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Susceptibility of wild carrot ( Daucus carota ssp. carota ) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sclerotinia soft rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a severe disease of cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus) in storage. It is not known whether Sclerotinia soft rot also affects wild carrots (D. carota ssp. carota), which hybridise and exchange genes, among them resistance genes, with the cultivated carrot. We investigated the susceptibility\\u000a of wild carrots to S. sclerotiorum isolates

B. D. Jensen; M. R. Finckh; L. Munk; T. P. Hauser



Anthocyanin composition of black carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) cultivars Antonina, Beta Sweet, Deep Purple, and Purple Haze.  


This study aimed to identify the pigment composition of black carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) cultivars Antonina, Beta Sweet, Deep Purple, and Purple Haze. Cyanidin 3-xylosyl(glucosyl)galactosides acylated with sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and coumaric acid were detected as major anthocyanins by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and with electrospray ionization multiple mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)) analyses. The preparative isolation of these pigments was carried out by means of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The color activity concept was applied to the isolated anthocyanins at three pH values. Cyanidin 3-xylosyl(sinapoylglucosyl)galactoside was found to exhibit a lower visual detection threshold and a higher pH stability than cyanidin 3-xylosyl(feruloylglucosyl)galactoside and cyanidin 3-xylosyl(coumaroylglucosyl)galactoside. The color parameters of the fresh roots of the four cultivars were described by the CIELab coordinates L* (lightness), C* (chroma), and h(ab) (hue angles). Total phenolics varied among the cultivars and ranged from 17.9 to 97.9 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g fresh weight (fw). For the content of monomeric anthocyanins, values between 1.5 and 17.7 mg/100 g fw were determined. PMID:21381748

Montilla, Elyana Cuevas; Arzaba, Miriam Rodriguez; Hillebrand, Silke; Winterhalter, Peter



A new flavone glycoside from seeds of Daucus carota.  


Phytochemical examination of seeds of Daucus carota L. resulted in the isolation of apigenin -4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside and a new flavone glycoside which was characterised as apigenin-7-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-mannopyranoside. PMID:17396982

Gupta, K R; Niranjan, G S



Carrot ( Daucus carota ) hypocotyl transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daucus carota hypocotyl sections were transformed withAgrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 containing CaMV 35S promoter, ß-glucuronidase coding sequence and the nopaline synthase (Nos) poly adenylation sequences in Bin 19. Sliced sterile seedling hypocotyl segments were preincubated for 2 days, co-cultivated withAgrobacterium for an additional 2 days, and then transferred to medium containing 100ug\\/ml of kanamycin and 400ug\\/ml carbenicillin. In 6 weeks kanamycin

John C. Thomas; Mark J. Guiltinan; Silvia Bustos; Terry Thomas; Craig Nessler



Methylation of mitochondrial DNA in carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methylation status of carrot (Daucus carota L.) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was studied using isoschizomeric restriction enzymes MspI\\/HpaII (CCGG) and MvaI\\/EcoRII [CC(A\\/T)GG]. Southern hybridisations with probes for mitochondrial genes coxII and atpA were performed. MtDNAs isolated from non-embryogenic cell suspensions and roots were analysed. No differences were found\\u000a using MspI\\/HpaII but after digesting the mtDNA with MvaI and EcoRII, some

H. Šimková



Distribution of Heterodera carotae and Meloidogyne hapla in Michigan Carrot Production.  


During 1986 and 1988, selected farms in all of the major carrot-growing counties of Michigan were surveyed to determine the extent of infestation by Heterodera carotae and Meloidogyne hapla. Both species were found in all eight counties surveyed, but not on all farms. Heterodera carotae was recovered from 67.4% of the fields surveyed. Meloidogyne hapla was detected in 24.8% of the samples and from 69.8% of the fields. In most cases, H. carotae and M. hapla occurred in the same field. PMID:19283061

Berney, M F; Bird, G W



Uptake and transformation of phenol and chlorophenols by hairy root cultures of Daucus carota, Ipomoea batatas and Solanum aviculare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairy root cultures of Daucus carota L., Ipomoea batatas L. and Solanum aviculare Forst were investigated for their susceptibility to the highly toxic pollutants phenol and chlorophenols and for the involvement of inherent peroxidases in the removal of phenols from liquid media. Roots of D. carota grew normally in medium containing 1000?moll?1 of phenol, whilst normal growth of roots of

Brancilene Santos de Araujo; Jerzy Dec; Jean Marc Bollag; Marcia Pletsch



Control of Heterodera carotae, Ditylenchus dipsaci, and Meloidogyne javanica with Fumigant and Nonfumigant Nematicides  

PubMed Central

Five field trials were conducted in Italy in 1983 and 1984 to test the efficacy of isazofos and benfuracarb in controlling Heterodera carotae on carrot, Ditylenchus dipsaci on onion, and Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Methyl isothiocyanate (MIT) was tested against H. carotae and M. javanica. Single (10 kg a.i./ha) and split (5 + 5 kg a.i./ha) applications of isazofos gave yield increases of carrot and onion similar to those obtained with DD (300 liters/ha) and aldicarb (10 kg a.i./ha). Population densities of H. carotae in carrot roots at harvest and of M. javanica in tomato roots 2 months after transplanting were also suppressed by isazofos. Benfuracarb (10 kg a.i./ha increased onion yields in a field infested with D. dipsaci, but it was not effective against H. carotae or M. javanica. The efficacy of MIT at 400 and 600 liters/ha was similar to that of MIT + DD (Di-Trapex) at 300 liters/ha. Both nematicides inhibited hatch of H. carotae eggs and decreased the soil population density of M. javanica.

Greco, N.; Elia, F.; Brandonisio, A.



Control of Heterodera carotae, Ditylenchus dipsaci, and Meloidogyne javanica with Fumigant and Nonfumigant Nematicides.  


Five field trials were conducted in Italy in 1983 and 1984 to test the efficacy of isazofos and benfuracarb in controlling Heterodera carotae on carrot, Ditylenchus dipsaci on onion, and Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Methyl isothiocyanate (MIT) was tested against H. carotae and M. javanica. Single (10 kg a.i./ha) and split (5 + 5 kg a.i./ha) applications of isazofos gave yield increases of carrot and onion similar to those obtained with DD (300 liters/ha) and aldicarb (10 kg a.i./ha). Population densities of H. carotae in carrot roots at harvest and of M. javanica in tomato roots 2 months after transplanting were also suppressed by isazofos. Benfuracarb (10 kg a.i./ha increased onion yields in a field infested with D. dipsaci, but it was not effective against H. carotae or M. javanica. The efficacy of MIT at 400 and 600 liters/ha was similar to that of MIT + DD (Di-Trapex) at 300 liters/ha. Both nematicides inhibited hatch of H. carotae eggs and decreased the soil population density of M. javanica. PMID:19294191

Greco, N; Elia, F; Brandonisio, A



Chemical characterization and biological activity of essential oils from Daucus carota L. subsp. carota growing wild on the Mediterranean coast and on the Atlantic coast.  


