Sample records for carota ssp carota

  1. The Anatomical Basis for Hygroscopic Movement in Primary Rays of Daucus carota Ssp. carota (Apiaceae)

    E-print Network

    Lacey, Elizabeth P.

    The Anatomical Basis for Hygroscopic Movement in Primary Rays of Daucus carota Ssp. carota-807 118314403-0009$02.OO T H E ANATOMICAL BASIS FOR HYGROSCOPIC MOVEMENT I N PRIMARY RAYS OF DAUCUS CAROTA SSP the cause of hygroscopic movement in umbellet pe- duncles, or primary rays, of Dauczts carota (Apiaceae

  2. Susceptibility of wild carrot ( Daucus carota ssp. carota ) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Jensen; M. R. Finckh; L. Munk; T. P. Hauser

    2008-01-01

    Sclerotinia soft rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a severe disease of cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus) in storage. It is not known whether Sclerotinia soft rot also affects wild carrots (D. carota ssp. carota), which hybridise and exchange genes, among them resistance genes, with the cultivated carrot. We investigated the susceptibility\\u000a of wild carrots to S. sclerotiorum isolates

  3. Inheritance of the maroon color in Brasilia-derived carrots (Daucus carota L.)

    E-print Network

    Mes, Peter Jack

    2001-01-01

    Maroon carrots (Daucus carota L.), which were developed from the orange cultivar Brasilia, were studied to determine the inheritance of the genes controlling the expression of anthocyanin in the root. Segregation ratios of root anthocyanin...

  4. Seed Mortality in Daucus carota Populations: Latitudinal Effects Elizabeth P. Lacey

    E-print Network

    Lacey, Elizabeth P.

    Seed Mortality in Daucus carota Populations: Latitudinal Effects Elizabeth P. Lacey American@jstor.org. http://www.jstor.org Tue Nov 27 16:07:05 2007 #12;Amer. J. Bot. 71(9): 1175-1182. 1984. SEED MORTALITY" to 45'N were conducted to measure predispersal seed mortality. Viability and germination declined

  5. Genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus L.) (Apiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analyses of genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships illuminate the origin and domestication of modern crops. Despite being an important world-wide vegetable, the genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is poorly understood. We provide the first such study using a la...

  6. Expression Analysis of Carotenoid Biosynthesis Genes in Carrot (Daucus Carota) Using Real Time Quantitative PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is an important source of pro-vitamin A in the human diet, as well as other important antioxidant compounds. While essential to human health, very little is currently understood about the accumulation of carotenoids, the vitamin A precursors within the storage root that give ...

  7. Daucus carota Pentane-Based Fractions Suppress Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma HT-29 Cells by Inhibiting the MAPK and PI3K Pathways.

    PubMed

    Shebaby, Wassim N; Bodman-Smith, K B; Mansour, Anthony; Mroueh, Mohamad; Taleb, Robin I; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Daher, Costantine F

    2015-07-01

    Daucus carota L. ssp. carota (Apiacea, wild carrot, Queen Anne's lace) has been used in folk medicine throughout the world and recently was shown to possess anticancer and antioxidant activities. This study aims to determine the anticancer activity of the pentane fraction (F1) and the 1:1 pentane:diethyl ether fraction (F2) of the Daucus Carota oil extract (DCOE) against human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and Caco-2). Treatment of cells with various concentrations of F1 or F2 fractions produced a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that both fractions induced sub-G1 phase accumulation and increased apoptotic cell death. Western blot revealed the activation of caspase-3, PARP cleavage, and a considerable increase in Bax and p53 levels, and a decrease in Bcl-2 level. Treatment of HT-29 cells with either fraction markedly decreased the levels of both phosphorylated Erk and Akt. Furthermore, the combined treatment of F1 or F2 with wortmannin showed no added inhibition of cell survival suggesting an effect of F1 or F2 through the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. This study proposes that DCOE fractions (F1 and F2) inhibit cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT-29 cells through the suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways. PMID:25599142

  8. Antispasmodic activity of the tertiary base of Daucus carota, Linn. seeds.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, S S; Sen, S P; Sanyal, A K; Das, P K

    1979-01-01

    A nitrogen containing base responding to Mayer's test and Dragendorff's reagent for tertiary bases has been isolated from the seeds of Daucus carota Linn. The effects of the base as its bromide have been studied on smooth muscles of ileum, uterus, blood vessels and trachea of different species of animals. The tertiary base has been found to have papaverine like nonspecific smooth muscle relaxant and spasmolytic activity, but its activity was found to be about one-tenth of that of papaverine. PMID:521127

  9. Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David

    2006-01-01

    The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

  10. Carotenoid biosynthesis structural genes in carrot (Daucus carota): isolation, sequence-characterization, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and genome mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoid pigments are important components in plants and in the human diet. Carrots (Daucus carota var. sativus L.) are an excellent dietary source of '- and '-carotene. While the biosynthesis of carotenoid pigments has been studied in detail in several species, very little comparable informatio...

  11. Levels of Lycopene ?-Cyclase 1 Modulate Carotenoid Gene Expression and Accumulation in Daucus carota

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene ?-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of ?-carotene and ?-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of ?-carotene and ?-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and ?-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots. PMID:23555569

  12. Myo-Inositol trisphosphate mobilizes calcium from fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L. ) protoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F.

    1987-02-01

    To determine whether or not inositol trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/) mobilizes calcium in higher plant cells; they investigated the effect of IP/sub 3/ on Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes in fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts. The protoplasts were incubated in /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/-containing medium and the /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ associated with the protoplasts was monitored with time. Addition of IP/sub 3/ (20 micromolar) caused a 17% net loss of the accumulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ within 4 minutes. There was a reuptake of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ and the protoplasts recovered to their initial value by 10 minutes. Phytic acid (IP/sub 6/), also stimulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux from the protoplasts. Both the IP/sub 3/- and the IP/sub 6/-induced /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux were inhibited by the calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine.

  13. Identification and Characterization of Terpene Synthases Potentially Involved in the Formation of Volatile Terpenes in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Roots.

    PubMed

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Tholl, Dorothea; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick; Simon, Philipp W; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2015-05-20

    Plants produce an excess of volatile organic compounds, which are important in determining the quality and nutraceutical properties of fruit and root crops, including the taste and aroma of carrots (Daucus carota L.). A combined chemical, biochemical, and molecular study was conducted to evaluate the differential accumulation of volatile terpenes in a diverse collection of fresh carrots (D. carota L.). Here, we report on a transcriptome-based identification and functional characterization of two carrot terpene synthases, the sesquiterpene synthase, DcTPS1, and the monoterpene synthase, DcTPS2. Recombinant DcTPS1 protein produces mainly (E)-?-caryophyllene, the predominant sesquiterpene in carrot roots, and ?-humulene, while recombinant DcTPS2 functions as a monoterpene synthase with geraniol as the main product. Both genes are differentially transcribed in different cultivars and during carrot root development. Our results suggest a role for DcTPS genes in carrot aroma biosynthesis. PMID:25924989

  14. Production and analysis of plants that are somatic hybrids of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kisaka; M. Kisaka; A. Kanno; T. Kameya

    1997-01-01

    In order to obtain plants that were somatic hybrids of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.), we fused protoplasts that had been isolated from 6-month-old suspension cultures of carrot cells with protoplasts isolated\\u000a from barley mesophyll by electrofusion. After culture for 1 month at 25?C , the cells were cultured for 5 weeks at 4?C , and

  15. Abscisic acid regulation of DC8, a carrot embryonic gene. [Daucus carota

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzopoulos, P.; Fong, F.; Sung, Z.R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA) Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1990-10-01

    DC8 encodes a hydrophylic 66 kilodalton protein located in the cytoplasm and cell walls of carrot (Daucus carota) embryo and endosperm. During somatic embryogenesis, the levels of DC8 mRNA and protein begin to increase 5 days after removal of auxin. To study the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of DC8 gene, fluridone, 1-methyl-3-phenyl,-5(3-trifluoro-methyl-phenyl)-4(1H)-pyridinone, was used to inhibit the endogenous ABA content of the embryos. Fluridone, 50 micrograms per milliliter, effectively inhibits the accumulation of ABA in globular-tage embryos. Western and Northern analysis show that when fluridone is added to the culture medium DC8 protein and mRNA decrease to very low levels. ABA added to fluridone supplemented culture media restores the DC8 protein and mRNA to control levels. Globular-stage embryos contain 0.9 to 1.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} molar ABA while 10{sup {minus}6} molar exogenously supplied ABA is the optimal concentration for restoration of DC8 protein accumulation in fluridone-treated embryos. The mRNA level is increased after 15 minutes of ABA addition and reaches maximal levels by 60 minutes. Evidence is presented that, unlike other ABA-regulated genes, DC8 is not induced in nonembryonic tissues via desiccation nor addition of ABA.

  16. Regulation of ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling during root development in carrot (Daucus carota L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Long; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Li, Meng-Yao; Tan, Guo-Fei; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA), also known as vitamin C, is an essential nutrient in fruits and vegetables. The fleshy root of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a good source of AsA for humans. However, the metabolic pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of AsA content during root development in carrot have not been elucidated. To gain insights into the regulation of AsA accumulation and to identify the key genes involved in the AsA metabolism, we cloned and analyzed the expression of 21 related genes during carrot root development. The results indicate that AsA accumulation in the carrot root is regulated by intricate pathways, of which the l-galactose pathway may be the major pathway for AsA biosynthesis. Transcript levels of the genes encoding l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase and l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase were strongly correlated with AsA levels during root development. Data from this research may be used to assist breeding for improved nutrition, quality, and stress tolerance in carrots. PMID:25956452

  17. Formation of norisoprenoid flavor compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots: characterization of a cyclic-specific carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments that upon oxidative cleavage lead to the production of norisoprenoids that have profound effect on flavor and aromas of agricultural produce. The biosynthetic pathway to norisoprenoids in carrots (Daucus carota L.) is still widely unknown. We found that geranial i...

  18. Quantification of the relative abundance of plastome to nuclear genome in leaf and root tissues of carrot (Daucus carota L.) using quantitative PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.), is an important horticultural crop with significant health benefits, providing pro-vitamin A carotenoids in the human diet. Carotenoids primarily serve as photoprotectants in leaves during photosynthesis where they accumulate in chloroplasts. Carotenoids can also accumulat...

  19. Bacterial endophytes in processing carrots ( Daucus carota L. var. sativus): their localization, population density, biodiversity and their effects on plant growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monique A. Surette; Antony V. Sturz; Rajasekaran R. Lada; Jerzy Nowak

    2003-01-01

    A survey of endophytic bacteria colonizing roots of processing carrots (Daucus carota) was performed with two high-yielding cultivars (Carochoice, Red Core Chantenay) grown at two locations (Canning, Great Village) in Nova Scotia. Most bacterial endophyte colony-forming units (CFU) were recovered from the carrot crown tissues (96%) compared to the periderm and metaxylem tissues of carrot storage tissues irrespective of the

  20. Modeling the transfer of arsenic from soil to carrot (Daucus carota L.)-a greenhouse and field-based study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Changfeng; Zhou, Fen; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-07-01

    Reliable empirical models describing arsenic (As) transfer in soil-plant systems are needed to estimate the human As burden from dietary intake. A greenhouse experiment was conducted in parallel with a field trial located at three sites through China to develop and validate soil-plant transfer models to predict As concentrations in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Stepwise multiple linear regression relationships were based on soil properties and the pseudo total (aqua regia) or available (0.5 M NaHCO3) soil As fractions. Carrot As contents were best predicted by the pseudo total soil As concentrations in combination with soil pH and Fe oxide, with the percentage of variation explained being up to 70 %. The constructed prediction model was further validated and improved to avoid overprotection using data from the field trial. The final obtained model is of great practical relevance to the prediction of As uptake under field conditions. PMID:25750050

  1. A 2.5-kb insert eliminates acid soluble invertase isozyme II transcript in carrot ( Daucus carota L.) roots, causing high sucrose accumulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Yeu Yau; Philipp W. Simon

    2003-01-01

    The predominant storage carbohydrates of mature carrot (Daucus carota L.) storage roots typically are the free sugars glucose and fructose. This trait is conditioned by the Rs allele. A naturally occurring recessive mutation, rs\\/rs, conditions a shift from these reducing sugars to sucrose. RT-PCR and sequencing revealed a unique 2.5 kb insert in the first and largest intron near the 5'

  2. Isolation and Properties of Deoxyribonucleic Acid from Protoplasts of Cell Suspension Cultures of Ammi visnaga and Carrot (Daucus carota) 1

    PubMed Central

    Ohyama, K.; Gamborg, O. L.; Miller, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A procedure is described for the isolation of native DNA from protoplasts of ammi (Ammi visnaga) and carrot (Daucus carota) cells. Protoplasts were produced from 40 grams of fresh cells by enzyme hydrolysis and lysed with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The DNA was purified by treatment with pronase and ribonuclease. Final isolation was achieved by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The melting temperature of ammi and carrot DNA in 0.15 m NaCl and 15 mm trisodium citrate buffer, pH 7.0, was 84.0 C and 84.5 C, respectively. The molecular weight for ammi DNA was 1.43 × 108, and for carrot DNA it was 1.56 × 108. Ammi DNA exhibited a single band at 1.690 grams per cubic centimeter in CsCl, whereas carrot DNA showed two bands, one at 1.693 grams per cubic centimeter and another at 1.706 grams per cubic centimeter. Ammi DNA consisted of a doublestranded form, since denaturation of the DNA caused a complete upward shift of 0.020 grams per cubic centimeter. PMID:16658166

  3. Morphological markers for the detection of introgression from cultivated into wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) reveal dominant domestication traits.

    PubMed

    Grebenstein, C; Kos, S P; de Jong, T J; Tamis, W L M; de Snoo, G R

    2013-05-01

    Hybridisation and subsequent introgression have recently received much attention in the context of genetically modified crops. But crop-wild hybrid detection in the field can be difficult, as most domestication traits seem to be recessive, and the hybrid phenotype may also depend on the direction of the cross or environmental factors. Our aim was to develop a reliable set of morphological markers that differ between two wild and 13 cultivated carrots (Daucus carota L.) and to evaluate their inheritance in hybrid lines. We then examined these morphological markers in four F1 hybrids obtained by fertilising plants from the two wild accessions with pollen from two common carrot cultivars. Of the 16 traits that differed between the two carrot subspecies, three took intermediate values in the hybrids, eight resembled the cultivar parent (dominant domestication traits), two resembled the wild parent (domestication traits recessive), and three were not significant or growth condition-dependent. Root:shoot ratio was seven times higher for cultivars than for wild plants, while still attaining equivalent total dry weight, which shows that dry matter production by the shoot is much higher in cultivars than in wild plants. High root:shoot ratios were also present in the hybrids. While we found no maternal effects, the type of cultivar used for pollination had an impact on hybrid characteristics. The morphological markers developed here provide insights into the mode of inheritance of ecologically relevant traits and can be useful for pre-screening wild populations for hybrid detection prior to genetic analysis. PMID:23173917

  4. A Novel Hydroxyproline-Deficient Arabinogalactan Protein Secreted by Suspension-Cultured Cells of Daucus carota (Purification and Partial Characterization).

    PubMed

    Baldwin, T. C.; McCann, M. C.; Roberts, K.

    1993-09-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are secreted or membrane-associated glycoproteins that have been operationally defined as binding to [beta]-glucosyl Yariv artificial antigen, being rich in arabinose and galactose, and containing high levels of alanine, serine, and hydroxyproline. Using an anti-AGP monoclonal antibody (MAC 207) bound to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B, we have purified by immunoaffinity chromatography an extracellular AGP from the culture medium of suspension-cultured cells of carrot (Daucus carota). The apparent molecular mass of this highly glycosylated proteoglycan is 70 to 100 kD as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Although its sugar analysis, [beta]-glucosyl Yariv binding, and high alanine, serine, and proline content are consistent with it being an AGP, the amino acid composition unexpectedly revealed this molecule to have no detectable hydroxyproline. This suggests that this glycoprotein is not a "classical" AGP, but represents the first example of a new class of hydroxyproline-poor AGPs. Deglycosylation of the AGP with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride revealed that the purified proteoglycan contains probably a single core protein with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kD. Direct visualization of the native AGP in the electron microscope showed ellipsoidal putative AGP monomers, approximately 25 nm by 15 nm, that showed a strong tendency to self assemble into higher-order structures. Upon desiccation, the glycosylated AGP formed paracrystalline arrays visible in the light microscope. Polarized Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy of these arrays demonstrated a high degree of polarization of the sugar moieties under these conditions. These results put possible constraints on current models of AGP structure; a putative role for these novel AGPs as pectin-binding proteins is discussed. PMID:12231918

  5. Sensory and health properties of steamed and boiled carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus).

    PubMed

    Bongoni, Radhika; Stieger, Markus; Dekker, Matthijs; Steenbekkers, Bea; Verkerk, Ruud

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the influences of domestic processing conditions applied by consumers on firmness, colour and amount of phytochemicals and liking and sensory attributes intensity rating of carrots. The aim was to identify a cooking method and time that yields carrots with higher amount of ?-carotene while maintaining consumer liking. Instrumentally measured firmness and colour showed comparable degradation trends between cooking methods. While boiling showed a significant decrease in the amount ?-carotene after 20?min (-19%), steaming maintained the amount (+40%). Cooking method did not show a significant effect on liking and intensity ratings for the majority of the sensory attributes. Medium firm carrots were liked the most and low firm carrots the least. This study demonstrates that for optimum liking, carrots should be in the range of medium firmness. This can be obtained through either cooking methods but steamed carrots possess a higher amount of ?-carotene and maintains liking. PMID:24964285

  6. Carrot (Daucus carota L.).

    PubMed

    Wally, Owen S D; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Plants are susceptible to infection by a broad range of fungal pathogens. A range of proteins have been evaluated that can enhance tolerance to these pathogens by heterologous expression in transgenic carrot tissues. The protocols for carrot transformation with Arabidopsis NPR1 (Non-Expressor of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins 1) are described in this chapter, using the herbicide resistance gene bar, which encodes phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, as a selectable marker. In this protocol, petiole segments (0.5-1.0 cm long) from aseptically grown carrot seedlings are exposed to Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 for 10-30 min and cocultivated for 2-3 days. Herbicide selection is then imposed for 8-12 weeks on a series of different tissue culture media until embryogenic calli are produced. The transfer of the embryogenic calli to hormone-free medium results in embryo development which eventually gives rise to transgenic plantlets. Embryogenic calli can also be propagated in suspension cultures. This protocol has yielded transgenic carrot plants with defined T-DNA inserts at the rate of between 1 and 3 Southern-positive independent events out of 100. PMID:25416249

  7. Investigating the performance of in situ quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and applying the method to determine the distribution of saccharides in various parts of carrot roots (Daucus carota L.).

    PubMed

    Bauchard, Elsa; This, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the performance of the analytical method called in situ quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy - is q NMR - the distribution of glucose, fructose and sucrose in various parts of a carrot root (Daucus carota L.) - primary xylem, secondary xylem, phloem, cortex; top part and lower part - was determined. The influence on the quality of spectra of drying samples before analysis was studied, as well as the influence of the length of strips of tissue used in analysis. Finally samples as small as 240 mm(3) could be studied directly, with minimum prior treatment (only drying), along with deuterated water for locking and a sealed capillary tube containing a solution of 0.5% of the sodium salt of (trimethylsilyl)propionic-2,2,3,3-d4 acid, used both as an internal reference and for quantification. With optimized parameters, the coefficients of variation for measurements were observed to have an average value of 0.038, with a standard deviation of 0.047. PMID:25281111

  8. Dissimilarity of contemporary and historical gene flow in a wild carrot (Daucus carota) metapopulation under contrasting levels of human disturbance: implications for risk assessment and management of transgene introgression

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Jun; Xu, Shuhua; Meirmans, Patrick G.; Vrieling, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Transgene introgression from crops into wild relatives may increase the resistance of wild plants to herbicides, insects, etc. The chance of transgene introgression depends not only on the rate of hybridization and the establishment of hybrids in local wild populations, but also on the metapopulation dynamics of the wild relative. The aim of the study was to estimate gene flow in a metapopulation for assessing and managing the risks of transgene introgression. Methods Wild carrots (Daucus carota) were sampled from 12 patches in a metapopulation. Eleven microsatellites were used to genotype wild carrots. Genetic structure was estimated based on the FST statistic. Contemporary (over the last several generations) and historical (over many generations) gene flow was estimated with assignment and coalescent methods, respectively. Key Results The genetic structure in the wild carrot metapopulation was moderate (FST = 0·082) and most of the genetic variation resided within patches. A pattern of isolation by distance was detected, suggesting that most of the gene flow occurred between neighbouring patches (?1 km). The mean contemporary gene flow was 5 times higher than the historical estimate, and the correlation between them was very low. Moreover, the contemporary gene flow in roadsides was twice that in a nature reserve, and the correlation between contemporary and historical estimates was much higher in the nature reserve. Mowing of roadsides may contribute to the increase in contemporary gene flow. Simulations demonstrated that the higher contemporary gene flow could accelerate the process of transgene introgression in the metapopulation. Conclusions Human disturbance such as mowing may alter gene flow patterns in wild populations, affecting the metapopulation dynamics of wild plants and the processes of transgene introgression in the metapopulation. The risk assessment and management of transgene introgression and the control of weeds need to take metapopulation dynamics into consideration. PMID:24052560

  9. Localization of Daucus carota NMCP1 to the nuclear periphery: the role of the N-terminal region and an NLS-linked sequence motif, RYNLRR, in the tail domain

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuta; Fujino, Kaien; Ogawa, Kana; Masuda, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Recent ultrastructural studies revealed that a structure similar to the vertebrate nuclear lamina exists in the nuclei of higher plants. However, plant genomes lack genes for lamins and intermediate-type filament proteins, and this suggests that plant-specific nuclear coiled-coil proteins make up the lamina-like structure in plants. NMCP1 is a protein, first identified in Daucus carota cells, that localizes exclusively to the nuclear periphery in interphase cells. It has a tripartite structure comprised of head, rod, and tail domains, and includes putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) motifs. We identified the functional NLS of DcNMCP1 (carrot NMCP1) and determined the protein regions required for localizing to the nuclear periphery using EGFP-fused constructs transiently expressed in Apium graveolens epidermal cells. Transcription was driven under a CaMV35S promoter, and the genes were introduced into the epidermal cells by a DNA-coated microprojectile delivery system. Of the NLS motifs, KRRRK and RRHK in the tail domain were highly functional for nuclear localization. Addition of the N-terminal 141 amino acids from DcNMCP1 shifted the localization of a region including these NLSs from the entire nucleus to the nuclear periphery. Using this same construct, the replacement of amino acids in RRHK or its preceding sequence, YNL, with alanine residues abolished localization to the nuclear periphery, while replacement of KRRRK did not affect localization. The sequence R/Q/HYNLRR/H, including YNL and the first part of the sequence of RRHK, is evolutionarily conserved in a subclass of NMCP1 sequences from many plant species. These results show that NMCP1 localizes to the nuclear periphery by a combined action of a sequence composed of R/Q/HYNLRR/H, NLS, and the N-terminal region including the head and a portion of the rod domain, suggesting that more than one binding site is implicated in localization of NMCP1. PMID:24616728

  10. The genes ABI1 and ABI2 are involved in abscisic acid- and drought-inducible expression of the Daucus carota L. Dc3 promoter in guard cells of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    PubMed

    Chak, R K; Thomas, T L; Quatrano, R S; Rock, C D

    2000-05-01

    The ABA INSENSITIVE1 (ABI1) and ABI2 genes encode homologous type-2C protein phosphatases with redundant yet distinct functions in abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Results from Northern blot analysis showed that ABA- and mannitol-inducible expression of the COR47 and COR78/LTI78/RD29A (COR78) genes was more impaired in the abi2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh than in the abi1 mutant. Furthermore, ABA-plus-mannitol treatments were additive towards COR47 gene expression; however, the ABA-deficient aba1 mutant showed reduced COR expression relative to the wild type in response to mannitol and ABA-plus-mannitol treatments. These results support the notion that drought- and ABA-signalling pathways are separate yet overlapping. To facilitate quantitative analysis of the genetic control of tissue-specific ABA- and desiccation-response pathways, we analyzed ABA- and mannitol-inducible expression of a carrot (Daucus carota L.) Dc3 promoter:uidA (beta-glucuronidase; GUS) chimaeric reporter (Dc3-GUS) in transgenic wild-type, ABA-deficient aba1, and ABA-insensitive abi1 and abi2 mutants. The Dc3 promoter directed ABA- and mannitol-inducible GUS expression in Arabidopsis guard cells and the two treatments were additive. The aba1, abi1, and abi2 mutant genotypes had reduced GUS expression in guard cells of cotyledons in response to mannitol, whereas abi1 and abi2 mutants were reduced in ABA-inducible GUS expression, consistent with overlapping ABA- and drought-response pathways. Quantitative fluorometric GUS assays of leaf extracts showed that abi2 mutants responded less to exogenous ABA than did abi1 mutants, and abi2 mutants responded more to mannitol than did abi1 mutants. We conclude that Dc3-GUS Arabidopsis is a tractable system in which to study tissue-specific ABA and drought signalling and suggest that ABI2 functions predominantly over ABI1 in COR78 and COR47 gene expression and guard-cell Dc3-GUS expression. PMID:10872217

  11. Daucus carota subsp. sativus (Cultivated) 2 

    E-print Network

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10

    . 13 3. 5 x 2. 5 0 C er v 1. 5. - Reardon (1988) ? ? ? Reardon (1992) I I / I I I / 0. 5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 log R Reardon (1988) ? ? ? Reardon (1992) -10 F -12 -14 -18 -20 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 log R F&IGUR)r. 1... with different pozzolanic activities (13). Classification is based on the contents of Si02 + AlqOs + FeqOq and CaO; type F fly ash contains more than 70 Jo of SiO& + Al&O& + Fe20& and less than 10 J0 of CaO (15). Type C contains enough lime (more than 10 'Jo...

  12. Effect of acidification on carrot (Daucus carota) juice cloud stability.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Alison K; Barrett, Diane M; Dungan, Stephanie R

    2014-11-26

    Effects of acidity on cloud stability in pasteurized carrot juice were examined over the pH range of 3.5-6.2. Cloud sedimentation, particle diameter, and ? potential were measured at each pH condition to quantify juice cloud stability and clarification during 3 days of storage. Acidification below pH 4.9 resulted in a less negative ? potential, an increased particle size, and an unstable cloud, leading to juice clarification. As the acidity increased, clarification occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent. Only a weak effect of ionic strength was observed when sodium salts were added to the juice, but the addition of calcium salts significantly reduced the cloud stability. PMID:25354298

  13. Expression of rabies virus G protein in carrots ( Daucus carota )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edith Rojas-Anaya; Elizabeth Loza-Rubio; Maria Teresa Olivera-Flores; Miguel Gomez-Lim

    2009-01-01

    Antigens derived from various pathogens can readily be synthesized at high levels in plants in their authentic forms. Such\\u000a antigens administered orally can induce an immune response and, in some cases, result in protection against a subsequent challenge.\\u000a We here report the expression of rabies virus G protein into carrots. The G gene was subcloned into the pUCpSSrabG vector\\u000a and

  14. The greening of chromoplasts in Daucus carota L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Grönegress

    1971-01-01

    Evidence was obtained for the transformation of chromoplasts to chloroplasts in the cortex parenchyma of carrot during exposure to light. Typical chromoplasts containing carotene crystals but no lamellar system were observed at the onset of illumination. The ensuing synthesis of chlorophyll and a lamellar system was accompanied by disappearance of the carotene crystals. Only chloroplasts were present after 48 hr

  15. Semiparametric Regression for Count Data by Cinzia Carota

    E-print Network

    West, Mike

    of the axillary lymph nodes in patients with early-stage breast cancer. For each combination of predictors (or covariate pro#12;le, or cell) we are interested in modeling the distribution of the number of lymph node with a prognostic model for early breast cancer patients. In that context, we compare our robust semiparametric

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (5) The corn may be imported in commercial consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus ) for consumption measuring 10 to 18 millimeters (0.39 to 0.71 inches) in diameter and 50 to 105...

  17. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and ssp.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and ssp. bulgaricus: a chronicle: Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and ssp. bulgaricus are lactic acid producing bacteria that are largely. Keywords: Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Bulgaricus, Lactis, Genome, Comparative genomics, Adaptation

  18. Inheritance of the maroon color in Brasilia-derived carrots (Daucus carota L.) 

    E-print Network

    Mes, Peter Jack

    2001-01-01

    oxidizers is measured as oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), with anthocyanin content having a strong correlation with high ORAC values (Prior et al. , 1998). Since consumption of anthocyanin has been linked to prevention of oxidative damage to DNA... crops. The biosynthetic pathway for anthocyanin is highly conserved, although differences exist in the final steps resulting in different types of anthocyanins being produced in different crops (Holton and Cornish, 1995). Since the specific type...

  19. The effects of excess boron with niacin on Daucus carota L. (carrot) root callus.

    PubMed

    Demiray, H; Dereboylu, A E

    2006-03-01

    Niacin (Nicotinic acid, B3 vitamin) may be involved in reduction of toxic effects of boron by regulating growth metabolism. This study was designed to examine whether external niacin treatment would improve the boron mobility in carrot callus cells or not. The results showed that excess boron caused tracheary inversions in meristematic root tissue, and also a shortage was seen in tracheary lengths with boric acid treatment. Boron excess induced the plant tolerance to water stress inverting the tracheary cells. This shortage converted nearly to normal size with niacin and boron treatment together. The results showed that boron mobility induced by niacin could reduce significantly the fresh and dry weight of carrot root cells, protein and ABA content was reduced also, in contrary, external boron and boron with niacin treatment considerable increased the two factors after one month stress. Fresh weight reduction and ABA content reduction indicated that niacin treatment caused water stress on the root cells of carrot, but boron treatment and boron with niacin treatment increased drought tolerance in carrot cells by increasing the both factors. In addition, turning the conversion of the length of the trachearies to their normal size proved that niacin treatment ended the polarizing effects of boron on cell walls. PMID:16646529

  20. Seed reserve-dependent growth responses to temperature and water potential in carrot (Daucus carota L.).

    PubMed

    Finch-Savage, W E; Phelps, K; Steckel, J R; Whalley, W R; Rowse, H R

    2001-11-01

    Both temperature and soil moisture vary greatly in the surface layers of the soil through which seedlings grow following germination. The work presented studied the impact of these environmental variables on post-germination carrot growth to nominal seedling emergence. The rapid pre-crook downward growth of both the hypocotyl and root was consistent with their requirement for establishment in soil drying from the surface. At all temperatures, both hypocotyl and root growth rates decreased as water stress increased and there was a very distinct temperature optimum that tended to occur at lower temperatures as water stress increased. A model based on the thermodynamics of reversible protein denaturation was adapted to include the effects of water potential in order to describe these growth rate responses. In general, the percentage of seedlings that reached the crook stage (start of upward hypocotyl growth) decreased at the extremes of the temperature range used and was progressively reduced by increasing water stress. A model was developed to describe this response based on the idea that each seedling within a population has lower and upper temperature thresholds and a water potential threshold which define the conditions within which it is able to grow. This threshold modelling approach which applies growth rates within a distribution of temperature and water potential thresholds could be used to simulate seedling growth by dividing time into suitable units. PMID:11604458

  1. Seed reserve-dependent growth responses to temperature and water potential in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Finch-Savage; K. Phelps; J. R. A. Steckel; W. R. Whalley; H. R. Rowse

    Both temperature and soil moisture vary greatly in the surface layers of the soil through which seedlings grow following germination. The work presented studied the impact of these environmental variables on post-germination carrot growth to nominal seedling emergence. The rapid pre-crook downward growth of both the hypocotyl and root was consistent with their requirement for establishment in soil drying from

  2. First report of bacterial blight of carrot in Indiana caused by Xanthomonas hortorum pv. carotae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In summer 2012, bacterial blight symptoms were observed on leaves of carrot plants in 7 out of 70 plots of carrot breeding lines at the Purdue University Meig Horticulture Research Farm, Lafayette, IN. Symptoms included small to large, variably shaped, water soaked to dry, necrotic lesions, with or ...

  3. Alternative to Hand-Weeding Volunteer Potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Carrot (Daucus carota) 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTIN M. WILLIAMS; RICK A. BOYDSTON

    2005-01-01

    Few herbicides are used in carrot production in the United States, and none suppress volunteer potato, a serious weed where the two crops are grown in rotation. Hand-weeding is the primary method of controlling emerged volunteer potato within carrot. The objective of this work was to evaluate carrot tolerance and volunteer potato control with single or sequential applications of prometryn,

  4. Phylogenetic relationships among fertile and petaloid male-sterile accessions of carrot, Daucus carota L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Bowes; D. J. Wolyn

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA variation for six petaloid cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) and three fertile maintainer lines of carrot\\u000a was assessed to establish genetic relationships. Total DNA was digested with restriction enzymes and probed with six homologous\\u000a mtDNA cosmid probes. The six CMS accessions derived from wild carrot, four from Guelph, Ontario, one from Orleans, Massachusetts,\\u000a and one from Madison, Wisconsin, were

  5. Plasma membrane proteins associated with undifferentiated and embryonic Daucus carota tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Slay; H. D. Grimes; T. K. Hodges

    1989-01-01

    Summary Membranes and membrane proteins from undifferentiated cells and torpedo-stage embryos were compared. A comparison of marker enzyme profiles on linear sucrose gradients showed that the membrane vesicles obtained from 14-day-old embryos were consistently less dense than those obtained from undifferentiated carrot cells. The density of the endoplasmic reticulum, for instance, was 1.10g\\/cm3 in embryos and 1.12g\\/cm2 in undifferentiated cells.

  6. Overexpression of Tobacco Osmotin Protein in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) to Enhance Drought Tolerance

    E-print Network

    Annon, Ali Hani Hamza

    2012-10-31

    Lack of water is one of the most significant issues that already threaten world agriculture as many countries are unable to meet the demand for water to grow the crops. To make matters worse, the water availability is expected to fall by half...

  7. Overexpression of Tobacco Osmotin Protein in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) to Enhance Drought Tolerance 

    E-print Network

    Annon, Ali Hani Hamza

    2012-10-31

    are stress proteins, belonging to the plant PR-5 group of proteins, which induced in response to various types of biotic and abiotic stresses in several plant species. Carrot plants were transformed with tobacco osmotin gene that encodes a protein lacking 20...

  8. Major Cytogenetic Landmarks and Karyotype Analysis in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and Other Apiaceace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Karyotyping can be helpful for understanding species evolution and relationships. Cytological studies in Apiaceae have provided information on the chromosome number and morphology of several crops. However, karyological data of their wild relatives are scarce. In addition, the number of chromosomes ...

  9. Biological control of Senecio vulgaris in carrots (Daucus carota) with the rust fungus Puccinia lagenophorae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blair S. Grace; Heinz Müller-Schärer

    2003-01-01

    Senecio vulgaris is a troublesome weed in horticulture that is tolerant or resistant to a range of her- bicides, and is therefore a candidate for biological control. The rust fungus Puccinia lagenophorae is a potential control agent, but being biotrophic, it is not suitable for use as a mycoherbicide. We test- ed the effects of induced rust epidemics on S.

  10. Investigations on the growth and metabolism of cultured explants of Daucus carota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. C. Steard; K. H. Neumann; K. V. N. Rao

    1968-01-01

    Knowing that the element Fe essentially triggers the action of the coconut milk stimulus for the growth of carrot explants and thereafter interacts with added Mo and Mn, the effects of these trace elements on growth (fresh and dry weight) and metabolism of both nitrogenous and nitrogen-free metabolites have been determined. An outstanding effect of Fe is to determine the

  11. The SSP Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radakovitz, Richard

    1975-01-01

    Describes a cure for the high school chemistry student with Second Semester Poisoning (SSP), the student disease of apathy which occurs in the spring. Remedy: an outdoor (preferably) demonstration of a series of controlled combustion experiments, with accompanying explanations of the chemistry involved. (MLH)

  12. Clarification and pasteurisation effects on monomeric anthocyanins and percent polymeric colour of black carrot (Daucus carota L.) juice.

    PubMed

    Türky?lmaz, Meltem; Yemi?, Oktay; Ozkan, Mehmet

    2012-09-15

    Black carrots (BCs) are a rich source of stable anthocyanins (ACNs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of clarification and pasteurisation on ACNs of black carrot juice (BCJ). Monomeric ACNs, ACN profile and percent polymeric colour were determined during processing of BCJ. While depectinisation and bentonite treatments resulted in 7% and 20% increases in monomeric ACN content of BCJ, respectively, gelatine-kieselsol treatment and pasteurisation resulted in 10% and 3-16% reduction. Percent polymeric colour decreased after clarification, but substantially increased in samples subjected to heat. ACNs of BCJ samples were identified by HPLC-MS. Unclarified BCJ contained cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside-ferulic acid as the major ACN, followed by cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside-coumaric acid, and cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside. After depectinisation, two more ACNs (cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside and cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside-sinapic acid) were also identified. These results indicated that depectinisation and bentonite treatment had positive effect on the colour of BCJ, while gelatin-kieselsol treatment and pasteurisation had negative effect. PMID:23107727

  13. Comparative Study between Biocrystallization and Chemical Analyses of Carrots (Daucus carota L.) Grown Organically Using Different Levels of Green Manures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Andersen; K. Kaack; M. Nielsen; Kr. Thorup-Kristensen; R. Labouriau

    2001-01-01

    Carrots were grown organically using different levels of green manure, and examined by means of biocrystallization and chemical analyses. Firstly, to determine the ability of the biocrystallization method to discriminate the effects of green manure treatments (10), harvest times (4) and years (2), based on visual scoring of the morphological feature crystal coordination. Secondly, to examine the relationship between the

  14. Quality attributes of shredded carrot ( Daucus carota L. cv. Nantes) as affected by alternative decontamination processes to chlorine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Alegria; Joaquina Pinheiro; Elsa M. Gonçalves; Isabel Fernandes; Margarida Moldão; Marta Abreu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of alternative decontamination processes to chlorine: ozonated-water (1 ppm\\/5 min), hot water (100 °C\\/45 s) and ultrasonication (45 kHz\\/1 min), applied pre- or post-cut in the technological diagram of minimal processing of carrots were tested. Ultrasonication in chlorinated-water and thermo-ultrasonication as combined processes applied just in pre-cut carrot were also tested. The initial microbial load reduction, soluble solids content, pH and sensorial attributes of

  15. Structural responses of Daucus carota root-organ cultures and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices, to 12 pharmaceuticals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek G. Hillis; Pedro Antunes; Paul K. Sibley; John N. Klironomos; Keith R. Solomon

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products may enter the terrestrial environment through the amendment of agricultural soils with manure or biosolids with potential impacts on beneficial soil microbe populations. The beneficial symbiotic relationship between most plant species and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is a primary determinant of plant health and soil fertility. As such, there is increasing recognition of the need to

  16. PCR-based markers to differentiate the mitochondrial genomes of petaloid and male fertile carrot ( Daucus carota L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inga C. Bach; Annette Olesen; Philipp W. Simon

    2002-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is essential for the development of highly adapted and uniform hybrid varieties of carrot\\u000a and other crops. The most widely used type of CMS in carrot is petaloidy, in which the stamens are replaced by petals or bract-like\\u000a structures. We have developed a series of mitochondria-specific PCR markers to distinguish cytoplasms inducing petaloidy (Sp)\\u000a and male-fertility

  17. The Genetic and Environmental Control of Reproductive Timing in a Short-Lived Monocarpic Species Daucus Carota (Umbelliferae)

    E-print Network

    Lacey, Elizabeth P.

    regimes in a growth chamber to measure the effects of nutrient supply and maternal age of flowering by delaying the year of reproduction if resources abound or by accelerating reproduction if resources become growth and reproductive timing in monocarpic plants. (3) Maternal age and nutrient supply influenced

  18. AMPLIFICATION OF LOLIUM SSP. MICROSATELLITES IN POA SSP.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-species amplification of forty-seven Lolium ssp. microsatellite primers were evaluated across eight Poa species or sub-species. Of these, eighteen Lolium SSR primer pairs generated one or more amplification products in one or more Poa ssp. Sequence evaluation of the amplification products in...

  19. Hosts, environment, stress, phages Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Hosts, environment, stress, phages Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus thermotolerance Dangé St-Romain, France Abstract -- Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is a lactic acid bacterium thermotolérance chez Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus est une

  20. Anthocyanins in purple-orange carrots (Daucus carota L.) do not influence the bioavailability of beta-carotene in young women.

    PubMed

    Arscott, Sara A; Simon, Philipp W; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2010-03-10

    Purple carrots contain anthocyanins in addition to the provitamin A carotenoids in typical orange carrots. Simultaneous consumption of these phytochemicals in carrots may affect the bioavailability of carotenoids. The bioavailability of beta-carotene in humans was assessed from an acute feeding of orange (OC) and purple (PC) carrots with white (WC) as a control. Carrot smoothies were served to female subjects (n = 5, aged 21-26 years) for breakfast after 1 week on a low carotenoid diet and overnight fast. OC and PC smoothies were equalized to 10.3 mg of all-trans beta-carotene. Plasma beta-carotene was measured for 144 h following treatments. Peak plasma concentrations of OC and PC treatments did not differ. The PC treatment 0-144 h area-under-the-curve for beta-carotene was 76% of the OC treatment (P < 0.05). However, when the first 24 h were compared, OC and PC treatments did not differ, suggesting that anthocyanins in purple carrots do not affect the absorption of beta-carotene postprandially. PMID:20131807

  1. Calcium and calmodulin inhibitor effects on the growth of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in nutrient culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tudor H. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Growth of carrot and radish seedlings in nutrient culture was inhibited by pretreatment with three calmodulin inhibitors. There was little selective effect on specific organs, shoots, tap root and fibrous roots over a range of concentrations. Although pretreatment with CaCl2 (0.5 mM) did not affect growth of untreated seedlings, it partially reduced the inhibitory effects of trifluoperazine over the concentration

  2. Effect of population densities, lines of seed per bed and root size on quality and yield of baby style carrots (Daucus carota Mill) in South Texas 

    E-print Network

    Lazcano, Carlos Alberto

    1996-01-01

    in the baby style carrot process were evaluated. Length of the roots at harvest and projected values for total waste and marketable yield were estimated. Length was affected by root size at harvest, the most desirable root length occurred when harvested at 25...

  3. Broad-spectrum disease resistance to necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens in transgenic carrots ( Daucus carota L.) expressing an Arabidopsis NPR1 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Owen Wally; Jayaraman Jayaraj; Zamir K. Punja

    2009-01-01

    The development of transgenic plants highly resistant to a range of pathogens using traditional signal gene expression strategies\\u000a has been largely ineffective. Modification of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) through the overexpression of a controlling\\u000a gene such as NPR1 (non-expressor of PR genes) offers an attractive alternative for augmenting the plants innate defense system. The Arabidopsis (At) NPR1 gene was successfully

  4. The impact of fermentation with exopolysaccharide producing lactic acid bacteria on rheological, chemical and sensory properties of pureed carrots (Daucus carota L.).

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Riikka; Honkapää, Kaisu; Maina, Ndegwa H; Shi, Qiao; Viljanen, Kaarina; Maaheimo, Hannu; Virkki, Liisa; Tenkanen, Maija; Lantto, Raija

    2015-08-17

    Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) offers a natural means to modify technological and nutritional properties of foods and food ingredients. This study explored the impact of fermentation with different exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing LAB on rheological, chemical and sensory properties of puréed carrots in water, as a vegetable model, with the focus on texture formation. The screening of 37 LAB strains for starter selection revealed 16 Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Weissella strains capable of EPS (dextran, levan, and/or ?-glucan) production in the carrot raw material. Fermentations with five out of six selected EPS producers modified perceived texture of the liquid carrot model (p<0.05). The formation of low-branched dextran correlated with perceived thickness, whereas the production of ?-glucan correlated with perceived elasticity. Low-branched dextran producing Weissella confusa and Leuconostoc lactis strains produced thick texture accompanied by pleasant odour and flavour. The fermentation with the selected EPS-producing LAB strains is a promising clean label approach to replace hydrocolloid additives as texturizers in vegetable containing products, not only carrot. PMID:26001525

  5. Development and Characterization of Novel SSR Markers in Carrot (Daucus Carota L.) and Their Application for Mapping and Diversity Analysis in Apiaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic resources in carrot and other Apiaceae are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of a large set of pcr-based codominant markers, such as simple sequence repeats (SSR), would allow integration of the different carrot genetic maps constructed to date (mainly using anonymous dominant mark...

  6. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF CRATOXYLUM FORMOSUM SSP. PRUNIFLORUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chanida Palanuvej; Nijsiri Ruangrungsi

    2008-01-01

    This study reveals the chemical compositions of the oleoresin gum exudates of Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer ssp. pruniflorum (Kurz) Gogel. The gum was extracted by methanol and investigated by capillary column gas chromatography\\/ mass spectrometry using a Finnigan Trace GC ultra with Finnigan DSQ Quadrupole detector and BPX5 fused silica column (30 m x 0.25 mm, 0.25 um film thickness).

  7. The Huygens Surface Science Package (SSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarnecki, John C.; Leese, Mark; Hathi, Brijen; SSP Consortium, The

    2015-04-01

    The Huygens Surface Science Package (SSP), one of the six instruments selected by ESA, was the only one whose prime purpose was to study the surface of Titan in-situ. Designed at a time when even the basic nature of the surface (i.e. solid ice or liquid hydrocarbons) was unknown, it consisted of 9 separate compact and relatively simple sensors designed to span all likely surface scenarios. The Huygens landing on a "dry lake bed" allowed some of the sensors to be fully exercised. The results and their subsequent interpretations will be presented as well as perspectives from nearly 25 years since the original instrument selection.

  8. Karyotypic analysis of N-banded chromosomes of diploid alfalfa: Medicago sativa ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata and their hybrid.

    PubMed

    Bauchan, G R; Hossain, M A

    1998-01-01

    Chromosomes of two diploid (2n = 2x = 16) subspecies of Medicago sativa, ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata, and their hybrid were studied using an N-banding technique. This study was undertaken to develop an N-banded karyotype of ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata, and determine if the same technique could be used to identify parental chromosomes in hybrids. The chromosomes of ssp. falcata have only centromeric N bands and thus individual chromosomes could not be identified. However, chromosome-specific bands were observed in ssp. caerulea enabling the identification of each of the eight pairs of chromosomes and the development of an idiogram. All chromosomes have a centromeric band and a telomeric band in the short arm. All of the chromosomes, except chromosomes 7 and 8, have interstitial bands in their long arms and chromosome 5 has two faint interstitial bands in its long arm. The satellited chromosome is easily distinguished due to the secondary constriction and characteristic band at the nucleolar organizer region. The differences in banding patterns between these subspecies makes it possible to distinguish chromosomes from each other in their hybrids. This is the first report of the use of N banding to identify the diploid chromosomes of M. sativa ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata. PMID:9542165

  9. Mating systems and interfertility of swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata ssp. incarnata and ssp. pulchra)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER T. IVEY; SARA R. LIPOW; Robert Wyatt

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the breeding system and interfertility of both subspecies of Asclepias incarnata. We performed hand-pollinations in the glasshouse to compare fruit-set from self- vs. cross-pollinations and to assess interfertility in crosses between the subspecies. We also used horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis to infer mating-system parameters from open-pollinated progeny arrays in three natural populations over two consecutive years. Plants of ssp.

  10. Introduction of Miscanthus SSP. in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Shumny, V.K.; Godovikova, V.A.; Moiseyeva, Y.A. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-01

    In terms of the international program on the development of new plants-sources of raw material and biomass, we have been conducting an all-round study of perennial grasses as refurbishable sources of raw materials for fuels and construction industry, and for recultivation of wastelands and technogenically deteriorated landscapes. Research activity includes: (1) search of the natural Far East population of Miscanthus and Phragmites ssp. for unique ecotypes and the establishment of an original collection of biodiversity for genetic and breeding work; (2) Development of methods for in vitro cultivation of isolated cells and tissues for inducing polymorphism and salt- and coldresistant somaclones and their microprogation; (3) to provide the monitoring of the dynamics of potential bioproduction, establishing experimental plantations for Miscanthus in ecologically different terrains of the Novosibirsk Regions; and (4) optimization of waste-free wood processing techniques with respect to Miscanthus biomass (the production of carboxymethyle cellulose and decoration materials).

  11. Karyotypic analysis of C-banded chromosomes of diploid alfalfa: Medicago sativa ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata and their hybrid.

    PubMed

    Bauchan, G R; Hossain, M A

    1997-01-01

    Chromosomes of two diploid (2n = 2x = 16) subspecies of Medicago sativa ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata and their hybrid were studied by C-banding. This study was undertaken to improve the C-banding technique for alfalfa chromosomes, develop a C-banded karyotype of the ssp. caerulea and ssp. falcata, and determine if the same C-banding technique could be used to identify parental chromosomes in hybrids. The chromosomes of ssp. falcata have only centromeric bands and thus individual chromosomes could not be identified. One accession of ssp. falcata displayed an interstitial band in the middle of the long arm on the satellite chromosome. However, chromosome-specific bands were observed in ssp. caerulea enabling the identification of each of the eight pairs of chromosomes and the development of a idiogram. All chromosomes had centromeric bands and a terminal band in the short arm except the satellite chromosome (chromosome 8). Interstitial bands were also observed in the short arms, with the exception of chromosome 7. Chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and 8 each had one prominent interstitial band in their long arm. The satellited chromosome is easy to identify because of the presence of the secondary constriction, two bands located on either side of the nucleolar organizer region, and a large terminal band on its long arm. The differences in banding patterns between these subspecies allowed the identification of parental chromosomes in hybrid cells. PMID:9419896

  12. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    PubMed

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7]. PMID:17396957

  13. Inactivation of Streptococcus gordonii SspAB Alters Expression of Multiple Adhesin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongshu; Lei, Yu; Nobbs, Angela; Khammanivong, Ali; Herzberg, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    SspA and SspB (antigen I/II family proteins) can bind Streptococcus gordonii to other oral bacteria and also to salivary agglutinin glycoprotein, a constituent of the salivary film or pellicle that coats the tooth. To learn if SspA and SspB are essential for adhesion and initial biofilm formation on teeth, S. gordonii DL1 was incubated with saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA) for 2 h in Todd-Hewitt broth with 20% saliva to develop initial biofilms. Sessile cells attached to sHA, surrounding planktonic cells, and free-growing cells were recovered separately. Free-growing cells expressed more sspA-specific mRNA and sspB-specific mRNA than sessile cells. Free-growing cells expressed the same levels of sspA and sspB as planktonic cells. Surprisingly, an SspA? SspB? mutant strain showed 2.2-fold greater biofilm formation on sHA than wild-type S. gordonii DL1. To explain this observation, we tested the hypothesis that inactivation of sspA and sspB genes altered the expression of other adhesin genes during initial biofilm formation in vitro. When compared to wild-type cells, expression of scaA and abpB was significantly up-regulated in the SspA? SspB? strain in sessile, planktonic, and free-growing cells. Consistent with this finding, ScaA antigen was also overexpressed in planktonic and free-growing SspA? SspB? cells compared to the wild type. SspA/B adhesins, therefore, were strongly suggested to be involved in the regulation of multiple adhesin genes. PMID:15908361

  14. SSP Plus at 36 Months: Effects of Adding Employment Services to Financial Work Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Ying; Michalopoulos, Charles

    A study examined effects of the Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP) Plus program. A small group of long-term income assistance (IA) recipients in New Brunswick was offered an earnings supplement and employment services (SSP Plus); a second group was offered the regular SSP earnings supplement only; and a third group was offered neither supplement nor…

  15. Isotopomer-Flux Analysis of Bifidobacterium ssp. Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bifidobacteria are gram-positive microorganisms widely applied in fermented dairy products due to their health-promoting effects. Bifidobacterium ssp. may also represent up to 91% of microbial gut population in the infant colon, but considerably less in adults. Fructose-6 phosphate phosphoketolase...

