction, cis- and trans-melilotoside against cancer (T47D, HT-29, and Caco-2) and normal (NIH 3T3) cell lines by the mitochondrial tetrazolium test (MTT) showed no cytotoxic effects up to 400 microg/mL. The results of this study suggest that melilotoside, phenylethyl glycosides, and phytoecdysteroids are the main constituents of the n-butanolic fraction of Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella. PMID:22888532

Sadati, Nargess; Jenett-Siems, Kristina; Siems, Karsten; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Khanavi, Mahnaz

2012-01-01

104

Evaluation of RO modules for the SSP ETC/LSS.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past eight years the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an Integrated Water and Waste Management System for use in the Space Station Prototype (SSP) Environmental Thermal Control/Life-Support System (ETC/LSS). This system includes the reverse osmosis (RO) process for recycling wash water and the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water and the wash water concentrated by RO. This paper summarizes the experimental work performed during the past four years to select the best commercially available RO module for this system and to also define which surfactants and germicides are most compatible with the selected module.

Jasionowski, W. J.; Bambenek, R. A.

1973-01-01

105

Phenolic constituents from the leaves of Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorum.  

PubMed

One (formosumone A, 1) new and fifteen (2-16) known phenolic compounds were isolated from the leaves of Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorumm, a substitute for the popular bitter nail tea ("Kuding Tea") generally used in Southeast Asia. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with literature data. Compound 1 possesses a rare scaffold of a flavanone coupled with a phloroglucinol moiety, representing the first example of such a scaffold from the Clusiaceae family. Among the isolates, toxyloxanthone B (11) and vismione D (12) were found to show remarkable anti-neuroinflammatory effects by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV-2 microglial cells. Additionally, toxyloxanthone B (11) exhibited significant neuroprotective effect against ?-amyloid(25-35) (A?(25-35))-induced cell viability decrease in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. PMID:24534445

Xiong, Juan; Liu, Xin-Hua; Bui, Van-Binh; Hong, Zhi-Lai; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhao, Yun; Fan, Hui; Yang, Guo-Xun; Hu, Jin-Feng

2014-04-01

106

Potential SSP Perfluorooctanoic Acid Related Fluoropolymer Materials Obsolescence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative (SEA) has identified a potential for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to incur materials obsolescence issues due to agreements between the fluoro-chemical industry and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to participate in a Global Stewardship Program for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This presentation will include discussions of the chemistry, regulatory drivers, affected types of fluoropolymer and fluoroelastomer products, timeline for reformulations, and methodology for addressing the issue. It will cover the coordination of assessment efforts with the International Space Station and Head Quarters Air Force Space Command, along with some examples of impacted materials. The presentation is directed at all members of the international aerospace community concerned with identifying potential environmentally driven materials obsolescence issues.

Segars, Matt G.

2006-01-01

107

Eremophilane sesquiterpene lactones from Ligularia virgaurea ssp. oligocephala.  

PubMed

From an extract of the whole plant of Ligularia virgaurea ssp. oligocephala, three new eremophilane sesquiterpene lactones, 10alpha-hydroxy-1-oxoeremophila-7(11),8(9)-dien-12,8-olide (1), 6alpha,10alpha-dihydroxy-1-oxoeremophila-7(11),8(9)-dien-12,8-olide (2), 6beta,10beta-dihydroxyeremophila-7(11),8(9)-dien-12,8-olide (3), as well as four known sesquiterpene lactones with the same carbon skeleton, named toluccanolides A-C (4, 5, 7) and 6beta-hydroxy-8alpha-methoxyeremophila-1(10),7(11)-dien-12,8beta-olide (6) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including intensive 2D NMR techniques (gCOSY, gHMQC, gHMBC and 1H-1H NOESY for 2) and HR-ESI-MS. PMID:15124100

Wu, Quan-Xiang; Shi, Yan-Ping; Yang, Li

2004-05-01

108

Mountain Sweet Pitcher Plant ('Sarracenia rubra' ssp. 'jonesii' (Wherry) Wherry) Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sarracenia rubra ssp. ionesii is listed as endangered. There are 10 populations remaining, all within North Carolina and South Carolina; 16 sites have been destroyed. Most of the surviving populations are small, and many have been adversely altered by flo...

N. Murdock

1990-01-01

109

MglA/SspA complex interactions are modulated by inorganic polyphosphate.  

PubMed

The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen's virulence and survival within host cells. Our goal was to determine if an intracellular metabolite modulate these protein/protein interactions. In this study, we identified inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) as a signal molecule that promotes the interaction of MglA and SspA from F. tularensis SCHU S4. Analysis of the Mgla/SspA interaction was carried out using a two-hybrid system. The Escherichia coli reporter strain contained a deletion on the ppK-ppX operon, inhibiting polyP synthesis. The interaction between MglA and SspA was significantly impaired, as was the interaction between the MglA/SspA complex and the regulatory protein, FevR, indicating the stabilizing effect of polyP. In F. tularensis, chromatin immune precipitation studies revealed that in the absence of polyP, binding of the MglA/SspA complex to the promoter region of the pdpD, iglA, fevR and ppK genes is decreased. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that polyP binds directly to the MglA/SspA complex with high affinity (KD?=?0.3 µM). These observations directly correlated with results obtained from calorimetric scans (DSC), where a strong shift in the mid-transition temperature (Tm) of the MglA/SspA complex was observed in the presence of polyP. PMID:24116108

Wrench, Algevis P; Gardner, Christopher L; Siegel, Sara D; Pagliai, Fernando A; Malekiha, Mahsa; Gonzalez, Claudio F; Lorca, Graciela L

2013-01-01

110

MglA/SspA Complex Interactions Are Modulated by Inorganic Polyphosphate  

PubMed Central

The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen’s virulence and survival within host cells. Our goal was to determine if an intracellular metabolite modulate these protein/protein interactions. In this study, we identified inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) as a signal molecule that promotes the interaction of MglA and SspA from F. tularensis SCHU S4. Analysis of the Mgla/SspA interaction was carried out using a two-hybrid system. The Escherichia coli reporter strain contained a deletion on the ppK-ppX operon, inhibiting polyP synthesis. The interaction between MglA and SspA was significantly impaired, as was the interaction between the MglA/SspA complex and the regulatory protein, FevR, indicating the stabilizing effect of polyP. In F. tularensis, chromatin immune precipitation studies revealed that in the absence of polyP, binding of the MglA/SspA complex to the promoter region of the pdpD, iglA, fevR and ppK genes is decreased. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that polyP binds directly to the MglA/SspA complex with high affinity (KD?=?0.3 µM). These observations directly correlated with results obtained from calorimetric scans (DSC), where a strong shift in the mid-transition temperature (Tm) of the MglA/SspA complex was observed in the presence of polyP.

Siegel, Sara D.; Pagliai, Fernando A.; Malekiha, Mahsa; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Lorca, Graciela L.

2013-01-01

111

Snf1-like protein kinase Ssp2 regulates glucose derepression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

PubMed

The function of two fission yeast genes, SPCC74.03c/ssp2(+) and SPAC23H4.02/ppk9(+), encoding an Snf1-like protein kinase were investigated. Deletion of ssp2(+) caused a partial defect in glucose derepression of inv1(+), fbp1(+), and gld1(+) and in assimilation of sucrose and glycerol, while a mutation in ppk9(+) had no apparent effect. Scr1, a transcription factor involved in glucose repression, localized to the nucleus under glucose-rich conditions and to the cytoplasm during glucose starvation in wild-type cells. In contrast, in the ssp2? mutant, Scr1 localized to the nucleus in cells grown in glucose-rich medium as well as in glucose-starved cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that Ssp2 is required for the phosphorylation of Scr1 upon glucose deprivation. Mutation of five putative Ssp2 recognition sites in Scr1 prevented glucose derepression of invertase in glucose-starved cells. These results indicate that Ssp2 regulates phosphorylation and subcellular localization of Scr1 in response to glucose. PMID:22140232

Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Fujita, Yasuko; Tohda, Hideki; Takegawa, Kaoru

2012-02-01

112

Chemical studies of essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia.  

PubMed

Leaf and (unripe and ripe) berry essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia (H. Gay) Debeaux grown wild in Spain have been analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS in combination with retention indices. A seasonal investigation of both leaf and berry oils was also performed. Among the approximately 80 constituents investigated (representing 90-98% of the oils) 60-68 were identified (80-97% of the oil composition). The leaf oils were mainly composed of alpha-pinene (40-57%) and manoyl oxide (5-10%). The (unripe) berry oils were dominated by alpha-pinene (65%) with moderate amounts of myrcene, limonene, germacrene D or gamma-muurolene. Several differences in yields and chemical composition from a qualitative and quantitative point of view were detected when comparing all the oil samples analysed. In addition, two oil samples were examined, but found inactive, against the replication of HIV-1(III(B)) and HIV-2(ROD) in cell culture, whereas the samples were toxic for the cells at a 50% cytotoxic concentration of 106 and 123 microg/ml, respectively. PMID:12020937

Salido, Sofía; Altarejos, Joaquín; Nogueras, Manuel; Sánchez, Adolfo; Pannecouque, Christophe; Witvrouw, Myriam; De Clercq, Erik

2002-06-01

113

Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as one such candidate for consideration. A marketing roadmap is presented that reveals the potential benefits of SSP to both the space community and the global populace at large. Recognizing that scientific efficiency itself has no constituency large enough to persuade entities to outlay funds for such projects, a holistic approach is taken to positioning SSP. This includes the scientific, engineering, exploratory, economic, political, and development capabilities of the system. SSP can be seen as both space exploration related and a resource project for undeveloped nations. Coupling these two non-traditional areas yields a broader constituency for the project that each one alone could generate. Space exploration is many times seen as irrelevant to the condition of the populace of the planet from which the money comes for such projects. When in this new century, billions of people on the planet still have never made a phone call or even have access to clean water, the origins of this skepticism can be understandable. An area of concern is the problem of not living up to the claims of overeager program marketers. Just as the ISS may never live up to the claims of its advocates in terms of space research, any SSP program must be careful in not promising utopian global solutions to any future energy starved world. Technically, SSP is a very difficult problem, even harder than creating the ISS, yet the promise it can hold for both space exploration and Earth development can lead to a renaissance of the relevance of space to the lives of the citizens of the world.

Charania, A.

2002-01-01

114

The P-SSP7 Cyanophage Has a Linear Genome with Direct Terminal Repeats  

PubMed Central

P-SSP7 is a T7-like phage that infects the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4. MED4 is a member of the high-light-adapted Prochlorococcus ecotypes that are abundant in the surface oceans and contribute significantly to primary production. P-SSP7 has become a model system for the investigation of T7-like phages that infect Prochlorococcus. It was classified as T7-like based on genome content and organization. However, because its genome assembled as a circular molecule, it was thought to be circularly permuted and to lack the direct terminal repeats found in other T7-like phages. Here we sequenced the ends of the P-SSP7 genome and found that the genome map is linear and contains a 206 bp repeat at both genome ends. Furthermore, we found that a 728 bp region of the genome originally placed downstream of the last ORF is actually located upstream of the first ORF on the genome map. These findings suggest that P-SSP7 is likely to use the direct terminal repeats for genome replication and packaging in a similar manner to other T7-like phages. Moreover, these results highlight the importance of experimentally verifying the ends of phage genomes, and will facilitate the use of P-SSP7 as a model for the correct assembly and end determination of the many T7-like phages isolated from the marine environment that are currently being sequenced.

Sabehi, Gazalah; Lindell, Debbie

2012-01-01

115

In vivo antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum capitulums in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helichrysum species (Asteraceae) are widely found in Anatolia. Decoction prepared from the capitulums of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum is used to alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. In the present study, the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum was evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats. After the oral administration

Mustafa Aslan; Didem Deliorman Orhan; Nilüfer Orhan; Ekrem Sezik; Erdem Yesilada

2007-01-01

116

Comparative chemical composition, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activities of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus L. berry and wood oils from Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus) is used in European cuisine for its distinguishing flavour. J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus berry and wood essential oils were tentatively identified by GC and GC\\/MS. Fifty compounds were identified in the berry oil and 23 compounds were identified in the wood oil. The J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus berry oil was characterised by high contents of ?-pinene (27.4%)

Monica R. Loizzo; Rosa Tundis; Filomena Conforti; Antoine M. Saab; Giancarlo A. Statti; Francesco Menichini

2007-01-01

117

Foliar application of calcium and magnesium improves growth, yield, and essential oil yield of oregano ( Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oregano is one of the most important spices, is used all over the world, and includes many species. One of the most important commercially grown species is Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (Link) Ietsw (syn.: O. heracleoticum.), which is endemic to the Mediterranean area. O. vulgare ssp. hirtum is a crop species which is well adapted to both dry land conditions

Christos Dordas

2009-01-01

118

Development of a growth medium suitable for exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus RR.  

PubMed

Complex media are commonly used in studies examining exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. However, quantification of exopolysaccharide in complex medium can be complicated by interference due to carbohydrate polymers contained in media components. This study was undertaken to identify components of MRS, a common medium for cultivation of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, that interfere with exopolysaccharide quantification, to develop a medium for production of exopolysaccharide that provides for growth of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strain RR similar to MRS, and to demonstrate exopolysaccharide production by L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus RR grown in the newly developed medium. Phenol-sulfuric acid determinations were conducted on uninoculated MRS broth with and without yeast extract, beef extract and proteose peptone #3. These three ingredients accounted for 94% of the total background exopolysaccharide-equivalent in MRS broth. Based on these results, a semi-defined medium (SDM) providing minimal interference was developed using yeast nitrogen base and Bacto casitone. Growth of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus RR at 42 degrees C in semi-defined medium and MRS was evaluated, and generation times did not differ significantly (0.94 h in MRS and 0.85 h in SDM). Exopolysaccharide production by L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus RR during growth in semi-defined medium was evaluated at 30 and 40 degrees C. The rate of exopolysaccharide production was lower at 30 degrees C (8.04 (mg/l-h) than at 40 degrees C (11.95 (mg/l-h), but the maximal concentration of exopolysaccharide produced was similar at both temperatures. PMID:9600614

Kimmel, S A; Roberts, R F

1998-03-01

119

Overexpression of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein 2 ( PGIP2 ) of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis ) increased resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant cell wall glycoproteins that can inhibit microbial polygalacturonase\\u000a (PG) activity. In this study, we cloned five PGIP genes from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Reverse transcription PCR expression analysis showed that the accumulation of BrPGIP transcripts differed among various tissues and in response to biotic (bacterial innoculation) and abiotic stresses (i.e.,\\u000a wounding, jasmonic acid,

Byung Ho Hwang; Hanhong Bae; Hyoun-Sub Lim; Kun Bo Kim; Shin Je Kim; Myoung-Ho Im; Beom-Suk Park; Do Sun Kim; Jongkee Kim

2010-01-01

120

Carbon Sequestration in Rangelands Interseeded with Yellow-Flowering Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ssp. falcata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management practices can significantly influence carbon sequestration by rangeland ecosystems. Grazing, burning, and fertilization have been shown to increase soil carbon storage in rangeland soils of the Great Plains. Research was initiated in 2001 in northwestern South Dakota to evaluate the role of interseeding a legume, Medicago sativa ssp. falcata, in northern mixed-grass rangelands on carbon sequestration. Sampling was undertaken

Matthew C. Mortenson; Lachlan J. Ingram

2004-01-01

121

Analysis of the Essential Oil of Helichrysum italicum G.Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd) Nym  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of Sardinian dwarf curry plant (Helichrysum italicum G.Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd.) Nym.) essential oils was studied. Oil samples were isolated by water and steam distillation of flowering tops collected at different locations. The constituents of the oils were analyzed by GC\\/MS. Since both the chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of the oils obtained during these trials were

M. Satta; C. I. G. Tuberoso; A. Angioni; F. M. Pirisi; P. Cabras

1999-01-01

122

Identification of a Porphyromonas gingivalis Receptor for the Streptococcus gordonii SspB Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonization of the plaque biofilm by the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis is favored by the presence of antecedent organisms such as Streptococcus gordonii. Coadhesion between P. gingivalis and S. gordonii can be mediated by the SspB protein of S. gordonii; however, the P. gingivalis cognate receptor for this protein has not been identified. In this study, we identified a surface

WHASUN O. CHUNG; DONALD R. DEMUTH; RICHARD J. LAMONT

2000-01-01

123

Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-?mglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-?mglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles W.; Skerrett, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David

2012-01-01

124

Transformation of Pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) by Agrobacterium infiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) plants were obtained in the progeny of plants infiltrated by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain carrying a gene for resistance to the herbicide phosphinotricin (Basta). Genetic analysis demonstrates the transmission of the herbicide resistant trait to the progeny. Molecular analyses show that the transgene was inserted in the plant genome and expressed. This work

Cao Ming Qing; Liu Fan; Yao Lei; David Bouchez; Colette Tourneur; Li Yan; Christophe Robaglia

2000-01-01

125

Coding Sequence Divergence Between Two Closely Related Plant Species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the coding-sequence divergence of closely related genomes, we compared DNA sequence divergence between sequences from a Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis EST library isolated from flower buds and genomic sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana. The specific objectives were (i) to determine the distribution of and relationship between Ka and Ks, (ii) to identify genes with the lowest and highest Ka:Ks

Peter Tiffin; Matthew W. Hahn

2002-01-01

126

Comparison of seed germination techniques for common elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. ssp. canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soaking common elderberry seeds (Sambucus nigra L. ssp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli [Caprifoliaceae]) in sulfuric acid followed by a 60-d stratification, or subjecting common elderberry seeds to a 60-d warm, moist treatment followed by a 90-d stratification, significantly increased seed germination of accession 9084126 common elderberry seeds. Stratification alone was less effective in promoting germination than was acid scarification followed

John W Leif; John C Durling; David W Burgdorf

2011-01-01

127

Comparison of seed germination techniques for common elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. ssp. canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Soaking common elderberry seeds (Sambucus nigra L. ssp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli [Caprifoliaceae]) in sulfuric acid followed by a 60-d stratification, or subjecting common elderberry seeds to a 60-d warm, moist treatment followed by a 90-d stratification, significantly increased seed germination of accession 9084126 common elderberry seeds. Stratification alone was less effective in promoting germination than was acid scarification

John W Leif; John C Durling; David W Burgdorf

2011-01-01

128

High resolution localization of cruzipain and Ssp4 in Trypanosoma cruzi by replica staining label fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The replica staining label fracture technique was used to analyse the distribution of cruzipain and Ssp4 in Trypanosoma cruzi. Intense labeling for the two proteins was seen on the E fracture face of amastigote forms. Gold particles did not co-localize with the intramembranous particles. Labeling was abolished by previous treatment of the parasites with phospholipase C from Trypanosoma brucei, which

Alana E Nascimento; Wanderley de Souza

1996-01-01

129

Pyrrolizidine alkaloid level in Senecio bicolor (Wilid.) Tod, ssp. cineraria (DC.) from middle Europe.  

PubMed

From Senecio bicolor, ssp. cineraria, cultivated in middle Europe, seven pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) were isolated and their structures elucidated by spectroscopical methods. Besides the already known senecionine, integerrimine, seneciphylline, jacobine, jacoline and jaconine the jacobine-acetate was found. On account of structure toxicity relationship all PA show toxic side-effects. PMID:16826978

Wiedenfeld, H; Montes, C; Tawil, B; Contin, A; Wynsma, R

2006-06-01

130

Composition of the Essential Oil of Guarea macrophylla Vahl. ssp. tuberculata (Meliaceae) from Northeast of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils obtained from fresh leaves of Guarea macrophylla Vahl. ssp. tuberculata Vellozo (Meliaceae) were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Fourteen volatile compounds were identified in the leaf oil. The major components of the leaf oil were ?-eudesmol (15.3%), ?-ylangene (15.1%), ?-cadinene (13.2%), ?-muurolene (11.4%) and ?-caryophyllene (10.0%).

Walber H. F. Ribeiro; Ângela M. C. Arriaga; Manoel Andrade-Neto; Jackson N. Vasconcelos; Gilvandete M. P. Santiago; Ronaldo F. Nascimento

2006-01-01

131

Summary of Recent Results from NASA's Space Solar Power (SSP) Programs and the Current Capabilities of Microwave WPT Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of placing enormous solar power satellite (SPS) systems in space represents one of a handful of new technological options that might provide large-scale, environmentally clean base load power into terrestrial markets. In the US, the SPS concept was examined extensively during the late 1970s by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). More recently, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the "fresh look" study, and during 1998 in an SSP "concept definition study". As a result of these efforts, in 1999-2000, NASA undertook the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program which pursued preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt SSP systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). During 2001-2002, NASA has been pursuing an SSP Concept and Technology Maturation (SCTM) program follow-on to the SERT, with special emphasis on identifying new, high-leverage technologies that might advanced the feasibility of future SSP systems. In addition, in 2001, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a major report providing the results of a peer review of NASA's SSP strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps. One of the key technologies needed to enable the future feasibility of SSP/SPS is that of wireless power transmission. Advances in phased array antennas and rectennas have provided the building blocks for a realizable WPT system. These key components include the dc-RF converters in the transmitter, the retrodirective beam control system, and the receiving rectenna. Each subject is briefly covered, and results from the SERT program that studied a 5.8 GHz SPS system are presented. This paper presents a summary results from NASA's SSP efforts, along with a summary of the status of microwave WPT technology development.

McSpadden, James; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

132

Plant Uptake of Pentachlorophenol from Sludge-Amended Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). Plants included all fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum...

C. A. Bellin G. A. O'Connor

1990-01-01

133

Acute poisoning of friesian heifers by Solanum macrocarpon L. ssp dasyphyllum.  

PubMed

Solanum macrocarpon (African eggplant) is a tropical plant widely cultivated as a delicious vegetable; the non-edible wild variety called Solanum macrocarpon L. ssp dasyphyllum (the wild African eggplant) bears thorns or spikes on the stem and leaves. Thirteen yearling heifers on a dairy farm in Uganda suffered acute poisoning after eating berries of S. macrocarpon L. ssp dasyphyllum. There was sudden onset of anorexia, copious salivation, severe dysentery and passage of red urine. The animals also had central nervous derangement (incordination, walking blindly) and exudative dermatitis. Four heifers died. Necropsy lesions were icterus, hemorrhages, gastroenteritis, lympadenomegally, and friable and bronze colored livers and kidneys. The rumen and reticulum contained masses of the plant seeds. This is the first report of cattle poisoning by this plant. PMID:12882498

Bizimenyera, E S

2003-08-01

134

BcMF21 is important for pollen development and germination in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.  

PubMed

Brassica campestris Male Fertility 21 (BcMF21) was previously isolated from the flower buds of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) and expressed specifically in tapetum and microspores during the meiosis stage and the uninucleate stage of microspore development. Here, we used antisense RNA technology to knock down the expression level of BcMF21 in B. campestris and analyzed the phenotype of the transgenic plants. Alexander staining and scanning electron microscope revealed sterility and exine deformities in the mature pollen grains of BcMF21 antisense RNA transgenic plants. The germination furrow of the BcMF21 antisense RNA transgenic pollen was covered by lipid like materials. The pollen tubes burst and could not grow normally in vitro. Therefore, we presented here BcMF21 might be an important gene for pollen development and germination. PMID:24323195

Jiang, Jingjing; Yu, Youjian; Dong, Heng; Yao, Lina; Zhang, Zhixian; Cao, Jiashu

2014-01-01

135

Cloning and characterization of Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida phospholipase: an enzyme that shows haemolytic activity.  

PubMed

A phospholipase gene of Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida (ppp) was cloned from a genomic library and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The open reading frame consisted of 1218 bp encoding a protein of 405 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 46 kDa. The PPP had identities (53-55%) with phospholipase and haemolysin of Vibrio spp., while it showed low identities (23-26%) with glycerophospholipid cholesterol acyltransferase of Aeromonas spp. A recombinant PPP (rPPP) with a His tag at the C-terminus expressed in Escherichia coli and purified showed phospholipase activity. The rPPP also showed lecithin-dependent haemolytic activity against mammalian erythrocytes and direct haemolytic activity against fish erythrocytes. The culture supernatant of wild-type P. damselae ssp. piscicida showed phospholipase activity, while that of a PPP gene knockout mutant did not. PMID:17958612

Naka, H; Hirono, I; Aoki, T

2007-11-01

136

Toxicity of Chitinase-Producing Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki HD1 (G) toward Plutella xylostella  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred fifty isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis were tested for their ability to produce chitinase using colloidal chitin agar as the primary plating medium. Of 14 strains that produced chitinase, B. thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki HD-1(G) was identified as the highest chitinase producer and selected for further study. This bacterium produced the highest amount of chitinase (19.3 mU\\/ml) when it was cultivated

Chanpen Wiwat; Saranya Thaithanun; Somsak Pantuwatana; Amaret Bhumiratana

2000-01-01

137

Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Ballota nigra L. ssp foetida.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil of Ballota nigra L. ssp foetida obtained from the flowering aerial parts was analyzed by GC/MS. From the 37 identified constituents of the oil, beta-caryophyllene (20.0%), germacrene D (18.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (15.0%) were the major components. The oil was active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as against three Candida species. PMID:19476011

Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Giamperi, Laura; Ricci, Donata

2009-04-01

138

Starch-bound 2S proteins and kernel texture in einkorn, Triticum   monococcum ssp monococcum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The starch granule proteins from 113 einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp monococcum) accessions were analyzed by acidic, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE), and two-dimensional A-PAGE x SDS-PAGE.\\u000a All accessions were confirmed to contain equal amounts of two polypeptide chains corresponding to puroindoline B (Pin-B),\\u000a as well as a prominent component plus a faint band corresponding to puroindoline A (Pin-A). When compared with

Federica Taddei; Laura Gazza; Salvatore Conti; Vera Muccilli; Salvatore Foti; Norberto Edgar Pogna

2009-01-01

139

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso ssp. valentina (Lam.) Marcl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the oil, steam-distilled from aerial parts of Artemisia herha-alba Asso ssp. valentina (Lam.) Marcl. (Asteraceae) collected from the south of Spain, has been analyzed by GC\\/MS. Among the 65 constituents investigated (representing 93.6 % of the oil composition), 61 were identified (90.3% of the oil composition). The major constituents detected were the sesquiterpene davanone (18.1%) and monoterpenes

Sofía Salido; Joaquín Altarejos; Manuel Nogueras; Adolfo Sánchez

2001-01-01

140

Evaluating the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to Assess the Bond between Dogs and Humans  

PubMed Central

The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) is increasingly being used to study attachment between dogs and humans. It has been developed from the Ainsworth Strange Situation Procedure, which is used extensively to investigate attachment between children and their parents. In this experiment, 12 female beagle dogs were tested in two treatments to identify possible order effects in the test, a potential weakness in the SSP. In one treatment (FS), dogs participated together with a ‘familiar person’ and a ‘stranger’. In a control treatment (SS), the same dogs participated together with two unfamiliar people, ‘stranger A’ and ‘stranger B’. Comparisons were made between episodes within as well as between treatments. As predicted in FS, dogs explored more in the presence of the familiar person than the stranger. Importantly, they also explored more in the presence of stranger A (who appeared in the same order as the familiar person and followed the same procedure) than stranger B in SS. Furthermore, comparisons between treatments, where a familiar person was present in FS and stranger A was present in SS, showed no differences in exploration. In combination, these results indicate that the effect of a familiar person on dogs' exploratory behaviour, a key feature when assessing secure attachment styles, could not be tested reliably due to the order in which the familiar person and the stranger appear. It is proposed that in the future only counterbalanced versions of the SSP are used. Alternatively, since dogs reliably initiated more contact with the familiar person compared to the strangers, it is suggested that future studies on attachment in dogs towards humans should focus either on the behaviour of the dog in those episodes of the SSP when the person returns, or on reunion behaviour in other studies, specially designed to address dog-human interactions at this time.

Rehn, Therese; McGowan, Ragen T. S.; Keeling, Linda J.

2013-01-01

141

Early Ovule Development Following Self and Cross-pollinations in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to identify the self-incompatibility mechanism in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus. Controlled self- and cross-pollinations were conducted on individual flowers from three mature trees that had self-incompatibility levels of 76, 99·6 and 100 %. Flowers were harvested at 4, 6 and 8 weeks after pollination. Embryology was investigated by bright field microscopy on material harvested at 4

L. M. POUND; M. A. B. W A L LW O R K; M. S ED

2002-01-01

142

Embryogenesis and plant regeneration from isolated microspores of Brassica rapa L. ssp. Oleifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Conditions favourable to embryogenesis from isolated microspores of Brassica rapa L. ssp. oleifera (canola quality) were identified. A population with enhanced responsiveness for microspore embryogenesis (C200) was synthesized by crossing individual plants showing microspore embryogenic potential. For optimal microspore embryogenesis, buds (2–3mm in length, containing mid-late uninucieate microspores) were collected from older plants (2 months old) and microspores isolated and

Laurie Burnett; Stephen Yarrow; Bin Huang

1992-01-01

143

Mapping of a QTL for oleic acid concentration in spring turnip rape ( Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk segregant analysis was used to search for RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers linked to gene(s) affecting oleic acid concentration in an F2 population from the Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera cross Jo4002 x a high oleic acid individual from line Jo4072. Eight primers (=8 markers) out of 104 discriminated the high and low bulks consisting of extreme individuals from

P. K. Tanhuanpää; J. P. Vilkki; H. J. Vilkki

1996-01-01

144

A draft sequence of the rice ( Oryza sativa ssp. indica ) genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence of the rice genome holds fundamental information for its biology, including physiology, genetics, development,\\u000a and evolution, as well as information on many beneficial phenotypes of economic significance. Using a “whole genome shotgun”\\u000a approach, we have produced a draft rice genome sequence ofOryza sativa ssp.indica, the major crop rice subspecies in China and many other regions of Asia. The

Jun Yu; Songnian Hu; Jun Wang; Songgang Li; Ka-Shu Gane Wong; Bin Liu; Yajun Deng; Li Dai; Yan Zhou; Xiuqing Zhang; Mengliang Cao; Jing Liu; Jiandong Sun; Jiabin Tang; Yanjiong Chen; Xiaobing Huang; Wei Lin; Chen Ye; Wei Tong; Lijuan Cong; Jianing Geng; Yujun Han; Lin Li; Wei Li; Guangqiang Hu; Xiangang Huang; Wenjie Li; Jian Li; Zhanwei Liu; Long Li; Jianping Liu; Qiuhui Qi; Jinsong Liu; Li Li; Xuegang Wang; Hong Lu; Tingting Wu; Miao Zhu; Peixiang Ni; Hua Han; Wei Dong; Xiaoyu Ren; Xiaoli Feng; Peng Cui; Xianran Li; Hao Wang; Xin Xu; Wenxue Zhai; Zhao Xu; Jinsong Zhang; Sijie He; Jianguo Zhang; Jichen Xu; Kunlin Zhang; Xianwu Zheng; Jianhai Dong; Wanyong Zeng; Lin Tao; Xuewei Chen; Jun He; Daofeng Liu; Wei Tian; Chaoguang Tian; Hongai Xia; Gang Li; Hui Gao; Ping Li; Wei Chen; Xudong Wang; Yong Zhang; Jianfei Hu; Jing Wang; Song Liu; Jian Yang; Guangyu Zhang; Yuqing Xiong; Zhijie Li; Long Mao; Chengshu Zhou; Zhen Zhu; Runsheng Chen; Bailin Hao; Weimou Zheng; Shouyi Chen; Wei Guo; Guojie Li; Siqi Liu; Guyang Huang; Ming Tao; Jian Wang; Lihuang Zhu; Longping Yuan; Huanming Yang

2001-01-01

145

Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Human Bile Reveals SSP411 as a Novel Biomarker of Cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is an intractable cancer, arising from biliary epithelial cells, which has a poor prognosis and is increasing in incidence. Early diagnosis of CC is essential as surgical resection remains the only effective therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify improved biomarkers to facilitate early diagnosis and prognostication in CC. Methods A comparative expression profile of human bile samples from patients with cholangitis and CC was constructed using a classic 2D/MS/MS strategy and the expression of selected proteins was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression levels of selected candidate biomarkers in CC and matched normal tissues. Finally, spermatogenesis associated 20 (SSP411; also named SPATA20) was quantified in serum samples using an ELISA. Results We identified 97 differentially expressed protein spots, corresponding to 49 different genes, of which 38 were upregulated in bile from CC patients. Western blotting confirmed that phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (brain) (PGAM-1), protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (PDIA3), heat shock 60 kDa protein 1 (chaperonin) (HSPD1) and SSP411 were significantly upregulated in individual bile samples from CC patients. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated these proteins were also overexpressed in CC, relative to normal tissues. SSP411 displayed value as a potential serum diagnostic biomarker for CC, with a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 83.3% at a cutoff value of 0.63. Conclusions We successfully constructed a proteomic profile of CC bile proteins, providing a valuable pool novel of candidate biomarkers. SSP411 has potential as a biomarker for the diagnosis of CC.

Shen, Jian; Wang, Weizhi; Wu, Jindao; Feng, Bing; Chen, Wen; Wang, Meng; Tang, Jincao; Wang, Fuqiang; Cheng, Feng; Pu, Liyong; Tang, Qiyun; Wang, Xuehao; Li, Xiangcheng

2012-01-01

146

The essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare growing wild in Vilnius district (Lithuania)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plants of wild Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare were collected in 10 localities of Vilnius district (Lithuania) in 1995–1999. The main constituents of the essential oils from 8 localities were ?-ocimene (14.9–21.6%), germacrene D (10.0–16.2 ), ?-caryophyllene (10.8–15.7%) and sabinene (6.6–14.2%). The essential oils from two localities contained only three above compounds as major components: germacrene D, ?-ocimene and

Danute Mockute; Genovaite Bernotiene; Asta Judzentiene

2001-01-01

147

Silicon amelioration of aluminium toxicity in teosinte (Zea mays L. ssp. mexicana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of different Al concentrations, (0, 60 and 120 µM Al) on growth and internal concentrations of Al, Si and selected organic acids was analysed in plants of teosinte (Zea mays L. ssp. mexicana), a wild form of maize from acid soils from Mexico. The plants were grown in nutrient solutions (pH 4.0) with or without 4 µM silicon.

J. Barcelo; P. Guevara; Ch. Poschenrieder

1993-01-01

148

Extinction risk assessment for the species survival plan (SSP) population of the Bali mynah (Leucopsar rothschildi).  

PubMed

The Bali mynah Species Survival Plan (SSP), an Association of Zoos and Aquariums program, strives to maintain the genetic and demographic health of its population, avoid unplanned changes in size, and minimize the risk of population extinction. The SSP population meets current demographic and genetic objectives with a population size of 209 birds at 61 institutions and 96% genetic diversity (GD) retained from the source population. However, participating institutions have expressed concerns regarding space allocation, target population size (TPS), breeding restrictions, inbreeding depression, and harvest in relation to future population availability and viability. Based on these factors, we assess five questions with a quantitative risk assessment, specifically a population viability analysis (PVA) using ZooRisk software. Using an individual-based stochastic model, we project potential population changes under different conditions (e.g. changes in TPS and genetic management) to identify the most effective management actions. Our projections indicate that under current management conditions, population decline and extinction are unlikely and that although GD will decline over 100 years the projected loss does not exceed levels acceptable to population managers (less than 90% GD retained). Model simulations indicate that the combination of two genetic management strategies (i.e. priority breeding based on mean kinship and inbreeding avoidance) benefits the retention of GD and reduces the accumulation of inbreeding. The current TPS (250) is greater than necessary to minimize the risk of extinction for the SSP population but any reduction in TPS must be accompanied by continued application of genetic management. If carefully planned, birds can be harvested for transfer to Bali for a reintroduction program without jeopardizing the SSP population. PMID:19504596

Earnhardt, Joanne M; Thompson, Steven D; Faust, Lisa J

2009-05-01

149

Bacterial Blight in Carrot Seed Crops in the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

du Toit, L. J., Crowe, F. J., Derie, M. L., Simmons, R. B., and Pelter, G. Q. 2005. Bacterial blight in carrot seed crops in the Pacific Northwest. Plant Dis. 89:896-907. Carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) seed crops in Oregon and Washington were surveyed in 2001-02 and 2002-03 for development of Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae, causal agent of bacterial blight.

Lindsey J. du Toit; Fred J. Crowe; Mike L. Derie; Rhonda B. Simmons; Gary Q. Pelter

2005-01-01

150

Evaluation of different DNA-based fingerprinting methods for typing Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effectiveness of three different molecular techniques, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) for rapid typing of Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida strains isolated from different species of marine fish and geographic areas. The results obtained by the three methods showed that RAPD and ERIC-PCR were more discriminative for suitable rapid typing of Ph. damselae ssp. piscicida than REP-PCR. The analysis of DNA banding patterns generated by both molecular methods (RAPD and ERIC-PCR) clearly separated the strains into two main groups that strongly correlated with their geographic origin. Moreover, the REP-PCR analysis was less reproducible than the RAPD and ERIC-PCR methods and does not allow the establishment of genetic groups. RAPD and ERIC-PCR constitute valuable tools for molecular typing of Ph. damselae ssp. piscicida strains, which can be used in epidemiological studies of photobacteriosis infections. PMID:17657358

Mancuso, Monique; Avendaño-Herrera, Rubén; Zaccone, R; Toranzo, Alicia E; Magariños, Beatriz

2007-01-01

151

Investigation of biological activity of polar extracts isolated from Phlomis crinita Cav ssp. mauritanica Munby.  