The essential oils and supercritical CO(2) extracts of wild Daucus carota L. subsp. carota growing spontaneously in Sardinia and in Portugal were investigated. The main components in the Sardinian essential oil of flowering and mature umbels with seeds are beta-bisabolene (17.6-51.0%) and 11-alpha-(H)-himachal-4-en-1-beta-ol (9.0-21.6%); instead, the oils from Portuguese samples are predominantly composed of geranyl acetate (5.2-65.0%) and alpha-pinene (3.5-37.9%). Supercritical extracts contain lower amounts of monoterpenes and higher amounts of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Antifungal activities of the Sardinian oils were the highest, particularly for dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values of 0.16-0.64 microL mL(-1). PMID:18950693

Maxia, Andrea; Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Tuveri, Enrica; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia



Genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus L.) (Apiaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Analyses of genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships illuminate the origin and domestication of modern crops. Despite being an important world-wide vegetable, the genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is poorly understood. We provide the first such study using a la...


Two new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids from the fruits of Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids containing an interesting epoxy unit, daucuside (1) and daucusol (2) were isolated from the fruits of Daucus carota L. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, NMR spectroscopic analyses coupled with chemical degradation and they were also evaluated for the cytotoxic effects against two human gastric cancer cell lines BGC-823 and AGS.

Hong-wei Fu; Lin Zhang; Tao Yi; Yu-lin Feng; Jing-kui Tian



Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for genotyping and mapping in carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot is one of the most important root vegetable crops grown worldwide on more than one million hectares. Its progenitor, wild Daucus carota, is a weed commonly occurring across continents in the temperate climatic zone. Diversity Array Technology (DArT) is a microarray-based molecular marker syst...


Genome-wide association of the domestication syndrome in carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrots (Daucus carota L.) were domesticated over 1,000 years ago in Central Asia. Two traits selected during domestication were increased carotenoid accumulation (white -> yellow -> orange root color) and decreased lateral root formation. While some preliminary research has been conducted on the un...


Complete plastid genome sequence of Daucus carota: Implications for biotechnology and phylogeny of angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Carrot (Daucus carota) is a major food crop in the US and worldwide. Its capacity for storage and its lifecycle as a biennial make it an attractive species for the introduction of foreign genes, especially for oral delivery of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. Until recently efforts to express recombinant proteins in carrot have had limited success in terms

Tracey Ruhlman; Seung-Bum Lee; Robert K Jansen; Jessica B Hostetler; Luke J Tallon; Christopher D Town; Henry Daniell



Imaging of polarity during zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis a study of the regulation of coordinated growth and the development of polarity during embryogenesis of carrot, Daucus carota L., is described. To this end, several microscopical techniques were used, such as light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and electron microscopy. Next to this, immunocytochemical methods were used frequently to localize proteins in plant tissue

A. C. J. Timmers



A cell wall protein down-regulated by auxin suppresses cell expansion in Daucus carota (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the function of the auxin-regulated cell wall gene DC 2.15, a member of a small gene family, present in Daucus carota (L.) and other plants. Cultured cells derived from carrot hypocotyls transformed by the DC 2.15 cDNA in antisense direction were ten-fold longer than wild-type cells, indicating a function of the corresponding protein in suppression of cell expansion.

A. Holk; L. Klumpp; G. F. E. Scherer



Comparative studies of the peroxidases from hairy roots of Daucus carota, Ipomoea batatas and Solanum aviculare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal conditions for the extraction of peroxidases (EC from hairy root cultures of Daucus carota L. (carrot), Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) and Solanum aviculare Forst. (kangaroo apple) and their apparent kinetic constants with guaiacol, catechol, phenol, 2-chlorophenol and 2,6-dichlorophenol as reducing substrates were determined. The peroxidase activities in these root extracts were, respectively, 2.1 ± 0.05, 15.1

Brancilene Santos de Araujo; Juliana Omena de Oliveira; Sonia Salgueiro Machado; Marcia Pletsch



Plant regeneration from carrot ( Daucus carota L.) anther culture derived embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research concerned of the regeneration of plants from embryos obtained from anther cultures of seven carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultivars. The aim was to determine the influence of the regeneration medium on the efficiency of the regeneration process.\\u000a The optimization of the adaptation of the obtained plants was also carried out. Embryogenesis occurred on four of the tested\\u000a media:

K. Górecka; D. Krzy?anowska; W. Kiszczak; U. Kowalska



Anthocyanin accumulation and PAL activity in a suspension culture of Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells of Daucus carota grown in a liquid medium produced large amounts of cyanidin as the only flavonoid aglycon. After inoculation in fresh medium a maximum activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC was observed within 24 h. L-a-aminooxy-ß-phenylpropionic acid (L-AOPP), thought to be a competitive inhibitor of PAL, inhibited cyanidin accumulation up to 80%. In order to study

Wolfgang Noé; Christian Langebartels; Hanns Ulrich Seitz



Factors influencing the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop an efficient procedure for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of carrot (Daucus carota L.) the effects of several factors were studied. Parameters which significantly affected the transformation frequency were the variety, the explant type, and the co-cultivation period. Under optimal conditions, using the A. tumefaciens C58C1 containing either pGSTRN943 or pGSGluc1 and 3 days of co-cultivation, the frequency of

Nathalie Pawlicki; Rajbir S. Sangwan; Brigitte S. Sangwan-Norreel



Efficacy of eight larvicidal botanical extracts from Khaya senegalensis and Daucus carota against Culex annulirostris.  


The failure to discover a significant new class of insecticides has led many researchers back to biodiscovery studies in the search for new and economically viable alternatives. After a preliminary screening of botanical extracts using descending series of concentrations (1,000, 500, 100, 50, and 5 mg/liter), 8 extracts from 2 potential botanical agents, Khaya senegalensis (Desrousseaux) and Daucus carota L., were tested against 4th instars of Culex annulirostris (Skuse) following the standard World Health Organization insecticide susceptibility methodology. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values for K. senegalensis against Cx. annulirostris using acetone, ethanol, hexane, and methanol extracts were 20.12, 5.1, 5.08, and 7.62 mg/liter, respectively. The LC50 values for D. carota against Cx. annulirostris using acetone, ethanol, hexane, and methanol extracts were 236.00, 36.59, 77.19, and 241.8 mg/liter, respectively. Extracts from K. senegalensis were more potent than those from D. carota against Cx. annulirostris and hexane and ethanol were the best solvents to extract essential oils from both plant species, respectively. In potency, K. senegalensis was similar to azadirachtin, but fractionation and compound isolation of the hexane extract in particular may reveal a potent phytochemical that could be compared to synthetic mosquitocides. PMID:17067042

Shaalan, Essam A; Canyon, Deon V; Younes, Mohamed W F; Abdel-Wahab, Hoda; Mansour, Abdel-Hamid



Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David



Removal of cationic methylene blue and malachite green dyes from aqueous solution by waste materials of Daucus carota  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study adsorption capacity of waste materials of Daucus carota plant (carrot stem powder: CSP and carrot leaves powder: CLP) was explored for the removal of methylene blue (MB) malachite green (MG) dye from water. The morphology and functional groups present were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The operating variables studied were

Atul Kumar Kushwaha; Neha Gupta; M. C. Chattopadhyaya


Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David



Development of a high-throughput SNP resource to advance genomic, genetic and breeding research in carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rapid advancement in high-throughput SNP genotyping technologies along with next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms has decreased the cost, improved the quality of large-scale genome surveys, and allowed specialty crops with limited genomic resources such as carrot (Daucus carota) to access t...