  16. Isotopomer-flux analysis of Bifidobactrium ssp. carbohydrate metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bifidobacteria are gram-positive microorganisms widely applied in fermented dairy products due to their health-promoting effects. Biofobacterium ssp. may also represent up to 91% of microbial gut population in the infant colon, but considerably less in adults. Fructose-6 phosphate phosphoketolase ...

  17. The Essential Oil of Thymus serpylloides ssp. gadorensis.

    PubMed

    Crespo, M E; Gomis, E; Jimenez, J; Navarro, C

    1988-04-01

    THYMUS SERPYLLOIDES ssp. GADORENSIS is endemic in the Betic region (Spain). Gas chromatography and GC/mass spectrometry studies of its essential oil showed its major components to be carvacrol and its biosynthetic precursors (gamma-terpinene and P-cymene). PMID:17265229

  18. Bibliography of Selected SCSD, URBS, SSP, SEF, and RAS Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Planning Lab.

    The annotated bibliography contains publications and report listings of the following sources--(1) School Construction Systems Development (SCSD), (2) University Residential Building Systems (URBS), (3) Florida Schoolhouse Systems Project (SSP), (4) Study of Educational Facilities (SEF), and (5) Recherches en Amenagements Scolaires (RAS) Building…

  19. ORIGINAL PAPER Autumn fertilization of Quercus ilex ssp. ballota (Desf.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Autumn fertilization of Quercus ilex ssp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. nursery seedlings this species have enjoyed only limited success, and knowledge concerning the effect of fertilization on plant fertilization using different doses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassi- um (70.0 mg N, 30.5 mg P and 58.1 mg K

  20. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation within and between cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris) grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic characterization of 502 diverse grape accessions including 342 cultivated (V. vinifera ssp. sativa) and 160 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grapes showed considerable genetic diversity among accessions. A total of 117 alleles were detected with the average of 14 alleles per locus. The tot...

  1. Anatomical characteristics and antioxidant properties of Euphorbia nicaeensis ssp. glareosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jadranka Lukovi?; Djordje Malen?i?; Lana Zori?; Biljana Kiprovski; Ljiljana Merkulov; Pal Boža

    2009-01-01

    Anatomical analyses found that leaves of Euphorbia nicaeensis ssp. glareosa are isolateral, amphistomatous, with two layers of palisade cells on the adaxial and one on the abaxial side. Laticifers\\u000a are present by vascular bundles, in palisade and spongy tissue. Stem laticifers are located in the pericyclic ring, adjacent\\u000a to the phloem, in cylinder parenchyma and medullar rays. The structure of

  2. Chemical studies of essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sof??a Salido; Joaqu??n Altarejos; Manuel Nogueras; Adolfo Sánchez; Christophe Pannecouque; Myriam Witvrouw; Erik De Clercq

    2002-01-01

    Leaf and (unripe and ripe) berry essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia (H. Gay) Debeaux grown wild in Spain have been analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS in combination with retention indices. A seasonal investigation of both leaf and berry oils was also performed. Among the approximately 80 constituents investigated (representing 90–98% of the oils) 60–68 were identified (80–97%

  3. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  4. Detection of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis in tomato seeds by immunofluorescence microscopy and dilution plating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. J. M. Franken; G. C. Kamminga; W. Snijders; P. S. Van Der Zouwen; Y. E. Birnbaum

    1993-01-01

    A method for detectingClavibacter michiganensis ssp.michiganensis in tomato seeds was evaluated. The method is based on rapid screening of tomato seed lots using indirect immunofluorescence staining (IF), followed by dilution plating of IF positive seed lots. Different polyclonal antisera, prepared againstC. michiganensis ssp.michiganensis were tested for their specificity using IF. All strains ofC. michiganensis ssp.michiganensis tested reacted with the polyclonal

  5. Estimation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities on Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. ssp. minus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nurgun Erdemoglu; Nilufer N. Turan; Esra Küpeli Akkol; Bilge Sener; Nurettin Abac?oglu

    2009-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevanceArctium minus (Hill) Bernh. ssp. minus (Asteraceae) leaves are used to alleviate rheumatic pain, against fever and sunstroke with externally application in Turkish folk medicine.

  6. Metabolism, Swimming Performance, and Tissue Biochemistry of High Desert Redband Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ssp.): Evidence for

    E-print Network

    Keeley, Ernest R.

    (Oncorhynchus mykiss ssp.): Evidence for Phenotypic Differences in Physiological Function A. Kurt Gamperl1, Oregon 97331-3803 Accepted 5/29/02 ABSTRACT Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ssp.) in southeastern- cle ATP-producing pathways occurs in redband trout. Introduction Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

  7. Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and ar...

  8. Constitutive heterochromatin DNA polymorphisms in diploid Medicago sativa ssp. falcata.

    PubMed

    Bauchan, G R; Hossain, M A

    1999-10-01

    A Giemsa C-banding technique was used to study the amount and location of constitutive heterochromatin in diploid (2n = 2x = 16) Medicago sativa ssp. falcata (L.) Arcangeli. Most accessions had the standard C-banding pattern with centromeric bands on all the chromosomes and a prominent heterochromatic band at the nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) of the satellited (SAT) chromosomes. However, we observed in various accessions that constitutive heterochromatic C-bands can exist at the telomeric ends of all the chromosomes. Interstitial bands occurred on the short arms of all chromosomes except for chromosome 3 and on the long arms of chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and 6, only. Rearranged chromosomes such as isochromosomes have been observed for the short arms of chromosomes 2 and 6. This is the first report on the existence of C-banding polymorphisms and the detection of putative isochromsomes in the chromosomes of diploid ssp. falcata which could have contributed to the variation observed in cultivated alfalfa. PMID:10584312

  9. Antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activity of Alnus incana (L.) ssp. incana Moench and A. viridis (Chaix) DC ssp. viridis extracts.

    PubMed

    Stevi?, Tatjana; Savikin, Katarina; Zduni?, Gordana; Stanojkovi?, Tatjana; Jurani?, Zorica; Jankovi?, Teodora; Menkovi?, Nebojsa

    2010-06-01

    Antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities of leaves, bark, and cone extracts of Alnus incana (L.) Moench ssp. incana and endemic species A. viridis (Chaix) DC ssp. viridis were evaluated. All extracts were found to be strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavengers, exhibiting 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 3.3-18.9 microg/mL, and also showed activity in inhibition of lipid peroxidation with IC(50) values ranging from 38.5 to 157.4 microg/mL. A. incana and A. viridis extracts exhibited significant cytotoxic effects toward HeLa cells, with IC(50) values ranging from 26.02 to 68.5 microg/mL. The most active extract of A. incana bark also contained great amounts of total phenolics (316.2 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g). In our experiment all extracts were virtually nontoxic on brine shrimps. Extracts were screened for activity against 15 microorganisms, and all extracts investigated showed antimicrobial activity. The most active were dry extracts of cones of A. incana and A. viridis with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.117 to 0.129 mg/mL. PMID:20438323

  10. Potential SSP Perfluorooctanoic Acid Related Fluoropolymer Materials Obsolescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segars, Matt G.

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative (SEA) has identified a potential for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to incur materials obsolescence issues due to agreements between the fluoro-chemical industry and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to participate in a Global Stewardship Program for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This presentation will include discussions of the chemistry, regulatory drivers, affected types of fluoropolymer and fluoroelastomer products, timeline for reformulations, and methodology for addressing the issue. It will cover the coordination of assessment efforts with the International Space Station and Head Quarters Air Force Space Command, along with some examples of impacted materials. The presentation is directed at all members of the international aerospace community concerned with identifying potential environmentally driven materials obsolescence issues.

  11. Evaluation of RO modules for the SSP ETC/LSS.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasionowski, W. J.; Bambenek, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    During the past eight years the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an Integrated Water and Waste Management System for use in the Space Station Prototype (SSP) Environmental Thermal Control/Life-Support System (ETC/LSS). This system includes the reverse osmosis (RO) process for recycling wash water and the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water and the wash water concentrated by RO. This paper summarizes the experimental work performed during the past four years to select the best commercially available RO module for this system and to also define which surfactants and germicides are most compatible with the selected module.

  12. An abstract class loader for the SSP and its implementation in TL.

    SciTech Connect

    Wickstrom, Gregory Lloyd; Winter, Victor Lono (University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE); Fraij, Fares (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Roach, Steve (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Beranek, Jason (University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE)

    2004-08-01

    The SSP is a hardware implementation of a subset of the JVM for use in high consequence embedded applications. In this context, a majority of the activities belonging to class loading, as it is defined in the specification of the JVM, can be performed statically. Static class loading has the net result of dramatically simplifying the design of the SSP as well as increasing its performance. Due to the high consequence nature of its applications, strong evidence must be provided that all aspects of the SSP have been implemented correctly. This includes the class loader. This article explores the possibility of formally verifying a class loader for the SSP implemented in the strategic programming language TL. Specifically, an implementation of the core activities of an abstract class loader is presented and its verification in ACL2 is considered.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces cyaneogriseus ssp. noncyanogenus, the thermotolerant producer of commercial antibiotics nemadectin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Li, Chuang; Zhang, Bo; He, Hairong; Jin, Pinjiao; Wang, Jijia; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-06-20

    Streptomyces cyaneogriseus ssp. noncyanogenus is thermotolerant bacterium producing commercially important nemadectin, a kind of macrolide antibiotics, which has been widely used as a biopesticide. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of S. cyaneogriseus ssp. noncyanogenus, which consists of one chromosome (7,762,396bp) with no plasmid. Genome sequence information contributes to understanding the biosynthesis of nemadectin better and provides the basis for analysis of its thermotolerance and biosynthetical potential. PMID:25842156

  14. Biotransformation of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes by cell suspension cultures of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. João Almendra; José G. Barroso; Johannes J. C. Scheffer

    1996-01-01

    The transformation capacity of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium (yarrow) cell suspension cultures was investigated using geraniol (50mg\\/l) and borneol, menthol, thymol and farnesols (25mg\\/l) as substrates. Apart from converting these substrates into several biotransformation products, the cell suspension cultures were also able to glycosylate both the substrates and the biotransformation products. aa]Key Words bb]Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium bb]Yarrow

  15. Snf1-like protein kinase Ssp2 regulates glucose derepression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Fujita, Yasuko; Tohda, Hideki; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2012-02-01

    The function of two fission yeast genes, SPCC74.03c/ssp2(+) and SPAC23H4.02/ppk9(+), encoding an Snf1-like protein kinase were investigated. Deletion of ssp2(+) caused a partial defect in glucose derepression of inv1(+), fbp1(+), and gld1(+) and in assimilation of sucrose and glycerol, while a mutation in ppk9(+) had no apparent effect. Scr1, a transcription factor involved in glucose repression, localized to the nucleus under glucose-rich conditions and to the cytoplasm during glucose starvation in wild-type cells. In contrast, in the ssp2? mutant, Scr1 localized to the nucleus in cells grown in glucose-rich medium as well as in glucose-starved cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that Ssp2 is required for the phosphorylation of Scr1 upon glucose deprivation. Mutation of five putative Ssp2 recognition sites in Scr1 prevented glucose derepression of invertase in glucose-starved cells. These results indicate that Ssp2 regulates phosphorylation and subcellular localization of Scr1 in response to glucose. PMID:22140232

  16. Nutrient utilization during biomass and anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of wild carrot cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Dougall; G. C. Frazier

    1989-01-01

    The medium used for the growth of anthocyanin-accumulating wild carrot (D. carota) suspension cultures contained ammonia as a sole nitrogen source and was buffered with succinate. Ammonia was the first nutrient to be completely utilized.

  17. Original article Honey bee (Apis mellifera L) response

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - cus carota L) and safflower (Carthamnus tinctoris L) was greater than the mean dis- tances bees attractive to bees than carrot or safflower flowers. Nectar is highly attractive to foraging bees. However

  18. Asymmetric chromosome segregation in Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri

    PubMed Central

    Ucci, Amanda P; Martins, Paula M M; Lau, Ivy F; Bacci, Maurício; Belasque, José; Ferreira, Henrique

    2014-01-01

    This study was intended to characterize the chromosome segregation process of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xac) by investigating the functionality of the ParB factor encoded on its chromosome, and its requirement for cell viability and virulence. Using TAP tagging we show that ParB is expressed in Xac. Disruption of parB increased the cell doubling time and precluded the ability of Xac to colonize the host citrus. Moreover, Xac mutant cells expressing only truncated forms of ParB exhibited the classical phenotype of aberrant chromosome organization, and seemed affected in cell division judged by their reduced growth rate and the propensity to form filaments. The ParB-GFP localization pattern in Xac was suggestive of an asymmetric mode of replicon partitioning, which together with the filamentation phenotype support the idea that Xac may control septum placement using mechanisms probably analogous to Caulobacter crescentus, and perhaps Vibrio cholerae, and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Xac exhibits asymmetric chromosome segregation, and the perturbation of this process leads to an inability to colonize the host plant. PMID:24339434

  19. A sporulation-specific, sigF-dependent protein, SspA, affects septum positioning in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Tzanis, Angelos; Dalton, Kate A; Hesketh, Andrew; den Hengst, Chris D; Buttner, Mark J; Thibessard, Annabelle; Kelemen, Gabriella H

    2014-01-01

    The RNA polymerase sigma factor SigF controls late development during sporulation in the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. The only known SigF-dependent gene identified so far, SCO5321, is found in the biosynthetic cluster encoding spore pigment synthesis. Here we identify the first direct target for SigF, the gene sspA, encoding a sporulation-specific protein. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that SspA is a secreted lipoprotein with two PepSY signature domains. The sspA deletion mutant exhibits irregular sporulation septation and altered spore shape, suggesting that SspA plays a role in septum formation and spore maturation. The fluorescent translational fusion protein SspA–mCherry localized first to septum sites, then subsequently around the surface of the spores. Both SspA protein and sspA transcription are absent from the sigF null mutant. Moreover, in vitro transcription assay confirmed that RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing SigF is sufficient for initiation of transcription from a single sspA promoter. In addition, in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that sspA is a direct target of BldD, which functions to repress sporulation genes, including whiG, ftsZ and ssgB, during vegetative growth, co-ordinating their expression during sporulation septation. PMID:24261854

  20. Les facteurs de productivit du Pin noir d'Autriche (Pinus nigra Arnold. ssp. nigricans Host. austriaca Hoss.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Les facteurs de productivité du Pin noir d'Autriche (Pinus nigra Arnold. ssp. nigricans Host :Pin noir d'Autriche, Pinus nigra nigricans, Alpes du Sud, productivité, facteurs bioclimatiques noir d'Autriche (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. nigricans Host. Var austriaca Endl.) des Alpes du Sud sont

  1. Comparative chemical composition, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activities of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus L. berry and wood oils from Lebanon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica R. Loizzo; Rosa Tundis; Filomena Conforti; Antoine M. Saab; Giancarlo A. Statti; Francesco Menichini

    2007-01-01

    Juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus) is used in European cuisine for its distinguishing flavour. J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus berry and wood essential oils were tentatively identified by GC and GC\\/MS. Fifty compounds were identified in the berry oil and 23 compounds were identified in the wood oil. The J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus berry oil was characterised by high contents of ?-pinene (27.4%)

  2. Does SSP Plus Increase Employment? The Effect of Adding Services to the Self-Sufficiency Project's Financial Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quets, Gail; Robins, Philip K.; Pan, Elsie C.; Michalopoulos, Charles; Card, David

    In 1992, Human Resources Development Canada launched the Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP), which was a research and demonstration effort involving long-term, single-parent Income Assistance (IA) recipients in New Brunswick and British Columbia. Under SSP, IA recipients who left IA and worked at least 30 hours per week were offered a generous but…

  3. Isolation of a strain of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki HD-1 encoding delta-endotoxin Cry1E.

    PubMed

    Chang, J H; Roh, J Y; Je, Y H; Park, H W; Jin, B R; Woo, S D; Kang, S K

    1998-05-01

    A strain of Bacillus thuringiensis, STB-1, toxic against Spodoptera exigua, was isolated. Bacillus thuringiensis STB-1 produced bipyramidal inclusions and reacted with the H antiserum of B. thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki. The plasmid and protein profiles of B. thuringiensis STB-1 were compared with those of its reference strains, ssp. kurstaki and ssp. kenyae. To verify the gene type of B. thuringiensis STB-1, PCR analysis was performed with Spodoptera-specific cry gene primers. The result showed that B. thuringiensis STB-1, unlike its reference strains, had crylAa, crylAb, crylAc and crylE, suggesting that B. thuringiensis STB-1 was a unique strain with respect to gene type. In addition, B. thuringiensis STB-1 showed a high level of toxicity against both S. exigua and Bombyx mori, whereas B. thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki HD-1 or ssp. kenyae showed a high level of toxicity against only Bombyx mori or S. exigua, respectively. PMID:9674170

  4. Overexpression of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein 2 ( PGIP2 ) of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis ) increased resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung Ho Hwang; Hanhong Bae; Hyoun-Sub Lim; Kun Bo Kim; Shin Je Kim; Myoung-Ho Im; Beom-Suk Park; Do Sun Kim; Jongkee Kim

    2010-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant cell wall glycoproteins that can inhibit microbial polygalacturonase\\u000a (PG) activity. In this study, we cloned five PGIP genes from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Reverse transcription PCR expression analysis showed that the accumulation of BrPGIP transcripts differed among various tissues and in response to biotic (bacterial innoculation) and abiotic stresses (i.e.,\\u000a wounding, jasmonic acid,

  5. Coding Sequence Divergence Between Two Closely Related Plant Species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Tiffin; Matthew W. Hahn

    2002-01-01

    To characterize the coding-sequence divergence of closely related genomes, we compared DNA sequence divergence between sequences from a Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis EST library isolated from flower buds and genomic sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana. The specific objectives were (i) to determine the distribution of and relationship between Ka and Ks, (ii) to identify genes with the lowest and highest Ka:Ks

  6. INTERSEEDING MEDICAGO SATIVA SSP. FALCATA INTO RANGELANDS TO ENHANCE CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND FORAGE PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands of the U.S. Great Plains can generally be characterized as having low nitrogen levels, which along with water, are considered the major limiting factors in forage production. The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of interseeding Medicago sativa ssp. falcata on native range...

  7. Ecotypic variation in Elymus elymoides ssp. Brevifolius race C in the northern Intermountain West

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides [Raf.] Sweezey) is an important native bunchgrass for restoration of degraded rangelands of western North America. It is taxonomically complex and has diverged into as many as four subspecies, including ssp. brevifolius, for which four geographically disti...

  8. Transfer of soft kernel texture from Triticum aestivum to durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is a leading cereal grain whose primary use is the production of semolina and then pasta. Its rich culinary relationship to humans is related, in part, to its very hard kernel texture. This very hard texture is due to the loss of the Puroindoline genes whi...

  9. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    PubMed Central

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles W.; Skerrett, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David

    2012-01-01

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-?mglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-?mglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:22663564

  10. Allelopathic activity of Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Najas marina ssp. intermedia (Wolfgang) Casper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth M. Gross; Daniela Erhard; Enikö Iványi

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the allelopathic activity of two submersed macrophytes with different growth forms and nutrient uptake modes, Ceratophyllum demersum and Najas marina ssp. intermedia. A bioassay-directed method development revealed optimal extraction solvents for allelochemicals from both macrophytes. For Najas, 50% methanol and for Ceratophyllum 50% acetone yielded the strongest inhibition in the agar-diffusion assay with various filamentous or chroococcal cyanobacteria

  11. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    SciTech Connect

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-07-06

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-?mglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-?mglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

  12. Reproduction and Development of the Endangered Sedum integrifolium ssp. Leedyi (Crassulaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel P. Olfelt; Glenn R. Furnier; James J. Luby

    1998-01-01

    Information on reproduction and life history is important for the conservation of endangered plants. We investigated rates of flowering, seed set, and germination in populations of the endangered perennial plant Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi. Germination and flowering rates differed significantly among populations, but seed set rate did not. We assayed 26 plant clusters (81 stems) from four of the five

  13. Carbon Sequestration in Rangelands Interseeded with Yellow-Flowering Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ssp. falcata )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew C. Mortenson; Lachlan J. Ingram

    2004-01-01

    Management practices can significantly influence carbon sequestration by rangeland ecosystems. Grazing, burning, and fertilization have been shown to increase soil carbon storage in rangeland soils of the Great Plains. Research was initiated in 2001 in northwestern South Dakota to evaluate the role of interseeding a legume, Medicago sativa ssp. falcata, in northern mixed-grass rangelands on carbon sequestration. Sampling was undertaken

  14. Genetic Variation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis Infection in US Holsteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Gonda; Y. M. Chang; G. E. Shook; M. T. Collins; B. W. Kirkpatrick

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic variability of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculo- sis infection in US Holsteins. Blood and fecal samples were collected primarily from daughters of 12 bulls in their second or third lactation. Routine disease testing of the sires documented that they were not infected. Herds without a \\

  15. Variation of glucosinolates in vegetable crops of Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae Kwang Kim; Sang Mi Chu; Sun Ju Kim; Dong Jin Lee; Si Young Lee; Sun Hyung Lim; Sun-Hwa Ha; Soon Jong Kweon; Hyun Suk Cho

    2010-01-01

    Glucosinolates of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) from Korea were characterised to determine the total glucosinolate content and the diversity amongst glucosinolates; 24 varieties were analysed. The profiles of 14 glucosinolates identified from the leaves were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate the differences among varieties. The Kori, Sandun and e-Norang varieties separated from the others

  16. Occurrence of aphidborne viruses in southernmost South American populations of Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis (Fcc) plants were collected at different locations in southern Chile in order to determine the current viral status of this native strawberry. The following aphidborne viruses (ABVs): Strawberry mild yellow edge virus (SMYEV), Strawberry mottle...

  17. KDD-2003 Workshop on Data Mining Standards, Services and Platforms (DM-SSP 03)

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Robert

    KDD-2003 Workshop on Data Mining Standards, Services and Platforms (DM-SSP 03) Robert Grossman National Center for Data Mining, University of Illinois at Chicago and Open Data Partners Chicago, IL mining services based on them. A theme of the workshop was that data mining standards have matured

  18. KDD workshop on data mining standards, services & platforms (DM-SSP) 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Grossman

    2006-01-01

    DM-SSP '06 was the fourth year there has been a conference on data mining standards, services and platforms and the sixth year that there has been a conference on the Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML) and related areas. The workshop consisted of five talks and two panels.

  19. Wyoming Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) Seedling Growth and Maternal Plant Stand Position

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Hild; B. Christensen; A. Maier

    1999-01-01

    Little is known of maternal plant influence upon seed- ling characteristics of native shrubs. This study examined influence of maternal Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) stand position on emergence and growth of seed- lings. Seedlings from maternal plants in upslope, core, and downslope positions were grown in a common greenhouse setting. Percent germination, height, and canopy volume of

  20. Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk W. Davies; Jonathan D. Bates; Dustin D. Johnson; Aleta M. Nafus

    2009-01-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on

  1. Comparative Diversity Analysis of RFLPs and Isozymes Within and Among Populations of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qifa Zhang; M. A. Saghai Marooft; A. Kleinhofs

    DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and isozyme variation were surveyed in 268 accessions of a wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) sampled from diverse ecogeograph- ical areas in Israel and Iran. A total of 24 markers was used: 7 well characterized isozyme loci and 15 DNA probes which detected 17 putative loci and included three classes of DNA sequences

  2. Isolation and characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki strain toxic to Spodoptera exigua and Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Lee, I H; Je, Y H; Chang, J H; Roh, J Y; Oh, H W; Lee, S G; Shin, S C; Boo, K S

    2001-10-01

    A strain of Bacillus thuringiensis with dual toxicity was isolated from Korean soil samples and named K2. K2 was determined as ssp. kurstaki (H3a3b3c) by serological test and produced bipyramidal-shaped parasporal inclusions. The plasmid and protein profiles of B. thuringiensis K2 were different from those of the reference strain, ssp. kurstaki HD-1. To verify gene type of B. thuringiensis K2, PCR analysis with specific cry gene primers was performed. The result showed that B. thuringiensis K2 had cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1C, and cry1D type genes, whereas ssp. kurstaki HD-1 had cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, and cry2 type genes. In addition, B. thuringiensis K2 had high toxicity against Spodoptera exigua and Culex pipiens, whereas B. thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki HD-1 does not have high toxicity against these two insect species. PMID:11683364

  3. The Essential Oils of Satureja montana ssp. kitaibelii Wierzb. and Satureja pilosa var. pilosa Velen from Bulgaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angel Konakchiev; Elena Tsankova

    2002-01-01

    The essential oils of wild growing Satureja montana ssp. kitaibelii Wierzb. and S. pilosa var. pilosa Velen were analyzed by GC and CG\\/MS. The number of compounds identified were 44 and 40, respectively, the major ones being limonene (15.7%) and p-cymene (13.1%) in S. montana ssp. kitabibelii, and thymol (46.1%) and p-cymene (12.7%) in S. pilosa var. pilosa oil.

  4. HvNax3 —a locus controlling shoot sodium exclusion derived from wild barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri Shavrukov; Narendra K. Gupta; Junji Miyazaki; Manahil N. Baho; Kenneth J. Chalmers; Mark Tester; Peter Langridge; Nicholas C. Collins

    2010-01-01

    Previous work identified the wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) accession CPI-71284-48 as being capable of limiting sodium (Na+) accumulation in the shoots under saline hydroponic growth conditions. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using a cross\\u000a between CPI-71284-48 and a selection of the cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar Barque (Barque-73, a moderate Na+ excluder) attributed the control of

  5. Applicability of Phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera to Remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, Koji; Tani, Shigeru; Sugawara, Reiko; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of phytoextraction with a Cd-hyperaccumulator plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera) to remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols. Cd absorption potentials of this plant for Andisols were examined in pot experiments. Sequentially, phytoextraction durations for remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols were calculated from the experimental data. The results were as follows: (1) Cd concentrations in the plant shoots ranged from 170-750 mg?kg-1. (2) Cd absorption of the plant for Andisols with ALC (Autoclaved Lightweight aerated Concrete) was less than for Andisols without ALC. However, the plants absorbed the same amount of soil Cd extracted by 0.01 M HCl with or without ALC. (3) Calculations suggest that the applicability of phytoextraction with this plant is high for slightly contaminated Andisols. Therefore, phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera may be a viable option for the remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols.

  6. Lactic acid production by mixed cultures of Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus helveticus.

    PubMed

    Plessas, S; Bosnea, L; Psarianos, C; Koutinas, A A; Marchant, R; Banat, I M

    2008-09-01

    Lactic acid production using Kluyveromyces marxianus (IFO 288), Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (ATCC 11842) and Lactobacillus helveticus (ATCC 15009) individually or as mixed culture on cheese whey in stirred or static fermentation conditions was evaluated. Lactic acid production, residual sugar and cell biomass were the main features examined. Increased lactic acid production was observed, when mixed cultures were used in comparison to individual ones. The highest lactic acid concentrations were achieved when K. marxianus yeast was combined with L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and when all the strains were used revealing possible synergistic effects between the yeast and the two lactic acid bacteria. The same synergistic effects were further observed and verified when the mixed cultures were applied in sourdough fermentations, proving that the above microbiological system could be applied in the food fermentations where high lactic acid production is sought. PMID:18155517

  7. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    PubMed

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions. PMID:25730368

  8. SSP Technology Investigation of a High-Voltage DC-DC Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, J. A.; Grady, W. M.; George, Patrick J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish the feasibility of a high-voltage DC-DC converter based on a rod-array triggered vacuum switch (RATVS) for the Space Solar Power system. The RATVS has many advantages over silicon and silicon-carbide devices. The RATVS is attractive for this application because it is a high-voltage device that has already been demonstrated at currents in excess of the requirement for an SSP device and at much higher per-device voltages than existing or near-term solid state switching devices. The RATVS packs a much higher specific power rating than any solid-state device and it is likely to be more tolerant of its surroundings in space. In addition, pursuit of an RATVS-based system would provide NASA with a nearer-term and less expensive power converter option for the SSP.

  9. Coding Sequence Divergence Between Two Closely Related Plant Species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Tiffin; Matthew W. Hahn

    2002-01-01

    .   To characterize the coding-sequence divergence of closely related genomes, we compared DNA sequence divergence between sequences\\u000a from a Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis EST library isolated from flower buds and genomic sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana. The specific objectives were (i) to determine the distribution of and relationship between K\\u000a \\u000a a and K\\u000a \\u000a s, (ii) to identify genes with the lowest

  10. A Draft Sequence of the Rice Genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Yu; Songnian Hu; Jun Wang; Gane Ka-Shu Wong; Songgang Li; Bin Liu; Yajun Deng; Li Dai; Yan Zhou; Xiuqing Zhang; Mengliang Cao; Jing Liu; Jiandong Sun; Jiabin Tang; Yanjiong Chen; Xiaobing Huang; Wei Lin; Chen Ye; Wei Tong; Lijuan Cong; Jianing Geng; Yujun Han; Lin Li; Wei Li; Guangqiang Hu; Xiangang Huang; Wenjie Li; Jian Li; Zhanwei Liu; Long Li; Jianping Liu; Qiuhui Qi; Jinsong Liu; Li Li; Tao Li; Xuegang Wang; Hong Lu; Tingting Wu; Miao Zhu; Peixiang Ni; Hua Han; Wei Dong; Xiaoyu Ren; Xiaoli Feng; Peng Cui; Xianran Li; Hao Wang; Xin Xu; Wenxue Zhai; Zhao Xu; Jinsong Zhang; Sijie He; Jianguo Zhang; Jichen Xu; Kunlin Zhang; Xianwu Zheng; Jianhai Dong; Wanyong Zeng; Lin Tao; Jia Ye; Jun Tan; Xide Ren; Xuewei Chen; Jun He; Daofeng Liu; Wei Tian; Chaoguang Tian; Hongai Xia; Qiyu Bao; Gang Li; Hui Gao; Ting Cao; Juan Wang; Wenming Zhao; Ping Li; Wei Chen; Xudong Wang; Yong Zhang; Jianfei Hu; Jing Wang; Song Liu; Jian Yang; Guangyu Zhang; Yuqing Xiong; Zhijie Li; Long Mao; Chengshu Zhou; Zhen Zhu; Runsheng Chen; Bailin Hao; Weimou Zheng; Shouyi Chen; Wei Guo; Guojie Li; Siqi Liu; Ming Tao; Jian Wang; Lihuang Zhu; Longping Yuan; Huanming Yang

    2002-01-01

    We have produced a draft sequence of the rice genome for the most widely cultivated subspecies in China, Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica, by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The genome was 466 megabases in size, with an estimated 46,022 to 55,615 genes. Functional coverage in the assembled sequences was 92.0%. About 42.2% of the genome was in exact 20-nucleotide oligomer repeats,

  11. A draft sequence of the rice ( Oryza sativa ssp. indica ) genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Yu; Songnian Hu; Jun Wang; Songgang Li; Ka-Shu Gane Wong; Bin Liu; Yajun Deng; Li Dai; Yan Zhou; Xiuqing Zhang; Mengliang Cao; Jing Liu; Jiandong Sun; Jiabin Tang; Yanjiong Chen; Xiaobing Huang; Wei Lin; Chen Ye; Wei Tong; Lijuan Cong; Jianing Geng; Yujun Han; Lin Li; Wei Li; Guangqiang Hu; Xiangang Huang; Wenjie Li; Jian Li; Zhanwei Liu; Long Li; Jianping Liu; Qiuhui Qi; Jinsong Liu; Li Li; Xuegang Wang; Hong Lu; Tingting Wu; Miao Zhu; Peixiang Ni; Hua Han; Wei Dong; Xiaoyu Ren; Xiaoli Feng; Peng Cui; Xianran Li; Hao Wang; Xin Xu; Wenxue Zhai; Zhao Xu; Jinsong Zhang; Sijie He; Jianguo Zhang; Jichen Xu; Kunlin Zhang; Xianwu Zheng; Jianhai Dong; Wanyong Zeng; Lin Tao; Xuewei Chen; Jun He; Daofeng Liu; Wei Tian; Chaoguang Tian; Hongai Xia; Gang Li; Hui Gao; Ping Li; Wei Chen; Xudong Wang; Yong Zhang; Jianfei Hu; Jing Wang; Song Liu; Jian Yang; Guangyu Zhang; Yuqing Xiong; Zhijie Li; Long Mao; Chengshu Zhou; Zhen Zhu; Runsheng Chen; Bailin Hao; Weimou Zheng; Shouyi Chen; Wei Guo; Guojie Li; Siqi Liu; Guyang Huang; Ming Tao; Jian Wang; Lihuang Zhu; Longping Yuan; Huanming Yang

    2001-01-01

    The sequence of the rice genome holds fundamental information for its biology, including physiology, genetics, development,\\u000a and evolution, as well as information on many beneficial phenotypes of economic significance. Using a “whole genome shotgun”\\u000a approach, we have produced a draft rice genome sequence ofOryza sativa ssp.indica, the major crop rice subspecies in China and many other regions of Asia. The

  12. Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis in stirred fruit yogurts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kailasapathy; I. Harmstorf; M. Phillips

    2008-01-01

    The effect of commercial fruit preparations (mango, mixed berry, passion fruit and strawberry) on the viability of probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis LAFTI® B94 in stirred yogurts during storage (35 days) at refrigerated temperature (4°C) was evaluated. The results showed that addition of either 5 or 10g\\/100g fruit preparations had no significant (p>0.05) effect

  13. (?)-1(10),11-eremophiladien-9?-ol from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha ssp. aquatica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Rieck; Nils Bülow; Christiane Fricke; Yücel Saritas; Wilfried A. König

    1997-01-01

    A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpenoid, ( ? )-1(10),11-eremophiladien-9?-ol, was isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha ssp. aquatica. Structure elucidation was performed by means of spectroscopic methods and chemical conversion to known eremophilone. The configuration was proved by NOE measurements and comparison of the products obtained by dehydration and hydrogenation of the alcohol with the hydrogenation products of both enantiomers of eremophilene

  14. Seasonal variation in leaf glucosinolates and insect resistance in two types of Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels Agerbirk; Carl E. Olsen; Jens K. Nielsen

    2001-01-01

    Leaves from natural populations of Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata (Brassicaceae) in Denmark were examined for glucosinolate content and resistance to the crucifer specialist flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum. Two types of the plant (P- and G-type) could be recognized. Leaves of the G-type contained the glucosinolates (only side chains mentioned): (S)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl- (2S), indol-3-ylmethyl- (4) and in trace amount (R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl- (2R), 2-phenylethyl-

  15. Three QTLs from Lycopersicon peruvianum confer a high level of resistance to Clavibactermichiganensis ssp. michiganensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. van Heusden; M. Koornneef; R. E. Voorrips; W. Brüggemann; G. Pet; R. Vrielink-van Ginkel; X. Chen; P. Lindhout

    1999-01-01

    Lycopersicon peruvianum LA2157 originates from 1650 m above sea level and harbours several beneficial traits for cultivated tomatoes such as cold\\u000a tolerance, nematode resistance and resistance to bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis). In order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for bacterial canker resistance, a QTL mapping approach was carried\\u000a out in an F2 population derived from the interspecific

  16. Nitrogen limitation of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides as determined by tissue analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Hanisak

    1979-01-01

    The critical nitrogen concentration of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (van Goor) Silva was 1.90% on a dry weight basis. Internal nitrogen levels of thalli collected from three Rhode Island populations ranged from 0.75±0.08 to 3.72±0.08%. Internal nitrogen content was minimal in summer and maximal in winter, indicating nitrogen limitation during the summer and nitrogen storage during the winter. Part of

  17. Evaluating the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to assess the bond between dogs and humans.

    PubMed

    Rehn, Therese; McGowan, Ragen T S; Keeling, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) is increasingly being used to study attachment between dogs and humans. It has been developed from the Ainsworth Strange Situation Procedure, which is used extensively to investigate attachment between children and their parents. In this experiment, 12 female beagle dogs were tested in two treatments to identify possible order effects in the test, a potential weakness in the SSP. In one treatment (FS), dogs participated together with a 'familiar person' and a 'stranger'. In a control treatment (SS), the same dogs participated together with two unfamiliar people, 'stranger A' and 'stranger B'. Comparisons were made between episodes within as well as between treatments. As predicted in FS, dogs explored more in the presence of the familiar person than the stranger. Importantly, they also explored more in the presence of stranger A (who appeared in the same order as the familiar person and followed the same procedure) than stranger B in SS. Furthermore, comparisons between treatments, where a familiar person was present in FS and stranger A was present in SS, showed no differences in exploration. In combination, these results indicate that the effect of a familiar person on dogs' exploratory behaviour, a key feature when assessing secure attachment styles, could not be tested reliably due to the order in which the familiar person and the stranger appear. It is proposed that in the future only counterbalanced versions of the SSP are used. Alternatively, since dogs reliably initiated more contact with the familiar person compared to the strangers, it is suggested that future studies on attachment in dogs towards humans should focus either on the behaviour of the dog in those episodes of the SSP when the person returns, or on reunion behaviour in other studies, specially designed to address dog-human interactions at this time. PMID:23437277

  18. Soil solution chemistry in lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia ) ecosystems, southeastern Wyoming, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Fahey; Joseph B. Yavitt

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of the principal inorganic and organic solutes in the soil root-zone were measured in six contrasting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp.latifolia) forest ecosystems for five years (1979–1983). Consistent temporal changes in the principal inorganic solutes (Ca, Mg, K, Na, SO4, Cl) were observed in all the forest stands and years of study: high concentrations at the initiation of snowmelt

  19. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso ssp. valentina (Lam.) Marcl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofía Salido; Joaquín Altarejos; Manuel Nogueras; Adolfo Sánchez

    2001-01-01

    The composition of the oil, steam-distilled from aerial parts of Artemisia herha-alba Asso ssp. valentina (Lam.) Marcl. (Asteraceae) collected from the south of Spain, has been analyzed by GC\\/MS. Among the 65 constituents investigated (representing 93.6 % of the oil composition), 61 were identified (90.3% of the oil composition). The major constituents detected were the sesquiterpene davanone (18.1%) and monoterpenes

  20. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Sun, Yongcheng; Mabey, David C.; Solomon, Anthony W.; Chen, Cheng Y.; Pillay, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA) and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) tests and 7 controls (negative serology), all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs) of ?1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool. PMID:26125585

  1. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

    PubMed

    Marks, Michael; Katz, Samantha; Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Sun, Yongcheng; Mabey, David C; Solomon, Anthony W; Chen, Cheng Y; Pillay, Allan

    2015-06-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA) and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) tests and 7 controls (negative serology), all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs) of ?1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool. PMID:26125585

  2. Intraspecfic variation in cold-temperature metabolic phenotypes of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew P. Davey; F. Ian Woodward; W. Paul Quick

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric temperature is a key factor in determining the distribution of a plant species. Alongside this, plant populations\\u000a growing at the margin of their range may exhibit traits that indicate genetic differentiation and adaptation to their local\\u000a abiotic environment. We investigated whether geographically separated marginal populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea have distinct metabolic phenotypes associated with exposure to cold

  3. Identification and preliminary analysis of a new PCP promoter from Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Zhang; Huizhi Liu; Jiashu Cao

    2008-01-01

    The promoter of Brassica campestris Male Fertile 5 (BcMF5), a pollen coat protein member, class A (PCP-A) gene family, was isolated from Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis Makino (Chinese cabbage-pak-choi) by Thermal Asymmetric Interlaced Polymerase Chain Reaction (TAIL-PCR). Sequence analysis\\u000a suggested that the 605-bp promoter of BcMF5 appears to be a pollen promoter. In an attempt to confirm the promoter

  4. Composition of the essential oil from cell suspension cultures of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. Salomé; S. Pais; Johannes J. C. Scheffer

    1995-01-01

    The composition of the essential oil isolated from Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium cell suspension cultures was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The yield of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation or a simultaneous distillation -extraction of these cultures, harvested at days 8–10 (end of exponential phase), was 0.001 % (w\\/w). The analysis of the volatiles showed the presence of thirteen

  5. Plasticity in life-history traits of Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma Pilger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. P. Lotz; C. W. P. M. Blom

    1986-01-01

    Plasticity in life-history characteristics was investigated in three populations of Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma (Pilger), a self-compatible, wind pollinated species with a high self-fertilization rate. The populations studied were selected for their marked differences in biomass accumulation and habitat characteristics such as nutrient availability and interspecific interaction. Plants, raised from seeds collected at three sites, were grown in a

  6. Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk W. Davies; Jonathan D. Bates; Dustin D. Johnson; Aleta M. Nafus

    2009-01-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production\\u000a for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter\\u000a habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on

  7. Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax (SSP) with Bronchopleural Fistula in A Patient with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sankalp; Garg, Nitin; Wani, Umar Rasool

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report a case of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) with bronchopleural fistula in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SSP is a common life threatening complication in a patient with COPD and usually creates confusion in the mind of the treating physician during an episode of acute exacerbation of COPD. A 52-year-old male presented with a three day history of dry cough and breathing difficulty. He had a history of COPD. A large pneumothorax on the left side was confirmed after chest X-ray. Tube thoracostomy was performed which showed a persistent air-leak suggesting a bronchopleural fistula. The patient was treated conservatively with patience and the leak sealed spontaneously. The patient recovered uneventfully. This case emphasizes that SSP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients having a history of long-term COPD who are in a relatively stable condition with non- critical respiratory distress and the importance of conducting a chest X-ray along with repeated clinical examination in a patient of COPD who does not improve with adequate therapy. PMID:26023593

  8. Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax (SSP) with Bronchopleural Fistula in A Patient with COPD.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Gautam; Yadav, Sankalp; Garg, Nitin; Wani, Umar Rasool

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this article is to report a case of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) with bronchopleural fistula in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SSP is a common life threatening complication in a patient with COPD and usually creates confusion in the mind of the treating physician during an episode of acute exacerbation of COPD. A 52-year-old male presented with a three day history of dry cough and breathing difficulty. He had a history of COPD. A large pneumothorax on the left side was confirmed after chest X-ray. Tube thoracostomy was performed which showed a persistent air-leak suggesting a bronchopleural fistula. The patient was treated conservatively with patience and the leak sealed spontaneously. The patient recovered uneventfully. This case emphasizes that SSP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients having a history of long-term COPD who are in a relatively stable condition with non- critical respiratory distress and the importance of conducting a chest X-ray along with repeated clinical examination in a patient of COPD who does not improve with adequate therapy. PMID:26023593

  9. Establishing Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis on mined lands: Science and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, G.E.; Vicklund, L.E.; Belden, S.E. [ARS, Cheyenne, WY (United States). High Plains Grasslands Research Station

    2005-12-01

    In 1996, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality enacted regulations governing the reestablishment of woody shrubs on mined lands. The regulation required that an average density of one shrub m{sup -2} be reestablished on at least 20% of the disturbed land area and that the shrub composition must include dominant premine species. In Wyoming, and much of the Northern Great Plains, that meant that Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle and Young) (Wyoming big sagebrush) had to be reestablished on mined lands. Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis had proven difficult to reestablish on mined lands because of poor quality seed, seed dormancy and a poor understanding of the seedbed ecology of this species. Research in the last two decades has produced significant knowledge in the area of direct-seed establishment of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis on mined lands. Our research has shown that reducing grass seeding rates will reduce competition and result in larger sagebrush plants that are more likely to survive and provide greater structural diversity to the plant community. Economic analyses demonstrated that big sagebrush can be established at a cost of $0.01-0.05 per seedling using direct seeding methods compared to transplanting nursery grown seedlings, estimated to cost $0.72-$1.65 per seedling (depending on size) to grow and from $1.30-$2.40 to plant (flat land to 2:1 slopes). An adequate level of precipitation will be necessary to ensure successful establishment of this species no matter what method of propagation is selected and direct seeding gives greater opportunity for success because of the demonstrated longevity of the seed to germinate 3-5 years after the initial seeding.

  10. Variability of the essential oils composition of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium growing wild in Lithuania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danute Mockute; Asta Judzentiene

    2003-01-01

    Forty samples of inflorescences and leaves of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium with white flowers were collected in 21 habitats (1999 and 2000) in Lithuania. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The volatile oils according to the cluster analysis were divided into four groups containing the same major constituents: I (four samples)—borneol (11.5–13.2%)+camphor (7.2–13.1%); II (four samples)—chamazulene (9.8–23.2%)+?-pinene (9.7–26.5%);

  11. The essential oil from Thymus praecox ssp. arcticus growing in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Stahl, E

    1984-04-01

    The essential oil from THYMUS PRAECOX Opiz ssp. arcticus (E. Durand), Jalas, a widely distributed plant in Iceland, was proved to contain linalyl acetate as main component (70%). Within the sesquiterpene fraction, beta-caryophyllene (4%), germacrene D (3%), beta-bisabolene (2%), beta-sesquiphellandrene (1%), gamma-cadinene (0.5%), and a couple of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (13%) were found by means of GLC-MS. Additionally four such compounds were isolated and identified by means of IR and NMR spectroscopy as nerolidol (3%), T-cadinol (1%), hedycaryol (7%), and 7-hydroxygermacrene (about 2%). PMID:17340282

  12. Free radical scavenging activity and phenolic content in achenes and thalamus from Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis, F. vesca and F. x ananassa cv. Chandler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Cheel; Cristina Theoduloz; Jaime A. Rodríguez; Peter D. S. Caligari; Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2007-01-01

    The total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin content of achenes (true fruit) and thalamus (receptacle) from the native South American Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis (f. patagonica and f. chiloensis), Fragaria vesca and Fragaria x ananassa cv. Chandler was determined by spectrophotometric means. Highest phenolic content was found in F. vesca while lowest content was measured for white strawberry (F. chiloensis ssp.

  13. Spelt ( Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta ) as a Source of Breadmaking Flours and Bran Naturally Enriched in Oleic Acid and Minerals but Not Phytic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nike L. Ruibal-Mendieta; Dominique L. Delacroix; Eric Mignolet; Jean-Marie Pycke; Carole Marques; Raoul Rozenberg; Géraldine Petitjean; Jean-Louis Habib-Jiwan; Marc Meurens; Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq; Nathalie M. Delzenne; Yvan Larondelle

    2005-01-01

    The nutritional value of breadmaking cereal spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) is said to be higher than that of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare), but this traditional view is not substantiated by scientific evidence. In an attempt to clarify this issue, wholemeal and milling fractions (sieved flour, fine bran, and coarse bran) from nine dehulled spelt and five soft

  14. BcMF13 , a new reproductive organ-specific gene from Brassica rapa. ssp. chinensis , affects pollen development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanyan Li; Jiashu Cao; Li Huang; Xiaolin Yu; Xun Xiang

    2008-01-01

    A transcript-derived fragment (GenBank accession number DN237920.1) accumulated in the wild-type flower buds of Chinese cabbage\\u000a (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) was isolated and further investigated. The full length DNA and cDNA of the fragment were cloned by rapid amplification of\\u000a cDNA ends. The gene, BcMF13, encodes a protein of 73 amino acids and

  15. Crystalline silicon thin-film (CSiTF) solar cells on SSP and on ceramic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyer, Achim; Haas, Fridolin; Kieliba, Thomas; Oßwald, Daniela; Reber, Stefan; Zimmermann, Walter; Warta, Wilhelm

    2001-05-01

    CSiTF solar cells are being intensively investigated due to their cost reduction potential compared to silicon wafer solar cells. At the Fraunhofer ISE several high-temperature approaches are under investigation. Our main interest is focussed on low-cost silicon ribbons and on ceramics as substrate material for such solar cells because they match most requirements best. The silicon substrates are being prepared by a ribbon technique, namely the silicon sheets from powder (SSP) technique using silicon powder of different purity as starting material. Onto these substrates silicon layer systems for CSiTF solar cells are deposited by APCVD from SiHCl3 with high deposition rates and recrystallized by a melting step in order to achieve large crystallites in the active layer. The same layer systems have been studied on different kinds of ceramic substrates like SiSiC, SiN, graphite and mullite. To prevent diffusion of impurities from the substrates into the active silicon layer, different types of barrier layers have been used. On SSP substrates made of EG-Si powder conversion efficiencies up to 11.2% on those of UMG-Si 8.6% could be achieved. On ceramic substrates, efficiencies were up to 11% on graphite, up to 9.3% on SiSiC, up to 8.0% on SiN, and up to 8.2% on mullite.

  16. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine production of recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum under optimal corn steep liquor limitation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Niu, Tengfei; Fang, Huimin

    2015-05-01

    4-Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) is a nonproteinogenic amino acid that exhibits insulinotropic biological activity. Here, L-isoleucine dioxygenase gene (ido) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis YBT-1520 was cloned and expressed in an L-isoleucine-producing strain, Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum SN01, in order to directly convert its endogenous L-isoleucine (Ile) into 4-HIL through single-step fermentation. The effects of corn steep liquor limitation as well as ido and truncated ido?6 overexpression on 4-HIL production were researched. 4-HIL production by ido-overexpressing strain was improved to 65.44?±?2.27 mM after fermented for 144 h under corn steep liquor-subsufficient condition, obviously higher than that under corn steep liquor-rich and insufficient conditions. The conversion ratio of Ile to 4-HIL increased to 0.85 mol/mol. In addition, 4-HIL production by ido-overexpressing strain was higher than that by ido?6-overexpressing strain, in accord with the relatively higher affinity of Ido as compared to Ido?6. This research generated a novel system for 4-HIL de novo biosynthesis and demonstrated corn steep liquor limitation as a useful strategy for improving 4-HIL production in recombinant C. glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum. PMID:25725632

  17. Fate of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus, the causal organism of bacterial ring rot in potato, in weeds and field crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolf van der J. M; Beckhoven van J. R. C. M; A. Hukkanen; R. Karjalainen; P. Muller

    2005-01-01

    Crops and weeds were tested for their ability to host Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal agent of bacterial ring rot in potato. Ten crops grown in rotation with potato in Europe, namely maize, wheat, barley, oat, bush bean, broad bean, rape, pea and onion and five cultivars of sugar beet were tested by stem and root inoculation. About

  18. Genetic variation for adaptive traits in Elymus elymoides ssp. brevifolius Race C in the Northern Intermountain West, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey (bottlebrush squirreltail) and E. multisetus (J.G. Sm.) Burtt Davy (big squirreltail) are important components of sagebrush-steppe communities in the Intermountain West, USA. Elymus elymoides has diverged into 4 subspecies, and E. elymoides ssp. brevifolius includes 4...

  19. Endothelium-dependent induction of vasorelaxation by Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis in rat isolated thoracic aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ersoy; I. Orhan; N. N. Turan; G. ?ahan; M. Ark; F. Tosun

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, vasorelaxant effect produced by the aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis (MOO) (Lamiaceae) and its possible mechanism in isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine were examined. In the first series of experiments, effect of MOO on the baseline and phenylephrine (10?5M) precontracted arteries was investigated, while in the second group of experiments, endothelium

  20. Genetic variability of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in spelt wheat ( Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. em Thell.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Caballero; L. M. Martín; J. B. Alvarez

    2004-01-01

    The low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit composition of a collection of 403 accessions of spelt wheat ( Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. em. Thell) was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Extensive variation was found, including 46 different patterns for zone B and 16 for zone C. Patterns within zone B exhibited from two to six bands and patterns in zone C had between four

  1. Variation for the degree of susceptibility to the potato cyst nematode ( Globodera pallida ) within Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. B. Dale; M. S. Phillips

    1985-01-01

    Many cultivars of theSolanum tuberosum ssp.tuberosum group were investigated in a number of studies for their susceptibility toGlobodera pallida. Phenotypic and genotypic variation for this character is reported in material previously regarded as uniformly susceptible. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to potato breeding policy and nematological studies.