PubMed

The lyophilized infusion, the methanol, the ethyl acetate, and the total oligomer flavonoid (TOF)-enriched extracts prepared from the dried leaves of Phlomis crinita Cav. ssp. mauritanica Munby were investigated for the contents of flavonoids, tannins, coumarines and steroids. Antibacterial activity was investigated toward five bacterial strains. An inhibitory effect was observed against Staphyllococcus aureus and Enterococcus feacalis, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 5 mg/mL of extract. The tested extracts exhibit an important free radical scavenging activity toward the 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical; with IC(50) values of 30.5, 6, 32, and 31.5 microg/mL, respectively, in the presence of lyophilized infusion, the TOF, the methanol, and the ethyl acetate extracts. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of the different extracts were studied by using the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. The lyophilized infusion and TOF extracts obtained from P. crinita ssp. mauritanica showed no genotoxicity, whereas methanol and ethyl acetate extracts are considered as marginally genotoxic. On the other hand, we showed that each extract inhibited the mutagenicity induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (10 microg/assay) and nifuroxazide (NF) (10 microg/assay). The ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest level of protection toward the genotoxicity induced by both directly and indirectly genotoxic NF and AFB1. These tests proved that the lyophilized infusion possesses an antiradical activity likewise, it showed no genotoxic effect; that is why we choose this extract to assess its antiulcerogenic activity by using an ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis model in the rat. This test demonstrates that 300 mg/kg of a P. crinita ssp. mauritanica lyophilized infusion was more effective than the reference compound, cimetidine. PMID:19514937

Limem-Ben Amor, Ilef; Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Ben Sghaïer, Mohamed; Neffati, Aicha; Bhouri, Wissem; Bouhlel, Ines; Chouchane, Nabil; Kilani, Soumaya; Guedon, Emmanuel; Ghoul, Mohamed; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

2009-01-01

152

Structure of a neutral exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LBB.B26.  

PubMed

The neutral exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LBB.B26 in skimmed milk was found to be composed of d-glucose and d-galactose in a molar ratio of 2:3. Linkage analysis and 1D/2D NMR ((1)H and (13)C) studies performed on the native polysaccharide, and on an oligosaccharide obtained from a partial acid hydrolysate of the native polysaccharide, showed the polysaccharide to consist of branched pentasaccharide repeating units with the following structure. [structure: see text] PMID:17628513

Sánchez-Medina, Inmaculada; Gerwig, Gerrit J; Urshev, Zoltan L; Kamerling, Johannis P

2007-11-26

153

A Global Water Resources Assessment under RCP, SSP, and CMIP5 Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of reports have been published on climate change impact assessment on global water resources, but earlier studies need to be updated and refined due to three reasons. First, most of earlier studies were based on an old set of IPCC scenarios consists of SRES (green house gas (GHG) emission and socio-economic scenarios) and CMIP3 (climate scenarios consistent with SRES). A new set of IPCC scenarios is being released (Moss et al., 2008) that consists of RCP (GHG emission scenario), SSP (socio-economic scenario), and CMIP5 (climate scenarios consistent with RCP). In order to take the latest achievements in climate modeling, impact assessments should be based on the new scenario. Second, most of earlier studies focused more on the change in water availability (e.g. runoff and discharge), less for change in water use (agricultural, industrial, domestic water use). Because SSP consists of five scenarios delineating substantially different world, water use scenarios should be developed with care reflecting the difference among them. Third, most of earlier studies assessed water availability and use at annual time resolution. This may overlook seasonal and inter-annual shortage of water due to variability in water availability and use. Here we present a novel assessment on global water resources using a global water resources model called H08 (Hanasaki et al., 2008a,b; 2010). H08 simulates natural water cycle and major human activities, such as water withdrawals and reservoir operation. It estimates water availability and use at daily time interval, which enables to take sub-annual water shortage into account. We first developed water use scenarios for agricultural (irrigation), industrial, and domestic water withdrawal that are consistent with five SSP scenarios. Next, we set up a matrix of scenario combination of RCP, SSP, and CMIP5 for insightful global water resources assessment. Finally we conducted H08 simulation using these scenarios and assessed water stressed region, including analysis on seasonal and inter-annual shortage of water due to variability in water availability and use. The results and implication are discussed in our presentation.

Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.

2012-12-01

154

Diversity analysis of Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan (Mimosaceae) using phenotypic traits, chromosome counting and DNA content approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan (Family Fabaceae; subfamily Mimosoideae) is a pioneer tree of dry areas. In spite of its several uses, there\\u000a are no any published studies which deal with genetic diversity of Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan in Tunisia. For this reason, here we study its genetic diversity with morphometric (only in

Héla El Ferchichi Ouarda; David J. Walker; Mohamed Larbi Khouja; Enrique Correal

2009-01-01

155

Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extract of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities, antioxidant and properties of essential oils and methanol extracts of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare plants. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled essential oil of O. vulgare ssp. vulgare was analyzed by a GC\\/MS system. A total 62 constituents were identified. Caryophyllene and spathulenol were found to be the main constituents,

F ?ahin; M Güllüce; D Daferera; A Sökmen; M Sökmen; M Polissiou; G Agar; H Özer

2004-01-01

156

The effect of Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides LC of bovine origin on in vitro fertilizing ability of bull spermatozoa and embryo development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several Mycoplasma species may adversely affect bovine spermatozoa viability and embryo development. Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides large-colony (LC) has been isolated from naturally aborted bovine fetuses and from bull semen. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether M. mycoides ssp. mycoides LC contaminated bovine ejaculates could (i) impair in vitro fertilizing ability of bull spermatozoa, (ii) impair embryo

L. Sylla; G. Stradaioli; E. Manuali; A. Rota; R. Zelli; L. Vincenti; M. Monaci

2005-01-01

157

DeSSpOt: an instrument for stellar spin orientation determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed and constructed a special instrument to enable the determination of the stellar's spin orientation. The Differential image rotator for Stellar Spin Orientation, DeSSpOt, allows the simultaneous observations of two anti-parallel orientations of the star on the spectrum. On a high resolution ´echelle spectrum, the stellar rotation causes a slight line tilt visible in the spatial direction which is comparable to a rotation curve. We developed a new method, which exploits the variations in these tilts, to estimate the absolute position angle of the rotation axis. The line tilt is retrieved by a spectroastrometric extraction of the spectrum. In order to validate the method, we observed spectroscopic binaries with known orbital parameters. The determination of the orbital position angle is equivalent to the determination of the stellar position angle, but is easier to to detect. DeSSpOt was successfully implemented on the high resolution Cou&dacute;e spectrograph of the Th¨uringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg. The observations of Capella led to the determination of the orbital position angle. Our value of 37.2° is in agreement with the values previously found in the literature. As such we verified that both method and instrument are valid.

Lesage, Anna-Lea; Schneide, Magnus; Wiedemann, Günter

2012-09-01

158

Caryophyllene oxide-rich essential oils of Lithuanian Artemisia campestris ssp. campestris and their toxicity.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oils of aerial parts of Artemisia campestris ssp. campestris, collected from ten different locations in Lithuania is detailed in this paper. The major component in all the oils was caryophyllene oxide (8.5-38.8%), whereas compounds with the caryophyllane skeleton ranged from 10.2 to 44.5%. Other representative constituents were germacrene D (< or = 15.0%), humulene epoxide II (< or = 8.1%), beta-ylangene (< or = 7.7%), spathulenol (< or = 6.8%), beta-elemene (< or = 6.8%), beta-caryophyllene (< or = 6.2%), junenol (< or = 6.1%) and alpha- or beta-pinene (< or = 5.5%). Eighty-seven compounds were identified, comprising 73.6-92.3% of the oils. The chemical composition was highly variable depending on the sample location. Toxicity of A. campestris oils was determined using the brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) assay. LC50 values ranging to 20 microg/mL were obtained for three of the oils after 24 hours of exposure. Data of this test revealed that A. campestris ssp. campestris essential oils with dominant caryophyllene oxide are notably toxic. PMID:21299136

Judzentiene, Asta; Budiene, Jurga; Butkiene, Rita; Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle; Masotti, Véronique

2010-12-01

159

The Huygens surface science package (SSP): Flight performance review and lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Surface Science Package (SSP) was one of six instruments flown onboard the Huygens probe to Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, in the framework of the NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission (Matson et al., 2002). The SSP operated throughout the probe's descent and after landing on Titan on 14th January 2005. This paper reviews scientific results from the Surface Science Package, and also reports previously unpublished flight data which illustrate the performance of the measurement systems in the Titan environment. This review provides some lessons learned that may be useful for further detailed analysis of the Huygens mission data, and for payloads for future missions to Titan, in which there has been recent interest (e.g., the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) (Joint TSSM Science Definition Team, 2009), TANDEM (Coustenis et al., 2009) or the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) Discovery-class proposal (Stofan et al., 2010)), as well as for planetary probe missions more generally.

Leese, M. R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Hathi, B.; Zarnecki, J. C.

2012-09-01

160

The Salmonella Type III Effector SspH2 Specifically Exploits the NLR Co-chaperone Activity of SGT1 to Subvert Immunity  

PubMed Central

To further its pathogenesis, S. Typhimurium delivers effector proteins into host cells, including the novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL) effector SspH2. Using model systems in a cross-kingdom approach we gained further insight into the molecular function of this effector. Here, we show that SspH2 modulates innate immunity in both mammalian and plant cells. In mammalian cell culture, SspH2 significantly enhanced Nod1-mediated IL-8 secretion when transiently expressed or bacterially delivered. In addition, SspH2 also enhanced an Rx-dependent hypersensitive response in planta. In both of these nucleotide-binding leucine rich repeat receptor (NLR) model systems, SspH2-mediated phenotypes required its catalytic E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and interaction with the conserved host protein SGT1. SGT1 has an essential cell cycle function and an additional function as an NLR co-chaperone in animal and plant cells. Interaction between SspH2 and SGT1 was restricted to SGT1 proteins that have NLR co-chaperone function and accordingly, SspH2 did not affect SGT1 cell cycle functions. Mechanistic studies revealed that SspH2 interacted with, and ubiquitinated Nod1 and could induce Nod1 activity in an agonist-independent manner if catalytically active. Interestingly, SspH2 in vitro ubiquitination activity and protein stability were enhanced by SGT1. Overall, this work adds to our understanding of the sophisticated mechanisms used by bacterial effectors to co-opt host pathways by demonstrating that SspH2 can subvert immune responses by selectively exploiting the functions of a conserved host co-chaperone.

Bhavsar, Amit P.; Brown, Nat F.; Stoepel, Jan; Wiermer, Marcel; Martin, Dale D. O.; Hsu, Karolynn J.; Imami, Koshi; Ross, Colin J.; Hayden, Michael R.; Foster, Leonard J.; Li, Xin; Hieter, Phil; Finlay, B. Brett

2013-01-01

161

Population genetics of duplicated disease-defense genes, hm1 and hm2, in maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) and its wild ancestor (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis).  

PubMed Central

Plant defense genes are subject to nonneutral evolutionary dynamics. Here we investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the duplicated defense genes hm1 and hm2 in maize and its wild ancestor Zea mays ssp. parviglumis. Both genes have been shown to confer resistance to the fungal pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum race 1, but the effectiveness of resistance differs between loci. The genes also display different population histories. The hm1 locus has the highest nucleotide diversity of any gene yet sampled in the wild ancestor of maize, and it contains a large number of indel polymorphisms. There is no evidence, however, that high diversity in hm1 is a product of nonneutral evolution. In contrast, hm2 has very low nucleotide diversity in the wild ancestor of maize. The distribution of hm2 polymorphic sites is consistent with nonneutral evolution, as indicated by Tajima's D and other neutrality tests. In addition, one hm2 haplotype is more frequent than expected under the equilibrium neutral model, suggesting hitchhiking selection. Both defense genes retain >80% of the level of genetic variation in maize relative to the wild ancestor, and this level is similar to other maize genes that were not subject to artificial selection during domestication.

Zhang, Liqing; Peek, Andrew S; Dunams, Detiger; Gaut, Brandon S

2002-01-01

162

Genes for scald resistance from wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp spontaneum) and their linkage to isozyme markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessions of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, the wild progenitor of barley, collected in Israel (70), Iran (15) and Turkey (6) were screened for seedling response to four isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis, the pathogen causing leaf scald in barley. Resistance was very common in the collection (77%) particularly among accessions from the more mesic sites (90%). The genetics of this resistance

D. C. Abbott; A. H. D. Brown; J. J. Burdon

1991-01-01

163

Identification of QTL controlling adventitious root formation during flooding conditions in teosinte ( Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis ) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adventitious root formation (ARF) at the soil surface is one of the most important adaptations to soil flooding or waterlogging. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling ARF under flooding condition were identified in a 94 F2 individual population by crossing maize (Zea mays L., B64) × teosinte (Z. mays ssp. huehuetenangensis). A base-map was constructed using 66 SSR and 42 AFLP

Yoshiro Mano; Masanori Muraki; Masahiro Fujimori; Tadashi Takamizo; Bryan Kindiger

2005-01-01

164

Rheological Properties of Nonfat Yogurt Stabilized Using Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus Producing Exopolysaccharide or Using Commercial Stabilizer Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of yogurts made using three strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus that produce exopolysaccharide or made with a nonproducing strain, with and without addition of commercial stabilizer blends, were compared. A simple test, deve- loped to measure the extensibility of yogurts, was able to discriminate yogurt made with exopolysaccharide-producing strains from yogurt made with the nonproducing strain and to

S. J. Hess; R. F. Roberts; G. R. Ziegler

1997-01-01

165

Composition of the Essential Oils and Extracts of Two Populations of Cannabis sativa L. ssp. spontanea from Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and the solvent extract of two populations of Cannabis sativa L. ssp. spontanea growing wild in Austria were analyzed comparatively. In the essential oil, myrcene (31% and 27%, respectively), (E)-?-ocimene (13% and 3%, respectively) and ?-caryophyllene (11% and 16%, respectively) were found, while in the solvent extract the non-hallucinogeneous cannabidiol (77% and 59%, respectively) dominated. The hallucinogeneous

Johannes Novak; Chlodwig Franz

2003-01-01

166

Polymorphisms in the gene encoding bovine interleukin-10 receptor alpha are associated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection status  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Johne's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Since this pathogen has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human IBDs, the goal of this study was to assess whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in several well-known candidate genes for human IBD are associated with susceptibility to MAP infection in

Chris P Verschoor; Sameer D Pant; Qiumei You; Flavio S Schenkel; David F Kelton; Niel A Karrow

2010-01-01

167

Endothelium-dependent induction of vasorelaxation by Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis in rat isolated thoracic aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, vasorelaxant effect produced by the aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis (MOO) (Lamiaceae) and its possible mechanism in isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine were examined. In the first series of experiments, effect of MOO on the baseline and phenylephrine (10?5M) precontracted arteries was investigated, while in the second group of experiments, endothelium

S. Ersoy; I. Orhan; N. N. Turan; G. ?ahan; M. Ark; F. Tosun

2008-01-01

168

Trypanosoma cruzi SSP4 Amastigote Protein Induces Expression of Immunoregulatory and Immunosuppressive Molecules in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells  

PubMed Central

The acute phase of Chagas' disease in mice and human is marked by states of immunosuppression, in which Trypanosoma cruzi replicates extensively and releases immunomodulatory molecules that delay parasite-specific responses mediated by effector T cells. This mechanism of evasion allows the parasite to spread in the host. Parasite molecules that regulate the host immune response during Chagas' disease have not been fully identified, particularly proteins of the amastigote stage. In this work, we evaluated the role of the GPI anchored SSP4 protein of T. cruzi as an immunomodulatory molecule in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). rMBP::SSP4 protein was able to stimulate nitric oxide (NO) production. Likewise, rMBP::SSP4 induced the expression of genes and production of molecules involved in the inflammatory process, such as, cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules (CAMs) as determined by RT-PCR and ELISA. These results suggest that the amastigote SSP4 molecule could play a key role in the immunoregulatory and/or immunosuppressive process observed in the acute phase of infection with T. cruzi.

Moran-Utrera, Yadira; Lopez-Monteon, Aracely; Rosales-Encina, Jose Luis; Mendez-Bolaina, Enrique; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel

2012-01-01

169

Construction and characterization of a half million clone BAC library of durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum ssp. durum )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, 2 n = 4 x = 28, genomes AB) is an economically important cereal used as the raw material to make pasta and semolina. In this paper we present the construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of tetraploid durum wheat cv. Langdon. This variety was selected because of the

A. Cenci; N. Chantret; X. Kong; Y. Gu; O. D. Anderson; T. Fahima; A. Distelfeld; J. Dubcovsky

2003-01-01

170

Habitat utilization by the heath fritillary butterfly, Mellicta athalia ssp. celadussa (Rott.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in montane grasslands of different management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat suitability for larval and\\/or adult Mellicta athalia ssp. celadussa (Rott.) was examined in a variety of grassland types: traditionally cultivated hay meadows, different successional stages of abandoned grasslands and differently managed abandoned grasslands. Larval food-plants and caterpillars occurred almost exclusively in traditionally cultivated hay meadows and in recently abandoned grasslands. Adult M. athalia were abundant in all types of

B. Schwarzwälder; M. Lörtscher; A. Erhardt; J. Zettel

1997-01-01

171

Embryogenesis and plant regeneration of pakchoi ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) via in vitro isolated microspore culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated microspores of various populations of three varieties of the Chinese cabbage pakchoi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were cultivated in vitro on NLN82 medium (Lichter 1982) and embryos and plantlets obtained with nine cultivars. The best embryo yield per bud was 57.4. A 33°C one day heat treatment was generally necessary to induce embryogenesis. Analysis of ploidy level through flow

Ming Qing Cao; Yan Li; Fan Liu; Claire Doré

1994-01-01

172

Restoring dry Afromontane forest using bird and nurse plant effects: Direct sowing of Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the perspectives of seed sowing for reforestation of degraded dry Afromontane savanna in exclosures in northern Ethiopia, seeds of a fleshy-fruited, secondary climax tree, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata, were placed under two pioneer shrub species (Euclea racemosa and Acacia etbaica) and in open microhabitats. Seed removal and germination rates were examined. The effects of bird ingestion, manual pulp

Raf Aerts; Wouter Maes; Eva November; Martin Hermy; Bart Muys

2006-01-01

173

Evaluation of aldose reductase inhibition and docking studies of some secondary metabolites, isolated from Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five polar constituents of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum were investigated for their ability to inhibit aldose reductase (ALR2), the first enzyme of the polyol pathway implicated in the secondary complications of diabetes. The most active compound was found to be lithospermic acid B. Caffeic acid was inactive as it showed no inhibitory activity against the enzyme. The order of

Catherine Koukoulitsa; Chariklia Zika; George D. Geromichalos; Vassilis J. Demopoulos; Helen Skaltsa

2006-01-01

174

Essential Oil Composition of Greek (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) and Turkish (O. onites) Oregano: a Tool for Their Distinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming to find out if any distinction between the Greek (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) and Turkish oregano (O. onites) essential oils exists, the composition of six wild Greek populations of the former and four of the latter taxon were analyzed by means of GC and GC\\/MS. A PCA analysis showed that Turkish oregano oils had higher amounts of sabinene, myrcene,

Stella Kokkini; Regina Karousou; Effie Hanlidou; Tom Lanaras

2004-01-01

175

Electroantennogram responses of the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis , to oilseed rape, Brassica napus ssp. Oleifera , volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from male and female cabbage seed weevils (Ceutorhynchus assimilis Payk.) in response to volatiles isolated and identified from the odor of oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp.oleifera DC. cv. Ariana). Relatively large EAGs were obtained on stimulation with volatiles produced by the oilseed rape crop at the time when seed weevils were actively searching for host plants.

K. A. Evans; L. J. Allen-Williams

1992-01-01

176

Identification of a small molecule that modifies MglA/SspA interaction and impairs intramacrophage survival of Francisella tularensis.  

PubMed

The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen's virulence and survival within host cells. In this study, we used a small molecule screening to identify quinacrine as a thermal stabilizing compound for F. tularensis SCHU S4 MglA and SspA. A bacterial two-hybrid system was used to analyze the in vivo effect of quinacrine on the heterodimer complex. The results show that quinacrine affects the interaction between MglA and SspA, indicated by decreased ?-galactosidase activity. Further in vitro analyses, using size exclusion chromatography, indicated that quinacrine does not disrupt the heterodimer formation, however, changes in the alpha helix content were confirmed by circular dichroism. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that quinacrine makes contact with amino acid residues Y63 in MglA, and K97 in SspA, both located in the "cleft" of the interacting surfaces. In F. tularensis subsp. novicida, quinacrine decreased the transcription of the FPI genes, iglA, iglD, pdpD and pdpA. As a consequence, the intramacrophage survival capabilities of the bacteria were affected. These results support use of the MglA/SspA interacting surface, and quinacrine's chemical scaffold, for the design of high affinity molecules that will function as therapeutics for the treatment of Tularemia. PMID:23372736

Wrench, Algevis P; Gardner, Christopher L; Gonzalez, Claudio F; Lorca, Graciela L

2013-01-01

177

Identification of a Small Molecule That Modifies MglA/SspA Interaction and Impairs Intramacrophage Survival of Francisella tularensis  

PubMed Central

The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen’s virulence and survival within host cells. In this study, we used a small molecule screening to identify quinacrine as a thermal stabilizing compound for F. tularensis SCHU S4 MglA and SspA. A bacterial two-hybrid system was used to analyze the in vivo effect of quinacrine on the heterodimer complex. The results show that quinacrine affects the interaction between MglA and SspA, indicated by decreased ?-galactosidase activity. Further in vitro analyses, using size exclusion chromatography, indicated that quinacrine does not disrupt the heterodimer formation, however, changes in the alpha helix content were confirmed by circular dichroism. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that quinacrine makes contact with amino acid residues Y63 in MglA, and K97 in SspA, both located in the “cleft” of the interacting surfaces. In F. tularensis subsp. novicida, quinacrine decreased the transcription of the FPI genes, iglA, iglD, pdpD and pdpA. As a consequence, the intramacrophage survival capabilities of the bacteria were affected. These results support use of the MglA/SspA interacting surface, and quinacrine’s chemical scaffold, for the design of high affinity molecules that will function as therapeutics for the treatment of Tularemia.

Wrench, Algevis P.; Gardner, Christopher L.; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Lorca, Graciela L.

2013-01-01

178

meta-Tyrosine in Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue) is synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine.  

PubMed

m-Tyrosine is a non-protein amino acid that is structurally similar to the common protein amino acids p-tyrosine and phenylalanine. Copious amounts of m-tyrosine can be found in root exudates of the fine fescue cultivar, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue). The phytotoxicity of m-tyrosine may contribute to the allelopathic potential of F. rubra. m-Tyrosine in Euphorbia myrsinites (donkey-tail spurge), was previously shown to be synthesized via transamination of m-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Here we show that m-tyrosine biosynthesis in F. rubra occurs through direct hydroxylation of phenylalanine in the root tips, perhaps through the activity of a cytochrome P450 enzyme. Hence, E. myrsinites and F. rubra, the only two plant species known to produce m-tyrosine, use distinct biosynthetic pathways that likely arose independently in evolutionary history. PMID:22192329

Huang, Tengfang; Rehak, Ludmila; Jander, Georg

2012-03-01

179

Structural determination of a neutral exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LBB.B332.  

PubMed

The neutral exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LBB.B332 in skimmed milk was found to be composed of d-glucose, d-galactose, and l-rhamnose in a molar ratio of 1:2:2. Linkage analysis and 1D/2D NMR (1H and 13C) studies carried out on the native polysaccharide as well as on an oligosaccharide generated by a periodate oxidation protocol, showed the polysaccharide to consist of linear pentasaccharide repeating units with the following structure: -->3-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Galp-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->2)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Galp-(1-->. PMID:17936738

Sánchez-Medina, Inmaculada; Gerwig, Gerrit J; Urshev, Zoltan L; Kamerling, Johannis P

2007-12-28

180

Morphological and functional characterization of BcMF13 in the antisense-silenced plants of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene Brassica campestris male fertility 13 (BcMF13, GenBank accession number EF158459) was isolated as a reproductive organ-specific gene from Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis). It is exclusively expressed in stage four and five flower buds of fertile lines and is most strongly expressed in stamens.\\u000a Here, we report a functional characterization

Yanyan Li; Jiashu Cao

2009-01-01

181

Supercritical CO2 extract from needles of Pinus nigra ssp. laricio: combined analysis by GC, GC-MS and 13C NMR.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the volatile concentrate prepared by supercritical CO(2) extraction of the needles of Pinus nigra Arnold ssp. laricio Poiret from Corsica was investigated using GC (RI), GC-MS and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The major component was by far manoyl oxide (63%), a compound of potential interest for the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. Consequently, the supercritical fluid extract of P. nigra ssp. laricio (yield 1.60%) could be considered as a source of this diterpene. PMID:17654290

Duquesnoy, Emilie; Marongiu, Bruno; Castola, Vincent; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Casanova, Joseph

2007-07-20

182

SSP-002392, a new 5-HT4 receptor agonist, dose-dependently reverses scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in C57Bl/6 mice.  

PubMed

5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) are suggested to affect learning and memory processes. Earlier studies have shown that animals treated with 5-HT4R agonists, often with limited selectivity, show improved learning and memory with retention memory often being assessed immediately after or within 24 h after the last training session. In this study, we characterized the effect of pre-training treatment with the selective 5-HT4R agonist SSP-002392 on memory acquisition and the associated long-term memory retrieval in animal models of impaired cognition. Pre-training treatment with SSP-002392 (0.3 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg and 7.5 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the cognitive deficits induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) in two different behavioral tasks: passive avoidance and Morris water maze. In the Morris water maze, spatial learning was significantly improved after treatment with SSP-002392 translating in an accelerated and more efficient localization of the hidden platform compared to scopolamine-treated controls. Moreover, retention memory was assessed 24 h (passive avoidance) and 72 h (Morris water maze) after the last training session of cognitive-impaired animals and this was significantly improved in animals treated with SSP-002392 prior to the training sessions. Furthermore, the effects of SSP-002392 were comparable to galanthamine hydrobromide. We conclude that SSP-002392 has potential as a memory-enhancing compound. PMID:24863046

Lo, Adrian C; De Maeyer, Joris H; Vermaercke, Ben; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Schuurkes, Jan A J; D'Hooge, Rudi

2014-10-01

183

Functional analysis of a novel male fertility CYP86MF gene in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis makino)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our earlier work, a cytochrome P450 CYP86MF gene was isolated from floral bud of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa L.) by mRNA differential display PCR (DD-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). To unravel the biological function of CYP86MF gene, the antisense fragment from the CYP86MF gene was transferred into Chinese cabbage

J. S. Cao; X. L. Yu; W. Z. Ye; G. Lu; X. Xiang

2006-01-01

184

Introgression of resistance to root-knot nematodes from wild Central American Solanum species into S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crossing experiments were conducted to introduce resistance to the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. fallax, from various polyploid Central American Solanum spp. into the cultivated potato, S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum. The most effort was put into producing tetraploid hybrids through inter-EBN (Endosperm Balance Number) crosses. From the\\u000a crosses of tetraploid S. tuberosum (4 EBN) with tetraploid S. stoloniferum and

G. J. W. Janssen; A. van Norel; B. Verkerk-Bakker; R. Janssen; J. Hoogendoorn

1997-01-01

185

SspA Is Required for Lethal Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infections in Calves but Is Not Essential for Diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) encodes virulence determinants, which are important for entero- pathogenicity in calves. To determine whether the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SPI-1 effector proteins SspA and SptP are important for enteropathogenicity, strains lacking these proteins were tested during oral infection of calves. Calves infected with a sptP mutant or its isogenic parent developed diarrhea and lethal morbidity.

RENEE M. TSOLIS; L. GARRY ADAMS; MICHAEL J. HANTMAN; CHRISTINA A. SCHERER; TYLER KIMBROUGH; ROBERT A. KINGSLEY; THOMAS A. FICHT; SAMUEL I. MILLER; ANDREAS J. BAUMLER

2000-01-01

186

Morphological variability and resource allocation in the annual teosinte ( Zea mays ssp. mexicana (Schrader) Iltis) of the Toluca Valley, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the morphological variability and resource allocation of weedy, annual teosinte (Zea mays ssp. mexicana (Schrader) Iltis, Chalco race) from the Valley of Toluca, central Mexico, and compares it with data reported for maize. One\\u000a hundred mature and fertile teosinte plants were selected for variation in size and measured. The extremes found for fertile\\u000a plants were 0.12 and

Francisco Perdomo-Roldán; Manuel A. Galindo-Reyes; Heike Vibrans

2009-01-01

187

Composition of the Essential Oil from Wild Marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.ssp. vulgare) Cultivated in Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differences between the composition of essential oils isolated from seven wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) samples, gathered from different regions and cultivated in Estonia were investigated. Steam distillation was used for oil isolation and capillary GC\\/FID and GC\\/MS for oil analyses. Forty-eight compounds were identified, representing over 95% of the total oils. Different compositions of essential oils

K. Ivask; A. Orav; T. Kailas; A. Raal; E. Arak; U. Paaver

2005-01-01

188

Overcoming the production limitations of Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata strain K122 bioinsecticides in low-cost medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

For low-cost production of Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata strain K122 bioinsecticide, a cheap complex medium was optimized. Diluted seawater was used as the source of micronutrients,\\u000a especially sodium chloride, involved in the improvement of cell density, culturability and oral toxicity of the bacterium\\u000a P. temperata against Ephestia kuehniella larvae. Thus, the new formulated medium was composed only of 10 g\\/l of

Wafa Jallouli; Samir Jaoua; Nabil Zouari

189

Identification of triplex (YYY y ) Potato Virus Y (PVY) immune progenitors derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the International Potato Center’s (CIP) virus resistance breeding strategy, a group of 182 selected clones from\\u000a intercrosses among duplex Potato Virus Y (PVY) immune progenitors derived fromSolanum tuberosum ssp.andigena (i.e., YYyy × YYyy) was sampled. These clones were test-crossed to the PVY susceptible tester 377964.5 (yyyy) to search for triplex\\u000a (YYYy) and quadruplex (YYYY) PVY immune potato

H. A. Mendoza; E. J. Mihovilovich; F. Saguma

1996-01-01

190

Engineering and Safety Partnership Enhances Safety of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project Management must use the risk assessment documents (RADs) as tools to support their decision making process. Therefore, these documents have to be initiated, developed, and evolved parallel to the life of the project. Technical preparation and safety compliance of these documents require a great deal of resources. Updating these documents after-the-fact not only requires substantial increase in resources - Project Cost -, but this task is also not useful and perhaps an unnecessary expense. Hazard Reports (HRs), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEAs), Critical Item Lists (CILs), Risk Management process are, among others, within this category. A positive action resulting from a strong partnership between interested parties is one way to get these documents and related processes and requirements, released and updated in useful time. The Space Shuttle Program (SSP) at the Marshall Space Flight Center has implemented a process which is having positive results and gaining acceptance within the Agency. A hybrid Panel, with equal interest and responsibilities for the two larger organizations, Safety and Engineering, is the focal point of this process. Called the Marshall Safety and Engineering Review Panel (MSERP), its charter (Space Shuttle Program Directive 110 F, April 15, 2005), and its Operating Control Plan emphasizes the technical and safety responsibilities over the program risk documents: HRs; FMEA/CILs; Engineering Changes; anomalies/problem resolutions and corrective action implementations, and trend analysis. The MSERP has undertaken its responsibilities with objectivity, assertiveness, dedication, has operated with focus, and has shown significant results and promising perspectives. The MSERP has been deeply involved in propulsion systems and integration, real time technical issues and other relevant reviews, since its conception. These activities have transformed the propulsion MSERP in a truly participative and value added panel, making a difference for the safety of the Space Shuttle Vehicle, its crew, and personnel. Because of the MSERP's valuable contribution to the assessment of safety risk for the SSP, this paper also proposes an enhanced Panel concept that takes this successful partnership concept to a higher level of 'true partnership'. The proposed panel is aimed to be responsible for the review and assessment of all risk relative to Safety for new and future aerospace and related programs.

Duarte, Alberto

2007-01-01

191

Structure of the DNA-SspC Complex: Implications for DNA Packaging, Protection, and Repair in Bacterial Spores  

PubMed Central

Bacterial spores have long been recognized as the sturdiest known life forms on earth, revealing extraordinary resistance to a broad range of environmental assaults. A family of highly conserved spore-specific DNA-binding proteins, termed ?/?-type small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP), plays a major role in mediating spore resistance. The mechanism by which these proteins exert their protective activity remains poorly understood, in part due to the lack of structural data on the DNA-SASP complex. By using cryoelectron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the helical complex formed between DNA and SspC, a characteristic member of the ?/?-type SASP family. The protein is found to fully coat the DNA, forming distinct protruding domains, and to modify DNA structure such that it adopts a 3.2-nm pitch. The protruding SspC motifs allow for interdigitation of adjacent DNA-SspC filaments into a tightly packed assembly of nucleoprotein helices. By effectively sequestering DNA molecules, this dense assembly of filaments is proposed to enhance and complement DNA protection obtained by DNA saturation with the ?/?-type SASP.

Frenkiel-Krispin, Daphna; Sack, Rinat; Englander, Joseph; Shimoni, Eyal; Eisenstein, Miriam; Bullitt, Esther; Horowitz-Scherer, Rachel; Hayes, Christopher S.; Setlow, Peter; Minsky, Abraham; Wolf, Sharon Grayer

2004-01-01

192

Host-driven divergence in the parasitic plant Orobanche minor Sm. (Orobanchaceae).  

PubMed

Many parasitic angiosperms have a broad host range and are therefore considered to be host generalists. Orobanche minor is a nonphotosynthetic root parasite that attacks a range of hosts from taxonomically disparate families. In the present study, we show that O. minor sensu lato may comprise distinct, genetically divergent races isolated by the different ecologies of their hosts. Using a three-pronged approach, we tested the hypothesis that intraspecific taxa O. minor var. minor and O. minor ssp. maritima parasitizing either clover (Trifolium pratense) or sea carrot (Daucus carota ssp.gummifer), respectively, are in allopatric isolation. Morphometric analysis revealed evidence of divergence but this was insufficient to define discrete, host-specific taxa. Intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker-based data provided stronger evidence of divergence, suggesting that populations were isolated from gene flow. Phylogenetic analysis, using sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers derived from ISSR loci, provided strong evidence for divergence by clearly differentiating sea carrot-specific clades and mixed-host clades. Low levels of intrapopulation SCAR marker sequence variation and floral morphology suggest that populations on different hosts are probably selfing and inbreeding. Morphologically cryptic Orobanche taxa may therefore be isolated from gene flow by host ecology. Together, these data suggest that host specificity may be an important driver of allopatric speciation in parasitic plants. PMID:19378406

Thorogood, C J; Rumsey, F J; Harris, S A; Hiscock, S J

2008-10-01

193

Uptake and translocation of metformin, ciprofloxacin and narasin in forage- and crop plants.  

PubMed

Transfer of bioactive organic compounds from soil to plants might represent animal and human health risks. Sewage sludge and manure are potential sources for bioactive compounds such as human- and veterinary drugs. In the present study, uptake of the anti-diabetic compound, metformin, the antibiotic agent ciprofloxacin and the anti-coccidial narasin in carrot (Daucuscarota ssp. sativus cvs. Napoli) and barley (Hordeumvulgare) were investigated. The pharmaceuticals were selected in order to cover various chemical properties, in addition to their presence in relevant environmental matrixes. The root concentration factors (RCF) found in the present study were higher than the corresponding leaf concentration factors (LCF) for the three test pharmaceuticals. The uptake of metformin was higher compared with ciprofloxacin and narasin for all plant compartments analyzed. Metformin was studied more explicitly with regard to uptake and translocation in meadow fescue (Festucapratense), three other carrot cultivars (D.carota ssp. sativus cvs. Amager, Rothild and Nutri Red), wheat cereal (Triticumaestivum) and turnip rape seed (Brassicacampestris). Uptake of metformin in meadow fescue was comparable with uptake in the four carrot cultivars (RCF 2-10, LCF approximately 1.5), uptake in wheat cereals were comparable with barley cereals (seed concentration factors, SCF, 0.02-0.04) while the accumulation in turnip rape seeds was as high as 1.5. All three pharmaceuticals produced negative effects on growth and development of carrots when grown in soil concentration of 6-10 mg kg(-1) dry weight. PMID:21757221

Eggen, Trine; Asp, Tone Normann; Grave, Kari; Hormazabal, Victor

2011-09-01

194

Adaptation of the Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 gene deletion system for modification of chromosomal loci.  