Phosphorus Efficiency of Cabbage ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. capitata ), Carrot ( Daucus carota L.), and Potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant species and genotypes within the same species may differ in phosphorus efficiency. The objective of this research was to study phosphorus efficiency of cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and to quantify the contribution of morphological root characteristics to P uptake of the plant species. An experiment was conducted in a glasshouse

Nigussie Dechassa; Manfred K. Schenk; Norbert Claassen; Bernd Steingrobe



Levels of lycopene ?-cyclase 1 modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in Daucus carota.  


Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene ?-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of ?-carotene and ?-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of ?-carotene and ?-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and ?-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots. PMID:23555569

Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia



Myo-Inositol trisphosphate mobilizes calcium from fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L. ) protoplasts  

SciTech Connect

To determine whether or not inositol trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/) mobilizes calcium in higher plant cells; they investigated the effect of IP/sub 3/ on Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes in fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts. The protoplasts were incubated in /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/-containing medium and the /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ associated with the protoplasts was monitored with time. Addition of IP/sub 3/ (20 micromolar) caused a 17% net loss of the accumulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ within 4 minutes. There was a reuptake of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ and the protoplasts recovered to their initial value by 10 minutes. Phytic acid (IP/sub 6/), also stimulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux from the protoplasts. Both the IP/sub 3/- and the IP/sub 6/-induced /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux were inhibited by the calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine.

Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F.



Production and analysis of plants that are somatic hybrids of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain plants that were somatic hybrids of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.), we fused protoplasts that had been isolated from 6-month-old suspension cultures of carrot cells with protoplasts isolated\\u000a from barley mesophyll by electrofusion. After culture for 1 month at 25?C , the cells were cultured for 5 weeks at 4?C , and

H. Kisaka; M. Kisaka; A. Kanno; T. Kameya



Calcium transport in vesicles from carrot cells: Stimulation by calmodulin and phosphatidylserine. [Daucus carota cv. Danvers  

SciTech Connect

The transport properties of Ca-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota cv. Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP dependent Ca transport in vesicles that comigrated with an ER marker, was stimulated 3-4 fold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca transport activity; however, it had little or not effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca uptake. The results suggested the presence of two types of Ca ATPases, and ER- and a plasma membrane-type. Incubation of membranes with (gamma{sup 32}P)ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl ({sup 32}P) phosphoprotein of 120 kDa. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca, and enhanced by La {sup 3+}, characteristic of the plasma membrane CaATPase. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane CaATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca pump of 120 kDa.

Wenling Hsieh; Sze, Heven (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))



Abscisic acid regulation of DC8, a carrot embryonic gene. [Daucus carota  

SciTech Connect

DC8 encodes a hydrophylic 66 kilodalton protein located in the cytoplasm and cell walls of carrot (Daucus carota) embryo and endosperm. During somatic embryogenesis, the levels of DC8 mRNA and protein begin to increase 5 days after removal of auxin. To study the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of DC8 gene, fluridone, 1-methyl-3-phenyl,-5(3-trifluoro-methyl-phenyl)-4(1H)-pyridinone, was used to inhibit the endogenous ABA content of the embryos. Fluridone, 50 micrograms per milliliter, effectively inhibits the accumulation of ABA in globular-tage embryos. Western and Northern analysis show that when fluridone is added to the culture medium DC8 protein and mRNA decrease to very low levels. ABA added to fluridone supplemented culture media restores the DC8 protein and mRNA to control levels. Globular-stage embryos contain 0.9 to 1.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} molar ABA while 10{sup {minus}6} molar exogenously supplied ABA is the optimal concentration for restoration of DC8 protein accumulation in fluridone-treated embryos. The mRNA level is increased after 15 minutes of ABA addition and reaches maximal levels by 60 minutes. Evidence is presented that, unlike other ABA-regulated genes, DC8 is not induced in nonembryonic tissues via desiccation nor addition of ABA.

Hatzopoulos, P.; Fong, F.; Sung, Z.R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA) Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))



Fluorescent in situ hybridization with arbitrarily amplified DNA fragments differentiates carrot (Daucus carota L.) chromosomes.  


Carrot (Daucus carota L.) chromosomes are small and poorly differentiated in size and morphology. Here we demonstrate that fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) signals derived from arbitrary PCR probes can be used for chromosome identification in carrot. To prepare probes, we searched for nonpolymorphic products abundantly amplified with arbitrary decamer primers in a group of accessions representing carrot genetic diversity. As a result, 13 fragments ranging in size from 517 to 1758 bp were selected, sequenced, and used as probes for fluorescent in situ hybridization. Four of these probes produced clear and reproducible hybridization signals. The sequences showed similarity to a number of carrot BAC-end sequences, indicating their repetitive character. Three of them were similar to internal portions of gypsy and copia LTR retrotransposons previously identified in plants. Hybridization signals for the four probes were observed as dotted tracks on chromosomes, differing in distribution and intensity. Generally, they were present in pericentromeric and (or) interstitial localizations on chromosome arms. The use of the four probes allowed discrimination of chromosome pairs and construction of more detailed karyotypes and idiograms of carrot. PMID:22360760

Nowicka, Anna; Grzebelus, Ewa; Grzebelus, Dariusz



Uptake and transformation of phenol and chlorophenols by hairy root cultures of Daucus carota, Ipomoea batatas and Solanum aviculare.  


Hairy root cultures of Daucus carota L., Ipomoea batatas L. and Solanum aviculare Forst were investigated for their susceptibility to the highly toxic pollutants phenol and chlorophenols and for the involvement of inherent peroxidases in the removal of phenols from liquid media. Roots of D. carota grew normally in medium containing 1000 micromol l(-1) of phenol, whilst normal growth of roots of I. batatas and S. aviculare was only possible at levels up to 500 micromol l(-1). In the presence of chlorophenols, normal root growth was possible only in concentrations not exceeding 50 micromol l(-1), except for I. batatas which was severely affected at all concentrations. Despite the reduction in biomass, the growth of S. aviculare cultures was sustained in medium containing up to 2000 micromol l(-1) of phenol or 2-chlorophenol, and up to 500 micromol l(-1) of 2,6-dichlorophenol. The amounts of phenol removed by the roots within 72 h of treatment were 72.7%, 90.7% and 98.6% of the initial concentration for D. carota, I. batatas and S. aviculare, respectively. For the removal of 2,6-dichlorophenol the values were, respectively, 83.0%, 57.7% and 73.1%. Phenols labelled with 14C were absorbed by the root tissues and condensed with highly polar cellular substances as well as being incorporated into the cell walls or membranes. The results suggest that S. aviculare, an ornamental plant, would be best suited for remediation trials under field conditions. PMID:16364403

de Araujo, Brancilene Santos; Dec, Jerzy; Bollag, Jean Marc; Pletsch, Marcia



Nutritional, physical, and sensory evaluation of hydroponic carrots (Daucus carota L.) from different nutrient delivery systems.  