  2. The upward shift in altitude of pine mistletoe ( Viscum album ssp. austriacum ) in Switzerland—the result of climate warming?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Dobbertin; Nadine Hilker; Martine Rebetez; Niklaus E. Zimmermann; Thomas Wohlgemuth; Andreas Rigling

    2005-01-01

    Pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) is common in natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in the alpine Rhone Valley, Switzerland. This semi-parasite, which is regarded as an indicator species for temperature, increases the drought stress on trees and may contribute to the observed pine decline in the region. We recorded mistletoes on representative plots of the Swiss National

  3. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-02-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca. PMID:25694661

  4. Molecular genetic tagging of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima-derived resistance to the sugar beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance in commercial sugar beet hybrids to the sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN) principally has been based on the Hs1 gene from the wild beet Beta procumbens, yet incorporation of this resistance has been detrimental to crop yield in nematode-free fields. Accessions of B. vulgaris ssp maritima w...

  5. Construction and characterization of a half million clone BAC library of durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum ssp. durum )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cenci; N. Chantret; X. Kong; Y. Gu; O. D. Anderson; T. Fahima; A. Distelfeld; J. Dubcovsky

    2003-01-01

    Durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, 2 n = 4 x = 28, genomes AB) is an economically important cereal used as the raw material to make pasta and semolina. In this paper we present the construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of tetraploid durum wheat cv. Langdon. This variety was selected because of the

  6. A Comparison of Isozyme and Quantitative Genetic Variation in Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia by FsT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong-Cai Yang; Francis C. Yeh; Alvin D. Yanchukt

    We employed Fstatistics to analyze quantitative and isozyme variation among five populations of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, a wind-pollinated outcrossing conifer with wide and continuous distribution in west North America. Estimates of population differentiation (&) for six quantitative traits were compared with the overall estimate of the differentiation (fir) from 19 isozymes that tested neutral to examine whether similar evolutionary

  7. POLYMORPHIC MICROSTAELLITE MARKERS IN POLYPLOID LEPIDIUM DRABA L. SSP. DRABA (BRASSICACEAE) AND CROSS-SPECIES AMPLIFICATION IN CLOSELY RELATED TAXA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heart-podded hoary cress, Lepidium draba L. ssp. draba (Brassicaceae) is a noxious invasive weed in the USA. DNA markers were developed to help discriminate various types of hoarycress. With these markers, Eurasian origins of this invasive weed can be determined, and this will help us find potential...

  8. Abundance of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in Adirondack Mountain shrub wetlands and its influence on inorganic nitrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Kiernan; T. M. Hurd; D. J. Raynal

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the abundance of the nitrogen-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (speckled alder), in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State and to determine whether its abundance affects the concentration or accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in wetland substrates. Alder\\/willow wetlands are the second most common wetland type in the

  9. Comparison of nitrogen solute concentrations within alder (Alnus incana ssp.rugosa) and non-alder dominated wetlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd M. Hurd; Dudley J. Raynal

    2004-01-01

    This study examined differences in nitrogen solutes and groundwater flow patterns between a riparian wetland dominated by the N2-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa, and an upstream coniferous forested riparian wetland along a stream of the Adirondack Mountains, where some surface waters are susceptible to nitrogen excess. Channel water NO3? was up to 16 µmol l? 1 greater in the

  10. Quantification of glucosinolates in leaves of leaf rape ( Brassica napus ssp. pabularia) by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mercedes del Río-Celestino; Elena Cartea; Antonio de Haro-Bailón

    2005-01-01

    The potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for screening the total glucosinolate (t-GSL) content, and also, the aliphatic glucosinolates gluconapin (GNA), glucobrassicanapin (GBN), progoitrin (PRO), glucoalyssin (GAL), and the indole glucosinolate glucobrassicin (GBS) in the leaf rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. pabularia DC), was assessed. This crop is grown for edible leaves for both fodder and human consumption. In Galicia (northwestern

  11. Effects of Glomus fasciculatum and isolated rhizosphere microorganisms on growth and phosphate uptake of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Baas

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was set up in order to study 1) the relationship between net P uptake and dry matter production in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants and 2) the effects of isolated rhizosphere bacteria and fungi on net P uptake and growth of P. major ssp. pleiosperma. A similar relationship between net P uptake and dry matter production was found for

  12. Identification of QTL controlling adventitious root formation during flooding conditions in teosinte ( Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis ) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiro Mano; Masanori Muraki; Masahiro Fujimori; Tadashi Takamizo; Bryan Kindiger

    2005-01-01

    Adventitious root formation (ARF) at the soil surface is one of the most important adaptations to soil flooding or waterlogging. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling ARF under flooding condition were identified in a 94 F2 individual population by crossing maize (Zea mays L., B64) × teosinte (Z. mays ssp. huehuetenangensis). A base-map was constructed using 66 SSR and 42 AFLP

  13. Poplar root exudates contain compounds that induce the expression of MiSSP7 in Laccaria bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Plett, Jonathan M.; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Communication between organisms is crucial for their survival, especially for sessile organisms such as plants that depend upon interactions with mutualistic organisms to maximize their nutrient acquisition. This communication can take the form of the exchange of volatile compounds, metabolites or effectors—small protein signals secreted from the colonizing cell that change the biology of the host cell. We recently characterized the first mutualistic effector protein from an ectomycorrhizal fungus, a small secreted protein named MiSSP7 encoded by Laccaria bicolor. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are soil-borne mutualistic organisms whose hyphae wrap around host roots and grow into the root apoplastic space where the fungus exchanges nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in return for plant derived sugars. The MiSSP7 protein is induced by root exudates and is highly expressed throughout the root colonization process. Its presence was responsible for alterations to the plant transcriptomic profile, a mechanism by which MiSSP7 may aid in the formation of the symbiotic interface. Here we discuss the implications of these findings and, further, we demonstrate that the production of MiSSP7 is induced by two flavonoids, rutin and quercitin, a class of compounds normally found within the exudates of plant roots. We also consider the interesting similarities between the mechanisms of effector induction and action between pathogenic and mutualistic fungi. PMID:22301958

  14. Isolation and characterization of a strain of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki containing a new delta-endotoxin gene.

    PubMed

    Li, M S; Je, Y H; Lee, I H; Chang, J H; Roh, J Y; Kim, H S; Oh, H W; Boo, K S

    2002-10-01

    A strain of Bacillus thuringiensis that showed significantly high toxicity to Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua was isolated from a Korean soil sample and characterized. The isolate, named B. thuringiensis K1, was determined to belong to ssp. kurstaki (H3a3b3c) type by an H antisera agglutination test and produced bipyramidal inclusions. Plasmid pattern of K1 was different from that of the reference strain, ssp. kurstaki HD-1, but the parasporal inclusion protein profile of K1 had two major bands that were similar in size to those of ssp. kurstaki HD-1. To verify the delta-endotoxin gene types of K1, PCR analysis with specific cry gene primers was performed to show that K1 contained a new cry gene in addition to cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1E and cry2 genes. PCR-amplified region of the new cry gene, cryX, showed 79% similarity to cry1Fa1 gene (GenBank Accession No. M63897). In an insect toxicity assay, K1 had higher toxicity against Plutella xylostella and S. exigua than ssp. kurstaki HD-1. PMID:12192530

  15. Polyphenolic extract and essential oil quality of Thymus zygis ssp. gracilis shrubs cultivated under different watering levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María J. Jordán; Rosa M. Martínez; C. Martínez; I. Moñino; Jose A. Sotomayor

    2009-01-01

    Thymus zygis ssp. gracilis shrubs were cultivated as an experimental crop under different watering level, in order to achieve 81, 63, 44 and 30% of the local potential evapotranspiration (ETo). After 4 years of cultivation, thyme leaves were analyzed on the basis of their essential oil (yield and quality), total phenolic content, free radical-scavenging activity and polyphenolic profile.Essential oil yield

  16. Step-by-step evolution of neo-sex chromosomes in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Yoshido; K Sahara; F Marec; Y Matsuda

    2011-01-01

    Geographical subspecies of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), differ considerably in sex chromosome constitution owing to sex chromosome fusions with autosomes, which leads to variation in chromosome numbers. We cloned S. cynthia orthologues of 16 Bombyx mori genes and mapped them to chromosome spreads of S. cynthia subspecies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine the origin

  17. The Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil and Alcoholic extract of Juniperus communis L. ssp. nana Syme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Proença da Cunha; Odete L. R. Roque

    1989-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Portuguese juniper berries (Juniperus communis L. ssp. nana Syme) was investigated by means of gas chromatography. This analysis was compared with that of an aqueous alcoholic extract of the juniper berries of similar origin. The qualitative composition of the oil and the alcoholic extract was found to be very similar. The major

  18. Identification of a Small Molecule That Modifies MglA/SspA Interaction and Impairs Intramacrophage Survival of Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Wrench, Algevis P.; Gardner, Christopher L.; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Lorca, Graciela L.

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen’s virulence and survival within host cells. In this study, we used a small molecule screening to identify quinacrine as a thermal stabilizing compound for F. tularensis SCHU S4 MglA and SspA. A bacterial two-hybrid system was used to analyze the in vivo effect of quinacrine on the heterodimer complex. The results show that quinacrine affects the interaction between MglA and SspA, indicated by decreased ?-galactosidase activity. Further in vitro analyses, using size exclusion chromatography, indicated that quinacrine does not disrupt the heterodimer formation, however, changes in the alpha helix content were confirmed by circular dichroism. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that quinacrine makes contact with amino acid residues Y63 in MglA, and K97 in SspA, both located in the “cleft” of the interacting surfaces. In F. tularensis subsp. novicida, quinacrine decreased the transcription of the FPI genes, iglA, iglD, pdpD and pdpA. As a consequence, the intramacrophage survival capabilities of the bacteria were affected. These results support use of the MglA/SspA interacting surface, and quinacrine’s chemical scaffold, for the design of high affinity molecules that will function as therapeutics for the treatment of Tularemia. PMID:23372736

  19. A new acetophenone derivative from flowers of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum.

    PubMed

    Rigano, Daniela; Formisano, Carmen; Pagano, Ester; Senatore, Felice; Piacente, Sonia; Masullo, Milena; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    A new acetophenone derivative named gnaphaliol 9-O-propanoate (1) was isolated from the chloroform fraction of EtOH extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum flowers along with the five known acetophenones 12-acetoxytremetone (2), 13-(2-methylpropanoyloxy)toxol (3), [2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(hydroxymethyl)ethenyl]-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (4), 1-[2-[1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethenyl]-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (5) and gnaphaliol (6). The structures of compounds 1-6 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D- ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D-NMR (DQF-COSY, HSQC, HMBC, TOCSY and ROESY) experiments as well as ESIMS analysis. The isolated compounds were investigated for their cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Biological assays on human colonic epithelial cells showed that compound 2 possessed antioxidant effects reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PMID:25285382

  20. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Shock Test and Specification Experience for Reusable Flight Hardware Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Curtis E.

    2012-01-01

    As commercial companies are nearing a preliminary design review level of design maturity, several companies are identifying the process for qualifying their multi-use electrical and mechanical components for various shock environments, including pyrotechnic, mortar firing, and water impact. The experience in quantifying the environments consists primarily of recommendations from Military Standard-1540, Product Verification Requirement for Launch, Upper Stage, and Space Vehicles. Therefore, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) formed a team of NASA shock experts to share the NASA experience with qualifying hardware for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and other applicable programs and projects. Several team teleconferences were held to discuss past experience and to share ideas of possible methods for qualifying components for multiple missions. This document contains the information compiled from the discussions

  1. Chemical variability of the needle oil of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina from Corsica.

    PubMed

    Ottavioli, Josephine; Gonny, Marcelle; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2009-12-01

    The composition of 109 samples of essential oil isolated from the needles of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina growing wild in Corsica was investigated by GC (in combination with retention indices), GC/MS, and 13C-NMR. Forty-four compounds accounting for 86.7-96.7% of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, in particular, limonene (9.2-53.9%), beta-phellandrene (3.7-25.2%), alpha-pinene (1.4-33.7%), and sabinene (0.1-33.6%). The 109 oil compositions were submitted to k-means partitioning and principal component analysis, which allowed the distinction of two groups within the oil samples. The composition of the major group (92% of the samples) was dominated by limonene and beta-phellandrene, while the second group contained mainly sabinene beside limonene and beta-phellandrene. PMID:20020451

  2. Assessing the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in semiarid shrublands dominated by Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis.

    PubMed

    Carter, Keith A; Smith, James F; White, Merlin M; Serpe, Marcelo D

    2014-05-01

    Variation in the abiotic environment and host plant preferences can affect the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) assemblages. This study analyzed the AMF taxa present in soil and seedlings of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis collected from sagebrush steppe communities in southwestern Idaho, USA. Our aims were to determine the AMF diversity within and among these communities and the extent to which preferential AMF-plant associations develop during seedling establishment. Mycorrhizae were identified using molecular methods following DNA extraction from field and pot culture samples. The extracted DNA was amplified using Glomeromycota specific primers, and identification of AMF was based on phylogenetic analysis of sequences from the large subunit-D2 rDNA region. The phylogenetic analyses revealed seven phylotypes, two within the Claroideoglomeraceae and five within the Glomeraceae. Four phylotypes clustered with known species including Claroideoglomus claroideum, Rhizophagus irregularis, Glomus microaggregatum, and Funneliformis mosseae. The other three phylotypes were similar to several published sequences not included in the phylogenetic analysis, but all of these were from uncultured and unnamed glomeromycetes. Pairwise distance analysis revealed some phylotypes with high genetic variation. The most diverse was the phylotype that included R. irregularis, which contained sequences showing pairwise differences up to 12 %. Most of the diversity in AMF sequences occurred within sites. The smaller genetic differentiation detected among sites was correlated with differences in soil texture. In addition, multiplication in pot cultures led to differentiation of AMF communities. Comparison of sequences obtained from the soil with those from A. tridentata roots revealed no significant differences between the AMF present in these samples. Overall, the sites sampled were dominated by cosmopolitan AMF taxa, and young seedlings of A. tridentata ssp. wyomingensis were colonized in relation to the abundance of these taxa in the soil. PMID:24249492

  3. Tips for Ithomiinae determination: San Martn, Peru (Gerardo Lamas and Mathieu Joron, January 2006) Napeogenes pharo pharo, N. inachia pozziana, N. juanjuiensis ssp. n.

    E-print Network

    Joron, Mathieu

    ) Napeogenes pharo pharo, N. inachia pozziana, N. juanjuiensis ssp. n. N. pharo has a dark shadow crossing (1200m, SM, Peru). N. pharo N. juanjuiensis N. inachia p. Figure 1 I. lichyi I. agnosia Figure 2 P

  4. Comparative cDNA-AFLP analysis of Cd-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes derived from crosses between the Cd hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri and Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Radu Craciun; Mikael Courbot; Fabienne Bourgis; Pietrino Salis; Pierre Saumitou-Laprade; Nathalie Verbruggen

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) tolerance seems to be a constitutive species-level trait in Arabidopsis halleri. In order to identify genes potentially implicated in Cd tolerance, a backcross (BC1) segregating population was produced from crosses between A. halleri ssp. halleri and its closest non-tolerant relative A. lyrata ssp. petraea. The most sensitive and tolerant genotypes of the BC1 were analysed on a transcriptome-wide

  5. Whole Genome Sequences of Three Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue Strains: Yaws and Syphilis Treponemes Differ in Less than 0.2% of the Genome Sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darina ?ejková; Marie Zobaníková; Lei Chen; Petra Pospíšilová; Michal Strouhal; Xiang Qin; Lenka Mikalová; Steven J. Norris; Donna M. Muzny; Richard A. Gibbs; Lucinda L. Fulton; Erica Sodergren; George M. Weinstock; David Šmajs

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundThe yaws treponemes, Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE) strains, are closely related to syphilis causing strains of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA). Both yaws and syphilis are distinguished on the basis of epidemiological characteristics, clinical symptoms, and several genetic signatures of the corresponding causative agents.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTo precisely define genetic differences between TPA and TPE, high-quality whole genome sequences of three

  6. The AirSR two-component system contributes to Staphylococcus aureus survival in human blood and transcriptionally regulates sspABC operon

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jeffrey W.; Yang, Junshu; Guo, Haiyong; Ji, Yinduo

    2015-01-01

    To date, genes identified and transcriptionally regulated by the AirSR TCS have been involved in energy production and cellular homeostasis of the staphylococcal cell. It is well accepted that the state of cellular metabolism impacts the expression of virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus. For this reason, we conducted experiments to determine if the AirSR TCS contributes to the pathogenesis of S. aureus using an antisense RNA interference technology, an inducible overexpression system, and gene deletions. Depletion of AirSR by antisense RNA expression or deletion of the genes, results in significant decrease in bacterial survival in human blood. Conversely, overexpression of AirR significantly promotes survival of S. aureus in blood. AirR promotes the secretion of virulence factors that inhibits opsonin-based phagocytosis. This enhanced survival is partially linked to the transcriptional regulation of the sspABC operon, encoding V8 protease (SspA), staphopain B (SspB) and staphostatin B (SspC). SspA and SspB are known virulence factors which proteolytically digest opsonins and inhibit killing of S. aureus by professional phagocytes. This is the first evidence linking the AirSR TCS to pathogenesis of S. aureus. PMID:26191060

  7. SSP-002392, a new 5-HT4 receptor agonist, dose-dependently reverses scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Lo, Adrian C; De Maeyer, Joris H; Vermaercke, Ben; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Schuurkes, Jan A J; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2014-10-01

    5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) are suggested to affect learning and memory processes. Earlier studies have shown that animals treated with 5-HT4R agonists, often with limited selectivity, show improved learning and memory with retention memory often being assessed immediately after or within 24 h after the last training session. In this study, we characterized the effect of pre-training treatment with the selective 5-HT4R agonist SSP-002392 on memory acquisition and the associated long-term memory retrieval in animal models of impaired cognition. Pre-training treatment with SSP-002392 (0.3 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg and 7.5 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the cognitive deficits induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) in two different behavioral tasks: passive avoidance and Morris water maze. In the Morris water maze, spatial learning was significantly improved after treatment with SSP-002392 translating in an accelerated and more efficient localization of the hidden platform compared to scopolamine-treated controls. Moreover, retention memory was assessed 24 h (passive avoidance) and 72 h (Morris water maze) after the last training session of cognitive-impaired animals and this was significantly improved in animals treated with SSP-002392 prior to the training sessions. Furthermore, the effects of SSP-002392 were comparable to galanthamine hydrobromide. We conclude that SSP-002392 has potential as a memory-enhancing compound. PMID:24863046

  8. Engineering and Safety Partnership Enhances Safety of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duarte, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Project Management must use the risk assessment documents (RADs) as tools to support their decision making process. Therefore, these documents have to be initiated, developed, and evolved parallel to the life of the project. Technical preparation and safety compliance of these documents require a great deal of resources. Updating these documents after-the-fact not only requires substantial increase in resources - Project Cost -, but this task is also not useful and perhaps an unnecessary expense. Hazard Reports (HRs), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEAs), Critical Item Lists (CILs), Risk Management process are, among others, within this category. A positive action resulting from a strong partnership between interested parties is one way to get these documents and related processes and requirements, released and updated in useful time. The Space Shuttle Program (SSP) at the Marshall Space Flight Center has implemented a process which is having positive results and gaining acceptance within the Agency. A hybrid Panel, with equal interest and responsibilities for the two larger organizations, Safety and Engineering, is the focal point of this process. Called the Marshall Safety and Engineering Review Panel (MSERP), its charter (Space Shuttle Program Directive 110 F, April 15, 2005), and its Operating Control Plan emphasizes the technical and safety responsibilities over the program risk documents: HRs; FMEA/CILs; Engineering Changes; anomalies/problem resolutions and corrective action implementations, and trend analysis. The MSERP has undertaken its responsibilities with objectivity, assertiveness, dedication, has operated with focus, and has shown significant results and promising perspectives. The MSERP has been deeply involved in propulsion systems and integration, real time technical issues and other relevant reviews, since its conception. These activities have transformed the propulsion MSERP in a truly participative and value added panel, making a difference for the safety of the Space Shuttle Vehicle, its crew, and personnel. Because of the MSERP's valuable contribution to the assessment of safety risk for the SSP, this paper also proposes an enhanced Panel concept that takes this successful partnership concept to a higher level of 'true partnership'. The proposed panel is aimed to be responsible for the review and assessment of all risk relative to Safety for new and future aerospace and related programs.

  9. Carvone-Rich Essential Oils from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. schimperi Briq. and Mentha spicata L. Grown in Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Younis M. H. Younis; Shadia M. Beshir

    2004-01-01

    Steam distillation of the aerial parts of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. schimperi Briq. and Mentha spicata L. growing in Sudan yielded oil contents of 1.8% and 0.9%, respectively. Analysis of the oils by GC and GC\\/MS revealed that both oils were found to be rich in carvone. Twenty-two compounds were identified in each oil, the major ones being carvone

  10. Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Tanacetum balsamita L. ssp. balsamitoides (Schultz-Bip.) Grierson. from Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jaimand; M. B. Rezaee

    2005-01-01

    The volatile constituents of Tanacetum balsamita L. ssp. balsamitoides (Schultz-Bip.) Grierson were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The major constituents of the leaf oil were bornyl acetate (47.7%), pinocarvone (27.1%), camphor (9.3%) and terpinolene (5.4%), while the fower oil contained bornyl acetate (55.2%), pinocarvone (34.2%), camphor (2.8%) and terpinolene (2.0%) and the stem oil contained bornyl

  11. Identification of triplex (YYY y ) Potato Virus Y (PVY) immune progenitors derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Mendoza; E. J. Mihovilovich; F. Saguma

    1996-01-01

    As part of the International Potato Center’s (CIP) virus resistance breeding strategy, a group of 182 selected clones from\\u000a intercrosses among duplex Potato Virus Y (PVY) immune progenitors derived fromSolanum tuberosum ssp.andigena (i.e., YYyy × YYyy) was sampled. These clones were test-crossed to the PVY susceptible tester 377964.5 (yyyy) to search for triplex\\u000a (YYYy) and quadruplex (YYYY) PVY immune potato

  12. Intraspecies variations in yield and quality determinants in Vicia species: 4. Woolly-pod vetch ( Vicia villosa ssp. dasycarpa Roth)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Larbi; A. M. Abd El-Moneim; H. Nakkoul; B. Jammal; S. Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Intra-species variations in phenology, yield and quality determinants of hay, grain and straw were examined in woolly-pod vetch (Vicia villosa ssp. dasycarpa), and accessions were selected based on yield and quality attributes. Twenty-five woolly-pod vetch accessions were grown over four cropping seasons in a Mediterranean environment in north-west Syria. Days to flowering and pod maturity, hay yield at flowering, as

  13. Rapid and efficient transformation of diploid Medicago truncatula and Medicago sativa ssp. falcata lines improved in somatic embryogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Trinh; P. Ratet; E. Kondorosi; P. Durand; K. Kamaté; P. Bauer; A. Kondorosi

    1998-01-01

    We describe a simple and efficient protocol for regeneration-transformation of two diploid Medicago lines: the annual M. truncatula R108-1(c3) and the perennial M. sativa ssp. falcata (L.) Arcangeli PI.564263 selected previously as highly embryogenic genotypes. Here, embryo regeneration of R108-1 to complete\\u000a plants was further improved by three successive in vitro regeneration cycles resulting in the line R108-1(c3). Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated

  14. Induction of oxidants in tomato leaves treated with DL -?-Amino butyric acid (BABA) and infected with Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ömür Baysal; Y. Ziya Gürsoy; Hakan Örnek; Ahmet Duru

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial canker is an economically important disease of tomato. Resistance induced by DL-?-Amino butyric acid against bacterial canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis in tomato plants was investigated. Different doses of DL-?-Amino butyric acid (250–1000 ?g ml?1 doses) were tested on 3-week old plants inoculated with a 108 CFU  ml?1 bacterial suspension, and disease development was evaluated after inoculation and treatment. Although

  15. Two important “root” foods of the Northwest Coast Indians: Springbank clover (Trifolium wormskioldii) and Pacific silverweed (Potentilla anserina ssp. pacified)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy J. Turner; Harriet V. Kuhnlein

    1982-01-01

    Two edible “root” species, springbank clover (Trifolium wormskioldii), and Pacific silverweed (Potentilla anserina ssp. pacifica), are described and their use as food by Northwest Coast Indian peoples documented. Descriptions of traditional harvesting,\\u000a cooking and serving, and storage techniques for these foods are provided, and their future potential as a food source along\\u000a the Northwest Coast is discussed.

  16. Selective Enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Propionibacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Tharmaraj; N. P. Shah

    2003-01-01

    Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactoba- cillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus ther- mophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propioni- bacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS- NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (na- lidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Methanol Extract of Sedum telephium ssp. maximum in Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Rat Peritoneal Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Domenica Altavilla; Francesca Polito; Alessandra Bitto; Letteria Minutoli; Elisabetta Miraldi; Tiziana Fiumara; Marco Biagi; Herbert Marini; Daniela Giachetti; Mario Vaccaro; Francesco Squadrito

    2008-01-01

    Sedum telephium ssp. maximum is a medicinal plant that possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and keratolytic properties. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of its methanolic extract (STME) in rat peritoneal macrophages (M?s) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella enteritidis. After stimulation with 10 ?g\\/ml of LPS, M?s were coincubated with different doses of STME (8, 16 and 32 ?g\\/ml) or RPMI medium alone

  18. Effects of rhizosphere soil, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate on Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma Pilger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Baas; C. VAN DIJK; S. R. Troelstra

    1989-01-01

    Biotic factors in the rhizosphere and their effect on the growth ofPlantago major L. ssp.pleiosperma Pilger (Great plantain) were studied. In a pot experiment the effect on shoot growth of the addition of 2.5% rhizosphere soil at four levels of phosphate was highly dependent on the availability of phosphate: a promoting effect at low phosphate levels was observed while a

  19. The Status of Juniperus communis ssp. nana (dwarf juniper) communities at six sites in north and north-west Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. McGowan; N. G. Bayfield; A. Olmo

    1998-01-01

    Sites with semi-natural vegetation containing Juniperus species are becoming scarce in Britain. The prostrate subspecies Juniperus communis nana (dwarf juniper) occurs in remote areas with a cool oceanic climate, in the NVC community H15 (Calluna vulgaris-Juniperus communis ssp. nana). Evidence suggests that dwarf juniper is considerably less widely distributed than in the past, and the subspecies is absent from large

  20. SspA Is Required for Lethal Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infections in Calves but Is Not Essential for Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Tsolis, Renée M.; Adams, L. Garry; Hantman, Michael J.; Scherer, Christina A.; Kimbrough, Tyler; Kingsley, Robert A.; Ficht, Thomas A.; Miller, Samuel I.; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2000-01-01

    Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) encodes virulence determinants, which are important for enteropathogenicity in calves. To determine whether the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SPI-1 effector proteins SspA and SptP are important for enteropathogenicity, strains lacking these proteins were tested during oral infection of calves. Calves infected with a sptP mutant or its isogenic parent developed diarrhea and lethal morbidity. In contrast, calves infected with an sspA mutant developed diarrhea, which resolved within 10 days but did not result in mortality. The sspA mutant was recovered from bovine intestinal tissues at numbers similar to those obtained for its isogenic parent and caused marked intestinal lesions. Thus, the severity of pathological changes caused by serovar Typhimurium strains or their ability to cause diarrhea were not predictive of their ability to cause lethal morbidity in calves. We conclude that factors other than or in addition to bacterial colonization, intestinal lesions, or electrolyte loss contribute to lethal morbidity in calves infected with serovar Typhimurium. PMID:10816458

  1. Late lesions of experimental contagious caprine pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wesonga, H O; Lindberg, R; Litamoi, J K; Bölske, G

    1998-03-01

    A clinical, bacteriological, serological and patho-anatomical study was carried out on 12 goats surviving the acute stage of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), experimentally produced with Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae), with the major aims of investigating the chronic stage of the disease and elucidating the possibility of a carrier state beyond the acute fulminant phase. The goats were killed 9, 16, 82 or 126 days after the onset of acute clinical signs. On day 9, clinical signs included low grade fever and persistent coughing. Thereafter, only intermittent coughing was recorded. Serum titres of complement-fixing antibodies to M. capripneumoniae were high at the period of fever but dropped thereafter. Post-mortem examination showed acute fibrinous pleuropneumonia on days 9 and 16, and chronic pleuropneumonia on days 82 and 126, including sequester formations in goats killed on day 126. Mycoplasma capripneumoniae was isolated on days 9 and 16 but not on later occasions. The study showed that goats recovered from acute CCPP may have lesions for a long time thereafter but provide no evidence of a carrier state among long-term survivors. PMID:9557132

  2. FurA contributes to the oxidative stress response regulation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Eckelt, Elke; Meißner, Thorsten; Meens, Jochen; Laarmann, Kristin; Nerlich, Andreas; Jarek, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator A (FurA) is known to be involved in iron homeostasis and stress response in many bacteria. In mycobacteria the precise role of FurA is still unclear. In the presented study, we addressed the functional role of FurA in the ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by construction of a furA deletion strain (MAP?furA). RNA deep sequencing revealed that the FurA regulon consists of repressed and activated genes associated to stress response or intracellular survival. Not a single gene related to metal homeostasis was affected by furA deletion. A decisive role of FurA during intracellular survival in macrophages was shown by significantly enhanced survival of MAP?furA compared to the wildtype, indicating that a principal task of mycobacterial FurA is oxidative stress response regulation in macrophages. This resistance was not associated with altered survival of mice after long term infection with MAP. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that mycobacterial FurA is not involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. However, they provide strong evidence that FurA contributes to intracellular survival as an oxidative stress sensing regulator. PMID:25705205

  3. Internalization-dependent recognition of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis by intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pott, Johanna; Basler, Tina; Duerr, Claudia U; Rohde, Manfred; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a highly prevalent chronic intestinal infection in domestic and wildlife ruminants. The microbial pathogenesis of MAP infection has attracted additional attention due to an association with the human enteric inflammatory Crohn's disease. MAP is acquired by the faecal-oral route prompting us to study the interaction with differentiated intestinal epithelial cells. MAP was rapidly internalized and accumulated in a late endosomal compartment. In contrast to other opportunistic mycobacteria or M. bovis, MAP induced significant epithelial activation as indicated by a NF-kappaB-independent but Erk-dependent chemokine secretion. Surprisingly, MAP-induced chemokine production was completely internalization-dependent as inhibition of Rac-dependent bacterial uptake abolished epithelial activation. In accordance, innate immune recognition of MAP by differentiated intestinal epithelial cells occurred through the intracellularly localized pattern recognition receptors toll-like receptor 9 and NOD1 with signal transduction via the adaptor molecules MyD88 and RIP2. The internalization-dependent innate immune activation of intestinal epithelial cells is in contrast to the stimulation of professional phagocytes by extracellular bacterial constituents and might significantly contribute to the histopathological changes observed during enteric MAP infection. PMID:19681906

  4. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of flavonoids isolated from Viscum album ssp. album.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Küpeli, Esra; Yesilada, Erdem; Ergun, Fatma

    2006-01-01

    Viscum album L. has been used in the indigenous systems of medicine for treatment of headache and some inflammatory diseases. In order to evaluate this information, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the five flavonoids (5,7-dimethoxy naringenin or 4',6'-dimethoxy chalcononaringenin) derivatives, isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of the extract from V. album ssp. album, were investigated, namely 5,7-dimethoxy-flavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 2'-hydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxy-chalcone-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), 5,7-dimethoxy-flavanone-4'-O-[2"-O-(5"'-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-beta-D-apiofuranosyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), 2'-hydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxy-chalcone-4-O-[2"-O-(5"'-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-beta-Dapiofuranosyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 5,7-dimethoxy-flavanone-4'-O-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5). For the antinociceptive activity assessment the p-benzoquinone-induced writhing test and for the anti-inflammatory activity the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice were used. The ethyl acetate fraction in a dose of 250 mg/kg as well as compounds 2 and 5 in a 30 mg/kg dose were shown to possess remarkable antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities per os without inducing any apparent acute toxicity as well as gastric damage. PMID:16610212

  5. Reproduction and development of the endangered Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Olfelt, J; Furnier, G; Luby, J

    1998-03-01

    Information on reproduction and life history is important for the conservation of endangered plants. We investigated rates of flowering, seed set, and germination in populations of the endangered perennial plant Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi. Germination and flowering rates differed significantly among populations, but seed set rate did not. We assayed 26 plant clusters (81 stems) from four of the five known populations for evidence of clonal reproduction using 28 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Of the 81 stems, 75 had unique genotypes and three pairs had identical genotypes, suggesting that clonal reproduction is infrequent. Flowering, seed set, and germination rates were correlated with our estimates of ratios of effective to actual population sizes (Ne/N), but not with Ne. The single formally protected population may be experiencing inbreeding depression. We grew plants from seed to maturity in a greenhouse, with a germination rate of 77% and survival of 98% of the germinants at 6 mo, suggesting that this will be a viable means of ex situ propagation. Plants flowered 4-6 mo after germination and produced mature fruits 1-2 mo later, suggesting that they have the potential to sexually reproduce in their first or second season of growth. PMID:21684918

  6. Patterns of diversity and recombination along chromosome 1 of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.).

    PubMed Central

    Tenaillon, Maud I; Sawkins, Mark C; Anderson, Lorinda K; Stack, Stephen M; Doebley, John; Gaut, Brandon S

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the interplay between genetic diversity and recombination in maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). Genetic diversity was measured in three types of markers: single-nucleotide polymorphisms, indels, and microsatellites. All three were examined in a sample of previously published DNA sequences from 21 loci on maize chromosome 1. Small indels (1-5 bp) were numerous and far more common than large indels. Furthermore, large indels (>100 bp) were infrequent in the population sample, suggesting they are slightly deleterious. The 21 loci also contained 47 microsatellites, of which 33 were polymorphic. Diversity in SNPs, indels, and microsatellites was compared to two measures of recombination: C (=4Nc) estimated from DNA sequence data and R based on a quantitative recombination nodule map of maize synaptonemal complex 1. SNP diversity was correlated with C (r = 0.65; P = 0.007) but not with R (r = -0.10; P = 0.69). Given the lack of correlation between R and SNP diversity, the correlation between SNP diversity and C may be driven by demography. In contrast to SNP diversity, microsatellite diversity was correlated with R (r = 0.45; P = 0.004) but not C (r = -0.025; P = 0.55). The correlation could arise if recombination is mutagenic for microsatellites, or it may be consistent with background selection that is apparent only in this class of rapidly evolving markers. PMID:12454083

  7. Antioxidant activity of Nepeta nuda L. ssp. nuda essential oil rich in nepetalactones from Greece.

    PubMed

    Gkinis, George; Bozin, Biljana; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Tzakou, Olga

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils from air-dried leaves and verticillasters of Nepeta nuda ssp. nuda from Greece were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The dominant constituent in the verticillaster oils was 4a?,7?,7aß-nepetalactone (75.7%). The main metabolites of the leaf oil were 1,8-cineole (16.7%), 4a?,7?,7aß-nepetalactone (24.7%), and caryophyllene oxide (16.3%). The oils were examined for their antioxidant activity. Neutralization of stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical ranged from 10.83% (2.50 ?g/mL) to 58.64% (50.00 ?g/mL) for verticillaster oil and from 6.25% (2.50 ?g/mL) to 57.79% (50.00 ?g/mL) for leaf oil. The essential oil from verticillasters had significant effects on lipid peroxidation (in the range of 41.18-59.23%), compared to tert-butylated hydroxytoluene (37.04%). In contrast, the essential oil from leaves exhibited pro-oxidant activity at the highest concentration applied. PMID:20626246

  8. Early Ovule Development Following Self? and Cross?pollinations in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus

    PubMed Central

    POUND, L. M.; WALLWORK, M. A. B.; POTTS, B. M.; SEDGLEY, M.

    2002-01-01

    The study was conducted to identify the self?incompatibility mechanism in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus. Controlled self? and cross?pollinations were conducted on individual flowers from three mature trees that had self?incompatibility levels of 76, 99·6 and 100 %. Flowers were harvested at 4, 6 and 8 weeks after pollination. Embryology was investigated by bright field microscopy on material harvested at 4 and 6 weeks after pollination. Fertilization had taken place at 4 weeks after pollination with zygotes and free nuclear endosperm visible. There was a greater proportion of healthy, fertilized ovules in the cross? compared with the self?pollination treatment, and approx. half the ovules examined from both pollen treatments were not fertilized or were degenerating. By 6 weeks after pollination a few zygotes were starting to divide. The number of healthy, fertilized ovules was still greater in the cross?pollination treatment, but the number of healthy fertilized ovules was lower in both treatments compared with 4 weeks after pollination, and many ovules were degenerating. Fertilized ovules were significantly larger than non?fertilized or degenerating ovules and this difference was detectable by eye at 6 and 8 weeks after pollination. The mechanism of self?incompatibility appears to have both late pre? and post?zygotic components. PMID:12099536

  9. Improving green roofs and rail road greening systems using Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus ssp.

    PubMed

    Grüneberg, H; Oschmann, C; Dunya, S; Ulrichs, C

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the present study was the improvement of existing methods for green roof and rail road greening systems using soil borne bacteria. Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus ssp. alone and in combination with vinasse applied to different growing substrates were tested. The substrates were brick chips, textile mats, mineral wool mats, and a commercial available substrate for the Swedish company VegTech. All four substrates were tested along an artificial rail track on the experimental station at Humboldt University Berlin, and partly on an existing rail track in Munich, Germany. Plants selected for the experiments belong to the genus Sedum, which is relatively tolerant to dry conditions. Inoculation of plants with bacteria had no effect on plant growth parameters and on coverage of different mobile bedding systems with Sedum plants. There was no significant difference between the various treatments in Munich. In both experiments, the addition of vinasse alone improved plant growth. Plant growth was significantly different on all substrates, whereas brick chips and the commercial roof soil was the best substrate. Brick chips are a cheap substrate which can be used for rail track greening. The results indicate that the quality of the substrate is the most important factor for remediation and greening of rail tracks and roof tops. The rapid growth of plants can be influenced by the application of vinasse as additional nutrient solution (potash (K) source) or nutrient enriched substrate. PMID:17390783

  10. Early ovule development following self- and cross-pollinations in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus.

    PubMed

    Pound, L M; Wallwork, M A B; Potts, B M; Sedgley, M

    2002-05-01

    The study was conducted to identify the self-incompatibility mechanism in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus. Controlled self- and cross-pollinations were conducted on individual flowers from three mature trees that had self-incompatibility levels of 76, 99.6 and 100%. Flowers were harvested at 4, 6 and 8 weeks after pollination. Embryology was investigated by bright field microscopy on material harvested at 4 and 6 weeks after pollination. Fertilization had taken place at 4 weeks after pollination with zygotes and free nuclear endosperm visible. There was a greater proportion of healthy, fertilized ovules in the cross- compared with the self-pollination treatment, and approx. half the ovules examined from both pollen treatments were not fertilized or were degenerating. By 6 weeks after pollination a few zygotes were starting to divide. The number of healthy, fertilized ovules was still greater in the cross-pollination treatment, but the number of healthy fertilized ovules was lower in both treatments compared with 4 weeks after pollination, and many ovules were degenerating. Fertilized ovules were significantly larger than non-fertilized or degenerating ovules and this difference was detectable by eye at 6 and 8 weeks after pollination. The mechanism of self-incompatibility appears to have both late pre- and post-zygotic components. PMID:12099536

  11. Elemental and nutritional analysis of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica) Berries of Pakistani origin.

    PubMed

    Sabir, S M; Maqsood, H; Hayat, Imran; Khan, M Q; Khaliq, A

    2005-01-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica) is a very important medicinal plant in northern areas of Pakistan. The fruit of sea buckthorn is rich in nutrients and medicinal compounds such as vitamins, carotene, flavonoids, essential oil, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, and minerals. In order to compare various populations of sea buckthorn for chemical composition, eight populations from different areas of northern Pakistan were compared using fruit characteristics. Phytochemical analysis of berries showed vitamin C (250-333 mg/100 g), seed oil (7.69-13.7%), oil in softer pulp (19.2-29.1%), phytosterol content of seed oil (3.3-5.5%), and anthocyanin (0.5-25 mg/L), while the mineral element composition analysis revealed high contents of potassium (140-360 ppm), sodium (20-80 ppm), calcium (70-98 ppm), magnesium (150-240 ppm), iron (40-150 ppm), and phosphorus (110-133 ppm). This study established sea buckthorn berries as a good source of biochemical and mineral elements. The high variation between different populations shows the potential of selecting and breeding of the raw material for various defined purposes. PMID:16379565

  12. Antiviral and antimicrobial activities of three sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, Berrin; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Karaoglu, Taner; Ye?ilada, Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Three sesquiterpene lactones (centaurepensin = chlorohyssopifolin A, chlorojanerin and 13-acetyl solstitialin A) isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis (Asteraceae) were investigated for antimicrobial and antiviral activities. For the antimicrobial activity assessment, both standard and isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis were employed by the microdilution method. Herpes simplex type-1, a DNA virus, and Parainfluenza, an RNA virus, were employed for the determination of the antiviral activity of these three sesquiterpene lactones using Vero cell lines. Ampicilline, ofloxocine, ketoconazole, fluconazole, acyclovir and oseltamivir were used as the reference drugs. 13-Acetyl solstitialin A displayed remarkable antibacterial activity against isolated strains of E. faecalis at 1 microg/ml concentration, which was close to the effective concentrations of ampicillin. The same compound also showed significant activity against the DNA virus, being as potent as the reference compound acyclovir at maximum and minimum concentrations of 16-<0.00006 microg/ml. This is the first report showing that 13-acetyl solstitialin A possesses significant antiviral activity. PMID:17614269

  13. Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely “Baad-Avard”, collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides. PMID:24250419

  14. Diversity of AMF associated with Ammophila arenaria ssp. arundinacea in Portuguese sand dunes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Freitas, Helena

    2006-11-01

    Dune vegetation is essential for the formation and preservation of sand dunes and the protection of the coast line. Coastal sand dunes are harsh environments where arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in promoting plant establishment and growth. We present a study of the diversity of AMF associated with A. arenaria ssp. arundinacea in two locations of the Portuguese coast under a Mediterranean climate. These two locations were selected to compare a well-preserved dune system from a protected area with a degraded dune system from a public beach. AMF diversity was assessed mainly by cloning and sequencing of a fragment of the ribosomal SSU using the primer NS31 and AM1. Most of the 89 AMF clones obtained from the rhizosphere and roots of A. arenaria belonged to the genus Glomus, the largest clade within the Glomeromycota. Higher AMF diversity was found in the least disturbed site, in which spores of Scutellospora persica, Glomus constrictum and Glomus globiferum were found in the rhizosphere of A. arenaria. PMID:17043895

  15. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in several herds of Arctic Caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp.).

    PubMed

    Forde, Taya; Orsel, Karin; De Buck, Jeroen; Côté, Steeve D; Cuyler, Christine; Davison, Tracy; Elkin, Brett; Kelly, Allicia; Kienzler, Martin; Popko, Richard; Taillon, Joëlle; Veitch, Alasdair; Kutz, Susan

    2012-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a common pathogen in domestic ruminants that causes granulomatous inflammation of the small intestine leading to emaciation and wasting. Clinical disease (Johne's disease) is also reported for several wild ruminant species. Between 2007 and 2009 we collected 561 fecal samples from caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp.) representing 10 herds of migratory caribou, two herds of caribou from Greenland, and three populations of boreal woodland caribou. Feces were tested for MAP by bacterial culture and PCR targeting the IS900 insertion sequence. In total, 31 samples from eight different populations representing all three ecotypes were found positive for MAP by PCR, with one sample from the Rivière-aux-Feuilles herd also being culture positive for the type II (cattle) strain. The proportion of positive animals was particularly high in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd in Greenland, and Rivière-aux-Feuilles and Riviè re-George herds in northeastern Canada (23.4, 11.5, and 10.0%, respectively). Our results indicate that MAP is present in several caribou herds of different ecotypes in northern Canada and Greenland and that MAP circulates within wildlife populations that do not have ongoing contact with domestic livestock. The epidemiology, pathogenicity, and effects on the health of caribou in northern ecosystems remain unknown. PMID:23060493

  16. Systemic and Mucosal Immune Reactivity upon Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Roderfeld, Martin; Tschuschner, Annette; Rath, Timo; Gerlach, Gerald F.; Hornef, Mathias; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried; Roeb, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder of ruminants. Due to the similar pathology, MAP was also suggested to cause Crohn's disease (CD). Despite of intensive research, this question is still not settled, possibly due to the lack of versatile mouse models. The aim of this study was to identify basic immunologic mechanisms in response to MAP infection. Immune compromised C57BL/6 Rag2?/? mice were infected with MAP intraperitoneally. Such chronically infected mice were then reconstituted with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells 28 days after infection. A systemic inflammatory response, detected as enlargement of the spleen and granuloma formation in the liver, was observed in mice infected and reconstituted with CD4+ T cells. Whereby inflammation in infected and CD4+CD45RBhi T cell reconstituted animals was always higher than in the other groups. Reconstitution of infected animals with CD8+ T cells did not result in any inflammatory signs. Interestingly, various markers of inflammation were strongly up-regulated in the colon of infected mice reconstituted with CD4+CD45RBlo/int T cells. We propose, the usual non-colitogenic CD4+CD45RBlo/int T cells were converted into inflammatory T cells by the interaction with MAP. However, the power of such cells might be not sufficient for a fully established inflammatory response in the colon. Nevertheless, our model system appears to mirror aspects of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) like CD and Johne's diseases. Thus, it will provide an experimental platform on which further knowledge on IBD and the involvement of MAP in the induction of CD could be acquired. PMID:24728142

  17. Systemic and mucosal immune reactivity upon Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Koc, Arzu; Bargen, Imke; Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Roderfeld, Martin; Tschuschner, Annette; Rath, Timo; Gerlach, Gerald F; Hornef, Mathias; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried; Roeb, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder of ruminants. Due to the similar pathology, MAP was also suggested to cause Crohn's disease (CD). Despite of intensive research, this question is still not settled, possibly due to the lack of versatile mouse models. The aim of this study was to identify basic immunologic mechanisms in response to MAP infection. Immune compromised C57BL/6 Rag2-/- mice were infected with MAP intraperitoneally. Such chronically infected mice were then reconstituted with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells 28 days after infection. A systemic inflammatory response, detected as enlargement of the spleen and granuloma formation in the liver, was observed in mice infected and reconstituted with CD4+ T cells. Whereby inflammation in infected and CD4+CD45RB(hi) T cell reconstituted animals was always higher than in the other groups. Reconstitution of infected animals with CD8+ T cells did not result in any inflammatory signs. Interestingly, various markers of inflammation were strongly up-regulated in the colon of infected mice reconstituted with CD4+CD45RB(lo/int) T cells. We propose, the usual non-colitogenic CD4+CD45RB(lo/int) T cells were converted into inflammatory T cells by the interaction with MAP. However, the power of such cells might be not sufficient for a fully established inflammatory response in the colon. Nevertheless, our model system appears to mirror aspects of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) like CD and Johne's diseases. Thus, it will provide an experimental platform on which further knowledge on IBD and the involvement of MAP in the induction of CD could be acquired. PMID:24728142

  18. Seasonal variation in leaf glucosinolates and insect resistance in two types of Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata.

    PubMed

    Agerbirk, N; Olsen, C E; Nielsen, J K

    2001-09-01

    Leaves from natural populations of Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata (Brassicaceae) in Denmark were examined for glucosinolate content and resistance to the crucifer specialist flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum. Two types of the plant (P- and G-type) could be recognized. Leaves of the G-type contained the glucosinolates (only side chains mentioned): (S)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl- (2S), indol-3-ylmethyl- (4) and in trace amount (R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl- (2R), 2-phenylethyl- (1) and 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl- (5). Leaves of the P-type were dominated by 2R and 4, and had only trace amounts of 1, 2S, and 5 but contained in addition the previously unknown (R)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl- (3R). The epimer, (S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl- (3S) was found in populations believed to be hybrids, and in B. orthoceras. 2S, 2R, desulfo 2S,-2R, -3S and -3R were isolated and identified by NMR and MS. Acylated glucosinolates or allylglucosinolate were not detected in leaves. The glucosinolate content in August was variable, 3-46 micromol/g dry wt, but was low in most populations, 3-15 micromol/g dry wt. In general, the glucosinolate content increased during the autumn, to 35-75 micromol/g dry wt in November. The G-type was resistant to neonate larvae of Phyllotreta nemorum in August and September (survival in 3-day bioassay typically 0%), and gradually lost the resistance in October and November (survival in 3-day bioassay 40-90%), and there was no correlation between glucosinolate content and resistance. Neither did glucosinolates explain the difference in resistance between the P-type (always susceptible) and the G-type (resistant in the summer season). PMID:11524118

  19. The long subclinical phase of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infections explained without adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg, Don; Koets, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an infection of the ruminant intestine. In cows, a long subclinical phase with no or low intermittent shedding precedes the clinical phase with high shedding. It is generally considered that an adaptive cell-mediated immune response controls the infection during the subclinical phase, followed by unprotective antibodies later in life. Based on recent observations, we challenge the importance of adaptive immunity and instead suggest a role of the structural organization of infected macrophages in localized granulomatous lesions. We investigated this hypothesis by mathematical modelling. Our first model describes infection in a villus, assuming a constant lesion volume. This model shows the existence of two threshold parameters, the MAP reproduction ratio R MAP determining if a lesion can develop, and the macrophage replacement ratio R MF determining if recruitment of macrophages is sufficient for unlimited growth. We show that changes in R MF during a cow's life - i.e. changes in the innate immune response - can cause intermittent shedding. Our second model describes infection in a granuloma, assuming a growing lesion volume. This model confirms the results of the villus model, and can explain early slow granuloma development: small granulomas grow slower because bacteria leave the granuloma quickly through the relatively large surface area. In conclusion, our models show that the long subclinical period of MAP infection can result from the structural organization of the infection in granulomatous lesions with an important role for innate rather than adaptive immunity. It thus provides a reasonable hypothesis that needs further investigation. PMID:26092036

  20. Flowering time in wild beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) along a latitudinal cline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijk, Henk Van; Boudry, Pierre; McCombre, Helen; Vernet, Philippe

    The wild beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima, a perennial species from the Mediterranean and the European Atlantic coasts) shows marked variation in flowering time in terms of both the year of first flowering and flowering date in a given year. Much of this variability is related to latitude. Beta vulgaris plants flower either in the same year as they germinate or in their second year. This is mainly due to differences in their requirement for vernalization, which is determined by a single gene B/b and by quantitative trait loci. The more southern the origin of the plants, the less vernalization is required. Also the B allele, which cancels vernalization requirement completely, has a high frequency in the Mediterranean region, but is completely absent in the northern part of the distribution of this species. We found that flowering date variation in relation to the latitude of origin is maintained under greenhouse conditions but does not follow a simple clinal relationship. From the Mediterranean northwards to the west coast of Brittany, flowering occurs progressively earlier, but from Brittany northwards to south-east England and The Netherlands it is progressively later. A possible explanation for this difference is that in the southern part of the range sensitivity to daylength and warmth control flowering time, whereas further north vernalization requirement is also a key factor. A substantial part of all differences in flowering time was heritable: heritability within populations was measured as 0.33 under greenhouse conditions. The high heritability implies evolutionary change may occur in this character.