PubMed

The model archaeon Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 is an excellent system for the study of archaeal molecular biology. Unlike many other archaea, its only special growth requirement is high levels of sodium chloride and other salts; it requires neither high-temperature incubation nor anaerobic environments. Additionally, there are a number of well-developed post-genomic tools available, including whole-genome microarrays and a ura3-based gene deletion system. While some tools are available for protein expression, a system for measurement and purification of protein expressed from native promoters is lacking. We have adapted the established H. salinarum gene deletion system for this purpose, and have used this to place 8×-histidine tags on either the carboxyl or amino terminus of the protein encoded by the chromosomal rfa3 gene. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we used Western blot analysis to determine levels of the Rfa3 protein under different conditions. This system provides another powerful molecular tool for studies of native protein expression and for simple protein purification in H. salinarum. PMID:24491836

Gygli, Patrick E; DeVeaux, Linda C

2014-04-01

195

Ultralow volume application of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis for the control of mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Evaluation of the effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis (B.t.i.) against mosquito larvae dispersed by ultralow volume (ULV) spraying was conducted in simulated field trials. Effectiveness was measured using 3 different indicators: larval mortality, colony-forming unit enumeration, and droplet analysis. B.t.i. was dispersed with a ULV generator using 2 different flow rates: 0.3 and 0.5 liter/min on 2 different days. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that an output of 0.3 liter/min is effective for controlling Aedes aegypti. although a dosage of 0.5 liter/min can be used when high residual activity is desired. For Culex quinquefasciatus control, both dosages were effective but with low residual activity. For Anopheles maculatus control, only a discharge rate of 0.5 liter/min was effective with low residual activity. B.t.i. application at both dosages penetrated tires well, indicating that B.t.i. ULV application is an effective method for controlling container-inhabiting mosquitoes. Good coverage of target area and penetration were attributed to satisfactory droplet profiles. PMID:9046471

Lee, H L; Gregorio, E R; Khadri, M S; Seleena, P

1996-12-01

196

Identification and preliminary analysis of a new PCP promoter from Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.  

PubMed

The promoter of Brassica campestris Male Fertile 5 (BcMF5), a pollen coat protein member, class A (PCP-A) gene family, was isolated from Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis Makino (Chinese cabbage-pak-choi) by Thermal Asymmetric Interlaced Polymerase Chain Reaction (TAIL-PCR). Sequence analysis suggested that the 605-bp promoter of BcMF5 appears to be a pollen promoter. In an attempt to confirm the promoter activity of BcMF5 promoter, -609 to +3 bp and -377 to +3 bp fragments of the upstream sequence of BcMF5 were inserted at the site upstream of the coding region of the uidA gene in the sense orientation to construct two deletion expression vectors. Transient expression analysis in onion epidermal cells by particle bombardment showed that both -609 to +3 bp and -377 to +3 bp fragments of BcMF5 promoter were capable of driving beta-glucuronidase gene expression. Furthermore, by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method, Arabidopsis transgenic Kan(R) plants were obtained. GUS assay analysis revealed that the promoter of BcMF5 induced gene expression at the early stage of anther development and drove high levels of GUS expression in anther walls, upper regions of petals, pollen, and pollen tubes in the middle and late stage of anther development, but did not drive any expression in sepals and pistils. PMID:17851779

Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Huizhi; Cao, Jiashu

2008-12-01

197

Improved metabolic control and hepatic oxidative biomarkers with the periconception use of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum.  

PubMed

Our aim was to investigate the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant effects of the Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum (HPsP) plant extract in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes rat model during pregnancy. Five groups (n = 8, each) were formed: (1) diabetic non-mated control, (2) non-diabetic mated control, (3) diabetic mated control, (4) diabetic non-mated treatment and (5) diabetic mated treatment. The HPsP extract was administered orally for 15 days (250 mg/kg body weight), beginning 3 days before mating. The extract led to decreased blood glucose, increased serum insulin, and decreased serum triglycerides in pregnant and non-pregnant diabetic animals. Liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) measurements in extract-treated diabetics were similar to non-diabetic pregnant controls, indicating probable reversal of increased lipid peroxidation in the liver. The mean pup number tended to increase (p = 0.06) with extract administration. In conclusion, the beneficial effects we encountered with the periconception use of the studied herbal extract warrant further investigation. PMID:20143969

Sezik, M; Aslan, M; Orhan, D D; Erdemoglu, E; Pekcan, M; Mungan, T; Sezik, E

2010-02-01

198

Esterase SeE of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is a novel nonspecific carboxylic ester hydrolase.  

PubMed

Extracellular carboxylic ester hydrolases are produced by many bacterial pathogens and have been shown recently to be important for virulence of some pathogens. However, these hydrolases are poorly characterized in enzymatic activity. This study prepared and characterized the secreted ester hydrolase of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (designated SeE for S. equi esterase). SeE hydrolyzes ethyl acetate, acetylsalicylic acid, and tributyrin but not ethyl butyrate. This substrate specificity pattern does not match those of the three conventional types of nonspecific carboxylic ester hydrolases (carboxylesterases, arylesterases, and acetylesterases). To determine whether SeE has lipase activity, a number of triglycerides and vinyl esters were tested in SeE-catalyzed hydrolysis. SeE does not hydrolyze triglycerides and vinyl esters of long-chain carboxylic acids nor display interfacial activation, indicating that SeE is not a lipase. Like the conventional carboxylesterases, SeE is inhibited by di-isopropylfluorophosphate. These findings indicate that SeE is a novel carboxylesterase with optimal activity for acetyl esters. PMID:19054107

Xie, Gang; Liu, Mengyao; Zhu, Hui; Lei, Benfang

2008-12-01

199

Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats  

PubMed Central

Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum) were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8??L per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24?h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration.

Farkas, Agnes; Molnar, Reka; Morschhauser, Tamas; Hahn, Istvan

2012-01-01

200

Variation in nectar volume and sugar concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in three habitats.  

PubMed

Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum) were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8??L per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24?h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration. PMID:22619588

Farkas, Agnes; Molnár, Réka; Morschhauser, Tamás; Hahn, István

2012-01-01

201

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris).  

PubMed

Abstract The complete nucleotide sequence of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 149,637?bp in length, containing a pair of 24,439?bp inverted repeat regions (IR), which were separated by small and large single copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 17,701 and 83,057?bp, respectively. 53.4% of the sugar beet cpDNA consisted of gene coding regions (protein coding and RNA genes). The gene content and relative positions of 113 individual genes (79 protein encoding genes, 30 tRNA genes, 4 rRNA genes) were almost identical to those of tabacoo cpDNA. The overall AT contents of the sugar beet cpDNA were 63.6% and in the LSC, SSC and IR regions were 65.9%, 70.8% and 57.8%, respectively. Fifteen genes contained one intron, while three genes had two introns. PMID:24571405

Li, Han; Cao, Hua; Cai, Yan-Fei; Wang, Ji-Hua; Qu, Su-Ping; Huang, Xing-Qi

2014-06-01

202

The absorption and translocation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo.  

PubMed

The mobility of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin), a PCB phytoextracting plant, was investigated through a comparison of field-weathered soil, root, shoot, and xylem sap congener profiles. This is the first study to show the presence of PCBs in xylem sap (range: 0.03-0.18 ?g·mL(-1)), confirming that PCB translocation throughout the plant occurs via this medium. A comparison of soil (5.2 ± 2.5 ?g·g(-1)), root (27.1 ± 2.1 ?g·g(-1)), shoot (range: 1.9 ± 0.5 ?g·g(-1) - 8.2 ± 1.4 ?g·g(-1)), and xylem sap (0.09 ± 0.04 ?g·g(-1)) samples showed significant differences in congener profiles, with lower chlorinated congeners (predominately trichlorinated ones) found within xylem sap in higher amounts than higher chlorinated congeners. The total PCB concentrations of xylem sap samples collected at various lengths along the primary plant shoot were not significantly different from each other, while those of primary shoot tissue samples significantly decreased (two-sample t test, p = 0.01) as the distance from the plant base increased. PCA analysis of individual congeners in the roots, shoots and xylem sap indicated that movement of the PCB congeners in the plant was affected by the number of chlorines in the molecule, and hence possibly log K(ow) and molecular weight, but not by planarity. PMID:21696136

Greenwood, Scott J; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

2011-08-01

203

Conformational analysis of the neutral exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LBB.B26.  

PubMed

The conformational properties of the neutral exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LBB.B26 have been studied by NMR measurements and molecular modelling. The exopolysaccharide, with an average molecular mass of 1.3 x 10(6) Da, was previously determined to consist of pentasaccharide repeating units with the following structure: -->3)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-beta-d-Galf-(1-->3)-[alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->6)-]alpha-D-Galp-(1-->. Adiabatic maps were generated for each of the disaccharide fragments in the repeating unit. In addition, free energy maps calculated from MD simulations were obtained for each of the glycosidic linkages in an extended repeating unit and the influence of the Galf residue on the conformational properties of the repeating unit was investigated. The values of the global energy minima provided by the free energy maps were used to build a polymer chain. The polysaccharide was shown to have a random coil structure, without stable extended helical motifs. PMID:19109672

Sánchez-Medina, Inmaculada; Frank, Martin; von der Lieth, Claus-Wilhelm; Kamerling, Johannis P

2009-01-21

204

Effects of amendments on the uptake and distribution of DDT in Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo plants.  

PubMed

The effects of soil amendments on the phytoextraction of summation operatorDDT (DDT + DDD + DDE) from soil ([ summation operatorDDT] approximately 1500 ng/g) by a pumpkin variety of Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo were tested and the patterns of summation operatorDDT storage throughout the plant shoot were examined. The soil amendments did not increase the total amount of summation operatorDDT extracted into plant shoots, but new information about summation operatorDDT distribution in the plants was obtained. As observed previously, the summation operatorDDT concentration in plant leaves (mean 290 ng/g) was significantly lower than in plant stems (mean 2600 ng/g). Further analysis revealed that summation operatorDDT composition was consistent throughout the plant shoot and that summation operatorDDT concentration in leaves and stems decreased exponentially as distance from the root increased, which was previously unknown. This new information about the patterns of summation operatorDDT uptake and translocation within pumpkin plants highlights the need for appropriate plant sampling strategies in future POPs phytoextraction research. PMID:19762136

Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Lunney, Alissa I; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

2010-02-01

205

Subcellular localization of proteins labeled with GFP in Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri: targeting the division septum.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus canker, an economically important disease that affects citrus worldwide. To initiate the characterization of essential biological processes of Xac, we constructed integrative plasmids for the ectopic expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled proteins within this bacterium. Here, we show that the disruption of the alpha-amylase gene (amy), the site of plasmid integration into the bacterial chromosome, does not alter its pathogenesis while abolishing completely the ability of Xac to degrade starch. Furthermore, our GFP expression system was used to characterize ORF XAC3408, a hypothetical protein encoded by Xac that shares significant homology to the FtsZ-stabilizing factor ZapA from Bacillus subtilis (ZapA(Bsu)). GFP-XAC3408 expressed in Xac exhibited a septal localization pattern typical of GFP-ZapA(Bsu), which indicates that XAC3408 is the Xac orthologue of the cell division protein ZapA(Bsu). The results demonstrate the potential of GFP labeling for protein functional characterizations in Xac, and, in addition, the Xac mutant strain labeled at the septum constitutes a biological model for the exploration of antibacterial compounds able to inhibit cell division in this plant pathogen. PMID:20629754

Martins, Paula M M; Lau, Ivy F; Bacci, Maurício; Belasque, José; do Amaral, Alexandre M; Taboga, Sebastião R; Ferreira, Henrique

2010-09-01

206

Epithiospecifier protein from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica) inhibits formation of the anticancer agent sulforaphane.  

PubMed

In some cruciferous plants, epithiospecifier protein (ESP) directs myrosinase (EC 3.2.3.1)-catalyzed hydrolysis of alkenyl glucosinolates toward epithionitrile formation. Here, for the first time, we show that ESP activity is negatively correlated with the extent of formation of the health-promoting phytochemical sulforaphane in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica). A 43 kDa protein with ESP activity and sequence homology to the ESP of Arabidopsis thaliana was cloned from the broccoli cv. Packman and expressed in Escherichia coli. In a model system, the recombinant protein not only directed myrosinase-dependent metabolism of the alkenyl glucosinolate epi-progoitrin [(2S)-2-hydroxy-3-butenyl glucosinolate] toward formation of an epithionitrile but also directed myrosinase-dependent hydrolysis of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin [4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl glucosinolate] to form sulforaphane nitrile, in place of the isothiocyanate sulforaphane. The importance of this finding is that, whereas sulforaphane has been shown to have anticarcinogenic properties, sulforaphane nitrile has not. Genetic manipulation designed to attenuate or eliminate expression of ESP in broccoli could increase the fractional conversion of glucoraphanin to sulforaphane, enhancing potential health benefits. PMID:16536577

Matusheski, Nathan V; Swarup, Ranjan; Juvik, John A; Mithen, Richard; Bennett, Malcolm; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

2006-03-22

207

Intraspecific variability of the essential oil of Ziziphora clinopodioides ssp. rigida from Iran.  

PubMed

Hydrodistillated essential oils of Ziziphora clinopodioides ssp. rigida from nine populations of the Lashgardar protected region (Hamedan Province, Iran) were analyzed by using GC and GC/MS techniques to determine the intraspecific chemical variability. Altogether, 39 compounds were identified in the oils, and a relatively high variation in their contents was found. The main constituents of the essential oils were pulegone (0.7-44.5%), 1,8-cineole (2.1-26.0%), neomenthol (2.5-22.5%), 4-terpineol (0.0-9.9%), 1-terpineol (0.0-13.2%), neomenthyl acetate (0.0-7.1%), and piperitenone (0.0-5.4%). For the determination of the chemotypes and the intraspecific chemical variability, the essential oil components were subjected to cluster analysis (CA). The five different chemotypes characterized were Chemotype I (pulegone/neomenthol), Chemotype II (pulegone), Chemotype III (pulegone/1,8-cineole), Chemotype IV (neomenthol), and Chemotype V (1,8-cineole/4-terpineol). PMID:20658666

Sonboli, Ali; Atri, Morteza; Shafiei, Sedighe

2010-07-01

208

Instability in mitochondrial membranes in Polima cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important factor to observe heterosis in Brassica rapa. Although several studies have documented the rearrangements of mitochondrial DNA and dysfunction in the mitochondria have been observed in most types of CMS, the basis of the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes and other effects on CMS remain unclear. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization was performed in the flowers of an alloplasmic Polima CMS system from B. rapa ssp. chinensis to identify genes that are differentially expressed between fertile and sterile plants. A total of 443 clones were isolated (156 were upregulated in fertile buds, and 287 were upregulated in sterile ones). Real-time RT-PCR further demonstrated the credibility of SSH. Among these genes, many membrane protein genes (LTP12, PIP2A, and GRP14) were inhibited in the sterile male line. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay was then performed. Results showed that the sterile MMP was unstable and failed to create a potential difference; thus, mitochondrial dysfunction occurred. Moreover, abnormal microtubules and photosynthetic pathways were found in sterile male cells. Unstable MMP, nutritional deficiency, and abnormal microtubules were the causes of Polima CMS in Brassica campestris. H2O2, MDA, and O(2-), accumulated as byproducts of energy metabolism disorder in sterile male cells. PMID:24652098

Li, Ying; Liu, Tongkun; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Shi, Gongjun; Zhang, Jingyi; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shuning; Hou, Xilin

2014-06-01

209

Podophyllotoxin and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin Production in Hairy Root Cultures of Liunm mucronatum ssp. mucronatum  

PubMed Central

Aim: Two bacterial strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, A13 and 9534 were evaluated for induction of transformed hairy roots in Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum, a high value medicinal plant. Materials and Methods: The hairy roots were successfully initiated, through infecting the hypocotyl and root explants and the A13 strain performed a high transformation frequency for hairy roots induction. Transgenic status of hairy roots was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the rol genes. Growth kinetics of transgenic roots induced by two strains indicated a similar pattern of growth, with maximum growth occurring between 42 to 56 days. The lignan contents in hairy roots were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Results: Transformed cultures showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in lignan content. The highest amount of Podophyllotoxin (PTOX, 5.78 mg/g DW) and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin (MPTOX, 49.19 mg/g DW) was found in transformed lines induced by strain A13, which was four times higher than those of non-transformed roots. The results showed that hairy root cultures of L. mucronatum are rich sources of MPTOX. Conclusion: hairy root cultures from L. mucronatum can be used as a useful system for scale-up producing MPTOX and precursors for the production of antitumor agents in substitution with PTOX by considering the appropriate optimizations in future studies.

Samadi, Afsaneh; Jafari, Morad; Nejhad, Nasim Mohammad; Hossenian, Farah

2014-01-01

210

Identification of antigens for the development of a subunit vaccine against Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida.  

PubMed

Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida (Ph.d.p.), the causative agent of photobacteriosis, is among the most important pathogens affecting finfish aquaculture globally. With the emergence of recombinant technology, subunit vaccines have been actively pursued, but mostly for viral diseases. Bacterial subunit vaccines are more difficult to develop since the bacterial genome is more complex, with numerous candidate antigens, leading to a lengthy and laborious screening process. Immunoproteomics, using western blotting on protein analyzed with 2DE and LC-MS/MS to isolate immune-reactive proteins and acquire amino acid sequences, followed by recombinant technology to clone the candidate gene, identified eight candidate antigens from Ph.d.p., which have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). These proteins were purified and used as antigens in an efficacy trial. Three, rHSP60, rENOLASE, and rGAPDH proteins, elicited higher specific antibody titers and stronger protective immunity than the other five and an inactivated Ph.d.p. whole bacterial vaccine. These three antigens may be candidates for the development of a subunit vaccine against Ph.d.p. PMID:21134466

Ho, Li-Ping; Han-You Lin, John; Liu, Hsiao-Chien; Chen, Huey-En; Chen, Tzong-Yueh; Yang, Huey-Lang

2011-01-01

211

Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 Protects against Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Permeability in Rats  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects such as erosion and increased permeability are common during the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Our objective was to assess whether Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 protects against NSAID-induced GI side effects in a rat model. A total of 120 male Wistar rats were allocated into groups designated as control, NSAID, and probiotic. The NSAID and probiotic groups were challenged with indomethacin (10?mg/kg?1; single dose). The probiotic group was also supplemented daily with 1010?CFU of B. lactis 420 for seven days prior to the indomethacin administration. The control group rats received no indomethacin or probiotic. The permeability of the rat intestine was analysed using carbohydrate probes and the visual damage of the rat stomach mucosa was graded according to severity. B. lactis 420 significantly reduced the indomethacin-induced increase in stomach permeability. However, the protective effect on the visual mucosal damage was not significant. The incidence of severe NSAID-induced lesions was, nevertheless, reduced from 50% to 33% with the probiotic treatment. To conclude, the B. lactis 420 supplementation protected the rats from an NSAID-induced increase in stomach permeability and may reduce the formation of more serious GI mucosal damage and/or enhance the recovery rate of the stomach mucosa.

Lyra, Anna; Saarinen, Markku; Putaala, Heli; Olli, Kaisa; Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Madetoja, Mari; Tiihonen, Kirsti

2012-01-01

212

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in several herds of Arctic Caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp.).  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a common pathogen in domestic ruminants that causes granulomatous inflammation of the small intestine leading to emaciation and wasting. Clinical disease (Johne's disease) is also reported for several wild ruminant species. Between 2007 and 2009 we collected 561 fecal samples from caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp.) representing 10 herds of migratory caribou, two herds of caribou from Greenland, and three populations of boreal woodland caribou. Feces were tested for MAP by bacterial culture and PCR targeting the IS900 insertion sequence. In total, 31 samples from eight different populations representing all three ecotypes were found positive for MAP by PCR, with one sample from the Rivière-aux-Feuilles herd also being culture positive for the type II (cattle) strain. The proportion of positive animals was particularly high in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd in Greenland, and Rivière-aux-Feuilles and Riviè re-George herds in northeastern Canada (23.4, 11.5, and 10.0%, respectively). Our results indicate that MAP is present in several caribou herds of different ecotypes in northern Canada and Greenland and that MAP circulates within wildlife populations that do not have ongoing contact with domestic livestock. The epidemiology, pathogenicity, and effects on the health of caribou in northern ecosystems remain unknown. PMID:23060493

Forde, Taya; Orsel, Karin; De Buck, Jeroen; Côté, Steeve D; Cuyler, Christine; Davison, Tracy; Elkin, Brett; Kelly, Allicia; Kienzler, Martin; Popko, Richard; Taillon, Joëlle; Veitch, Alasdair; Kutz, Susan

2012-10-01

213

Salmonella enterica ssp. arizonae infection in a 43-year-old Italian man with hypoglobulinemia: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Salmonella enterica ssp. arizonae is an uncommon human pathogen with serious infections reported in immunocompromised hosts. In Europe, only a few cases have been described. Patients with this infection usually have a history of contact with reptiles or travel abroad. We present a case report of infection in a patient with hypoglobulinemia and a literature review. Case presentation We describe the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian Italian man with hypoglobulinemia who presented to our hospital with sepsis and diarrhea. A stool culture yielded S. enterica ssp. arizonae. Our patient was treated with oral ciprofloxacin and made a full recovery. We also present a review of the cases of S. enterica ssp. arizonae infections previously reported in Europe. Conclusions The majority of infections from S. enterica ssp. arizonae occur in patients who are immunocompromised. Data from the literature suggests that it may be difficult to eradicate the bacteria and thus, prolonged antibiotic courses are often used. It would be advisable for clinicians to investigate for pre-existing immune dysfunction if S. enterica ssp. arizonae is isolated. In Italy, although there have only been a few cases, the likely route of transmission remains unclear and requires further surveillance.

2011-01-01

214

Two intramolecular isopeptide bonds are identified in the crystal structure of the Streptococcus gordonii SspB C-terminal domain  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus gordonii is a primary colonizer, involved in the formation of dental plaque. This bacterium expresses several surface proteins. One of them is the adhesin SspB, which is a member of the Antigen I/II family of proteins. SspB is a large multi-domain protein that has interactions with surface molecules on other bacteria and on host cells, and is thus a key factor in the formation of biofilms. Here, we report the crystal structure of a truncated form of the SspB C-terminal domain, solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion to 1.5 Å resolution. The structure represents the first of a C-terminal domain from a streptococcal Antigen I/II protein and is comprised of two structurally related ?-sandwich domains, C2 and C3, both with a Ca2+ ion bound in equivalent positions. In each of the domains, a covalent isopeptide bond is observed between a lysine and an asparagine, a feature that is believed to be a common stabilization mechanism in gram positive surface proteins. S. gordonii biofilms contain attachment sites for the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and the SspB C-terminal domain has been shown to have one such recognition motif, the SspB adherence region. The motif protrudes from the protein, and serves as a handle for attachment. The structure suggests several additional putative binding surfaces, and other binding clefts may be created when the full-length protein is folded.

Forsgren, Nina; Lamont, Richard J; Persson, Karina

2010-01-01

215

Maximal transcription of aur (aureolysin) and sspA (serine protease) in Staphylococcus aureus requires staphylococcal accessory regulator R (sarR) activity.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that expression of aur (metalloprotease; aureolysin) and sspA (V8 protease; serine protease) in Staphylococcus aureus strain 8325-4 is maximal in the postexponential phase of growth, when the agr (RNAIII) system is activated. Transcription of aur and sspA is mainly regulated through repression by sarA and rot, and RNAIII stimulates protease production by inhibiting translation of rot mRNA. As SarR is a repressor of sarA, inactivation of sarR would result in downregulation of aur and sspA transcription. This was confirmed by mRNA analysis using quantitative real-time PCR. However, we found that sarR acted as a direct stimulator, i.e. its positive effect on aur and sspA transcription did not require sarA (or rot) per se. In addition, aur and sspA were dependent on sarR for maximal transcription. This stimulating role of sarR was not restricted to the rsbU-deficient laboratory strain 8325-4 but was also demonstrated in S. aureus strain SH1000 (rsbU-complemented derivative of 8325-4) and in one clinical isolate. PMID:18576947

Gustafsson, Erik; Oscarsson, Jan

2008-07-01

216

Rapid turnover of the W chromosome in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.  

PubMed

Our previous studies revealed a considerably high level of chromosomal polymorphism in wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Geographical populations of this species complex differ in chromosome numbers and show derived sex chromosome systems including Z0/ZZ in S. cynthia ricini (2n?=?27/28; Vietnam), neo-Wneo-Z/neo-Zneo-Z in S. cynthia walkeri (2n?=?26/26; Sapporo, Hokkaido) and neo-WZ1Z2/Z1Z1Z2Z2 in S. cynthia subsp. indet. (2n?=?25/26; Nagano, Honshu). In this study, we collected specimens of S. cynthia pryeri in Japanese islands Kyushu, Shikoku and Honshu, with an ancestral-like karyotype of 2n?=?28 in both sexes and a WZ/ZZ sex chromosome system, except for one population, in which females have lost the W chromosome. However, the S. cynthia pryeri W chromosome showed a very unusual morphology: It was composed of a highly heterochromatic body, which remained condensed throughout the whole cell cycle and of a euchromatin-like "tail." We examined molecular composition of the W and neo-W chromosomes in S. cynthia subspecies by comparative genomic hybridisation and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with W chromosome painting probes prepared from laser-microdissected W chromatin of S. cynthia pryeri. These methods revealed that the molecular composition of highly heterochromatic part of the S. cynthia pryeri W chromosome is very different and lacks homology in the genomes of other subspecies, whereas the euchromatin-like part of the W chromosome corresponds to a heterochromatic part of the neo-W chromosomes in S. cynthia walkeri and S. cynthia subsp. indet. Our findings suggest that the curious WZ system of S. cynthia pryeri may represent an ancestral state of the Samia species complex but do not exclude an alternative hypothesis of its derived origin. PMID:23515983

Yoshido, Atsuo; Síchová, Jindra; Kubí?ková, Svatava; Marec, František; Sahara, Ken

2013-04-01

217

Kinetin induces cell death in root cortex cells of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings.  

PubMed

The double fluorescence staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) revealed that treatment of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings with kinetin-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in root cortex cells. Kinetin-induced cell death reflected by the morphological changes of nuclei including their invagination, volume increase, chromatin condensation and degradation as well as formation of micronuclei showed by AO/EB and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining was accompanied by changes including increase in conductivity of cell electrolytes secreted to culture media, decrease in the number of the G1- and G2-phase cells and appearance of fraction of hypoploid cells as the effect of DNA degradation without ladder formation. Decrease in the number of mitochondria and in the activity of cellular dehydrogenases, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), appearance of small and then large lytic vacuoles and increase in the amount of cytosolic calcium ions were also observed. The PCD was also manifested by increased width and weight of apical fragments of roots as well as decreased length of cortex cells which led to shortening of the whole roots. The kinetin-induced PCD process was almost completely inhibited by adenine, an inhibitor of phosphoribosyl transferase, and mannitol, an inhibitor of ROS production. These cell-death hallmarks and pathway of this process suggested that the induction of kinetin-specific vacuolar type of death, expressed itself with similar intensity on both morphological and metabolic levels, was a transient protecting whole roots and whole seedlings against elimination. PMID:23143313

Kunikowska, Anita; Byczkowska, Anna; Ka?mierczak, Andrzej

2013-08-01

218

Flowering time in wild beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) along a latitudinal cline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wild beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima, a perennial species from the Mediterranean and the European Atlantic coasts) shows marked variation in flowering time in terms of both the year of first flowering and flowering date in a given year. Much of this variability is related to latitude. Beta vulgaris plants flower either in the same year as they germinate or in their second year. This is mainly due to differences in their requirement for vernalization, which is determined by a single gene B/b and by quantitative trait loci. The more southern the origin of the plants, the less vernalization is required. Also the B allele, which cancels vernalization requirement completely, has a high frequency in the Mediterranean region, but is completely absent in the northern part of the distribution of this species. We found that flowering date variation in relation to the latitude of origin is maintained under greenhouse conditions but does not follow a simple clinal relationship. From the Mediterranean northwards to the west coast of Brittany, flowering occurs progressively earlier, but from Brittany northwards to south-east England and The Netherlands it is progressively later. A possible explanation for this difference is that in the southern part of the range sensitivity to daylength and warmth control flowering time, whereas further north vernalization requirement is also a key factor. A substantial part of all differences in flowering time was heritable: heritability within populations was measured as 0.33 under greenhouse conditions. The high heritability implies evolutionary change may occur in this character.

Dijk, Henk Van; Boudry, Pierre; McCombre, Helen; Vernet, Philippe

219

Identification, quantification and antioxidant activity of acylated flavonol glycosides from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis).  

PubMed

A novel acylated flavonol glycoside: isorhamnetin (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside) (1), together with two known acylated flavonol glycosides: quercetin (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside) (2) and kaempferol (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside) (3) were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) berries for the first time by chromatographic methods, and their structures were elucidated using UV, MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and 2D NMR. Compounds 1-3 showed good scavenging activities, with respective IC50 values of 8.91, 4.26 and 30.90 ?M toward the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; respective Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities of 2.89, 4.04 and 2.44 ?M ?M(-1) toward 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS) radical. The quantitative analysis of the isolated acylated flavonol glycosides was performed by HPLC-DAD method. The contents of compounds 1-3 were in the range of 12.2-31.4, 4.0-25.3, 7.5-59.7 mg/100 g dried berries and 9.1-34.5, 75.1-182.1, 29.2-113.4 mg/100 g dried leaves, respectively. PMID:23870862

Chen, Chu; Xu, Xue-Min; Chen, Yang; Yu, Meng-Yao; Wen, Fei-Yan; Zhang, Hao

2013-12-01

220

The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis] is of particular interest because the genome of this legume has experienced divergent domestication. Initially, cowpea was domesticated from wild cowpea in Africa; in Asia a vegetable form of cowpea, yardlong bean, subsequently evolved from cowpea. Information on the genetics of domestication-related traits would be useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding programmes, as well as comparative genome study among members of the genus Vigna. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean and compare them with previously reported QTLs in closely related Vigna. Methods Two linkage maps were developed from BC1F1 and F2 populations from the cross between yardlong bean (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis) accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. Using these linkage maps, QTLs for 24 domestication-related traits were analysed and mapped. QTLs were detected for traits related to seed, pod, stem and leaf. Key Results Most traits were controlled by between one and 11 QTLs. QTLs for domestication-related traits show co-location on several narrow genomic regions on almost all linkage groups (LGs), but especially on LGs 3, 7, 8 and 11. Major QTLs for sizes of seed, pod, stem and leaf were principally located on LG7. Pleiotropy or close linkage of genes for the traits is suggested in these chromosome regions. Conclusions This is the first report of QTLs for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean. The results provide a foundation for marker-assisted selection of domestication-related QTLs in yardlong bean and enhance understanding of domestication in the genus Vigna.

Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Vaughan, Duncan A.; Srinives, Peerasak

2012-01-01

221

BrpSPL9 (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis SPL9) controls the earliness of heading time in Chinese cabbage.  

PubMed

The leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis), Brussels sprouts (B. oleracea ssp. gemmifera) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) comprise extremely incurved leaves that are edible vegetable products. The heading time is important for high quality and yield of these crops. Here, we report that BrpSPL9-2 (B. rapa ssp. pekinensis SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE 9-2), a target gene of microRNA brp-miR156, controls the heading time of Chinese cabbage. Quantitative measurements of leaf shapes, sizes, colour and curvature indicated that heading is a late adult phase of vegetative growth. During the vegetative period, miR156 levels gradually decreased from the seedling stage to the heading one, whereas BrpSPL9-2 and BrpSPL15-1 mRNAs increased progressively and reached the highest levels at the heading stage. Overexpression of a mutated miR156-resistant form of BrpSPL9-2 caused the significant earliness of heading, concurrent with shortening of the seedling and rosette stages. By contrast, overexpression of miR156 delayed the folding time, concomitant with prolongation of the seedling and rosette stages. Morphological analysis reveals that the significant earliness of heading in the transgenic plants overexpressing BrpSPL9-2 gene was produced because the juvenile phase was absent and the early adult phase shortened, whereas the significant delay of folding in the transgenic plants overexpressing Brp-MIR156a was due to prolongation of the juvenile and early adult phases. Thus, miR156 and BrpSPL9 genes are potentially important for genetic improvement of earliness of Chinese cabbage and other crops. PMID:24237584

Wang, Yali; Wu, Feijie; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

2014-04-01

222

A study of System Interface Sets (SIS) for the host, target and integration environments of the Space Station Program (SSP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System interface sets (SIS) for large, complex, non-stop, distributed systems are examined. The SIS of the Space Station Program (SSP) was selected as the focus of this study because an appropriate virtual interface specification of the SIS is believed to have the most potential to free the project from four life cycle tyrannies which are rooted in a dependance on either a proprietary or particular instance of: operating systems, data management systems, communications systems, and instruction set architectures. The static perspective of the common Ada programming support environment interface set (CAIS) and the portable common execution environment (PCEE) activities are discussed. Also, the dynamic perspective of the PCEE is addressed.

Mckay, Charles; Auty, David; Rogers, Kathy

1987-01-01

223

A high-resolution karyotype of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis revealed by pachytene analysis and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular cytogenetic map of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, 2 n=20) was constructed based on the 4?-6-diamino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride-stained mitotic metaphase and pachytene chromosomes and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (McFISH), using three repetitive DNA sequences, 5S rDNA, 45S rDNA, and C11-350H. The lengths of mitotic metaphase chromosomes ranged from 1.46 ?m to 3.30 ?m. Five 45S and three 5S

Dal-Hoe Koo; Prikshit Plaha; Yong Pyo Lim; Yoonkang Hur; Jae-Wook Bang

2004-01-01

224

Cloning and nucleotide sequence of a D,L-haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase encoding gene from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans ssp. denitrificans ABIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have cloned DNA fragments of plasmid pFL40 from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans ssp. denitrificans ABIV encoding a D,L-2-haloalkanoic acid halidohydrolase (DhlIV). A 6.5-kb EcoRI\\/SalI-fragment with inducible expression of the halidohydrolase was cloned in Pseudomonas fluorescens and Escherichia coli. A 1.9-kb HindII-fragment demonstrated expression of the dehalogenase only due to the presence of the promoter from the pUC vector in Escherichia coli.

Andre Brokamp; Birgitta Happe; Friedrich R. J. Schmidt

1996-01-01

225

Effector MiSSP7 of the mutualistic fungus Laccaria bicolor stabilizes the Populus JAZ6 protein and represses jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Laccaria bicolor, support forest growth and sustainability by providing growth-limiting nutrients to their plant host through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with host roots. We have previously shown that the effector protein MiSSP7 (Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Protein 7) encoded by L. bicolor is necessary for the establishment of symbiosis with host trees, although the mechanistic reasoning behind this role was unknown. We demonstrate here that MiSSP7 interacts with the host protein PtJAZ6, a negative regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)-induced gene regulation in Populus. As with other characterized JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, PtJAZ6 interacts with PtCOI1 in the presence of the JA mimic coronatine, and PtJAZ6 is degraded in plant tissues after JA treatment. The association between MiSSP7 and PtJAZ6 is able to protect PtJAZ6 from this JA-induced degradation. Furthermore, MiSSP7 is able to block-or mitigate-the impact of JA on L. bicolor colonization of host roots. We show that the loss of MiSSP7 production by L. bicolor can be complemented by transgenically varying the transcription of PtJAZ6 or through inhibition of JA-induced gene regulation. We conclude that L. bicolor, in contrast to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biotrophic pathogens, promotes mutualism by blocking JA action through the interaction of MiSSP7 with PtJAZ6. PMID:24847068

Plett, Jonathan M; Daguerre, Yohann; Wittulsky, Sebastian; Vayssières, Alice; Deveau, Aurelie; Melton, Sarah J; Kohler, Annegret; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Brun, Annick; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Martin, Francis

2014-06-01

226

Effector MiSSP7 of the mutualistic fungus Laccaria bicolor stabilizes the Populus JAZ6 protein and represses jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes  

PubMed Central

Ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Laccaria bicolor, support forest growth and sustainability by providing growth-limiting nutrients to their plant host through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with host roots. We have previously shown that the effector protein MiSSP7 (Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Protein 7) encoded by L. bicolor is necessary for the establishment of symbiosis with host trees, although the mechanistic reasoning behind this role was unknown. We demonstrate here that MiSSP7 interacts with the host protein PtJAZ6, a negative regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)-induced gene regulation in Populus. As with other characterized JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, PtJAZ6 interacts with PtCOI1 in the presence of the JA mimic coronatine, and PtJAZ6 is degraded in plant tissues after JA treatment. The association between MiSSP7 and PtJAZ6 is able to protect PtJAZ6 from this JA-induced degradation. Furthermore, MiSSP7 is able to block—or mitigate—the impact of JA on L. bicolor colonization of host roots. We show that the loss of MiSSP7 production by L. bicolor can be complemented by transgenically varying the transcription of PtJAZ6 or through inhibition of JA-induced gene regulation. We conclude that L. bicolor, in contrast to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biotrophic pathogens, promotes mutualism by blocking JA action through the interaction of MiSSP7 with PtJAZ6.

Plett, Jonathan M.; Daguerre, Yohann; Wittulsky, Sebastian; Vayssieres, Alice; Deveau, Aurelie; Melton, Sarah J.; Kohler, Annegret; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Brun, Annick; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Martin, Francis

2014-01-01

227

Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida: detection by direct amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences and genotypic variation as determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP).  