Carrot (Daucus carota L.) has the highest carotenoid content among foods and is consumed in large quantities worldwide, while at the same time its market demand continues to increase. Carotenoids have also been associated with protective effects against cancer and other chronic diseases. The most predominant carotenoids in carrots are beta- and alpha-carotenes. Moisture, ash, fat, texture, color, carotene content, and consumer acceptance of carrots grown in a hydroponic system with nutrient film technique (NFT) and microporous tube membrane system (MTMS) were evaluated. The moisture contents of the NFT- and MTMS-grown carrots ranged from 86.8 +/- 0.13% to 92.2 +/- 2.25% and 80.9 +/- 0.31% to 91.6 +/- 1.01%, respectively. Fat and ash contents of the carrots were negligible. NFT-grown Oxheart had the most beta-carotene (9900 +/- 20 microg/100 g) while Juwaroot had the least (248 +/- 10 microg/100 g). However, the beta-carotene content of Juwaroot from the NFT batch II carrots was 3842 +/- 6 microg/100 g. MTMS-grown carrots had less variation in the total beta-carotene contents (2434 +/- 89 to 10488 +/- 8 microg/100 g) than those from NFT. Overall, Nantes Touchan (4.8 +/- 2.3) and Nevis-F (7 +/- 1.4) from NFT were the least and most preferred by consumers. Mignon was also acceptable to consumers, and significantly (P < 0.05) more preferred than the other carrots in that NFT batch. MTMS-grown Kinko and Paramex, which were significantly (P < 0.05) more preferred than Nandrin-F and the commercial field-grown carrot, were equally liked by consumers. Nevis-F, Mignon (NFT), Paramex, and Kinko (MTMS) are potentially good cultivars to be included in NASA's food system. PMID:20492130

Gichuhi, P N; Mortley, D; Bromfield, E; Bovell-Benjamin, A C


Calcium transport in tonoplast and endoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells. [Daucus carota Danvers  

SciTech Connect

Two active calcium (Ca/sup 2 +/) transport systems have been identified and partially characterized in membrane vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota Danvers). Both transport systems required MgATP for activity and were enhanced by 10 millimolar oxalate. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport in membrane vesicles derived from isolated vacuoles equilibrated at 1.10 grams per cubic centimeter and comigrated with Cl/sup -/-stimulated, NO/sub 3//sup -/-inhibited ATPase activity on sucrose density gradients. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport in this system was insensitive to vanadate, but was inhibited by nitrate, carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), and 4,4-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulfonic acid (DIDS). The K/sub m/ for MgATP and Ca/sup 2 +/ were 0.1 mM and 21 micromolar, respectively. The predominant Ca/sup 2 +/ transport system detectable in microsomal membrane preparations equilibrated at a density of 1.13 grams per cubic centimeter and comigrated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker, antimycin A-insensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport activity and the ER marker also shifted in parallel in ER shifting experiments. This transport system was inhibited by vanadate (I/sub 50/ = 12 micromolar) and was insensitive to nitrate, CCCP, DCCD, and DIDS. Transport exhibited cooperative MgATP dependent kinetics. Ca/sup 2 +/ dependent kinetics were complex with an apparent K/sub m/ ranging from 0.7 to 2 micromolar. We conclude that the vacuolar-derived system is a Ca/sup 2 +//H/sup +/ antiport located on the tonoplast and that the microsomal transport system is a Ca,Mg-ATPase enriched on the ER. These two Ca/sup 2 +/ transport systems are proposed to restore and maintain cytoplasmic Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis under changing cellular and environmental conditions.

Bush, D.R.; Sze, H.



Influence of carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) feeding or exogenous limonene or methyl jasmonate treatment on composition of carrot (Daucus carota) leaf essential oil and headspace volatiles.  


The effect of carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) feeding and limonene and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments on the essential oil composition and headspace volatiles of carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus), cvs. Parano and Splendid, leaves was studied. Carrot psyllid feeding significantly increased the concentrations of sabinene, beta-pinene, and limonene, whereas limonene treatment increased the concentration of (Z)-beta-ocimene in the leaves of both cultivars. The limonene treatment significantly increased the concentration of total phenolics in the leaves of both cultivars, and MeJA treatment increased phenolic concentration in the leaves of Parano. Exogenous limonene spray did not decrease the number of carrot psyllid eggs laid either 2 or 24 h after treatment. The results suggest that carrot psyllid feeding induces changes in the endogenous monoterpene pool in the carrot leaves. Limonene and MeJA treatments affect some induced defenses of the carrot, but the exogenous limonene spray is not an effective oviposition deterrent against carrot psyllid. PMID:16248564

Nissinen, Anne; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Kainulainen, Pirjo; Tiilikkala, Kari; Holopainen, Jarmo K



Effects of Chelators on Species and Bioavailability of Cadmium in Soil to Daucus carota var. sativa and Brassica juncea var. multiceps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot incubation study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using Daucus carota var. sativa (carrot) and Brassica juncea var. multiceps (potherb mustard) for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils and evaluateing the effects of chelating agents (EDTA, EGTA, DTPA and citric acid) application on metal uptake by both plants. It was shown that, the content of water soluble and exchangeable

Zheng Ming-xia; Li Lai-qing; Feng Liu; Liu Jie; Chen Ming



Influence of a loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.). Culture medium and its components on growth and somatic embryogenesis of the wild carrot ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new culture medium, originally designed and shown to grow cell suspensions from a variety of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) explants, was used to study growth and somatic embryogenesis of the wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) in cell suspensions. The new loblolly pine medium (LM) differed from the standard wild carrot medium (WCM) in having very low Ca2+, very

John D. Litvay; Devi C. Verma; Morris A. Johnson



Variation of cell cycle duration within suspension cultures of Daucus carota and its consequence for the induction of ploidy changes with colchicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Continuous exposure to colchicine was used to estimate the variation in cell cycle time between cells within suspension cultures ofDaucus carota. Observations were made of the pattern of disappearance of cells of the initially predominant ploidy levels in diploid and tetraploid cultures having markedly different aggregation patterns. Both cultures showed a similar range of cycle times, normally distributed about

M. W. Bayliss



Complete plastid genome sequence of Daucus carota: Implications for biotechnology and phylogeny of angiosperms  