  1. Identification, quantification and antioxidant activity of acylated flavonol glycosides from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chu; Xu, Xue-Min; Chen, Yang; Yu, Meng-Yao; Wen, Fei-Yan; Zhang, Hao

    2013-12-01

    A novel acylated flavonol glycoside: isorhamnetin (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside) (1), together with two known acylated flavonol glycosides: quercetin (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside) (2) and kaempferol (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside) (3) were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) berries for the first time by chromatographic methods, and their structures were elucidated using UV, MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and 2D NMR. Compounds 1-3 showed good scavenging activities, with respective IC50 values of 8.91, 4.26 and 30.90 ?M toward the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; respective Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities of 2.89, 4.04 and 2.44 ?M ?M(-1) toward 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS) radical. The quantitative analysis of the isolated acylated flavonol glycosides was performed by HPLC-DAD method. The contents of compounds 1-3 were in the range of 12.2-31.4, 4.0-25.3, 7.5-59.7 mg/100 g dried berries and 9.1-34.5, 75.1-182.1, 29.2-113.4 mg/100 g dried leaves, respectively. PMID:23870862

  2. Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Kirk W.; Bates, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Dustin D.; Nafus, Aleta M.

    2009-07-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time . Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height ( P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering ( P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves ( P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

  3. Influence of mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on winter habitat for wildlife.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kirk W; Bates, Jonathan D; Johnson, Dustin D; Nafus, Aleta M

    2009-07-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time. Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height (P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering (P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves (P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities. PMID:19159967

  4. The hydraulic architecture of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis: shrubs and trees compared.

    PubMed

    Beikircher, Barbara; Mayr, Stefan

    2008-11-01

    Juniperus communis ssp. communis can grow like a shrub or it can develop a tree-like habit. In this study, the hydraulic architecture of these contrasting growth forms was compared. We analysed the hydraulic efficiency (leaf-specific conductivity, k(l); specific conductivity, k(s); Huber value, HV) and the vulnerability to cavitation (the water potential corresponding to a 50% loss of conductivity, Psi(50)), as well as anatomical parameters [mean tracheid diameter, d; mean hydraulic diameter, d(h); cell wall reinforcement (t/b)(h)(2)] of shrub shoots, tree stems and tree branches. Shrub shoots were similar to tree branches (especially to lower branches) in growth form and conductivity (k(l) = 1.93 +/- 0.11 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-7), k(s) = 5.71 +/- 0.19 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-4)), but were similar to tree stems in their vulnerability to cavitation (Psi(50) = -5.81 +/- 0.08 MPa). Tree stems showed extraordinarily high k(l) and k(s) values, and HV increased from the base up. Stem xylem was more vulnerable to cavitation than branch xylem, where Psi(50) increased from lower (Psi(50) = -6.44 +/- 0.19 MPa) to upper branches (Psi(50) = -5.98 +/- 0.13 MPa). Conduit diameters were correlated with k(l) and k(s). Data indicate that differences in hydraulic architecture correspond to changes in growth form. In some aspects, the xylem hydraulics of tree-like Juniperus communis differs from that of other coniferous tree species. PMID:18657057

  5. Plants Susceptible or Resistant to Cotton Root Rot and Their Relation to Control. 

    E-print Network

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Dana, B. F. (Bliss F.); Wolff, S. E. (Simon E.)

    1929-01-01

    .. Brussels-sprouts. ........ Brassica oleracen I,., var. ........... ........... Rosaceae.. Fabaceae. gemmifera Zenker. .......... ~Brassicaceae. ........ **Double plus (+ +) sign highly susceptib:e, single plus (+) moderate to slight suscep bility: m... caryophyllus L. ...... Dar~cus carota L.. ............ Ricinus communis L.. ......... Catalpa speciosa Warder. ...... Nepeta cataria L.. ..:......... Brassica oleracea L., var. botryfis L.. ............ Agave americana L.. .......... Beta vulgaris L...

  6. Daucus for the flora of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Flora of North America Project will treat more than 20,000 species of plants native or naturalized in North America north of Mexico, about 7% of the world's total. This contribution presents a floristic account of the two species of wild carrots (Daucus) occurring in North America, Daucus carota...

  7. Predator-prey relationships on Apiaceae at an organic farm.

    PubMed

    Shirk, Paul D; Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Reitz, Stuart R; Thomas, Jean M G; Koenig, Rosalie L; Hay-Roe, Mirian M; Buss, Lyle J

    2012-06-01

    Orius insidiosus (Say) and O. pumilio (Champion) were confirmed to be sympatric in north central Florida as the major predators of the Florida flower thrips, Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), on flowers of Queen Anne's lace, Daucus carota L. and false Queen Anne's lace, Ammi majus L. F. bispinosa was the predominant thrips observed on both flowers but colonized D. carota to a greater extent and earlier in the season than A. majus. Despite differences in the abundance of F. bispinosa on the two plants, neither Orius species showed host plant affinities. Population profiles for the thrips and Orius spp. followed a density dependent response of prey to predator with a large initial prey population followed by a rapid decline as the predator populations increased. The temporal increases in Orius spp. populations during the flowering season suggest that they were based on reproductive activity. As observed in a previous study, O. insidiosus had a larger population than O. pumilio and also had a predominantly male population on the flowers. By examining carcasses of the prey, there appeared to be no sexual preference of the thrips as prey by the Orius spp. as the prey pattern followed the demographics of the thrips sex ratio. Few immatures of either thrips or Orius spp. were observed on D. carota or A. majus, which suggests that oviposition and nymphal development occurred elsewhere. Based on these findings, D. carota and A. majus could serve as a banker plant system for Orius spp. PMID:22732606

  8. N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine-containing arabinogalactan proteins control somatic embryogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hengel van A. J; Zewdie Tadesse; Peter Immerzeel; Henk Schols; Ab van Kammen; Vries de S. C

    2001-01-01

    In plants, complete embryos can develop not only from the zygote, but also from somatic cells in tissue culture. How somatic cells undergo the change in fate to become embryogenic is largely unknown. Proteins, secreted into the culture medium such as endochitinases and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are required for somatic embryogenesis. Here we show that carrot (Daucus carota) AGPs can

  9. AN IPM PROGRAM FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF FUNGAL LEAF BLIGHT DISEASES OF CARROT IN NEW YORK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal leaf blight diseases caused by Cercospora carotae and Alternaria dauci occur annually on processing carrots in New York and growers were applying up to eight fungicide sprays to manage them. The use of a 25% disease incidence threshold to prompt the first fungicide application and timing subs...

  10. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on carrot in Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March of 2014, carrot plants (Daucus carota L. var. Mascot) exhibiting symptoms of yellowing, purpling, and curling of leaves, proliferation of shoots, formation of hairy secondary roots, general stunting and plant decline were observed in commercial fields in the Gharb region of Morocco. The sym...

  11. Transient expression of electroporated DNA in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Hauptmann; P. Ozias-Akins; V. Vasil; Z. Tabaeizadeh; S. G. Rogers; R. B. Horsch; I. K. Vasil; R. T. Fraley

    1987-01-01

    Transient expression of electroporated DNA was monitored in protoplasts of several monocot and dicot species by assaying for expression of chimeric chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene constructions. Expression was obtained in the dicot species of Daucus carota, Glycine max and Petunia hybrida and the monocot species of Triticum monococcum, Pennisetum purpureum, Panicum maximum, Saccharum officinarum, and a double cross, trispecific hybrid

  12. Molecular mapping of vernalization requirement and fertility restoration genes in carrot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a cool-season vegetable normally classified as a biennial species, requiring vernalization to induce flowering. Nevertheless, some cultivars adapted to warmer climates require less vernalization and can be classified as annual. Most modern carrot cultivars are hybrids wh...

  13. 21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...mixture or the mixture itself obtained by the hexane extraction of edible carrots (Daucus carota L.) with subsequent removal of the hexane by vacuum distillation. The resultant...contain no more than 25 parts per million of hexane. (c) Uses and...

  14. A new approach for automation: Sorting and sowing dehydrated somatic embryos of Daucus and Coffea using seed technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Ducos; B. Florin; J. M. Dupuis; V. Pétiard

    Somatic embryos of Daucus carota L. and Coffea canephora L. (var. Robusta) were dehydrated under a 43 % relative humidity then placed in the hopper of a precision seeding system used in the transplant industry. The seeder was adjusted to distribute the embryos onto horticultural trays, each one containing 240 cells filled with soil. As a preliminary result, 72 %

  15. Yield, vitamin and mineral contents of organically and conventionally grown carrots and cabbage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Warman; K. A. Havard

    1997-01-01

    Research was conducted for 3 years in different plot areas of a Pugwash sandy loam near Truro, N.S. Five replicates of two treatments (organic and conventional) were established annually for carrots (Daucus carota L. cv. ‘Cellobunch’) and cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var capitata cv. ‘Lennox’). The addition of pesticides, lime and NPK fertilizer to the conventional plots followed soil test

  16. Tissue-specific accumulation of carotenoids in carrot roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malgorzata Baranska; Rafal Baranski; Hartwig Schulz; Thomas Nothnagel

    2006-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy can be used for sensitive detection of carotenoids in living tissue and Raman mapping provides further information about their spatial distribution in the measured plant sample. In this work, the relative content and distribution of the main carrot (Daucus carota L.) root carotenoids, ?-, ?-carotene, lutein and lycopene were assessed using near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. The pigments

  17. Transfer of Resistance Traits from Carrot into Tobacco by Asymmetric Somatic Hybridization: Regeneration of Fertile Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denes Dudits; Eszter Maroy; Tunde Praznovszky; Zoltan Olah; Janos Gyorgyey; Rino Cella

    1987-01-01

    Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly

  18. Effect of biologically active plants used as netst material and the derived benefit to starling nestlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Clark; J. Russell Mason

    1988-01-01

    The European starling Sturnus vulgaris preferentially incorporates fresh sprigs of particular plant species for use as nesting material. Chemicals found in these plants may act to reduce pathogen and ectoparasite populations normally found in nest environments. The present experiments were performed to test this Nest Protection Hypothesis. In the fild, we experimentally determined that wild carrot Daucus carota, a plant

  19. Developmental modulation of tubulin protein and mRNA levels during somatic embryogenesis in cultured carrot cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Cyr; M. M. Bustos; M. J. Guiltinan; D. E. Fosket

    1987-01-01

    The number of cortical microtubules (MTs) increases considerably as cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells initiate and progress through somatic embryogenesis. The basis for this increase in MT number was investigated. A radioimmune assay was used to show that tubulin-protein per cell first decreased as the undifferentiated cells initiated embryonic development, but subsequently increased approximately fivefold between the globular and

  20. SplinkBES - A Splinkerette-Based Method for Generating Long End Sequences From Large Insert DNA Libraries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the development of a novel splinkerette-based method for generating long end-sequences from large insert library clones, using a carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library as a model. The procedure involves digestion of the BAC DNA with a 6-bp restriction enzyme, followed by ligation of spli...

  1. A study of System Interface Sets (SIS) for the host, target and integration environments of the Space Station Program (SSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Charles; Auty, David; Rogers, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    System interface sets (SIS) for large, complex, non-stop, distributed systems are examined. The SIS of the Space Station Program (SSP) was selected as the focus of this study because an appropriate virtual interface specification of the SIS is believed to have the most potential to free the project from four life cycle tyrannies which are rooted in a dependance on either a proprietary or particular instance of: operating systems, data management systems, communications systems, and instruction set architectures. The static perspective of the common Ada programming support environment interface set (CAIS) and the portable common execution environment (PCEE) activities are discussed. Also, the dynamic perspective of the PCEE is addressed.

  2. Distribution of spore-positive and spore-negative nodules of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in Maine, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosanne M. Holman; Christa R. Schwintzer

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of spore-positive (sp+) and spore-negative (sp?) root nodules ofAlnus incana ssp.rugosa (DuRoi) Clausen (speckled alder) was examined at 29 sites with a wide range of environmental conditions in Maine, USA. These\\u000a included: pH 3.4 to 7.0, soil texture ranging from coarse gravel to clay to organic soils, elevation from 3 to 591 m and latitude\\u000a 43 to 47N.

  3. Effector MiSSP7 of the mutualistic fungus Laccaria bicolor stabilizes the Populus JAZ6 protein and represses jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes

    PubMed Central

    Plett, Jonathan M.; Daguerre, Yohann; Wittulsky, Sebastian; Vayssières, Alice; Deveau, Aurelie; Melton, Sarah J.; Kohler, Annegret; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Brun, Annick; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Martin, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Laccaria bicolor, support forest growth and sustainability by providing growth-limiting nutrients to their plant host through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with host roots. We have previously shown that the effector protein MiSSP7 (Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Protein 7) encoded by L. bicolor is necessary for the establishment of symbiosis with host trees, although the mechanistic reasoning behind this role was unknown. We demonstrate here that MiSSP7 interacts with the host protein PtJAZ6, a negative regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)-induced gene regulation in Populus. As with other characterized JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, PtJAZ6 interacts with PtCOI1 in the presence of the JA mimic coronatine, and PtJAZ6 is degraded in plant tissues after JA treatment. The association between MiSSP7 and PtJAZ6 is able to protect PtJAZ6 from this JA-induced degradation. Furthermore, MiSSP7 is able to block—or mitigate—the impact of JA on L. bicolor colonization of host roots. We show that the loss of MiSSP7 production by L. bicolor can be complemented by transgenically varying the transcription of PtJAZ6 or through inhibition of JA-induced gene regulation. We conclude that L. bicolor, in contrast to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biotrophic pathogens, promotes mutualism by blocking JA action through the interaction of MiSSP7 with PtJAZ6. PMID:24847068

  4. Functional characteristics of a tiny but specialized olfactory system: olfactory receptor neurons of carrot psyllids (Homoptera: Triozidae).

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Lina; Larsson, Mattias C; Anderbrant, Olle

    2008-11-01

    With only approximately 50 olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis (Homoptera: Psylloidea) may have the smallest olfactory system described in adult Neopteran insects. Using single sensillum recordings (SSR) and gas chromatograph-linked SSR, we characterized 4 olfactory sensilla forming a distinct morphological type, which together house approximately 25% of all ORNs. We recorded responses to extracts and single constituents from Daucus carota ssp. sativus, from the conifers Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, and Juniperus communis, as well as from male and female T. apicalis. Receptor neurons were highly selective; only 9 compounds in total elicited repeatable responses, and each neuron responded to at most 3 individual compounds. Chemical profiles of carrot and conifers showed significant overlap, with 4 out of 9 electrophysiologically active compounds occurring in more than one type of extract, but a carrot-specific compound elicited the most repeated responses. We identified 4 tentative neuron classes and found a rather high degree of neuronal redundancy, with 1 neuron class present in 3 and another present in all 4 of the sensilla, respectively. PMID:18653644

  5. [Analgesic activity of different nonvolatile extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta Tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire].

    PubMed

    Bouidida, El Houcine; Alaoui, Katim; Cherrah, Yahia; Chammache, Malika; Il Idrissi, Abdelkader

    2008-01-01

    Different extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire contain mainly secondary metabolites with iridoïd lactonic and glucosidic type, also with triterpine lupan type.The aerial part of each species is crushed, then extracted in methanol by cold maceration, called global extracts. The global extracts will be extracted through various solvents: initially by hexane, then by dichloromethane, after that by ethyl acetate and at the end by buthanol. Each one of the obtained extracts will be used for the following trials: i) Tail flick trial on the rat for central morphine-like analgesic activity; ii) Koster trial on the mouse for peripheral analgesic activity. The evaluation of the central and peripheral analgesic activities for the pre-cited extracts was realized after optimal doses determination of the global extracts activities for both species.The peripheral analgesic activity test on the mouse showed that, for 60 mg/kg intra peritoneum (IP), the hexanic, dichloromethanic, ethyl acetate and butanic extracts have a protection power against abdominal cramp respectively around 89.78%, 81.73%, 70.9% et 69.05% for Nepeta atlantica Ball, and around 89.16%, 82.98%, 71.52% et 70.27% for Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata.Central morphine-like analgesic activity on the rat showed that, for both spices under 60 mg/kg IP, the central analgesic activity effect is significantly for two extracts only: dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. PMID:18937913

  6. Genetic characterization of wild barley populations (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) from Kazakhstan based on genome wide SNP analysis

    PubMed Central

    Turuspekov, Yerlan; Abugalieva, Saule; Ermekbayev, Kanat; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The wild ancestral form of barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, is a valuable source for gene enrichment of cultivated barley. The purpose of this work was to study the area of distribution as well as the extent and structure of genetic variation of wild barley populations grown in Kazakhstan. It was found that distribution of wild barley populations in Kazakhstan is restricted to the most southern province. A genome wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed in order to study the level of the genetic diversity in 96 accessions representing 14 wild barley populations from Kazakhstan and 25 accessions from the Middle East which is the center of diversity of this subspecies. The oligonucleotide pooled assay was used to genotype 384 SNPs distributed throughout the genome. In total 233 polymorphic SNPs were selected for further statistical analysis. The level of genetic diversity of wild barley populations from Kazakhstan was predictably narrower (He = 0.19 ± 0.01) in comparison with wild barley samples from the Middle East (He = 0.29 ± 0.01). The results suggested that H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum populations in Kazakhstan probably represent a recent spread of a limited number of plants from the primary distribution area and might be well adapted to winter low temperature. PMID:25914595

  7. Genetic characterization of wild barley populations (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) from Kazakhstan based on genome wide SNP analysis.

    PubMed

    Turuspekov, Yerlan; Abugalieva, Saule; Ermekbayev, Kanat; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2014-12-01

    The wild ancestral form of barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, is a valuable source for gene enrichment of cultivated barley. The purpose of this work was to study the area of distribution as well as the extent and structure of genetic variation of wild barley populations grown in Kazakhstan. It was found that distribution of wild barley populations in Kazakhstan is restricted to the most southern province. A genome wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed in order to study the level of the genetic diversity in 96 accessions representing 14 wild barley populations from Kazakhstan and 25 accessions from the Middle East which is the center of diversity of this subspecies. The oligonucleotide pooled assay was used to genotype 384 SNPs distributed throughout the genome. In total 233 polymorphic SNPs were selected for further statistical analysis. The level of genetic diversity of wild barley populations from Kazakhstan was predictably narrower (He = 0.19 ± 0.01) in comparison with wild barley samples from the Middle East (He = 0.29 ± 0.01). The results suggested that H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum populations in Kazakhstan probably represent a recent spread of a limited number of plants from the primary distribution area and might be well adapted to winter low temperature. PMID:25914595

  8. Actinobacillus equuli ssp. haemolyticus in a semi-occlusively treated horse bite wound in a 2-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Schröttner, Percy; Schultz, Jurek; Rudolph, Wolfram; Gunzer, Florian; Thürmer, Alexander; Fitze, Guido; Jacobs, Enno

    2013-01-01

    We report on the isolation of Actinobacillus equuli ssp. haemolyticus from wound smears of a 2-year-old girl who was admitted to the hospital due to partial amputation of the distal phalanx of her right middle finger caused by a horse bite. A. equuli typically causes diseases in horses and only very few reports describing human infections (mostly associated with wounds) are available in the literature. Interestingly, although the bacteria could be found in consecutive samples taken at different points in time, there were no signs of advancing infection or inflammation. Moreover, the fingertip regenerated after 74 days under semi-occlusive dressings with very pleasant results. For strain identification two automated systems were employed producing discrepant results: VITEK 2 described the pathogens as Pasteurella pneumotropica while MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed A. equuli. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA gene finally confirmed A. equuli ssp. haemolyticus as the isolated strain. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to the CLSI criteria for Pasteurella spp. Additionally we conducted a test according to the EUCAST criteria. PMID:24068980

  9. A comparison of isozyme and quantitative genetic variation in Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia by F{sub ST}

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, F.C. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Yanchuk, A.D. [British Columbia Ministry of Forests (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    We employed F-statistics to analyze quantitative and isozyme variation among five populations of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, a wind-pollinated outcrossing conifer with wide and continuous distribution in west North America. Estimates of population differentiation (F{sub ST}) for six quantitative traits were compared with the overall estimate of the differentiation (F*{sub ST}) from 19 isozymes that tested neutral to examine whether similar evolutionary processes were involved in morphological and isozyme differentiation. While the F{sub ST} estimates for specific gravity, stem diameter, stem height and branch length were significantly greater than the F*{sub ST} estimate, as judged from the 95% confidence intervals by bootstrapping, the F{sub ST} estimates for branch angle and branch diameter were indistinguishable from the F*{sub ST} estimate. Differentiation in stem height and stem diameter might reflect the inherent adaptation of the populations for rapid growth to escape suppression by neighboring plants during establishment and to regional differences in photoperiod, precipitation and temperature. In contrast, divergences in wood specific gravity and branch length might be correlated responses to population differentiation in stem growth. Possible bias in the estimation of F{sub ST} due to Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (F{sub IS} {ne} 0), linkage disequilibrium, maternal effects and nonadditive genetic effects was discussed with special reference to P. contorta ssp. latifolia. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Mendelian proof for a gene-for-gene relationship between virulence of Globodera rostochiensis and the H1 resistance gene in Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena CPC 1673

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard JANSSEN; Jaap BAKKER; Fred J. GOMMERS

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARY A virulent and an avirulent inbred line of G. rostochiensis were crossed to determine the genetics of virulence to the resistance gene HI of Solanunz tuberosum ssp. andigena CPC 1673. The 3:l segregation in avirulent and virulent larvae of the FZ generation, obtained by selfing the FI, showed that virulence to the HI gene is controlled by a single

  11. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties.

    PubMed

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:23579100

  12. DNA damage and photosynthetic performance in the Antarctic terrestrial alga Prasiola crispa ssp antarctica (Chlorophyta) under manipulated UV-B radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Lud; Anita G. J. Buma; Willem van de Poll; Tanja C. W. Moerdijk; Ad H. L. Huiskes

    2001-01-01

    The effect of reduced, natural ambient, and enhanced UV-B radiation (UVBR) on photosynthesis and DNA damage in the Antarctic terrestrial alga Prasiola crispa ssp. antarctica (Kutzing) Knebel was investigated in two field experiments. Samples of P. crispa were collected underneath snow cover and exposed outside to reduced and natural UVBR in the austral spring. In a second experiment at the

  13. ARE MOJAVE DESERT ANNUAL SPECIES EQUAL? RESOURCE ACQUISITION AND ALLOCATION FOR THE INVASIVE GRASS BROMUS MADRITENSIS SSP. RUBENS (POACEAE) AND TWO NATIVE SPECIES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The abundance of invasive annual grasses and forbs in the Mojave Desert is often attributed to greater competitiveness of these species compared to natives. We compared resource acquisition and allocation between the invasive grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens and two native co-occurring Mojave D...

  14. Growth and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus in batch and membrane bioreactor: influence of yeast extract and Tryptone enrichment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Olmos-Dichara; F. Ampe; J.-L. Uribelarrea; A. Pareilleux; G. Goma

    1997-01-01

    Enrichment of the medium with yeast extract (20 g.l ) and Tryptone (40 g.l ) increased the growth of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosusand its production of lactic acid in both batch and cell-recycle cultures without affecting glucose consumption and the lactic acid production rate.

  15. Evaluation of the anti-ulcerogenic effect of sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis by using various in vivo and biochemical techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?lhan Gürbüz; Erdem Yesilada

    2007-01-01

    The guaianolide type sesquiterpene lactones chlorojanerin, 13-acetyl solstitialin A and solstitialin A were identified as the anti-ulcerogenic components of the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis (Asteraceae). In this study, these compounds were investigated by using various in vivo ulcer models in rats and mice. Chlorojanerin was shown to be significantly effective in preventing the

  16. Symbiont nitrogenase, alder growth, and soil nitrate response to phosphorus addition in alder ( Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) wetlands of the Adirondack Mountains, New York State, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kemal Gökkaya; Todd M. Hurd; Dudley J. Raynal

    2006-01-01

    Speckled alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) is a characteristic species of scrub-shrub 1-type wetlands, the second most common wetland type in major watersheds of the Adirondack Mountains in New York State. Speckled alder is an actinorhizal nitrogen fixer that relies heavily on N2 over soil N and fixes substantial amounts of nitrogen in wetlands, resulting in little vegetation processing of

  17. CONTRIBUTION TO INVESTIGATION OF ST. JOHNS WORT HERB EXTRACTS HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L. SSP. ANGUSTIFOLIUM, OBTAINED BY HIGH PRESSURE EXTRACTION WITH CO2 UDC:582.824

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Branislav Gud; Milovan Dimi?; Cara Lazara

    The extracts of St. Johns wort Hypericum perforatum L.ssp. angustifolium from the new locality, Sobina, (the surroundings of Vranje, South Serbia, Yugoslavia) obtained by high pressure extraction with CO2, exert antimicrobial action, where the extract obtained under higher pressure exerted stronger action. The extracts exerted the best antimicrobial action on Candida albicans fungi. The practical application of HPE (High Pressure

  18. How safe is safe?--a case of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei endocarditis and discussion of the safety of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Soleman, Nadia; Laferl, Hermann; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Tucek, Gerhard; Budschedl, Erich; Weber, Heinz; Pichler, Hannes; Mayer, Helmut K

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of endocarditis due to Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, which could be distinguished from Lactobacillus strains used for the fermentation of dairy products by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction. The safety of biotechnical lactic acid bacteria use is also discussed. PMID:14606618

  19. Evaluation of the immune benefits of two probiotic strains Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, BB-12® and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, L. casei 431® in an influenza vaccination model: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Rizzardini, Giuliano; Eskesen, Dorte; Calder, Philip C; Capetti, Amedeo; Jespersen, Lillian; Clerici, Mario

    2012-03-01

    The present study investigated the ability of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. casei 431®) to modulate the immune system using a vaccination model in healthy subjects. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted in 211 subjects (56 % females, mean age 33·2 (sd 13·1) years). Subjects consumed a minimum of 10? colony-forming units of BB-12® (capsule) or L. casei 431® (dairy drink) or a matching placebo once daily for 6 weeks. After 2 weeks, a seasonal influenza vaccination was given. Plasma and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 6 weeks for the analysis of antibodies, cytokines and innate immune parameters. Changes from baseline in vaccine-specific plasma IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 were significantly greater in both probiotic groups v. the corresponding placebo group (L. casei 431®, P = 0·01 for IgG; P < 0·001 for remaining comparisons). The number of subjects obtaining a substantial increase in specific IgG (defined as ? 2-fold above baseline) was significantly greater in both probiotic groups v. placebo (BB-12®, P < 0·001 for IgG, IgG1 and IgG3; L. casei 431®, P < 0·001 for IgG1 and IgG3). Significantly greater mean fold increases for vaccine-specific secretory IgA in saliva were observed in both probiotic groups v. placebo (BB-12®, P = 0·017; L. casei 431®, P = 0·035). Similar results were observed for total antibody concentrations. No differences were found for plasma cytokines or innate immune parameters. Data herein show that supplementation with BB-12® or L. casei 431® may be an effective means to improve immune function by augmenting systemic and mucosal immune responses to challenge. PMID:21899798

  20. Role of Ethylene on de Novo Shoot Regeneration from Cotyledonary Explants of Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis (Lour) Olsson in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Gek-Lan; Pua, Eng-Chong; Goh, Chong-Jin

    1991-01-01

    The promotive effect of AgNO3 and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) on in vitro shoot regeneration from cotyledons of Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis in relation to endogenous 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, ACC, and ethylene production was investigated. AgNO3 enhanced ACC synthase activity and ACC accumulation, which reached a maximum after 3 to 7 days of culture. ACC accumulation was concomitant with increased emanation of ethylene which peaked after 14 days. In contrast, AVG was inhibitory to endogenous ACC synthase activity and reduced ACC and ethylene production. The promotive effect of AVG on shoot regeneration was reversed by 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid at 50 micromolar or higher concentrations, whereas explants grown on AgNO3 medium were less affected by 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid. The distinctive effect of AgNO3 and AVG on endogenous ACC synthase, ACC, and ethylene production and its possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:16668148

  1. Effects of gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine, secoiridoids from gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra), on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Nilgün; Korkmaz, Seval; Oztürk, Yusuf; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can

    2006-03-01

    Wound healing properties of Gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra) extract and its main constituents, gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine (compounds 1-3, respectively) were evaluated by comparison with dexpanthenol on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts. The extract was also analyzed by HPLC to quantify its constituents. Chicken embryonic fibroblasts from fertilized eggs were incubated with the plant extract and its constituents, compounds 1-3. Using microscopy, mitotic ability, morphological changes and collagen production in the cultured fibroblasts were evaluated as parameters. Wound healing activity of Gentian seems to be mainly due to the increase in the stimulation of collagen production and the mitotic activity by compounds 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.005 in all cases). All three compounds also exhibited cytoprotective effects, which may cause a synergism in terms of wound healing activity of Gentian. The findings demonstrated the wound healing activity of Gentian, which has previously been based only on ethnomedical data. PMID:16557467

  2. Sequence of a new DR12 allele with two silent mutations that affect PCR-SSP typing.

    PubMed

    Zanone, R; Bettens, F; Tiercy, J-M

    2002-02-01

    A new HLA-DR12 allele has been identified in a European Caucasoid bone marrow donor. The DRB1*12012 allele differs from DRB1*12011 by two silent substitutions at codons 72 and 78, two polymorphic positions used for DNA subtyping of the DR12 serotype. The co-occurence of the two nucleotide changes is unique to the DR12 group and results in a new PCR-SSP typing pattern. The complete HLA type of the donor is A24, A68; B55, B61; Cw*01, Cw*0304; DRB1*12012, DRB1*1402; DRB3*0101, DRB3*0202; DQB1*0301. HLA-DRB1*12012 is a rare allele as it occurs in < 0.2% of DR12 donors. PMID:12028552

  3. Emergence of gynodioecy in wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima L.): a genealogical approach using chloroplastic nucleotide sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fénart, Stéphane; Touzet, Pascal; Arnaud, Jean-François; Cuguen, Joël

    2006-01-01

    Gynodioecy is a breeding system where both hermaphroditic and female individuals coexist within plant populations. This dimorphism is the result of a genomic interaction between maternally inherited cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and bi-parentally inherited nuclear male fertility restorers. As opposed to other gynodioecious species, where every cytoplasm seems to be associated with male sterility, wild beet Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima exhibits a minority of sterilizing cytoplasms among numerous non-sterilizing ones. Many studies on population genetics have explored the molecular diversity of different CMS cytoplasms, but questions remain concerning their evolutionary dynamics. In this paper we report one of the first investigations on phylogenetic relationships between CMS and non-CMS lineages. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships between 35 individuals exhibiting different mitochondrial haplotypes. Relying on the high linkage disequilibrium between chloroplastic and mitochondrial genomes, we chose to analyse the nucleotide sequence diversity of three chloroplastic fragments (trnK intron, trnD–trnT and trnL–trnF intergenic spacers). Nucleotide diversity appeared to be low, suggesting a recent bottleneck during the evolutionary history of B. vulgaris ssp. maritima. Statistical parsimony analyses revealed a star-like genealogy and showed that sterilizing haplotypes all belong to different lineages derived from an ancestral non-sterilizing cytoplasm. These results suggest a rapid evolution of male sterility in this taxon. The emergence of gynodioecy in wild beet is confronted with theoretical expectations, describing either gynodioecy dynamics as the maintenance of CMS factors through balancing selection or as a constant turnover of new CMSs. PMID:16777728

  4. Directional transfer of a multiple-allele male sterile line in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiu Shi; Zhang, Xi; Li, Cheng Yu; Liu, Zhi Yong; Feng, Hui

    2014-06-01

    To produce hybrid seeds of Wutacai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee), a "directional transfer program" was designed to breed the multiple-allele male sterile line of Wutacai. A multiple-allele male sterile line of Naibaicai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L., S01) was used as the male sterile resource, and an inbred line of Wutacai (WT01) was used as the target line. Recurrent backcrossing was employed to transfer the male sterility and other botanical traits simultaneously, while the genotype was identifiedthrough test crossing. The male sterility was successfully transferred from S01 to WT01. A new male sterile line, GMS-3, with similar botanical traits to WT01, was bred. Four hybrid combinations were generated with GMS-3 as the female parent. One hybrid (C1) that contained the most desirable traits was developed from the new male sterile line. PMID:24987301

  5. Rapid detection of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (G241R and K469E) polymorphisms by a novel PCR-SSP assay.

    PubMed

    Tajik, N; Salari, F; Hajilooi, M; Amoli, M; Salekmoghaddam, A

    2007-04-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is a cell surface glycoprotein member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is actively involved in immune and inflammatory responses. We introduce a novel polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method for rapid and simultaneous genotyping of ICAM-1 G241R and K469E polymorphisms. In a total of 184 DNA samples that have been previously analyzed for these polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, re-genotyping of all samples with this new assay showed accurate and reproducible results. As PCR-SSP-based genotyping protocols are more convenient and cost-effective to do, it could therefore offer a valuable tool for assessment of ICAM-1 polymorphisms to which more confirmatory studies are needed. PMID:17389018

  6. Relationship between the presence of the citrate permease plasmid and high electron-donor surface properties of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis.

    PubMed

    Lý, Mai Hu'o'ng; Cavin, Jean-François; Cachon, Rémy; Lê, Thanh Mai; Belin, Jean-Marc; Waché, Yves

    2007-03-01

    Some strains of Lactococcus lactis subspecies possess a citrate permease that enables them to utilize citrate and to produce diacetyl. Such strains are classified as diacetylactis biovariants (L. lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis). We investigated the electron-donor surface properties of L. lactis strains and observed that the diacetylactis biovariants presented increased adhesion to electron-acceptor solvents (microbial adhesion to solvents electron-donor characteristics of cells of <27% for L. lactis and about 50% for L. lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylactis). We investigated the properties of a pCitP- derivative and observed for a diacetylactis biovariant strain a loss of the electron-donor characteristics falling from 47% for a pCitP+ strain to 8% for its pCitP- derivative. This suggests that the presence of high electron-donor characteristics on the surface of L. lactis results to a large extent from the presence of the citrate permease plasmid. PMID:17250762

  7. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide, which has experienced thousands of years in cultivation and artificial selection. The entire Chinese cabbage genome sequence, and more than forty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. The genome has undergone triplication events since its divergence from Arabidopsis thaliana (13 to 17 Mya), however a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between the two species. Arabidopsis is therefore a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Variation in the number of members in gene families due to genome triplication may contribute to the broad range of phenotypic plasticity, and increased tolerance to environmental extremes observed in Brassica species. Transcription factors are important regulators involved in plant developmental and physiological processes. The AP2/ERF proteins, one of the most important families of transcriptional regulators, play a crucial role in plant growth, and in response to biotic and abiotic stressors. Our analysis will provide resources for understanding the tolerance mechanisms in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis. Results In the present study, 291 putative AP2/ERF transcription factor proteins were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database, and compared with proteins from 15 additional species. The Chinese cabbage AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into four families, including AP2, ERF, RAV, and Soloist. The ERF family was further divided into DREB and ERF subfamilies. The AP2/ERF superfamily was subsequently divided into 15 groups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns, and interaction networks of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily were predicted and analyzed. Distribution mapping results showed AP2/ERF superfamily genes were localized on the 10 Chinese cabbage chromosomes. AP2/ERF transcription factor expression levels exhibited differences among six tissue types based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs). In the AP2/ERF superfamily, 214 orthologous genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. Orthologous gene interaction networks were constructed, and included seven CBF and four AP2 genes, primarily involved in cold regulatory pathways and ovule development, respectively. Conclusions The evolution of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage resulted from genome triplication and tandem duplications. A comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of AP2/ERF superfamily genes in Chinese cabbage is required to fully elucidate AP2/ERF, which provides us with rich resources and opportunities to understand crop stress tolerance mechanisms. PMID:23972083

  8. A fuzzy logic-based model for the multistage high-pressure inactivation of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris MG 1363.

    PubMed

    Kilimann, K V; Hartmann, C; Delgado, A; Vogel, R F; Gänzle, M G

    2005-01-15

    The high-pressure inactivation (200 to 600 MPa) of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris MG 1363 suspended in milk buffer was investigated with both experimental and theoretical methods. The inactivation kinetics were characterised by the determination of the viable cell counts, cell counts of undamaged cells, LmrP activity, membrane integrity, and metabolic activity. Pressures between 200 and 600 MPa were applied, and pressure holding times were varied between 0 and 120 min. Experiments were carried out in milk buffer at pH values ranging between 4.0 and 6.5, and the effect of the addition of molar concentrations of NaCl and sucrose was furthermore determined. The inactivation curves of L. lactis, as characterised by viable cell counts, exhibited typical sigmoid asymmetric shapes. Generally, inactivation of the membrane transport system LmrP was the most sensitive indicator of pressure-induced sublethal injury. Furthermore, the metabolic activity was inactivated concomitant with or prior to the loss of viability. Membrane integrity was lost concomitant with or later than cell death. For example, treatments at 200 MPa for 60 min in milk buffer did not inactivate L. lactis, but fully inactivated LmrP activity and reduced the metabolic activity by 50%. The membrane integrity was unaffected. Thus, the assay systems chosen are suitable to dissect the multistep high-pressure inactivation of L. lactis ssp. cremoris MG 1363. A fuzzy logic model accounting for the specific knowledge on the multistep pressure inactivation and allowing the prediction of the quantities of sublethally damaged cells was formulated. Furthermore, the fuzzy model could be used to accurately predict pressure inactivation of L. lactis using conditions not taken into account in model generation. It consists of 160 rules accounting for several dependent and independent variables. The rules were generated automatically with fuzzy clustering methods and rule-oriented statistical analysis. The set is open for the integration of further knowledge-based rules. A very good overall agreement between measured and predicted values was obtained. Single, deviating results have been identified and can be explained to be measurement errors or model intrinsic deficiencies. PMID:15617804

  9. Short communication: Genotypic and phenotypic identification of environmental streptococci and association of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis with intramammary infections among different dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Werner, B; Moroni, P; Gioia, G; Lavín-Alconero, L; Yousaf, A; Charter, M E; Carter, B Moslock; Bennett, J; Nydam, D V; Welcome, F; Schukken, Y H

    2014-11-01

    Lactococcus species are counted among a large and closely related group of environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria that include bovine mastitis pathogenic Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Aerococcus species. Phenotypic and biochemical identification methods can be inaccurate and unreliable for species within this group, particularly for Lactococcus spp. As a result, the incidence of Lactococcus spp. on the farm may have been historically underreported and consequently little is known about the clinical importance of this genus as a mastitis pathogen. We used molecular genetic identification methods to accurately differentiate 60 environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria isolated from cows with high somatic cell count and chronic intramammary infection (IMI; >2 somatic cell scores above 4) among 5 geographically distinct farms in New York and Minnesota that exhibited an observed increase in IMI. These isolates were phenotypically identified as Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus spp. Genetic methods identified 42 isolates (70%) as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, including all 10 isolates originally phenotypically identified as Streptococcus uberis. Antibiotic inhibition testing of all Lc. lactis ssp. lactis showed that 7 isolates were resistant to tetracycline. In the present study, a predominance of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis was identified in association with chronic, clinical bovine IMI among all 5 farms and characterized antimicrobial resistance for treatment therapies. Routine use by mastitis testing labs of molecular identification methods for environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria can further define the role and prevalence of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis in association with bovine IMI and may lead to more targeted therapies. PMID:25242419

  10. Hidrojen Peroksit Uygulamalarinin Domates Bakteriyel Solgunluk ve Kanser Hastali?i (Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis (Smith) Davis et al)'na Etkileri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hüseyin TÜRKÜSAY; Necip TOSUN

    Summary In this study, effectiveness of hydrojen peroxide (HuwaSan TR 50) was evaluated to control of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis in vitro, as seed treatment, and in vivo on tomato. Hydrogen peroxide showed a strong dezenfectant effects on petri studies as 61.3% efficacy. Moreover, artificially infected seeds were treated with HuwaSan TR 50. Promising results were found to control Cmm

  11. Genetic mapping and localization of a major QTL for seedling resistance to downy mildew in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuancang Yu; Fenglan Zhang; Renbo Yu; Yanmin Zou; Jiani Qi; Xiuyun Zhao; Yangjun Yu; Deshuang Zhang; Li Li

    2009-01-01

    Downy mildew caused by the fungus Peronospora parisitica is a serious threat to members of the Brassicaceae family. Annually, a substantial loss of yield is caused by the widespread\\u000a presence of this disease in warm and humid climates. The aim of this study was to localize the genetic factors affecting downy\\u000a mildew resistance in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

  12. Isolation of anti-ulcerogenic sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erdem Yesilada; Ilhan Gürbüz; Erdal Bedir; Irem Tatli; Ikhlas A. Khan

    2004-01-01

    The fresh spiny flowers of Centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis (CSS) are used for the treatment of peptic ulcers in Turkey. Ethanol (80%) extract of CSS exhibited significant anti-ulcerogenic effect on the ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis model in rats. The ethanol extract was further fractionated by successive solvent extractions with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All fractions showed significant anti-ulcerogenic activity, however,

  13. Differences in somatic and gonadic growth of sea urchins ( Stronglyocentrotus droebachiensis ) fed kelp ( Laminaria longicruris ) or the invasive alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides are related to energy acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devin A. Lyons; Robert E. Scheibling

    2007-01-01

    The rocky subtidal community off the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia has historically undergone a cyclical transition between\\u000a Laminaria-dominated kelp beds and sea urchin-dominated barrens. Since the introduction of the invasive alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides, a third community state has emerged: Codium-dominated algal beds. We conducted a 42-week feeding experiment in the laboratory, which mimicked the quantity and quality

  14. Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis at Balnaguard, Scotland: Foliar carbon discrimination (?C) and 15-N natural abundance (?N) suggest gender-linked differences in water and N use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Hill; L. L. Handley; J. A. Raven

    1996-01-01

    The ecophysiology of stands of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis at Balnaguard was examined by the relatively non-invasive methods of analysis of foliar · C and ·N and the N and chlorophyll contents of foliar samples of genets of known sex and location in three sub-sites. The ratio of male to female plants was close to 1.0 on the two

  15. Reconstruction of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis Cry11A Endotoxin from Fragments Corresponding to Its N- and C-Moieties Restores Its Original Biological Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. Revina; L. I. Kostina; L. A. Ganushkina; A. L. Mikhailova; I. A. Zalunin; G. G. Chestukhina

    2004-01-01

    Subtilisin hydrolyzes Cry11A endotoxin (of 70 kD) produced by Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis to fragments of 33- and 36-kD, which correspond to N- and C-terminal halves of the endotoxin molecule. Thermitase (a serine protease from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris) and insect gut proteases from Diptera and Lepidoptera exhibit the same hydrolytic effect on Cry11A. Hydrolyzates maintain high toxicity with respect to larvae

  16. Structure of an SspH1-PKN1 Complex Reveals the Basis for Host Substrate Recognition and Mechanism of Activation for a Bacterial E3 Ubiquitin Ligase

    PubMed Central

    Keszei, Alexander F. A.; Tang, Xiaojing; McCormick, Craig; Zeqiraj, Elton; Rohde, John R.

    2014-01-01

    IpaH proteins are bacterium-specific E3 enzymes that function as type three secretion system (T3SS) effectors in Salmonella, Shigella, and other Gram-negative bacteria. IpaH enzymes recruit host substrates for ubiquitination via a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, which can inhibit the catalytic domain in the absence of substrate. The basis for substrate recognition and the alleviation of autoinhibition upon substrate binding is unknown. Here, we report the X-ray structure of Salmonella SspH1 in complex with human PKN1. The LRR domain of SspH1 interacts specifically with the HR1b coiled-coil subdomain of PKN1 in a manner that sterically displaces the catalytic domain from the LRR domain, thereby activating catalytic function. SspH1 catalyzes the ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of PKN1 in cells, which attenuates androgen receptor responsiveness but not NF-?B activity. These regulatory features are conserved in other IpaH-substrate interactions. Our results explain the mechanism whereby substrate recognition and enzyme autoregulation are coupled in this class of bacterial ubiquitin ligases. PMID:24248594

  17. Arzanol, an anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV-1 phloroglucinol alpha-Pyrone from Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum.

    PubMed

    Appendino, Giovanni; Ottino, Michela; Marquez, Nieves; Bianchi, Federica; Giana, Anna; Ballero, Mauro; Sterner, Olov; Fiebich, Bernd L; Munoz, Eduardo

    2007-04-01

    An acetone extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum afforded the phloroglucinol alpha-pyrone arzanol (1a) as a potent NF-kappaB inhibitor. Arzanol is identical with homoarenol (2a), whose structure should be revised. The phloroglucinol-type structure of arzanol and the 1,2,4-trihydroxyphenyl-type structure of the base-induced fragmentation product of homoarenol could be reconciled in light of a retro-Fries-type fragmentation that triggers a change of the hydroxylation pattern of the aromatic moiety. On the basis of these findings, the structure of arenol, the major constituent of the clinically useful antibiotic arenarin, should be revised from 2b to 1b, solving a long-standing puzzle over its biogenetic derivation. An alpha-pyrone (micropyrone, 7), the monoterpene rac-E-omega-oleoyloxylinalol (10), four known tremetones (9a-d), and the dimeric pyrone helipyrone (8) were also obtained. Arzanol inhibited HIV-1 replication in T cells and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated primary monocytes, qualifying as a novel plant-derived anti-inflammatory and antiviral chemotype worth further investigation. PMID:17315926

  18. The impact of the herbicide glyphosate on leaf litter invertebrates within Bitou bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp rotundata, infestations.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Elizabeth A; French, Kris

    2004-12-01

    Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp rotundata (L) T Norl (Bitou bush) is a serious environmental weed along the southeast coast of Australia. The herbicide glyphosate is commonly used to control C monilifera on the New South Wales coastline, but there have been few studies examining the effects of this herbicide on invertebrate communities in the field, especially on sand dunes. Control and impact sites were selected in coastal hind dunes heavily infested with C monilifera, and the impact sites were sprayed with a 1:100 v/v dilution of glyphosate-isopropyl 360 g AE litre(-1) SL (Roundup Biactive). Leaf litter invertebrates were sampled before spraying and after spraying by collecting fixed areas of leaf litter in both the control and impact sites. Samples were sorted for particular invertebrates involved in leaf litter decomposition and some of their predators. This study did not identify any significant direct or indirect effects on leaf litter invertebrate abundance or community composition in the four months following herbicide application. The litter invertebrate assemblages were highly variable on a small spatial scale, with abiotic factors more strongly regulating leaf litter invertebrate numbers than glyphosate application. These results conflict with previous studies, indicating that the detrimental indirect effects herbicide application has on non-target litter invertebrates may depend upon the application rate, the vegetation community and structure and post-spray weather. PMID:15578601

  19. Nutritional assessment of processing effects on major and trace element content in sea buckthorn juice (Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides).

    PubMed

    Gutzeit, D; Winterhalter, P; Jerz, G

    2008-08-01

    Processing effects on the mineral content were investigated during juice production from sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides, Elaeagnaceae) using berries from 2 different growing areas. The major and trace elements of sea buckthorn berries and juices were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)--(calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)--(arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, zinc). Potassium is the most abundant major element in sea buckthorn berries and juices. The production process increased the potassium content in the juice by about 20%. Moreover, the processing of juice increased the value of manganese up to 32% compared to the content in berries. During industrial juice production, the technological steps caused a loss of about 53% to 77% of the chromium concentration, 50% of the copper content, 64% to 75% of the molybdenum amount, and up to 45% of the iron concentration in the final juice product. Consumption of sea buckthorn juice represents a beneficial source of chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, iron, and potassium for the achievement of the respective dietary requirements. PMID:19241584

  20. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A. Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members. PMID:26042133

  1. The Dynamic Growth Exhibition and Accumulation of Cadmium of Pak Choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) Grown in Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals, especially cadmium (Cd), in leafy vegetables was compared with other vegetables. Pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) is a leafy vegetable consumed in Taiwan and its safety for consumption after growing in contaminated soils is a public concern. A pot experiment (50 days) was conducted to understand the dynamic accumulation of Cd by pak choi grown in artificially contaminated soils. The edible parts of pak choi were sampled and analyzed every 2–3 days. The dry weight (DW) of pak choi was an exponential function of leaf length, leaf width, and chlorophyll content. The accumulation of Cd increased when the soil Cd concentration was raised, but was kept at a constant level during different growth stages. Pak choi had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = ratio of the concentration in the edible parts to that in the soils), at values of 3.5–4.0. The consumption of pak choi grown in soils contaminated at levels used in this study would result in the ingestion of impermissible amounts of Cd and could possibly have harmful effects on health. PMID:24284350

  2. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ate?, Ay?e; Unver, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses. PMID:17201644

  3. Distinct geographic patterns of genetic diversity are maintained in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) despite migration

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Peter L.; Lundy, Karen E.; Clegg, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Mutations arise in a single individual and at a single point in time and space. The geographic distribution of mutations reflects both historical population size and frequency of migration. We employ coalescence-based methods to coestimate effective population size, frequency of migration, and level of recombination compatible with observed genealogical relationships in sequence data from nine nuclear genes in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum), a highly self-fertilizing grass species. In self-fertilizing plants, gamete dispersal is severely limited; dissemination occurs primarily through seed dispersal. Also, heterozygosity is greatly reduced, which renders recombination less effective at randomizing genetic variation and causes larger portions of the genome to trace a similar history. Despite these predicted effects of this mating system, the majority of loci show evidence of recombination. Levels of nucleotide variation and the patterns of geographic distribution of mutations in wild barley are highly heterogeneous across loci. Two of the nine sampled loci maintain highly diverged, geographic region-specific suites of mutations. Two additional loci include region-specific haplotypes with a much shallower coalescence. Despite inbreeding, sessile growth habit, and the observation of geographic structure at almost half of sampled loci, parametric estimates of migration suggest that seed dispersal is sufficient for migration across the ?3,500-km range of the species. Recurrent migration is also evident based on the geographic distribution of mutational variation at some loci. At one locus a single haplotype has spread rapidly enough to occur, unmodified by mutation, across the range of the species. PMID:12963820

  4. Abundance of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in Adirondack Mountain shrub wetlands and its influence on inorganic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, B D; Hurd, T M; Raynal, D J

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the abundance of the nitrogen-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (speckled alder), in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State and to determine whether its abundance affects the concentration or accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in wetland substrates. Alder/willow wetlands are the second most common wetland type in the Adirondack region. The Adirondack Park Agency's digital GIS database of wetland types was used to determine the areal extent of alder/willow wetlands in the Adirondacks. Randomly selected wetlands were sampled to determine the size and abundance of alder. Alder densities averaged approximately 7000 stems ha(-1) and alder was present in 75% of the wetlands. As an indication of short-term accumulation of NO(3-) and NH4(+) in wetland substrates, ion exchange resins were used to sample ground water in high and low alder density wetlands as well as from wetlands lacking alder and dominated by conifers. Additionally, NO(3-) and NH(4+) concentrations in ground water samples were measured. NH(4+) accumulation levels from exchange resins were low for all wetland types while groundwater NH(4+) concentration was highest in the low-density alder sites. Wetlands with high alder density had approximately six times higher NO(3-) accumulation than other wetlands. Substrate groundwater NO(3-) concentrations in wetlands of high-density alder exceeded by three times levels in low or no alder wetlands, showing the importance of alder to local N budgets. To assess the recovery of shrub wetlands from acidification, future studies should determine the fate of fixed N in wetland systems. PMID:12667762

  5. Comparison of nitrogen solute concentrations within alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) and non-alder dominated wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Todd M.; Raynal, Dudley J.

    2004-10-01

    This study examined differences in nitrogen solutes and groundwater flow patterns between a riparian wetland dominated by the N2-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa, and an upstream coniferous forested riparian wetland along a stream of the Adirondack Mountains, where some surface waters are susceptible to nitrogen excess. Channel water NO3- was up to 16 ?mol l-1 greater in the alder reach, with peaks following maxima in groundwater dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). NO3- at 25 cm depth was 30 ?mol greater in the alder than in the conifer reach in April, and 24 ?mol l-1 greater than channel water and 30 ?mol l-1 greater than that of 125 cm groundwater in June. Dissolved organic nitrogen and NH4+ concentrations increased between 25 and 75 cm depths in both wetlands during the growing season. Inorganic nitrogen increased between the hillslope and stream in both wetlands, with the greatest increases in the alder reach during the dormant season. Greatest subsurface DIN (120 ?mol l-1) occurred at 75 cm in the alder reach, within 1 m of the stream, between November (120 ?mol l-1 NH4+) and a January thaw (60 ?mol l-1 each of NH4+ and NO3-). Concentrations of deeper groundwater at 125 cm during this period were lower (10-30 ?mol l-1). Lateral flow from the stream channel occurred in the alder reach during the dormant season, and channel water contribution to groundwater was correlated strongly to NO3- at 25 cm. These results indicate that nitrification is stimulated in the presence of alders and oxidized exchange flow, producing NO3- that may contribute to elevated channel water NO3- during periods of peak flow.