PubMed

A PCR protocol for the rapid diagnosis of fish 'pasteurellosis' based on 16S rRNA gene sequences was developed. The procedure combines low annealing temperature that detects low titers of Photobacterium damselae but also related species, and high annealing temperature for the specific identification of P. damselae directly from infected fish. The PCR protocol was validated on 19 piscine isolates of P. damselae ssp. piscicida from different geographic regions (Japan, Italy, Spain, Greece and Israel), on spontaneously infected sea bream Sparus aurata and sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, and on closely related American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) reference strains. PCR using high annealing temperature (64 degrees C) discriminated between P. damselae and closely related reference strains, including P. histaminum. Sixteen isolates of P. damselae ssp. piscicida, 2 P. damselae ssp. piscicida reference strains and 1 P. damselae ssp. damselae reference strain were subjected to Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, and a similarity matrix was produced. Accordingly, the Japanese isolates of P. damselae ssp. piscicida were distinguished from the Mediterranean/European isolates at a cut-off value of 83% similarity. A further subclustering at a cut-off value of 97% allowed discrimination between the Israeli P. damselae ssp. piscicida isolates and the other Mediterranean/European isolates. The combination of PCR direct amplification and AFLP provides a 2-step procedure, where P. damselae is rapidly identified at genus level on the basis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence and then grouped into distinct clusters on the basis of AFLP polymorphisms. The first step of direct amplification is highly sensitive and has immediate practical consequences, offering fish farmers a rapid diagnosis, while the AFLP is more specific and detects intraspecific variation which, in our study, also reflected geographic correspondence. Because of its superior discriminative properties, AFLP can be an important tool for epidemiological and taxonomic studies of this highly homogeneous genus. PMID:12033705

Kvitt, H; Ucko, M; Colorni, A; Batargias, C; Zlotkin, A; Knibb, W

2002-04-01

228

In vivo antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum capitulums in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Helichrysum species (Asteraceae) are widely found in Anatolia. Decoction prepared from the capitulums of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum is used to alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. In the present study, the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum was evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats. After the oral administration of water and ethanolic extracts at doses of 500mg/kg body weight prepared from the capitulums of plant, blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals. Tolbutamide was used as a reference drug at a dose of 100mg/kg. The experimental data indicated that water and ethanol extracts of capitulums demonstrate significant antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity in streptozotocin-induced rats which confirmed the folkloric utilization. In order to assess the role of polyphenolic components in the relevant activity, phenolic and flavonoid contents of each extract were also determined in terms of total phenols: 113.5+/-8.6mg (gallic acid equivalent/1g extract) and total flavanoids 50.5+/-1.9mg (quercetin equivalent/1g extract) for ethanol extract, total phenols: 75.9+/-3.7, flavonoids: 31.5+/-2.3 for water extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. PMID:16949229

Aslan, Mustafa; Deliorman Orhan, Didem; Orhan, Nilüfer; Sezik, Ekrem; Yesilada, Erdem

2007-01-01

229

Application of a Simple In-House PCR-SSP Technique for HLA-B* 27 Typing in Spondyloarthritis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. Microlymphocytotoxicity (MLCT) and flowcytometry (FC) are the conventional serological methods to detect HLA-B* 27. Due to some disadvantages in these methods, most of the HLA laboratories have now switched over to molecular methods. Molecular techniques based on commercial kits are expensive; as such many laboratories with limited funds in developing countries cannot afford these techniques. Aims. Our main aim was to standardize a simple inexpensive in-house PCR-SSP technique for HLA-B* 27 typing. Materials and Methods. Sequence Specific primers were designed to amplify all the subtypes of B* 27 using IMGT-HLA sequence database. Accuracy was checked by retyping of 90 PCR-SSOP typed controls. Results. The presence of 149?bp specific band with control band on 2% agarose gel showed B* 27 positivity. No discrepancies were found when compared with PCR-SSOP results. The frequency of HLA-B* 27 was found to be significantly increased (68.75% versus 4.40%, O.R 46.909: P value 6.62E ? 32) among 700 SpA patients as compared to controls. Clinically, 54% of patients had polyarticular arthritis with SI joints involvement (68%) and restricted spine flexion (60%). Conclusion. In-house PCR-SSP technique is very simple and inexpensive technique to detect B* 27 allele, which was strongly associated with SpA patients from Western India.

Parasannanavar, Devraj J.; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

2013-01-01

230

Purification and characterization of poly(L-lactic acid)-degrading enzymes from Amycolatopsis orientalis ssp. orientalis.  

PubMed

Polylactide or poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA) is a commercially promising material for use as a renewable and biodegradable plastic. Three novel PLA-degrading enzymes, named PLAase I, II and III, were purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant of an effective PLA-degrading bacterium, Amycolatopsis orientalis ssp. orientalis. The molecular masses of these three PLAases as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were 24.0, 19.5 and 18.0 kDa, with the pH optima being 9.5, 10.5 and 9.5, respectively. The optimal temperature for the enzyme activities was 50-60 degrees C. All the purified enzymes could degrade high-molecular-weight PLA film as well as casein, and the PLA-degrading activities were strongly inhibited by serine protease inhibitors such as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and aprotinin, but were not susceptive to chymostatin and pepstatin. Taken together, these data demonstrated that A. orientalis ssp. orientalis produces multiple serine-like proteases to utilize extracellular polylactide as a sole carbon source. PMID:18355279

Li, Fan; Wang, Sha; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Guanjun

2008-05-01

231

GA4 and IAA were involved in the morphogenesis and development of flowers in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis.  

PubMed

The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth represents a major phase change in angiosperms. Hormones play important roles in this process. In this study, gibberellic acid (GA), cytokinins (CKs), indoleacetic acid (IAA), and abscisic acid (ABA) were analyzed during the flowering in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis. Eleven types of endogenous gibberellins in addition to GA1 were detected in various organs. GA9 was detected with the highest concentrations, followed by GA5, GA8, and GA19. However, GA4 was the main bioactive GA that was involved in the regulation of flowering. Eight types of endogenous cytokinins were detected in A. praecox ssp. orientalis, and zeatin, zeatin riboside, zeatin-O-glucoside, and N(6)-isopentenyladenosine-5-monophosphate were present at higher levels throughout the study, of which zeatin plays an important role in the development of various organs. IAA increased by 581% in the shoot tips from the vegetative to inflorescence bud stages and had the most significant changes during flowering. Phytohormone immunolocalization analysis suggested that IAA involved in differentiation and development of each floral organs, GA and zeatin play important roles in floret primordia differentiation and ovule development. Using exogenous plant growth regulators proved that GA signaling regulate the scape elongation and stimulate early-flowering, and IAA signaling is involved in the pedicel and corolla elongation and delay flowering slightly. PMID:24913054

Zhang, Di; Ren, Li; Yue, Jian-Hua; Wang, Ling; Zhuo, Li-Huan; Shen, Xiao-Hui

2014-07-01

232

Nuclear DNA content estimations in wild olive ( Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea var. sylvestris Brot.) and Portuguese cultivars of O. europaea using flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an economically important woody fruit crop widely distributed in the Mediterranean regions. In this work the genome size of six Portuguese cultivars of olive (O. europaea ssp. europaea var. europaea) and wild olive (O. europaea spp. europaea var. sylvestris) was estimated for the first time. The nuclear DNA content of O. europaea cultivars ranged

João Loureiro; Eleazar Rodriguez; Armando Costa; Conceição Santos

2007-01-01

233

l(+)Lactic acid producer Bacillus coagulans SIM7 DSM 14043 and its comparison with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis DSM 20073  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus coagulans SIM-7 DSM 14043 is a novel lactic acid (LA) producing strain that is suitable for industrial production of LA according to its physiological characteristics, production rate of lactic acid and high final concentration of produced LA. We compare productivity parameters between LA producers Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis DSM 20073 and B. coagulans SIM-7. Fermentation media were optimized for

Tiina Michelson; Karin Kask; Eerik Jõgi; Ene Talpsep; Indrek Suitso; Allan Nurk

2006-01-01

234

Soil and atmospheric nitrogen uptake by lentil ( Lens culinaris Medik.) and barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. nudum L.) as monocrops and intercrops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three morphologically different varieties of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and one cultivar of naked spring barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. nudum L.) were studied as monocrops and in a substitutive mixture in a 2-year field experiment. Plants were grown on a brown warp soil in the temperate climate of Central Europe. The growth habit of the lentil type (spreading or erect

Knut Schmidtke; Angelika Neumann; Claudia Hof; Rolf Rauber

2004-01-01

235

Real-time PCR, compared to liquid and solid culture media and ELISA, for the detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A goal of Johne’s disease control programs is to accurately detect Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infected cattle as quickly as possible to reduce disease transmission. A newly introduced real-time PCR provides results rapidly, but its accuracy in the field has not been evaluated. Fecal and serum samples collected from dairy cows in northern Indiana were used to estimate the

Catherine A. Alinovi; Michael P. Ward; Tsang Long Lin; George E. Moore; Ching Ching Wu

2009-01-01

236

The ?-ocimene chemotype of essential oils of the inflorescences and the leaves with stems from Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare growing wild in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inflorescences, the leaves with stems and the unseparated aerial parts of plants of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare were collected in eight habitats in eastern Lithuania in 1995–2000. The essential oils of the ?-ocimene chemotype were found in the plants and parts of the plants growing wild in several populations. The essential oils of the inflorescences and the leaves

Danute Mockute; Genovaite Bernotiene; Asta Judzentiene

2003-01-01

237

Involvement of oxidative stress and growth at high cell density in the viable but nonculturable state of Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata strain K122  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata strain K122 represents a promising source of bioinsecticide. When cultured in an optimized medium, P. temperata exhibited restricted survival in terms of colony-forming ability on solid medium, which remained lower than the total cell counts. Membrane integrity assessment by flow cytometry showed that almost 100% of P. temperata cells were viable indicating that this bacterium enters

Wafa Jallouli; Nabil Zouari; Samir Jaoua

2010-01-01

238

Effect of thermal treatment on glucosinolates and antioxidant-related parameters in red cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. rubra)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various thermal processing treatments (blanching, boiling and steaming) of red cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. rubra cv. ‘Autoro’, were assessed for the levels of glucosinolates (GLS), total phenols (TP), total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), l-ascorbic acid (L-AA) and soluble sugars, as well as for the antioxidant potential by the ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) and oxygen

Jon Volden; Grethe Iren A. Borge; Gunnar B. Bengtsson; Magnor Hansen; Ingrid E. Thygesen; Trude Wicklund

2008-01-01

239

Compatibility, production of interspecific F1 and BC1 between improved CMS Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis and B. oleracea var. acephala  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interspecific cross between improved cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) Brassica campestris ssp.pekinensis (Lour.) Olsson and B. oleracea var. acephala DC. aims to obtain kale male sterile lines and enrich Chinese cabbage genetic resources. The results indicated that there were serious segregations between the 2 parents, so as to descendants could not be obtained by routine pollination methods. Otherwise, interspecific hybrids

Peng-fang Zhu; Yu-tang Wei

240

Fumigant properties of physical preparations from mountain big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. v aseyana (Rydb.) beetle for stored grain insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapors released from foliage of mountain big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle, through a patented process, were hypothesized to have an insecticidal time of action (24h or less after time of exposure) similar to the fumigant methyl bromide. Patented preparations were more effective from plants harvested from a relatively wet site in mid to late summer (5

Florence V. Dunkel; L. Joseph Sears

1998-01-01

241

Efficacy of a floating sustained release formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis in controlling Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in polluted water habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvicidal efficacy and residual activity of a floating sustained release formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis (Bti) was tested in polluted water habitats against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of bancroftian filariasis, breeding in cesspools and cesspits. A total of 25 habitats having 65 m2 water surface area with C. quinquefasciatus immatures were treated with the formulation at the rate of

K Gunasekaran; G Prabakaran; K Balaraman

2002-01-01

242

Role of Ethylene on de Novo Shoot Regeneration from Cotyledonary Explants of Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis (Lour) Olsson in Vitro  

PubMed Central

The promotive effect of AgNO3 and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) on in vitro shoot regeneration from cotyledons of Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis in relation to endogenous 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, ACC, and ethylene production was investigated. AgNO3 enhanced ACC synthase activity and ACC accumulation, which reached a maximum after 3 to 7 days of culture. ACC accumulation was concomitant with increased emanation of ethylene which peaked after 14 days. In contrast, AVG was inhibitory to endogenous ACC synthase activity and reduced ACC and ethylene production. The promotive effect of AVG on shoot regeneration was reversed by 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid at 50 micromolar or higher concentrations, whereas explants grown on AgNO3 medium were less affected by 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid. The distinctive effect of AgNO3 and AVG on endogenous ACC synthase, ACC, and ethylene production and its possible mechanisms are discussed.

Chi, Gek-Lan; Pua, Eng-Chong; Goh, Chong-Jin

1991-01-01

243

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica).  

PubMed

The chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil isolated from the needles of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica) from Croatia were investigated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC and GC/MS analyses, and the main compounds identified were ?-pinene, ?-pinene, germacrene D, and ?-caryophyllene. Disc-diffusion and broth-microdilution assays were used for the in vitro antimicrobial screening. The Dalmatian black pine essential oil exhibited a great potential of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC=0.03-0.50% (v/v)) and a less pronounced activity against Gram-negative bacteria (MIC=0.12-3.2% (v/v)). The volatile compounds also inhibited the growth of all fungi tested, including yeast. PMID:21404437

Politeo, Olivera; Skocibusic, Mirjana; Maravic, Ana; Ruscic, Mirko; Milos, Mladen

2011-03-01

244

Role of Ethylene on de Novo Shoot Regeneration from Cotyledonary Explants of Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis (Lour) Olsson in Vitro.  

PubMed

The promotive effect of AgNO(3) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) on in vitro shoot regeneration from cotyledons of Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis in relation to endogenous 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, ACC, and ethylene production was investigated. AgNO(3) enhanced ACC synthase activity and ACC accumulation, which reached a maximum after 3 to 7 days of culture. ACC accumulation was concomitant with increased emanation of ethylene which peaked after 14 days. In contrast, AVG was inhibitory to endogenous ACC synthase activity and reduced ACC and ethylene production. The promotive effect of AVG on shoot regeneration was reversed by 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid at 50 micromolar or higher concentrations, whereas explants grown on AgNO(3) medium were less affected by 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid. The distinctive effect of AgNO(3) and AVG on endogenous ACC synthase, ACC, and ethylene production and its possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:16668148

Chi, G L; Pua, E C; Goh, C J

1991-05-01

245

Production, active staining and gas chromatography assay analysis of recombinant aminopeptidase P from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis DSM 20481.  

PubMed

The aminopeptidase P (PepP, EC 3.4.11.9) gene from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis DSM 20481 was cloned, sequenced and expressed recombinantly in E. coli BL21 (DE3) for the first time. PepP is involved in the hydrolysis of proline-rich proteins and, thus, is important for the debittering of protein hydrolysates. For accurate determination of PepP activity, a novel gas chromatographic assay was established. The release of L-leucine during the hydrolysis of L-leucine-L-proline-L-proline (LPP) was examined for determination of PepP activity. Sufficient recombinant PepP production was achieved via bioreactor cultivation at 16?°C, resulting in PepP activity of 90 ?katLPP Lculture-1. After automated chromatographic purification by His-tag affinity chromatography followed by desalting, PepP activity of 73.8 ?katLPP Lculture-1 was achieved. This was approximately 700-fold higher compared to the purified native PepP produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis NCDO 763 as described in literature. The molecular weight of PepP was estimated to be?~?40?kDa via native-PAGE together with a newly developed activity staining method and by SDS-PAGE. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters Km and Vmax were determined for PepP using three different tripeptide substrates. The purified enzyme showed a pH optimum between 7.0 and 7.5, was most active between 50°C and 60°C and exhibited reasonable stability at 0°C, 20°C and 37°C over 15?days. PepP activity could be increased 6-fold using 8.92?mM MnCl2 and was inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline and EDTA. PMID:22853547

Stressler, Timo; Eisele, Thomas; Schlayer, Michael; Fischer, Lutz

2012-01-01

246

Evaluating the protective efficacy of antigen combinations against Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida infections in cobia, Rachycentron canadum L.  

PubMed

Cobia, Rachycentron canadum L., is a very important aquatic fish that faces the risk of infection with the bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida, and there are few protective approaches available that use multiple antigens. In the present study, potent bivalent antigens from P. damselae ssp. piscicida showed more efficient protection than did single antigens used in isolation. In preparations of three antigens that included recombinant heat shock protein 60 (rHSP60), recombinant ?-enolase (rENOLASE) and recombinant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (rGAPDH), we analysed the doses that elicited the best immune responses and found that this occurred at a total of 30 ?g of antigen per fish. Subsequently, vaccination of fish with rHSP60, rENOLASE and rGAPDH achieved 46.9, 52 and 25% relative per cent survival (RPS), respectively. In addition, bivalent subunit vaccines--combination I (rHSP60 + rENOLASE), combination II (rENOLASE + rGAPDH) and combination III (rHSP60 + rGAPDH)--were administered and the RPS in these groups (65.6, 64.0 and 48.4%, respectively), was higher than that achieved with single-antigen administration. Finally, in combination IV, the trivalent vaccine rHSP60 + rENOLASE + rGAPDH, the RPS was 1.6%. Taken together, our results suggest that combinations of two antigens may achieve a better efficiency than monovalent or trivalent antigens, and this may provide new insights into pathogen prevention strategies. PMID:24206018

Ho, L-P; Chang, C-J; Liu, H-C; Yang, H-L; Lin, J H-Y

2014-01-01

247

Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study, Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (ST...

R. S. Piascik W. H. Prosser

2011-01-01

248

Functional characteristics of a tiny but specialized olfactory system: olfactory receptor neurons of carrot psyllids (Homoptera: Triozidae).  

PubMed

With only approximately 50 olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis (Homoptera: Psylloidea) may have the smallest olfactory system described in adult Neopteran insects. Using single sensillum recordings (SSR) and gas chromatograph-linked SSR, we characterized 4 olfactory sensilla forming a distinct morphological type, which together house approximately 25% of all ORNs. We recorded responses to extracts and single constituents from Daucus carota ssp. sativus, from the conifers Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, and Juniperus communis, as well as from male and female T. apicalis. Receptor neurons were highly selective; only 9 compounds in total elicited repeatable responses, and each neuron responded to at most 3 individual compounds. Chemical profiles of carrot and conifers showed significant overlap, with 4 out of 9 electrophysiologically active compounds occurring in more than one type of extract, but a carrot-specific compound elicited the most repeated responses. We identified 4 tentative neuron classes and found a rather high degree of neuronal redundancy, with 1 neuron class present in 3 and another present in all 4 of the sensilla, respectively. PMID:18653644

Kristoffersen, Lina; Larsson, Mattias C; Anderbrant, Olle

2008-11-01

249

Directional transfer of a multiple-allele male sterile line in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee  

PubMed Central

To produce hybrid seeds of Wutacai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee), a “directional transfer program” was designed to breed the multiple-allele male sterile line of Wutacai. A multiple-allele male sterile line of Naibaicai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L., S01) was used as the male sterile resource, and an inbred line of Wutacai (WT01) was used as the target line. Recurrent backcrossing was employed to transfer the male sterility and other botanical traits simultaneously, while the genotype was identified through test crossing. The male sterility was successfully transferred from S01 to WT01. A new male sterile line, GMS-3, with similar botanical traits to WT01, was bred. Four hybrid combinations were generated with GMS-3 as the female parent. One hybrid (C1) that contained the most desirable traits was developed from the new male sterile line.

Wang, Qiu Shi; Zhang, Xi; Li, Cheng Yu; Liu, Zhi Yong; Feng, Hui

2014-01-01

250

Directional transfer of a multiple-allele male sterile line in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee.  

PubMed

To produce hybrid seeds of Wutacai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee), a "directional transfer program" was designed to breed the multiple-allele male sterile line of Wutacai. A multiple-allele male sterile line of Naibaicai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L., S01) was used as the male sterile resource, and an inbred line of Wutacai (WT01) was used as the target line. Recurrent backcrossing was employed to transfer the male sterility and other botanical traits simultaneously, while the genotype was identifiedthrough test crossing. The male sterility was successfully transferred from S01 to WT01. A new male sterile line, GMS-3, with similar botanical traits to WT01, was bred. Four hybrid combinations were generated with GMS-3 as the female parent. One hybrid (C1) that contained the most desirable traits was developed from the new male sterile line. PMID:24987301

Wang, Qiu Shi; Zhang, Xi; Li, Cheng Yu; Liu, Zhi Yong; Feng, Hui

2014-06-01

251

Reconstruction of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis Cry11A Endotoxin from Fragments Corresponding to Its N- and C-Moieties Restores Its Original Biological Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subtilisin hydrolyzes Cry11A endotoxin (of 70 kD) produced by Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis to fragments of 33- and 36-kD, which correspond to N- and C-terminal halves of the endotoxin molecule. Thermitase (a serine protease from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris) and insect gut proteases from Diptera and Lepidoptera exhibit the same hydrolytic effect on Cry11A. Hydrolyzates maintain high toxicity with respect to larvae

L. P. Revina; L. I. Kostina; L. A. Ganushkina; A. L. Mikhailova; I. A. Zalunin; G. G. Chestukhina

2004-01-01

252

Differences in somatic and gonadic growth of sea urchins ( Stronglyocentrotus droebachiensis ) fed kelp ( Laminaria longicruris ) or the invasive alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides are related to energy acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rocky subtidal community off the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia has historically undergone a cyclical transition between\\u000a Laminaria-dominated kelp beds and sea urchin-dominated barrens. Since the introduction of the invasive alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides, a third community state has emerged: Codium-dominated algal beds. We conducted a 42-week feeding experiment in the laboratory, which mimicked the quantity and quality

Devin A. Lyons; Robert E. Scheibling

2007-01-01

253

Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis at Balnaguard, Scotland: Foliar carbon discrimination (?C) and 15-N natural abundance (?N) suggest gender-linked differences in water and N use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecophysiology of stands of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis at Balnaguard was examined by the relatively non-invasive methods of analysis of foliar · C and ·N and the N and chlorophyll contents of foliar samples of genets of known sex and location in three sub-sites. The ratio of male to female plants was close to 1.0 on the two

Paul W. Hill; L. L. Handley; J. A. Raven

1996-01-01

254

Degradation kinetics of colour, vitamin C and drip loss in frozen broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) during storage at isothermal and non-isothermal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken on colour CIE L*a*b* values, vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and drip loss alterations of frozen broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) stored at isothermal (?7, ?15, and ?25 °C) and non-isothermal (accelerated life testing with step-stress methodology; temperature range from ?30 to ?5 °C) conditions. The storage temperatures were selected according to conditions that occur in the cold chain.Frozen

Elsa M. Gonçalves; Marta Abreu; Teresa R. S. Brandão; Cristina L. M. Silva

2011-01-01

255

Use of the polymerase chain reaction to isolate an S-locus glycoprotein cDNA introgressed from Brassica campestris into B. napus ssp. oleifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-incompatible canola-quality Brassica napus ssp. oleifera line (W1) was generated by introgressing the S-locus from a self-incompatible B. campestris plant into the Westar cultivar. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers derived from conserved regions in S-locus glycoprotein (SLG) alleles, the central region of the active SLG gene (910) was obtained. The remaining portions of the cDNA for

Daphne R. Goring; Paul Banks; allace D. Beversdorf; Steven J. Rothstein

1992-01-01

256

Regeneration of Oxalis triangularis ssp. triangularis from suspension cells cultured in three different systems (solid, liquid-flask and bioreactor cultures)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In attemps to establish in vitro cultures of Oxalis triangularis ssp. Triangularis, the explants of leaves, petioles, bulb scales and suspension cells derived from regenerated bulbs were examined using solid\\u000a (petri dish), liquid-flask and bioreactor cultures. Only bulb-derived suspension cells were able to regenerate in all culture\\u000a systems. The liquid-flask and bioreactor cultures supported organogenesis and yielded larger amount of

W.-L. Teng; Y. W. Ngai

1999-01-01

257

Mapping and cloning of FAD2 gene to develop allele-specific PCR for oleic acid in spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously identified QTL for oleic acid content observed in an F2 population from the Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera cross Jo4002 × Jo4072 (a high-oleic-acid individual) was mapped more precisely by adding markers to the linkage group which harbours the locus. In addition, the fad2 gene, which is known to encode the 18:1 desaturase in Arabidopsis, was mapped in Brassica,

Pirjo Tanhuanpää; Juha Vilkki; Mauno Vihinen

1998-01-01

258

Identification of a RAPD marker for palmitic-acid concentration in the seed oil of spring turnip rape ( Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

F2 progeny (105 individuals) from the cross Jo4002 x Sv3402 were used to identify DNA markers associated with palmitic-acid content in spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera). QTL mapping and ANOVA analysis of 140 markers exposed one linkage group with a locus controlling palmitic-acid content (LOD score 27), and one RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) marker, OPB-11a, closely linked

P. K. Tanhuanpää; J. P. Vilkki; H. J. Vilkki

1995-01-01

259

Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora, Myristica fragrans, Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, Pelargonium sp. and Thymus zygis Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora, Myristica fragrans, Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, Pelargonium sp. and Thymus zygis were screened for antioxidative properties in a lipid-rich matrix as quantified by spectrophotometry using iron (II) sulphate and 2,2?-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride as sources of primordial free radicals. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of M. fragrans, O. vulgare, Pelargonium

H. J. Damien Dorman; Stanley G. Deans

2004-01-01

260

Selective enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and propionibacteria.  

PubMed

Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propionibacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS-NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (nalidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and paramomycine sulfate) agar, reinforced clostridial agar, sugar-based (such as maltose, galactose, sorbitol, manitol, esculin) media, sodium lactate agar, arabinose agar, raffinose agar, xylose agar, and L. casei agar. Incubations were carried out under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 27, 30, 37, 43, and 45 degrees C for 24, 72 h, and 7 to 9 d. S. thermophilus agar and aerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 h were suitable for S. thermophilus. L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus could be enumerated using MRS agar (pH 4.58 or pH 5.20) and under anaerobic incubation at 45 degrees C for 72 h. MRS-vancomycine agar and anaerobic incubation at 43 degrees C for 72 h were suitable to enumerate L. rhamnosus. MRS-vancomycine agar and anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 h were selective for L. casei. To estimate the counts of L. casei by subtraction method, counts of L. rhamnosus on MRS-vancomycine agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h under anaerobic incubation could be subtracted from total counts of L. casei and L. rhamnosus enumerated on MRS-vancomycine agar at 37 degrees C for 72 h under anaerobic incubation. L. acidophilus could be enumerated using MRS-agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h or Basal agar-maltose agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h or BA-sorbitol agar at 37 degrees C for 72 h, under anaerobic incubation. Bifidobacteria could be enumerated on MRS-NNLP agar under anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 h. Propionibacteria could be enumerated on sodium lactate agar under anaerobic incubation at 30 degrees C for 7 to 9 d. A subtraction method was most suitable for counting propionibacteria in the presence of other lactic acid bacteria from a product. For this method, counts of lactic bacteria at d 3 on sodium lactate agar under anaerobic incubation at 30 degrees C were subtracted from counts at d 7 of lactic bacteria and propionibacteria. PMID:12906045

Tharmaraj, N; Shah, N P

2003-07-01

261

Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)  

PubMed Central

Background Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide, which has experienced thousands of years in cultivation and artificial selection. The entire Chinese cabbage genome sequence, and more than forty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. The genome has undergone triplication events since its divergence from Arabidopsis thaliana (13 to 17 Mya), however a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between the two species. Arabidopsis is therefore a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Variation in the number of members in gene families due to genome triplication may contribute to the broad range of phenotypic plasticity, and increased tolerance to environmental extremes observed in Brassica species. Transcription factors are important regulators involved in plant developmental and physiological processes. The AP2/ERF proteins, one of the most important families of transcriptional regulators, play a crucial role in plant growth, and in response to biotic and abiotic stressors. Our analysis will provide resources for understanding the tolerance mechanisms in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis. Results In the present study, 291 putative AP2/ERF transcription factor proteins were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database, and compared with proteins from 15 additional species. The Chinese cabbage AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into four families, including AP2, ERF, RAV, and Soloist. The ERF family was further divided into DREB and ERF subfamilies. The AP2/ERF superfamily was subsequently divided into 15 groups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns, and interaction networks of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily were predicted and analyzed. Distribution mapping results showed AP2/ERF superfamily genes were localized on the 10 Chinese cabbage chromosomes. AP2/ERF transcription factor expression levels exhibited differences among six tissue types based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs). In the AP2/ERF superfamily, 214 orthologous genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. Orthologous gene interaction networks were constructed, and included seven CBF and four AP2 genes, primarily involved in cold regulatory pathways and ovule development, respectively. Conclusions The evolution of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage resulted from genome triplication and tandem duplications. A comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of AP2/ERF superfamily genes in Chinese cabbage is required to fully elucidate AP2/ERF, which provides us with rich resources and opportunities to understand crop stress tolerance mechanisms.

2013-01-01

262

Differential pathogenicity and genetic diversity among Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum isolates from monocot and dicot hosts support early genomic divergence within this taxon.  

PubMed

The capability of Pectobacterium carotovorum isolates to infect monocotyledonous plants has been previously reported; however, no full consideration was given to characterize the association between such isolates and their monocot hosts. To assess differences in aggressiveness among P. carotovorum ssp. carotovorum isolates originating from monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous plants, we used as model plants two susceptible monocot hosts, the ornamentals Zantedeschia aethiopica and Ornithogalum dubium, as well as two common dicot hosts, Solanum tuberosum and Brassica oleracea. Using virulence assays and different genetic analyses we characterized P. carotovorum ssp. carotovorum isolates from diverse geographical locations which originated from plants belonging to four unrelated orders of monocots and five orders of dicots. Invariably, isolates originating from monocots exhibited higher virulence towards the tested monocot plants than dicot isolates, independently of their geographical source. Moreover, monocot and dicot isolates were clearly differentiated by various genetic analyses, such as 16S rRNA sequence clustering, intergenic transcribed spacer-PCR (ITS-PCR) banding pattern and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). We propose that the observed relationship between pathogenicity and genetic diversity among P. carotovorum ssp. carotovorum isolates reveals a co-evolutionary specialization trend in the interaction between this pathogen and its hosts. PMID:18681897

Yishay, Moran; Burdman, Saul; Valverde, Angel; Luzzatto, Tal; Ophir, Ron; Yedidia, Iris

2008-10-01

263

Content of PCB substances in carrot root and its relations to selected soil factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the content of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in agricultural soil and its agrochemical properties on bioaccumulation of PCBs by edible part of carrot (Daucus carota L.) was monitored in 18 locations of the Eastern Slova- kian lowland (ESL). The congeners Nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180 have been determined in almost all samples and in both

I. Danielovi?; Š. Tóth; A. Marcin?inová; V. Šnábel

264

Growth and embryo formation in wild-carrot suspension cultures with ammonium ion as a sole nitrogen source.  

PubMed

Wild-carrot (Daucus carota L.) suspension cultures grew and produced embryos on ammonium ion as a sole source of nitrogen in the absence of any exogenous Kreb's cycle acid when the pH of the medium was controlled by continuous titration with with KOH or KHCO3. PMID:27444

Dougall, D K; Verma, D C

1978-02-01

265

Path analysis suggests phytoene accumulation is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrot roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two F2 carrot (Daucus carota L.) populations (orange rooted Brasilia x very dark orange rooted High Carotene Mass - HCM cross and the dark orange rooted cultivated variety B493 x white rooted wild carrot Queen Anne's Lace - QAL cross) with very unrelated genetic backgrounds were used to investigate intrinsic factors limiting carotenoid accumulation in carrots by applying phenotypic correlation

Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos; Douglas Senalik; Philipp Wallace Simon

2005-01-01

266

Impact of exogenous salicylic acid on the growth, antioxidant activity and physiology of carrot plants subjected to combined salinity and boron toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that salicylic acid (SA) plays a role in the response of plants to salt and osmotic stresses. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of exogenous salicylic acid on the growth, physiology and antioxidant activity of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Nantes) grown under combined stress of salinity and boron toxicity. The treatments consisted

Figen Eraslan; Ali Inal; Aydin Gunes; Mehmet Alpaslan

2007-01-01

267

Palatability of weeds from different European origins to the slugs Deroceras reticulatum Müller and Arion lusitanicus Mabille  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a study on the significance of seed provenances in schemes to enhance biodiversity in agricultural habitats, juvenile plants of Cichorium intybus, Daucus carota, Leucanthemum vulgare and Silene alba of different European origins were exposed to grazing by two slug species, Deroceras reticulatum and Arion lusitanicus. Living plants were offered in trays, either in a glasshouse (Deroceras) or

Michael Keller; Johannes Kollmann; Peter J. Edwards

1999-01-01

268

PLANT UPTAKE OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL FROM SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). lants included all fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum I.). Minimal intact...

269

Distribution of pectic polysaccharides throughout walls of suspension-cultured carrot cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A monoclonal antibody (2 F 4) recognizing a conformational epitope of polygalacturonic acid was used for immunogold localization of pectins in walls of suspension-cultured carrot (D. carota L.) cells at the electron microscopic level. In microcolonies of “young” or “mature” cells, polygalacturonic acid was essentially located on the middle lamella material expanded at three-way junctions between cells or lining

F. Liners; P. Van Cutsem

1992-01-01

270

Predator-prey relationships on Apiaceae at an organic farm.  

PubMed

Orius insidiosus (Say) and O. pumilio (Champion) were confirmed to be sympatric in north central Florida as the major predators of the Florida flower thrips, Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), on flowers of Queen Anne's lace, Daucus carota L. and false Queen Anne's lace, Ammi majus L. F. bispinosa was the predominant thrips observed on both flowers but colonized D. carota to a greater extent and earlier in the season than A. majus. Despite differences in the abundance of F. bispinosa on the two plants, neither Orius species showed host plant affinities. Population profiles for the thrips and Orius spp. followed a density dependent response of prey to predator with a large initial prey population followed by a rapid decline as the predator populations increased. The temporal increases in Orius spp. populations during the flowering season suggest that they were based on reproductive activity. As observed in a previous study, O. insidiosus had a larger population than O. pumilio and also had a predominantly male population on the flowers. By examining carcasses of the prey, there appeared to be no sexual preference of the thrips as prey by the Orius spp. as the prey pattern followed the demographics of the thrips sex ratio. Few immatures of either thrips or Orius spp. were observed on D. carota or A. majus, which suggests that oviposition and nymphal development occurred elsewhere. Based on these findings, D. carota and A. majus could serve as a banker plant system for Orius spp. PMID:22732606

Shirk, Paul D; Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Reitz, Stuart R; Thomas, Jean M G; Koenig, Rosalie L; Hay-Roe, Mirian M; Buss, Lyle J

2012-06-01

271

Role of auxin and sucrose in the differentiation of sieve and tracheary elements in plant tissue cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differentiation of sieve and tracheary elements was studied in callus culture of Daucus carota L., Syringa vulgaris L., Glycine max (L.) Merr., Helianthus annuus L., Hibiscus cannabinus L. and Pisum sativum L. By the lacmoid clearing technique it was found that development of the phloem commenced before that of the xylem. In not one of the calluses was differentiation

Roni Aloni; S. Wise

1980-01-01

272

Abundance and diversity of beneficial arthropods in conventional and “organic” carrot crops in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and ecological diversity of selected groups of beneficial arthropods were compared between 16 organic and 17 conventional carrot (Daucus carota L.) fields in the Manawatu (North Island) and Canterbury and Nelson (South Island) areas of New Zealand using a suction sampler. Organic fields had significantly higher numbers of Hymenoptera: Parasitica, Staphylinidae (Coleoptera), and Neuroptera (Hemerobiidae) compared with conventional

N. A. Berry; S. D. Wratten; A. McErlich; C. Frampton

1996-01-01

273

The Identification and Exploitation of Resistance in Carrots and Wild Umbelliferae to the Carrot Fly, Psila rosae (F.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial plant resistance to the carrot fly, Psila rosae, has been identified in several Nantes varieties of carrot, Daucus carota, which reduces larval damage to the roots and the number of pupae remaining in the soil after cropping by 50%. The resistance of the Nantes variety 'Sytan' was found to be consistent at 12 sites in 5 European countries over

P. R. Ellis

1999-01-01

274

Carrot red leaf virus in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrot (Daucus carota) plants in commercial fields in Israel quite often evince symptoms of leaf reddening (mainly of older leaves), leaf yellowing, and sometimes plant stunting. These symptoms were observed mainly on plants near the edges of the fields and they were attributed to trace element deficiencies, herbicide drifts and low temperature injuries. Incidence of symptomcarrying plants varied in different

S. Marco

1993-01-01

275

Yield, vitamin and mineral contents of organically and conventionally grown carrots and cabbage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was conducted for 3 years in different plot areas of a Pugwash sandy loam near Truro, N.S. Five replicates of two treatments (organic and conventional) were established annually for carrots (Daucus carota L. cv. ‘Cellobunch’) and cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var capitata cv. ‘Lennox’). The addition of pesticides, lime and NPK fertilizer to the conventional plots followed soil test

P. R. Warman; K. A. Havard

1997-01-01

276

Towards better tasting and more nutritious carrots: Carotenoid and sugar content variation in carrot genetic resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity present in crop species is crucial for crop improvement and consequently enables development of new, nutritious agricultural products. Seed collections held in genebanks facilitate access to this diversity and in the case of carrot (Daucus carota), they consist of material collected from across the world, permitting access to the diversity present in the whole genepool. However to

Rafal Baranski; Charlotte Allender; Magdalena Klimek-Chodacka

277

The influence of variation in soil copper on the yield and nutrition of carrots grown in microplots on two organic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrots (Daucus carota L. cv. Gold Pak 128) were grown in microplots of two organic soils at site A (a peat), and site B (a muck) in the summer of 1984. The soil surface (0 to 20 cm) varied in total Cu from 13 to 1659, and 81 to 1745 ?g\\/g at sites A and B, respectively, mainly due to

S. P. Mathur; A. Belanger

1987-01-01

278

Effect of biologically active plants used as netst material and the derived benefit to starling nestlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European starling Sturnus vulgaris preferentially incorporates fresh sprigs of particular plant species for use as nesting material. Chemicals found in these plants may act to reduce pathogen and ectoparasite populations normally found in nest environments. The present experiments were performed to test this Nest Protection Hypothesis. In the fild, we experimentally determined that wild carrot Daucus carota, a plant

Larry Clark; J. Russell Mason

1988-01-01

279

Modelling the impact of climate change on disease incidence: a bioclimatic challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential impact of climate change on disease development was evaluated using mathematical modelling. Disease forecasting systems for late blight of potato [Phytophthora infestans], apple scab [Venturia inaequalis], and cercospora blight of carrot [Cercospora carotae] were selected to evaluate their relevance in predicting future events related to climate change. In general, if these models are to be valid for such

Gaétan Bourgeois; Alain Bourque; Gaétan Deaudelin

2004-01-01

280

Transfer of Resistance Traits from Carrot into Tobacco by Asymmetric Somatic Hybridization: Regeneration of Fertile Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly

Denes Dudits; Eszter Maroy; Tunde Praznovszky; Zoltan Olah; Janos Gyorgyey; Rino Cella

1987-01-01

281

Trichoderma sp. as a microbial suppressive agent of Sclerotium rolfsii on vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma sp. was shown to be effective in preventing the growth of the plant pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii and the consequent rotting of Beta vulgaris L., Daucus carota L., Amorphophallus campanulatus Blume and Momordica charantia L. under post-harvest conditions. It may be useful as a protecting agent during storage and transport of vegetables.