PubMed Central

Background Carrot (Daucus carota) is a major food crop in the US and worldwide. Its capacity for storage and its lifecycle as a biennial make it an attractive species for the introduction of foreign genes, especially for oral delivery of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. Until recently efforts to express recombinant proteins in carrot have had limited success in terms of protein accumulation in the edible tap roots. Plastid genetic engineering offers the potential to overcome this limitation, as demonstrated by the accumulation of BADH in chromoplasts of carrot taproots to confer exceedingly high levels of salt resistance. The complete plastid genome of carrot provides essential information required for genetic engineering. Additionally, the sequence data add to the rapidly growing database of plastid genomes for assessing phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Results The complete carrot plastid genome is 155,911 bp in length, with 115 unique genes and 21 duplicated genes within the IR. There are four ribosomal RNAs, 30 distinct tRNA genes and 18 intron-containing genes. Repeat analysis reveals 12 direct and 2 inverted repeats ? 30 bp with a sequence identity ? 90%. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for 61 protein-coding genes using both maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) were performed for 29 angiosperms. Phylogenies from both methods provide strong support for the monophyly of several major angiosperm clades, including monocots, eudicots, rosids, asterids, eurosids II, euasterids I, and euasterids II. Conclusion The carrot plastid genome contains a number of dispersed direct and inverted repeats scattered throughout coding and non-coding regions. This is the first sequenced plastid genome of the family Apiaceae and only the second published genome sequence of the species-rich euasterid II clade. Both MP and ML trees provide very strong support (100% bootstrap) for the sister relationship of Daucus with Panax in the euasterid II clade. These results provide the best taxon sampling of complete chloroplast genomes and the strongest support yet for the sister relationship of Caryophyllales to the asterids. The availability of the complete plastid genome sequence should facilitate improved transformation efficiency and foreign gene expression in carrot through utilization of endogenous flanking sequences and regulatory elements.

Ruhlman, Tracey; Lee, Seung-Bum; Jansen, Robert K; Hostetler, Jessica B; Tallon, Luke J; Town, Christopher D; Daniell, Henry



[Effect of blanching and hygroscopic coating on quality of fresh cut carrots (Daucus carota var. chantenay) during storage].  


The effect of blanching at low temperatures (solution 1% acid citric, 50 degrees C for 30 seconds) and the application of glycerol as humectant (3% p/p, 20 seconds) to preserve the quality of fresh-cut carrots (Daucus carota) were studied as individual or combined treatments. Four treatments were evaluated: a control by dipping samples for 30 seconds in distilled water (T1); blanching (T2); glycerol application (T3); and blanching plus glycerol application (T4). Total carotenoids content, color, soluble solids and weight loss were monitored during storage. Results showed no differences between treatments in carotenoids content (p > 0.10) and soluble solids (p > 0.05). However, differences were observed between treatments in weight loss (p < 0.05) and color change (p < 0.05). Blanched samples (T2 and T4) showed small changes in orange color intensity compared to treatments T1 and T3 (p < 0.05). PMID:12184154

Uquiche Carrasco, Edgar; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis



Evidence for p-hydroxybenzoate formation involving enzymatic phenylpropanoid side-chain cleavage in hairy roots of Daucus carota.  


In this study, methyl jasmonate (MJ)-elicited hairy root cultures of Daucus carota were explored to study the enzymatic route to p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA) biosynthesis. Treatment with 100microM MJ caused an enhanced accumulation of p-HBA as well as total phenolic content in elicited root lines as compared to untreated (controls) lines. Using cell-free extract as the source of crude enzymes, attempt was made to reveal the enzymatic route to p-HBA formation. The accumulation of p-HBA was preceded by a substantial upliftment of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase (HBD) activity in elicited lines as compared to controls. A rapid 6-fold enhancement of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, the first enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway was also observed. Finally, we demonstrated here for the first time, in D. carota, the evidence of a quite unusual p-hydroxybenzaldehyde synthase (HBS)-type enzyme, which catalyzes the penultimate step of p-HBA biosynthesis by making phenylpropanoid side-chain cleavage of p-coumaric acid without involvement of any cofactor(s), but uplifted by supplementation of a thiol reagent such as DTT in the reaction buffer. This enzyme showed activity in a relatively broad pH range (7-8.4) and the temperature optimum was found to be at 34 degrees C. The MJ-treated roots showed highest HBS activity at 24h (52nkat/mg protein), which was nearly 5-fold higher than that in the control lines. PMID:17658659

Sircar, Debabrata; Mitra, Adinpunya



Differences in protodermal cell wall structure in zygotic and somatic embryos of Daucus carota (L.) cultured on solid and in liquid media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure, cuticle, and distribution of pectic epitopes in outer periclinal walls of protodermal cells of Daucus carota zygotic and somatic embryos from solid and suspension culture were investigated. Lipid substances were present as a continuous\\u000a layer in zygotic and somatic embryos cultured on solid medium. Somatic embryos from suspension cultures were devoid of cuticle.\\u000a The ultrastructure of the outer

Izabela Dobrowolska; Oliwia Majchrzak; Timothy C. Baldwin; Ewa U. Kurczynska


Cadmium Accumulation in the Edible Parts of Different Cultivars of Radish, Raphanus sativus L., and Carrot, Daucus carota var. sativa, Grown in a Cd-contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium accumulation among 12 cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus) and 10 cultivars of carrot (Daucus carota var. sativa) was studied in a Cd-contaminated soil. The Cd concentration in the edible parts of radish and carrot ranged\\u000a from 0.04 to 0.14 and 0.14 to 0.19 mg kg?1 fresh weight, respectively. All the tested carrot cultivars and 33% of the tested radish cultivars

Rui-Lun Zheng; Hua-Fen Li; Rong-Feng Jiang; Fu-Suo Zhang



Comparison of two liquid-state NMR methods for the determination of saccharides in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots.  


In order to determine the saccharide content of plant tissues, we studied a new non-destructive and fast analytical method that we call "direct quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy" (d q (1)H NMR): the application of quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (q (1)H NMR) to non modified plant tissues along with capillary tubes containing a reference compound (for quantification) and deuterium oxide (for locking). Using this method, the saccharide content of samples of carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots was compared to the results given from similar samples by the formerly published q (1)H NMR determination of extracts obtained by the O'Donoghue/Davis method. The content in glucose and sucrose is significantly higher with the direct method than when an extraction step is included; the content in fructose is not significantly different. If a possible detection of saccharides included in glycosylated biological compounds is to be excluded, a more complete extraction of saccharides is probably obtained using the direct method. PMID:21046086

Weberskirch, Linda; Luna, Alan; Skoglund, Sara; This, Hervé



Calcium and phospholipid activation of a recombinant calcium-dependent protein kinase (DcCPK1) from carrot ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calmodulin-like domain protein kinase (DcCPK1, previously designated CDPK431) cloned from carrot (Daucus carota L.) was expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli and partially purified. Ca2+-induced gel mobility shift and 45Ca2+ ligand binding assays confirmed that recombinant DcCPK1 binds Ca2+ through its calmodulin-like domain and undergoes a significant conformational change. Ca2+ activated the kinase activity of recombinant DcCPK1 (K0.5=1.7

Paul K. Farmer; Jung H. Choi



Chlorogenic acid biosynthesis: characterization of a light-induced microsomal 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate\\/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cell suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsomal preparations from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures catalyze the formation of trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate (chlorogenate) from trans-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate. trans-5-O-(4-Coumaroyl)shikimate is converted to about the same extent to trans-5-O-caffeoylshikimate. trans-4-O-(4-Coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-3-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-4-coumarate, and cis-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate do not act as substrates. The reaction is strictly dependent on molecular oxygen and on NADPH as reducing cofactor. NADH and ascorbic acid cannot substitute for NADPH.