  6. Association of gene-linked SSR markers to seed glucosinolate content in oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. napus).

    PubMed

    Hasan, M; Friedt, W; Pons-Kühnemann, J; Freitag, N M; Link, K; Snowdon, R J

    2008-05-01

    Breeding of oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. napus) has evoked a strong bottleneck selection towards double-low (00) seed quality with zero erucic acid and low seed glucosinolate content. The resulting reduction of genetic variability in elite 00-quality oilseed rape is particularly relevant with regard to the development of genetically diverse heterotic pools for hybrid breeding. In contrast, B. napus genotypes containing high levels of erucic acid and seed glucosinolates (++ quality) represent a comparatively genetically divergent source of germplasm. Seed glucosinolate content is a complex quantitative trait, however, meaning that the introgression of novel germplasm from this gene pool requires recurrent backcrossing to avoid linkage drag for high glucosinolate content. Molecular markers for key low-glucosinolate alleles could potentially improve the selection process. The aim of this study was to identify potentially gene-linked markers for important seed glucosinolate loci via structure-based allele-trait association studies in genetically diverse B. napus genotypes. The analyses included a set of new simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers whose orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana are physically closely linked to promising candidate genes for glucosinolate biosynthesis. We found evidence that four genes involved in the biosynthesis of indole, aliphatic and aromatic glucosinolates might be associated with known quantitative trait loci for total seed glucosinolate content in B. napus. Markers linked to homoeologous loci of these genes in the paleopolyploid B. napus genome were found to be associated with a significant effect on the seed glucosinolate content. This example shows the potential of Arabidopsis-Brassica comparative genome analysis for synteny-based identification of gene-linked SSR markers that can potentially be used in marker-assisted selection for an important trait in oilseed rape. PMID:18322671

  7. Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2-Mediated Overexpression of Chimeric SspH2 Proteins for Simultaneous Induction of Antigen-Specific CD4 and CD8 T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Panthel, Klaus; Meinel, Katrin M.; Domènech, Victòria E. Sevil; Retzbach, Heike; Igwe, Emeka I.; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Rüssmann, Holger

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium employs two different type III secretion systems (TTSS) encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI1 and SPI2) for targeting of effector proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells during different stages of the infection cycle. The SPI1 TTSS translocates virulence factors across the plasma membrane when the bacterium initially contacts the host cell. In contrast, the SPI2 TTSS functions to translocate proteins across the membrane of the Salmonella-containing vacuole and promotes intracellular survival and replication. The aim of the present study was to directly compare the potentials of SPI1 and SPI2 type III effector proteins to act as carrier molecules for a heterologous antigen. The p60 protein of Listeria monocytogenes was used as a model antigen to construct chimeric SopE2 (SPI1), SifA (SPI2), and SspH2 (SPI2) proteins. SPI1- and SPI2-dependent up- and down-regulation of hybrid gene expression led to sequential translocation of p60 fusion proteins into the cytosol of Salmonella-infected macrophages. Mice orally immunized with recombinant Salmonella strains expressing these hybrid proteins revealed comparable numbers of p60-specific CD8 T cells. However, only overexpression of translocated SspH2/p60 from a medium-copy-number vector induced simultaneous antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses, suggesting that SspH2 is an attractive carrier molecule for foreign-protein delivery. PMID:15618170

  8. Chemical composition, plant genetic differences, and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum G. Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd) Nym.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Alberto; Barra, Andrea; Arlorio, Marco; Coisson, Jean Daniel; Russo, Maria T; Pirisi, Filippo M; Satta, Maurizio; Cabras, Paolo

    2003-02-12

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of the Sardinian dwarf curry plant [Helichrysum italicum G. Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd) Nym] was studied. Genetic analysis suggested the presence of two chemotypes; morphological and chemical differences confirmed the presence of two chemotypes (A and B). The maximum yields were 0.18 and 0.04% (v/w) for flowering tops and stems, respectively. The concentrations of nerol and its esters (acetate and propionate), limonene, and linalool reach their highest values during the flowering stage both in flowers and in stems. Besides the essential oil, type B showed an interesting antifungal activity. PMID:12568568

  9. Preparative Isolation and Purification of Flavonoids and Protocatechuic Acid from Sea Buckthorn Juice Concentrate ( Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp . rhamnoides ) by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Gutzeit; V. Wray; P. Winterhalter; G. Jerz

    2007-01-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC)—a support free all liquid–liquid chromatography technique—has been successfully\\u000a used for the preparative isolation of isorhamnetin 3-O-?-d-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-?-rutinoside, quercetin 3-O-?-d-glucoside, syringetin 3-O-?-d-glucoside and protocatechuic acid from sea buckthorn juice concentrate (Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides, Elaeagnaceae). The preparative HSCCC instrument was a multilayer coil planet centrifuge equipped with three preparative coils. Separation\\u000a was performed with a

  10. Genotypic differences in nitrate uptake, translocation and assimilation of two Chinese cabbage cultivars [Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis (L.)].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yafang; Sun, Xuecheng; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Zhao, Xiaohu

    2013-09-01

    A hydroponic trial was conducted to investigate genotypic differences in nitrate uptake, translocation and assimilation between low nitrate accumulator L18 and high accumulator H96 of Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis (L.)]. The results suggested that H96 could uptake more nitrate than L18 in the root but lower transport inside leaf cells and assimilation in the leaf. It was showed that root morphology parameters - length, surface area and volume of H96 were 18.0%, 31.6% and 46.5% higher than L18. Nitrate transporters NRT1.1 and NRT2.1 transcription levels were 41.6% and 269.6% higher than those of L18 respectively. NRT1.1 and NRT2.1 expression amount in leaf blade of two cultivars were opposite to in the root, L18 NRT1.1 and NRT2.1 expressions were 279.2% and 80.0% higher than H96. In addition, nitrate assimilation capacity of L18 was significantly higher than H96 in leaf. It was showed that Nitrate Reductase (NR; EC 1.7.1.1) activity and NIA expression level of L18 leaf were 234 0.4% and 105.4% higher than those of H96, Glutamine Synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) activity, Gln1 and Gln2 expression levels in the leaf blade of L18 were 43.9%, 331.5% and 124.8% higher than those of H96 respectively. Nitrate assimilation products-Glu, total amino acid, soluble protein content in the leaf of L18 were all significantly higher than those of H96. The results above suggested that nitrate accumulation differences were due to differential capacities to uptake, mechanisms for nitrate transport in leaves and assimilate nitrate. Comparing contribution of three aspects in nitrate accumulation, translocation and assimilation were contributed more in low nitrate concentration in the leaf blade. PMID:23770590

  11. Evidence for simply inherited dominant resistance to Meloidogyne javanica in carrot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Simon; W. C. Matthews; P. A. Roberts

    2000-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are serious pests of carrot (Daucus carota L.) worldwide. While soil treatment with nematicides is the primary means for managing nematodes in carrot, there is a need\\u000a to identify and introduce host plant resistance for crop improvement. This study was conducted to determine the inheritance\\u000a of resistance to root-galling and reproduction by M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood

  12. Potential use of the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi against seed-borne fungi of Guar ( Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. (Taub.))

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh K. Dwivedi; N. K. Dubey

    1993-01-01

    Essential oils isolated from leaves and seeds of seven umbelliferous plants were tested against the growth ofAspergillus flavus. Those from seeds ofTrachyspermum ammi, Cuminum cyminum, Carum carvi, Daucus carota and from leaves ofAnethum graveolens exhibited antifungal activity against the test fungus. Amongst these, oil from seeds ofTrachyspermum ammi was most toxic. Its minimum inhibitory concentration was 300 ppm, at which

  13. Doubled haploid production via anther culture in annual, winter type of caraway ( Carum carvi L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iva Smýkalová; Prokop Šmirous; Michaela Kubošiová; Nikol Gasmanová; Miroslav Griga

    2009-01-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is a traditional medicinal and spice cross-pollinated plant species. Although in vitro techniques are recently extensively\\u000a applied in plant breeding programmes, these are not commonly utilized in caraway. Therefore, based on the protocol for anther\\u000a culture in carrot (Daucus carota L., a closely related species of caraway in Daucaceae family), in vitro androgenesis in caraway has

  14. Glyphosate selected amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene in cultured carrot cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Yau Joanne Shyr; Angus G. Hepburn; Jack M. Widhohn

    1992-01-01

    CAR and C1, two carrot (Daucus carota L.) suspension cultures of different genotypes, were subjected to stepwise selection for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl)glycine]. The specific activity of the target enzyme, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), as well as the mRNA level and copy number of the structural gene increased with each glyphosate selection step. Therefore, the tolerance to glyphosate is

  15. Metabolic engineering of novel ketocarotenoid production in carrot plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayaraman Jayaraj; Robert Devlin; Zamir Punja

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids constitute a vast group of pigments that are ubiquitous throughout nature. Carrot (Daucus\\u000a carota L.) roots provide an important source of dietary ?-carotene (provitamin A), ?-carotene and lutein. Ketocarotenoids, such\\u000a as canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are produced by some algae and cyanobacteria but are rare in plants. Ketocarotenoids are\\u000a strong antioxidants that are chemically synthesized and used as dietary supplements

  16. The turnover of cell surface proteins of carrot protoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Crooks; Julian Coleman; Chris Hawes

    1999-01-01

    .   The covalent modification of cell surface proteins with N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of biotin was used to develop a strategy for following the turnover of proteins on the surface\\u000a of carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts. A biotinylation\\/internalisation assay was established which enabled the turnover of cell surface proteins\\u000a to be examined by biochemical and immunocytochemical techniques. The detection of biotinylated proteins

  17. Quantitation of gibberellins and the metabolism of [ 3 H]gibberellin A 1 during somatic embryogenesis in carrot and anise cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masana Noma; Jochen Huber; Dieter Ernst; Richard P. Pharis

    1982-01-01

    In a carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell line lacking the ability to undergo somatic embryogenasis, and in carrot and anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) cell lines in which embryogenesis could be regulated by presence or absence of 2,4-dichlorophen-oxyacetic acid (2,4-D), in the medium (+2,4-D=no embryogenesis,-2,4-D=embryo differentiation and development), the levels of endogenous gibberellin(s) (GA) were determined by the dwarfrice bioassay, and

  18. Effect of foliar application of selenium on its uptake and speciation in carrot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emese Kápolna; Peter R. Hillestrøm; Kristian H. Laursen; Søren Husted; Erik H. Larsen

    2009-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) shoots were enriched by selenium using foliar application. Solutions of sodium selenite or sodium selenate at 10 and 100?gSeml?1, were sprayed on the carrot leaves and the selenium content and uptake rate of selenium were estimated by ICP–MS analysis. Anion and cation exchange HPLC were tailored to and applied for the separation of selenium species in proteolytic

  19. Mehrjährige Versuche über die Beeinflussung der Keimung und Entwicklung von Poa annua durch Behandlung der Früchte mit Wirkstoffen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Söding; Margarethe Wagner

    1955-01-01

    In einer frfiheren Arbeit (S()DING, B6MEKE und FUNKE 1949) hatten wir mitgeteilt, dal~ wir bei der MShre (Daucus Carota) durch Einquellen des Saatgutes in verdfinnten WirkstofflSsungen nicht unerhebliche Gewichtssteigerungen vor allem ffir die Wurzel erreichen k0nnten. im Laufe siebenj~hriger Versuche hatte sich dabei gezeigt, dal~ die gfnstigen Wirkungen nur dann eintraten, wenn die Pflanzen an einer wenigstens zeitweise schattigen Stelle

  20. Potyviruses, novel and known, in cultivated and wild species of the family Apiaceae in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Moran; B. van Rijswijk; V. Traicevski; E. W. Kitajima; A. M. Mackenzie; A. J. Gibbs

    2002-01-01

    Summary.  ?Three potyviruses were identified by gene sequencing and found to be widespread in species of Apiaceae in Australia. Only celery mosaic virus was found in celery crops and in one of 180 specimens of feral carrot (Daucus carota). Another related but distinct novel potyvirus, carrot virus Y, was the only virus found in carrot crops and all except one\\u000a feral

  1. Green fluorescent protein as an efficient selection marker for Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated carrot transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Baranski; E. Klocke; G. Schumann

    2006-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation combined with a visual selection for green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been applied effectively\\u000a in carrot (Daucus carota L.) transformation. Carrot root discs were inoculated with A4, A4T, LBA1334 and LBA9402 strains, all bearing gfp gene in pBIN-m-gfp5-ER. The results indicate that transformed adventitious roots can be visually selected solely based on\\u000a GFP fluorescence with a

  2. The roles of Ri rol and Ng rol genes in hairy root induction in Nicotiana debneyi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seishiro Aoki; Kunihiko Sy?no

    2000-01-01

    The function of Rirol genes in TL-DNA of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes has been previously studied in Nicotiana tabacum and Daucus carota, but it was reported that these plants have a TL-DNA-similar sequence in their genome. We investigated the function of Rirol genes in N. debneyi by infection with A. tumefaciens harboring these genes, because the genome of

  3. [Effect of volatile metabolites from germinating seeds on the reproduction of the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Sidorenko, M L; Buzoleva, L S

    2012-01-01

    The biological activity of volatile metabolites of germinating seeds of cabbage (Brassica oleacia), carrot (Daukus carota), salad (Lactuca sativa), and corn (Zea mays L.) against Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was studied. It was shown that volatile metabolites are transfer factors and can be the sole carbon and energy source for these bacteria. Methanol is the main substance affecting their growth and reproduction. PMID:22834302

  4. Carrot Antifreeze Protein Does Not Exhibit the Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Activity of PGIP Family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dang-Quan ZHANG; Hong-Bin WANG; Bin LIU; Dong-Ru FENG; Yan-Ming HE; Jin-Fa WANG

    2006-01-01

    The carrot (Daucus carota) antifreeze protein (DcAFP) has a strong antifreeze activity and identified as belonging to the plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) family based on its sequence similarities, including the presence of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motif. In this study, yeast two-hybrid technology was used to analyze whether the carrot AFP could act as a PGIP. The complete DcAFP and

  5. Phytotoxicity, uptake and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene by plant cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Jian Wang; Maria Bokern; Christian Boehme; H. Harms; K. C. Jones

    1996-01-01

    Phytotoxicity, uptake, and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) by carrot (Daucus carota L.), soybean (Glycine max. L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and red goosefoot (Chenopodiun rubrum L.) cell suspension cultures were studied. Sealed glass systems were utilized for the investigation because 1,4-DCB is volatile. The sealed systems affect the growth of plant cells, but do not provide different results when testing

  6. Transgenic plants containing the phosphinothricin- N -acetyltransferase gene metabolize the herbicide l-phosphinothricin (glufosinate) differently from untransformed plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Dröge; I. Broer; A. Piihler

    1992-01-01

    l-Phosphinothricin (l-Pt)-resistant plants were constructed by introducing a modified phosphinothricin-N-acetyl-transferase gene (pat) via Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L), and via direct gene transfer into carrot (Daucus carota L). The metabolism of l-Pt was studied in these transgenic, Pt-resistant plants, as well as in the untransformed species. The degradation of l-Pt, 14C-labeled specifically at different C-atoms, was analysed

  7. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from Helichrysum microphyllum Cambess. ssp. tyrrhenicum Bacch., Brullo e Giusso growing in La Maddalena Archipelago, Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Maggi, Filippo; Lupidi, Giulio; Bramucci, Massimo; Quassinti, Luana; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2015-01-01

    Helichrysum microphyllum Cambess. subsp. tyrrhenicum Bacch., Brullo e Giusso (Asteraceae), previously known as Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum (Willd.) Nyman, is one of the many endemic species growing in Sardinia, Corsica and Balearic Islands. In the present work the composition of the essential oil obtained from a population of H. microphyllum ssp. thyrrenicum growing in a littoral location of La Maddalena Archipelago was investigated by GC-FID and CG-MS. The major compounds of the oil were the monoterpene ester neryl acetate (18.2%), the oxygenated sesquiterpene 5-eudesmen-11-ol (rosifoliol, 11.3%), the sequiterpene hydrocarbons ?-cadinene (8.4%) and ?-cadinene (6.7%), showing a peculiar composition in comparison with other Sardinian populations. The oil was tested for cytotoxicity on three human tumor cell lines (MDA-MB 231, HCT116 and A375) by MTT assay showing a strong inhibitory activity on human malignant melanoma cells A375 (IC50 of 16 µg/ml). In addition the oil was assessed for antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS assay. PMID:25492232

  8. Comparative sequence analysis of the potato cyst nematode resistance locus H1 reveals a major lack of co-linearity between three haplotypes in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp.).

    PubMed

    Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Bakker, Erin; de Boer, Jan; van der Vossen, Edwin; Achenbach, Ute; Golas, Tomasz; Suryaningrat, Suwardi; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

    2011-02-01

    The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a high-resolution genetic map of the H1 locus (Bakker et al. in Theor Appl Genet 109:146-152, 2004) were used to screen a BAC library to construct a physical map covering a 341-kb region of the resistant haplotype coming from SH. For comparison, physical maps were also generated of the two haplotypes from the diploid susceptible genotype RH89-039-16 (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum/S. phureja), spanning syntenic regions of 700 and 319 kb. Gene predictions on the genomic segments resulted in the identification of a large cluster consisting of variable numbers of the CC-NB-LRR type of R genes for each haplotype. Furthermore, the regions were interspersed with numerous transposable elements and genes coding for an extensin-like protein and an amino acid transporter. Comparative analysis revealed a major lack of gene order conservation in the sequences of the three closely related haplotypes. Our data provide insight in the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the H1 locus and will facilitate the map-based cloning of the H1 resistance gene. PMID:21049265

  9. Host-specific races in the holoparasitic angiosperm Orobanche minor: implications for speciation in parasitic plants

    PubMed Central

    Thorogood, C. J.; Rumsey, F. J.; Hiscock, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Orobanche minor is a root-holoparasitic angiosperm that attacks a wide range of host species, including a number of commonly cultivated crops. The extent to which genetic divergence among natural populations of O. minor is influenced by host specificity has not been determined previously. Here, the host specificity of natural populations of O. minor is quantified for the first time, and evidence that this species may comprise distinct physiological races is provided. Methods A tripartite approach was used to examine the physiological basis for the divergence of populations occurring on different hosts: (1) host–parasite interactions were cultivated in rhizotron bioassays in order to quantify the early stages of the infection and establishment processes; (2) using reciprocal-infection experiments, parasite races were cultivated on their natural and alien hosts, and their fitness determined in terms of biomass; and (3) the anatomy of the host–parasite interface was investigated using histochemical techniques, with a view to comparing the infection process on different hosts. Key Results Races occurring naturally on red clover (Trifolium pratense) and sea carrot (Daucus carota ssp. gummifer) showed distinct patterns of host specificity: parasites cultivated in cross-infection studies showed a higher fitness on their natural hosts, suggesting that races show local adaptation to specific hosts. In addition, histological evidence suggests that clover and carrot roots vary in their responses to infection. Different root anatomy and responses to infection may underpin a physiological basis for host specificity. Conclusions It is speculated that host specificity may isolate races of Orobanche on different hosts, accelerating divergence and ultimately speciation in this genus. The rapid life cycle and broad host range of O. minor make this species an ideal model with which to study the interactions of parasitic plants with their host associates. PMID:19251714

  10. NEW SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO RACE RO1 GOLDEN NEMATODE (G. ROSTOCHIENSIS WOLL.) AMONG REPUTED DUPLICATE GERMPLASM ACCESSIONS OF S. TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENUM IN THE VIR (RUSSION) AND US POTATO GENEBANKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated species Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum (i.e., andigena per nomenclature used at the US Potato Genebank, USPG) is well known as a rich source of valuable traits for potato breeding, especially for resistance to diseases and pests. The Potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis Wo...

  11. Genome-Wide Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Identifies Multiple Major Loci for Brittle Rachis and Threshability in Tibetan Semi-Wild Wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Kong, Xing-Chen; Qi, Peng-Fei; Wang, Ji-Rui; Wei, Yu-Ming; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Liu, Ya-Xi; Peng, Yuan-Ying; Chen, Guo-Yue; Dai, Shou-Fen; Zheng, You-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan semi-wild wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao) is a semi-wild hexaploid wheat resource that is only naturally distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Brittle rachis and hard threshing are two important characters of Tibetan semi-wild wheat. A whole-genome linkage map of T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum was constructed using a recombinant inbred line population (Q1028×ZM9023) with 186 lines, 564 diversity array technology markers, and 117 simple sequence repeat markers. Phenotypic data on brittle rachis and threshability, as two quantitative traits, were evaluated on the basis of the number of average spike rachis fragments per spike and percent threshability in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping performed using inclusive composite interval mapping analysis clearly identified four QTLs for brittle rachis and three QTLs for threshability. However, three loci on 2DS, 2DL, and 5AL showed pleiotropism for brittle rachis and threshability; they respectively explained 5.3%, 18.6%, and 18.6% of phenotypic variation for brittle rachis and 17.4%, 13.2%, and 35.2% of phenotypic variation for threshability. A locus on 3DS showed an independent effect on brittle rachis, which explained 38.7% of the phenotypic variation. The loci on 2DS and 3DS probably represented the effect of Tg and Br1, respectively. The locus on 5AL was in very close proximity to the Q gene, but was different from the predicted q in Tibetan semi-wild wheat. To our knowledge, the locus on 2DL has never been reported in common wheat but was prominent in T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum accession Q1028. It remarkably interacted with the locus on 5AL to affect brittle rachis. Several major loci for brittle rachis and threshability were identified in Tibetan semi-wild wheat, improving the understanding of these two characters and suggesting the occurrence of special evolution in Tibetan semi-wild wheat. PMID:25474652

  12. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum from different areas in the Southern Apennines (Italy).

    PubMed

    Mancini, Emilia; Camele, Ippolito; Elshafie, Hazem S; De Martino, Laura; Pellegrino, Carlo; Grulova, Daniela; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, growing wild in three different localities in the Southern Apennines, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 103 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds and all oils belonged to the chemotype carvacrol/thymol. The three essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity by determining their influence on the germination and initial radicle elongation of Sinapis arvensis L., Phalaris canariensis L., Lepidium sativum L., and Raphanus sativus L. The seed germination and radicle growth were affected in various degrees. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the three essential oils was assayed against three species causing pre- and postharvest fruit decay (Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola). At 1000?ppm, the three oils completely inhibited fungal growth. The hemolytic activity of the oils was assayed and showed no effect on the cell membranes of bovine erythrocytes. PMID:24706631

  13. Isolation of anti-ulcerogenic sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures in rats.

    PubMed

    Yesilada, Erdem; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Bedir, Erdal; Tatli, Irem; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2004-12-01

    The fresh spiny flowers of Centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis (CSS) are used for the treatment of peptic ulcers in Turkey. Ethanol (80%) extract of CSS exhibited significant anti-ulcerogenic effect on the ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis model in rats. The ethanol extract was further fractionated by successive solvent extractions with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All fractions showed significant anti-ulcerogenic activity, however, the effect of the chloroform fraction was found to be more prominent with 99.5% ulcer inhibition. Bioassay-guided fractionation yielded sesquiterpene lactones as the active components. The main components responsible for the activity of the chloroform fraction were determined as chlorojanerin and 13-acetyl solstitialin A which were elucidated by HR-ESI and (1)H, (13)C and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. PMID:15507339

  14. Characterization of the intracellular survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: phagosomal pH and fusogenicity in J774 macrophages compared with other mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kuehnel, M P; Goethe, R; Habermann, A; Mueller, E; Rohde, M; Griffiths, G; Valentin-Weigand, P

    2001-08-01

    The phagosomes containing viable pathogenic mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium (M. avium), are known to be limited in their ability to both acidify and fuse with late (but not early) endocytic organelles. Here, we analysed the pH and fusogenicity of phagosomes containing M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis (M. ptb), the causative agent of paratuberculosis in ruminants. Using the murine J774 macrophage cell line, we compared viable and heat-killed M. ptb and, in addition, viable or dead M. avium, as well as two non-pathogenic mycobacteria, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium gordonae. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that M. ptb persisted intracellularly in phagosomes for up to 15 days. The phagosomes containing live M. ptb and M. avium were significantly reduced in their ability to acquire some markers for the endocytic pathway, such as internalized calcein, BSA-gold or the membrane protein Lamp 2. However, they were almost completely accessible to 70 kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran and Lamp 1. Overall, the phagosomes containing dead pathogenic mycobacteria behaved similarly to the ones containing live non-pathogenic mycobacteria in all experiments. Using FITC-dextran in a novel fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based method, we could also show that the bulk of endocytic compartments, including phagosomes, were only very mildly acidified to approximately pH 6.3 over at least 72 h in J774 cells infected with live M. ptb and M. avium. In contrast, J774 cells treated with heat-killed M. ptb or BSA-coated latex beads showed substantial acidification of the phagosome/endocytic compartments to a pH value of approximately 5.2. After infection with M. smegmatis and M. gordonae, acidification was initially (1-5 h after infection) inhibited, but increased after longer infection to levels similar to those with dead mycobacteria. PMID:11488816

  15. Insight into the specific virulence related genes and toxin-antitoxin virulent pathogenicity islands in swine streptococcosis pathogen Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC35246

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an important pathogen causing swine streptococcosis in China. Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) of S. zooepidemicus have been transferred among bacteria through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and play important roles in the adaptation and increased virulence of S. zooepidemicus. The present study used comparative genomics to examine the different pathogenicities of S. zooepidemicus. Results Genome of S. zooepidemicus ATCC35246 (Sz35246) comprises 2,167,264-bp of a single circular chromosome, with a GC content of 41.65%. Comparative genome analysis of Sz35246, S. zooepidemicus MGCS10565 (Sz10565), Streptococcus equi. ssp. equi. 4047 (Se4047) and S. zooepidemicus H70 (Sz70) identified 320 Sz35246-specific genes, clustered into three toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems PAIs and one restriction modification system (RM system) PAI. These four acquired PAIs encode proteins that may contribute to the overall pathogenic capacity and fitness of this bacterium to adapt to different hosts. Analysis of the in vivo and in vitro transcriptomes of this bacterium revealed differentially expressed PAI genes and non-PAI genes, suggesting that Sz35246 possess mechanisms for infecting animals and adapting to a wide range of host environments. Analysis of the genome identified potential Sz35246 virulence genes. Genes of the Fim III operon were presumed to be involved in breaking the host-restriction of Sz35246. Conclusion Genome wide comparisons of Sz35246 with three other strains and transcriptome analysis revealed novel genes related to bacterial virulence and breaking the host-restriction. Four specific PAIs, which were judged to have been transferred into Sz35246 genome through HGT, were identified for the first time. Further analysis of the TA and RM systems in the PAIs will improve our understanding of the pathogenicity of this bacterium and could lead to the development of diagnostics and vaccines. PMID:23742619

  16. Molecular characterization of BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous transcription factors involved in the regulation of aliphatic glucosinolate profiles in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Glucosinolates (GSL) are one of the major secondary metabolites of the Brassicaceae family. In the present study, we aim at characterizing the multiple paralogs of aliphatic GSL regulators, such as BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different tissues and at various developmental stages. An overlapping gene expression pattern between the BrMYBs as well as their downstream genes (DSGs) was found at different developmental stages. Among the BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous genes, the BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1 genes were dominantly expressed in most of the developmental stages, compared to the other paralogs of the BrMYB genes. Furthermore, the differential expression pattern of the BrMYBs was observed under various stress treatments. Interestingly, BrMYB28.2 showed the least expression in most developmental stages, while its expression was remarkably high in different stress conditions. More specifically, the BrMYB28.2, BrMYB28.3, and BrMYB29.1 genes were highly responsive to various abiotic and biotic stresses, further indicating their possible role in stress tolerance. Moreover, the in silico cis motif analysis in the upstream regulatory regions of BrMYBs showed the presence of various putative stress-specific motifs, which further indicated their responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses. These observations suggest that the dominantly expressed BrMYBs, both in different developmental stages and under various stress treatments (BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1), may be potential candidate genes for altering the GSL level through genetic modification studies in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis. PMID:26043798

  17. Functional identification of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl-glucosinolate in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brassica vegetables contain a class of secondary metabolites, the glucosinolates (GS), whose specific degradation products determine the characteristic flavor and smell. While some of the respective degradation products of particular GS are recognized as health promoting substances for humans, recent studies also show evidence that namely the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS might be deleterious by forming characteristic DNA adducts. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of aspects involved in the biosynthesis of indole GS is crucial to design vegetables with an improved secondary metabolite profile. Results Initially the leafy Brassica vegetable pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) was established as suitable tool to elicit very high concentrations of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS by application of methyl jasmonate. Differentially expressed candidate genes were discovered in a comparative microarray analysis using the 2 × 104 K format Brassica Array and compared to available gene expression data from the Arabidopsis AtGenExpress effort. Arabidopsis knock out mutants of the respective candidate gene homologs were subjected to a comprehensive examination of their GS profiles and confirmed the exclusive involvement of polypeptide 4 of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase subfamily CYP81F in 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS biosynthesis. Functional characterization of the two identified isoforms coding for CYP81F4 in the Brassica rapa genome was performed using expression analysis and heterologous complementation of the respective Arabidopsis mutant. Conclusions Specific differences discovered in a comparative microarray and glucosinolate profiling analysis enables the functional attribution of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis genes coding for polypeptide 4 of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase subfamily CYP81F to their metabolic role in indole glucosinolate biosynthesis. These new identified Brassica genes will enable the development of genetic tools for breeding vegetables with improved GS composition in the near future. PMID:24886080

  18. Molecular cloning and expression of the male sterility-related CtYABBY1 gene in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp chinensis var. parachinensis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Zhang, L G

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the YABBY gene family in the abaxial surface of lateral plant organs determines abaxial destiny of cells, enhances growth and expansion of lateral organs, and plays an important role in polar establishment of lateral organs. However, the YABBY gene has not been studied in male sterility and fertility restoration. We homologously cloned the CtYABBY1 gene of male-sterile TC1 in Brassica campestris L. ssp chinensis var. parachinensis; its expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. A 937-bp sequence was cloned from TC1 and named CtYABBY1. The ORF of this gene has 702 bp, contains a "C2C2 zinc finger" motif at the N-terminal end, and a "YABBY" structural domain at the C-terminal end. This gene had the highest homology with DBC43-3-2 gene in B. campetris ssp pekinensis. Expression of CtYABBY1 gene has a wide range of functions. It is involved in growth and development of lateral organs, such as leaves and flowers, enhancing expansion of the area and volume of young organs. CtYABBY1 is a gene that promotes thermo-sensitive fertility restoration. At room temperature, expression level of this gene was found to be lower in the stamens of sterile flowers. After treating TC1 at a low temperature of 2°-6°C for 20 days, expression of this gene was upregulated in the stamen of fertile flowers. We conclude that male sterility in TC1 is negatively regulated by this gene, which facilitates transition from male sterility to fertility. PMID:25036178

  19. Effect of rye A and B chromosomes on meiotic association of Hordeum marinum ssp. gussoneanum (4x) chromosomes in intergeneric hybrids.

    PubMed

    Linde-Laursen, I B; von Bothmer, R

    1997-01-01

    Chromosome association at metaphase I was studied in PMCs of eight H. marinum ssp. gussoneanum (4x) x rye hybrids. Differences in the levels of association separated six hybrids with 2n = 23 including 14 Hordeum, 7 rye A and 2 rye B chromosomes into two groups of three plants each, a "low association" group with means of 0.03III + 4.43II (1.55 rings + 2.88 rods) + 5.10I and 6.03 chiasmata/cell, and a "high association" group with means of 0.01IV + 0.03III + 6.40II (3.55 rings + 2.85 rods) + 1.13I and 10.04 chiasmata/cell. The low number of plants studied prevents a safe estimate of the number of genes involved, but the significant difference between groups suggests the presence in the rye genome of two major genes, or two genotypes, for control of meiotic chromosome association. In two additional hybrids with 2n = 25, one of each above-mentioned group, the presence of two extra rye B chromosomes raised chiasma frequencies by ca 1.5, indicating a promoting effect on chromosome association. The level of Hordeum chromosome association in the "high association" group and the observation of up to 7 Hordeum ring bivalents in some cells agree with an autoploid origin of H. marinum ssp. gussoneanum (4x). Hordeum and rye chromosomes formed a few heterogenomic bi- and trivalents. Most rye A chromosomes formed univalents, but 2.7% were included in associations. Rye B chromosomes generally formed rod bivalents. The use of genome analysis in its traditional sense is discussed. PMID:9474902

  20. The Non-universality of the Low-mass End of the IMF is Robust against the Choice of SSP Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiniello, C.; Trager, S. C.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2015-04-01

    We perform a direct comparison of two state-of-the art single stellar population (SSP) models that have been used to demonstrate the non-universality of the low-mass end of the initial mass function (IMF) slope. The two public versions of the SSP models are restricted to either solar abundance patterns or solar metallicity, too restrictive if one aims to disentangle elemental enhancements, metallicity changes, and IMF variations in massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) with star formation histories different from those in the solar neighborhood. We define response functions (to metallicity and ?-abundance) to extend the parameter space for each set of models. We compare these extended models with a sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) ETG spectra with varying velocity dispersions. We measure equivalent widths of optical IMF-sensitive stellar features to examine the effect of the underlying model assumptions and ingredients, such as stellar libraries or isochrones, on the inference of the IMF slope down to ?0.1 M?. We demonstrate that the steepening of the low-mass end of the IMF based on a non-degenerate set of spectroscopic optical indicators is robust against the choice of the stellar population model. Although the models agree in a relative sense (i.e., both imply more bottom-heavy IMFs for more massive systems), we find non-negligible differences in the absolute values of the IMF slope inferred at each velocity dispersion by using the two different models. In particular, we find large inconsistencies in the quantitative predictions of the IMF slope variations and abundance patterns when sodium lines are used. We investigate the possible reasons for these inconsistencies.

  1. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the findings and recommendations from the NESC assessment.

  2. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the Appendices to the main report.

  3. Insecticidal efficacy of silica gel with Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) essential oil against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas C; Evergetis, Epameinondas; Katsoula, Anna-Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A

    2013-08-01

    Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effect of silica gel enhanced with the essential oil (EO) of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) (derived from berry specimens from Greece) against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). For that purpose, a dry mixture consisting of 500 mg of silica gel that had absorbed 2.18 mg of EO (total weight: 502.18 mg) was tested at three doses; 0.125, 0.250, and 0.5 g/kg of wheat, corresponding to 125, 250, and 500 ppm, respectively, and silica gel alone at 0.5 g/kg of wheat corresponding to 500 ppm, at different exposure intervals (24 and 48 h and 7 and 14 d for S. oryzae; 24 and 48 h and 7, 14, and 21 d for T. confusum). The chemical content of the specific EO was determined by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses indicating the presence of 31 constituents with myrcene and germacrene-D being the predominant compounds. The bioactivity results for S. oryzae indicated that 48 h of exposure in wheat resulted in an 82% mortality for treatment with 500 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. For 7 d of exposure, 100 and 98% of S. oryzae adults died when they were treated with 500 and 250 ppm of enhanced silica gel, respectively. At 14 d of exposure, all adults died both at 250 and 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. At 48 h, 7 and 14 d of exposure significantly less S. oryzae adults died in wheat treated with silica gel alone than at 250 or 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. In the case of T. confusum, at 7 d of exposure, mortality in wheat treated with silica gel only was significantly higher in comparison to the other treatments. At the 14 d of exposure mortality in wheat treated with 500 ppm of silica gel alone was significantly higher than 125 and 250 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. Similar trends were also noted at 21 d of exposure, indicating that there is no enhancement effect from the addition of the EO. Results herein suggest that the simultaneous use of silica gel and J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus EO enhances significantly its activity against S. oryzae. PMID:24020309

  4. Volatile components from flower-heads of Centaurea nicaeensis All., C. parlatoris Helder and C. solstitialis L. ssp. schouwii (DC.) Dostál growing wild in southern Italy and their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Senatore, Felice; Formisano, Carmen; Raio, Aida; Bellone, Gabriella; Bruno, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the flowerheads of Centaurea nicaeensis All., C. parlatoris Helder and C. solstitialis L. ssp. schouwii (DC.) Dostál were extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. Altogether 113 components were identified. Fatty acids and hydrocarbons were the most abundant components in the oils. Caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide were the main compounds of the sesquiterpene fraction. The study on the biological activity of the oils shows no significant activity. PMID:18626815

  5. Aromatic Plants of Yugoslavia. I. Chemical Composition of Oils of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. pannonica (Scheele) Hayak, A. crithmifolia W. et K., A. serbica Nym. and A. tanacetifolia All

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Claude Chalchat; M. S. Gorunovic; S. D. Petrovic

    1999-01-01

    We used GC\\/MS to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of wild Achillea plants native to Yugoslavia: Achillea millefolium L. ssp. pannonica (Scheele) Hayak, A. crithmifolia W. et K., A. serbica Nym. and A. tanacetifolia All. Seventy-four components were identified. All four oils contained camphor (4–16%), 1,8-cineole (6–23%) and borneol (4–16%). In addition, artemisia ketone (4%) was found

  6. [Allelic state of the molecular marker for the golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) resistance gene H1 among Ukrainian and world cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum)].

    PubMed

    Karelov, A V; Pilipenko, L A; Kozub, N A; Bondus, R A; Borzykh, A U; Sozinov, I A; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was determination of allelic state of the H1 resistance gene against the pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 of golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) among Ukrainian and world potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) cultivars. The allelic condition of the TG689 marker was determined by PCR with DNA samples isolated from tubers of potato and primers, one pair of which flanks the allele-specific region and the other one was used for the control of DNA quality. Among analyzed 77 potato cultivars the allele of marker associated with the H1-type resistance was found in 74% of Ukrainian and 90% foreign ones although some of those cultivars proved to be susceptible to the golden potato nematode in field. The obtained data confirm the presence of H1-resistance against golden nematode pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 among the Ukrainian potato cultivars and efficiency of the used marker within the accuracy that has been declared by its authors. PMID:24228497

  7. A 560 yr summer temperature reconstruction for the Western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio (Corsica/France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymczak, S.; Joachimski, M. M.; Bräuning, A.; Hetzer, T.; Kuhlemann, J.

    2012-10-01

    The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be affected strongly by current climate change. However, temperature records for the past centuries which can contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse for this region. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often mirror temperature history but their application as climate proxies is difficult due to the influence of the anthropogenic change in atmospheric CO2 on the carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthetic CO2 uptake. We tested the influence of different correction models accounting for plant response to increased atmospheric CO2 on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 yr) derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica. The different correction factors have only a minor influence on the main climate signals and resulting temperature reconstructions. Carbon isotope series show strong correlations with summer temperature and precipitation. A summer temperature reconstruction (1448-2007 AD) reveals that the Little Ice Age was characterised by low, but not extremely low temperatures on Corsica. Temperatures have been to modern temperatures at around 1500 AD. The reconstruction reveals warm summers during 1480-1520 and 1950-2007 AD and cool summers during 1580-1620 and 1820-1890 AD.

  8. Chemical composition, seasonal variability, and antifungal activity of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas essential oils from stem/leaves and flowers.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Alberto; Barra, Andrea; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessi, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

    2006-06-14

    Essential oils from the stems/leaves (L) and flowers (F) of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in southern Sardinia (Italy) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector and ion trap mass spectrometry. The major compound was fenchone, accounting for, on average, 52.60% in L and 66.20% in F, followed by camphor (13.13% versus 27.08%, in L and F, respectively). F essential oil yields (volume per dry weight) decreased from the beginning to the end of the flowering stage, whereas L yields remained constant during the year. The nine main compounds derived from two different subpathways, A and B. The compounds that belong to the same subpathway showed a similar behavior during the year. The essential oils were tested for their antifungal activity using the paper disk diffusion method. The essential oils tested were effective on the inactivation of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum and less effective against Aspergillus flavus. Among the single compounds tested, fenchone, limonene, and myrtenal appeared to be the more effective on the inhibition of R. solani growth. PMID:16756368

  9. Induced Production of 1-Methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl Glucosinolate by Jasmonic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate in Sprouts and Leaves of Pak Choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Melanie; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Zrenner, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future. PMID:23873294

  10. Comparative proteome analysis of global effect of POS5 and zwf-ppnK overexpression in L-isoleucine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Li, Kun; Li, Yongfu

    2015-05-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum strain JHI3-156 produces L-isoleucine (Ile). Overexpression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae-derived NADH kinase gene (POS5) and the endogenous glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NAD kinase genes (zwf-ppnK) in JHI3-156 increased Ile production by 26 and 31 %, respectively. To decipher the global effect of POS5 and zwf-ppnK overexpression on Ile biosynthesis, proteomic analysis was conducted. Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were identified in the POS5-overexpressing strain, most of which are related to inositol catabolism, central carbon metabolism, anaplerotic pathway, protein biosynthesis and the stress response. In the zwf-ppnK-overexpressing strain, seven differentially-expressed proteins, including PpnK and anaplerotic enzymes, were identified. This result indicates the involvement of a novel inositol catabolism step and the importance of the anaplerotic pathway in Ile biosynthesis. This finding will be helpful in the systematic metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for Ile biosynthesis. PMID:25650341

  11. Molecular, physicochemical and rheological characteristics of introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum lines with wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution.

    PubMed

    Salmanowicz, Boles?aw P; Langner, Monika; Wi?niewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kwiatek, Micha?; B?aszczyk, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat) genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number) of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax), and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement. PMID:23896593

  12. Development of diagnostic markers for use in breeding potatoes resistant to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3 using germplasm derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena CPC 2802.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Claire; Griffin, Denis; Jones, Peter W; Bryan, Glenn J; McLean, Karen; Bradshaw, John E; Milbourne, Dan

    2010-02-01

    Quantitative resistance to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3, originally derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC) accession 2802, is present in several potato cultivars and advanced breeding lines. One genetic component of this resistance, a large effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) on linkage group IV (which we have renamed GpaIV(adg)(s)) has previously been mapped in the tetraploid breeding line 12601ab1. In this study, we show that GpaIV(adg)(s) is also present in a breeding line called C1992/31 via genetic mapping in an F(1) population produced by crossing C1992/31 with the G. pallida susceptible cultivar Record. C1992/31 is relatively divergent from 12601ab1, confirming that GpaIV(adg)(s) is an ideal target for marker-assisted selection in currently available germplasm. To generate markers exhibiting diagnostic potential for GpaIV(adg)(s), three bacterial artificial chromosome clones were isolated from the QTL region, sequenced, and used to develop 15 primer sets generating single-copy amplicons, which were examined for polymorphisms exhibiting linkage to GpaIV(adg)(s) in C1992/31. Eight such polymorphisms were found. Subsequently, one insertion/deletion polymorphism, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and a specific allele of the microsatellite marker STM3016 were shown to exhibit diagnostic potential for the QTL in a panel of 37 potato genotypes, 12 with and 25 without accession CPC2082 in their pedigrees. STM3016 and one of the SNP polymorphisms, C237(119), were assayed in 178 potato genotypes, arising from crosses between C1992/31 and 16 G. pallida susceptible genotypes, undergoing selection in a commercial breeding programme. The results suggest that the diagnostic markers would most effectively be employed in MAS-based approaches to pyramid different resistance loci to develop cultivars exhibiting strong, durable resistance to G. pallida pathotype Pa2/3. PMID:19882336

  13. Molecular, Physicochemical and Rheological Characteristics of Introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum Lines with Wheat 1D/1A Chromosome Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Salmanowicz, Boles?aw P.; Langner, Monika; Wi?niewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kwiatek, Micha?; B?aszczyk, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat) genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number) of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax), and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement. PMID:23896593

  14. Reducing the risk of infection in the elderly by dietary intake of yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.

    PubMed

    Makino, Seiya; Ikegami, Shuji; Kume, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hajime; Orii, Naoki

    2010-10-01

    Immune senescence potentially leads to an increased risk of infections. It is desirable to augment the immune system and protect against infections by daily consumption of immunostimulatory food. The present study evaluated whether the intake of yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) OLL1073R-1 has an effect on resistance to the common cold. We conducted two independent studies, in which fifty-seven (median age 74.5 years) and eighty-five healthy elderly individuals (median age 67.7 years) were participants. In each study, the subjects were divided into two groups based on age and sex and instructed to eat 90 g yoghurt or drink 100 ml milk once per d over an 8- or 12-week period. A meta-analysis of the results of these two independent studies showed the risk of catching the common cold was about 2.6 times lower (OR 0.39; P = 0.019) in the yoghurt group than in the milk group and the increase of natural killer cell activity was significantly higher in the yoghurt group than in the milk group (P = 0.028). In addition, the quality of life score for the 'eye/nose/throat' system after intake was significantly higher in the yoghurt group than in the milk group and the improvement of the score was correlated with the promotion of natural killer cell activity. In conclusion, consumption of yoghurt fermented with L. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 augmented natural killer cell activity and reduced the risk of catching the common cold in elderly individuals. PMID:20487575

  15. Identification of novel and conserved miRNAs involved in pollen development in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis by high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, noncoding, small RNAs that have essential regulatory functions in plant growth, development, and stress response processes. However, limited information is available about their functions in sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Pollen development is an important process in the life cycle of a flowering plant and is a major factor that affects the yield and quality of crop seeds. Results This study aims to identify miRNAs involved in pollen development. Two independent small RNA libraries were constructed from the flower buds of the male sterile line (Bcajh97-01A) and male fertile line (Bcajh97-01B) of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis. The libraries were subjected to high-throughput sequencing by using the Illumina Solexa system. Eight novel miRNAs on the other arm of known pre-miRNAs, 54 new conserved miRNAs, and 8 novel miRNA members were identified. Twenty-five pairs of novel miRNA/miRNA* were found. Among all the identified miRNAs, 18 differentially expressed miRNAs with over two-fold change between flower buds of male sterile line (Bcajh97-01A) and male fertile line (Bcajh97-01B) were identified. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed miRNAs were preferentially expressed in flower buds of the male fertile line (Bcajh97-01B). Degradome analysis showed that a total of 15 genes were predicted to be the targets of seven miRNAs. Conclusions Our findings provide an overview of potential miRNAs involved in pollen development and interactions between miRNAs and their corresponding targets, which may provide important clues on the function of miRNAs in pollen development. PMID:24559317

  16. Phenolic responses of mountain crowberry (Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum) to global climate change are compound specific and depend on grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Maria; Martz, Françoise; Kaarlejärvi, Elina; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Stark, Sari

    2013-12-01

    Mountain crowberry (Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum) is a keystone species in northern ecosystems and exerts important ecosystem-level effects through high concentrations of phenolic metabolites. It has not been investigated how crowberry phenolics will respond to global climate change. In the tundra, grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) affects vegetation and soil nutrient availability, but almost nothing is known about the interactions between grazing and global climate change on plant phenolics. We performed a factorial warming and fertilization experiment in a tundra ecosystem under light grazing and heavy grazing and analyzed individual foliar phenolics and crowberry abundance. Crowberry was more abundant under light grazing than heavy grazing. Although phenolic concentrations did not differ between grazing intensities, responses of crowberry abundance and phenolic concentrations to warming varied significantly depending on grazing intensity. Under light grazing, warming increased crowberry abundance and the concentration of stilbenes, but decreased e.g., the concentrations of flavonols, condensed tannins, and batatasin-III, resulting in no change in total phenolics. Under heavy grazing, warming did not affect crowberry abundance, and induced a weak but consistent decrease among the different phenolic compound groups, resulting in a net decrease in total phenolics. Our results show that the different phenolic compound groups may show varying or even opposing responses to warming in the tundra at different levels of grazing intensity. Even when plant phenolic concentrations do not directly respond to grazing, grazers may have a key control over plant responses to changes in the abiotic environment, reflecting multiple adaptive purposes of plant phenolics and complex interactions between the biotic and the abiotic factors. PMID:24287946

  17. Evidence for Cross-Tolerance to Nutrient Deficiency in Three Disjunct Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata in Response to Substrate Calcium to Magnesium Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Veatch-Blohm, Maren E.; Roche, Bernadette M.; Campbell, MaryJean

    2013-01-01

    Species with widespread distributions that grow in varied habitats may consist of ecotypes adapted to a particular habitat, or may exhibit cross-tolerance that enables them to exploit a variety of habitats. Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata (L.) O’Kane & Al-Shehbaz grow in a wide variety of edaphic settings including serpentine soil, limestone sand, and alluvial flood plains. While all three of these environments share some stressors, a crucial difference among these environments is soil calcium to magnesium ratio, which ranges from 25?1 in the limestone sand to 0.2?1 in serpentine soil. The three populations found on these substrates were subjected to three different Ca to Mg ratios under controlled environmental conditions during germination and rosette growth. Response to Ca to Mg ratio was evaluated through germination success and radicle growth rate, rosette growth rate, and the content of Ca and Mg in the rosette. All three populations were particularly efficient in fueling growth under nutrient deficiency, with the highest nutrient efficiency ratio for Ca under Ca deficiency and for Mg under Mg deficiency. Although the serpentine population had significantly higher leaf Ca to Mg ratio than the limestone or flood plain populations under all three Ca to Mg ratios, this increase did not result in any advantage in growth or appearance of the serpentine plants, during early life stages before the onset of flowering, even in the high Mg substrate. The three populations showed no population by substrate interaction for any of the parameters measured indicating that these populations may have cross-tolerance to substrate Ca to Mg ratio. PMID:23650547

  18. Responsiveness of different citrus genotypes to the Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri-derived pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22 correlates with resistance to citrus canker.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qingchun; Febres, Vicente J; Jones, Jeffrey B; Moore, Gloria A

    2015-06-01

    The bacterial agent of citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri, Xcc) has caused tremendous economic losses to the citrus industry around the world. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) is important to plant immunity. In this study, we compared the defence responses of citrus canker-resistant and citrus canker-susceptible genotypes to the Xcc-derived PAMP flg22 (Xflg22) by analysing the expression of 20 citrus defence-associated genes. We showed that, in the most resistant genotype, 'Nagami' kumquat, there was significant induction of several defence genes (EDS1, NDR1, PBS1, RAR1, SGT1, PAL1, NPR2 and NPR3) as early as 6?h and up to 72?h after Xflg22 treatment. At the other end of the spectrum, highly susceptible 'Duncan' grapefruit showed no induction of the same defence genes, even 120?h after treatment. Citrus genotypes with partial levels of resistance showed intermediate levels of transcriptional reprogramming that correlated with their resistance level. Xflg22 also triggered a rapid oxidative burst in all genotypes which was higher and accompanied by the induction of PTI marker genes (WRKY22 and GST1) only in the more resistant genotypes. Pretreatment with Xflg22 prior to Xcc inoculation inhibited bacterial growth in kumquat, but not in grapefruit. A flagellin-deficient Xcc strain (Xcc?fliC) showed greater growth increase relative to wild-type Xcc in kumquat than in grapefruit. Taken together, our results indicate that Xflg22 initiates strong PTI in canker-resistant genotypes, but not in susceptible ones, and that a robust induction of PTI is an important component of citrus resistance to canker. PMID:25231217

  19. Evidence for cross-tolerance to nutrient deficiency in three disjunct populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata in response to substrate calcium to magnesium ratio.