P. K. Mukherjee; K. Raghu

1997-01-01

282

Development of a growth medium suitable for exopolysaccharide production and structural characterisation by Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis AD011.  

PubMed

Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by Bifidobacteria have received considerable attention due to their ability to modify the rheological and physicochemical properties of dairy products. However, the quantification and characterisation of Bifidobacterial EPS are hampered by the presence of EPS-equivalent (EPS-E) substances in complex media such as Reinforced Clostridial Medium (RCM). This study has developed a medium based on RCM which both supports the growth of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis AD011 and does not interfere with the quantification and characterisation of the EPS generated. Medium development involved the identification of EPE-E containing components via NMR analysis followed by their removal, substitution or pre-treatment. Both beef extract and casein acid hydrolysate required chemical pre-treatment to remove polysaccharide components before the medium was free of EPS-E materials. Once EPS-E free components had been identified, lactose, glucose and galactose were evaluated as potential carbon sources. Glucose was found to be the optimum carbon source. The final medium composition supported growth to the same extent as RCM providing significant EPS yields and no interferences during analysis. PMID:24632517

Alhudhud, M; Humphreys, P; Laws, A

2014-05-01

283

Arzanol, an anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV-1 phloroglucinol alpha-Pyrone from Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum.  

PubMed

An acetone extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum afforded the phloroglucinol alpha-pyrone arzanol (1a) as a potent NF-kappaB inhibitor. Arzanol is identical with homoarenol (2a), whose structure should be revised. The phloroglucinol-type structure of arzanol and the 1,2,4-trihydroxyphenyl-type structure of the base-induced fragmentation product of homoarenol could be reconciled in light of a retro-Fries-type fragmentation that triggers a change of the hydroxylation pattern of the aromatic moiety. On the basis of these findings, the structure of arenol, the major constituent of the clinically useful antibiotic arenarin, should be revised from 2b to 1b, solving a long-standing puzzle over its biogenetic derivation. An alpha-pyrone (micropyrone, 7), the monoterpene rac-E-omega-oleoyloxylinalol (10), four known tremetones (9a-d), and the dimeric pyrone helipyrone (8) were also obtained. Arzanol inhibited HIV-1 replication in T cells and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated primary monocytes, qualifying as a novel plant-derived anti-inflammatory and antiviral chemotype worth further investigation. PMID:17315926

Appendino, Giovanni; Ottino, Michela; Marquez, Nieves; Bianchi, Federica; Giana, Anna; Ballero, Mauro; Sterner, Olov; Fiebich, Bernd L; Munoz, Eduardo

2007-04-01

284

Nutritional assessment of processing effects on major and trace element content in sea buckthorn juice (Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides).  

PubMed

Processing effects on the mineral content were investigated during juice production from sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides, Elaeagnaceae) using berries from 2 different growing areas. The major and trace elements of sea buckthorn berries and juices were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)--(calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)--(arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, zinc). Potassium is the most abundant major element in sea buckthorn berries and juices. The production process increased the potassium content in the juice by about 20%. Moreover, the processing of juice increased the value of manganese up to 32% compared to the content in berries. During industrial juice production, the technological steps caused a loss of about 53% to 77% of the chromium concentration, 50% of the copper content, 64% to 75% of the molybdenum amount, and up to 45% of the iron concentration in the final juice product. Consumption of sea buckthorn juice represents a beneficial source of chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, iron, and potassium for the achievement of the respective dietary requirements. PMID:19241584

Gutzeit, D; Winterhalter, P; Jerz, G

2008-08-01

285

Bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. urealyticus caused by infected pressure ulcer: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

CONTEXT Coagulase-negative staphylococci are common colonizers of the human skin and have become increasingly recognized as agents of clinically significant nosocomial infections. CASE REPORT The case of a 79-year-old male patient with multi-infarct dementia who presented systemic inflammatory response syndrome is reported. This was attributed to bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. urealyticus, which was grown on blood cultures originating from an infected pressure ulcer. The few cases of Staphylococcus cohnii infection reported in the literature consist of bacteremia relating to catheters, surgical prostheses, acute cholecystitis, brain abscess, endocarditis, pneumonia, urinary tract infection and septic arthritis, generally presenting a multiresistant profile, with nearly 90% resistance to methicillin. CONCLUSIONS The reported case is, to our knowledge, the first case of true bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus caused by an infected pressure ulcer. It shows that this species may be underdiagnosed and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for community-acquired skin infections. PMID:23538597

Soldera, Jonathan; Nedel, Wagner Luis; Cardoso, Paulo Ricardo Cerveira; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

2013-03-01

286

Dental health status and endodontic treatment of captive brown bears (Ursus arctos ssp.) living in the Bernese bear pit.  

PubMed

The teeth of five adult captive brown bears (Ursus arctos ssp.) were examined and radiographed for occlusion, loss of teeth, dental plaque and calculus, and attrition under general anesthesia. Deposits of dental calculus were found in various locations with an overall prevalence of 8% to 15% of all tooth surfaces. In all five animals, severe enamel and dentinal attrition defects were observed in canine teeth with exposed pulp. Cage-chewing behavior is probably the main cause for the dental attrition. The composition of the food and feeding management are most likely responsible for the lack of natural cleaning and the resulting plaque and calculus formation. All affected canine teeth were treated with endodontic procedures using several materials and techniques, and evaluated one- to two-and-a-half years later by clinical examination, radiography, and scanning electron microscopy of silicone casts of the treated teeth. All coronal fillings were tight. The apices were not completely sealed in two teeth. We conclude that the use of adequate and specialized instrumentation and techniques for the treatment of these long, curved, large diameter root canals is more important than the particular endodontic and restorative materials used. The dental health status of zoo animals is an indicator of their general well-being. Preventive measures should be taken in their environment and management to minimize the risk of dental conditions. PMID:10518870

Wenker, C J; Müller, M; Berger, M; Heiniger, S; Neiger-Aeschbacher, G; Schawalder, P; Lussi, A

1998-03-01

287

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) by using different extraction methods.  

PubMed

In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) were determined by using solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), supercritical fluid extraction, and conventional hydrodistillation (CH) methods. The inhibitory effects on the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical of essential oils obtained from oregano by using SFME and CH were similar. However, essential oil extracted by CH showed greater (2.69??mol/?L of oil) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than oregano oils obtained by SFME (P?

Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Karagözlü, Nural; Sahin, Serpil

2011-06-01

288

Congruence of phytochemical and morphological profiles along an altitudinal gradient in Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare from Venetian Region (NE Italy).  

PubMed

Plants of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare from the Veneto region (NE Italy) were selected to study the variability of the essential-oil composition from leaves and inflorescences throughout an elevation gradient. We investigated also the morphology of non-glandular and glandular trichomes, their distribution on the vegetative and reproductive organs, as well as the histochemistry of the secreted products, with special focus on the terpenoidic fraction. Since glandular trichomes are prerequisite for the essential-oil synthesis, the second objective was to establish whether its production is related to glandular hair number, and density. Essential-oil contents decline with increasing altitude, and the micromorphological observations revealed a decrease in trichome density along the same direction. Moreover, GC/MS analysis together with principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the three investigated populations were significantly different in chemical composition. Therefore, an important interpopulation variability for low-, mid-, and high-altitude sites was established, suggesting the likely occurrence of different biotypes associated with altitudinal levels. Hence, the involvement of abiotic factors such as temperature and drought in the chemical polymorphism of O. vulgare associated with elevation is briefly discussed. PMID:23576343

Giuliani, Claudia; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Maleci Bini, Laura

2013-04-01

289

Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses. PMID:17201644

Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ate?, Ay?e; Unver, Ahmet

2006-01-01

290

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in Turkey.  

PubMed

The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the dried leaves and flowers of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas were separately identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. The main components were alpha-fenchone (41.9 +/- 1.2%), 1,8-cineole (15.6 +/- 0.8%), camphor (12.1 +/- 0.5%), and viridiflorol (4.1 +/- 0.4%) in the leaves; and alpha-fenchone (39.2 +/- 0.9%), myrtenyl acetate (9.5 +/- 0.4%), alpha-pinene (6.1 +/- 0.09%), camphor (5.9 +/- 0.05%) and 1,8-cineole (3.8 +/- 0.1%) in the flowers. Overall, 55 and 66 constituents were identified in the leaf and flower essential oils representing more than 90% and 94% of the total, respectively. In addition, the essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial and anticandidal activities by broth microdilution. The flower essential oil was found to be relatively more active than the leaf oil towards the tested pathogenic microorganisms. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to the flower oil (MIC = 31.2 microg/mL). The oils, evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity using a TLC-DPPH assay, were inactive at a concentration of 2 mg/mL. PMID:19731612

Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Demirci, Betül; Ye?ilada, Erdem; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

2009-07-01

291

Overcoming the production limitations of Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata strain K122 bioinsecticides in low-cost medium.  

PubMed

For low-cost production of Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata strain K122 bioinsecticide, a cheap complex medium was optimized. Diluted seawater was used as the source of micronutrients, especially sodium chloride, involved in the improvement of cell density, culturability and oral toxicity of the bacterium P. temperata against Ephestia kuehniella larvae. Thus, the new formulated medium was composed only of 10 g/l of soya bean meal, used as the carbon and nitrogen main source, mixed in sevenfold diluted seawater. At such conditions, several limitations of P. temperata bioinsecticide productions were shown to be overcome. The appearance of variants small colony polymorphism was completely avoided. Thus, the strain K122 was maintained at the primary form even after prolonged incubation. Moreover, the viable but nonculturable state was partially overcome, since the ability of P. temperata cells to form colonies on the solid medium was prolonged until 78 h of incubation. In addition, when cultured in the complex medium, P. temperata cells were produced at high cell density of 12 × 10(8) cells/ml and exhibited 81.48% improvement of oral toxicity compared to those produced in the optimized medium. With such medium, the large-scale bioinsecticides production into 3-l fully controlled fermenter improved the total cell counts, CFU counts and oral toxicity by 20, 5.81 and 16.73%, respectively. This should contribute to a significant reduction of production cost of highly potent P. temperata strain K122 cells, useful as a bioinsecticide. PMID:21656156

Jallouli, Wafa; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

2011-10-01

292

The dynamic growth exhibition and accumulation of cadmium of Pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) grown in contaminated soils.  

PubMed

The accumulation of heavy metals, especially cadmium (Cd), in leafy vegetables was compared with other vegetables. Pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) is a leafy vegetable consumed in Taiwan and its safety for consumption after growing in contaminated soils is a public concern. A pot experiment (50 days) was conducted to understand the dynamic accumulation of Cd by pak choi grown in artificially contaminated soils. The edible parts of pak choi were sampled and analyzed every 2-3 days. The dry weight (DW) of pak choi was an exponential function of leaf length, leaf width, and chlorophyll content. The accumulation of Cd increased when the soil Cd concentration was raised, but was kept at a constant level during different growth stages. Pak choi had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = ratio of the concentration in the edible parts to that in the soils), at values of 3.5-4.0. The consumption of pak choi grown in soils contaminated at levels used in this study would result in the ingestion of impermissible amounts of Cd and could possibly have harmful effects on health. PMID:24284350

Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching

2013-11-01

293

Identification of Fur regulated genes in the bacterial fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida using the Fur titration assay.  

PubMed

Bacteria have developed a series of iron-scavenging and transport systems. The expression of many of the iron utilization genes is tightly regulated by the Fe2+ loaded Fur repressor protein. In this study, the Fur titration assay (FURTA) was used to screen for DNA fragments from a genomic DNA library of Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida containing potential Fe2+ Fur binding sites or iron binding-proteins which withdraw iron from Fur. One of the clones encoded a tonB gene and adjacent a functionally related exbB gene. An additional and complete tonB exbB exbD gene cluster was identified and sequenced. A gene homologous to the ferritin gene was found whose FURTA-positive phenotype may be explained by its iron-binding ability. Genes encoding a putative complete iron-regulated outer membrane transport protein and a pseudogene of a transport protein were found. The FURTA assay also revealed iron regulation of the AraC type transcriptional regulation. PMID:15689115

Osorio, Carlos R; Lemos, Manuel L; Braun, Volkmar

2004-12-01

294

Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B-30892 can inhibit cytotoxic effects and adhesion of pathogenic Clostridium difficile to Caco-2 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Probiotic microorganisms are receiving increasing interest for use in the prevention, treatment, or dietary management of certain diseases, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of AAD and the resulting C. difficile – mediated infection (CDI), is potentially deadly. C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) is manifested by severe inflammation and colitis, mostly due to the release of two exotoxins by C. difficile causing destruction of epithelial cells in the intestine. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B-30892 (LDB B-30892) on C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity using Caco-2 cells as a model. Methods Experiments were carried out to test if the cytotoxicity induced by C. difficile-conditioned-medium on Caco-2 cells can be altered by cell-free supernatant (CFS) from LDB B-30892 in different dilutions (1:2 to 1:2048). In a similar experimental setup, comparative evaluations of other probiotic strains were made by contrasting the results from these strains with the results from LDB B-30892, specifically the ability to affect C. difficile induced cytotoxicity on Caco-2 monolayers. Adhesion assays followed by quantitative analysis by Giemsa staining were conducted to test if the CFSs from LDB B-30892 and other probiotic test strains have the capability to alter the adhesion of C. difficile to the Caco-2 monolayer. Experiments were also performed to evaluate if LDB B-30892 or its released components have any bactericidal effect on C. difficile. Results and discussion Co-culturing of LDB B-30892 with C. difficile inhibited the C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells. When CFS from LDB B-30892-C. difficile co-culture was administered (up to a dilution of 1:16) on Caco-2 monolayer, there were no signs of cytotoxicity. When CFS from separately grown LDB B-30892 was mixed with the cell-free toxin preparation (CFT) of separately cultured C. difficile, the LDB B-30892 CFS was inhibitory to C. difficile CFT-mediated cytotoxicity at a ratio of 1:8 (LDB B-30892 CFS:C. difficile CFT). We failed to find any similar inhibition of C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity when other probiotic organisms were tested in parallel to LDB B-30892. Our data of cytotoxicity experiments suggest that LDB B-30892 releases one or more bioactive component(s) into the CFS, which neutralizes the cytotoxicity induced by C. difficile, probably by inactivating its toxin(s). Our data also indicate that CFS from LDB B-30892 reduced the adhesion of C. difficile by 81%, which is significantly (P <0.01) higher than all other probiotic organisms tested in this study. Conclusion This study reveals the very first findings that Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B-30892 (LDB B-30892) can eliminate C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity, using Caco-2 cells as a model. The study also demonstrates that LDB B-30892 can reduce the colonization of C. difficile cells in colorectal cells. More study is warranted to elucidate the specific mechanism of action of such reduction of cytotoxicity and colonization.

Banerjee, Pratik; Merkel, Glenn J; Bhunia, Arun K

2009-01-01

295

Step-by-step evolution of neo-sex chromosomes in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.  

PubMed

Geographical subspecies of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), differ considerably in sex chromosome constitution owing to sex chromosome fusions with autosomes, which leads to variation in chromosome numbers. We cloned S. cynthia orthologues of 16 Bombyx mori genes and mapped them to chromosome spreads of S. cynthia subspecies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine the origin of S. cynthia neo-sex chromosomes. FISH mapping revealed that the Z chromosome and chromosome 12 of B. mori correspond to the Z chromosome and an autosome (A?) of S. c. ricini (Vietnam population, 2n=27, Z0 in female moths), respectively. B. mori chromosome 11 corresponds partly to another autosome (A?) and partly to a chromosome carrying nucleolar organizer region (NOR) of this subspecies. The NOR chromosome of S. c. ricini is also partly homologous to B. mori chromosome 24. Furthermore, our results revealed that two A? homologues each fused with the W and Z chromosomes in a common ancestor of both Japanese subspecies S. c. walkeri (Sapporo population, 2n=26, neo-Wneo-Z) and S. cynthia subsp. indet. (Nagano population, 2n=25, neo-WZ?Z?). One homologue, corresponding to the A? autosome in S. c. ricini and S. c. walkeri, fused with the W chromosome in S. cynthia subsp. indet. Consequently, the other homologue became a Z? chromosome. These results clearly showed a step-by-step evolution of the neo-sex chromosomes by repeated autosome-sex chromosome fusions. We suggest that the rearrangements of sex chromosomes may facilitate divergence of S. cynthia subspecies towards speciation. PMID:20668432

Yoshido, A; Sahara, K; Marec, F; Matsuda, Y

2011-04-01

296

Endothelium-dependent induction of vasorelaxation by Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis in rat isolated thoracic aorta.  

PubMed

In the current study, vasorelaxant effect produced by the aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis (MOO) (Lamiaceae) and its possible mechanism in isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine were examined. In the first series of experiments, effect of MOO on the baseline and phenylephrine (10(-5)M) precontracted arteries was investigated, while in the second group of experiments, endothelium intact or endothelium denuded effect was determined. The agents used were N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME), an irreversible inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, indomethacin (10 microM), a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, and glibenclamide (10 microM), an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker. The extract was found to exert a vasorelaxant effect and rosmarinic acid quantity, the characteristic compound of the plant, was analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (18.75%), and was further confirmed by LC-MS analysis giving a prominent [M(+1)] molecular ion peak at m/z 365. Total phenol amount in the extract was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (0.284 mg/mg extract). Vasorelaxant effect of the extract was entirely dependent on the presence of endothelium and was abolished by pretreatment with L-NAME, whereas pretreatment with indomethacin and glibenclamide reduced the relaxation to a minor extent. Rosmarinic acid was also tested in the same manner as the extract and was found to exert vasorelaxant effect. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of MOO vasodilates via nitric oxide pathway with the possible involvement of prostacycline and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) pathways as well. PMID:18606529

Ersoy, S; Orhan, I; Turan, N N; Sahan, G; Ark, M; Tosun, F

2008-12-01

297

The evolutionary history and diagnostic utility of the CRISPR-Cas system within Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica.  

PubMed

Evolutionary studies of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (cas) genes can provide insights into host-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics and the frequency at which different genomic events (e.g., horizontal vs. vertical transmission) occur. Within this study, we used whole genome sequence (WGS) data to determine the evolutionary history and genetic diversity of CRISPR loci and cas genes among a diverse set of 427 Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica isolates representing 64 different serovars. We also evaluated the performance of CRISPR loci for typing when compared to whole genome and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approaches. We found that there was high diversity in array length within both CRISPR1 (median = 22; min = 3; max = 79) and CRISPR2 (median = 27; min = 2; max = 221). There was also much diversity within serovars (e.g., arrays differed by as many as 50 repeat-spacer units among Salmonella ser. Senftenberg isolates). Interestingly, we found that there are two general cas gene profiles that do not track phylogenetic relationships, which suggests that non-vertical transmission events have occurred frequently throughout the evolutionary history of the sampled isolates. There is also considerable variation among the ranges of pairwise distances estimated within each cas gene, which may be indicative of the strength of natural selection acting on those genes. We developed a novel clustering approach based on CRISPR spacer content, but found that typing based on CRISPRs was less accurate than the MLST-based alternative; typing based on WGS data was the most accurate. Notwithstanding cost and accessibility, we anticipate that draft genome sequencing, due to its greater discriminatory power, will eventually become routine for traceback investigations. PMID:24765574

Pettengill, James B; Timme, Ruth E; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Toro, Magaly; Allard, Marc W; Strain, Errol; Musser, Steven M; Brown, Eric W

2014-01-01

298

Essential-oil composition, antileishmanial, and toxicity study of Artemisia abyssinica and Satureja punctata ssp. punctata from Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Essential oils of Artemisia abyssinica and Satureja punctata ssp. punctata from Ethiopia were analyzed by GC and GC/MS, and screened for leishmanicidal activity against promastigote and axenic amastigotes of Leishmania donovani and L. aethiopica, including toxicity studies on human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) and erythrocytes in vitro. GC/MS of A. abyssinica oil revealed 67 compounds (99.94%) with the major constituents yomogi alcohol (38.47%), artemisyl acetate (24.88%), and artemisia alcohol (6.70%), and oxygenated monoterpenes (84.00%) as the dominant group. The oil of S. punctata contained 67 compounds (99.49%) with the main constituents geranial (27.62%), neral (21.72%), alpha-bisabolol (13.62%), and (E)-nerolidol (4.82%), of which oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes (58.39 and 26.91%, resp.) showed highest abundance. Both oils showed effect on promastigotes (MIC 76.5 to 312.5 nl/ml) and amastigotes (EC(50) 4.06 to 131.00 nl/ml) of L. donovani and L. aethiopica, and varying toxicities on THP-1 cells (CC(50) 0.013 to 350 nl/ml with selectivity index between 0.001 and 28) and erythrocytes (with LC(50) 0.35 to 1.52 microl/ml). S. punctata oil exerted highest activity against both Leishmania sp. and toxicity. The revealed antileishmanial activities support further isolation and investigation of oil constituents for in vitro/in vivo evaluation. PMID:20397218

Tariku, Yinebeb; Hymete, Ariaya; Hailu, Asrat; Rohloff, Jens

2010-04-01

299

A novel vaccine against Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) co-infection.  

PubMed

To develop a vaccine against Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) co-infection, the genes of porcine IL-18, capsid protein (Cap) of PCV2 and M-like protein (SzP) of SEZ were inserted into the swinepox virus (SPV) genome by homologous recombination. The recombinant swinepox virus rSPV-ICS was verified by PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays. To evaluate the immunogenicity of rSPV-ICS, 28 PCV2 and SEZ seronegative Bama minipigs were immunized with rSPV-ICS (n=8), commercial PCV2 vaccine and SEZ vaccine (n=8) or wild type SPV (n=8). The results showed that SzP-specific antibody and PCV2 neutralizing antibody of the rSPV-ICS immunized group increased significantly compared to the wild type SPV treated group after vaccination and increased continuously over time. The levels of IL-4 and IFN-? in the rSPV-ICS immunized group were significantly higher than the other three groups, respectively. After been co-challenged with PCV2 and SEZ, 87.5% piglets in rSPV-ICS immunized group were survived. Significant reductions in gross lung lesion score, histopathological lung lesion score, and lymph node lesion score were noticed in the rSPV-ICS immunized group compared with the wtSPV treated group. The results suggested that the recombinant rSPV-ICS provided piglets with significant protection against PCV2-SEZ co-infection; thus, it offers proof-of-principle for the development of a vaccine for the prevention of these swine diseases. PMID:24726504

Lin, Hui-Xing; Ma, Zhe; Yang, Xu-Qiu; Fan, Hong-Jie; Lu, Cheng-Ping

2014-06-25

300

The construction of a genetic linkage map of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino).  

PubMed

Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino) is one of the most important vegetables in eastern China. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 127 doubled haploid (DH) lines, and the DH population was derived from a commercial hybrid "Hanxiao" (lines SW-13 x L-118). Out of the 614 polymorphic markers, 43.49% were not assigned to any of the linkage groups(LGs). Chi-square tests showed that 42.67% markers were distorted from expected Mendelian segregation ratios, and the direction of distorted segregation was mainly toward the paternal parent L-118. After sequentially removing the markers that had an interval distance smaller than 1 cM from the upper marker, the overall quality of the linkage map was increased. Two hundred and sixty-eight molecular markers were mapped into 10 LGs, which were anchored to the corresponding chromosome of the B. rapa reference map based on common simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The map covers 973.38 cM of the genome and the average interval distance between markers was 3.63 cM. The number of markers on each LG ranged from 18 (R08) to 64 (R07), with an average interval distance within a single LG from 1.70 cM (R07) to 6.71 cM (R06). Among these mapped markers, 169 were sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular markers, 50 were SSR markers and 49 were random amplification polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. With further saturation to the LG, the current map offers a genetic tool for loci analysis for important agronomic traits. PMID:19683673

Cheng, Yan; Geng, Jianfeng; Zhang, Jingyi; Wang, Qian; Ban, Qingyu; Hou, Xilin

2009-08-01

301

Association of gene-linked SSR markers to seed glucosinolate content in oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. napus).  

PubMed

Breeding of oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. napus) has evoked a strong bottleneck selection towards double-low (00) seed quality with zero erucic acid and low seed glucosinolate content. The resulting reduction of genetic variability in elite 00-quality oilseed rape is particularly relevant with regard to the development of genetically diverse heterotic pools for hybrid breeding. In contrast, B. napus genotypes containing high levels of erucic acid and seed glucosinolates (++ quality) represent a comparatively genetically divergent source of germplasm. Seed glucosinolate content is a complex quantitative trait, however, meaning that the introgression of novel germplasm from this gene pool requires recurrent backcrossing to avoid linkage drag for high glucosinolate content. Molecular markers for key low-glucosinolate alleles could potentially improve the selection process. The aim of this study was to identify potentially gene-linked markers for important seed glucosinolate loci via structure-based allele-trait association studies in genetically diverse B. napus genotypes. The analyses included a set of new simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers whose orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana are physically closely linked to promising candidate genes for glucosinolate biosynthesis. We found evidence that four genes involved in the biosynthesis of indole, aliphatic and aromatic glucosinolates might be associated with known quantitative trait loci for total seed glucosinolate content in B. napus. Markers linked to homoeologous loci of these genes in the paleopolyploid B. napus genome were found to be associated with a significant effect on the seed glucosinolate content. This example shows the potential of Arabidopsis-Brassica comparative genome analysis for synteny-based identification of gene-linked SSR markers that can potentially be used in marker-assisted selection for an important trait in oilseed rape. PMID:18322671

Hasan, M; Friedt, W; Pons-Kühnemann, J; Freitag, N M; Link, K; Snowdon, R J

2008-05-01

302

?-Casein hydrolysate generated by the cell envelope-associated proteinase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581 protects against trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581, a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium used as a starter culture for the manufacture of several fermented dairy products, possesses an efficient proteolytic system that is able to release a series of potentially bioactive peptides (i.e., antihypertensive and phosphopeptides) from ?- and ?-caseins. Considering the potential beneficial health effects of the peptides released by L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581 from milk proteins, the aim of this work was to analyze the anti-mutagenic and anti-inflammatory properties of the casein hydrolysates generated by the cell envelope-associated proteinase of this bacterium. The ability of ?- and ?-casein hydrolysates to suppress the mutagenesis of a direct-acting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 increased concomitantly with the time of casein hydrolysis. The anti-inflammatory effect of the ?-casein hydrolysate was evaluated using a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced Crohn's disease murine model. The hydrolysate was administered to mice 10 d before the intrarectal inoculation of TNBS. The mice that received ?-casein hydrolysate previously to TNBS showed decreased mortality rates, faster recovery of initial body weight loss, less microbial translocation to the liver, decreased ?-glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase activities in the gut, and decreased colonic macroscopic and microscopic damage compared with the animals that did not receive this hydrolysate. In addition, ?-casein hydrolysate exerted a beneficial effect on acute intestinal inflammation by increased interleukin 10 and decreased IFN-? production in the gut. Our findings are consistent with the health-promoting attributes of the milk products fermented by L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581 and open up new opportunities for developing novel functional foods. PMID:22365194

Espeche Turbay, M B; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Perdigón, G; Savoy de Giori, G; Hebert, E M

2012-03-01

303

Ultra fast symmetry and SIMD-based projection-backprojection (SSP) algorithm for 3-D PET image reconstruction.  

PubMed

Remarkable progress in positron emission tomography (PET) development has occurred in recent years, in hardware, software, and computer implementation of image reconstruction. Recent development in PET scanners such as the high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) developed by CTI (now Siemens) represents such a case and is capable of greatly enhanced resolution as well as sensitivity. In these PET scanners, the amount of coincidence line data collected contains more than 4.5 x 10(9) coincidence lines of response generated by as many nuclear detectors as 120 000. This formidable amount of data and the reconstruction of this data set pose a real problem in HRRT and have also been of the major bottle neck in further developments of high resolution PET scanners as well as their applications. In these classes of PET scanners, therefore, obtaining one set of reconstructed images often requires many hours of image reconstruction. For example, in HRRT with full data collection in a normal brain scan (using SPAN 3), the image reconstruction time is close to 80 min, making it practically impossible to attempt any list-mode-based dynamic imaging since the image reconstruction time would take many days (as much as 43 h or more for 32-frame dynamic image reconstruction). To remedy this data-handling problem in image reconstruction, we developed a new algorithm based on the symmetry properties of the projection and backprojection processes, especially in the 3-D OSEM algorithm where multiples of projection and back-projection are required. In addition, the single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) technique also allowed us to successfully incorporate the symmetry properties mentioned above, thereby effectively reducing the total image reconstruction time to a few minutes. We refer to this technique as the symmetry and SIMD-based projection-backprojection (SSP) technique or algorithm and the details of the technique will be discussed and an example of the application of the technique to the HRRT's OSEM algorithm will be presented as a demonstration. PMID:17679330

Hong, I K; Chung, S T; Kim, H K; Kim, Y B; Son, Y D; Cho, Z H

2007-06-01

304

Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum)  

PubMed Central

Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71) from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric ‘African Slope’ of “Evolution Canyon”) formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22) were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2%) than among populations (45.8%). Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121–128 and 121–134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123–128,125–128, and 123–125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin), Dof (DNA binding with one finger), and light. Conclusions Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important determinants in the observed sequence variation of HvABCG31 promoter. Abiotic stresses may be involved in the HvABCG31 gene transcription regulations, generating more protective cuticles in plants under stresses.

2012-01-01

305

Effects of genotype, latitude, and weather conditions on the composition of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) berry juice.  

PubMed

Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) of nine varieties were collected from three growth locations in five inconsecutive years (n = 152) to study the compositional differences of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in berries of different genotypes. Fructose and glucose (major sugars) were highest in Chuiskaya and Vitaminaya among the varieties studied, respectively. Malic acid and quinic acid (major acids) were highest in Pertsik and Vitaminaya, respectively. Ascorbic acid was highest in Oranzhevaya and lowest in Vitaminaya. Berry samples of nine varieties collected from two growth locations in five years (n = 124) were combined to study the effects of latitude and weather conditions on the composition of H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica. Sea buckthorn berries grown at lower latitude had higher levels of total sugar and sugar/acid ratio and a lower level of total acid and were supposed to have better sensory properties than those grown at higher latitude. Glucose, quinic acid, and ascorbic acid were hardly influenced by weather conditions. The other components showed various correlations with temperature, radiation, precipitation, and humidity variables. In addition, fructose, sucrose, and myo-inositol correlated positively with each other and showed negative correlation with malic acid on the basis of all the samples studied (n = 152). PMID:22397621

Zheng, Jie; Yang, Baoru; Trépanier, Martin; Kallio, Heikki

2012-03-28

306

Determination of in vitro antioxidative and antimicrobial properties and total phenolic contents of Ziziphora clinopodioides, Cyclotrichium niveum, and Mentha longifolia ssp. typhoides var. typhoides.  

PubMed

The aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides, Cyclotrichium niveum, and Mentha longifolia ssp. typhoides var. typhoides were screened for their possible antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in addition to their penolic contents. Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems: 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and beta-carotene/linoleic acid. In the first case, Z. clinopodioides was superior to the other species with a 50% inhibitory concentration value of 37.73 +/- 1.18 microg/mg. Similar results were obtained from the beta-carotene/linoleic acid system. Inhibition capacity of the linoleic acid of Z. clinopodioides was 83.56 +/- 1.19%. Additionally, antioxidant activities of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, and ascorbic acid were determined in parallel experiments. Methanol extracts obtained from the plants studied were found to have moderate antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested. In general, Z. clinopodioides extract exhibited stronger activity than the other extracts. On the other hand, Acinetobacter lwoffii and Candida krusei were the most sensitive microorganisms for the all extracts. The amount of the total phenolics was highest in Z. clinopodioides extract (129.55 +/- 2.26 microg/mg), followed by M. longifolia ssp. typhoides var. typhoides (93.47 +/-1.84 microg/mg). It is extremely important to note that there is a positive correlation between antioxidant activity potential and amount of phenolic compounds. PMID:19627221

Gursoy, Nevcihan; Sihoglu-Tepe, Arzuhan; Tepe, Bektas

2009-06-01

307

Determination of antimutagenic properties of apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. longifolia with yeast DEL assay.  

PubMed

Lamiaceae is an important plant family that has been investigated for its medicinal properties due to its large amounts of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Flavonoids have been shown to have antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in different test systems, but their certain mechanisms are still unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of apigenin 7-O-rutinoside, a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. longifolia. The possible antimutagenic potential of apigenin 7-O-rutinoside (A7R) was examined against mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and acridine (AC) in a eukaryotic cell system Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS112. The results showed that A7R has different inhibition rates against EMS and AC-induced mutagenicity. Thus, the properties of A7R are of great pharmacological importance and might be beneficial for reducing the risk of reactive oxygen species-related diseases. PMID:22491724

Gulluce, Medine; Orhan, Furkan; Adiguzel, Ahmet; Bal, Tugba; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Dermirezer, Lutfiye Omur

2013-07-01

308

Purification, virulence and characterization of an extracellular peptidase produced by Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. masoucida isolated from cultured sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.  

PubMed

Strain H1, Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. masoucida isolated from an ulcer on the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus proved to be virulent toward this holothurian at 12 degrees C. Extracellular products (ECP) of strain H1 were prepared, and an extracellular peptidase of 42 kDa was purified from the ECP using Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography and diethylaminoethyl Sepharose ion exchange chromatography. Stepwise virulence tests on sea cucumbers indicated that the 42 kDa peptidase was the virulence factor of strain H1, and its LD50 for these holothurians was 1.12 microg g(-1). A peptidase activity test using azocasein as a substrate showed that optimum pH and temperature for the peptidase are 8.0 and 40 degrees C, respectively; the peptidase was completely inactivated above 70 degrees C. The peptidase was inhibited strongly by 5 mM phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride, indicating that the enzyme is a serine peptidase. PMID:19244974

Yang, Jia-Long; Zhan, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Li; Xing, Jing

2008-12-22

309

Description of Alaeuris stehlini n. sp. and Alaeuris numidica canariensis n. ssp. (Nematoda, Pharyngodonidae), parasite of Gallotia stehlini, lacertid of Grand Canary Island (Spain).  

PubMed

Pharyngodonid nematodes (Oxyuroidea) belonging to the genus Alaeuris Thapar, 1925, were collected from the posterior gut of Gallotia stehlini (Lacertidae) from Grand Canary Island. Two species Alaeuris stehlini n. sp. and Alaeuris numidica canariensis n. ssp. were identified. The new species is described in which the long thin males are characterized by narrow caudal alae, a rounded first pair of adanal papillae non pedunculate, the second pair attached and elongate, the three pair teated; a short narrow V plate and a relatively long caudal appendage. The females are also long and thin with a slightly salient vulva, a conical pointed caudal appendage, oesophageal length approximately one third of body, excretory pore below the oesophageal bulb. The new subspecies most closely resembles Alaeuris numidica numidica. (Seurat, 1918) Petter, 1966 and Alaeuris numidica madagascariensis Petter, 1966. PMID:10229935

Zapatero, C; Castaño, C; Zapatero, L M

1999-03-01

310

Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum from Different Areas in the Southern Apennines (Italy).  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, growing wild in three different localities in the Southern Apennines, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 103 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds and all oils belonged to the chemotype carvacrol/thymol. The three essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity by determining their influence on the germination and initial radicle elongation of Sinapis arvensis L., Phalaris canariensis L., Lepidium sativum L., and Raphanus sativus L. The seed germination and radicle growth were affected in various degrees. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the three essential oils was assayed against three species causing pre- and postharvest fruit decay (Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola). At 1000?ppm, the three oils completely inhibited fungal growth. The hemolytic activity of the oils was assayed and showed no effect on the cell membranes of bovine erythrocytes. PMID:24706631

Mancini, Emilia; Camele, Ippolito; Elshafie, Hazem S; De Martino, Laura; Pellegrino, Carlo; Grulova, Daniela; De Feo, Vincenzo

2014-04-01

311

Comparative sequence analysis of the potato cyst nematode resistance locus H1 reveals a major lack of co-linearity between three haplotypes in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp.)  