T. K. Kuehnl; U. Koch; W. Heller; E. Wellmann



cDNA cloning of carrot (Daucus carota) soluble acid beta-fructofuranosidases and comparison with the cell wall isoenzyme.  

PubMed Central

Carrot (Daucus carota), like most other plants, contains various isoenzymes of acid beta-fructofuranosidase (beta F) (invertase), which either accumulate as soluble polypeptides in the vacuole (isoenzymes I and II) or are ionically bound to the cell wall (extracellular beta F). Using antibodies against isoenzyme I of carrot soluble beta F, we isolated several cDNA clones encoding polypeptides with sequences characteristic of beta Fs, from bacteria, yeast, and plants. The cDNA-derived polypeptide of one of the clones contains all partial peptide sequences of the purified isoenzyme I and thus codes for soluble acid beta F isoenzyme I. A second clone codes for a related polypeptide (63% identity and 77% similarity) with characteristics of isoenzyme II. These two soluble beta Fs, have acidic isoelectric points (3.8 and 5.7, respectively) clearly different from the extracellular enzyme, which has a basic isoelectric point of 9.9. Marked differences among the three nucleotide sequences as well as different hybridization patterns on genomic DNA gel blots prove that these three isoenzymes of carrot acid beta F are encoded by different genes and do not originate from differential splicing of a common gene, as is the case in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All three carrot acid beta Fs, are preproenzymes with signal peptides and N-terminal propeptides. A comparison of the sequences of the soluble enzymes with the sequence of the extracellular protein identified C-terminal extensions with short hydrophobic amino acid stretches that may contain the information for vacuolar targeting.

Unger, C; Hardegger, M; Lienhard, S; Sturm, A



Prepenetration Apparatus Assembly Precedes and Predicts the Colonization Patterns of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi within the Root Cortex of Both Medicago truncatula and Daucus carota[W  

PubMed Central

Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are widespread, ancient endosymbiotic associations that contribute significantly to soil nutrient uptake in plants. We have previously shown that initial fungal penetration of the host root is mediated via a specialized cytoplasmic assembly called the prepenetration apparatus (PPA), which directs AM hyphae through the epidermis (Genre et al., 2005). In vivo confocal microscopy studies performed on Medicago truncatula and Daucus carota, host plants with different patterns of AM colonization, now reveal that subsequent intracellular growth across the root outer cortex is also PPA dependent. On the other hand, inner root cortical colonization leading to arbuscule development involves more varied and complex PPA-related mechanisms. In particular, a striking alignment of polarized PPAs can be observed in adjacent inner cortical cells of D. carota, correlating with the intracellular root colonization strategy of this plant. Ultrastructural analysis of these PPA-containing cells reveals intense membrane trafficking coupled with nuclear enlargement and remodeling, typical features of arbusculated cells. Taken together, these findings imply that prepenetration responses are both conserved and modulated throughout the AM symbiosis as a function of the different stages of fungal accommodation and the host-specific pattern of root colonization. We propose a model for intracellular AM fungal accommodation integrating peri-arbuscular interface formation and the regulation of functional arbuscule development.

Genre, Andrea; Chabaud, Mireille; Faccio, Antonella; Barker, David G.; Bonfante, Paola



Prepenetration apparatus assembly precedes and predicts the colonization patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within the root cortex of both Medicago truncatula and Daucus carota.  


Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are widespread, ancient endosymbiotic associations that contribute significantly to soil nutrient uptake in plants. We have previously shown that initial fungal penetration of the host root is mediated via a specialized cytoplasmic assembly called the prepenetration apparatus (PPA), which directs AM hyphae through the epidermis (Genre et al., 2005). In vivo confocal microscopy studies performed on Medicago truncatula and Daucus carota, host plants with different patterns of AM colonization, now reveal that subsequent intracellular growth across the root outer cortex is also PPA dependent. On the other hand, inner root cortical colonization leading to arbuscule development involves more varied and complex PPA-related mechanisms. In particular, a striking alignment of polarized PPAs can be observed in adjacent inner cortical cells of D. carota, correlating with the intracellular root colonization strategy of this plant. Ultrastructural analysis of these PPA-containing cells reveals intense membrane trafficking coupled with nuclear enlargement and remodeling, typical features of arbusculated cells. Taken together, these findings imply that prepenetration responses are both conserved and modulated throughout the AM symbiosis as a function of the different stages of fungal accommodation and the host-specific pattern of root colonization. We propose a model for intracellular AM fungal accommodation integrating peri-arbuscular interface formation and the regulation of functional arbuscule development. PMID:18515499

Genre, Andrea; Chabaud, Mireille; Faccio, Antonella; Barker, David G; Bonfante, Paola



Prediction Model for Cadmium Transfer from Soil to Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and Its Application To Derive Soil Thresholds for Food Safety.  


At present, soil quality standards used for agriculture do not fully consider the influence of soil properties on cadmium (Cd) uptake by crops. This study aimed to develop prediction models for Cd transfer from a wide range of Chinese soils to carrot (Daucus carota L.) using soil properties and the total or available soil Cd content. Path analysis showed soil pH and organic carbon (OC) content were the two most significant properties exhibiting direct effects on Cd uptake factor (ratio of Cd concentration in carrot to that in soil). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis also showed that total soil Cd, pH, and OC were significant variables contributing to carrot Cd concentration, explaining 90% of the variance across the 21 soils. Soil thresholds for carrot (cultivar New Kuroda) cropping based on added or total Cd were then derived from the food safety standard and were presented as continuous or scenario criteria. PMID:24079518

Ding, Changfeng; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Fen; Yang, Yiru; Huang, Guifeng



Influence of Boron on the Membrane Potential in Elodea densa and Helianthus annuus Roots and H+ Extrusion of Suspension Cultured Daucus carota Cells 1  

PubMed Central

When following the membrane potential of Elodea densa leaf cells during a dark-light regime and analysing the different phases of the cycle, the pattern under boron deficiency resembled the one reported to occur after 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea application. The potential in the dark slowly decreased when transferring Elodea densa leaflets and Helianthus annuus roots to a B-free medium and increased in the same way after B was added again. Addition of vanadate to inhibit plasmalemma ATPases in part mimicked the effects of B deficiency. It is suggested that B directly or indirectly affects the formation of a proton gradient. The effect of B on proton secretion was observed in various experiments with Daucus carota cell cultures. The results are discussed with respect to the possible involvement of B in membrane function and transport processes.

Blaser-Grill, Jurgen; Knoppik, Dietmar; Amberger, Anton; Goldbach, Heiner



Accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in hairy roots of Daucus carota 2: confirming biosynthetic steps through feeding of inhibitors and precursors.  