    PubMed

    Veatch-Blohm, Maren E; Roche, Bernadette M; Campbell, Maryjean

    2013-01-01

    Species with widespread distributions that grow in varied habitats may consist of ecotypes adapted to a particular habitat, or may exhibit cross-tolerance that enables them to exploit a variety of habitats. Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata (L.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz grow in a wide variety of edaphic settings including serpentine soil, limestone sand, and alluvial flood plains. While all three of these environments share some stressors, a crucial difference among these environments is soil calcium to magnesium ratio, which ranges from 25:1 in the limestone sand to 0.2:1 in serpentine soil. The three populations found on these substrates were subjected to three different Ca to Mg ratios under controlled environmental conditions during germination and rosette growth. Response to Ca to Mg ratio was evaluated through germination success and radicle growth rate, rosette growth rate, and the content of Ca and Mg in the rosette. All three populations were particularly efficient in fueling growth under nutrient deficiency, with the highest nutrient efficiency ratio for Ca under Ca deficiency and for Mg under Mg deficiency. Although the serpentine population had significantly higher leaf Ca to Mg ratio than the limestone or flood plain populations under all three Ca to Mg ratios, this increase did not result in any advantage in growth or appearance of the serpentine plants, during early life stages before the onset of flowering, even in the high Mg substrate. The three populations showed no population by substrate interaction for any of the parameters measured indicating that these populations may have cross-tolerance to substrate Ca to Mg ratio. PMID:23650547

  20. Evaluation of the anti-ulcerogenic effect of sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis by using various in vivo and biochemical techniques.

    PubMed

    Gürbüz, Ilhan; Yesilada, Erdem

    2007-06-13

    The guaianolide type sesquiterpene lactones chlorojanerin, 13-acetyl solstitialin A and solstitialin A were identified as the anti-ulcerogenic components of the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis (Asteraceae). In this study, these compounds were investigated by using various in vivo ulcer models in rats and mice. Chlorojanerin was shown to be significantly effective in preventing the induction of lesions by ethanol- (EtOH-) (both oral and subcutaneous administration), indomethacin-, indomethacin plus HCl/EtOH-, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester plus EtOH-, N-ethylmaleimide plus EtOH-, water immersion and restraint stress, and serotonin, as well as inhibiting titratable gastric acidity and acid output, and increasing gastric pH, but was ineffective in the prevention of ulcers induced by pyloric ligation, diethyldithiocarbamate, and cysteamine, and had no effect on gastric secretion volume or peptic activity. A mixture of 13-acetyl solstitialin A (95%) and solstitialin A (5%) was found to be significantly effective against EtOH-induced lesions on oral administration but was ineffective when administered subcutaneously. This mixture was also found to be effective in preventing lesions induced by EtOH, indomethacin, indomethacin plus HCl/EtOH, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester plus EtOH, N-ethylmaleimide plus EtOH, water immersion and restraint stress, serotonin and cysteamine, as well as inhibiting titratable gastric acidity and titratable acid output, and gastric pH, but was found ineffective against the pyloric ligation-induced and diethyldithiocarbamate-induced ulcerogenesis models, as well as gastric secretion volume and peptic activity. On the other hand, active compounds did not show any toxic effect on acute toxicity (3 days administration) evaluation tests in mice. PMID:17418988

  1. ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene apparently created by homoeologous recombination in Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Hui; Bi, Zhe-Guang; Wu, Bi-Hua; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Hu, Ji-Liang; Zheng, You-Liang; Liu, Deng-Cai

    2013-12-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are of considerable interest, because they play a crucial role in determining dough viscoelastic properties and end-use quality of wheat flour. In this paper, ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric HMW-GS gene from Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (AABB, 2n=4x=28) accession D129, was isolated and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the electrophoretic mobility of the glutenin subunit encoded by ChAy/Bx was slightly faster than that of 1Dy12. The complete ORF of ChAy/Bx contained 1,671 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 555 amino acid residues (or 534 amino acid residues for the mature protein), making it the smallest HMW-GS gene known from Triticum species. Sequence analysis showed that ChAy/Bx was neither a conventional x-type nor a conventional y-type subunit gene, but a novel chimeric gene. Its first 1305 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Ay type genes, while its final 366 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Bx type genes. The mature ChAy/Bx protein consisted of the N-terminus of 1Ay type subunit (the first 414 amino acid residues) and the C-terminus of 1Bx type subunit (the final 120 amino acid residues). Secondary structure prediction showed that ChAy/Bx contained some domains of 1Ay subunit and some domains of 1Bx subunit. The special structure of this HMW glutenin chimera ChAy/Bx subunit might have unique effects on the end-use quality of wheat flour. Here we propose that homoeologous recombination might be a novel pathway for allelic variation or molecular evolution of HMW-GSs. PMID:24012818

  2. Effects of oral administration of yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 and its exopolysaccharides against influenza virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takayuki; Makino, Seiya; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Haruki

    2011-12-01

    Yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 (1073R-1) has been shown to reduce the risk of catching cold in the healthy elderly (Makino et al., Br. J. Nutr., 104, 998-1006, 2010). In addition, the exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by 1073R-1 were also reported to exert immunostimulatory effects in mice such as the augmentation of NK cell activity (Makino et al., J. Dairy Sci., 89, 2873-81, 2006). So, we investigated anti-influenza virus effects of this yogurt and EPS in mice. The yogurt (0.4 ml/day) and EPS (20 ?g/day) were orally administered to BALB/c mice for 21 days prior to intranasal infection with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). As a result, the survival periods were prolonged in both yogurt- and EPS-treated groups compared to the water-treated group. Moreover, in these groups, we observed significant decrease of influenza virus titer and significant increase of anti-influenza virus antibodies (IgA, IgG(1)) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 4 days post infection NK cell activity of splenocytes in both groups was also increased significantly. EPS was further fractionated into neutral EPS (NPS) and acidic EPS (APS), and the NPS (20 ?g/day) or the APS (20 ?g/day) was orally administered to mice for 21 days prior to the intranasal infection. The survival periods were prolonged in APS-treated group, but not in NPS-treated group. Consequently, we concluded that the yogurt fermented with 1073R-1 exerted anti-influenza virus effects in mice by its immunopotentiating activity, and suggested that the APS produced by 1073R-1 was one of active ingredients. PMID:21986509

  3. Uridine 5'-diphospho-D-glucose-dependent vectorial sucrose synthesis in tonoplast vesicles of the storage hypocotyl of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. conditiva).

    PubMed

    Voß, M; Weidner, M

    1988-01-01

    Tonoplast vesicles were prepared from red-beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. conditiva) hypocotyl tubers ("beetroot") known to store sucrose. Uptake experiments, employing uridine 5'-diphospho-[(14)C]glucose (UDP-[(14)C]glucose) showed the operation of an UDP-glucose-dependent group translocator for vectorial synthesis and accumulation of sucrose, recently described for sugarcane and red-beet vacuoles and for tonoplast vesicles prepared from sugarcane suspension cells. Characterization of the kinetic properties yielded the following results. Uptake of UDP-glucose was linear for 15 min. The apparent K m was 0.75 mM for UDP-glucose (at pH 7.2, 1 mM Mg(2+)), V max was 32 nmol·(mg protein)(-1)·min(-1). The incorporation of UDP-glucose exhibited a sigmoidal substrate-saturation curve in the absence of Mg(2+), the Hill coefficient (n H) was 1.33; Michaelis-Menten kinetics were obtained, however, in the presence of 1 mM MgCl2. For the reaction sequence under the control of the group translocator a dual pH optimum was found at pH 7.2 and 7.9, respectively. All reaction intermediates and the end product sucrose could be identified by two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography and autoradiography. The distribution pattern of radioactivity showed almost uniformly high labeling of all intermediates and sucrose. The physiological relevance of the results is discussed in the light of the fact that the tonoplast of red-beet storage cells accommodates two mechanisms of sucrose uptake (i) vectorial sucrose synthesis and (ii) direct ATP-dependent sucrose assimilation. PMID:24226185

  4. A 500 year early summer temperature reconstruction for the western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymczak, S.; Joachimski, M. M.; Bräuning, A.; Hetzer, T.; Kuhlemann, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be severely affected by modern climate change. Strong temperature increase and precipitation decrease is expected for large regions, resulting in a northward extension of arid conditions. Information of past temperature changes which could contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often carry strong temperature information but they are critically in their application as climate proxies because of the influence by the change of atmopsheric CO2-concentration due to the fossil fuel burning effect. These changes are recorded in the chronologies by a remarkable downward trend over the last approximately 150 years and are routinely corrected. However, these correction values do not account for a plant physiological response to higher pCO2, a factor which is especially important in high mountain environments. We tested the influence of different correction models on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 years) derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica in the Western Mediterranean. A negative trend in the carbon isotope ratios during the last 150 years is still visible after correcting for changes of atmospheric CO2-concentration indicating that plant physiological responses to increased CO2 levels significantly influence the ?13C tree-ring values. Carbon isotope series corrected for both, increase in atmospheric CO2 and plant physiological response, show stronger correlations with climate parameters, especially summer temperature, and better mirror increasing temperatures in the climate data. Carbon isotope records from trees at cooler and wetter sites show generally lower ?13C-values and are more sensitive to temperature at the beginning of the vegetation period. ?13C records from drier and warmer sites are sensitive to drought stress during late summer. The strong and stable correlation of the carbon isotope ratios with May-June temperature at one study site allows a 500-year temperature reconstruction for the Western Mediterranean which will contribute to a better understanding of past climate variability in the Mediterranean basin.

  5. Evaluation of testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    More, S J; Cameron, A R; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Ezanno, P; Kenny, K; Fourichon, C; Graham, D

    2015-08-01

    As part of a broader control strategy within herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), individual animal testing is generally conducted to identify infected animals for action, usually culling. Opportunities are now available to quantitatively compare different testing strategies (combinations of tests) in known infected herds. This study evaluates the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of different testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be MAP infected. A model was developed, taking account of both within-herd infection dynamics and test performance, to simulate the use of different tests at a single round of testing in a known infected herd. Model inputs included the number of animals at different stages of infection, the sensitivity and specificity of each test, and the costs of testing and culling. Testing strategies included either milk or serum ELISA alone or with fecal culture in series. Model outputs included effectiveness (detection fraction, the proportion of truly infected animals in the herd that are successfully detected by the testing strategy), cost, and cost-effectiveness (testing cost per true positive detected, total cost per true positive detected). Several assumptions were made: MAP was introduced with a single animal and no management interventions were implemented to limit within-herd transmission of MAP before this test. In medium herds, between 7 and 26% of infected animals are detected at a single round of testing, the former using the milk ELISA and fecal culture in series 5 yr after MAP introduction and the latter using fecal culture alone 15 yr after MAP introduction. The combined costs of testing and culling at a single round of testing increases with time since introduction of MAP infection, with culling costs being much greater than testing costs. The cost-effectiveness of testing varied by testing strategy. It was also greater at 5 yr, compared with 10 or 15 yr, since MAP introduction, highlighting the importance of early detection. Future work is needed to evaluate these testing strategies in subsequent rounds of testing as well as accounting for different herd dynamics and different levels of herd biocontainment. PMID:26074225

  6. An Ecological Friendly Dragee Technic Application on Crop Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Summary: In Brazíl, in EMBRAPA/CNPH was developing a dragée technic for seeds of crops and vegetables of carrot (Daucus carota L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), micro tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Andropogon ssp. and Eucalyptus ssp. using as inert material the dolomite (CaCO3 96%) powder fractions (0.05 to 1.00 mm) and as cementing adhesives the polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and Gumma arabicum (Ga) (0 to 80% in water). On dragée process were using fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mankoceb (1 to 5 g fungicide/kg dolomite powder) and nutrients (N, P2O5, K2O 0.05 to 0.5, MgO, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co 0.000005 to 0.1 g/ kg dolomite powder) were applied from 1990. to 1993. Best results obtained with fraction of dolomite powder of 0.07 to 0.60 mm of diameter and adhesive of polyvinyl acetate (PVA) with the concentration between 10 to 20%. The dragées obtained presented a mechanical resistance of 0.5 kg/cm2 had show a germination higher than 90% without any phytotoxical effects to the seedlings. Fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mankoceb with the concentration 3-3 and mineral nutrients N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co with the concentration 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, 0.06, 0.00045, 0.00025, 0.0011, 0.00057, 0.00045, 0.000084, 0.00001 g/kg dolomite powder were showed best reultes, respectively. With this dragée utilization we could make possible the intensive use of highest quality seeds wich because of their higher costs are prohibitive in the actual systems of production. Keywords:crops, vegetables, seeds, dragée, nutrients, fungicides Introduction: In Latin America, Brazíl is the far greatest producer of crops and vegetables, with an annual production estimated at 9.631.000 tons in the value of 1.576 million dollars. Fifty species are cultivated of which 35 are producing botanical seeds including 162 varieties commercialized. The average national production of vegetable seeds is of 1.329,73 tons per year with an additional importation of 553,14 tons (Warley and Homero 1991). Most of the seeds of species are small requiring special preparation of the soil or the formation of seedlings and transplantation limiting the possibilities to mechanized planting. Besides the small size of seeds their trichome contents their wrinkle and their sensibility to mechanical damage difficult their uniform and precise distribution at sowing. To avoid error of "stand" and excessive number of seeds is sown followed by thinning out to eliminate exceeding plants. That results in the rise of production costs leding the producer to the utilization of cheaper seeds giving up extra gains that may results from the usage of better cultivars. The dragée facilitates the uniform distribution of seeds and makes precision mechanical planting possible (Márton 1993). In the process of plant productions the use of dragéed seeds facilitates the distribution of seeds that rises productive rentability (Silva and Márton 1992). The National Research Center for Vegetable Crops was developing dragée techniques of seeds based on Hungarian technology viewing the utilization of natural resources from the Brazílian situation from 1990 to 1993 (Márton 1999, 2000). Material and Method: At the first stage an equipment was developed for the production of dragées on the laboratory scale. The apparatus was permitting different material tests of seeds of various species obtaining dragées of carrot (Daucus carota L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and micro tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Andropogon ssp. and Eucalyptus ssp. using as inert material the dolomite (CaCO3 96%) powder fractions (0.05 to 1.00 mm) and as cementing adhesives the polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and Gumma arabicum (Ga) (0 to 80% in water). On dragée process were using fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mancoceb (1 to 5 g fungicide/kg dolomite powder) and mineral nutrients (N, P2O5, K2O 0.

  7. SSP Power Management and Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Thomas H.; Roth, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space Solar Power is a NASA program sponsored by Marshall Space Flight Center. The Paper presented here represents the architectural study of a large power management and distribution (PMAD) system. The PMAD supplies power to a microwave array for power beaming to an earth rectenna (Rectifier Antenna). The power is in the GW level.

  8. Variation inGermination andAminoAcidLeakage ofSeeds with Temperature Related toMembranePhaseChange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STERLING B. HENDRICKS; RAYB. TAYLORSON

    Leakages ofaminoacids and\\/or fluorescent material asfunctions of temperature between 15and40C arereported forimbibed seeds of Avenafatua L.,Lactuca sativa L.,Barbarea vulgaris R.Br., Amaran- thus albus L.,Abutilon theophrasti Medic., Lychnis albaMill., Daucus carotaL.,Setaria faberi Herrm., Setaria viridis (L.)Beauv., and Daturastramonium L.Theleakage indicates prominent increase in permeability oftheplasmalemma inthe30to35Crange for8ofthe10 kinds ofseeds studied. Germination oftheseeds atconstant tempera- tures orwithdaily shifts intemperature isrelated tothemembrane transition

  9. Measurement of endogenous ABA levels in chilled somatic embryos of carrot by immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T M; Kitto, S L

    1988-08-01

    Somatic embryos of carrot, Daucus carota L. 'Royal Chantenay', were chilled at 4°C for the last 3 days of development in order to harden torpedo stage embryos to increase embryo survival during desiccation. ABA levels in chilled and non-chilled embryos were measured using a polyclonal radioimmunoassay and a monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The monoclonal ELISA is the preferred technique due to superior sensitivity and specificity. ABA levels, measured by either technique, were similar in chilled and non-chilled embryos. The relative water content was lower in chilled embryos than in non-chilled embryos and chilling altered protein secretion of one cell line. PMID:24241882

  10. Extracellular calmodulin-binding proteins in plants: purification of a 21-kDa calmodulin-binding protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tang Jun; Wu Shupin; Bai Juan; Sun Daye

    1996-01-01

    A 21-kDa calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein and a 19-kDa calmodulin-binding protein were detected in 0.1 M CaCl2 extracts of Angelica dahurica L. suspension-cultured cells and carrot (Daucus carota L.) suspension-cultured cells, respectively, using a biotinylated cauliflower CaM gel-overlay technique in the presence of 1 mM Ca2+. No bands, or very weak bands, were shown on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels

  11. Virtual screening of plant derived compounds for aldose reductase inhibition using molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Muppalaneni, Naresh Babu; Rao, Allam Appa

    2012-01-01

    The role of the aldose reductase in type 2 diabetes is widely described. Therefore, it is of interest to identify plant derived compounds to inhibit its activity. We studied the protein-ligand interaction of 267 compounds from different parts of seven plants (Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Dacus carota, Murrayyakoneigii, Eucalyptus, Calendula officinalis and Lycopersicon esculentum) with aldose reductase as the target protein. Molecular docking and re-scoring of top ten compounds (using GOLD, AutoDock Vina, eHiTS, PatchDock and MEDock) followed by rank-sum technique identified compound allium38 with high binding affinity for aldose reductase. PMID:23275691

  12. Screening seeds of Scottish plants for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Kumarasamy, Yashodharan; Cox, Philip John; Jaspars, Marcel; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit Dey

    2002-11-01

    Based on ethnopharmacological and taxonomic information, seeds of 21 Scottish plant species from 14 different families were obtained from authentic seed suppliers. Their n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts were assessed for antibacterial activity against 11 pathogenic bacterial species. Methanol extracts of 11 plant species showed significant antibacterial activity. Malva moschata and Prunus padus were active against five bacterial species, Reseda lutea against four, Centaurium erythraea and Crithmum maritimum against three, Calluna vulgaris against two, and Armeria maritima, Centaurea scabiosa, Daucus carota, Rosa canina and Stellaria holostea against one bacterial species. C. erythraea and P. padus were also active against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:12413709

  13. Reinforced Polyproline II Conformation in a Hydroxyproline-Rich Cell Wall Glycoprotein from Carrot Root 1

    PubMed Central

    van Holst, Gerrit-Jan; Varner, Joseph E.

    1984-01-01

    The salt-extractable hydroxyproline-rich cell wall glycoprotein from carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots is composed of 35% (w/w) protein, 3% (w/w) galactose, and 62% (w/w) arabinose. The arabinose is attached to hydroxyproline as tetra- and trisaccharides. The circular dichroism of the glycoprotein shows that it is completely in the polyproline II conformation. After deglycosylation of the glycoprotein, the polyproline II conformation of the peptide backbone was lost. This indicates that the carbohydrate reinforces the polyproline II conformation. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16663405

  14. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging reveals the occurrence of phenylphenalenone-type compounds in red paracytic stomata and red epidermis tissue of Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red'.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Fuchser, Jens; Knop, Katrin; Menezes, Riya C; Buerkert, Andreas; Svatoš, Aleš; Schubert, Ulrich S; Schneider, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    The banana epidermis and in particular their stomata are conducive sites for the penetration of pathogenic fungi which can severely limit global banana production. The red pseudostem of the ornamental banana Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red' was used to study the chemical constituents of the epidermal cell layer using matrix-free laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-FT-ICR-MSI). The high resolution of this technique allowed phenylphenalenone-type compounds to be located in single plant cells. Some of these secondary metabolites were identified as constitutive compounds and found in specialized epidermal cells in banana pseudostem tissue. Especially the red paracytic stomata revealed higher signal intensities of certain phenylphenalenones than normal epidermis cells. The ease of detection of polycyclic aromatic compounds on the cellular level is discussed with regard to future investigations of plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:26004822

  15. Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems. Initial assessment of plant DNA mutation spectra as a biomarker

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.; Cataldo, D.A.; Fellows, R.J.; Jarrell, A.E.; Harvey, S.D.

    1995-09-01

    Munitions material can enter the environment as a result of manufacturing activities and field usage. Predictor methodologies, or biomarkers would enhance evaluation of environmental impacts. The goal of this exploratory study deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mutation frequency as a biomarker for munitions exposure. The approach e resolution of an effective repetitive sequence probe for the identification of characteristic mutations, and (2) the development of a testing media [a clonal cell line of carrot (Daucus carota) spension cells]. Commercially available probes demonstrated marginal resolution therefore a low-C{sub o}t library was then constructed. Three colonies from the low-C{sub o}t DNA library were screened and the DNA isolates sequenced. A suspension culture of carrot (Daucus carota) was developed. A mutation spectra experiment was initiated at a 10-mg TNT/L exposure concentration with the attempt to clone over 1500 single TNT-exposed cells. Over the following six months greater than 98% of the initially isolated cells were unable to survive and produce micro calluses. The remaining calli were too few to be statistically significant and the experiment was terminated. The biomarker concept itself remains to be disproved, but the need for large numbers of uniform clones to differentiate true mutations suggest that more direct techniques using whole tissues need to be developed.

  16. Mapping genes governing flower architecture and pollen development in a double mutant population of carrot

    PubMed Central

    Budahn, Holger; Bara?ski, Rafa?; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Kie?kowska, Agnieszka; Straka, Petra; Metge, Kai; Linke, Bettina; Nothnagel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A linkage map of carrot (Daucus carota L.) was developed in order to study reproductive traits. The F2 mapping population derived from an initial cross between a yellow leaf (yel) chlorophyll mutant and a compressed lamina (cola) mutant with unique flower defects of the sporophytic parts of male and female organs. The genetic map has a total length of 781 cM and included 285 loci. The length of the nine linkage groups (LGs) ranged between 65 and 145 cM. All LGs have been anchored to the reference map. The objective of this study was the generation of a well-saturated linkage map of D. carota. Mapping of the cola-locus associated with flower development and fertility was successfully demonstrated. Two MADS-box genes (DcMADS3, DcMADS5) with prominent roles in flowering and reproduction as well as three additional genes (DcAOX2a, DcAOX2b, DcCHS2) with further importance for male reproduction were assigned to different loci that did not co-segregate with the cola-locus. PMID:25339960

  17. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants. PMID:25548775

  18. Molecular evolution of flavonoid dioxygenases in the family Apiaceae.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Yvonne; Witte, Simone; Forkmann, Gert; Lukacin, Richard; Matern, Ulrich; Martens, Stefan

    2005-06-01

    Plant species of the family Apiaceae are known to accumulate flavonoids mainly in the form of flavones and flavonols. Three 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, flavone synthase or flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase are involved in the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites. The corresponding genes were cloned recently from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves. Flavone synthase I appears to be confined to the Apiaceae, and the unique occurrence as well as its high sequence similarity to flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase laid the basis for evolutionary studies. In order to examine the relationship of these two enzymes throughout the Apiaceae, RT-PCR based cloning and functional identification of flavone synthases I or flavanone 3beta-hydroxylases were accomplished from Ammi majus, Anethum graveolens, Apium graveolens, Pimpinella anisum, Conium maculatum and Daucus carota, yielding three additional synthase and three additional hydroxylase cDNAs. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of these sequences were compatible with the phylogeny based on morphological characteristics and suggested that flavone synthase I most likely resulted from gene duplication of flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase, and functional diversification at some point during the development of the apiaceae subfamilies. Furthermore, the genomic sequences from Petroselinum crispum and Daucus carota revealed two introns in each of the synthases and a lack of introns in the hydroxylases. These results might be explained by intron losses from the hydroxylases occurring at a later stage of evolution. PMID:15913674

  19. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), ?-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and ?-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

  20. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrases from the extremophilic bacteria Sulfurihydrogenibium yellostonense (SspCA) and S. azorense (SazCA) with a new series of sulfonamides incorporating aroylhydrazone-, [1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazinyl- or 2-(cyanophenylmethylene)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-3(2H)-yl moieties.

    PubMed

    Alafeefy, Ahmed M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Vullo, Daniela; Al-Tamimi, Abdul-Malek S; Al-Jaber, Nabila A; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-01-01

    A series of new sulfonamides was prepared starting from 2-oxo-N'-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-propanehydrazonoyl chloride, a sulfanilamide derivative, which was reacted with aroylhydrazides, amines, or thiols. A library of derivatives incorporating aroylhydrazone, [1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazinyl- or 2-(cyanophenyl-methylene)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-3(2H)-yl moieties was thus synthesized. The new compounds were investigated as inhibitors of four ?-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1), the human (h) isoforms hCA I and II, and the bacterial ones recently isolated from the extremophilic bacteria Sulfurihydrogenibium yellostonense (SspCA) and Sulfurihydrogenibium azorense (SazCA). Low nanomolar activity was observed against hCA II (KIs of 0.56-17.1 nM) whereas hCA I was less inhibited by these compounds (K(I)s of 86.4 nM-32.8 ?M). The bacterial CAs were also effectively inhibited by these derivatives (K(I)s in the range of 0.77-234 nM against SazCA, and of 6.2-89.1 against SspCA, respectively), with several low nanomolar/subnanomolar inhibitors detected against both of them. As SspCA and SazCA are among the most thermostable and catalytically active CAs, it is of interest to find modulators of their activity for potential biotechnologic applications. PMID:24332658

  1. Transposon Mutagenesis of the Plant-Associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 Revealed That the nfrA and RBAM17410 Genes Are Involved in Plant-Microbe-Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dietel, Kristin; Beator, Barbara; Dolgova, Olga; Fan, Ben; Bleiss, Wilfrid; Ziegler, Jörg; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Borriss, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 represents the prototype of Gram-positive plant growth promoting and biocontrol bacteria. In this study, we applied transposon mutagenesis to generate a transposon library, which was screened for genes involved in multicellular behavior and biofilm formation on roots as a prerequisite of plant growth promoting activity. Transposon insertion sites were determined by rescue-cloning followed by DNA sequencing. As in B. subtilis, the global transcriptional regulator DegU was identified as an activator of genes necessary for swarming and biofilm formation, and the DegU-mutant of FZB42 was found impaired in efficient root colonization. Direct screening of 3,000 transposon insertion mutants for plant-growth-promotion revealed the gene products of nfrA and RBAM_017140 to be essential for beneficial effects exerted by FZB42 on plants. We analyzed the performance of GFP-labeled wild-type and transposon mutants in the colonization of lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While the wild-type strain heavily colonized root surfaces, the nfrA mutant did not colonize lettuce roots, although it was not impaired in growth in laboratory cultures, biofilm formation and swarming motility on agar plates. The RBAM17410 gene, occurring in only a few members of the B. subtilis species complex, was directly involved in plant growth promotion. None of the mutant strains were affected in producing the plant growth hormone auxin. We hypothesize that the nfrA gene product is essential for overcoming the stress caused by plant response towards bacterial root colonization. PMID:24847778

  2. Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Cysteinyl-tRNA Synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 Demonstrates that Group I Cations Are Particularly Effective in Providing Structure and Stability to This Halophilic Protein

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Christopher J.; Bushnell, Sarah; Evilia, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    Proteins from extremophiles have the ability to fold and remain stable in their extreme environment. Here, we investigate the presence of this effect in the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 (NRC-1), which was used as a model halophilic protein. The effects of salt on the structure and stability of NRC-1 and of E. coli CysRS were investigated through far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation melts. The CD of NRC-1 CysRS was examined in different group I and group II chloride salts to examine the effects of the metal ions. Potassium was observed to have the strongest effect on NRC-1 CysRS structure, with the other group I salts having reduced strength. The group II salts had little effect on the protein. This suggests that the halophilic adaptations in this protein are mediated by potassium. CD and fluorescence spectra showed structural changes taking place in NRC-1 CysRS over the concentration range of 0–3 M KCl, while the structure of E. coli CysRS was relatively unaffected. Salt was also shown to increase the thermal stability of NRC-1 CysRS since the melt temperature of the CysRS from NRC-1 was increased in the presence of high salt, whereas the E. coli enzyme showed a decrease. By characterizing these interactions, this study not only explains the stability of halophilic proteins in extremes of salt, but also helps us to understand why and how group I salts stabilize proteins in general. PMID:24594651

  3. Alcataenia fraterculae sp. n. from the horned puffin, Fratercula corniculata (Naumann), Alcataenia cerorhincae sp. n. from the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas), and Alcataenia larina pacifica ssp. n. (Cestoda: Dilepididae) in the North Pacific basin.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, E P

    1984-01-01

    Three Cestodes representing two species of the genus Alcataenia Spasskaia, 1971 and a subspecies of Alcataenia larina (Krabbe, 1869) are described. Alcataenia fraterculae sp. n. (Cestoda: Dilepididae) was found in horned puffins, Fratercula corniculata (Naumann), and other species of seabirds from localities in the western Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, and Chukchi Sea. Alcataenia cerorhincae sp. n. is described from the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas) in the eastern North Pacific Ocean and western Aleutian Islands. Alcataenia larina pacifica ssp. n. is recognized from species of Laridae and other seabirds in the North Pacific Ocean, Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea and the region of the Arctic Ocean near Bering Strait. It is distinguished from A. larina larina (Krabbe, 1869) by a greater number of testes, a longer cirrus sac, and variation in the position of the genital ducts which may be either dorsal to or between the osmoregulatory canals. A fraterculae and A. cerorhincae are most similar to A. larina and particularly to the North Pacific form A. l. pacifica. Generally specimens of A. fraterculae can be distinguished from the other taxa by larger rostellar hooks, a longer cirrus sac, and a combination of other characters. A. fraterculae, A. cerorhincae, and A. l. pacifica however represent a complex of cryptic species in which there is extensive overlap in some morphological characters. Results of a discriminant analysis among these nominal taxa were significant and, in combination with data about other morphological characters and host and geographic distribution, clearly indicated that these represent three species in the North Pacific basin. PMID:6486621

  4. microRNA319a-Targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TCP Genes Modulate Head Shape in Chinese Cabbage by Differential Cell Division Arrest in Leaf Regions1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yanfei; Wu, Feijie; Yu, Xiang; Bai, Jinjuan; Zhong, Weili; He, Yuke

    2014-01-01

    Leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are composed of extremely incurved leaves. The shape of these heads often dictates the quality, and thus the commercial value, of these crops. Using quantitative trait locus mapping of head traits within a population of 150 recombinant inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, we investigated the relationship between expression levels of microRNA-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, cycloidea, and PCF transcription factor4 (BrpTCP4) genes and head shape. Here, we demonstrate that a cylindrical head shape is associated with relatively low BrpTCP4-1 expression, whereas a round head shape is associated with high BrpTCP4-1 expression. In the round-type Chinese cabbage, microRNA319 (miR319) accumulation and BrpTCP4-1 expression decrease from the apical to central regions of leaves. Overexpression of BrpMIR319a2 reduced the expression levels of BrpTCP4 and resulted in an even distribution of BrpTCP4 transcripts within all leaf regions. Changes in temporal and spatial patterns of BrpTCP4 expression appear to be associated with excess growth of both apical and interveinal regions, straightened leaf tips, and a transition from the round to the cylindrical head shape. These results suggest that the miR319a-targeted BrpTCP gene regulates the round shape of leafy heads via differential cell division arrest in leaf regions. Therefore, the manipulation of miR319a and BrpTCP4 genes is a potentially important tool for use in the genetic improvement of head shape in these crops. PMID:24351684

  5. Hypaphorine, an indole-3-acetic acid antagonist delivered by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius, induces reorganisation of actin and the microtubule cytoskeleton in Eucalyptus globulus ssp bicostata root hairs.

    PubMed

    Ditengou, Franck Anicet; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Lapeyrie, Frédéric

    2003-12-01

    Hypaphorine, an indole alkaloid from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius Coker & Couch., counteracts indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) activity and controls the rate of root hair elongation in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. bicostata. The present investigation shows that hypaphorine changes cytoskeletal organisation in elongating root hairs of the host. The actin cytoskeleton was investigated by two different fixation and labelling procedures, which gave similar results. In control root hairs, actin organisation was characterised by (i) an actin cap at the very tip region, (ii) a subapical region with reduced labelling and containing fine actin filaments, and (iii) axial bundles of actin filaments running from the subapical part to the base of the root hair. In the hypaphorine-treated root hairs no actin cap was distinguished. The fine actin filaments occurring in the subapical region were replaced by a few thick actin filament bundles that extended from the subapical region toward the root hair tip. In the hypaphorine-treated hairs the total number of actin filament bundles along most of the root hair length was significantly reduced, presumably due to aggregation of pre-existing actin filaments. The first signs of alteration to the cytoskeleton could be detected as soon as 15 min after hypaphorine treatment. In hypaphorine-treated, but not in control root hairs, a patch of aggregated microtubules regularly occurred at a distance of approximately 10 microm from the tip, possibly as a consequence of changes induced by hypaphorine in the actin cytoskeleton. The hypaphorine-induced aggregations in the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons could stabilise the structure of cytoskeletal elements, which in turn could hinder the vesicle delivery at the tip necessary for elongation. Such cytoskeletal alterations may be a consequence of the antagonism between IAA and hypaphorine. The latter view was supported by restoration of the actin cytoskeleton in hypaphorine-treated root hairs by IAA application. PMID:14504925

  6. Development of microsatellite markers in Parthenium ssp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular markers provide the most efficient means to study genetic diversity within and among species of a particular genus. In addition, molecular markers can facilitate breeding efforts by providing tools necessary to reduce the time required to obtain recombinant genotypes with improved agricu...

  7. Schoolhouse Systems Project: SSP. 3rd Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This brochure provides statistical bid breakdown for Programs 1A and 2 of the Florida Schoolhouse Systems Project. Tabular information is provided on bidders, compatible building subsystems, bid tabulation by compatibility, "per school" building subsystems, nominated bidders and lump sums, and a comparison of programs 1A and 2 bids. Data presented…

  8. The NERSC Sustained System Performance (SSP) Metric

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, William; Shalf, John; Strohmaier, Erich

    2005-09-18

    Most plans and reports recently discuss only one of four distinct purposes benchmarks are used. The obvious purpose is selection of a system from among its competitors, something that is the main focus of this paper. This purpose is well discussed in many workshops and reports. The second use of benchmarks is validating the selected system actually works the way expected once it arrives. This purpose may be more important than the first reason. The second purpose is particularly key when systems are specified and selected based on performance projections rather than actual runs on the actual hardware. The third use of benchmarks, seldom mentioned, is to assure the system performs as expected throughout its lifetime1, (e.g. after upgrades, changes, and regular use.) Finally, benchmarks are used to guide system designs, something covered in detail in a companion paper from Berkeley's Institute for Performance Studies (BIPS).

  9. Susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria ssp

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, L.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with {sup 3}H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with {sup 125}I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae.

  10. SSP: Sketching Slide Presentations, a Syntactic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, Joan; Sanchez, Gemma; Lladós, Josep

    The design of a slide presentation is a creative process. In this process first, humans visualize in their minds what they want to explain. Then, they have to be able to represent this knowledge in an understandable way. There exists a lot of commercial software that allows to create our own slide presentations but the creativity of the user is rather limited. In this article we present an application that allows the user to create and visualize a slide presentation from a sketch. A slide may be seen as a graphical document or a diagram where its elements are placed in a particular spatial arrangement. To describe and recognize slides a syntactic approach is proposed. This approach is based on an Adjacency Grammar and a parsing methodology to cope with this kind of grammars. The experimental evaluation shows the performance of our methodology from a qualitative and a quantitative point of view. Six different slides containing different number of symbols, from 4 to 7, have been given to the users and they have drawn them without restrictions in the order of the elements. The quantitative results give an idea on how suitable is our methodology to describe and recognize the different elements in a slide.

  11. An improved UHPLC-UV method for separation and quantification of carotenoids in vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Megan M; Mein, Jonathan R; Chaudhuri, Swapan K; Constant, Howard L

    2014-12-15

    Carotenoid identification and quantitation is critical for the development of improved nutrition plant varieties. Industrial analysis of carotenoids is typically carried out on multiple crops with potentially thousands of samples per crop, placing critical needs on speed and broad utility of the analytical methods. Current chromatographic methods for carotenoid analysis have had limited industrial application due to their low throughput, requiring up to 60 min for complete separation of all compounds. We have developed an improved UHPLC-UV method that resolves all major carotenoids found in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota), corn (Zea mays), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The chromatographic method is completed in 13.5 min allowing for the resolution of the 11 carotenoids of interest, including the structural isomers lutein/zeaxanthin and ?-/?-carotene. Additional minor carotenoids have also been separated and identified with this method, demonstrating the utility of this method across major commercial food crops. PMID:25038701

  12. Effectiveness of different EDU concentrations in ameliorating ozone stress in carrot plants.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Supriya; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2010-07-01

    Ethylenediurea (EDU) is suggested for use to evaluate plant response under ambient ozone (O(3)) concentrations. Four EDU treatments, viz. 0 (non-EDU), 150, 300 and 450 mg L(-1), applied as soil drench at 10 days interval to carrot (Daucus carota L. var. Pusa Kesar), grown at a tropical suburban site of Varanasi experiencing mean O(3) concentration of 36.1 ppb during the experimental period. EDU treated plants showed significantly higher antioxidative defense, assimilation capability and reduced membrane lipid peroxidation, which led to better growth and significant yield increments compared to non-EDU treated ones. The magnitude of positive responses was highest at 150 mg L(-1) EDU treatment at 60 DAG, representing the metabolically most active phase of root filling in carrot. This study suggests that the lowest EDU concentration was sufficient to provide protection against negative effects of O(3). PMID:20403638

  13. Regulation of Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activity in Relation to Carbon Limitation and Protein Catabolism in Carrot Cell Suspension Cultures 1

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Sharon A.; Stewart, George R.; Phillips, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) specific activity and function have been studied in cell suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv Chantenay) in response to carbon and nitrogen supply in the culture medium. The specific activity of GDH was derepressed in sucrose-starved cells concomitant with protein catabolism, ammonium excretion, and the accumulation of metabolically active amino acids. The addition of sucrose led to a rapid decrease in GDH specific activity, an uptake of ammonium from the medium, and a decrease in amino acid levels. The extent of GDH derepression was correlated positively with cellular glutamate concentration. These findings strengthen the view that the function of GDH is the catabolism of glutamate, which under conditions of carbon stress provides carbon skeletons for tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. PMID:16668745

  14. The Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Plant Nitrogen Metabolism 12

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Sharon A.; Slade, Annette P.; Fox, Gary G.; Phillips, Richard; Ratcliffe, R. George; Stewart, George R.

    1991-01-01

    In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, in vitro gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and automated 15N/13C mass spectrometry have been used to demonstrate that glutamate dehydrogenase is active in the oxidation of glutamate, but not in the reductive amination of 2-oxogiutarate. In cell suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv Chantenay), primary assimilation of ammonium occurs via the glutamate synthase pathway. Glutamate dehydrogenase is derepressed in carbonlimited cells and in such cells the function of glutamate dehydrogenase appears to be the oxidation of glutamate, thus ensuring sufficient carbon skeletons for effective functioning of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This catabolic role for glutamate dehydrogenase implies an important regulatory function in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:16668014

  15. Improved method for HPLC analysis of polyamines, agmatine and aromatic monoamines in plant tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, R. D.; Flores, H. E.; Galston, A. W.; Weinstein, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of Flores and Galston (1982 Plant Physiol 69: 701) for the separation and quantitation of benzoylated polyamines in plant tissues has been widely adopted by other workers. However, due to previously unrecognized problems associated with the derivatization of agmatine, this important intermediate in plant polyamine metabolism cannot be quantitated using this method. Also, two polyamines, putrescine and diaminopropane, also are not well resolved using this method. A simple modification of the original HPLC procedure greatly improves the separation and quantitation of these amines, and further allows the simulation analysis of phenethylamine and tyramine, which are major monoamine constituents of tobacco and other plant tissues. We have used this modified HPLC method to characterize amine titers in suspension cultured carrot (Daucas carota L.) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissues.

  16. Effect of wild flowers on oviposition of Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, Isabel; Núñez-Pérez, Etelvina; Tizado, Emilio Jorge

    2008-12-01

    Marginal vegetation in crops is very important for natural enemies and their pest control capacity. The effects of Brassica nigra L. (Brassicaceae), Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae), and Sonchus oleraceous L. (Asteraceae) flowers as supplemental food on the number of eggs laid during 7 d and on the preoviposition time in Hippodamia variegata (Goeze, 1777) were studied in the laboratory under conditions of several densities of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, 1776). The results show the presence of flowers of Brassica and Sonchus increased egg production 1.44X and doubled the pre-oviposition period (2.13X). This suggests that the availability of flowers of Brassica and Sonchus as supplemental foods (pollen and nectar) in the marginal vegetation of crops can serve to improve reproductive performance of H. variegata, specifically under conditions of prey limitation. Thus, the increase in fitness of this predator allows a better response to changes in pest density. PMID:19133458

  17. Occurrence of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in tropical and subtropical plants of Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Madhaiyan, M; Saravanan, V S; Jovi, D Bhakiya Silba Sandal; Lee, Hyoungseok; Thenmozhi, R; Hari, K; Sa, Tongmin

    2004-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the tissues of surface sterilized roots, stems, and leaves of fifty different crop plants. Phenotypic, biochemical tests and species-specific PCR assay permitted identification of four isolates of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus from root tissues of carrot (Daucus carota L.), raddish (Raphanus sativus L.), beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and coffee (Coffea arabica L.). Further the plant growth promoting traits such as nitrogenase activity, production of phytohormone indole acetic acid (IAA), phosphorus and zinc solubilization were assessed. Significant nitrogenase activity was recorded among the isolates and all the isolates produced IAA in the presence of tryptophan. Though all the four isolates efficiently solubilized phosphorus, the zinc solubilizing ability differed among the isolates. PMID:15462523

  18. Plant uptake of sludge-borne PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, G.A.; Kiehl, D.; Eiceman, G.A.; Ryan, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Plant uptake of sludge-borne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (similar to Aroclor 1248) was evaluated in a greenhouse study with two food-chain crops and a grass species. Polychlorinated biphenyl loading to two soils was varied in one experiment by adding different rates of a municipal sewage sludge heavily contaminated (52 mg/kg) with PCBs. In a second experiment, Aroclor 1248 was spiked into unamended soils or soils amended with another sludge containing <1mg/kg PCBs. Analysis of PCBs was by GC/MS with a reliable detection limit in plants of 20 microg/kg for individual chlorinated classes (tri, tetra-, and pentachlorobiphenyls) and total PCBs. Only carrots (Daucus carota) were contaminated with PCBs, and contamination was restricted to carrot peels. Current USEPA guidelines for land application of sludges based on sludge PCB content are shown to be extremely conservative.

  19. Carrot cells: a pioneering platform for biopharmaceuticals production.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Tello-Olea, Marlene Anahí

    2015-03-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is of importance in the molecular farming field as it constitutes the first plant species approved to produce biopharmaceuticals for human use. In this review, features that make carrot an advantageous species in the molecular farming field are analyzed and a description of the developments achieved with this crop thus far is presented. A guide for genetic transformation procedures is also included. The state of the art comprises ten vaccine prototypes against Measles virus, Hepatitis B virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Yersinia pestis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheria/Clostridium tetani/Bordetella pertussis, and Helicobacter pylori; as well as the case of the glucocerebrosidase, an enzyme used for replacement therapy, and other therapeutics. Perspectives for these developments are envisioned and innovations are proposed such as the use of transplastomic technologies-, hairy roots-, and viral expression-based systems to improve yields and develop new products derived from this advantageous plant species. PMID:25572939

  20. Transgenic carrot expressing fusion protein comprising M. tuberculosis antigens induces immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Permyakova, Natalia V; Zagorskaya, Alla A; Belavin, Pavel A; Uvarova, Elena A; Nosareva, Olesya V; Nesterov, Andrey E; Novikovskaya, Anna A; Zav'yalov, Evgeniy L; Moshkin, Mikhail P; Deineko, Elena V

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human ?-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice) when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:25949997

  1. Phytotoxicity and fate of 1,1,2-trichloroethylene: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Inderjit; Asakawa, Chikako; Kakuta, Hideo

    2003-06-01

    1,1,2-Trichloroethylene (TCE), a chlorinated organic contaminant, poses serious environmental concerns. A study was conducted to evaluate the phytotoxicity of TCE to a crop species and its fate in vermiculite. Growth bioassays were carried out using carrot (Daucus carota L.) as the test species. Three different concentrations, 0.25, 0.50, and 1 ppm were used to evaluate phytotoxicity of TCE. When added to petri plates with cotton pads, TCE did not have any effect on carrot seedling growth. However, when added to vermiculite, it significantly suppressed growth. Shoot growth was inhibited only at the 1 ppm concentration. Recovery experiments were carried out to study the fate of TCE in vermiculite. A significant decline in the percent recovery was observed with time. Interestingly, TCE additional peaks (unknown organic molecules) were detected with declining concentrations. The available chloride ion concentration in vermiculite containing 1 ppm of TCE for 24 hr was significantly higher compared to control. PMID:12918919

  2. Long and short term effects of plasma treatment on meristematic plant cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pua?, N.; Živkovi?, S.; Selakovi?, N.; Milutinovi?, M.; Boljevi?, J.; Malovi?, G.; Petrovi?, Z. Lj.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we will present results of plasma treatments of meristematic cells of Daucus carota. Plasma needle was used as an atmospheric pressure/gas composition source of non-equilibrium plasma in all treatments. Activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase was measured immediately after plasma treatment and after two weeks following the treatment. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased in samples immediately after the plasma treatment. On the other hand, catalase activity was much higher in treated samples when measured two weeks after plasma treatment. These results show that there is a direct proof of the triggering of signal transduction in the cells by two reactive oxygen species H2O2 and O2-, causing enzyme activity and short and long term effects even during the growth of calli, where the information is passed to newborn cells over the period of two weeks.

  3. Natural genetic transformation by agrobacterium rhizogenes . Annual flowering in two biennials, belgian endive and carrot

    PubMed

    Limami; Sun; Douat; Helgeson; Tepfer

    1998-10-01

    Genetic transformation of Belgian endive (Cichorium intybus) and carrot (Daucus carota) by Agrobacterium rhizogenes resulted in a transformed phenotype, including annual flowering. Back-crossing of transformed (R1) endive plants produced a line that retained annual flowering in the absence of the other traits associated with A. rhizogenes transformation. Annualism was correlated with the segregation of a truncated transferred DNA (T-DNA) insertion. During vegetative growth, carbohydrate reserves accumulated normally in these annuals, and they were properly mobilized prior to anthesis. The effects of individual root-inducing left-hand T-DNA genes on flowering were tested in carrot, in which rolC (root locus) was the primary promoter of annualism and rolD caused extreme dwarfism. We discuss the possible adaptive significance of this attenuation of the phenotypic effects of root-inducing left-hand T-DNA. PMID:9765539

  4. Metal-accelerated oxidation in plant cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Czuba, M. (National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1993-05-01

    Cadmium and mercury toxicity is further enhanced by external oxidizing conditions O[sub 3] or inherent plant processes. Lepidium sativum L, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., or Phaseolus vulgaris L, were grown inpeat-lite to maturity under continuous cadmium exposure followed by one oxidant (O[sub 3]-6 hr. 30 pphm) exposure, with or without foliar calcium pretreatments. In comparison, Daucus carota, L and other species grown in a 71-V suspension, with or without 2,4-D were exposed continuously to low levels of methylmercury during exponential growth and analyzed in aggregates of distinct populations. Proteins were extracted and analyzed. Mechanisms of toxicity and eventual cell death are Ca-mediated and involve chloroplast, stomatal-water relations and changes in oxidant-anti-oxidant components in cells. Whether the metal-accelerated oxidative damage proceeds to cell death, depends on the species and its differential biotransformation system and cell association component.

  5. CarrotDB: a genomic and transcriptomic database for carrot.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tan, Hua-Wei; Wang, Feng; Hou, Xi-Lin; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is an economically important vegetable worldwide and is the largest source of carotenoids and provitamin A in the human diet. Given the importance of this vegetable to humans, research and breeding communities on carrot should obtain useful genomic and transcriptomic information. The first whole-genome sequences of 'DC-27' carrot were de novo assembled and analyzed. Transcriptomic sequences of 14 carrot genotypes were downloaded from the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and mapped to the whole-genome sequence before assembly. Based on these data sets, the first Web-based genomic and transcriptomic database for D. carota (CarrotDB) was developed (database homepage: http://apiaceae.njau.edu.cn/car rotdb). CarrotDB offers the tools of Genome Map and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Using these tools, users can search certain target genes and simple sequence repeats along with designed primers of 'DC-27'. Assembled transcriptomic sequences along with fragments per kilobase of transcript sequence per millions base pairs sequenced information (FPKM) information of 14 carrot genotypes are also provided. Users can download de novo assembled whole-genome sequences, putative gene sequences and putative protein sequences of 'DC-27'. Users can also download transcriptome sequence assemblies of 14 carrot genotypes along with their FPKM information. A total of 2826 transcription factor (TF) genes classified into 57 families were identified in the entire genome sequences. These TF genes were embedded in CarrotDB as an interface. The 'GERMPLASM' part of CarrotDB also offers taproot photos of 45 carrot genotypes and a table containing accession numbers, names, countries of origin and colors of cortex, phloem and xylem parts of taproots corresponding to each carrot genotype. CarrotDB will be continuously updated with new information. Database URL: http://apiaceae.njau.edu.cn/carrotdb/ PMID:25267795

  6. Survival of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis DSMZ 10140 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. animalis ATCC 25527

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    of Food Science College of Agriculture, Pennsylvania State University Summer 2009 Abstract Probiotic bacteria are defined as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host" (FAO/WHO 2002); Based on this definition, to exert health benefits the organisms must

  7. Evaluation of proposed Skylab and SSP soap products.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durfee, R. L.; Spurlock, J. M.; Whitmore, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    Four candidate cleansing agents evaluated in terms of potential hazards to crew members included two soaps (Neutrogena bar soap and Olive Leaf Liquid), one nonfoaming surfactant (Miranol JEM), and one laundry detergent (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate). None of the four exhibited adverse dermatological effects from skin patch tests or supported growth of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Aqueous solutions of Neutrogena did support a mold species. Neutrogena and Miranol JEM were used in a simulated Skylab personal hygiene regimen with no adverse effects on skin or skin microflora. Based on our results, each of these agents appear to be a promising candidate material for the use intended.

  8. Evaluation of proposed Skylab and SSP soap products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, F. C.; Durfee, R. L.; Spurlock, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Three personal hygiene cleansing agents and one laundry detergent (sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate), which are all candidates for use on long-duration space missions, were evaluated in terms of dermatological effects on human subjects and effects on microbiological species. None of the four materials exhibited adverse dermatological effects from either skin patch tests of two weeks duration or a simulated Skylab personal hygiene regimen of up to four weeks duration. No significant alterations in skin microflora during the use regimen were found. None of the four materials were found to serve as microbiological support media for the species tested, but a species of air-borne mold was observed to grow rapidly in a neutralized aqueous solution. None of the candidate agents was found to be strongly biocidal.

  9. Seed metabolites alter the development of Aspergillus ssp

    E-print Network

    Hinze, Lori Lynn

    2013-02-22

    Three species of the genus Aspergillus (A.) A. nidulans, A. parasiticus, and A. flavus are currently being observed in our lab to determine the effects of seed metabolites on fungal development. A. nidulans reproduces asexually through the formation...

  10. Seed metabolites alter the development of Aspergillus ssp.

    E-print Network

    Hinze, Lori Lynn

    2013-02-22

    Three species of the genus Aspergillus (A.) A. nidulans, A. parasiticus, and A. flavus are currently being observed in our lab to determine the effects of seed metabolites on fungal development. A. nidulans reproduces asexually through the formation...

  11. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 39: 37-79, 2000 (2006) A review of the genus Manerebia Staudinger

    E-print Network

    Willmott, Keith

    2006-01-01

    . inderena leaeniva n. ssp., M. inderena mirena n. ssp., M. inderena similis n. ssp., M. leaena gonzalezi n. inderena clara n. ssp., M. inderena fina n. ssp., M. inderena leaeniva n. ssp., M. inderena mirena n. ssp

  12. Selection and Characterization of a Carrot Cell Line Tolerant to Glyphosate 1

    PubMed Central

    Nafziger, Emerson D.; Widholm, Jack M.; Steinrücken, Hans C.; Killmer, John L.