PubMed Central

The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a high-resolution genetic map of the H1 locus (Bakker et al. in Theor Appl Genet 109:146–152, 2004) were used to screen a BAC library to construct a physical map covering a 341-kb region of the resistant haplotype coming from SH. For comparison, physical maps were also generated of the two haplotypes from the diploid susceptible genotype RH89-039-16 (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum/S. phureja), spanning syntenic regions of 700 and 319 kb. Gene predictions on the genomic segments resulted in the identification of a large cluster consisting of variable numbers of the CC-NB-LRR type of R genes for each haplotype. Furthermore, the regions were interspersed with numerous transposable elements and genes coding for an extensin-like protein and an amino acid transporter. Comparative analysis revealed a major lack of gene order conservation in the sequences of the three closely related haplotypes. Our data provide insight in the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the H1 locus and will facilitate the map-based cloning of the H1 resistance gene. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1472-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Bakker, Erin; de Boer, Jan; van der Vossen, Edwin; Achenbach, Ute; Golas, Tomasz; Suryaningrat, Suwardi; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

2010-01-01

312

Functional identification of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl-glucosinolate in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis  

PubMed Central

Background Brassica vegetables contain a class of secondary metabolites, the glucosinolates (GS), whose specific degradation products determine the characteristic flavor and smell. While some of the respective degradation products of particular GS are recognized as health promoting substances for humans, recent studies also show evidence that namely the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS might be deleterious by forming characteristic DNA adducts. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of aspects involved in the biosynthesis of indole GS is crucial to design vegetables with an improved secondary metabolite profile. Results Initially the leafy Brassica vegetable pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) was established as suitable tool to elicit very high concentrations of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS by application of methyl jasmonate. Differentially expressed candidate genes were discovered in a comparative microarray analysis using the 2 × 104 K format Brassica Array and compared to available gene expression data from the Arabidopsis AtGenExpress effort. Arabidopsis knock out mutants of the respective candidate gene homologs were subjected to a comprehensive examination of their GS profiles and confirmed the exclusive involvement of polypeptide 4 of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase subfamily CYP81F in 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS biosynthesis. Functional characterization of the two identified isoforms coding for CYP81F4 in the Brassica rapa genome was performed using expression analysis and heterologous complementation of the respective Arabidopsis mutant. Conclusions Specific differences discovered in a comparative microarray and glucosinolate profiling analysis enables the functional attribution of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis genes coding for polypeptide 4 of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase subfamily CYP81F to their metabolic role in indole glucosinolate biosynthesis. These new identified Brassica genes will enable the development of genetic tools for breeding vegetables with improved GS composition in the near future.

2014-01-01

313

Insight into the specific virulence related genes and toxin-antitoxin virulent pathogenicity islands in swine streptococcosis pathogen Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC35246  

PubMed Central

Background Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an important pathogen causing swine streptococcosis in China. Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) of S. zooepidemicus have been transferred among bacteria through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and play important roles in the adaptation and increased virulence of S. zooepidemicus. The present study used comparative genomics to examine the different pathogenicities of S. zooepidemicus. Results Genome of S. zooepidemicus ATCC35246 (Sz35246) comprises 2,167,264-bp of a single circular chromosome, with a GC content of 41.65%. Comparative genome analysis of Sz35246, S. zooepidemicus MGCS10565 (Sz10565), Streptococcus equi. ssp. equi. 4047 (Se4047) and S. zooepidemicus H70 (Sz70) identified 320 Sz35246-specific genes, clustered into three toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems PAIs and one restriction modification system (RM system) PAI. These four acquired PAIs encode proteins that may contribute to the overall pathogenic capacity and fitness of this bacterium to adapt to different hosts. Analysis of the in vivo and in vitro transcriptomes of this bacterium revealed differentially expressed PAI genes and non-PAI genes, suggesting that Sz35246 possess mechanisms for infecting animals and adapting to a wide range of host environments. Analysis of the genome identified potential Sz35246 virulence genes. Genes of the Fim III operon were presumed to be involved in breaking the host-restriction of Sz35246. Conclusion Genome wide comparisons of Sz35246 with three other strains and transcriptome analysis revealed novel genes related to bacterial virulence and breaking the host-restriction. Four specific PAIs, which were judged to have been transferred into Sz35246 genome through HGT, were identified for the first time. Further analysis of the TA and RM systems in the PAIs will improve our understanding of the pathogenicity of this bacterium and could lead to the development of diagnostics and vaccines.

2013-01-01

314

Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the findings and recommendations from the NESC assessment.

Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

2011-01-01

315

Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 2; Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the Appendices to the main report.

Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

2011-01-01

316

Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the N2-fixing bacterial diversity in soil under Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana and Balanites aegyptiaca in the dryland part of Senegal.  

PubMed

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified nifH gene fragments was used to study the diazotrophic community of soil samples under Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (legume tree) and Balanites aegyptiaca (non-legume tree), two dominant plant species growing naturally in the dryland part of Senegal. Samples were taken along transects from the stem up to 10 m distance from it, at depths of 0-0.25 m and 0.25-0.50 m. Sampling was done in the dry season (25 June 1999) and in the rainy season (28 August 1999). The community structure and diversity of the bacterial groups from the different samples was analysed further using different techniques, such as statistical analysis and diversity index evaluation of the band patterns. Diazotrophic diversity was lower under B. aegyptiaca than under A. tortilis ssp. raddiana. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and ANOSIM tests showed a significant effect of the tree on the diazotroph assemblages. SIMPER analysis showed that the major elements responsible for the dissimilarity are a member of the genus Sinorhizobium, which is characteristic of the samples taken under A. tortilis ssp. raddiana and a member of the cluster Bradyrhizobium for the samples taken under B. aegyptiaca. Forty-four major bands were partially sequenced, yielding 33 different nifH sequences, which were used in phylogenetic reconstructions. Most sequences were affiliated with the alpha- beta- and gamma-proteobacteria. Five nifH sequences were identical to those of Pseudomonas stutzeri, and one sequence showed 100% similarity to that of Azotobacter vinelandii. Four bands were affiliated with the Cyanobacteria and a single one with the Firmicutes. For both trees, there were also clear differences between the samples taken in the dry and rainy seasons. Only for the samples taken under A. tortilis ssp. raddiana was a significant difference found between the two sampling depths. PMID:15008817

Demba Diallo, Moudjahidou; Willems, Anne; Vloemans, Nele; Cousin, Sylvie; Vandekerckhove, Tom T; de Lajudie, Philippe; Neyra, Marc; Vyverman, Wim; Gillis, Monique; Van der Gucht, Katleen

2004-04-01

317

Physical mapping and microsynteny of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis genome corresponding to a 222 kbp gene-rich region of Arabidopsis chromosome 4 and partially duplicated on chromosome 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, designated as KBrH, from high molecular weight genomic DNA\\u000a of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage). This library, which was constructed using HindIII-cleaved genomic DNA, consists of 56,592 clones with average insert size of 115 kbp. Using a partially duplicated DNA\\u000a sequence of Arabidopsis, represented by 19 and 9 predicted genes on chromosome

J. Y. Park; D. H. Koo; C. P. Hong; S. J. Lee; J. W. Jeon; S. H. Lee; P. Y. Yun; B. S. Park; H. R. Kim; J. W. Bang; P. Plaha; I. Bancroft; Y. P. Lim

2005-01-01

318

Host-specific races in the holoparasitic angiosperm Orobanche minor: implications for speciation in parasitic plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Orobanche minor is a root-holoparasitic angiosperm that attacks a wide range of host species, including a number of commonly cultivated crops. The extent to which genetic divergence among natural populations of O. minor is influenced by host specificity has not been determined previously. Here, the host specificity of natural populations of O. minor is quantified for the first time, and evidence that this species may comprise distinct physiological races is provided. Methods A tripartite approach was used to examine the physiological basis for the divergence of populations occurring on different hosts: (1) host–parasite interactions were cultivated in rhizotron bioassays in order to quantify the early stages of the infection and establishment processes; (2) using reciprocal-infection experiments, parasite races were cultivated on their natural and alien hosts, and their fitness determined in terms of biomass; and (3) the anatomy of the host–parasite interface was investigated using histochemical techniques, with a view to comparing the infection process on different hosts. Key Results Races occurring naturally on red clover (Trifolium pratense) and sea carrot (Daucus carota ssp. gummifer) showed distinct patterns of host specificity: parasites cultivated in cross-infection studies showed a higher fitness on their natural hosts, suggesting that races show local adaptation to specific hosts. In addition, histological evidence suggests that clover and carrot roots vary in their responses to infection. Different root anatomy and responses to infection may underpin a physiological basis for host specificity. Conclusions It is speculated that host specificity may isolate races of Orobanche on different hosts, accelerating divergence and ultimately speciation in this genus. The rapid life cycle and broad host range of O. minor make this species an ideal model with which to study the interactions of parasitic plants with their host associates.

Thorogood, C. J.; Rumsey, F. J.; Hiscock, S. J.

2009-01-01

319

Elongation factor?1? stabilizes microtubules in a calcium\\/calmodulin?dependent manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elongation factor-1a (EF-1a), a highly conserved protein named for its role in protein translation, is also a microtubule-associated protein (MAP). We used high-resolution differential interference contrast microscopy to quantify the effect of substoichiometric amounts of EF-1a (isolated from Daucus carota )o n the dynamic instability of microtubules assembled in vitro from either animal or plant tubulin. EF-1a modulates the dynamic

Richard C. Moore; Neil A. Durso; Richard J. Cyr

1998-01-01

320

Phytochrome in Cultured Wild Carrot Tissue: II. Dark Transformations.  

PubMed

Disappearance and transformation of phytochrome in light-treated, dark-grown cultured tissue of wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) have been analyzed. Evidence is presented for the existence of two populations of far red-absorbing phytochromes: one which is subject to reversion, and a second which undergoes loss of photoreversibility. Phytochrome levels and transformation characteristics have been compared for several strains and developmental stages of cultured wild carrot tissue. PMID:16657464

Wetherell, D F; Koukkari, W L

1970-08-01

321

Comparative FISH mapping of Daucus species (Apiaceae family)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytogenetic characterization of the carrot genome (Daucus carota L., 2n?=?18) has been limited so far, partly because of its somatic chromosome morphology and scant of chromosome markers. Here,\\u000a we integrate the carrot linkage groups with pachytene chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping genetically\\u000a anchored bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). We isolated a satellite repeat from the centromeric regions

Marina Iovene; Pablo F. Cavagnaro; Douglas Senalik; C. Robin Buell; Jiming Jiang; Philipp W. Simon

2011-01-01

322

Effect of Two Natural Carotenoid Sources in Diets for Gilthead Seabream, Sparus aurata, on Growth and Skin Coloration  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the unnatural fade-pigmented skin of cultivated gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, (if shown) the present study was initiated. The effects of either red bell-pepper (Capsicum annum) meal or carrot (Daucus carota) meal as a natural dietary carotenoid source, on growth and skin coloration of gilthead seabream growers were investigated. A basal\\/control diet (D1\\/CTR) was firstly formulated to contain 48%

Elham A. Wassef; Stavros Chatzifotis; Eman M. Sakr; Norhan E. Saleh

2010-01-01

323

Managing Foliar Blights on Carrot Using Copper, Azoxystrobin, and Chlorothalonil Applied According to TOM-CAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dorman, E. A., Webster, B. J., and Hausbeck, M. K. 2009. Managing foliar blights on carrot using copper, azoxystrobin, and chlorothalonil applied according to TOM-CAST. Plant Dis. 93:402-407. Alternaria dauci and Cercospora carotae cause foliar blight on carrot, causing yield reductions in severely blighted fields. Currently, fungicides are used on either a 7-day schedule or according to the TOM-CAST disease

E. A. Dorman; B. J. Webster; M. K. Hausbeck

2009-01-01

324

Effects of N source on pH and nutrient exchange of extramatrical mycelium in a mycorrhizal Ri T-DNA transformed root system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of different N sources on medium pH variation and the effect of the external mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal\\u000a fungi on nutrient dynamics were studied using a two-compartment, aseptic Petri plate system. VA mycorrhizal, transformed roots\\u000a of carrot (Daucus\\u000a carota L.) were cultured in the proximal compartment and external mycorrhizal mycelium in the distal compartment. The medium in\\u000a the

J. Villegas; R. D. Williams; L. Nantais; J. Archambault; J. A. Fortin

1996-01-01

325

Structural analysis of the cell walls regenerated by carrot protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure was developed to isolate protoplasts rapidly from carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Danvers) cells in liquid culture. High purity of cell-wall-degrading enzymes and ease of isolation each contributed to maintenance of viability and initiation of regeneration of the cell wall by a great majority of the protoplasts. We used this system to re-evaluate the chemical structure and physical

Elaine M. Shea; David M. Gibeaut; Nicholas C. Carpita

1989-01-01

326

Utilization of metabolic energy under saline conditions: changes in properties of ATP dependent enzymes in plant cells grown under saline conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of growth in saline medium on the activity of two ATP utilizing enzymes was studied. Hexokinase in carrot (Daucus\\u000a carota L.) cells grown in suspension culture either in the absence or presence of 150 ml NaCl, and tonoplast H+-ATPase in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Wisconsin 38) cells grown in suspension culture either in the absence of presence

M. Reuveni

1992-01-01

327

Effects of sowing and harvest dates on carrot rust fly (Psila rosae) damage to carrots in Canterbury, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of manipulating sowing and harvest dates on the degree of carrot rust fly (Psila rosae) damage on carrots (Daucus carota) was investigated at Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand in 1994–95. The proportion of damaged carrots resulting from late sowings (mid November?late December) and harvested before the third carrot rust fly generation was lower than those sown earlier (early–late

N. A. Berry; S. D. Wratten; C. Frampton

1997-01-01

328

Vertical and horizontal development of the root system of carrots following green manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover crops grown as green manure or for other purposes will affect nitrogen (N) distribution in the soil, and may thereby\\u000a alter root growth of a succeeding crop. During two years, experiments were performed to study effects of nitrogen supply by\\u000a green manure on root development of carrots (Daucus carota L). Total root intensity (roots cm?2 on minirhizotrons) was significantly

Kristian Thorup-Kristensen; Riki van den Boogaard

1999-01-01

329

Potyviruses, novel and known, in cultivated and wild species of the family Apiaceae in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Three potyviruses were identified by gene sequencing and found to be widespread in species of Apiaceae in Australia. Only celery mosaic virus was found in celery crops and in one of 180 specimens of feral carrot (Daucus carota). Another related but distinct novel potyvirus, carrot virus Y, was the only virus found in carrot crops and all except one\\u000a feral

J. Moran; B. van Rijswijk; V. Traicevski; E. W. Kitajima; A. M. Mackenzie; A. J. Gibbs

2002-01-01

330

Lateral Clipping of Canopy Influences the Microclimate and Development of Apothecia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Carrots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kora, C., McDonald, M. R., and Boland, G. J. 2005. Lateral clipping of canopy influences the microclimate and development of apothecia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in carrots. Plant Dis. 89:549-557. Four canopy management treatments were evaluated in carrot (Daucus carota) production in Bradford Marsh, Ontario, in 2001 and 2002: (i) unclipped control; (ii) unclipped canopy with manual removal of collapsed senescing

Cezarina Kora; Mary Ruth McDonald; Greg J. Boland

2005-01-01

331

Cadmium concentration in vegetable crops grown in a sandy soil as affected by Cd levels in fertilizer and soil pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were conducted over a three-year period with chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.) and carrots (Daucus carota L.) grown in a sandy soil with pH adjusted to 5.5 and 6.5. The NPK fertilizers containing 1, 30, 90, and 400 mg Cd kg-1 P were applied at the rate of 0.07, 2.1, 6.3 and 28 g Cd ha-1 yr-1. The

G. Guttormsen; B. R. Singh; A. S. Jeng

1995-01-01

332

Abilities of organic acids to support growth and anthocyanin accumulation by suspension cultures of wild carrot cells using ammonium as the sole nitrogen source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Fifteen organic acids were examined for their abilities to support the growth and anthocyanin accumulation by suspension cultures\\u000a of wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) using ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. Glutarate, adipate, pimelate, azelate, cinnamate, and phthalate were toxic\\u000a to the culture. They prevented growth and anthocyanin accumulation at 5 mM or less in media that were otherwise adequate

Donald K. Dougall; Keith W. Weyrauch

1980-01-01

333

Transgenic plants containing the phosphinothricin- N -acetyltransferase gene metabolize the herbicide l-phosphinothricin (glufosinate) differently from untransformed plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

l-Phosphinothricin (l-Pt)-resistant plants were constructed by introducing a modified phosphinothricin-N-acetyl-transferase gene (pat) via Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L), and via direct gene transfer into carrot (Daucus carota L). The metabolism of l-Pt was studied in these transgenic, Pt-resistant plants, as well as in the untransformed species. The degradation of l-Pt, 14C-labeled specifically at different C-atoms, was analysed

W. Dröge; I. Broer; A. Piihler

1992-01-01

334

Glyphosate selected amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene in cultured carrot cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAR and C1, two carrot (Daucus carota L.) suspension cultures of different genotypes, were subjected to stepwise selection for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl)glycine]. The specific activity of the target enzyme, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), as well as the mRNA level and copy number of the structural gene increased with each glyphosate selection step. Therefore, the tolerance to glyphosate is

Yu-Yau Joanne Shyr; Angus G. Hepburn; Jack M. Widhohn

1992-01-01

335

Expression of glyphosate resistance in carrot somatic hybrid cells through the transfer of an amplified 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Daucus carota cell line selected as resistant to N-(phosphonomethyl)-glycine (glyphosate) was found to have increased levels of 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity of 5.5 times over wild-type carrot and an EPSPS protein level increase of 8.7 times as confirmed by Western hybridization analysis. Southern blot hybridization using a petunia EPSPS probe showed increases in the number of copies of

R. M. Hauptmann; G. della-Cioppa; A. G. Smith; G. M. Kishore; J. M. Widholm

1988-01-01

336

Metabolic engineering of novel ketocarotenoid production in carrot plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids constitute a vast group of pigments that are ubiquitous throughout nature. Carrot (Daucus\\u000a carota L.) roots provide an important source of dietary ?-carotene (provitamin A), ?-carotene and lutein. Ketocarotenoids, such\\u000a as canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are produced by some algae and cyanobacteria but are rare in plants. Ketocarotenoids are\\u000a strong antioxidants that are chemically synthesized and used as dietary supplements

Jayaraman Jayaraj; Robert Devlin; Zamir Punja

2008-01-01

337

Characterization and functional analysis of a novel PCP gene BcMF5 from Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino).  

PubMed

Brassica campestris Male Fertile 5 (BcMF5), a novel member of the pollen coat protein class A (PCP-A) gene family, was identified from Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino (Chinese cabbage-pak-choi). Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that BcMF5 is a late-expressed PCP gene related to the process of determining pollen fertility. Functional analysis by hairpin RNA (hpRNA)-mediated RNA interference also showed that the expression of BcMF5 is inhibited, which resulted in the low germination ability of the pollen and also in an abnormality of the pollen exemplified by a collapsed germination furrow. This demonstrates that the expression of BcMF5 is closely related to the tapetum. Further, the expression profile of the BcMF5 promoter in Arabidopsis was also analyzed. This analysis indicated that the BcMF5 promoter began expression in the early stage of anther development and drove high levels of glucuronidase (GUS) expression in anthers, pollen, and the pollen tube in the late stage of pollen development, but did not drive any expression in petals, sepals, or pistils. Together with the functional analysis, the hypothesis that BcMF5 may have a sporophytic or gametophytic expression pattern is presented. PMID:17945379

Zhang, Qiang; Cao, Jiashu; Liu, Huizhi; Huang, Li; Xiang, Xun; Yu, Xiaolin

2008-03-13

338

Induced production of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate by jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in sprouts and leaves of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).  

PubMed

Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future. PMID:23873294

Wiesner, Melanie; Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Zrenner, Rita

2013-01-01

339

Glycoalkaloid aglycone accumulations associated with infection by Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus in potato species Solanum acaule and Solanum tuberosum and their interspecific somatic hybrids.  

PubMed

Solanum acaule Bitt., a wild potato species, is closely related to cultivated potato (Solanum. tuberosum L.). Incorporation of desirable traits from allotetraploid [2n=4x=48, 2 endosperm balance number (EBN)] S. acaule (acl) into autotetraploid (2n=4x=48, 4EBN) S. tuberosum (tbr) is difficult due to incongruity boundaries. In this study, three hybrid combinations, each with a specific genome constitution, were produced through protoplast fusion: (1) hexaploid 2x acl (+) 4x tbr, (2) tetraploid 2x acl (+) 2x tbr, and (3) hexaploid 4x acl (+) 2x tbr hybrids. In terms of glycoalkaloid aglycones, the hybrids produced demissidine, tomatidine and solanidine, similarly to the S. acaule parental species, but S. tuberosum synthesised only solanidine. Inoculations with Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), which is the causal agent of bacterial ring rot in potato, yielded significantly lower total glycoalkaloid aglycone accumulation both in S. acaule plants and in interspecific hybrids in comparison with the corresponding mock-inoculated plants. However, in S. tuberosum the aglycone levels were either higher or unchanged as a result of infection by Cms. To incorporate the desirable traits of the interspecific somatic hybrids into 4EBN S. tuberosum, sexual backcrosses were carried out. The hexaploid 4x acl (+) 2x tbr hybrids with the hypothetical 4EBN showed the greatest capacity to undergo backcrosses with S. tuberosum. PMID:15365763

Rokka, V-M; Laurila, J; Tauriainen, A; Laakso, I; Larkka, J; Metzler, M; Pietilä, L

2005-03-01

340

Geosmin (2?,6?-dimethylbicyclo[4.4.0]decan-1?-ol) production associated with Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris is cultivar specific.  

PubMed

The characteristic earthy flavor and aroma of table beet [Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (garden beet group)] is due to the presence of geosmin, C??H??O, a volatile terpenoid compound commonly produced by many soil microorganisms. This study screened beet and related subspecies cultivars grown in three different environments (field, greenhouse in nonautoclaved soil, greenhouse in autoclaved soil) to evaluate the effect of cultivar and environment on geosmin level in table beet. There was no significant difference between years or between cultivars grown in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil, indicating geosmin content may not be primarily attributable to microbial associations. A significant interaction between cultivar and environment was found, but generalizations could be made for high- or low-producing cultivars, demonstrating that geosmin levels were cultivar specific. 'Bull's Blood', 'Chioggia', and sugar beet exhibited the highest geosmin levels. Cultivars grown in the field had the smallest range of geosmin production, from 4.84 to 20.82 ?g geosmin (kg root tissue)?¹. The high degree of consistency in cultivar performance across years and in ranking for geosmin levels across environments as well as the lack of a significant difference between plants grown in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil suggests characteristic levels of geosmin may be present in and produced endogenously by cultivars of table beet. It may be possible to establish breeding populations with defined geosmin levels and to identify variety-specific aroma and flavor intensities that would be durable across environments. PMID:24506519

Freidig, Amy K; Goldman, Irwin L

2014-03-01

341

A 560 yr summer temperature reconstruction for the Western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio (Corsica/France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be affected strongly by current climate change. However, temperature records for the past centuries which can contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse for this region. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often mirror temperature history but their application as climate proxies is difficult due to the influence of the anthropogenic change in atmospheric CO2 on the carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthetic CO2 uptake. We tested the influence of different correction models accounting for plant response to increased atmospheric CO2 on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 yr) derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica. The different correction factors have only a minor influence on the main climate signals and resulting temperature reconstructions. Carbon isotope series show strong correlations with summer temperature and precipitation. A summer temperature reconstruction (1448-2007 AD) reveals that the Little Ice Age was characterised by low, but not extremely low temperatures on Corsica. Temperatures have been to modern temperatures at around 1500 AD. The reconstruction reveals warm summers during 1480-1520 and 1950-2007 AD and cool summers during 1580-1620 and 1820-1890 AD.

Szymczak, S.; Joachimski, M. M.; Bräuning, A.; Hetzer, T.; Kuhlemann, J.

2012-10-01

342

Studies on antimicrobial activity of pyramidal black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana var. pyramidata): an endemic plant close to become extinct.  

PubMed

Turkey is one of the richest areas at middle latitudes in terms of plant diversity. One of Turkey's (Anatolia) endemic plants is pyramidal black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana var. pyramidata). But, it was observed that the pyramidal black pine, which is part of Turkey's important biological richness, came close to become extinct. This study was carried out to investigate the drying of the pyramidal black pine in the specific Vakifkoy area having semi arid to humid climatic conditions on the one hand, and the effects of different thermal power plants on drying of the pyramidal black pine on the other hand. In addition, the study was designed to examine the effects of mistletoe on drying this plant and even the antimicrobial activities of this plant. As a result, we can conclude that the negative effects of semi arid climatic conditions, climatic variables, drought, mistletoe, silver factory and thermal power plants are still not clear on the pyramidal black pine trees. However, when the results of this study were compared with ampicillin (10 mcg) and nystatin (30 mcg) standards, it was found that extracts of pyramidal black pine were particularly found to possess stronger antimicrobial activity. PMID:20121018

Unaldi, Ulku Eser; Toroglu, Sevil

2009-03-01

343

Degradation kinetics of peroxidase enzyme, phenolic content, and physical and sensorial characteristics in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) during blanching.  

PubMed

The effects of water blanching treatment on peroxidase inactivation, total phenolic content, color parameters [-a*/b* and hue (h degrees*)], texture (maximum shear force), and sensory attributes (color and texture, evaluated by a trained panel) of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) were studied at five temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 degrees C). Experimental results showed that all studied broccoli quality parameters suffered significative changes due to blanching treatments. The vegetal total phenolic content showed a marked decline. Degradation on objective color and texture measurements and alterations in sensorial attributes were detected. Correlations between sensory and instrumental measurements have been found. Under the conditions 70 degrees C and 6.5 min or 90 degrees C and 0.4 min, 90% of the initial peroxidase activity was reduced. At these conditions, no significant alterations were detected by panelists, and a small amount of phenolic content was lost (ca. 16 and 10%, respectively). The peroxidase inactivation and phenolic content degradation were found to follow first-order reaction models. The zero-order reaction model showed a good fit to the broccoli color (-a*/b* and h degrees*), texture, and sensory parameters changes. The temperature effect was well-described by the Arrhenius law. PMID:19441787

Gonçalves, Elsa M; Pinheiro, Joaquina; Alegria, Carla; Abreu, Marta; Brandão, Teresa R S; Silva, Cristina L M

2009-06-24

344

Comparative assessment of feeding damage by pod-sucking bugs (Heteroptera: Coreoidea) associated with cowpea, Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Feeding trials were conducted on three (young, mid-fill and mature) developmental stages of cowpea Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata pods in the screenhouse using fourth instar nymphs and adults of Anoplocnemis curvipes (Fabricius), Riptortus dentipes (Fabricius), Mirperus jaculus (Thunberg), Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål and C. shadabi Dolling. Anoplocnemis curvipes was observed to be the most damaging coreoid species causing a yield reduction of 26.4-51.7% followed by R. dentipes (24.4-29.4%), M. jaculus (21.9-26.9%), C. tomentosicollis (17.9-22.4%) and C. shadabi (15.9-20.4%). The fourth instar nymphs of each pod-sucking bug species caused a significantly higher cowpea yield reduction than their respective adults. Similarly, infestation on young pods compared to mid-fill and mature stages resulted in significantly higher yield reduction. The results suggest that infestation levels of two fourth instar nymphs of A. curvipes or three fourth instar nymphs of the other four pod-sucking bug species per young pod should be adequate for screening of cowpea varieties for resistance to the coreoid bugs. PMID:17298676

Soyelu, O L; Akingbohungbe, A E

2007-02-01

345

Induced Production of 1-Methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl Glucosinolate by Jasmonic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate in Sprouts and Leaves of Pak Choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)  

PubMed Central

Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future.

Wiesner, Melanie; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Zrenner, Rita

2013-01-01

346

Antibacterial activity and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of Origanum vulgare ssp. viride growing wild in north-west Iran.  

PubMed

Essential oils obtained from flowers, leaves and stems of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek., growing wild in Ardabil Province (north-west Iran), were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. beta-Caryophyllene was the major constituent in all three oils (48.1%, 50.1% and 60.2%, respectively). Of the 19 components detected in the flower oil, comprising 96.3% of the total, the major components were 1,8-cineole (11.6%), alpha-pinene (6.9%), and gamma-cadinene (4.8%). 1-Octen-3-ol (23.8%), and 1,8-cineole (8.5%) predominated in the leafoil. In the stem oil, other main constituents were bicyclogermacrene (9.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), borneol (5.1%), and pinocarvone (4.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future use of certain essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their safety and positive effect on shelf life. PMID:21941913

Shafaghat, Ali

2011-09-01

347

Chemical composition, seasonal variability, and antifungal activity of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas essential oils from stem/leaves and flowers.  

PubMed

Essential oils from the stems/leaves (L) and flowers (F) of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in southern Sardinia (Italy) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector and ion trap mass spectrometry. The major compound was fenchone, accounting for, on average, 52.60% in L and 66.20% in F, followed by camphor (13.13% versus 27.08%, in L and F, respectively). F essential oil yields (volume per dry weight) decreased from the beginning to the end of the flowering stage, whereas L yields remained constant during the year. The nine main compounds derived from two different subpathways, A and B. The compounds that belong to the same subpathway showed a similar behavior during the year. The essential oils were tested for their antifungal activity using the paper disk diffusion method. The essential oils tested were effective on the inactivation of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum and less effective against Aspergillus flavus. Among the single compounds tested, fenchone, limonene, and myrtenal appeared to be the more effective on the inhibition of R. solani growth. PMID:16756368

Angioni, Alberto; Barra, Andrea; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessi, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

2006-06-14

348

Esterification of bio-oil from mallee (Eucalyptus loxophleba ssp. gratiae) leaves with a solid acid catalyst: Conversion of the cyclic ether and terpenoids into hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Bio-oil from pyrolysis of mallee (Eucalyptus loxophleba ssp. gratiae) leaves differs from that obtained with wood by its content of cyclic ethers, terpenoids and N-containing organic compounds. Upgrading of the leaf bio-oil in methanol with a solid acid catalyst was investigated and it was found that the N-containing organics in the bio-oil lead to deactivation of the catalyst in the initial stage of exposure and have to be removed via employing high catalyst loading to allow the occurrence of other acid-catalysed reactions. Eucalyptol, the main cyclic ether in the bio-oil, could be converted into the aromatic hydrocarbon, p-cymene, through a series of intermediates including ?-terpineol, terpinolene, and ?-terpinene. Various steps such as ring-opening, dehydration, isomerisation, and aromatization were involved in the conversion of eucalyptol. The terpenoids in bio-oil could also be converted into aromatic hydrocarbons that can serve as starting materials for the synthesis of fine chemicals, via the similar processes. PMID:22940326

Hu, Xun; Gunawan, Richard; Mourant, Daniel; Wang, Yi; Lievens, Caroline; Chaiwat, Weerawut; Wu, Liping; Li, Chun-Zhu

2012-11-01

349

CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ Treg cells induced by rSSP4 derived from T. cruzi amastigotes increase parasitemia in an experimental Chagas disease model.  

PubMed

Currently, there is a considerable controversy over the participation of Treg cells during Trypanosoma cruzi infection, the main point being whether these cells play a negative or a positive role. In this work, we found that the adoptive transfer of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) T cells from rSSP4- (a recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi amastigote derived protein, previously shown to have immunomodulatory properties on macrophages) immunized BALB/c donors into syngenic recipients simultaneously with T. cruzi challenge reduces cardiac inflammation and prolongs hosts' survival but increases blood parasitemia and parasite loads in the heart. These CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) Treg cells from immunized mice have a relatively TGF-?-dependent suppressive activity on CD4(+) T cells. Therefore, regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells play a positive role in the development of acute T. cruzi infection by inducing immunosuppressive activity that controls early cardiac inflammation during acute Chagas disease, prolonging survival, but at the same time promoting parasite growth. PMID:23509755

Flores-García, Y; Rosales-Encina, J L; Rosales-García, V H; Satoskar, A R; Talamás-Rohana, P

2013-01-01

350

Spectroscopic studies on bioactive polyacetylenes and other plant components in wild carrot root.  

PubMed

Polyacetylenes and other common plant components, such as starch, pectin, cellulose, and lignin, were studied in roots of the wild carrot (Daucus carota) subspecies D. carota subsp. gummifer and D. carota subsp. maximus by Raman spectroscopy. The components were measured in situ, directly in the plant tissue and without any preliminary sample preparation. The analysis was performed on the basis of the intense and characteristic key bands observed in the Raman spectrum. The two main carrot polyacetylenes falcarinol (1) and falcarindiol (2) have similar molecular structures, but their Raman spectra exhibit a small band shift in the symmetric -C?C-C?C- mode from 2258 cm?¹ to 2252 cm?¹. Quantum chemical calculations confirmed that the differences observed between the samples may be due to conformational and environmental changes. The polyacetylenes were also detected by Raman mapping, which visualized the distribution of the compounds across sections of carrot roots. The mapping technique was also applied to assess the distribution of lignin and polysaccharide compounds. The results showed the tissue-specific accumulation of starch and cell wall components such as lignin, pectin, and cellulose. PMID:21800857

Roman, Maciej; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz; Baranska, Malgorzata; Baranski, Rafal

2011-08-26

351

Molecular, Physicochemical and Rheological Characteristics of Introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum Lines with Wheat 1D/1A Chromosome Substitution  

PubMed Central

Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat) genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number) of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax), and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement.

Salmanowicz, Boleslaw P.; Langner, Monika; Wisniewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kwiatek, Michal; Blaszczyk, Lidia

2013-01-01

352

BcMF5, a pollen coat protein gene (PCP), from Brassica rapa. ssp. chinensis, involved in the transcription of different lengths of 3'-UTRs of PCPs.  

PubMed

Two transcript-derived fragments (GenBank accession number DN237907.1 and DN237908.1) with high homology accumulated in the wild-type flower buds of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis Makino) are isolated and investigated. By rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), the full length cDNA of the two fragments were obtained. The alignment of their cDNA sequence showed that they are identical except for differences in a few nucleotides and should belong to the same gene, namely, B rassica rapa M ale F ertile 5 (BcMF5). The BcMF5 gene consists of 252 bp encoding a protein of 83 amino acids and is interrupted by an intron of 256 bp. Sequence blast analysis revealed that BcMF5 is a member of the pollen coat protein (PCP) gene family and shared a high homology to SLR-BP. In the process of 3'RACE, eight different lengths of 3'-UTR sequence are found from the wild type of the mmc mutant. Southern blot analysis showed that BcMF5 could be a single-copy gene in the Chinese cabbage genome, implying that eight different lengths of 3'-UTR sequences might come from the same gene and could be a result of multiple sites polyadenylation of 3'-UTRs of BcMF5. Based on sequence analysis, southern hybridization combined with RT-PCR, and northern hybridization, it was discovered that 3'-UTRs of BcMF5 contained some functional elements and their temporal and spatial expression patterns were different, but all strongly expressed in the stage IV and stage V flower buds of wild type. This indicate that different lengths of 3'-UTR may be involved in a regulation mechanism during the transcription of BcMF5. PMID:17676432

Zhang, Qiang; Cao, Jiashu; Huang, Li; Xiang, Xun; Yu, Xiaolin

2008-09-01

353

Three Groups of Transposable Elements with Contrasting Copy Number Dynamics and Host Responses in the Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) Genome.  

PubMed

Most angiosperm nuclear DNA is repetitive and derived from silenced transposable elements (TEs). TE silencing requires substantial resources from the plant host, including the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Thus, the interaction between TEs and siRNAs is a critical aspect of both the function and the evolution of plant genomes. Yet the co-evolutionary dynamics between these two entities remain poorly characterized. Here we studied the organization of TEs within the maize (Zea mays ssp mays) genome, documenting that TEs fall within three groups based on the class and copy numbers. These groups included DNA elements, low copy RNA elements and higher copy RNA elements. The three groups varied statistically in characteristics that included length, location, age, siRNA expression and 24?22 nucleotide (nt) siRNA targeting ratios. In addition, the low copy retroelements encompassed a set of TEs that had previously been shown to decrease expression within a 24 nt siRNA biogenesis mutant (mop1). To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the three groups, we estimated their abundance in two landraces, one with a genome similar in size to that of the maize reference and the other with a 30% larger genome. For all three accessions, we assessed TE abundance as well as 22 nt and 24 nt siRNA content within leaves. The high copy number retroelements are under targeted similarly by siRNAs among accessions, appear to be born of a rapid bust of activity, and may be currently transpositionally dead or limited. In contrast, the lower copy number group of retrolements are targeted more dynamically and have had a long and ongoing history of transposition in the maize genome. PMID:24743518

Diez, Concepcion M; Meca, Esteban; Tenaillon, Maud I; Gaut, Brandon S

2014-04-01

354

ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene apparently created by homoeologous recombination in Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides.  

PubMed

High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are of considerable interest, because they play a crucial role in determining dough viscoelastic properties and end-use quality of wheat flour. In this paper, ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric HMW-GS gene from Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (AABB, 2n=4x=28) accession D129, was isolated and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the electrophoretic mobility of the glutenin subunit encoded by ChAy/Bx was slightly faster than that of 1Dy12. The complete ORF of ChAy/Bx contained 1,671 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 555 amino acid residues (or 534 amino acid residues for the mature protein), making it the smallest HMW-GS gene known from Triticum species. Sequence analysis showed that ChAy/Bx was neither a conventional x-type nor a conventional y-type subunit gene, but a novel chimeric gene. Its first 1305 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Ay type genes, while its final 366 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Bx type genes. The mature ChAy/Bx protein consisted of the N-terminus of 1Ay type subunit (the first 414 amino acid residues) and the C-terminus of 1Bx type subunit (the final 120 amino acid residues). Secondary structure prediction showed that ChAy/Bx contained some domains of 1Ay subunit and some domains of 1Bx subunit. The special structure of this HMW glutenin chimera ChAy/Bx subunit might have unique effects on the end-use quality of wheat flour. Here we propose that homoeologous recombination might be a novel pathway for allelic variation or molecular evolution of HMW-GSs. PMID:24012818

Guo, Xiao-Hui; Bi, Zhe-Guang; Wu, Bi-Hua; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Hu, Ji-Liang; Zheng, You-Liang; Liu, Deng-Cai

2013-12-01

355

Phages of non-dairy lactococci: isolation and characterization of ?L47, a phage infecting the grass isolate Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860.  