Biosynthesis of hydroxybenzoates even at enzymatic level is poorly understood. In this report, effect of feeding of putative biosynthetic precursors and pathway-specific enzyme inhibitors of early phenylpropanoid pathway on p-hydroxybenzoic acid accumulation in chitosan-elicited hairy roots of Daucus carota was studied. Three selective metabolic inhibitors of plant phenylpropanoid pathway, namely, aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), piperonylic acid (PIP) and 3,4-methylenedioxycinnamic acid (MDCA), which are known to inhibit phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) respectively, the three early enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism, were chosen with the anticipation that selective inhibition of these enzymes in vivo may provide information on the metabolic route to p-hydroxybenzoic acid formation. Supplementation of AOAA (0.2-1.0 mM) and PIP (0.2-1.0 mM) resulted in the reduced accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the wall-bound fraction. However, addition of MDCA (0.2-1.25 mM), did not suppress p-hydroxybenzoic acid accumulation but suppressed lignin and total flavonoid accumulation, suggesting that 4CL enzyme activity is not required for p-hydroxybenzoic acid formation. Feeding of elicited hairy roots with phenylalanine, coumaric acid and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde had a stimulatory effect on p-hydroxybenzoic acid accumulation; however, maximum stimulatory effect was shown by p-hydroxybenzaldehyde. This suggests that p-hydroxybenzaldehyde might be the immediate precursor in p-hydroxybenzoic acid biosynthesis. Finally, in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to p-hydroxybenzoic acid with p-hydroxybenzaldehyde as intermediate using cell-free extract provided an unequivocal support for CoA-independent and non-beta-oxidative route of p-hydroxybenzoic acid biosynthesis in Daucus carota. PMID:19342120

Sircar, Debabrata; Mitra, Adinpunya



Influence of variation in soil copper on the yield and nutrition of carrots grown in microplots on two organic soils. [Daucus carota  

SciTech Connect

Carrots (Daucus carota L. cv. Gold Pak 128) were grown in microplots of two organic soils at site A (a peat), and site B (a muck) in the summer of 1984. The soil surface (0 to 20 cm) varied in total Cu from 13 to 1659, and 81 to 1745 at sites A and B, respectively, mainly due to three levels of applications of CuSO/sub 4/ x 5H/sub 2/O in 1978. Neither the yield nor the nutrition (P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo and B) of the carrot crop was significantly adversely affected by the copper applications or the resultant total soil copper levels at both sites A and B. There were decreases in some foliar nutrient levels due to dilution effects attributable to the significant positive correlations between both root and leaf yields and total soil copper at site B. At both sites A and B, the copper additions appeared to have increased the availability of soil Mn, in accord with earlier evidence.

Mathur, S.P.; Belanger, A.



Apparent inhibition of. beta. -fructosidase secretion by tunicamycin may be explained by breakdown of the unglycosylated protein during secretion. [Daucus carota  

SciTech Connect

Suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota) cells synthesize and secrete {beta}-fructosidase, a glycoprotein with asparagine-linked glycans. Treatment of the cells with tunicamycin completely inhibits the apparent secretion of {beta}-fructosidase as measured by the accumulation of the {sup 35}S-labelled protein in the cell wall or the culture medium. In the past, such a result has been interpreted as an inhibition of secretion by tunicamycin, but we suggest another explanation based on the following results. In the presence of tunicamycin, unglycosylated {beta}-fructosidase is synthesized and is associated with an endoplasmic-reticulum-rich microsomal fraction. Pulse-chase experiments show that the unglycosylated {beta}-fructosidase does not remain in the cells and appears to be secreted in the same way as glycosylated {beta}-fructosidase; however, no radioactive, unglycosylated {beta}-fructosidase accumulates extracellularly (cell wall or medium). Protoplasts obtained from carrot cells secrete {beta}-fructosidase protein and activity, and treatment of the protoplasts with tunicamycin results in the synthesis of unglycosylated {beta}-fructosidase. In the presence of tunicamycin, there is no accumulation of {beta}-fructosidase activity or unglycosylated {beta}-fructosidase polypeptide in the protoplast incubation medium. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the glycans of {beta}-fructosidase are necessary for its stability, and that in these suspension-cultured cells, the unglycosylated enzyme is degraded during the last stage(s) of secretion, or immediately after its arrival in the wall.

Faye, L. (Univ. de Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan (France)); Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego (USA))



Chlorogenic acid biosynthesis: characterization of a light-induced microsomal 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cell suspension cultures  

SciTech Connect

Microsomal preparations from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures catalyze the formation of trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate (chlorogenate) from trans-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate. trans-5-O-(4-Coumaroyl)shikimate is converted to about the same extent to trans-5-O-caffeoylshikimate. trans-4-O-(4-Coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-3-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-4-coumarate, and cis-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate do not act as substrates. The reaction is strictly dependent on molecular oxygen and on NADPH as reducing cofactor. NADH and ascorbic acid cannot substitute for NADPH. Cytochrome c, Tetcyclacis, and carbon monoxide inhibit the reaction suggesting a cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function monooxygenase. Competition experiments as well as induction and inhibition phenomena indicate that there is only one enzyme species which is responsible for the hydroxylation of the 5-O-(4-coumaric) esters of both D-quinate and shikimate. The activity of this enzyme is greatly increased by in vivo irradiation of the cells with blue/uv light. We conclude that the biosynthesis of the predominant caffeic acid conjugates in carrot cells occurs via the corresponding 4-coumaric acid esters. Thus, in this system, 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate can be seen as the final intermediate in the chlorogenic acid pathway.

Kuehnl, T.K.; Koch, U.; Heller, W.; Wellmann, E.



Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on enzyme kinetics and thermostability of endogenous ascorbic acid oxidase in carrots (Daucus carota cv. Nantes).  


The objective of this research was to study the enzyme kinetics and thermostability of endogenous ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) in carrot purée (Daucus carota cv. Nantes) after being treated with pulsed electric field (PEF) processing. Various PEF treatments using electric field strength between 0.2 and 1.2kV/cm and pulsed electrical energy between 1 and 520kJ/kg were conducted. The enzyme kinetics and the kinetics of AAO thermal inactivation (55-70°C) were described using Michaelis-Menten model and first order reaction model, respectively. Overall, the estimated Vmax and KM values were situated in the same order of magnitude as the untreated carrot purée after being exposed to pulsed electrical energy between 1 and 400kJ/kg, but slightly changed at pulsed electrical energy above 500kJ/kg. However, AAO presented different thermostability depending on the electric field strength applied. After PEF treatment at the electric field strength between 0.2 and 0.5kV/cm, AAO became thermolabile (i.e. increase in inactivation rate (k value) at reference temperature) but the temperature dependence of k value (Ea value) for AAO inactivation in carrot purée decreased, indicating that the changes in k values were less temperature dependent. It is obvious that PEF treatment affects the temperature stability of endogenous AAO. The changes in enzyme kinetics and thermostability of AAO in carrot purée could be related to the resulting carrot purée composition, alteration in intracellular environment and the effective concentration of AAO released after being subjected to PEF treatment. PMID:24176379

Leong, Sze Ying; Oey, Indrawati



A plasma membrane-type Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase of 120 kilodaltons on the endoplasmic reticulum from carrot (Daucus carota) cells  