    1984-01-01

    Cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells were adapted to growing in 25 millimolar glyphosate by transfer into progressively higher concentrations of the herbicide. Tolerance was increased 52-fold, and the adaptation was stable in the absence of glyphosate. The uptake of glyphosate was similar for adapted and nonadapted cells. Activity of the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase was 12-fold higher in the adapted line compared to nonadapted cells, while activities of shikimate dehydrogenase and anthranilate synthase were similar in the two cell types. The adapted cells had higher levels of free amino acids—especially threonine, methionine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine, and arginine—than did nonadapted cells. Glyphosate treatment caused decreases of 50 to 65% in the levels of serine, glycine, methionine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan in nonadapted cells, but caused little change in free amino acid levels in adapted cells. The adaptation reported here supports the growing body of evidence linking tolerance to glyphosate with increased levels of the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. The elevated levels of aromatic amino acids, which may confer resistance in adapted cells, suggest that control of the shikimate pathway may be altered in these cells. PMID:16663884

  13. Variation in Germination and Amino Acid Leakage of Seeds with Temperature Related to Membrane Phase Change

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Sterling B.; Taylorson, Ray B.

    1976-01-01

    Leakages of amino acids and/or fluorescent material as functions of temperature between 15 and 40 C are reported for imbibed seeds of Avena fatua L., Lactuca sativa L., Barbarea vulgaris R. Br., Amaranthus albus L., Abutilon theophrasti Medic., Lychnis alba Mill., Daucus carota L., Setaria faberi Herrm., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv., and Datura stramonium L. The leakage indicates prominent increase in permeability of the plasmalemma in the 30 to 35 C range for 8 of the 10 kinds of seeds studied. Germination of the seeds at constant temperatures or with daily shifts in temperature is related to the membrane transition temperature for permeation by amino acids. Seeds of A. albus and A. theophrasti, which did not show membrane changes in the 25 to 40 C range, germinated best at 35 to 40 C; the other seeds germinated best below 30 C. Seeds of B. vulgaris showed rapid permeation of limiting membranes upon initial wetting with water, which was indicative of membrane disorder when dry. Leakage under anaerobiosis was observed for S. faberi seeds. PMID:16659623

  14. Heavy metals bioconcentration from soil to vegetables and assessment of health risk caused by their ingestion.

    PubMed

    Garg, V K; Yadav, Poonam; Mor, Suman; Singh, Balvinder; Pulhani, Vandana

    2014-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the non-carcinogenic human health risk of heavy metals through the ingestion of locally grown and commonly used vegetables viz. Raphanus sativus (root vegetable), Daucus carota (root vegetable), Benincasa hispida (fruit vegetable) and Brassica campestris leaves (leafy vegetable) in a semi-urbanized area of Haryana state, India. Heavy metal quantification of soil and vegetable samples was done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Lead, cadmium and nickel concentration in vegetable samples varied in range of 0.12-6.54 mg kg(-1), 0.02-0.67 mg kg(-1) and <0.05-0.41 mg kg(-1), respectively. Cadmium and lead concentration in some vegetable samples exceeded maximum permissible limit given by World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization and Indian standards. Much higher concentrations of Pb (40-190.5 mg kg(-1)), Cd (0.56-9.85 mg kg(-1)) and Ni (3.21-45.87 mg kg(-1)) were reported in corresponding vegetable fields' soils. Correlation analysis revealed the formation of three primary clusters, i.e. Cu-Cd, Cd-Pb and Ni-Zn in vegetable fields' soils further supported by cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Bioconcentration factor revealed that heavy metals' uptake was more by leafy vegetable than root and fruit vegetables. Hazard index of all the vegetables was less than unity; thus, the ingestion of these vegetables is unlikely to pose health risks to the target population. PMID:24464601

  15. Carbon Uptake and the Metabolism and Transport of Lipids in an Arbuscular Mycorrhiza1

    PubMed Central

    Pfeffer, Philip E.; Douds, David D.; Bécard, Guillaume; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    1999-01-01

    Both the plant and the fungus benefit nutritionally in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis: The host plant enjoys enhanced mineral uptake and the fungus receives fixed carbon. In this exchange the uptake, metabolism, and translocation of carbon by the fungal partner are poorly understood. We therefore analyzed the fate of isotopically labeled substrates in an arbuscular mycorrhiza (in vitro cultures of Ri T-DNA-transformed carrot [Daucus carota] roots colonized by Glomus intraradices) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Labeling patterns observed in lipids and carbohydrates after substrates were supplied to the mycorrhizal roots or the extraradical mycelium indicated that: (a) 13C-labeled glucose and fructose (but not mannitol or succinate) are effectively taken up by the fungus within the root and are metabolized to yield labeled carbohydrates and lipids; (b) the extraradical mycelium does not use exogenous sugars for catabolism, storage, or transfer to the host; (c) the fungus converts sugars taken up in the root compartment into lipids that are then translocated to the extraradical mycelium (there being little or no lipid synthesis in the external mycelium); and (d) hexose in fungal tissue undergoes substantially higher fluxes through an oxidative pentose phosphate pathway than does hexose in the host plant. PMID:10364411

  16. Correlation between the Suppression of Glucose and Phosphate Uptake and the Release of Protein from Viable Carrot Root Cells Treated with Monovalent Cations.

    PubMed

    Nieman, R H; Willis, C

    1971-09-01

    Treating carrot (Daucus carota L.) discs with ice-cold NaCl solutions for 30 minutes caused three effects that appear to be functionally related: the exchange of tissue Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) for Na(+), the release of protein, and the suppression of active uptake of glucose and orthophosphate. Cyclosis continued apparently unabated after treatment with NaCl at concentrations of up to 0.25 m, so the cells remained viable and energetically competent. The correlation between the release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and release of protein, and between these effects and the suppression of glucose and orthophosphate uptake, supports the hypothesis that divalent cations maintain, and monovalent cations disrupt, linkages between the outer cell surface and proteins required for active solute uptake. Calcium preserved uptake activity only when it was added in time to prevent the release of protein. Cells gradually recovered some glucose uptake activity after it had been completely inactivated by treatment with 0.25 m NaCl. This recovery occurred in the absence of added Ca(2+). It was inhibited by puromycin and so appears to require some protein synthesis. Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) discs were more resistant than carrot discs to treatment with NaCl solutions, thus reflecting the difference in tolerance of the two species to sodicity. PMID:16657783

  17. Correlation between the Suppression of Glucose and Phosphate Uptake and the Release of Protein from Viable Carrot Root Cells Treated with Monovalent Cations

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, R. H.; Willis, Catherine

    1971-01-01

    Treating carrot (Daucus carota L.) discs with ice-cold NaCl solutions for 30 minutes caused three effects that appear to be functionally related: the exchange of tissue Ca2+ and Mg2+ for Na+, the release of protein, and the suppression of active uptake of glucose and orthophosphate. Cyclosis continued apparently unabated after treatment with NaCl at concentrations of up to 0.25 m, so the cells remained viable and energetically competent. The correlation between the release of Ca2+ and Mg2+ and release of protein, and between these effects and the suppression of glucose and orthophosphate uptake, supports the hypothesis that divalent cations maintain, and monovalent cations disrupt, linkages between the outer cell surface and proteins required for active solute uptake. Calcium preserved uptake activity only when it was added in time to prevent the release of protein. Cells gradually recovered some glucose uptake activity after it had been completely inactivated by treatment with 0.25 m NaCl. This recovery occurred in the absence of added Ca2+. It was inhibited by puromycin and so appears to require some protein synthesis. Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) discs were more resistant than carrot discs to treatment with NaCl solutions, thus reflecting the difference in tolerance of the two species to sodicity. PMID:16657783

  18. Translocation of Nickel in Xylem Exudate of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tiffin, Lee O.

    1971-01-01

    Topped plants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), corn (Zea mays), carrot (Daucus carota), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) were treated with 0.5 to 50 micromolar Ni (containing 63Ni) in nutrient solutions. Xylem exudate was collected for 10 hours or, in the case of corn, for 20 hours at 5-hour intervals. Electrophoresis of nutrient solution distributed all Ni cathodically as inorganic Ni2+. Low concentrations of Ni in tomato exudate migrated anodically, presumably bound to organic anion (carrier). However, this carrier became saturated at about 2 micromolar Ni in exudate, and excess Ni ran cathodically. Most of the Ni in cucumber, corn, carrot, and peanut exudate ran anodically, and its migration rate was identical for all exudates. Peanut root sap contained 14 to 735 micromolar Ni. The anodic Ni carriers in root sap and exudate appear identical. The carrier in root sap became saturated near 100 micromolar Ni, as shown by cathodic streaking of Ni exceeding that concentration. It appears that all five species translocate low concentrations of Ni in the same anionic form. Images PMID:16657780

  19. Specific developmental pathways underlie host specificity in the parasitic plant Orobanche

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic angiosperms are an ecologically and economically important group of plants. However our understanding of the basis for host specificity in these plants is embryonic. Recently we investigated host specificity in the parasitic angiosperm Orobanche minor, and demonstrated that this host generalist parasite comprises genetically defined races that are physiologically adapted to specific hosts. Populations occurring naturally on red clover (Trifolium pratense) and sea carrot (Daucus carota subsp. gummifer) respectively, showed distinct patterns of host specificity at various developmental stages, and a higher fitness on their natural hosts, suggesting these races are locally adapted. Here we discuss the implications of our findings from a broader perspective. We suggest that differences in signal responsiveness and perception by the parasite, as well as qualitative differences in signal production by the host, may elicit host specificity in this parasitic plant. Together with our earlier demonstration that these O. minor races are genetically distinct based on molecular markers, our recent data provide a snapshot of speciation in action, driven by host specificity. Indeed, host specificity may be an underestimated catalyst for speciation in parasitic plants generally. We propose that identifying host specific races using physiological techniques will complement conventional molecular marker-based approaches to provide a framework for delineating evolutionary relationships among cryptic host-specific parasitic plants. PMID:20081361

  20. Low external pH replaces 2,4-D in maintaining and multiplying 2,4-D-initiated embryogenic cells of carrot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    A mixed culture comprised of both embryonic globules and nonembryogenic callus was derived from seedling hypocotyls of Daucus carota cv. Scarlet Nantes on 2,4-D- containing medium using well-established methods. Then the mixed cultures were transferred to, and serially subcultured on, a hormone-free medium near pH 4. The medium contained 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. When cultured in this way, embryonic globules were able to multiply without development into later embryo stages. Nonembryogenic callus did not survive. Continuous culture of embryonic globules on this low pH hormone-free medium yielded cultures consisting entirely of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs). PGSP cultures have been maintained as such with continuous multiplication for nearly 2 years without loss of embryogenic potential. These hormone-free-maintained PGSPs continue their development to later embryo stages when cultured on the same hormone-free medium buffered at pH 5.8. We show that hormone-free medium near pH 4 can replace 2,4-D in its ability to sustain multiplication of 2,4-D-initiated embryogenic cells of carrot at an acceptable growth rate without their development into later embryo stages. This procedure provides selective conditions that do not permit the growth of non-embryogenic cells while providing an adequate environment for embryogenic cell proliferation and should prove invaluable in studying habituation.

  1. Methyl mercury toxicity in plant cultures: modification of resistance and demethylation by light and/or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Czuba, M.

    1987-04-01

    Cultures of Daucus carota, Ca-68-10, and Lactuca sativa, Le-67, were grown at increasing methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations ranging from initial doses of 0.05 to 5.0 micrograms/ml per day for 4 days with or without 0.15 microgram/ml 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in the presence or absence of light. The presence of 2,4-D interacted with light synergistically in the expression of MeHg toxicity within the whole range of concentrations. Demethylation patterns increased or decreased depending on the species, the 2,4-D concentration in the medium, and methyl mercury concentration used in the treatment. Lettuce was more sensitive to this interaction than carrot. In lettuce, the presence of 2,4-D in the light lowered the concentration of total Hg (or MeHg) required to reduce growth by 50%, about 13 times relative to that in the dark (i.e., it sensitized the cells). In the absence of 2,4-D the pattern was reversed. In carrot the pattern was similar but less pronounced. This suggests that, in these cell populations, MeHg toxicity is partly a hormone-mediated and light-sensitive event.

  2. Identification of highly conserved hydrophobic amino acid motif in deduced amino acid sequence of Elymus sibiricus L. mitochondrial S13 ribosomal protein.

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Iu M; Tauson, E L; Verbitski?, D S; Dichenko, O Ia; Arziev, A Sh

    2000-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial ribosomal protein rps13 gene from wild perennial grass Elymus sibiricus is presented. It was determined by the method of PCR amplification with specific oligonucleotide primers and the direct sequencing of the amplification product. The sequence of E. sibiricus mitochondrial gene for S13 predicts a hydrophobic ribosomal protein of 116 amino acids that shows strong similarity to those of wheat (99.7% identity) and maize (98%). The deduced amino acid sequence of S13 protein from E. sibiricus and homologous plant's (Zea mays, Daucus carota, Nicotiana tabacum, Marchantia polymorpha) and nonplant's (Escherichia coli) proteins shows the presence of hydrophobic amino acids' motif -L-X10-L-X10-M-X10-L-X10-L-. Slightly modified it can be found in many other ribosomal proteins. This conserved motif is presumed to be particularly important for association of the ribosomal S13 protein with other proteins in the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome. PMID:10778389

  3. Ammonium Assimilation and the Role of [gamma]-Aminobutyric Acid in pH Homeostasis in Carrot Cell Suspensions.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, A. D.; Fox, G. G.; Laurie, S.; Phillips, R.; Ratcliffe, R. G.; Stewart, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    In vivo 15N NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the assimilation of ammonium by cell-suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv Chantenay). The cell suspensions were supplied with oxygen in the form of either pure oxygen ("oxygenated cells") or air ("aerated cells"). In contrast to oxygenated cells, in which ammonium assimilation had no effect on cytoplasmic pH, ammonium assimilation by aerated cells caused a decrease in cytoplasmic pH of almost 0.2 pH unit. This led to a change in nitrogen metabolism resulting in the accumulation of [gamma]-aminobutyric acid. The metabolic effect of the reduced oxygen supply under aerated conditions could be mimicked by artificially decreasing the cytoplasmic pH of oxygenated cells and was abolished by increasing the cytoplasmic pH of aerated cells. The activity of glutamate decarboxylase increased as the cytoplasmic pH declined and decreased as the pH recovered. These findings are consistent with a role for the decarboxylation of glutamate, a proton-consuming reaction, in the short-term regulation of cytoplasmic pH, and they demonstrate that cytoplasmic pH influences the pathways of intermediary nitrogen metabolism. PMID:12232346

  4. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyeong; Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-09-01

    We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla. PMID:25289015

  5. Cross-talk between signaling pathways: the link between plant secondary metabolite production and wounding stress response.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A; González-Agüero, Mauricio; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Plants subjected to wounding stress produce secondary metabolites. Several of these metabolites prevent chronic diseases and can be used as colorants, flavors, and as antimicrobials. This wound-induced production of plant secondary metabolites is mediated by signaling-molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA). However, their specific role and interactions that modulate the wound-respond in plants is not fully understood. In the present study, a subtractive cDNA library was generated, to better understand the global response of plants to wounding stress. Carrot (Daucus carota) was used as a model system for this study. A total of 335 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) sequences were obtained. ESTs sequences with a putative identity showed involvement in stress-signaling pathways as well as on the primary and secondary metabolism. Inhibitors of ROS biosynthesis, ET action, and JA biosynthesis alone and in combination were applied to wounded-carrots in order to determine, based on relative gene expression data, the regulatory role of ET, JA, and ROS on the wound-response in plants. Our results demonstrate that ROS play a key role as signaling-molecules for the wound-induced activation of the primary and secondary metabolism whereas ET and JA are essential to modulate ROS levels. PMID:25712739

  6. Abscisic Acid Regulation of DC8, A Carrot Embryonic Gene.

    PubMed

    Hatzopoulos, P; Fong, F; Sung, Z R

    1990-10-01

    DC8 encodes a hydrophylic 66 kilodalton protein located in the cytoplasm and cell walls of carrot (Daucus carota) embryo and endosperm. During somatic embryogenesis, the levels of DC8 mRNA and protein begin to increase 5 days after removal of auxin. To study the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of DC8 gene, fluridone, 1-methyl-3-phenyl,-5(3-trifluoro-methyl-phenyl)-4(1H)-pyridinone, was used to inhibit the endogenous ABA content of the embryos. Fluridone, 50 micrograms per milliliter, effectively inhibits the accumulation of ABA in globular-tage enbryos. Western and Northern analysis show that when fluridone is added to the culture medium DC8 protein and mRNA decrease to very low levels. ABA added to fluridone supplemented culture media restores the DC8 protein and mRNA to control levels. Globular-stage embryos contain 0.9 to 1.4 x 10(-7) molar ABA while 10(-6) molar exogenously supplied ABA is the optimal concentration for restoration of DC8 protein accumulation in fluridone-treated embryos. The mRNA level is increased after 15 minutes of ABA addition and reaches maximal levels by 60 minutes. Evidence is presented that, unlike other ABA-regulated genes, DC8 is not induced in nonembryonic tissues via desiccation nor addition of ABA. PMID:16667766

  7. Germination responses and boron accumulation in germplasm from Chile and the United States grown with boron-enriched water.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, G S; Ajwa, H A; Caceres, L; Dyer, D

    1999-05-01

    Boron (B) is toxic to most plant species when accumulated in high concentrations. Differences in a plant's ability to adapt to high concentrations of B may depend on the origin of the germplasm. Chilean and domestic (U.S.) germplasm, corn (Zea mays L.), carrots (Daucus carotas), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were evaluated for germination, emergence of cotyledonary leaves, and tissue B accumulation under high-B conditions in both an environmental growth chamber and a greenhouse. Increasing B levels (20-40 mg B liter-1) inhibited the percentage germination for both the Chilean and domestic germplasm. Chilean germplasm exhibited generally a greater percentage of healthy cotyledonary leaves at the 20 mg B liter-1 treatment than the domestic germplasm. Comparing B concentrations between both germplasm grown and irrigated with B-enriched water (10-20 mg B liter-1) under greenhouse conditions, leaves from domestic germplasm contained more B. Moreover, B troxicity symptoms were more severe for the tested plant species from the domestic germplasm. Apparent B tolerance by germplasm of different origin should be further tested under field conditions. PMID:10330322

  8. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyeong; Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla. PMID:25289015

  9. Potyviruses, novel and known, in cultivated and wild species of the family Apiaceae in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moran, J; van Rijswijk, B; Traicevski, V; Kitajima, E W; Mackenzie, A M; Gibbs, A J

    2002-10-01

    Three potyviruses were identified by gene sequencing and found to be widespread in species of Apiaceae in Australia. Only celery mosaic virus was found in celery crops and in one of 180 specimens of feral carrot ( Daucus carota). Another related but distinct novel potyvirus, carrot virus Y, was the only virus found in carrot crops and all except one feral carrot. A more distantly related novel potyvirus, apium virus Y, was found in plants of sea celery ( Apium prostratum), cultivated parsley ( Petroselinum crispum) and the immigrant weed species poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum). These three potyviruses, together with celery yellow mosaic virus of South America and the closely related carrot thin leaf virus and carrot virus B of North America, form a distinct subgenus of the Potyviridae most closely related to turnip mosaic virus and two potyviruses of yam; yam mosaic virus from the Ivory Coast and Japanese yam mosaic virus. Celery mosaic and carrot virus Y are probably recent migrants to Australia, but apium virus Y may have been endemic longer. In ELISA tests using polyclonal antibodies against virions of celery mosaic virus, some isolates of carrot virus Y were indistinguishable from celery mosaic virus, whereas others gave smaller absorbancy values, and those of apium virus Y did not react. This study shows the value of virus identification based on gene sequencing for planning control measures. PMID:12376749

  10. Biosynthesis of carotenoids in carrot: an underground story comes to light.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel; Stange, Claudia

    2013-11-15

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is a biannual plant that accumulates massive amounts of carotenoid pigments in the storage root. Although the root of carrot plants was white before domestication, intensive breeding generated the currently known carotenoid-rich varieties, including the widely popular orange carrots that accumulate very high levels of the pro-vitamin A carotenoids ?-carotene and, to a lower extent, ?-carotene. Recent studies have shown that the developmental program responsible for the accumulation of these health-promoting carotenes in underground roots can be completely altered when roots are exposed to light. Illuminated root sections do not enlarge as much as dark-grown roots, and they contain chloroplasts with high levels of lutein instead of the ?-carotene-rich chromoplasts found in underground roots. Analysis of carotenoid gene expression in roots either exposed or not to light has contributed to better understand the contribution of developmental and environmental cues to the root carotenoid profile. In this review, we summarize the main conclusions of this work in the context of our current knowledge of how carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation is regulated at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in carrot roots and other model systems for the study of plant carotenogenesis such as Arabidopsis de-etiolation and tomato fruit ripening. PMID:23876238

  11. Effect of processing parameters on physico-chemical and culinary quality of dried carrot slices.

    PubMed

    Sra, Sarabjeet Kaur; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh; Ahluwalia, Preeti

    2011-04-01

    The investigation was carried out to evaluate the carrot (Daucus carota) cultivars, to optimize the pre-treatments, time and temperature combination for drying carrot slices and to assess the suitability of the dried product for culinary preparations. Among the 4 cultivars, ('PC-34', 'Sel-21', 'Ambala Local' and 'Nantes') the last one showed the best physico-chemical characteristics for dehydration. The dried carrot slices with highly desirable physico-chemical characteristics could be prepared from 4.5 mm thick slices, blanched in water at 95 °C for 4 min followed by 2 stage phase drying at 90?±?5 °C for 2 h and at 60?±?5 °C for 7 h in a cross-flow hot air cabinet dryer. Dipping slices in 6% potassium metabisulphite solution prior to drying improved the rehydration ratio, colour, retention of ascorbic acid and carotenoids content of dried slices. The soup and curried product prepared from dried slices had highly acceptable sensory quality with 8.5 and 8.2 scores, respectively on a 9-point Hedonic scale. PMID:23572730

  12. Carrot antifreeze protein does not exhibit the polygalacturonase-inhibiting activity of PGIP family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dang-Quan; Wang, Hong-Bin; Liu, Bin; Feng, Dong-Ru; He, Yan-Ming; Wang, Jin-Fa

    2006-11-01

    The carrot (Daucus carota) antifreeze protein (DcAFP) has a strong antifreeze activity and identified as belonging to the plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) family based on its sequence similarities, including the presence of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motif. In this study, yeast two-hybrid technology was used to analyze whether the carrot AFP could act as a PGIP. The complete DcAFP and polygalacturonase (PGase; obtained from fungus Alternaria alternata by RT-PCR) coding sequences were cloned into the bait and capture vectors, respectively, and yeast two-hybrid assays were performed. The results revealed that there was no evidence of an interaction between DcAFP and PGase, which suggests that DcAFP probably lacks PGIP activity. An analysis of the electrostatic potential of DcAFP and other PGIPs revealed that a large number of nonconservative residues within the beta-helix of the DcAFP LRR motif had been substituted to basic amino acids, thus changing the surface from negative to positive. This will electrostatically prevent DcAFP from binding with the positively charged surface of PGase. This is the first report that showed the correlation between nonconservative amino acids within the LRR motif of the DcAFP and its loss of polygalacturonase inhibiting activity. PMID:17112975

  13. Calmodulin immunolocalization to cortical microtubules is calcium independent

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.D.; Cyr, R.J.

    1992-12-31

    Calcium affects the stability of cortical microtubules (MTs) in lysed protoplasts. This calmodulin (CaM)-mediated interaction may provide a mechanism that serves to integrate cellular behavior with MT function. To test the hypothesis that CaM associates with these MTs, monoclonal antibodies were produced against CaM, and one (designated mAb1D10), was selected for its suitability as an immunocytochemical reagent. It is shown that CaM associates with the cortical Mats of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.) cells. Inasmuch as CaM interacts with calcium and affects the behavior of these Mats, we hypothesized that calcium would alter this association. To test this, protoplasts containing taxol-stabilized Mats were lysed in the presence of various concentrations of calcium and examined for the association of Cam with cortical Mats. At 1 {mu}M calcium, many protoplasts did not have CaM in association with the cortical Mats, while at 3.6 {mu}M calcium, this association was completely abolished. The results are discussed in terms of a model in which CaM associates with Mats via two types of interactions; one calcium dependent and one independent.

  14. Thioredoxin and NADP-thioredoxin reductase from cultured carrot cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Cao, R. Q.; Kung, J. E.; Buchanan, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Dark-grown carrot (Daucus carota L.) tissue cultures were found to contain both protein components of the NADP/thioredoxin system--NADP-thioredoxin reductase and the thioredoxin characteristic of heterotrophic systems, thioredoxin h. Thioredoxin h was purified to apparent homogeneity and, like typical bacterial counterparts, was a 12-kdalton (kDa) acidic protein capable of activating chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.82) more effectively than fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). NADP-thioredoxin reductase (EC 1.6.4.5) was partially purified and found to be an arsenite-sensitive enzyme composed of two 34-kDa subunits. Carrot NADP-thioredoxin reductase resembled more closely its counterpart from bacteria rather than animal cells in acceptor (thioredoxin) specificity. Upon greening of the cells, the content of NADP-thioredoxin-reductase activity, and, to a lesser extent, thioredoxin h decreased. The results confirm the presence of a heterotrophic-type thioredoxin system in plant cells and raise the question of its physiological function.

  15. Fourier-Transform Raman and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (An Investigation of Five Higher Plant Cell Walls and Their Components).

    PubMed Central

    Sene, CFB.; McCann, M. C.; Wilson, R. H.; Grinter, R.

    1994-01-01

    Infrared and Raman spectra of sequentially extracted primary cell walls and their pectic polymers were obtained from five angiosperm plants. Fourier-transform Raman spectrometry was shown to be a powerful tool for the investigation of primary cell-wall architecture at a molecular level, providing complementary information to that obtained by Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy. The use of an extraction procedure using imidazole instead of cyclohexane trans-1,2-N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-diaminotetraacetate allows the extension of the infrared spectral window for data interpretation from 1300 to 800 cm-1, to 2000 to 800 cm-1, and allows us to obtain Raman spectra from extracted cell-wall material. Wall constituents such as pectins, proteins, aromatic phenolics, cellulose, and hemicellulose have characteristic spectral features that can be used to identify and/or fingerprint these polymers without, in most cases, the need for any physical separation. The Gramineae (rice [Oryza sativa], polypogon [Polypogon fugax steud], and sweet corn [Zea mays]) are spectroscopically very different from the nongraminaceous monocotyledon (onion [Allium cepa]) and the dicotyledon (carrot [Daucus carota]); this reflects differences in chemical composition and cross-linking of the walls. The possibility of a taxonomic classification of plant cell walls based on infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the use of spectral fingerprinting for authentication and detection of adulteration of products rich in cell-wall materials are discussed. PMID:12232436

  16. Long-term changes in the extractability and bioavailability of zinc and cadmium after sludge application

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, S.P.; Zhao, F.J.; Dunham, S.J.; Crosland, A.R.; Coleman, K.

    2000-06-01

    Changes in the extractability and uptake by crops of sludge metals in a long-term field experiment, started in 1942, were measured to assess whether Zn and Cd are either fixed by the sludge/soil constituents or are released as the sludge organic matter (OM) decomposes. Total and 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2}-extractable concentrations of Zn and Cd in soil and total concentrations in crops were measured on archived crop and soil samples. Extractability of Zn as a proportion of the total ranged from 0.5 to 3% and that of Cd from 4 to 18%, and were higher in sludge-amended than farmyard manure or fertilizer-amended soils. Over a 23-yr period after 1961, when sludge was last applied, the extractability of both metals fluctuated, but neither decreased nor increased consistently. The relationships between total soil and crop metal concentrations were linear, with no evidence of a plateau across the range of soil metal concentrations achieved. The slopes of the soil-plant relationships depended on the type of crop or crop part examined, but were generally in the order red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) > sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) > carrot (Daucus carota L.) > barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). However, there also were large seasonal differences in metal concentrations in the crops. It is concluded from the available evidence that up to 23 yr after sludge applications cease, Zn and Cd extractability and bioavailability do not decrease.

  17. Ambispora granatensis, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, associated with Asparagus officinalis in Andalucia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Palenzuela, Javier; Barea, José-Miguel; Ferrol, Nuria; Oehl, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    A new dimorphic fungal species in the arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming Glomeromycota, Ambispora granatensis, was isolated from an agricultural site in the province of Granada (Andalucía, Spain) growing in the rhizosphere of Asparagus officinalis. It was propagated in pot cultures with Trifolium pratense and Sorghum vulgare. The fungus also colonized Ri T-DNA transformed Daucus carota roots but did not form spores in these root organ cultures. The spores of the acaulosporoid morph are 90-150 ?m diam and hyaline to white to pale yellow. They have three walls and a papillae-like rough irregular surface on the outer surface of the outer wall. The irregular surface might become difficult to detect within a few hours in lactic acid-based mountings but are clearly visible in water. The structural central wall layer of the outer wall is only 0.8-1.5 ?m thick. The glomoid spores are formed singly or in small, loose spore clusters of 2-10 spores. They are hyaline to pale yellow, (25)40-70 ?m diam and have a bilayered spore wall without ornamentation. Nearly full length sequences of the 18S and the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene place the new fungus in a separate clade next to Ambispora fennica and Ambispora gerdemannii. The acaulosporoid spores of the new fungus can be distinguished easily from all other spores in genus Ambispora by the conspicuous thin outer wall. PMID:20952800

  18. INTER-MOUNTAIN BASINS BIG SAGEBRUSH SHRUBLAND extent exaggerated for display

    E-print Network

    Shrubland Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata / Pascopyrum smithii - (Elymus lanceolatus) Shrubland tridentata ssp. wyomingensis / Pascopyrum smithii Shrub Herbaceous Vegetation Artemisia tridentata ssp ssp. wyomingensis / Achnatherum hymenoides Shrubland Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis / Elymus

  19. High-Throughput Cryopreservation of Plant Cell Cultures for Functional Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Yoichi; Sakurai, Nozomu; Oikawa, Akira; Kai, Kosuke; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Mori, Kumiko; Moriya, Kanami; Fujii, Fumiko; Aoki, Koh; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Ohta, Daisaku; Saito, Kazuki; Shibata, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    Suspension-cultured cell lines from plant species are useful for genetic engineering. However, maintenance of these lines is laborious, involves routine subculturing and hampers wider use of transgenic lines, especially when many lines are required for a high-throughput functional genomics application. Cryopreservation of these lines may reduce the need for subculturing. Here, we established a simple protocol for cryopreservation of cell lines from five commonly used plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, Daucus carota, Lotus japonicus, Nicotiana tabacum and Oryza sativa. The LSP solution (2 M glycerol, 0.4 M sucrose and 86.9 mM proline) protected cells from damage during freezing and was only mildly toxic to cells kept at room temperature for at least 2 h. More than 100 samples were processed for freezing simultaneously. Initially, we determined the conditions for cryopreservation using a programmable freezer; we then developed a modified simple protocol that did not require a programmable freezer. In the simple protocol, a thick expanded polystyrene (EPS) container containing the vials with the cell–LSP solution mixtures was kept at ?30°C for 6 h to cool the cells slowly (pre-freezing); samples from the EPS containers were then plunged into liquid nitrogen before long-term storage. Transgenic Arabidopsis cells were subjected to cryopreservation, thawed and then re-grown in culture; transcriptome and metabolome analyses indicated that there was no significant difference in gene expression or metabolism between cryopreserved cells and control cells. The simplicity of the protocol will accelerate the pace of research in functional plant genomics. PMID:22437846

  20. Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dalmatia is an interesting place to study the use of wild greens as it lies at the intersection of influence of Slavs, who do not usually use many species of wild greens, and Mediterranean culinary culture, where the use of multiple wild greens is common. The aim of the study was to document the mixtures of wild green vegetables which are sold in all the vegetable markets of Dalmatia. Methods All vendors (68) in all 11 major markets of the Dalmatian coast were interviewed. The piles of wild vegetables they sold were searched and herbarium specimens taken from them. Results The mean number of species in the mix was 5.7. The most commonly sold wild plants are: Sonchus oleraceus L., Allium ampeloprasum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Urospermum picroides F.W.Schmidt, Papaver rhoeas L., Daucus carota L., Taraxacum sp., Picris echioides L., Silene latifolia Poir. and Crepis spp. Also the cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and a few cultivated Brassicaceae varieties are frequent components. Wild vegetables from the mix are usually boiled for 20–30 minutes and dressed with olive oil and salt. Altogether at least 37 wild taxa and 13 cultivated taxa were recorded. Apart from the mixes, Asparagus acutifolius L. and Tamus communis L. shoots are sold in separate bunches (they are usually eaten with eggs), as well as some Asteraceae species, the latter are eaten raw or briefly boiled. Conclusions The rich tradition of eating many wild greens may result both from strong Venetian and Greek influences and the necessity of using all food resources available in the barren, infertile land in the past. Although the number of wild-collected green vegetables is impressive we hypothesize that it may have decreased over the years, and that further in-depth local ethnobotanical studies are needed in Dalmatia to record the disappearing knowledge of edible plants. PMID:23286393

  1. Phosphorus Effects on Metabolic Processes in Monoxenic Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Cultures1

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Pål Axel; van Aarle, Ingrid M.; Allaway, William G.; Ashford, Anne E.; Rouhier, Hervé

    2002-01-01

    The influence of external phosphorus (P) on carbon (C) allocation and metabolism as well as processes related to P metabolism was studied in monoxenic arbuscular mycorrhiza cultures of carrot (Daucus carota). Fungal hyphae of Glomus intraradices proliferated from the solid minimal medium containing the colonized roots into C-free liquid minimal medium with different P treatments. The fungus formed around three times higher biomass in P-free liquid medium than in medium with 2.5 mm inorganic P (high-P). Mycelium in the second experiment was harvested at an earlier growth stage to study metabolic processes when the mycelium was actively growing. P treatment influenced the root P content and [13C]glucose administered to the roots 7 d before harvest gave a negative correlation between root P content and 13C enrichment in arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal storage lipids in the extraradical hyphae. Eighteen percent of the enriched 13C in extraradical hyphae was recovered in the fatty acid 16:1?5 from neutral lipids. Polyphosphate accumulated in hyphae even in P-free medium. No influence of P treatment on fungal acid phosphatase activity was observed, whereas the proportion of alkaline-phosphatase-active hyphae was highest in high-P medium. We demonstrated the presence of a motile tubular vacuolar system in G. intraradices. This system was rarely seen in hyphae subjected to the highest P treatment. We concluded that the direct responses of the extraradical hyphae to the P concentration in the medium are limited. The effects found in hyphae seemed instead to be related to increased availability of P to the host root. PMID:12427983

  2. Spatial and temporal expression profiling of cell-wall invertase genes during early development in hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Canam, Thomas; Mak, Sarah W Y; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2008-07-01

    Cell-wall invertase genes are spatially and temporally regulated in several plant species, including Daucus carota L., Lycopersicon esculentum L. and Solanum tuberosum L. However, few studies of cell-wall invertase genes of trees have been conducted, despite the importance of trees as a source of lignocellulosic biopolymers. We identified three putative cell-wall invertase genes in hybrid poplar (Populus alba L. x grandidentata Michx.) that showed higher homology to each other than to cell-wall invertases of other dicotyledonous species, with two of the genes (PaxgINV2 and PaxgINV3) appearing as a genomic tandem repeat. These genes are more similar to each other than to tandemly repeated cell-wall invertases of other plants, perhaps indicating parallel evolution of a duplication event with cell-wall invertases in dicotyledons. Spatial and temporal expression analyses throughout a complete annual cycle indicated that PaxgINV1 and PaxgINV2 are highly regulated in vegetative tissues during three distinct growth phases: early growth, dormancy and post-dormancy. Expression of the third gene (PaxgINV3) appears to be tightly regulated and may represent a floral-specific cell-wall invertase. Of the two genes expressed in vegetative tissues, PaxgINV1 appears to be exclusively involved in processes related to dormancy, whereas PaxgINV2 appears to encode an enzyme involved in phloem unloading and in providing actively growing tissues, such as developing xylem, with the energy and carbon skeletons necessary for respiration and cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:18450570

  3. Sludge-borne heavy metal availability and uptake by vegetable crops under field conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, P.S.; Wright, W.R.; Pelchat, J.

    1980-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge was applied in a single application to an acid (pH 5.6) silt loam soil in a field study at rates of 0, 20, and 60 dry metric tons/ha. Metal concentrations in soil and plant tissue were examined over a 2-year period (1976-1977). Levels of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn were measured in carrots (Daucus carota L., cv. Danvers), radishes (Raphanus sativus L., cv. Cherrybelle), tomatoes (Lycospersicon esculentum L., cv. New Yorker), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cv. crispa, Salad Bowl). Metal uptake in both years was Zn > Cu > Ni > Cd. Lettuce tissues generally accumulated the highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn, while carrot roots accumulated the most Ni. Applications of sewage sludge generally did not increase concentrations of Cd or Cu in plant tissue; the only exceptions were the significant increases of Cd in lettuce and Cu in tomatoes during 1977. Most of the vegetables exhibited significantly higher concentrations of Ni and Zn as a result of sludge applications during both years. Concentrations of heavy metals in plant tissue were generally higher during the second year of the experiment, suggesting an increase in their availability with time. The Cd/Zn ratio of the sludge was 1.3%, while the averages for the edible and nonedible tissue, and DTPA-extractable soil were 2.9, 4.3, and 2.2%, respectively. The availability of heavy metals in the soil, as measured by DTPA-extraction, supported the results of plant tissue analyses. Applications of sewage sludge resulted in significant increases in DTPA-extractable metals. In addition, there was a general increase in the DTPA-extractable heavy metals with time, which appeared to be related to the decomposition of the sludge as pH values were not appreciably different during the second year.

  4. Root-Uptake of C-14 Acetic Acid by Various Plants and C-14 Dynamics Surrounding the Experimental Tessera

    SciTech Connect

    Ogiyama, S.; Takeda, H.; Uchida, S. [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Suzuki, H. [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University (Japan); Inubushi, K. [Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Carbon-14 (C-14, t{sub 1/2} = 5.73x10{sup 3} yrs) from radioactive waste is one of the most important radioactive nuclides for environmental assessment in the context of geological disposal, and understanding the transfer of radioactive elements to plants is essential for public health safety. In order to obtain fundamental knowledge, culture experiments using marigold (Tagetes patula L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea S.), paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants were conducted to examine root-uptake and dynamics of C-14 in the laboratory. The C-14 radioactivity in each plant part (e.g. shoot, root, edible part, etc.), medium (e.g. culture solution, sand, etc.), and air was determined. The distribution of C-14 in the plants was visualized using autoradiography. For a comparison, autoradiography was also done using Na-22. Results of the present study indicated that C-14 labeled CO{sub 2} gas was released from the culture solution to the atmosphere. Clear autoradiography images were observed in plants for the shoots and lower roots which were soaked in the culture solution. The upper roots which were not soaked in the culture solution were not clearly imaged. In the radiotracer experiment using Na-22, a clear image was observed for the whole carrot seedling, even including the upper root, on the autoradiography. However, the amounts of C-14 acetic acid absorbed by all the plants through their roots were considered to be very small. Inorganic carbon transformed from C-14 acetic acid would be taken up by plants through the roots, and some fraction of C-14 would be assimilated into the shoots by photosynthesis. (authors)

  5. Calcium-Pumping ATPases in Vesicles from Carrot Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wen-Ling; Pierce, Wayne S.; Sze, Heven

    1991-01-01

    Ca2+-ATPases keep cytoplasmic [Ca2+] low by pumping Ca2+ into intracellular compartments or out of the cell. The transport properties of Ca2+-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota cv Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport in vesicles that comigrated with an endoplasmic reticulum marker, was stimulated three- to fourfold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca2+ transport activity; however, it had no effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+ uptake driven by ATP or GTP. The results would suggest the presence of two types of Ca2+-ATPases, an endoplasmic reticulum- and a plasma membrane-type. Interestingly, incubation of membranes with [gamma32P]ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl [32P]phosphoprotein of 120 kilodaltons. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca2+, but independent of Mg2+. Its enhancement by La3+ is characteristic of a phosphorylated enzyme intermediate of a plasma membrane-type Ca-ATPase. Calmodulin stimulated Ca2+ transport was decreased by W-7 (a calmodulin antagonist), ML-7 (myosin light chain kinase inhibitor) or thyroxine. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca2+ transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+ transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca2+ pump of 120 kilodaltons. The possibility of calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+-ATPases on endomembranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and secretory vesicles, as well as the plasma membrane is suggested. ImagesFigure 5Figure 6 PMID:16668581

  6. Evaluation of fungicides for the control of carrot cavity spot.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Carole; Lévesque, C André; Bélanger, Richard R; Tweddell, Russell J

    2005-08-01

    Cavity spot is one of the most common and serious diseases of carrot (Daucus carota L). The disease, caused by different species of Pythium, including P. violae Chesters & Hickman, P. sulcatum Pratt & Mitchell and P. sylvaticum Campbell & Hendrix, leads to frequent high rejection rates during grading worldwide. In the area of the city of Québec, the disease is caused mainly by P. sulcatum, P. sylvaticum and P. macrosporum Vaartaja & van der Plaats-Niterink. Cavity spot can be controlled with metalaxyl, but reports are emerging that this treatment show little or no efficacy in many regions. This situation reinforces the need for alternative fungicides. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to determine the sensitivity of 14 pathogenic isolates of P. sulcatum, P. sylvaticum and P. macrosporum collected from carrots produced in the area of the city of Québec to different broad-spectrum and oomycete-specific fungicides (chlorothalonil, etridiazole, fludioxonil, fosetyl-Al, metalaxyl, zoxamide), (2) to evaluate the efficacy of the fungicides in controlling cavity spot, and (3) to evaluate the risk of resistance development of isolates with the best-performing fungicide(s). The determination of EC50 for the fungicides tested showed that most isolates were highly sensitive to both metalaxyl and zoxamide but insensitive to fludioxonil, fosetyl-Al and chlorothalonil. In greenhouse assays, only zoxamide provided significant and consistent disease control as measured by the number of cavity spot lesions caused by P. sulcatum. Investigations into the risk of resistance development to zoxamide showed that, for specific isolates, repeated exposure to the fungicide resulted in a loss of sensitivity. PMID:15880371

  7. Temperature Interactions with Growth Regulators and Endogenous Gibberellin-like Activity during Seedstalk Elongation in Carrots 1

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Larry K.; Kelly, William C.; Powell, Loyd E.

    1979-01-01

    Stecklings (roots) of three cultivars of carrots (Daucus carota L.) were vernalized 10 weeks at 5 C and subsequently grown at each of three greenhouse night/day temperature regimes: high (27/32 C), medium (21/27 C), and low (15/21 C). Floral differentiation occurred first in the easy bolting cv. Scarlet Nantes, intermediate in cv. Danvers 126, and last in cv. Royal Chantenay. Stem elongation arising from the subapical meristematic region always preceded floral differentiation. Extractable gibberellin-like activity in carrot stem apices increased from harvest during the 10-week vernalization period, then remained constant even though floral differentiation and stem elongation occurred during an additional 20-week cold storage period. Low temperature had both an inductive and a direct effect on reproductive development depending on length of low temperature exposure. After 10 weeks vernalization at 5 C, high greenhouse temperature severely reduced ultimate seedstalk height and the endogenous gibberellinlike activity decreased rapidly during the first 3 weeks in the greenhouse. At the low greenhouse temperature, activity remained fairly constant during the 10-week sampling period. Changes in endogenous gibberellinlike activity were related with stem elongation, but not with floral initiation. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3) applied following vernalization prevented the inhibitory effect of high greenhouse temperature on seedstalk elongation and resulted in seedstalk heights comparable to untreated controls grown at the low greenhouse temperature. Exogenous applications of succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide and chlormequat reduced seedstalk height of carrot plants grown at the medium and low greenhouse temperatures to that of untreated controls grown at high temperature. Exogenous growth regulators and greenhouse temperature affected seedstalk elongation, but did not affect the number of plants that flowered. Images PMID:16660856

  8. Temperature Interactions with Growth Regulators and Endogenous Gibberellin-like Activity during Seedstalk Elongation in Carrots.

    PubMed

    Hiller, L K; Kelly, W C; Powell, L E

    1979-06-01

    Stecklings (roots) of three cultivars of carrots (Daucus carota L.) were vernalized 10 weeks at 5 C and subsequently grown at each of three greenhouse night/day temperature regimes: high (27/32 C), medium (21/27 C), and low (15/21 C). Floral differentiation occurred first in the easy bolting cv. Scarlet Nantes, intermediate in cv. Danvers 126, and last in cv. Royal Chantenay. Stem elongation arising from the subapical meristematic region always preceded floral differentiation. Extractable gibberellin-like activity in carrot stem apices increased from harvest during the 10-week vernalization period, then remained constant even though floral differentiation and stem elongation occurred during an additional 20-week cold storage period. Low temperature had both an inductive and a direct effect on reproductive development depending on length of low temperature exposure.After 10 weeks vernalization at 5 C, high greenhouse temperature severely reduced ultimate seedstalk height and the endogenous gibberellinlike activity decreased rapidly during the first 3 weeks in the greenhouse. At the low greenhouse temperature, activity remained fairly constant during the 10-week sampling period. Changes in endogenous gibberellinlike activity were related with stem elongation, but not with floral initiation. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA(3)) applied following vernalization prevented the inhibitory effect of high greenhouse temperature on seedstalk elongation and resulted in seedstalk heights comparable to untreated controls grown at the low greenhouse temperature. Exogenous applications of succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide and chlormequat reduced seedstalk height of carrot plants grown at the medium and low greenhouse temperatures to that of untreated controls grown at high temperature. Exogenous growth regulators and greenhouse temperature affected seedstalk elongation, but did not affect the number of plants that flowered. PMID:16660856

  9. Host Suitability of 32 Common Weeds to Meloidogyne hapla in Organic Soils of Southwestern Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Bélair, G.; Benoit, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-two weeds commonly found in the organic soils of southwestern Quebec were evaluated for host suitability to a local isolate of the northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Galls were observed on the roots of 21 species. Sixteen of the 21 had a reproduction factor (Pf/Pi = final number of M. hapla eggs and juveniles per initial number of M. hapla juveniles per pot) higher than carrot (Pf/Pi = 0.37), the major host crop in this agricultural area. Tomato cv. Rutgers was also included as a susceptible host and had the highest Pf/Pi value of 13.7. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. vulgata, Erysimum cheiranthoides, Eupatorium maculatum, Matricaria matricarioides, Polygonum scabrum, Thalictrum pubescens, Veronica agrestis, and Sium suave are new host records for M. hapla. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. wulgata, D. carota, M. matricarioides, Pasticana sativa, P. scabrum, S. suave, and Thlaspi arvense sustained moderate to high galling by M. hapla and supported high M. hapla production (12.4 ? Pf/Pi ? 2.9). Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Gnaphalium uliginosum, Stellaria media, and Veronica agrestis sustained moderate galling and supported moderate M. hapla reproduction (2.8 ? Pf/Pi ? 0.5). Chenopodium album, C. glaucum, E. cheiranthoides, P. convolvulus, Portulaca oleracea, and Rorippa islandica supported low reproduction (0.25 ? Pf/Pi ? 0.02) and sustained low galling. Galling was observed on Senecio vulgaris but no eggs or juveniles; thus, S. vulgaris may be useful as a trap plant. Eupatorium maculatum, and T. pubescens harbored no distinct galling but supported low to moderate M. hapla reproduction, respectively. Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Echinochloa crusgalli, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera parviflora, Panicum capillare, Setaria glauca, S. viridis, and Solidago canadensis were nonhosts. Our results demonstrate the importance of adequate weed control in an integrated program for the management of M. hapla in organic soil. PMID:19277189

  10. Host Suitability of 32 Common Weeds to Meloidogyne hapla in Organic Soils of Southwestern Quebec.

    PubMed

    Bélair, G; Benoit, D L

    1996-12-01

    Thirty-two weeds commonly found in the organic soils of southwestern Quebec were evaluated for host suitability to a local isolate of the northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Galls were observed on the roots of 21 species. Sixteen of the 21 had a reproduction factor (Pf/Pi = final number of M. hapla eggs and juveniles per initial number of M. hapla juveniles per pot) higher than carrot (Pf/Pi = 0.37), the major host crop in this agricultural area. Tomato cv. Rutgers was also included as a susceptible host and had the highest Pf/Pi value of 13.7. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. vulgata, Erysimum cheiranthoides, Eupatorium maculatum, Matricaria matricarioides, Polygonum scabrum, Thalictrum pubescens, Veronica agrestis, and Sium suave are new host records for M. hapla. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. wulgata, D. carota, M. matricarioides, Pasticana sativa, P. scabrum, S. suave, and Thlaspi arvense sustained moderate to high galling by M. hapla and supported high M. hapla production (12.4 /= 2.9). Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Gnaphalium uliginosum, Stellaria media, and Veronica agrestis sustained moderate galling and supported moderate M. hapla reproduction (2.8 /= 0.5). Chenopodium album, C. glaucum, E. cheiranthoides, P. convolvulus, Portulaca oleracea, and Rorippa islandica supported low reproduction (0.25 /= 0.02) and sustained low galling. Galling was observed on Senecio vulgaris but no eggs or juveniles; thus, S. vulgaris may be useful as a trap plant. Eupatorium maculatum, and T. pubescens harbored no distinct galling but supported low to moderate M. hapla reproduction, respectively. Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Echinochloa crusgalli, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera parviflora, Panicum capillare, Setaria glauca, S. viridis, and Solidago canadensis were nonhosts. Our results demonstrate the importance of adequate weed control in an integrated program for the management of M. hapla in organic soil. PMID:19277189

  11. Male sterility in Arabidopsis induced by overexpression of a MYC5-SRDX chimeric repressor.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Pablo; Browse, John

    2015-03-01

    Jasmonate hormone (JA) plays critical roles in both plant defense and reproductive development. Arabidopsis thaliana plants deficient in JA-biosynthesis or -signaling are male-sterile, with defects in stamen and pollen development. MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 are JAZ-interacting bHLH transcription factors that play a major role in controlling JA responses in vegetative tissue, but are not likely to play a role in reproductive tissue. We found that a closely related transcription factor, MYC5 (bHLH28), was able to induce JAZ promoters that control some of the early JA-responsive genes in a Daucus carota (carrot) protoplast expression system. A G-box sequence in the JAZ2 promoter was necessary and sufficient for induction by MYC5 (as it is for MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4), and induction of JAZ genes was repressed by co-expression of a stabilized, JAZ1?Jas repressor. Two allelic myc5 mutants exhibited no overt phenotype; however, transgenic lines expressing MYC5 fused to an SRDX (SUPERMAN repressive domain X) motif phenocopied mutants defective in JA signaling. In particular, MYC5-SRDX plants were male-sterile, with defects in stamen filament elongation, anther dehiscence and pollen viability. Importantly, expression of MYB21 and other transcription factors required for stamen and pollen maturation was strongly reduced in stamens of MYC5-SRDX plants relative to the wild type. Taken together, these results indicate that MYC5, probably together with other, redundant transcription factors, may be activated by JA signaling to induce the expression of MYB21 and components required for male fertility. PMID:25627909

  12. Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems and initial assessment of material interaction with plant genetic material. Validation of the metabolic fate of munitions materials (TNT, RDX) in mature crops

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The goals of this effort were to confirm and expand data related to the behavior and impacts of munitions residues upon human food chain components. Plant species employed included corn (Zea mays), alfalfa (Medicago sativa). spinach (Spinacea oleraceae), and carrot (Daucus carota). Plants were grown from seed to maturity (70 to 120 days) in a low-fertility soil (Burbank) amended with either {sup 14}C-TNT or {sup 14}C-RDX at which time they were harvested and analyzed for munitions uptake, partitioning, and chemical form of the munition or munition-metabolite. All four of the plant species used in this study accumulated the {sup 14}C-TNT- and RDX-derived label. The carrot, alfalfa, and corn demonstrated a higher percentage of label retained in the roots (62, 73, and 83% respectively). The spinach contained less activity in its root (36%) but also contained the highest TNT specific activity observed (>4600 jig TNT equivalents/g dry wt.). The specific uptake values of RDX for the spinach and alfalfa were comparable to those previously reported for wheat and bean (314 to 590 {mu}g RDX-equivalents/g dry wt. respectively). An exception to this may be the carrot where the specific activity was found to exceed 4200 {mu}g RDX-equivalents/g dry wt. in the shoot. The total accumulation of TNT by the plants ranged from 1.24% for the spinach to 2.34% for the carrot. The RDX plants ranging from 15% for the spinach to 37% for the carrot. There was no identifiable TNT or amino dinitrotoluene (ADNT) isomers present in the plants however, the parent RDX compound was found at significant levels in the shoot of alfalfa (> 1 80 {mu}g/g) and corn (>18 {mu}g/g).