PubMed

Lactococci isolated from non-dairy sources have been found to possess enhanced metabolic activity when compared to dairy strains. These capabilities may be harnessed through the use of these strains as starter or adjunct cultures to produce more diverse flavor profiles in cheese and other dairy products. To understand the interactions between these organisms and the phages that infect them, a number of phages were isolated against lactococcal strains of non-dairy origin. One such phage, ?L47, was isolated from a sewage sample using the grass isolate L. lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860 as a host. Visualization of phage virions by transmission electron microscopy established that this phage belongs to the family Siphoviridae and possesses a long tail fiber, previously unseen in dairy lactococcal phages. Determination of the lytic spectrum revealed a broader than expected host range, with ?L47 capable of infecting 4 industrial dairy strains, including ML8, HP and 310, and 3 additional non-dairy isolates. Whole genome sequencing of ?L47 revealed a dsDNA genome of 128, 546 bp, making it the largest sequenced lactococcal phage to date. In total, 190 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, and comparative analysis revealed that the predicted products of 117 of these ORFs shared greater than 50% amino acid identity with those of L. lactis phage ?949, a phage isolated from cheese whey. Despite their different ecological niches, the genomic content and organization of ?L47 and ?949 are quite similar, with both containing 4 gene clusters oriented in different transcriptional directions. Other features that distinguish ?L47 from ?949 and other lactococcal phages, in addition to the presence of the tail fiber and the genome length, include a low GC content (32.5%) and a high number of predicted tRNA genes (8). Comparative genome analysis supports the conclusion that ?L47 is a new member of the 949 lactococcal phage group which currently includes the dairy ?949. PMID:24454309

Cavanagh, Daniel; Guinane, Caitriona M; Neve, Horst; Coffey, Aidan; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; McAuliffe, Olivia

2014-01-13

356

Evidence for cross-tolerance to nutrient deficiency in three disjunct populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata in response to substrate calcium to magnesium ratio.  

PubMed

Species with widespread distributions that grow in varied habitats may consist of ecotypes adapted to a particular habitat, or may exhibit cross-tolerance that enables them to exploit a variety of habitats. Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata (L.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz grow in a wide variety of edaphic settings including serpentine soil, limestone sand, and alluvial flood plains. While all three of these environments share some stressors, a crucial difference among these environments is soil calcium to magnesium ratio, which ranges from 25:1 in the limestone sand to 0.2:1 in serpentine soil. The three populations found on these substrates were subjected to three different Ca to Mg ratios under controlled environmental conditions during germination and rosette growth. Response to Ca to Mg ratio was evaluated through germination success and radicle growth rate, rosette growth rate, and the content of Ca and Mg in the rosette. All three populations were particularly efficient in fueling growth under nutrient deficiency, with the highest nutrient efficiency ratio for Ca under Ca deficiency and for Mg under Mg deficiency. Although the serpentine population had significantly higher leaf Ca to Mg ratio than the limestone or flood plain populations under all three Ca to Mg ratios, this increase did not result in any advantage in growth or appearance of the serpentine plants, during early life stages before the onset of flowering, even in the high Mg substrate. The three populations showed no population by substrate interaction for any of the parameters measured indicating that these populations may have cross-tolerance to substrate Ca to Mg ratio. PMID:23650547

Veatch-Blohm, Maren E; Roche, Bernadette M; Campbell, Maryjean

2013-01-01

357

Distribution of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in a German zoological garden determined by IS900 semi-nested and quantitative real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Little data concerning the distribution of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in zoological gardens is available. The presence of MAP in captured wildlife might provide further information on non-ruminant hosts and expand the list of animals susceptible to MAP being potential sources of MAP transmission. Therefore, a German zoological garden with recent history of clinical paratuberculosis in Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) and an alpaca (Lama pacos) was selected to estimate the distribution of MAP infections in 21 mammalian and avian species. Pooled faecal samples from individual animals of each species were tested for the presence of MAP. A previously developed IS900 semi-nested PCR (snPCR) assay, amplifying a 587 bp and a 278 bp fragment, was used for the detection of MAP-DNA. Based on this snPCR, in 14 out of the 21 pooled faecal samples MAP-DNA was detected. MAP positive snPCR results were observed in ruminants and camelids as well as in non-ruminants such as equines, primates, rodents, and birds. Moreover, a quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that the concentration of MAP-DNA was within the range of 2.2 × 10(3)-9.6 × 10(6) MAP-DNA equivalents per gram faeces. The highest amount was shed by primates such as Black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) and Cottontop tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). This is the first survey investigating the presence of MAP in a German zoo, which includes non-ruminants. The results of the present study confirm the wide host range of MAP and demonstrate that MAP occurs more frequently in zoo animals than expected. In order to restrict further spread of MAP in European zoos, additional investigations regarding the existing transmission pathways of MAP in zoos are recommended. PMID:23298700

Münster, Pia; Fechner, Kim; Völkel, Inger; von Buchholz, Aloys; Czerny, Claus-Peter

2013-04-12

358

Phages of non-dairy lactococci: isolation and characterization of ?L47, a phage infecting the grass isolate Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860  

PubMed Central

Lactococci isolated from non-dairy sources have been found to possess enhanced metabolic activity when compared to dairy strains. These capabilities may be harnessed through the use of these strains as starter or adjunct cultures to produce more diverse flavor profiles in cheese and other dairy products. To understand the interactions between these organisms and the phages that infect them, a number of phages were isolated against lactococcal strains of non-dairy origin. One such phage, ?L47, was isolated from a sewage sample using the grass isolate L. lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860 as a host. Visualization of phage virions by transmission electron microscopy established that this phage belongs to the family Siphoviridae and possesses a long tail fiber, previously unseen in dairy lactococcal phages. Determination of the lytic spectrum revealed a broader than expected host range, with ?L47 capable of infecting 4 industrial dairy strains, including ML8, HP and 310, and 3 additional non-dairy isolates. Whole genome sequencing of ?L47 revealed a dsDNA genome of 128, 546 bp, making it the largest sequenced lactococcal phage to date. In total, 190 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, and comparative analysis revealed that the predicted products of 117 of these ORFs shared greater than 50% amino acid identity with those of L. lactis phage ?949, a phage isolated from cheese whey. Despite their different ecological niches, the genomic content and organization of ?L47 and ?949 are quite similar, with both containing 4 gene clusters oriented in different transcriptional directions. Other features that distinguish ?L47 from ?949 and other lactococcal phages, in addition to the presence of the tail fiber and the genome length, include a low GC content (32.5%) and a high number of predicted tRNA genes (8). Comparative genome analysis supports the conclusion that ?L47 is a new member of the 949 lactococcal phage group which currently includes the dairy ?949.

Cavanagh, Daniel; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Neve, Horst; Coffey, Aidan; Ross, R. Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; McAuliffe, Olivia

2014-01-01

359

Production of 3-nitropropionic acid by endophytic fungus Phomopsis longicolla isolated from Trichilia elegans A. JUSS ssp. elegans and evaluation of biological activity.  

PubMed

The compound 3-nitropropionic acid is a potent neurotoxic agent in animals and well-known as a potent inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this research, we were able to extract this compound from the endophytic fungus, Phomopsis longicolla (FJ62759), isolated from Trichilia elegans A. JUSS ssp. elegans. The aim of this study was the isolation of secondary metabolites produced by P. longicolla, the chemical identification of these compounds and evaluation of their antimicrobial and insecticidal activity. To accomplish these goals, the fungus was cultured in BD broth for 25 days without agitation at 28 °C, and then the broth was separated from the mycelium. The supernatant was partitioned with dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and butanol (BuOH) solvents resulting in 3 extracts. However, only the EtOAc extract was used for fractionation and chemical identification because it had the greatest mass. After common chromatographic procedures, the fractions were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance to elucidate the chemical components. This procedure resulted in the identification of 3-nitropropionic acid in the D fraction. Evaluation of the insecticidal and antimicrobial activity of this compound has been accomplished, and the results indicate good inhibition of the citrus pathogen Guignardia citricarpa and cocoa pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa and slight inhibition of the human bacterial pathogens Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi and slight inhibition of phytopathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli. The evaluation of insecticide activity did not show mortality of the Diatraea saccharalis larvae by the metabolite 3-nitropropionic acid in the D fraction. The results suggest that P. longicolla is a bioactive metabolic producing endophytic fungus with biotechnological properties. PMID:23296917

Flores, Andressa Caroline; Pamphile, João Alencar; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Clemente, Edmar

2013-05-01

360

Molecular, physicochemical and rheological characteristics of introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum lines with wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution.  

PubMed

Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat) genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number) of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax), and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement. PMID:23896593

Salmanowicz, Boles?aw P; Langner, Monika; Wi?niewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kwiatek, Micha?; B?aszczyk, Lidia

2013-01-01

361

Short-term, daily intake of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24384) does not affect colonic transit time in women.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24 384) (Bf-6)-supplemented yogurt on colonic transit time (CTT). A triple-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over trial was conducted with sixty-eight women with a self-reported history of straining during bowel movements or hard or lumpy stools in the past 2 years. As per regulatory requirements for probiotic studies, eligible women were generally healthy and not actively constipated at the time of enrolment. Participants consumed both Bf-6 and placebo yogurts for 14 d each in a randomised order, with a 6-week washout period between the treatments. The primary outcome, CTT, was assessed via Sitz marker X-rays. The average CTT was 42·1 h for the active period and 43·3 h for the control period (mean difference 1·2 h, 95 % CI - 4·9, 7·4). Since the statistical tests for the cross-over study implied that the mean CTT for the active and control periods in period 2 were biased, the standard protocol suggests examining the results of only period 1 as a traditional randomised controlled trial. This showed that the mean CTT was 35·2 h for the active period v. 52·9 h for the control period (P= 0·015). Bootstrapping demonstrated that both the mean and median differences remained significant (P= 0·016 and P= 0·045, respectively). Few adverse events were noted, with no differences among the active and control periods. The paired analysis showed no differences between the active and control periods during the cross-over trial. Further trials should be conducted in populations with underlying problems associated with disordered transit to determine the potential value of probiotic supplementation more accurately. PMID:24103188

Merenstein, Daniel J; D'Amico, Frank; Palese, Caren; Hahn, Alexander; Sparenborg, Jessy; Tan, Tina; Scott, Hillary; Polzin, Kayla; Kolberg, Lore; Roberts, Robert

2014-01-28

362

MicroRNA319a-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TCP genes modulate head shape in chinese cabbage by differential cell division arrest in leaf regions.  

PubMed

Leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are composed of extremely incurved leaves. The shape of these heads often dictates the quality, and thus the commercial value, of these crops. Using quantitative trait locus mapping of head traits within a population of 150 recombinant inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, we investigated the relationship between expression levels of microRNA-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, cycloidea, and PCF transcription factor4 (BrpTCP4) genes and head shape. Here, we demonstrate that a cylindrical head shape is associated with relatively low BrpTCP4-1 expression, whereas a round head shape is associated with high BrpTCP4-1 expression. In the round-type Chinese cabbage, microRNA319 (miR319) accumulation and BrpTCP4-1 expression decrease from the apical to central regions of leaves. Overexpression of BrpMIR319a2 reduced the expression levels of BrpTCP4 and resulted in an even distribution of BrpTCP4 transcripts within all leaf regions. Changes in temporal and spatial patterns of BrpTCP4 expression appear to be associated with excess growth of both apical and interveinal regions, straightened leaf tips, and a transition from the round to the cylindrical head shape. These results suggest that the miR319a-targeted BrpTCP gene regulates the round shape of leafy heads via differential cell division arrest in leaf regions. Therefore, the manipulation of miR319a and BrpTCP4 genes is a potentially important tool for use in the genetic improvement of head shape in these crops. PMID:24351684

Mao, Yanfei; Wu, Feijie; Yu, Xiang; Bai, Jinjuan; Zhong, Weili; He, Yuke

2014-02-01

363

The wxacO gene of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri encodes a protein with a role in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, biofilm formation, stress tolerance and virulence.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc) causes citrus canker, one of the most economically damaging diseases affecting citrus worldwide. Biofilm formation is important for the pathogen to survive epiphytically in planta prior to the induction of canker symptoms. In this study, two EZ-Tn5 transposon mutants of Xcc strain 306, affected in biofilm formation, were isolated; subsequent analyses led to the identification of a novel gene locus XAC3596 (designated as wxacO), encoding a putative transmembrane protein, and the rfbC gene, encoding a truncated O-antigen biosynthesis protein. Sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis was affected in both wxacO and rfbC mutants. The wxacO mutant was impaired in the formation of a structured biofilm on glass or host plant leaves, as shown in confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of strains containing a plasmid expressing the green fluorescent protein. Both wxacO and rfbC mutants were more sensitive than the wild-type strain to different environmental stresses, and more susceptible to the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. The two mutants were attenuated in swimming motility, but not in flagellar formation. The mutants also showed reduced virulence and decreased growth on host leaves when spray inoculated. The affected phenotypes of the wxacO and rfbC mutants were complemented to wild-type levels by the intact wxacO and rfbC genes, respectively. This report identifies a new gene influencing LPS production by Xcc. In addition, our results suggest that a structurally intact LPS is critical for survival in the phyllosphere and for the virulence of Xcc. PMID:21453433

Li, Jinyun; Wang, Nian

2011-05-01

364

Three Groups of Transposable Elements with Contrasting Copy Number Dynamics and Host Responses in the Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) Genome  

PubMed Central

Most angiosperm nuclear DNA is repetitive and derived from silenced transposable elements (TEs). TE silencing requires substantial resources from the plant host, including the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Thus, the interaction between TEs and siRNAs is a critical aspect of both the function and the evolution of plant genomes. Yet the co-evolutionary dynamics between these two entities remain poorly characterized. Here we studied the organization of TEs within the maize (Zea mays ssp mays) genome, documenting that TEs fall within three groups based on the class and copy numbers. These groups included DNA elements, low copy RNA elements and higher copy RNA elements. The three groups varied statistically in characteristics that included length, location, age, siRNA expression and 24?22 nucleotide (nt) siRNA targeting ratios. In addition, the low copy retroelements encompassed a set of TEs that had previously been shown to decrease expression within a 24 nt siRNA biogenesis mutant (mop1). To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the three groups, we estimated their abundance in two landraces, one with a genome similar in size to that of the maize reference and the other with a 30% larger genome. For all three accessions, we assessed TE abundance as well as 22 nt and 24 nt siRNA content within leaves. The high copy number retroelements are under targeted similarly by siRNAs among accessions, appear to be born of a rapid bust of activity, and may be currently transpositionally dead or limited. In contrast, the lower copy number group of retrolements are targeted more dynamically and have had a long and ongoing history of transposition in the maize genome.

Diez, Concepcion M.; Meca, Esteban; Tenaillon, Maud I.; Gaut, Brandon S.

2014-01-01

365

Characterization of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) polymorphism by sequence-based and PCR-SSP methods in Chinese Bama miniature pigs.  

PubMed

The highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genes have been repeatedly shown to influence swine immune traits, disease resistance, vaccine responsiveness and tumour penetrance. Analysis of the SLA diversity in as many pig breeds as possible is important to clarify the relationships between SLA genes and diseases or traits, and develop these pigs as valuable animal models for biomedical research. The Chinese Bama miniature pig breed is an economically significant breed that is available at several research institutions in China. In this study, we identified a total of 32 alleles at five polymorphic SLA loci (SLA-1, SLA-3, SLA-2, DRB1 and DQB1) representing nine class I and seven class II haplotypes using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) sequence-based typing (SBT) method. The possible functional sites of the SLA genes were predicted and analyzed by comparison with those of the human and mouse. Based on the sequence information, we subsequently developed a rapid PCR-based typing assay using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) to efficiently follow the SLA types of the progeny. In the studied cohort (2n = 562), the most prevalent Haplotype Hp-35.6 (SLA-1(?)1201, SLA-1(?)1301-SLA-3(?)0502-SLA-2(?)1001-DRB1(?)0501-DQB1(?)0801) was identified in 182 Bama pigs with a frequency of 32.38%. The presence of the duplicated SLA-1 locus was confirmed in five of the class I haplotypes. Moreover, we identified two crossovers within the class I region and one between the class I and class II regions, which corresponded to recombination frequencies of 0.36% and 0.18%, respectively. The information of this study is essential for an understanding of the SLA allelic architecture and diversity, and it will be helpful for studying the adaptive immune response and further developing the more effective vaccines in the context of SLA specificities. PMID:24560654

Gao, Caixia; Jiang, Qian; Guo, Dongchun; Liu, Jiasen; Han, Lingxia; Qu, Liandong

2014-07-01

366

Molecular cloning of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) caspase-8 gene and its involvement in Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida triggered apoptosis.  

PubMed

Caspase-8 is an initiator caspase that plays a crucial role in some cases of apoptosis by extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Caspase-8 structure and function have been extensively studied in mammals, but in fish the characterization of that initiator caspase is still scarce. In this work, the sea bass counterpart of mammalian caspase-8 was sequenced and characterized, and its involvement in the apoptogenic activity of a toxin from a fish pathogen was assessed. A 2472 bp cDNA of sea bass caspase-8 was obtained, consisting of 1455 bp open reading frame coding for 484 amino acids and with a predicted molecular weight of 55.2 kDa. The sea bass caspase-8 gene has 6639 bp and is organized in 11 introns and 12 exons. Several distinctive features of sea bass caspase-8 were identified, which include two death effector domains, the caspase family domains p20 and p10, the caspase-8 active-site pentapeptide and potential aspartic acid cleavage sites. The sea bass caspase-8 sequence revealed a significant degree of similarity to corresponding sequences from several vertebrate taxonomic groups. A low expression of sea bass caspase-8 was detected in various tissues of non-stimulated sea bass. Furthermore, it is shown that stimulation of sea bass with mid-exponential phase culture supernatants from Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida (Phdp), known to induce selective apoptosis of macrophages and neutrophils, resulted in an increased expression of caspase-8 in the spleen, one of the main affected organs by Phdp infection. PMID:20202478

Reis, Marta I R; Costa-Ramos, Carolina; do Vale, Ana; dos Santos, Nuno M S

2010-07-01

367

Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.  

PubMed

Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may benefit from the reduction in WHP not only by reducing number of infected individuals but also by diminishing the individual losses in milk production per infected cow, and therefore should establish control measures. PMID:24589381

Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

2014-05-01

368

A 500 year early summer temperature reconstruction for the western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be severely affected by modern climate change. Strong temperature increase and precipitation decrease is expected for large regions, resulting in a northward extension of arid conditions. Information of past temperature changes which could contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often carry strong temperature information but they are critically in their application as climate proxies because of the influence by the change of atmopsheric CO2-concentration due to the fossil fuel burning effect. These changes are recorded in the chronologies by a remarkable downward trend over the last approximately 150 years and are routinely corrected. However, these correction values do not account for a plant physiological response to higher pCO2, a factor which is especially important in high mountain environments. We tested the influence of different correction models on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 years) derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica in the Western Mediterranean. A negative trend in the carbon isotope ratios during the last 150 years is still visible after correcting for changes of atmospheric CO2-concentration indicating that plant physiological responses to increased CO2 levels significantly influence the ?13C tree-ring values. Carbon isotope series corrected for both, increase in atmospheric CO2 and plant physiological response, show stronger correlations with climate parameters, especially summer temperature, and better mirror increasing temperatures in the climate data. Carbon isotope records from trees at cooler and wetter sites show generally lower ?13C-values and are more sensitive to temperature at the beginning of the vegetation period. ?13C records from drier and warmer sites are sensitive to drought stress during late summer. The strong and stable correlation of the carbon isotope ratios with May-June temperature at one study site allows a 500-year temperature reconstruction for the Western Mediterranean which will contribute to a better understanding of past climate variability in the Mediterranean basin.

Szymczak, S.; Joachimski, M. M.; Bräuning, A.; Hetzer, T.; Kuhlemann, J.

2012-04-01

369

SSP Power Management and Distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Solar Power is a NASA program sponsored by Marshall Space Flight Center. The Paper presented here represents the architectural study of a large power management and distribution (PMAD) system. The PMAD supplies power to a microwave array for power beaming to an earth rectenna (Rectifier Antenna). The power is in the GW level.

Lynch, Thomas H.; Roth, A. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

370

Premières datations de feux holocènes dans les Monts de Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert (Hérault, France), contribution à l'histoire de la forêt relique de Pinus nigra Arnold ssp Salzmanni (Dun.) Franco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charcoal discovery in the soils and sediments of the relic forest of Pinus nigra ssp Salzmanni near Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert allows us to establish a chronology of Holocene fires. Their origin dates from the Middle Holocene, but they are especially significant after the construction of the medieval abbey during the 9th century. The original pine plantation was heterogeneous, with another pine, Pinus sylvestris, which has now been eradicated. Changes in the fire modes have been observed, recent human fires being generalized, which resulted in a significant regression of the forest cover, which was replaced by box-tree formations. To cite this article: J.-L. Vernet et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

Vernet, Jean-Louis; Meter, Anaïke; Zéraïa, Lamri

2005-04-01

371

Inhibition of carbonic anhydrases from the extremophilic bacteria Sulfurihydrogenibium yellostonense (SspCA) and S. azorense (SazCA) with a new series of sulfonamides incorporating aroylhydrazone-, [1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazinyl- or 2-(cyanophenylmethylene)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-3(2H)-yl moieties.  

PubMed

A series of new sulfonamides was prepared starting from 2-oxo-N'-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-propanehydrazonoyl chloride, a sulfanilamide derivative, which was reacted with aroylhydrazides, amines, or thiols. A library of derivatives incorporating aroylhydrazone, [1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazinyl- or 2-(cyanophenyl-methylene)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-3(2H)-yl moieties was thus synthesized. The new compounds were investigated as inhibitors of four ?-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1), the human (h) isoforms hCA I and II, and the bacterial ones recently isolated from the extremophilic bacteria Sulfurihydrogenibium yellostonense (SspCA) and Sulfurihydrogenibium azorense (SazCA). Low nanomolar activity was observed against hCA II (KIs of 0.56-17.1 nM) whereas hCA I was less inhibited by these compounds (K(I)s of 86.4 nM-32.8 ?M). The bacterial CAs were also effectively inhibited by these derivatives (K(I)s in the range of 0.77-234 nM against SazCA, and of 6.2-89.1 against SspCA, respectively), with several low nanomolar/subnanomolar inhibitors detected against both of them. As SspCA and SazCA are among the most thermostable and catalytically active CAs, it is of interest to find modulators of their activity for potential biotechnologic applications. PMID:24332658

Alafeefy, Ahmed M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Vullo, Daniela; Al-Tamimi, Abdul-Malek S; Al-Jaber, Nabila A; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

2014-01-01

372

Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer ssp. pruniflorum (Kurz) Gogel. (H?ng y? m?) extract induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells through caspase-dependent pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer ssp. pruniflorum (Kurz) Gogel. (Hóng yá mù) (CF) has been used for treatment of fever, cough, and peptic ulcer. Previously, a 50% ethanol-water extract from twigs of CF was shown highly selective in cytotoxicity against cancer cells. This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the apoptosis-inducing effect of CF. Methods The cytotoxicity of CF was evaluated in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cell line in comparison with a non-cancerous African green monkey kidney epithelial cell line (Vero) by a neutral red assay. The apoptosis induction mechanisms were investigated through nuclear morphological changes, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential alterations, and caspase enzyme activities. Results CF selectively induced HepG2 cell death compared with non-cancerous Vero cells. A 1.5-fold higher apoptotic effect compared with melphalan was induced by 120 ?g/mL of the 50% ethanol-water extract of CF. The apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells occurred via extrinsic and intrinsic caspase-dependent pathways in dose- and time-dependent manners by significantly increasing the activities of caspase 3/7, 8, and 9, decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, and causing apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. Conclusions CF extract induced a caspase-dependent apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

2014-01-01

373

The gill is a major organ for antibody secreting cell production following direct immersion of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) in a Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida bacterin: an ontogenetic study.  

PubMed

Extremely high numbers of antibody secreting cells (ASC) were observed in the gills of sea bass fry immunised at three different age/sizes (initial weight of 0.1, 2 and 5 g) by direct immersion in a Photobacterium damselae spp. piscicida bacterin. The relatively low ASC production in the head kidney and spleen suggests that the systemic compartment was only slightly stimulated upon immersion vaccination. There was no response of corresponding magnitude in the gut as the one observed in the gills. A clear age effect was observed in the ASC response of the different groups, especially visible in the gills. Significantly higher numbers of specific ASC were observed in the gills of the two oldest groups (initial weight of 2 and 5 g) compared with the youngest fish (initial weight of 0.1 g), but the oldest groups were not significantly different from each other. Additionally, a more rapid response was observed with the ageing of the fish, with peak responses in all the organs at day 18, 16 and 8 post-immunisation in the smallest to largest fish, respectively. There was no evidence that direct immersion exposure to P. damselae ssp. piscicida at the earliest stages used in the present study (0.1 g) was tolerogenic. In the context of present knowledge, this study strongly supports the importance of the route of immunisation to locally stimulate ASC and the importance that the gills might have in specific responses. PMID:11271603

dos Santos, N M; Taverne-Thiele, J J; Barnes, A C; van Muiswinkel, W B; Ellis, A E; Rombout, J H

2001-01-01

374

Virtual screening of plant derived compounds for aldose reductase inhibition using molecular docking.  

PubMed

The role of the aldose reductase in type 2 diabetes is widely described. Therefore, it is of interest to identify plant derived compounds to inhibit its activity. We studied the protein-ligand interaction of 267 compounds from different parts of seven plants (Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Dacus carota, Murrayyakoneigii, Eucalyptus, Calendula officinalis and Lycopersicon esculentum) with aldose reductase as the target protein. Molecular docking and re-scoring of top ten compounds (using GOLD, AutoDock Vina, eHiTS, PatchDock and MEDock) followed by rank-sum technique identified compound allium38 with high binding affinity for aldose reductase. PMID:23275691

Muppalaneni, Naresh Babu; Rao, Allam Appa

2012-01-01

375

Virtual screening of plant derived compounds for aldose reductase inhibition using molecular docking  

PubMed Central

The role of the aldose reductase in type 2 diabetes is widely described. Therefore, it is of interest to identify plant derived compounds to inhibit its activity. We studied the protein-ligand interaction of 267 compounds from different parts of seven plants (Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Dacus carota, Murrayyakoneigii, Eucalyptus, Calendula officinalis and Lycopersicon esculentum) with aldose reductase as the target protein. Molecular docking and re-scoring of top ten compounds (using GOLD, AutoDock Vina, eHiTS, PatchDock and MEDock) followed by rank-sum technique identified compound allium38 with high binding affinity for aldose reductase.

Muppalaneni, Naresh Babu; Rao, Allam Appa

2012-01-01

376

Thioredoxin and NADP-thioredoxin reductase from cultured carrot cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dark-grown carrot (Daucus carota L.) tissue cultures were found to contain both protein components of the NADP\\/thioredoxin system—NADP—thioredoxin reductase and the thioredoxin characteristic of heterotrophic systems, thioredoxin h. Thioredoxin h was purified to apparent homogeneity and, like typical bacterial counterparts, was a 12-kdalton (kDa) acidic protein capable of activating chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.82) more effectively than fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11).

Thomas C. Johnson; Ri Qiang Cao; Jacob E. Kung; Bob B. Buchanan

1987-01-01

377

Arginine decarboxylase and polyamines required for embryogenesis in the wild carrot.  

PubMed

Embryogenic cultures of Daucus carota treated with 1 millimolar alpha-difluoromethylarginine, a specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase, exhibited nearly a 50 percent reduction in embryo formation compared with controls. Putrescine and spermidine concentrations in the treated cells were greatly reduced. Addition of putrescine, spermidine, or spermine to the culture medium restored embryogenesis in the treated cultures. Embryogenesis was not significantly affected by alpha-difluoromethylornithine, an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase. These results suggest that polyamines have a major function in plant embryo development and that the wild carrot synthesizes polyamines through the biosynthetic pathway involving arginine decarboxylase rather than ornithine decarboxylase. PMID:17746056

Feirer, R P; Mignon, G; Litvay, J D

1984-03-30

378

Plants-mediated reduction in the synthesis of homochiral secondary alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of 5-hexen-2-one 1, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one 2, acetophenone 3, cis-bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-en-6-one 4 and 2-methylcyclohexanone 5 with various commercially available plants (i.e., Brassica oleracea botrytis, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita pepo, Cynara scolimus, Daucus carota, Foeniculum vulgare and Musa sapientum) is reported. In the reduction of ketones 1–3, both (S)- and (R)-enantiomers 6–8 were obtained in good yields and with appreciable enantiomeric excesses. With

Renato Bruni; Giancarlo Fantin; Silvia Maietti; Alessandro Medici; Paola Pedrini; Gianni Sacchetti

2006-01-01

379

The effects of mastoparan on the carrot cell plasma membrane polyphosphoinositide phospholipase C  

Microsoft Academic Search

When (3Hlinositol-labeled carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells were treated with 10 or 25 p~ wasp venom peptide mastoparan or the active analog Mas-7 there was a rapid loss of more than 70% of (3H)phosphatidylinositol-4-monophosphate (PIP) and (3Hlphos- phatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP,) and a 3- and 4-fold in- crease in (3H)inositol-l ,4-P2 and (3H)inositol-l ,4,5-P,, respectively. The identity of (3H)inositol-l ,4,5-P, was confirmed

Myeon H. Cho; Zheng Tan; Christophe Erneux; Stephen B. Shears; Wendy F. Boss

1995-01-01

380

EPR as an analytical tool in assessing the mineral nutrients and irradiated food products-vegetables.  

PubMed

EPR spectral investigations of some commonly available vegetables in south India, which are of global importance like Daucus carota (carrot), Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (cluster beans), Coccinia indica (little gourd) and Beta vulgaris (beet root) have been carried out. In all the vegetable samples a free radical corresponding to cellulose radical is observed. Almost all the samples under investigation exhibit Mn ions in different oxidation states. The temperature variation EPR studies are done and are discussed in view of the paramagnetic oxidation states. The radiation-induced defects have also been assessed by using the EPR spectra of such irradiated food products. PMID:18372211

Prasuna, C P Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R P S; Rao, J L; Gopal, N O

2008-12-01

381

EPR as an analytical tool in assessing the mineral nutrients and irradiated food products-vegetables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EPR spectral investigations of some commonly available vegetables in south India, which are of global importance like Daucus carota (carrot), Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (cluster beans), Coccinia indica (little gourd) and Beta vulgaris (beet root) have been carried out. In all the vegetable samples a free radical corresponding to cellulose radical is observed. Almost all the samples under investigation exhibit Mn ions in different oxidation states. The temperature variation EPR studies are done and are discussed in view of the paramagnetic oxidation states. The radiation-induced defects have also been assessed by using the EPR spectra of such irradiated food products.

Prasuna, C. P. Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Gopal, N. O.

2008-12-01

382

Screening seeds of Scottish plants for antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Based on ethnopharmacological and taxonomic information, seeds of 21 Scottish plant species from 14 different families were obtained from authentic seed suppliers. Their n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts were assessed for antibacterial activity against 11 pathogenic bacterial species. Methanol extracts of 11 plant species showed significant antibacterial activity. Malva moschata and Prunus padus were active against five bacterial species, Reseda lutea against four, Centaurium erythraea and Crithmum maritimum against three, Calluna vulgaris against two, and Armeria maritima, Centaurea scabiosa, Daucus carota, Rosa canina and Stellaria holostea against one bacterial species. C. erythraea and P. padus were also active against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:12413709

Kumarasamy, Yashodharan; Cox, Philip John; Jaspars, Marcel; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit Dey

2002-11-01

383

Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy of cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 demonstrates that group I cations are particularly effective in providing structure and stability to this halophilic protein.  

PubMed

Proteins from extremophiles have the ability to fold and remain stable in their extreme environment. Here, we investigate the presence of this effect in the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 (NRC-1), which was used as a model halophilic protein. The effects of salt on the structure and stability of NRC-1 and of E. coli CysRS were investigated through far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation melts. The CD of NRC-1 CysRS was examined in different group I and group II chloride salts to examine the effects of the metal ions. Potassium was observed to have the strongest effect on NRC-1 CysRS structure, with the other group I salts having reduced strength. The group II salts had little effect on the protein. This suggests that the halophilic adaptations in this protein are mediated by potassium. CD and fluorescence spectra showed structural changes taking place in NRC-1 CysRS over the concentration range of 0-3 M KCl, while the structure of E. coli CysRS was relatively unaffected. Salt was also shown to increase the thermal stability of NRC-1 CysRS since the melt temperature of the CysRS from NRC-1 was increased in the presence of high salt, whereas the E. coli enzyme showed a decrease. By characterizing these interactions, this study not only explains the stability of halophilic proteins in extremes of salt, but also helps us to understand why and how group I salts stabilize proteins in general. PMID:24594651

Reed, Christopher J; Bushnell, Sarah; Evilia, Caryn

2014-01-01

384

Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Cysteinyl-tRNA Synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 Demonstrates that Group I Cations Are Particularly Effective in Providing Structure and Stability to This Halophilic Protein  

PubMed Central

Proteins from extremophiles have the ability to fold and remain stable in their extreme environment. Here, we investigate the presence of this effect in the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 (NRC-1), which was used as a model halophilic protein. The effects of salt on the structure and stability of NRC-1 and of E. coli CysRS were investigated through far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation melts. The CD of NRC-1 CysRS was examined in different group I and group II chloride salts to examine the effects of the metal ions. Potassium was observed to have the strongest effect on NRC-1 CysRS structure, with the other group I salts having reduced strength. The group II salts had little effect on the protein. This suggests that the halophilic adaptations in this protein are mediated by potassium. CD and fluorescence spectra showed structural changes taking place in NRC-1 CysRS over the concentration range of 0–3 M KCl, while the structure of E. coli CysRS was relatively unaffected. Salt was also shown to increase the thermal stability of NRC-1 CysRS since the melt temperature of the CysRS from NRC-1 was increased in the presence of high salt, whereas the E. coli enzyme showed a decrease. By characterizing these interactions, this study not only explains the stability of halophilic proteins in extremes of salt, but also helps us to understand why and how group I salts stabilize proteins in general.

Reed, Christopher J.; Bushnell, Sarah; Evilia, Caryn

2014-01-01

385

Transposon Mutagenesis of the Plant-Associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 Revealed That the nfrA and RBAM17410 Genes Are Involved in Plant-Microbe-Interactions  

PubMed Central

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 represents the prototype of Gram-positive plant growth promoting and biocontrol bacteria. In this study, we applied transposon mutagenesis to generate a transposon library, which was screened for genes involved in multicellular behavior and biofilm formation on roots as a prerequisite of plant growth promoting activity. Transposon insertion sites were determined by rescue-cloning followed by DNA sequencing. As in B. subtilis, the global transcriptional regulator DegU was identified as an activator of genes necessary for swarming and biofilm formation, and the DegU-mutant of FZB42 was found impaired in efficient root colonization. Direct screening of 3,000 transposon insertion mutants for plant-growth-promotion revealed the gene products of nfrA and RBAM_017140 to be essential for beneficial effects exerted by FZB42 on plants. We analyzed the performance of GFP-labeled wild-type and transposon mutants in the colonization of lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While the wild-type strain heavily colonized root surfaces, the nfrA mutant did not colonize lettuce roots, although it was not impaired in growth in laboratory cultures, biofilm formation and swarming motility on agar plates. The RBAM17410 gene, occurring in only a few members of the B. subtilis species complex, was directly involved in plant growth promotion. None of the mutant strains were affected in producing the plant growth hormone auxin. We hypothesize that the nfrA gene product is essential for overcoming the stress caused by plant response towards bacterial root colonization.

Dietel, Kristin; Beator, Barbara; Dolgova, Olga; Fan, Ben; Bleiss, Wilfrid; Ziegler, Jorg; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Borriss, Rainer

2014-01-01

386

The cell density-dependent expression of stewartan exopolysaccharide in Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii is a function of EsaR-mediated repression of the rcsA gene.  