  13. Use of domestic greywater for small-scale irrigation of food crops: Effects on plants and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodda, N.; Salukazana, L.; Jackson, S. A. F.; Smith, M. T.

    Disposal of greywater presents a problem in areas served with on-site sanitation or in areas with poor service provision. Such areas often also face challenges with respect to food security. Use of greywater for irrigation of food crops represents a possible beneficial use of greywater which can contribute to household food supply and to informal income generation. In this study, an above-ground crop (Swiss chard, Betavulgaris var. cicla) and a below-ground crop (carrot, Daucus carota) were irrigated in pots with mixed greywater sourced from households in an informal settlement. A simple form of sub-surface irrigation was used. Plant growth, crop yield, and levels of macro- and micronutrients in crops and soil were monitored through six growth cycles. Equivalent treatments, irrigated with either tap water or a hydroponic nutrient solution, were conducted for comparison. The same soil was used throughout to allow accumulation of greywater-derived substances in soil to be detected. The results indicated that: (i) irrigation with greywater increased plant growth and yield relative to crops irrigated with tap water only, although crops irrigated with hydroponic nutrient solution yielded the highest growth and yield; (ii) irrigation with greywater improved plant nutrient content relative to crops irrigated with tap water; (iii) soil irrigated with greywater showed increased electrical conductivity and increased concentrations of metals over time, coupled with an increase in sodium and metal concentrations in crops. Thus, provided precautions are taken with regard to salt and metal accumulation, greywater offers a potential source of water for household crop irrigation which additionally shows some fertiliser properties.

  14. Soil influence on the performance of 26 native herbaceous plants suitable for sustainable Mediterranean landscaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretzel, Francesca; Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Benvenuti, Stefano; Bravi, Alessio; Malorgio, Fernando

    2009-09-01

    Native herbaceous plants have the potential for renaturalizing and recovering derelict soils, such as urban or anthropized soils. Ecological restoration following the establishment of a native wildflower meadow should lead to a reduction in management costs and to the preservation of native plant populations. This study was aimed at determining the ecological characteristics and the cultivation needs of 26 herbaceous species native to Italy and southern Europe in order to identify their landscape potential in low-maintenance conditions. The species were selected on the basis of their adaptation to unproductive soils in semi-natural and rural areas, and on their ornamental value, including their ability to attract insects. Mono-specific plots were set up in three different soils. Seed germination, seedling emergence, flowering dynamics, and plant growth were determined. Dormancy-breaking treatments were effective in improving the germination of most species. The percentage of field establishment and biomass appeared to be affected by the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. Soil texture slightly affected seedling emergence, whereas soil texture and the C and N levels affected plant growth, the number of flowers and the duration of flowering. Dianthus carthusianorum, Verbascum blattaria, Matricaria chamomilla and Hypochoeris radicata developed a higher biomass per plant in the soils with a low nutrient content, indicating their adaptability to infertile soils. Daucus carota, Papaver rhoeas, Verbascum sinuatum, Coleostephus myconis produced a higher biomass per plant in the most fertile soil, where they appeared to show a higher potential when competing with other species. The ecological characteristics shown by the native plants are extremely important in terms of combining seeds of different species to create and to maintain semi-natural herbaceous communities in low-maintenance landscapes.

  15. Analysis of the rolC promoter region involved in somatic embryogenesis-related activation in carrot cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, N; Yokoyama, R; Uchimiya, H

    1994-01-01

    In cell cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L.), somatic embryogenesis can be induced by transferring cells from a medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) to one devoid of 2,4-D. Previous analysis of transgenic carrot cells containing the 5' non-coding sequence of the Ri plasmid rolC and a structural gene for bacterial beta-glucuronidase (uidA) has shown that the chimeric gene is actively expressed after induction of somatic embryogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that activation of the rolC promoter is dependent on the process of embryo development but not on the duration of the cell culture in 2,4-D-free medium. We also analyzed the cis region of the rolC promoter that is responsible for somatic embryogenesis-related activation (SERA), namely relatively low beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in calli and proembryogenic masses (PEM) and high GUS activity in heart- and torpedo-stage embryos. When the -255-bp region of the rolC gene was used, SERA was retained. Internal deletions within this -255-bp region did not alter SERA by the rolC promoter. Furthermore, when a rolC promoter fragment (-848 to -94 bp) was fused to the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S core region (-90 to +6 bp), it conferred relatively low GUS activity in calli and PEM but high GUS activity in heart and torpedo embryos. When -848 to -255-bp or -255- to -94-bp fragments of the rolC promoter were fused to the same CaMV 35S core region, GUS activity patterns were not related to somatic embryogenesis. These results suggest that the combination of several regulatory regions in the rolC promoter may be required for SERA in carrot cell cultures. PMID:8016259

  16. Content and in-vitro accessibility of pro-vitamin A carotenoids from Sri Lankan cooked non-leafy vegetables and their estimated contribution to vitamin A requirement.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshani, A M B; Chandrika, U G

    2007-12-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Sri Lanka, which affects especially pre-school children. Carrots (Daucus carota), pumpkins (Cucurbita maxima), squashes (Cucurbita moschata) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) of orange, yellow-fleshed varieties are good sources of provitamin A carotenoids, but have not been studied in Sri Lanka in terms of the food as eaten. The content of carotenoids in each preparation method and the in-vitro accessibility of beta-carotene and alpha-carotene were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The in-vitro method simulates the conditions in the human intestinal tract. The mean contents in dry weight (DW) in different carrot preparations ranged from 406.7 to 456.3, from 183.7 to 213.5 and from 29.0 to 39.6 microg/g for beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and lutein, respectively. The content of carotenoids in different pumpkin preparations varied from 282.1 to 294.4 microg/g DW for beta-carotene, from 155.6 to 157.7 microg/g DW for alpha-carotene and from 218.0 to 228.2 microg/g DW for lutein. The squashes preparation had 44.6 and 40.0 microg/g DW for beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, respectively, and in sweet potatoes beta-carotene ranged from 204.3 to 210.3 microg/g DW. The results showed that the contribution to the recommended daily allowance is greater when these vegetables are prepared as a curry with coconut milk. The percentage contribution to recommended daily allowance from each vegetable cooked with coconut milk was 46.7, 21.8, 1.2 and 10.8 for carrots, pumpkins, squashes and sweet potatoes, respectively. PMID:17852483

  17. Exploring insights for virulent gene inhibition of multidrug resistant Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, and Staphylococcus areus by potential phytoligands via in silico screening.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Jayaprakash, Nisha; Bharadwaj, Navya; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2014-01-01

    In our recent studies on prevalence of multidrug resistant pathogens in Byramangala reservoir, Karnataka, India, we identified Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio cholerae which had acquired multiple drug resistance (MDR) and emerged as superbugs. Hence, there is a pressing demand to identify alternative therapeutic remedies. Our study focused on the screening of herbal leads by structure-based virtual screening. The virulent gene products of these pathogens towards Kanamycin(aph), Trimethoprim(dfrA1), Methicillin (mecI), and Vancomycin (vanH) were identified as the probable drug targets and their 3D structures were predicted by homology modeling. The predicted models showed good stereochemical validity. By extensive literature survey, we selected 58 phytoligands and their drug likeliness and pharmacokinetic properties were computationally predicted. The inhibitory properties of these ligands against drug targets were studied by molecular docking. Our studies revealed that Baicalein from S. baicalensis (baikal skullcap) and Luteolin from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) were identified as potential inhibitors against aph of S. typhi. Resveratrol from Vitis vinifera (grape vine) and Wogonin from S. baicalensis were identified as potential inhibitors against dfrA1 of S. typhi. Herniarin from Herniaria glabra (rupture worts) and Pyrocide from Daucus carota (Carrot) were identified as the best leads against dfrA1 of V. cholerae. Taraxacin of T. officinale (weber) and Luteolin were identified as potential inhibitors against Mec1. Apigenin from Coffee arabica (coffee) and Luteolin were identified as the best leads against vanH of S. aureus. Our findings pave crucial insights for exploring alternative therapeutics against MDR pathogens. PMID:23876154

  18. Somatic embryogenesis of carrot in hormone-free medium: external pH control over morphogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Cultures of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs) were initiated from mechanically wounded mature zygotic embryos of carrot, Daucus carota, on a hormone-free, semisolid medium. These PGSPs have been maintained and multiplied for extended periods without their progression into later embryo stages on the same hormone-free medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Sustained maintenance of cultures comprised exclusively of PGSPs was dependent on medium pH throughout the culture period. Best growth and multiplication of PGSP cultures occurred when the pH of unbuffered, hormone-free medium fell from 4.5 to 4 over a 2-week period or when buffered medium was titrated to pH 4. If the hormone-free medium was buffered to sustain a pH at or above 4.5, PGSPs developed into later embryo stages. Maintenance with continuous multiplication of PGSPs occurred equally well on medium containing NH4+ or NH4+ and NO3-, but growth was poor with NO3- alone. Additional observations on the effects of medium components such as various nitrogen sources and levels, sucrose concentration, semisolid supports, type of buffer, borate concentration, activated charcoal, and initial pH that permit optimum maintenance of the PGSPs or foster their continued developmental progression into mature embryos and plantlets are reported. The influence of the pH of the hormone-free medium as a determinant in maintaining cultures as PGSPs or allowing their continued embryonic development are unequivocally demonstrated by gross morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and histological preparations.

  19. Legacy of earthworms' engineering effects enlarges the actual effects of earthworms on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Obd?ej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms were recognized as key factor responsible for changes from early to late successional plant communities. They incorporate organic matter into the soil and creates there persistent structures, which improves conditions for plant growth. Earthworm activity might be therefore expected to be more important in early stages of the succession, when earthworm colonization of previously earthworm free soil starts, than in the late stages of the succession, where the soil was previously modified by earthworms. However, earthworms affect plants also via other effects such as increase of nutrient availability. The relative importance of soil structure modification and other earthworm effects on plants is poorly known, despite it is important for both theoretical and applied ecology. To test the effect of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa) on plants we performed microcosm laboratory experiment, where earthworms were affecting early successional (Poa compressa, Medicago lupulina, and Daucus carota) and late successional (Arrhenatherum elatius, Lotus corniculatus, and Plantago laceolata) plat species in soil previously unaffected by earthworms and in soil with previous long term effect of earthworms. These soils were taken from the early and late successional monitoring sites of the Sokolov coal mining district with known history. Earthworms increased plant biomass proportionally more in late successional soil. It was mainly because they increased availability of nutrients (nitrate and potassium) and plants get higher advantage out of this in late successional soil. Earthworms increased plant biomass of both early and late successional species, but late successional species suppressed early successional species in competition. This suppression was more intensive in presence of earthworms and in late successional soil. We therefore found multiplicative effect between earthworm soil engineering activity and their other effects, which might be responsible for changes in plant communities during the succession.

  20. Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Besnard, G; Bervillé, A

    2000-02-01

    A study of nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic diversity of cultivated olive, oleaster and other taxa belonging to the complex O. europaea was performed. Nuclear DNA polymorphism (RAPDs) in oleaster displays a gradient between the east and west of the Mediterranean Basin. In cultivars, the gradient is less visible owing to their diffusion and selection. Furthermore, three mitotypes (ME1, MOM and MCK) were detected in both cultivated olive and oleaster. A fourth mitotype, ME2, was unique to some cultivars. The preponderant mitotype, ME1, marks the Near Eastern origin of olive in oleaster. In the west of the Mediterranean, another mitotype, MOM, was found in most oleaster. and a few cultivars. The third, MCK, was found in a few oleaster from the west and in cultivars originating in Kabylie and Languedoc. We argue that MCK marks an ancestral Mediterranean population. The mitotypes mark independent cultivated olive origins which were not detected with DNA nuclear diversity. PMID:10763436

  1. Composition of the Essential Oil of Tanacetum balsamita L. ssp. balsamitoides (Schultz Bip.) Grierson from Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aazam Monfared; Saied Saeed Hosseini Davarani; Absolhossein Rustaiyan; Shiva Masoudi

    2002-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of Tanacetum balsamita have been examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-one components were detected, mainly monoterpenes, of which carvone (68%) was the major one.

  2. A California grasslands alkali specialist, Hemizonia pungens ssp. pungens, prefers non-alkali soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Question: Edaphically severe habitats commonly support edaphic endemics, specialized plant species that do not occur elsewhere. The endemism of native plant species in edaphically specialized habitats suggests either (a) that these native endemic species are uniquely specialized to survive and grow better under the conditions prevalent in these harsh areas, or (b) that these areas represent refuges from competition with

  3. Thermoelasticity of SSP Materials: An Integrated Ultrasonic and X-radiation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Baosheng Li

    2008-07-29

    It has been a very productive year for accomplishing the tasks outlined in the original proposal. Quite a few crystalline materials [tantalum (Ta), molybdenum (Mo), cerium (Ce) beryllium (Be)] and amorphous materials [zirconium tungstate (ZrW2O8), SiO2, and germanium diselenide (GeSe2) glasses] have been assessed at high pressures up to 12 GPa and acoustic velocities and densities have been obtained simultaneously using our unique technique. Major activities include sample preparation, high pressure cell assembly testing, and conducting ultrasonic and X-ray diffraction measurements at BNL as well as resonance ultrasonic spectroscopy (RUS) measurements at UCLA on appropriate samples. Sample preparations for Ce and Be were made at Los Alamos National Lab for which special grades and specialized machining of the sample are required. Pilot experiments for optimizing high pressure cell assemblies were conducted using the 1000-ton multi-anvil press (USCA-1000) in the High Pressure Lab at Stony Brook, and simultaneous ultrasonic and X-ray diffraction experiments were conducted using the DDIA apparatus installed at X17B2 of NSLS at BNL. New data analysis protocols have been developed for deriving density of amorphous materials at high pressure and therefore its equation of state. Following on previous years effort, attempts have been made to derive single crystal elastic constants based on the current measurements on polycrystalline samples at high pressure in conjunction with previous data as well as the current RUS measurements at ambient conditions. Single crystal elastic constants of Tantalum have been measured using RUS techniques at room pressure and high temperature. Educational and training opportunities have been provided for postdoctoral associate researchers, Drs. Wei Liu (project leader for Mo, and ZrW2O8 and SiO2 glass) and Qiong Liu (Ta project leader) and graduate students Mr. Matthew Whitaker (Project Ce and FeSi) and Sytle Antao (GeSe2 glass project). A total of 6 undergraduate students (2 summer students at Stony Brook University, and 4 undergraduates from Azusa Pacific University) participated in the experiments at various stages and benefited from the discussions about the science and research work conducted by our collaborators of the current project at DoE national labs.

  4. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m box girder 1. Data report

    E-print Network

    presents the setup and result of a full-scale test of a reinforced glass fibre/epoxy box girder used in 34m: -Flapwise bending -Torsion Ultrasonic scanning of the box girder was performed before, during and after

  5. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m box girder 2. Data report

    E-print Network

    of the reinforced glass fiber/epoxy box girder used in a 34m wind turbine blade. One test was without reinforcement) Flapwise bending with no reinforcement 2) Flapwise bending with wire reinforcements 3) Flapwise bending

  6. Evaluation and characterization in bananas (Musa ssp.) at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana, Musa spp., is a key horticultural crop in tropical regions of the world where they provide sustenance and serve as cash crops. The plantain subgroup in particular, is an important staple in the Caribbean, Central America and some countries in South America. One of the integral research comp...

  7. Growth patterns of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides in response to temperature, irradiance, salinity, and nitrogen source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Hanisak

    1979-01-01

    Seasonal patterns of growth, reproduction, and productivity of Codium fragile spp. tomentosoides (van Goor) Silva were monitored at 3 locations in Rhode Island. Maximal growth occurred during the summer and was more significantly correlated with temperature than any other factor measured in this study. Multiple correlation models suggested an interaction between temperature, irradiance, and available nitrogen. Maximal reproduction occurred in

  8. Characterization of two Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. morrisoni strains isolated from Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lep., Thaumetopoeidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hatice Kati; Ikbal Agah Ince; Kazim Sezen; Serife Isci; Zihni Demirbag

    2009-01-01

    The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa Den. and Schiff. (Lep., Thaumetopoeidae) is one of the most harmful insect pests for pine species in Mediterranean countries including Turkey. Two Bacillus thuringiensis isolates obtained from T. pityocampa were identified and characterized in terms of crystal shape using electron microscopy, SDS–PAGE analysis, cry gene contents, H-serotype and insecticidal activity. Examination by a scanning

  9. Abstract The Floral Genome Project (FGP) selected California poppy (Eschscholzia californica Cham. ssp.

    E-print Network

    dePamphilis, Claude

    .edu J. H. Leebens-Mack Æ P. K. Wall Æ L. M. Zahn Æ L. L. Landherr Æ Y. Hu. J. M. Arrington Æ S. Choirean, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA Present Address: L. M. Zahn SCIENCE, 1200 New. Carlson Æ James H. Leebens-Mack Æ P. Kerr Wall Æ Laura M. Zahn Æ Lukas A. Mueller Æ Lena L. Landherr Æ Yi

  10. ClpX interactions with ClpP, SspB, protein substrate and nucleotide

    E-print Network

    Hersch, Greg Louis

    2006-01-01

    ClpXP and related ATP-dependent proteases are implements of cytosolic protein destruction. They couple chemical energy, derived from ATP hydrolysis, to the selection, unfolding, and degradation of protein substrates with ...

  11. Non-destructive Quality Analysis of Indian Basmati Oryza Sativa SSP Indica (Rice) Using Image Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chetna Vasudevbhai Maheshwari; Kavindra R. Jain; Chintan K. Modi

    2012-01-01

    The Agricultural industry on the whole is ancient so far. Quality assessment of grains is a very big challenge since time immemorial. The paper presents a solution for quality evaluation and grading of Rice industry using computer vision and image processing. In this paper basic problem of rice industry for quality assessment is defined which is traditionally done manually by

  12. Six-man, self-contained carbon dioxide concentrator subsystem for Space Station Prototype (SSP) application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostell, G. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Shumar, J. W.; Hallick, T. M.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    A six man, self contained, electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrating subsystem for space station prototype use was successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. A test program was successfully completed which covered shakedown testing, design verification testing, and acceptance testing.

  13. Observations of graft compatibility between citrus ssp and related Aurantioideae taxa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Citrus has long been known to be graft compatible with the genus Poncirus, compatibility between other Citrus and other genera of the Aurantioideae is less well characterized. Graft compatibility between Aurantioideae genera has historically been associated with the use of the related taxa ...

  14. Evaluation of valuable nutrients in selected genotypes of marula ( Sclerocarya birrea ssp. caffra)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zipi Hillman; Yosef Mizrahi; Elie Beit-Yannai

    2008-01-01

    Different marula clones domesticated in the arid Negev desert were evaluated for their horticultural behavior physiological and antioxidant characteristics of their fruits. Two types of abscission pattern were detected, early and late. Fruit yields fluctuated from year to year (6–45kg\\/tree) with large differences between clones (few fruits to 45kg\\/tree). The clones also differed in fruit weight (34.41±0.91 to 56.74±1.65g), shape,

  15. Effects of complete cell recycling on product formation by Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus in continuous cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigridur Hjörleifsdottir; Sulojana Seevaratnam; Olle Holst; Bo Mattiasson

    1990-01-01

    The lactic acid bacteriumLactobacillus casei ssprhamnosus was cultivated in a system with complete cell recycling in order to obtain information on how this cultivation technique affected the microorganisms. Cultivations at two different glucose concentrations (25 g\\/L and 50 g\\/L) were performed. Hollow fiber filters were used for separating the cells from the spent broth. The cell recycling was carried out

  16. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RANGELANDS INTERSEEDED WITH YELLOW-FLOWERING ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA SSP. FALCATA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices can significantly influence carbon sequestration by rangeland ecosystems. Grazing, burning, and fertilization have been shown to increase soil carbon storage in rangeland soils of the Great Plains. Research was initiated in 2001 in northwestern South Dakota to evaluate the role ...

  17. INTERSEEDING FALCATA ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA SSP. FALCATA) INTO NATIVE RANGELANDS: I. SOIL CARBON AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising atmospheric CO2 levels have led to research to assess management strategies that increase C sequestration in soils. Fertilization of nitrogen deficient rangelands can increase production and C seqestration. Rangelands in northwestern South Dakota that were interseeded with yellow-flowering al...

  18. KDD2003 workshop on data mining standards, services and platforms (DM-SSP 03)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Grossman

    2003-01-01

    At KDD 2003 a half day workshop was held on data mining standards and data mining services based on them. A theme of the workshop was that data mining standards have matured sufficiently that standards-based services and applications can now be deployed easily.

  19. Data mining standards, services, and platforms 2004 (DM-SSP 2004)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Grossman

    2004-01-01

    This is a summary of the workshop on Data Mining Standards, Services and Platforms, which was held at KDD 2004. The Workshop contained talks on the Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML) and the Java standard for data mining JSR-73. It also contained talks on emerging service-based architectures for data mining. Finally, infrastructures for privacy preserving data mining were also discussed.

  20. Implementación de la técnica de PCR enla identificación de Babesia ssp en equinos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANILO VARGAS; RAFAEL BONET; PAULINA OLIVA; SERGIO CAMPANO

    2004-01-01

    Babesia equi and Babesia caballi are intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites transmitted by ticks, causing equine babesiosis. Although the reference techniques recommended by USDA and OIE are IFAT and CF, they yields falsenegative results and dont let differentiate between babesias species. The implementation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a direct technique for the identification and characterization of these parasites, without doubt

  1. Ammonium and nitrate nutrition in Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major L. ssp. major

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tjeerd Blacquière; Rinie Hofstra; Ineke Stulen

    1987-01-01

    P. lanceolata andP. major were grown in culture solutions with nitrate or ammonium as the nitrogen source. Dry matter accumulation in the shoot was\\u000a faster with nitrate than with ammonium, whilst that of the roots was not affected by the nitrogen source. As a consequence,\\u000a the shoot-to-root ratio was lower with ammonium than with nitrate. InP. lanceolata, dry matter percentage

  2. Dynamics of formation and secretion of heterococcoliths by Coccolithus pelagicus ssp. braarudii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison R. Taylor; Mark A. Russell; Glenn M. Harper; Toby f. T. Collins; Colin Brownlee

    2007-01-01

    The formation and secretion of heterococcoliths by the non-motile life phase of the coccolithophore Coccolithus pelagicus was investigated using electron microscopy and time-lapse bright field imaging. Coccolithogenesis in C. pelagicus exhibited sequential mineralization of single coccoliths in Golgi-derived and nuclear-associated vesicles, a pattern similar to the formation of heterococcoliths in Emiliania huxleyi. Our TEM data show that only on maturation

  3. Characterization of a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) die-off on the Handford Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cardenas; J. Lewinsohn; C. Auger; J. L. Downs; L. L. Cadwell; R. Burrows

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Site contains one of the few remaining contiguous areas of shrub-steppe habitat left in Washington State. This habitat is home to many native plant and wildlife species, some of which are threatened with extinction or are unique to the Site. The importance of the Hanford Site increases as other lands surrounding the Site are developed, and these native

  4. Establishing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Mined Lands: Science and Economics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald E. Schuman; Laurel E. Vicklund; Scott E. Belden

    2005-01-01

    In 1977, the USA Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act mandated that reclaimed plant communities must be as productive or more productive than the premined plant community and must possess diversity representative of the premine community and serve the same land uses. In much of the Northern Great Plains this meant that reclaimed mined lands must support postmined land uses

  5. WILD ALLIUM SSP. AS NATURAL HOSTS OF IRIS YELLOW SPOT VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) in a commercial onion crop was first confirmed in WA state in 2003. First found in Adams County, IYSV has rapidly spread to all the onion-producing counties in the state. The USDA-ARS Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS) collects, mainta...

  6. Conservation of key elements of natural competence in Lactococcus lactis ssp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Wydau; Rozenn Dervyn; Jamila Anba; S. Dusko Ehrlich; Emmanuelle Maguin

    2006-01-01

    Natural competence is active in very diverse species of the bacterial kingdom and probably participates in horizontal gene transfer. Recently, the genome sequence of various species, including Lactococcus lactis, revealed the presence of homologues of competence genes in bacteria, which were not previously identified as naturally transformable. We investigated the conservation among lactococcal strains of key components of the natural

  7. Shuttle Ground Support Equipment (GSE) T-0 Umbilical to Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Flight Elements Consultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Kichak, Robert A.; McManamen, John P.; Kramer-White, Julie; Raju, Ivatury S.; Beil, Robert J.; Weeks, John F.; Elliott, Kenny B.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked with assessing the validity of an alternate opinion that surfaced during the investigation of recurrent failures at the Space Shuttle T-0 umbilical interface. The most visible problem occurred during the Space Transportation System (STS)-112 launch when pyrotechnics used to separate Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Hold-Down Post (HDP) frangible nuts failed to fire. Subsequent investigations recommended several improvements to the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) and processing changes were implemented, including replacement of ground-half cables and connectors between flights, along with wiring modifications to make critical circuits quad-redundant across the interface. The alternate opinions maintained that insufficient data existed to exonerate the design, that additional data needed to be gathered under launch conditions, and that the interface should be further modified to ensure additional margin existed to preclude failure. The results of the assessment are contained in this report.

  8. Hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with migratory behaviour in adult but not juvenile sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys ssp.).

    PubMed

    LaDage, Lara D; Roth, Timothy C; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that individuals who have higher demands for spatially based behaviours should show increases in hippocampal attributes. Some avian species have been shown to use a spatially based representation of their environment during migration. Further, differences in hippocampal attributes have been shown between migratory and non-migratory subspecies as well as between individuals with and without migratory experience (juveniles versus adults). We tested whether migratory behaviour might also be associated with increased hippocampal neurogenesis, and whether potential differences track previously reported differences in hippocampal attributes between a migratory (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) and non-migratory subspecies (Z. l. nuttalli) of white-crowned sparrows. We found that non-migratory adults had relatively fewer numbers of immature hippocampal neurons than adult migratory birds, while adult non-migrants had a lower density of new hippocampal neurons than adult and juvenile migratory birds and juvenile non-migratory birds. Our results suggest that neurogenesis decreases with age, as juveniles, regardless of migratory status, exhibit similar and higher levels of neurogenesis than non-migratory adults. However, our results also suggest that adult migrants may either seasonally increase or maintain neurogenesis levels comparable to those found in juveniles. Our results thus suggest that migratory behaviour in adults is associated with maintained or increased neurogenesis and the differential production of new neurons may be the mechanism underpinning changes in the hippocampal architecture between adult migratory and non-migratory birds. PMID:20659933

  9. Furostanol saponins and ecdysones with cytotoxic activity from Helleborus bocconei ssp. intermedius.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Bruno, Maurizio; Spadaro, Vivienne; Formisano, Carmen; Irace, Carlo; Maffettone, Carmen; Mascolo, Nicola

    2009-09-01

    Two furostanol saponins helleboroside A (1) and helleboroside B (2) were isolated from the methanol extract of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. intermedius (Guss.) Greuter and Burdet, along with the furospirostanol saponin 4 and two ecdysones: ecdysterone (5) and polypodyne B (6). Compound 2 was enzymatically hydrolysed to give product 3. The biological activity of all compounds was tested against rat C6 glioma cells showing a significant cytotoxicity for compounds 3, 4 and 6. PMID:19274683

  10. SSP: A Simple Software Process for Small-Size Software Development Projects

    E-print Network

    Guerrero, Luis

    Department University of Cauca Popayán, Sector Tulcán, Colombia ccollazo@unicauca.edu.co Abstract. A large they involve several stages and roles that require an important amount of communication and coordination

  11. 75 FR 37460 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for the Prairie Species of Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ...threatened species: Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii (Kincaid's lupine), Sidalcea...Bradshaw's lomatium), Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii (Kincaid's lupine), Sidalcea...peacock larkspur), Horkelia congesta ssp. congesta (shaggy horkelia),...

  12. Essential-oil composition of Helichrysum italicum (ROTH) G.DON ssp. italicum from Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy).

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Michele; Ambryszewska, Katarzyna E; Melai, Bernardo; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Parri, Federico; Pistelli, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    The composition of 21 essential-oil samples isolated from Helichrysum italicum collected in seven locations of Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy), characterized by different soil types, during three different periods (January, May, and October 2010) was determined by GC-FID and GC/EI-MS analyses. In total, 115 components were identified, representing 96.8-99.8% of the oil composition. The oils were characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (38.6-62.7%), while monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons accounted for 2.3-41.9 and 5.1-20.1% of the identified constituents, respectively. The main oxygenated derivatives were nerol (2.8-12.8%) and its ester derivative neryl acetate (5.6-45.9%). To compare the chemical variability of the species within Elba Island and between the island and other localities within the Mediterranean area, studied previously, multivariate statistical analysis was performed. The results obtained showed a difference in the composition of the essential oils of H. italicum from Elba Island, mainly due to the environment where the plant grows, and, in particular, to the soil type. These hypotheses were further confirmed by the comparison of these oils with essential oils obtained from H. italicum collected on other islands of the Tuscan archipelago. PMID:23495152

  13. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Cadmium-Induced Cell Death through Restraining ROS Accumulation in Roots of Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a cell signal molecule produced endogenously and involved in regulation of tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In this work, we used molecular biology, physiology, and histochemical methods to investigate the effects of H2S on cadmium- (Cd-) induced cell death in Chinese cabbage roots. Cd stress stimulated a rapid increase of endogenous H2S in roots. Additionally, root length was closely related to the cell death rate. Pretreatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H2S donor, alleviated the growth inhibition caused by Cd in roots—this effect was more pronounced at 5??M NaHS. Cd-induced cell death in roots was significantly reduced by 5??M NaHS treatment. Under Cd stress, activities of the antioxidant enzymes were significantly enhanced in roots. NaHS + Cd treatment made their activities increase further compared with Cd exposure alone. Enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity led to a decline in reactive oxygen species accumulation and lipid peroxidation. In contrast, these effects were reversed by hydroxylamine, a H2S inhibitor. These results suggested that H2S alleviated the cell death caused by Cd via upregulation of antioxidant enzyme activities to remove excessive reactive oxygen species and reduce cell oxidative damage.

  14. Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric Investigation of Essential Oils from Melissa officinalis ( Labiatae Family) and Pellargonium ssp. ( Geraniaceae Family)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia C. Toma; Ioan B. Pancan; Marius Chiri??; Florina M. Vata; Alina D. Zamfir

    In the present work we report upon the development of a novel methodology based on electrospray (ESI) high capacity ion trap\\u000a (HCT) multistage mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS), for assessing the composition and structure of essential volatile oils. The method\\u000a was particularly applied to a native terpenoid mixture extracted from Melissa officinalis and different species of Pellargonium genus. Optimized ESI HCT MS

  15. Climate and the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) at Mountain Birch (Betula pubecens ssp. czerepanovii) Treelines in northern Sweden.

    E-print Network

    Young, Amanda B.

    2010-01-16

    2005a; V?re 2001). Growth Forms There are two growth forms of mountain birch: monocormic (single stemmed) and polycormic (multiple stems). The level of polycormicity a tree has is attributed to 9 its hybridization between B. pubescens and B...

  16. Use of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy for predicting antioxidant compounds in summer squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo).

    PubMed

    Blanco-Díaz, María Teresa; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Martínez-Valdivieso, Damián; Font, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    The food industry and plant breeding programmes require fast, clean and low-cost screening techniques for nutritional compounds determination in food matrices. This is the first report on the study of the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the prediction of antioxidant compounds in summer squash tissues collected since 2009-2012. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression was used to correlate spectral information and the different antioxidant compounds in the samples. The coefficients of determination in the external validation (r(2)ev) obtained were for ascorbic acid (0.77 and 0.86), chlorophyll a (0.79 and 0.66), chlorophyll b (0.86 and 0.79) and total phenolic compounds (0.65 and 0.68) in exocarp and mesocarp tissues, respectively, supporting that NIRS is able to predict in a rapid way these components for screening purposes. Major wavelengths influencing the calibration equations showed that chromophores as well as fibre components of the fruits highly participated in developing the NIR equations. PMID:24996338

  17. Novel LMW glutenin subunit genes from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) in relation to Glu-3 evolution.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lumin; Liang, Yu; Yang, Daozheng; Sun, Lei; Xia, Guangmin; Liu, Shuwei

    2015-01-01

    Four low-molecular-weight-isoleucine (LMW-i)-type and one novel chimeric (between LMW-i and LMW-methionine (m) types) low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) genes were characterized from wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides), designated as emmer-1 to emmer-5. All five LMW-GS genes possessed the same primary structure shared by other published LMW-GSs. The three genes emmer-1, emmer-3, and emmer-5 are similar, with the exception that emmer-3 and emmer-5 lost a few repeat motifs compared to emmer-1. Gene duplication and insertions/deletions of repeat motifs mediated through unequal crossing over may be responsible for the generation of these three Glu-3 alleles. Although the first residue of mature peptide of emmer-4 is isoleucine, it is not typical LMW-i-type LMW-GS. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that emmer-4 is located in the LMW-m subgroup, suggesting a closer relationship with LMW-m-type gene Y14104 of T. durum. Sequence alignment indicated that the emmer-4 is likely a chimeric gene generated by illegitimate recombination between LMW-i and LMW-m type. Unequal crossing over and illegitimate recombination are effective mechanisms for enriching both copy numbers and variations of LMW-GSs. PMID:25420747

  18. A Genomic Island in Salmonella enterica ssp. salamae Provides New Insights on the Genealogy of the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement

    PubMed Central

    Chandry, P. Scott; Gladman, Simon; Moore, Sean C.; Seemann, Torsten; Crandall, Keith A.; Fegan, Narelle

    2012-01-01

    The genomic island encoding the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is an important virulence factor of the human pathogenic Escherichia coli. LEE typically encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) and secreted effectors capable of forming attaching and effacing lesions. Although prominent in the pathogenic E. coli such as serotype O157:H7, LEE has also been detected in Citrobacter rodentium, E. albertii, and although not confirmed, it is likely to also be in Shigella boydii. Previous phylogenetic analysis of LEE indicated the genomic island was evolving through stepwise acquisition of various components. This study describes a new LEE region from two strains of Salmonella enterica subspecies salamae serovar Sofia along with a phylogenetic analysis of LEE that provides new insights into the likely evolution of this genomic island. The Salmonella LEE contains 36 of the 41 genes typically observed in LEE within a genomic island of 49, 371 bp that encodes a total of 54 genes. A phylogenetic analysis was performed on the entire T3SS and four T3SS genes (escF, escJ, escN, and escV) to elucidate the genealogy of LEE. Phylogenetic analysis inferred that the previously known LEE islands are members of a single lineage distinct from the new Salmonella LEE lineage. The previously known lineage of LEE diverged between islands found in Citrobacter and those in Escherichia and Shigella. Although recombination and horizontal gene transfer are important factors in the genealogy of most genomic islands, the phylogeny of the T3SS of LEE can be interpreted with a bifurcating tree. It seems likely that the LEE island entered the Enterobacteriaceae through horizontal gene transfer as a single unit, rather than as separate subsections, which was then subjected to the forces of both mutational change and recombination. PMID:22860002

  19. Effect of vanadium on growth of Chinese green mustard (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis) under substrate culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narumol Vachirapatama

    The effects of vanadium on growth of Chinese green mustard (Brassica campestris spp. var. parachinensis) and its accumulation in plant tissues were investigated. Substrate culture was set to grow the plants. Two weeks after planting, plants were exposed for 3 weeks with a solution containing 6 different concentrations of ammonium metavanadate (0-80 mg\\/l). The results showed that stem length, number

  20. The economic value of the phytoremediation function – Assessed by the example of cadmium remediation by willow ( Salix ssp)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Lewandowski; U. Schmidt; M. Londo; A. P. C. Faaij

    2006-01-01

    The combination of biomass production with other land use functions in multiple land use systems can reduce biomass production costs if these land use functions generate an economic benefit. Aim of this study is to find and apply methods for the quantification of the economic value of the phytoremediation function (cleaning of the soil by plants). For the purpose the

  1. Modulation of the effects of methylmercury on rat neurodevelopment by co-exposure with Labrador Tea ( Rhododendron tomentosum ssp. subarcticum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paleah Black; Lijie Niu; Manisha Sachdeva; David Lean; Raymond Poon; Wayne J. Bowers; Hing Man Chan; John T. Arnason; Guillaume Pelletier

    2011-01-01

    Seafood is an important source of nutrients for many populations worldwide. Unfortunately the contamination of seafood with methylmercury (MeHg) has raised health concerns, particularly for developing infants. The modification of MeHg toxicity by nutrients, including antioxidants, has been reported in both epidemiological and animal exposure studies. We used a rat perinatal exposure model to investigate the modulation of developmental MeHg

  2. Mineral nutrition of Arnica montana L. and Arnica chamissonis ssp. foliosa maguire: Differences in the cation acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Jenelten; U. Feller

    1992-01-01

    The cultivation of the calcifuge Arnica montana naturally found on poor soils is important because of its pharmaceutical use. Influences of nutrient availability on the cation acquisition by the two Arnica species Arnica montana (Europe) and Arnica chamissonis (North America) were investigated in hydroponic culture. The contents of the divalent cations calcium and magnesium were higher on a dry matter

  3. EPSPS Gene Amplification in Glyphosate-Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) Populations from Arkansas (United States).

    PubMed

    Salas, Reiofeli A; Scott, Robert C; Dayan, Franck E; Burgos, Nilda R

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas (United States) in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations were studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify alternative management approaches. Dose-response bioassays, glyphosate absorption and translocation experiments, herbicide target (EPSPS) gene sequence analysis, and gene amplification assays were conducted. The dose causing 50% growth reduction (GR50) was 7-19 times higher for the resistant population than for the susceptible standard. Uptake and translocation of (14)C-glyphosate were similar in resistant and susceptible plants, and no mutation in the EPSPS gene known to be associated with resistance to glyphosate was detected. Resistant plants contained from 11- to >100-fold more copies of the EPSPS gene than the susceptible plants, whereas the susceptible plants had only one copy of EPSPS. Plants surviving the recommended dose of glyphosate contained at least 10 copies. The EPSPS copy number was positively related to glyphosate resistance level (r = 80). Therefore, resistance to glyphosate in these populations is due to multiplication of the target site. Resistance mechanisms could be location-specific. Suppressing the mechanism for gene amplification may overcome resistance. PMID:25760654

  4. The within host dynamics of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle: where time and place matter.

    PubMed

    Koets, Ad P; Eda, Shigetoshi; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2015-01-01

    Johne's disease or paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), occurs in domestic and wild animals worldwide, causing a significant economic loss to livestock industries. After a prolonged incubation time, infected cattle shed MAP bacilli into feces and spread the disease to an uninfected animal population. It is largely unknown how (or whether) the interplay between the pathogen and the host immunity determines timing of shedding after the long incubation time. Such information would provide an understanding of pathogenesis in individual animals and the epidemiology of MAP infection in animal populations. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of bovine Johne's disease pathology, pathogenesis, immunology and genetics. We discuss knowledge gaps that direly need to be addressed to provide a science-based approach to diagnostics and (immuno)prophylaxis. These knowledge gaps are related to anatomical/clinical manifestation of MAP invasion, interaction of bacteria with phagocytes, granuloma formation, shedding, establishment and kinetics of adaptive immune responses in the pathogenesis of the disease. These topics are discussed at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels with special attention to the within host dynamics including the temporal and the spatial context relevant for the various host-pathogen interactions. PMID:26092382

  5. The Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits in Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis): New Evidence from Association Mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous association analyses showed that variation at major regulatory genes contributes to standing variation for complex traits in Balsas teosinte, the progenitor of maize. This study expands our previous association mapping effort in teosinte by testing 123 markers in 52 candidate genes for ...

  6. Persistent organic pollutants in the blood of free-ranging sea otters (Enhydra lutris ssp.) in Alaska and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jessup, David A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Estes, James; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Jarman, Walter M.; Reese, Stacey; Dodd, Erin; Tinker, M. Tim; Ziccardi, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of tagging and ecologic research efforts in 1997 and 1998, apparently healthy sea otters of four age-sex classes in six locations in Alaska and three in California were sampled for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other chemicals of ecologic or environmental concern (COECs). Published techniques for the detection of POPs (specifically ?polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], ?DDTs, ?hexachlorocyclohexanes [HCHs], ?polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], ?chlordanes [CHLs], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], dieldrin, and mirex) in the tissue of dead otters were modified for use with serum from live sea otters. Toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were calculated for POPs with proven bioactivity. Strong location effects were seen for most POPs and COECs; sea otters in California generally showed higher mean concentrations than those in Alaska. Differences in contaminant concentrations were detected among age and sex classes, with high levels frequently observed in subadults. Very high levels of ?DDT were detected in male sea otters in Elkhorn Slough, California, where strong freshwater outflow from agricultural areas occurs seasonally. All contaminants except mirex differed among Alaskan locations; only ?DDT, HCB, and chlorpyrifos differed within California. High levels of ?PCB (particularly larger, more persistent congeners) were detected at two locations in Alaska where associations between elevated PCBs and military activity have been established, while higher PCB levels were found at all three locations in California where no point source of PCBs has been identified. Although POP and COEC concentrations in blood may be less likely to reflect total body burden, concentrations in blood of healthy animals may be more biologically relevant and less influenced by state of nutrition or perimortem factors than other tissues routinely sampled.

  7. The Educational Influences on Active Citizens: A Case Study of Members of the Scottish Socialist Party (SSP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Liam

    2007-01-01

    While there is a wealth of literature and research on radical adult "popular" education for social change, most of it looks forward and speculates on the educational processes best able to help the oppressed of the world overcome naive passivity and become critically aware "subjects" of social change. Within a critical education framework, this…

  8. Resistance of mixed subalpine forest to fire frequency changes: the ecological function of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo ssp. mugo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, Bérangère; Carcaillet, Christopher; Blarquez, Olivier; Lami, Andrea; Musazzi, Simona; Trevisan, Renata

    2014-04-01

    The availability of fuel and climate are major factors responsible for forest fire activity over time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forest ecosystems containing a high shrub biomass, which constitutes a fuel load, and affected by a warmer climate, which is associated with drier conditions and a longer fire season, are more prone to fire. Fire occurrence and woody vegetation histories were reconstructed for a subalpine site (Lago di Colbricon Inferiore) in the Dolomites, part of the eastern Italian Alps, for the past 13,000 years. The modern wet climate prevents fire in this area, in spite of the warm summers and an abundant biomass of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo) and three other conifer tree species (Pinus cembra, Picea abies, and Larix decidua). Past fire history reconstructed from sedimentary charcoal showed a median fire return interval of 140 years (30-735 yr fire-1), with a high variability (SD ± 170 years) throughout the Holocene, suggesting that the past environment was more favourable to fire than the modern one, probably due to a drier climate or to different fuel availability. The subalpine community containing P. mugo remained stable for the past 9000 years, despite the variability of the fire return interval. Interestingly, the fire frequency is higher at Lago di Colbricon than at sites in the western Alps that lack P. mugo, suggesting that this species tolerates fire disturbance. In fact, it probably favours the spread of fire due to its flammable biomass, prostrated form, and dense layering canopy, thus offsetting the influence of the wet climate. Since the 19th century, the removal of dwarf pine to promote subalpine grasslands may have suppressed fires in this region.

  9. In vitro zygotic embryo culture of wild Musa acuminata ssp. malaccensis and factors affecting germination and seedling growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MJ Asif; C Mak; RY Othman

    2001-01-01

    In vitro zygotic embryo culture of wild banana significantly increased the germination compared to greenhouse grown seeds. Embryo orientation and BAP concentration significantly affected germination rate. These factors together with gelling agent, dark and light conditions and coconut water, also showed variable effects on the number of roots per plant, root length, shoot length, number of days to root emergence

  10. Floral and insect-induced volatile formation in Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea , a perennial, outcrossing relative of A. thaliana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Abel; Maria Clauss; Andrea Schaub; Jonathan Gershenzon; Dorothea Tholl

    2009-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds have been reported to serve some important roles in plant communication with other organisms, but\\u000a little is known about the biological functions of most of these substances. To gain insight into this problem, we have compared\\u000a differences in floral and vegetative volatiles between two closely related plant species with different life histories. The\\u000a self-pollinating annual, Arabidopsis thaliana,

  11. In vitro plant regeneration of Alnus acuminata H.B.K. ssp. acuminata and its root nodulation by Frankia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roxana J. Enrico; Silvia S. Ramírez; Luis A. Mroginski; Luis Gabriel Wall

    2005-01-01

    A procedure for in vitro plant regeneration of Alnus acuminata from epicotyls with cotyledonary buds was developed using different media formulations with different growth regulators and carbon sources. The development of multiple buds on explants at the initiation step was obtained with MS at 1\\/2 strength with either 1 or 2µM of BAP but not without it. Multiplication gave up

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Cadmium-Induced Cell Death through Restraining ROS Accumulation in Roots of Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Pei, Yanxi; Wang, Hongjiao; Jin, Zhuping; Liu, Zhiqiang; Qiao, Zengjie; Fang, Huihui; Zhang, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a cell signal molecule produced endogenously and involved in regulation of tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In this work, we used molecular biology, physiology, and histochemical methods to investigate the effects of H2S on cadmium- (Cd-) induced cell death in Chinese cabbage roots. Cd stress stimulated a rapid increase of endogenous H2S in roots. Additionally, root length was closely related to the cell death rate. Pretreatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H2S donor, alleviated the growth inhibition caused by Cd in roots-this effect was more pronounced at 5??M NaHS. Cd-induced cell death in roots was significantly reduced by 5??M NaHS treatment. Under Cd stress, activities of the antioxidant enzymes were significantly enhanced in roots. NaHS + Cd treatment made their activities increase further compared with Cd exposure alone. Enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity led to a decline in reactive oxygen species accumulation and lipid peroxidation. In contrast, these effects were reversed by hydroxylamine, a H2S inhibitor. These results suggested that H2S alleviated the cell death caused by Cd via upregulation of antioxidant enzyme activities to remove excessive reactive oxygen species and reduce cell oxidative damage. PMID:26078819

  13. Enzymatic fragmentation of the antimicrobial peptides casocidin and isracidin by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Somkuti; Moushumi Paul

    2010-01-01

    The cumulative effect of peptidase and protease activities associated with cells of Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (LB) was evaluated on the milk protein-based antimicrobial peptides casocidin and isracidin. Reaction mixtures of casocidin\\u000a or isracidin and nonproliferating mid-log cells of these essential yogurt starter cultures were individually incubated for\\u000a up to 4 h at pH 4.5 and 7.0,

  14. INTERSEEDING FALCATA ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA SSP. FALCATA) INTO NATIVE RANGELANDS: II. EFFECTS ON FORAGE PRODUCTION AND CARBON INPUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock producers in the Western U.S. are constantly seeking ways to increase forage production and forage quality on rangelands. Rangelands comprise about 60% of the earth's surface, therefore, any management change that enhances C sequestration, even slightly, has a significant C storage protent...

  15. Enzymatic fractionation of the antimicrobial peptides casocidin and isracidin by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cumulative effect of peptidase and protease activities associated with cells of Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (LB) was evaluated on the milk-protein based antimicrobial peptides casocidin and isracidin. Reaction mixtures of casocidin or isracidin...

  16. Molecular characterization of gene sequences coding for protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Ciaffi; A. R Paolacci; L Dominici; O. A Tanzarella; E Porceddu

    2001-01-01

    The organisation of the durum wheat genomic sequence (3.5 kb) coding for protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), deduced by comparison between genomic fragments and cDNA sequences (1.5 kb) isolated from immature caryopses, is described. The gene structure consists of ten exons and nine introns. The presence of consensus sequences involved in splicing, such as intron-exon junctions and branchpoint, has been observed

  17. Seasonal flooding regimes influence survival, nitrogen fixation, and the partitioning of nitrogen and biomass in Alnus incana ssp. rugosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Kaelke; J. O. Dawson

    2003-01-01

    Alteration of natural flooding regimes can expose lowlands to waterlogged soil conditions during any month of the year. The seasonality of flooding may have profound effects on the carbon and nitrogen budgets of N-fixing alders (Alnus spp.), and in turn, may impact the C and N economy of extensive alder-dominated, wetland ecosystems, including those dominated by speckled alder (Alnus incana

  18. Symbiotic N 2 fixation of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountains, New York, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Hurd; D. J. Raynal; C. R. Schwintzer

    2001-01-01

    Surface waters in forested watersheds in the Adirondack Mountains and northern New York State are susceptible to nitrogen (N) saturation. Atmospheric deposition of N to watersheds in this region has been measured but the extent of internal N inputs from symbiotic N2 fixation in alder-dominated wetlands is not known. We estimated N2 fixation by speckled alder in these wetlands by

  19. Symbiotic N 2 fixation of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountains, New York, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Hurd; D. J. Raynal; C. R. Schwintzer

    2001-01-01

    Surface waters in forested watersheds in the Adirondack Mountains and northern New York State are susceptible to nitrogen (N) saturation. Atmospheric de- position of N to watersheds in this region has been mea- sured but the extent of internal N inputs from symbiotic N 2 fixation in alder-dominated wetlands is not known. We estimated N2 fixation by speckled alder in

  20. Enzymes encoded by the farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene family in the Big Sagebrush Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis.

    PubMed

    Hemmerlin, Andrea; Rivera, Susan B; Erickson, Hans K; Poulter, C Dale

    2003-08-22

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase catalyzes the sequential head-to-tail condensation of two molecules of isopentenyl diphosphate with dimethylallyl diphosphate. In plants the presence of farnesyl diphosphate synthase isozymes offers the possibility of differential regulation. Three full-length cDNAs encoding putative isoprenoid synthases, FDS-1, FDS-2, and FDS-5, with greater than 89% similarity were isolated from a Big Sagebrush Artemisia tridentata cDNA library using a three-step polymerase chain reaction protocol. One of the open reading frames, FDS-5, encoded a protein with an N-terminal amino acid extension that was identified as a plastidial targeting peptide. Recombinant histidine-tagged versions of three proteins were purified, and their enzymatic properties were characterized. FDS-1 and FDS-2 synthesized farnesyl diphosphate as the final chain elongation product, but their kinetic behavior varied. FDS-1 prefers geranyl diphosphate over dimethylallyl diphosphate as an allylic substrate and is active at acidic pH values compared with FDS-2. In contrast, FDS-5 synthesized two irregular monoterpenoids, chrysanthemyl diphosphate and lavandulyl diphosphate, when incubated with dimethylallyl diphosphate and an additional product, the regular monoterpene geranyl diphosphate, when incubated with isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Specific cellular functions are proposed for each of the three enzymes, and a scenario for evolution of isoprenyl synthases in plants is presented. PMID:12782626