PubMed

The LuxR-type quorum-sensing transcription factor EsaR functions as a repressor of exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis in the phytopathogenic bacterium Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii. The cell density-dependent expression of EPS is critical for Stewart's wilt disease development. Strains deficient in the synthesis of a diffusible acyl-homoserine lactone inducer remain repressed for EPS synthesis and are consequently avirulent. In contrast, disruption of the esaR gene leads to hypermucoidy and attenuated disease development. Ligand-free EsaR functions as a negative autoregulator of the esaR gene and responds to exogenous acyl-homoserine lactone for derepression. The focus of this study was to define the mechanism by which EsaR governs the expression of the cps locus, which encodes functions required for stewartan EPS synthesis and membrane translocation. Genetic and biochemical studies show that EsaR directly represses the transcription of the rcsA gene. RcsA encodes an essential coactivator for RcsA/RcsB-mediated transcriptional activation of cps genes. In vitro assays identify an EsaR DNA binding site within the rcsA promoter that is reasonably well conserved with the previously described esaR box. We also describe that RcsA positively controls its own expression. Interestingly, promoter proximal genes within the cps cluster are significantly more acyl-homoserine lactone responsive than genes located towards the middle or 3' end of the gene cluster. We will discuss a possible role of EsaR-mediated quorum sensing in the differential expression of the cps operon. PMID:15773989

Minogue, Timothy D; Carlier, Aurelien L; Koutsoudis, Maria D; von Bodman, Susanne B

2005-04-01

387

Transposon mutagenesis of the plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 revealed that the nfrA and RBAM17410 genes are involved in plant-microbe-interactions.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 represents the prototype of Gram-positive plant growth promoting and biocontrol bacteria. In this study, we applied transposon mutagenesis to generate a transposon library, which was screened for genes involved in multicellular behavior and biofilm formation on roots as a prerequisite of plant growth promoting activity. Transposon insertion sites were determined by rescue-cloning followed by DNA sequencing. As in B. subtilis, the global transcriptional regulator DegU was identified as an activator of genes necessary for swarming and biofilm formation, and the DegU-mutant of FZB42 was found impaired in efficient root colonization. Direct screening of 3,000 transposon insertion mutants for plant-growth-promotion revealed the gene products of nfrA and RBAM_017140 to be essential for beneficial effects exerted by FZB42 on plants. We analyzed the performance of GFP-labeled wild-type and transposon mutants in the colonization of lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While the wild-type strain heavily colonized root surfaces, the nfrA mutant did not colonize lettuce roots, although it was not impaired in growth in laboratory cultures, biofilm formation and swarming motility on agar plates. The RBAM17410 gene, occurring in only a few members of the B. subtilis species complex, was directly involved in plant growth promotion. None of the mutant strains were affected in producing the plant growth hormone auxin. We hypothesize that the nfrA gene product is essential for overcoming the stress caused by plant response towards bacterial root colonization. PMID:24847778

Budiharjo, Anto; Chowdhury, Soumitra Paul; Dietel, Kristin; Beator, Barbara; Dolgova, Olga; Fan, Ben; Bleiss, Wilfrid; Ziegler, Jörg; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Borriss, Rainer

2014-01-01

388

Alcataenia fraterculae sp. n. from the horned puffin, Fratercula corniculata (Naumann), Alcataenia cerorhincae sp. n. from the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas), and Alcataenia larina pacifica ssp. n. (Cestoda: Dilepididae) in the North Pacific basin.  

PubMed

Three Cestodes representing two species of the genus Alcataenia Spasskaia, 1971 and a subspecies of Alcataenia larina (Krabbe, 1869) are described. Alcataenia fraterculae sp. n. (Cestoda: Dilepididae) was found in horned puffins, Fratercula corniculata (Naumann), and other species of seabirds from localities in the western Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, and Chukchi Sea. Alcataenia cerorhincae sp. n. is described from the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas) in the eastern North Pacific Ocean and western Aleutian Islands. Alcataenia larina pacifica ssp. n. is recognized from species of Laridae and other seabirds in the North Pacific Ocean, Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea and the region of the Arctic Ocean near Bering Strait. It is distinguished from A. larina larina (Krabbe, 1869) by a greater number of testes, a longer cirrus sac, and variation in the position of the genital ducts which may be either dorsal to or between the osmoregulatory canals. A fraterculae and A. cerorhincae are most similar to A. larina and particularly to the North Pacific form A. l. pacifica. Generally specimens of A. fraterculae can be distinguished from the other taxa by larger rostellar hooks, a longer cirrus sac, and a combination of other characters. A. fraterculae, A. cerorhincae, and A. l. pacifica however represent a complex of cryptic species in which there is extensive overlap in some morphological characters. Results of a discriminant analysis among these nominal taxa were significant and, in combination with data about other morphological characters and host and geographic distribution, clearly indicated that these represent three species in the North Pacific basin. PMID:6486621

Hoberg, E P

1984-01-01

389

[The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae].  

PubMed

Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota, Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusión and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading. PMID:8018898

Guevara, J M; Chumpitaz, J; Valencia, E

1994-01-01

390

Molecular evolution of flavonoid dioxygenases in the family Apiaceae.  

PubMed

Plant species of the family Apiaceae are known to accumulate flavonoids mainly in the form of flavones and flavonols. Three 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, flavone synthase or flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase are involved in the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites. The corresponding genes were cloned recently from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves. Flavone synthase I appears to be confined to the Apiaceae, and the unique occurrence as well as its high sequence similarity to flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase laid the basis for evolutionary studies. In order to examine the relationship of these two enzymes throughout the Apiaceae, RT-PCR based cloning and functional identification of flavone synthases I or flavanone 3beta-hydroxylases were accomplished from Ammi majus, Anethum graveolens, Apium graveolens, Pimpinella anisum, Conium maculatum and Daucus carota, yielding three additional synthase and three additional hydroxylase cDNAs. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of these sequences were compatible with the phylogeny based on morphological characteristics and suggested that flavone synthase I most likely resulted from gene duplication of flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase, and functional diversification at some point during the development of the apiaceae subfamilies. Furthermore, the genomic sequences from Petroselinum crispum and Daucus carota revealed two introns in each of the synthases and a lack of introns in the hydroxylases. These results might be explained by intron losses from the hydroxylases occurring at a later stage of evolution. PMID:15913674

Gebhardt, Yvonne; Witte, Simone; Forkmann, Gert; Lukacin, Richard; Matern, Ulrich; Martens, Stefan

2005-06-01

391

Influence of High-Pressure Processing on the Profile of Polyglutamyl 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate in Selected Vegetables  

PubMed Central

In plants, folate occurs predominantly as 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) polyglutamyl forms. Differences in stability and bioavailability of food folate compared to synthetic folic acid have been attributed to the presence of the polyglutamyl chain. High-pressure processing (HPP) was tested for whether it might shorten polyglutamyl chains of 5MTHF species in fresh vegetables by enabling action of native ?-glutamylhydrolase (GGH). A validated ultrahigh-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method using stable isotope as internal standard was applied for characterizing 5MTHF polyglutamyl profiles. HPP conditions included 300, 450, and 600 MPa at 30 °C for 0 or 5 min, and vegetables were vacuum-packed before treatment. Investigated vegetables included cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), baby carrots (Daucus carota), and carrot greens (D. carota). HPP treatment caused conversion of polyglutamyl 5MTHF species to short-chain and monoglutamyl forms. Maximal conversion of polyglutamyl folate to monoglutamyl folate occurred at the highest pressure/time combination investigated, 600 MPa/30 °C/5 min. Under this condition, cauliflower monoglutamyl folate increased nearly 4-fold, diglutamyl folate 32-fold, and triglutamyl folate 8-fold; carrot monoglutamyl increased 23-fold and diglutamyl 32-fold; and carrot greens monoglutamyl increased 2.5-fold and the diglutamyl form 19-fold. Although some folate degradation was observed at certain intermediate HPP conditions, total 5MTHF folate was largely preserved at 600 MPa/5 min. Thus, HPP of raw vegetables is a feasible strategy for enhancing vegetable monoglutamate 5MTHF.

Wang, Chao; Riedl, Ken M.; Somerville, Jeremy; Balasubramaniam, V. M.; Schwartz, Steven J.

2013-01-01

392

Influence of high-pressure processing on the profile of polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in selected vegetables.  

PubMed

In plants, folate occurs predominantly as 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) polyglutamyl forms. Differences in stability and bioavailability of food folate compared to synthetic folic acid have been attributed to the presence of the polyglutamyl chain. High-pressure processing (HPP) was tested for whether it might shorten polyglutamyl chains of 5MTHF species in fresh vegetables by enabling action of native ?-glutamylhydrolase (GGH). A validated ultrahigh-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using stable isotope as internal standard was applied for characterizing 5MTHF polyglutamyl profiles. HPP conditions included 300, 450, and 600 MPa at 30 °C for 0 or 5 min, and vegetables were vacuum-packed before treatment. Investigated vegetables included cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), baby carrots (Daucus carota), and carrot greens (D. carota). HPP treatment caused conversion of polyglutamyl 5MTHF species to short-chain and monoglutamyl forms. Maximal conversion of polyglutamyl folate to monoglutamyl folate occurred at the highest pressure/time combination investigated, 600 MPa/30 °C/5 min. Under this condition, cauliflower monoglutamyl folate increased nearly 4-fold, diglutamyl folate 32-fold, and triglutamyl folate 8-fold; carrot monoglutamyl increased 23-fold and diglutamyl 32-fold; and carrot greens monoglutamyl increased 2.5-fold and the diglutamyl form 19-fold. Although some folate degradation was observed at certain intermediate HPP conditions, total 5MTHF folate was largely preserved at 600 MPa/5 min. Thus, HPP of raw vegetables is a feasible strategy for enhancing vegetable monoglutamate 5MTHF. PMID:21770413

Wang, Chao; Riedl, Ken M; Somerville, Jeremy; Balasubramaniam, V M; Schwartz, Steven J

2011-08-24

393

Carrot alternative oxidase gene AOX2a demonstrates allelic and genotypic polymorphisms in intron 3.  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion-deletions (InDels) are becoming important genetic markers for major crop species. In this study, we focus on variations at genomic level of the Daucus carota L. AOX2a gene. The use of gene-specific primers designed in exon regions on the boundaries of introns permitted to recognize intron length polymorphism (ILP) in intron 3 AOX2a by simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The length of intron 3 can vary in individual carrot plants. Thus, allelic variation can be used as a tool to discriminate between single plant genotypes. Using this approach, individual plants from cv. Rotin and from diverse breeding lines and cultivars were identified that showed genetic variability by AOX2a ILPs. Repetitive patterns of intron length variation have been observed which allows grouping of genotypes. Polymorphic and identical PCR fragments revealed underlying high levels of sequence polymorphism. Variability was due to InDel events and intron single nucleotide polymorphisms (ISNPs), with a repetitive deletion in intron 3 affecting a putative pre-miRNA site. The results suggest that high AOX2a gene diversity in D. carota can be explored for the development of functional markers related to agronomic traits. PMID:19941625

Guerra Cardoso, Hélia; Doroteia Campos, Maria; Rita Costa, Ana; Catarina Campos, Maria; Nothnagel, Thomas; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

2009-12-01

394

Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems. Initial assessment of plant DNA mutation spectra as a biomarker  

SciTech Connect

Munitions material can enter the environment as a result of manufacturing activities and field usage. Predictor methodologies, or biomarkers would enhance evaluation of environmental impacts. The goal of this exploratory study deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mutation frequency as a biomarker for munitions exposure. The approach e resolution of an effective repetitive sequence probe for the identification of characteristic mutations, and (2) the development of a testing media [a clonal cell line of carrot (Daucus carota) spension cells]. Commercially available probes demonstrated marginal resolution therefore a low-C{sub o}t library was then constructed. Three colonies from the low-C{sub o}t DNA library were screened and the DNA isolates sequenced. A suspension culture of carrot (Daucus carota) was developed. A mutation spectra experiment was initiated at a 10-mg TNT/L exposure concentration with the attempt to clone over 1500 single TNT-exposed cells. Over the following six months greater than 98% of the initially isolated cells were unable to survive and produce micro calluses. The remaining calli were too few to be statistically significant and the experiment was terminated. The biomarker concept itself remains to be disproved, but the need for large numbers of uniform clones to differentiate true mutations suggest that more direct techniques using whole tissues need to be developed.

Leung, F.; Cataldo, D.A.; Fellows, R.J.; Jarrell, A.E.; Harvey, S.D.

1995-09-01

395

Schoolhouse Systems Project: SSP. 3rd Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure provides statistical bid breakdown for Programs 1A and 2 of the Florida Schoolhouse Systems Project. Tabular information is provided on bidders, compatible building subsystems, bid tabulation by compatibility, "per school" building subsystems, nominated bidders and lump sums, and a comparison of programs 1A and 2 bids. Data presented…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

396

School Teams up for SSP Functional Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Solar Power systems appear increasingly as one of the major solutions to the upcoming global energy crisis, by collecting solar energy in space where this is most easy, and sending it by microwave beam to the surface of the planet, where the need for controlled energy is located. While fully operational systems are still decades away, the need for

G. Pignolet; R. Lallemand; A. Celeste; H. von Muldau

2002-01-01

397

Susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria ssp  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with {sup 3}H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with {sup 125}I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae.

Whiteman, L.Y.

1988-01-01

398

The NERSC Sustained System Performance (SSP) Metric  

SciTech Connect

Most plans and reports recently discuss only one of four distinct purposes benchmarks are used. The obvious purpose is selection of a system from among its competitors, something that is the main focus of this paper. This purpose is well discussed in many workshops and reports. The second use of benchmarks is validating the selected system actually works the way expected once it arrives. This purpose may be more important than the first reason. The second purpose is particularly key when systems are specified and selected based on performance projections rather than actual runs on the actual hardware. The third use of benchmarks, seldom mentioned, is to assure the system performs as expected throughout its lifetime1, (e.g. after upgrades, changes, and regular use.) Finally, benchmarks are used to guide system designs, something covered in detail in a companion paper from Berkeley's Institute for Performance Studies (BIPS).

Kramer, William; Shalf, John; Strohmaier, Erich

2005-09-18

399

Improved Method for HPLC Analysis of Polyamines, Agmatine and Aromatic Monoamines in Plant Tissue  

PubMed Central

The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of Flores and Galston (1982 Plant Physiol 69: 701) for the separation and quantitation of benzoylated polyamines in plant tissues has been widely adopted by other workers. However, due to previously unrecognized problems associated with the derivatization of agmatine, this important intermediate in plant polyamine metabolism cannot be quantitated using this method. Also, two polyamines, putrescine and diaminopropane, also are not well resolved using this method. A simple modification of the original HPLC procedure greatly improves the separation and quantitation of these amines, and further allows the simulation analysis of phenethylamine and tyramine, which are major monoamine constituents of tobacco and other plant tissues. We have used this modified HPLC method to characterize amine titers in suspension cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissues. Images Figure 4 Figure 5

Slocum, Robert D.; Flores, Hector E.; Galston, Arthur W.; Weinstein, Leonard H.

1989-01-01

400

Control of Wild Carrot Somatic Embryo Development by Antioxidants 1  

PubMed Central

As we previously reported for glutathione (GSH), both ascorbic acid (AA) and vitamin E were observed to suppress wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) somatic embryogenesis with little concomitant effect on biomass. Endogenous concentrations of AA were lower during embryo development than during cell proliferation, exhibiting a temporal pattern nearly identical to that of GSH. GSSG (oxidized GSH) reductase was found to be considerably more active in proliferating than in developing cultures, whereas no difference was evident in the case of dehydroascorbate (DHA) reductase. Both GSH and AA concentrations in these cells are governed by 2,4-D. These results show that redox status is a strong determinant of proliferative versus developmental growth and indicate that the mode of action of 2,4-D in this system may be explained at least in part by its influence on endogenous antioxidant levels.

Earnshaw, Brent A.; Johnson, Morris A.

1987-01-01

401

A quenched molecular dynamics-rotating frame Overhauser spectroscopy study of a series of semibiosynthetically monoacylated anthocyanins.  

PubMed

Quenched molecular dynamics (QMD), in conjunction with NMR (ROESY) studies, was used to investigate the conformational behavior of some semibiosynthetic anthocyanins of the type 6-O-acyl-beta-D-Glcp-(166)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->O(3))-cyanidin, with and without a beta-D-Xylp branch at the 2-O-Gal position. These compounds, which are produced by the addition of selected carboxylic acids to growing tissue cultures of Daucus carota (wild carrot), are of interest as color-stabilized anthocyanins, some of which have potential as useful colorants in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. The QMD-ROESY studies, performed for the first time on anthocyanins, have led to the identification of families of conformers of these flexible molecules that are of interest in work toward determining the mechanism for stabilization of color among these compounds in solution. PMID:14987026

Whittemore, Neil A; Welch, Karen T; Cox, James R; Dougall, Donald K; Baker, David C

2004-03-01

402

Control of wild carrot somatic embryo development by antioxidants : a probable mode of action of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid.  

PubMed

As we previously reported for glutathione (GSH), both ascorbic acid (AA) and vitamin E were observed to suppress wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) somatic embryogenesis with little concomitant effect on biomass. Endogenous concentrations of AA were lower during embryo development than during cell proliferation, exhibiting a temporal pattern nearly identical to that of GSH. GSSG (oxidized GSH) reductase was found to be considerably more active in proliferating than in developing cultures, whereas no difference was evident in the case of dehydroascorbate (DHA) reductase. Both GSH and AA concentrations in these cells are governed by 2,4-D. These results show that redox status is a strong determinant of proliferative versus developmental growth and indicate that the mode of action of 2,4-D in this system may be explained at least in part by its influence on endogenous antioxidant levels. PMID:16665669

Earnshaw, B A; Johnson, M A

1987-09-01

403

Electrical polarity in embryos of wild carrot precedes cotyledon differentiation.  

PubMed

Endogenous electrical currents traverse embryos of a higher plant, the wild carrot Daucus carota L. Current enters the apical pole and leaves the region near the presumptive radicle in the radially symmetric globular embryo. Current also enters the exposed surfaces of incipient globular embryos. This electrical polarity precedes differentiation of vascular tissue and cotyledon development. Localized current is observed at both growing ends of the embryos in subsequent stages of embryogenesis. Inward current is found at the cotyledons; outward current is found at the radicle/root. Exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (3 muM) reversibly inhibits these currents. Little current traverses the surface of intermediate regions of the embryo. The ionic gradients generated by these currents may be important in accumulation of metabolites and in other developmental processes within the embryo. PMID:16593519

Brawley, S H; Wetherell, D F; Robinson, K R

1984-10-01

404

Gene transcription analysis of carrot allergens by relative quantification with single and duplex reverse transcription real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Single and duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems have been developed to quantify specific mRNA transcription of genes coding for the major Daucus carota allergen isoforms Dau c 1.01 and Dau c 1.02. Methods were tested with samples from the local market. Whereas the gene transcription levels for Dau c 1.01 were consistently high in all investigated samples, significant differences for the Dau c 1.02 transcription could be demonstrated in randomly collected market samples. The gene transcription level for the minor Dau c 1.02 variant is about one log below Dau c 1.01. Both formats, single or duplex real-time methods, exhibit ideal cycle threshold (CT) ranges and good reproducibility. In particular, the easily performed duplex real-time PCR system is potentially suited for the selection of hypoallergenic varieties and studying the impact of post-harvesting or environmental conditions. PMID:19834694

Zagon, Jutta; Jansen, Bärbel; Knoppik, Meike; Ehlers, Anke; Kroh, Lothar W; Holzhauser, Thomas; Vieths, Stefan; Broll, Hermann

2010-01-01

405

An improved UHPLC-UV method for separation and quantification of carotenoids in vegetable crops.  

PubMed

Carotenoid identification and quantitation is critical for the development of improved nutrition plant varieties. Industrial analysis of carotenoids is typically carried out on multiple crops with potentially thousands of samples per crop, placing critical needs on speed and broad utility of the analytical methods. Current chromatographic methods for carotenoid analysis have had limited industrial application due to their low throughput, requiring up to 60min for complete separation of all compounds. We have developed an improved UHPLC-UV method that resolves all major carotenoids found in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota), corn (Zea mays), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The chromatographic method is completed in 13.5min allowing for the resolution of the 11 carotenoids of interest, including the structural isomers lutein/zeaxanthin and ?-/?-carotene. Additional minor carotenoids have also been separated and identified with this method, demonstrating the utility of this method across major commercial food crops. PMID:25038701

Maurer, Megan M; Mein, Jonathan R; Chaudhuri, Swapan K; Constant, Howard L

2014-12-15

406

Occurrence of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in tropical and subtropical plants of Western Ghats, India.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the tissues of surface sterilized roots, stems, and leaves of fifty different crop plants. Phenotypic, biochemical tests and species-specific PCR assay permitted identification of four isolates of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus from root tissues of carrot (Daucus carota L.), raddish (Raphanus sativus L.), beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and coffee (Coffea arabica L.). Further the plant growth promoting traits such as nitrogenase activity, production of phytohormone indole acetic acid (IAA), phosphorus and zinc solubilization were assessed. Significant nitrogenase activity was recorded among the isolates and all the isolates produced IAA in the presence of tryptophan. Though all the four isolates efficiently solubilized phosphorus, the zinc solubilizing ability differed among the isolates. PMID:15462523

Madhaiyan, M; Saravanan, V S; Jovi, D Bhakiya Silba Sandal; Lee, Hyoungseok; Thenmozhi, R; Hari, K; Sa, Tongmin

2004-01-01

407

Phytotoxicity and fate of 1,1,2-trichloroethylene: a laboratory study.  

PubMed

1,1,2-Trichloroethylene (TCE), a chlorinated organic contaminant, poses serious environmental concerns. A study was conducted to evaluate the phytotoxicity of TCE to a crop species and its fate in vermiculite. Growth bioassays were carried out using carrot (Daucus carota L.) as the test species. Three different concentrations, 0.25, 0.50, and 1 ppm were used to evaluate phytotoxicity of TCE. When added to petri plates with cotton pads, TCE did not have any effect on carrot seedling growth. However, when added to vermiculite, it significantly suppressed growth. Shoot growth was inhibited only at the 1 ppm concentration. Recovery experiments were carried out to study the fate of TCE in vermiculite. A significant decline in the percent recovery was observed with time. Interestingly, TCE additional peaks (unknown organic molecules) were detected with declining concentrations. The available chloride ion concentration in vermiculite containing 1 ppm of TCE for 24 hr was significantly higher compared to control. PMID:12918919

Inderjit; Asakawa, Chikako; Kakuta, Hideo

2003-06-01

408

Plants as biofactories: glyphosate-induced production of shikimic acid and phenolic antioxidants in wounded carrot tissue.  

PubMed

The use of plants to produce chemical compounds with pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications has intensified in recent years. In this regard, genetic engineering is the most commonly used tool to generate crop lines with enhanced concentrations of desirable chemicals. However, growing genetically modified plants is still limited because they are perceived as potential biological hazards that can create an ecological imbalance. The application of postharvest abiotic stresses on plants induces the accumulation of secondary metabolites and thus can be used as an alternative to genetic modification. The present project evaluated the feasibility of producing shikimic acid (SA) and phenolic compounds (PC) in wounded carrots ( Daucus carota ) treated with glyphosate. The spray application of a concentrated glyphosate solution on wounded carrot tissue increased the concentrations of SA and chlorogenic acid by ?1735 and ?5700%, respectively. The results presented herein demonstrate the potential of stressed carrot tissue as a biofactory of SA and PC. PMID:23101679

Becerra-Moreno, Alejandro; Benavides, Jorge; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

2012-11-14

409

Improved method for HPLC analysis of polyamines, agmatine and aromatic monoamines in plant tissue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of Flores and Galston (1982 Plant Physiol 69: 701) for the separation and quantitation of benzoylated polyamines in plant tissues has been widely adopted by other workers. However, due to previously unrecognized problems associated with the derivatization of agmatine, this important intermediate in plant polyamine metabolism cannot be quantitated using this method. Also, two polyamines, putrescine and diaminopropane, also are not well resolved using this method. A simple modification of the original HPLC procedure greatly improves the separation and quantitation of these amines, and further allows the simulation analysis of phenethylamine and tyramine, which are major monoamine constituents of tobacco and other plant tissues. We have used this modified HPLC method to characterize amine titers in suspension cultured carrot (Daucas carota L.) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissues.

Slocum, R. D.; Flores, H. E.; Galston, A. W.; Weinstein, L. H.

1989-01-01

410

Secure sensor platform (SSP) for materials' sealing and monitoring applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over a decade, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with domestic and international partners in the development of intelligent radio frequency (RF) loop seals and sensor technologies for multiple applications. Working with US industry, the International Atomic Energy Agency and Russian institutes; the Sandia team continues to utilize gains in technology performance to develop and deploy increasingly sophisticated platforms. Seals

B. Schoeneman; S. Blankenau

2005-01-01

411

Evaluation of proposed Skylab and SSP soap products.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four candidate cleansing agents evaluated in terms of potential hazards to crew members included two soaps (Neutrogena bar soap and Olive Leaf Liquid), one nonfoaming surfactant (Miranol JEM), and one laundry detergent (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate). None of the four exhibited adverse dermatological effects from skin patch tests or supported growth of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Aqueous solutions of Neutrogena did support a mold species. Neutrogena and Miranol JEM were used in a simulated Skylab personal hygiene regimen with no adverse effects on skin or skin microflora. Based on our results, each of these agents appear to be a promising candidate material for the use intended.

Durfee, R. L.; Spurlock, J. M.; Whitmore, F. C.

1973-01-01

412

Influence of boron on carrot cell wall structure and its resistance to fracture.  

PubMed

Plant cell wall structure integrity and associated tissue mechanical properties is one of key determinants for the perceived texture of plant-based foods. Carrots (Daucus carota) were used to investigate the effect of mineral supply of boron (B) and/or calcium (Ca), during plant growth, on the plant cell wall structure and mechanical properties of matured root tissues. Five commercial cultivars of carrots, Kuroda (orange), Dragon Purple, Kuttiger White, Yellow, and Nutri-Red, were cultivated under controlled glasshouse conditions over two seasons. Significant increases in the accumulation of B and Ca were found for all cultivars of carrots when additional B and Ca were included in the nutrient feeding solutions throughout the plant growth period. Elevated levels of B in carrot root tissue reduced the uptake of Ca and other mineral nutrients and enhanced plant cell wall structural integrity, its resistance to fracture, and the weight and size (both diameter and length) of carrots. Although higher amounts of Ca were accumulated in the plant materials, the additional supply of Ca did not have a significant effect on the mechanical properties of mature plant tissues or on the uptake of B by the plant. The results suggest that B cross-linking of pectin (rhamnogalacturonan II) has a greater influence on mature tissue mechanical properties than Ca cross-linking of pectin (homogalacturonan) when supplied during plant growth. PMID:23654242

Singh, Davinder Pal; Liu, Li Hui; Øiseth, Sofia Kihlman; Beloy, Joel; Lundin, Leif; Gidley, Michael J; Day, Li

2010-08-25

413

Specific developmental pathways underlie host specificity in the parasitic plant Orobanche.  

PubMed

Parasitic angiosperms are an ecologically and economically important group of plants. However our understanding of the basis for host specificity in these plants is embryonic. Recently we investigated host specificity in the parasitic angiosperm Orobanche minor, and demonstrated that this host generalist parasite comprises genetically defined races that are physiologically adapted to specific hosts. Populations occurring naturally on red clover (Trifolium pratense) and sea carrot (Daucus carota subsp. gummifer) respectively, showed distinct patterns of host specificity at various developmental stages, and a higher fitness on their natural hosts, suggesting these races are locally adapted. Here we discuss the implications of our findings from a broader perspective. We suggest that differences in signal responsiveness and perception by the parasite, as well as qualitative differences in signal production by the host, may elicit host specificity in this parasitic plant. Together with our earlier demonstration that these O. minor races are genetically distinct based on molecular markers, our recent data provide a snapshot of speciation in action, driven by host specificity. Indeed, host specificity may be an underestimated catalyst for speciation in parasitic plants generally. We propose that identifying host specific races using physiological techniques will complement conventional molecular marker-based approaches to provide a framework for delineating evolutionary relationships among cryptic host-specific parasitic plants. PMID:20081361

Thorogood, Chris; Hiscock, Simon

2010-03-01

414

The effect of growth retardants on anthocyanin production in carrot cell suspension cultures.  

PubMed

The effect of growth retardants on anthocyanin production was studied in wild carrot (Daucus carota) cell suspension cultures. Paclobutrazol [(2RS,3RS) - 1 - (4-chlorophenyl) - 4,4 -dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) pentan-3-ol], uniconazole [(E)-1-(4-chlorophenyl-4,4 -) dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3-ol], tetcyclacis [5-(4-chloro-phenyl) -3,4,5,9,10-pentaaza-tetracyclo-5, 4, 10(2,6), O(8,11) - dodeca-3, 9-diene], ancymidol [?-cyclopropyl - 4 - methoxy-?(pyrimidine-5-yl)benzyl alcohol] and CCC (2-chloro-ethyltrimethylammonium chloride) increased anthocyanin accumulation. AMO-1618 [(2-isopropyl-5-methyl-4-trimethyl-ammonium-chloride)-phenyl-1-piperidinium carboxylate] did not increase anthocyanin accumulation in the first passage but did increase it during the second passage on medium for improved anthocyanin accumulation. Prohexadione (3,5-dioxo-4-propionylcyclohexane carboxylic acid) decreased anthocyanin accumulation by 10%-12.5%.The inhibitory effect of gibberellin on anthocyanin accumulation was reversed by paclobutrazol. Paclobutrazol together with 10(-6)M GA3 increased anthocyanin level from 33% of control in GA3 treated cell suspension to 76%. These results are consistent growth retardants increasing anthocyanin accumulation in carrot cell suspension cultures by inhibiting gibberellin biosynthesis. PMID:24203145

Ilan, A; Dougall, D K

1992-06-01

415

Purification and characterization of neutral and alkaline invertase from carrot.  

PubMed Central

Neutral and alkaline invertase were identified in cells of a suspension culture of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Neutral invertase is an octamer with a molecular mass of 456 kD and subunits of 57 kD, whereas alkaline invertase is a tetramer with a molecular mass of 504 kD and subunits of 126 kD. Both enzymes had sharp pH profiles, with maximal activities at pH 6.8 for neutral invertase and pH 8.0 for alkaline invertase, and both hydrolyzed sucrose with typical hyperbolic kinetics and similar Km values of about 20 mM at pH 7.5. Neutral invertase also hydrolyzed raffinose and stachyose and, therefore, is a beta-fructofuranosidase. In contrast, alkaline invertase was highly specific for sucrose. Fructose acted as a competitive inhibitor of both enzymes, with Ki values of about 15 mM. Glucose was a noncompetitive inhibitor of both neutral and alkaline invertase, with a Ki of about 30 mM. Neither enzyme was inhibited by HgCl2. Alkaline invertase was markedly inhibited by CaCl2, MgCl2, and MnCl2, and neutral invertase was not. In contrast to alkaline invertase, neutral invertase was inhibited by the nucleotides ATP, CTP, GTP, and UTP.

Lee, H S; Sturm, A

1996-01-01

416

Biosynthesis of myo-inositol and its role as a precursor of cell-wall polysaccharides in suspension cultures of wild-carrot cells.  

PubMed

The biosynthesis of myo-inositol (MI) and its role as a precursor of cell-wall polysaccharides was studied in supension cultures of wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells. Suspension cultures, grown in the presence or absence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for 7 and 14d were incubated with [U-(14)C]glucose and [2-(3)H]MI in the presence of different concentrations of unlabeled MI. Synthesis of [(14)C]MI from [U-(14)C]glucose occurred under all conditions. The amount of MI synthesized from glucose was sharply reduced when 10 mM MI was provided in the medium. Substantial quantities of (3)H were incorporated in arabinose, xylose and galacturonic acid isolated and purified from the cell-wall polysaccharides of the cell cultures in various stages of growth or embryogenesis. No (3)H was present in the glucose or galactose units of cell-wall polysaccharides. At the four stages of growth and states of development of the carrot cultures used, the MI oxidation pathway contributed to the synthesis of pentosyl and galacturonosyl units of the cell wall. However, the data indicate that the contribution of the MI oxidation pathway to pentosyl and galacturonosyl units is small. PMID:24317946

Verma, D C; Dougall, D K

1979-01-01

417

Abscisic Acid Regulation of DC8, A Carrot Embryonic Gene 1  

PubMed Central

DC8 encodes a hydrophylic 66 kilodalton protein located in the cytoplasm and cell walls of carrot (Daucus carota) embryo and endosperm. During somatic embryogenesis, the levels of DC8 mRNA and protein begin to increase 5 days after removal of auxin. To study the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of DC8 gene, fluridone, 1-methyl-3-phenyl,-5(3-trifluoro-methyl-phenyl)-4(1H)-pyridinone, was used to inhibit the endogenous ABA content of the embryos. Fluridone, 50 micrograms per milliliter, effectively inhibits the accumulation of ABA in globular-tage enbryos. Western and Northern analysis show that when fluridone is added to the culture medium DC8 protein and mRNA decrease to very low levels. ABA added to fluridone supplemented culture media restores the DC8 protein and mRNA to control levels. Globular-stage embryos contain 0.9 to 1.4 × 10?7 molar ABA while 10?6 molar exogenously supplied ABA is the optimal concentration for restoration of DC8 protein accumulation in fluridone-treated embryos. The mRNA level is increased after 15 minutes of ABA addition and reaches maximal levels by 60 minutes. Evidence is presented that, unlike other ABA-regulated genes, DC8 is not induced in nonembryonic tissues via desiccation nor addition of ABA. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis; Fong, Franklin; Sung, Z. Renee

1990-01-01

418

Coregulation of dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase in overproducer cell lines of wild carrot.  

PubMed

Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) activities are associated with a 285,000 molecular weight enzyme complex in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Selection for methotrexate (MTX) resistance by stepwise increase of the concentration of MTX results in a high frequency adaptation to MTX with little or no significant increase in DHFR activity. However, when as a second step following MTX selection a specific inhibitor of TS, 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine was used, DHFR overproducer lines were obtained. The overproduction phenotype of the lines was almost completely lost after 8 weeks of growth in the absence of selection pressure. Although DHFR and TS are independent gene products, their activities increase in proportion ( approximately 20-fold) in the overproducer lines. This strongly suggests that DHFR and TS are not only functionally and physically linked in the same enzyme complex, but also are coregulated. These cell lines resemble the MTX-induced DHFR overproducer amplified cell lines of mammalian origin in their mode of selection, high frequency of appearance, elevated enzyme activity, and increased specific mRNA levels. PMID:16667128

Lazar, G; Toth, I; Haakonsen, L; Goodman, H M

1989-11-01

419

Phosphoglycerylethanolamine Posttranslational Modification of Plant Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1?1  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic elongation factor 1? (eEF-1A) is a multifunctional protein. There are three known posttranslational modifications of eEF-1A that could potentially affect its function. Except for phosphorylation, the other posttranslational modifications have not been demonstrated in plants. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry and peptide mass mapping, we show that carrot (Daucus carota L.) eEF-1A contains a phosphoglycerylethanolamine (PGE) posttranslational modification. eEF-1A was the only protein labeled with [14C]ethanolamine in carrot cells and was the predominant ethanolamine-labeled protein in Arabidopsis seedlings and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell cultures. In vivo-labeling studies using [3H]glycerol, [32P]Pi, [14C]myristic acid, and [14C]linoleic acid indicated that the entire phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine is covalently attached to the protein. The PGE lipid modification did not affect the partitioning of eEF-1A in Triton X-114 or its actin-binding activity in in vitro assays. Our in vitro data indicate that this newly characterized posttranslational modification alone does not affect the function of eEF-1A. Therefore, the PGE lipid modification may work in combination with other posttranslational modifications to affect the distribution and the function of eEF-1A within the cell.

Ransom, Wendy D.; Lao, Pao-Chi; Gage, Douglas A.; Boss, Wendy F.

1998-01-01

420

Relationship of indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan concentrations in normal and 5-methyltryptophan-resistant cell lines of wild carrots.  

PubMed

A 5-methyltryptophan(5-MT)-resistant cell line of wild carrot (Daucus carota L.), W001, that exhibited auxin-independent callus growth, was found to accumulate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and tryptophan (trp). Anthranilate-synthetase activity in W001 cell extract was less sensitive to feedback inhibition by trp than in the original 5-MT-sensitive cell lines. It is hypothesized that the resistant enzyme allowed more trp synthesis and accumulation which, in turn, affected the IAA concentration in the cell. Since carrot cultures cannot regenerate in the presence of exogenous auxin, the elevated IAA concentration in W001 may be responsible for its drastically reduced capacity to regenerate. The relationship between trp and IAA levels was further investigated by examining the effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on the endogenous concentration of trp and IAA. In general, the IAA level was reduced but the trp concentration was elevated when 2,4-D was present in the culture medium. PMID:24317760

Sung, Z R

1979-01-01

421

Differential Selection on Carotenoid Biosynthesis Genes as a Function of Gene Position in the Metabolic Pathway: A Study on the Carrot and Dicots  

PubMed Central

Background Selection of genes involved in metabolic pathways could target them differently depending on the position of genes in the pathway and on their role in controlling metabolic fluxes. This hypothesis was tested in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway using population genetics and phylogenetics. Methodology/Principal Findings Evolutionary rates of seven genes distributed along the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, IPI, PDS, CRTISO, LCYB, LCYE, CHXE and ZEP, were compared in seven dicot taxa. A survey of deviations from neutrality expectations at these genes was also undertaken in cultivated carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus), a species that has been intensely bred for carotenoid pattern diversification in its root during its cultivation history. Parts of sequences of these genes were obtained from 46 individuals representing a wide diversity of cultivated carrots. Downstream genes exhibited higher deviations from neutral expectations than upstream genes. Comparisons of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates between genes among dicots revealed greater constraints on upstream genes than on downstream genes. An excess of intermediate frequency polymorphisms, high nucleotide diversity and/or high differentiation of CRTISO, LCYB1 and LCYE in cultivated carrot suggest that balancing selection may have targeted genes acting centrally in the pathway. Conclusions/Significance Our results are consistent with relaxed constraints on downstream genes and selection targeting the central enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway during carrot breeding history.

Clotault, Jeremy; Peltier, Didier; Soufflet-Freslon, Vanessa; Briard, Mathilde; Geoffriau, Emmanuel

2012-01-01