SciTech Connect

Cytosolic Ca[sup 2+] levels are regulated in part by Ca[sup 2+]-pumping ATPases that export Ca[sup 2+] from the cytoplasm; The types and properties of Ca[sup 2+] pumps in plants are not well understood. The kinetic properties of a 120-kD phosphoenzyme (PE) intermediate formed during the reaction cycle of a Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase from suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota) cells are characterized. Only one Ca[sup 2+]-dependent phosphoprotein was formed when carrot membrane vesicles were incubated with [[gamma]-[sup 32]P]ATP. Formation of this 120-kD phosphoprotein was inhibited by vanadate, enhanced by La[sup 3+], and decreased by hydroxylamine, confirming its identification as an intermediate of a phosphorylated-type Ca[sup 2+]-translocating ATPase. The 120-kD Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase was most abundant in endoplasmic reticulum-enriched fractions, in which the Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase was estimated to be 0.1% of membrane protein. Direct quantitation of Ca[sup 2+]-dependent phosphoprotein was used to examine the kinetics of PE formation. PE formation exhibited a K[sub m] for Ca[sup 2+] of 1 to 2 [mu]m and a K[sub m] for ATP of 67 nm. Relative affinities of substrates, determined by competition experiments, were 0.075 [mu]m for ATP, 1 [mu]m for ADP, 100 [mu]m for ITP, and 250 [mu]m for GTP. Thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, specific inhibitors of animal sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase, had no effect on PE formation; erythrosin B inhibited with 50% inhibition at <0.1 [mu]m. Calmodulin (1 [mu]m) stimulated PE formation by 25%. The results indicate that the carrot 120-kD Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase is similar but not identical to animal plasma membrane-type Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase and yet is located on endomembranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. This type of Ca[sup 2+] pump may reside on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum, thought to play a major role in anchoring the cytoskeleton and in facilitating secretion. 34 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Chen, F.H.; Ratterman, D.M.; Sze, H. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))



A chromo box gene from carrot ( Daucus carota L.): its cDNA structure and expression during somatic and zygotic embryogenesis 1 The nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper will appear in the DDBJ, EMBL and GenBank nucleotide sequence databases with accession number D83719. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA clone, designated DcDB1, was isolated from a cDNA library prepared from embryogenic cell clusters of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and characterized. The cDNA (1416 bp) encoded for a protein of 392 amino acid residues that contained a conserved chromo domain. The chromo domain is a 37 aa region found in both the Polycomo gene product, which is a

Tomohiro Kiyosue; Hajime Shiota; Katsumi Higashi; Hiroshi Kamada; Kazuo Shinozaki



Upregulation of the promoter activity of the carrot ( Daucus carota ) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene ( DcPAL3 ) is caused by new members of the transcriptional regulatory proteins, DcERF1 and DcERF2, which bind to the GCC-box homolog and act as an activator to the DcPAL3 promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene, DcPAL3, was expressed during the synthesis of anthocyanin in suspension-cultured cells of carrot (Daucus carota). There were two putative cis-elements in the DcPAL3 promoter region: the box-L and GCC-box homologs. Both of these are committed to the upregulation of promoter activity. Although\\u000a box-L is known as the conserved cis-element present in the promoter region of

Soichi Kimura; Yukie Chikagawa; Masayuki Kato; Kazuhiro Maeda; Yoshihiro Ozeki



Dissimilarity of contemporary and historical gene flow in a wild carrot (Daucus carota) metapopulation under contrasting levels of human disturbance: implications for risk assessment and management of transgene introgression.  


Background and Aims Transgene introgression from crops into wild relatives may increase the resistance of wild plants to herbicides, insects, etc. The chance of transgene introgression depends not only on the rate of hybridization and the establishment of hybrids in local wild populations, but also on the metapopulation dynamics of the wild relative. The aim of the study was to estimate gene flow in a metapopulation for assessing and managing the risks of transgene introgression. Methods Wild carrots (Daucus carota) were sampled from 12 patches in a metapopulation. Eleven microsatellites were used to genotype wild carrots. Genetic structure was estimated based on the FST statistic. Contemporary (over the last several generations) and historical (over many generations) gene flow was estimated with assignment and coalescent methods, respectively. Key Results The genetic structure in the wild carrot metapopulation was moderate (FST = 0·082) and most of the genetic variation resided within patches. A pattern of isolation by distance was detected, suggesting that most of the gene flow occurred between neighbouring patches (?1 km). The mean contemporary gene flow was 5 times higher than the historical estimate, and the correlation between them was very low. Moreover, the contemporary gene flow in roadsides was twice that in a nature reserve, and the correlation between contemporary and historical estimates was much higher in the nature reserve. Mowing of roadsides may contribute to the increase in contemporary gene flow. Simulations demonstrated that the higher contemporary gene flow could accelerate the process of transgene introgression in the metapopulation. Conclusions Human disturbance such as mowing may alter gene flow patterns in wild populations, affecting the metapopulation dynamics of wild plants and the processes of transgene introgression in the metapopulation. The risk assessment and management of transgene introgression and the control of weeds need to take metapopulation dynamics into consideration. PMID:24052560

Rong, Jun; Xu, Shuhua; Meirmans, Patrick G; Vrieling, Klaas



Inositol trisphosphate metabolism in carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cells  

SciTech Connect

The metabolism of exogenously added D-myo-(1-{sup 3}H)inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) has been examined in microsomal membrane and soluble fractions of carrot cells grown in suspension culture. When ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} was added to a microsomal membrane fraction, ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 2} was the primary metabolite consisting of approximately 83% of the total recovered ({sup 3}H) by electrophoresis. ({sup 3}H)IP was only 6% of the ({sup 3}H) recovered, and 10% of the ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} was not further metabolized. In contrast, when ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} was added to the soluble fraction, approximately equal amounts of ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 2} and ({sup 3}H)IP were recovered. Ca{sup 2+} (100 micromolar) tended to enhance IP{sub 3} dephosphorylation but inhibited the IP{sub 2} dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction by about 20%. MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} (1 millimolar) inhibited the dephosphorylation of IP{sub 3} by the microsomal fraction and the dephosphorylation of IP{sub 2} by the soluble fraction. MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, however, did not inhibit the dephosphorylation of IP{sub 3} by the soluble fraction. Li{sup +} (10 and 50 millimolar) had no effect on IP{sub 3} metabolism in either the soluble or membrane fraction; however, Li{sup +} (50 millimolar) inhibited IP{sub 2} dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction about 25%.

Memon, A.R.; Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))



Characterization of inositol phosphates in carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cells  

SciTech Connect

We have shown previously that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) stimulates an efflux of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from fusogenic carrot protoplasts. In light of these results, we suggested that IP{sub 3} might serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not IP{sub 3} and other inositol phosphates were present in the carrot cells, the cells were labeled with myo-(2-{sup 3}H)inositol for 18 hours and extracted with ice-cold 10% trichloroacetic acid. The inositol metabolites were separated by anion exchange chromatography and by paper electrophoresis. We found that ({sup 3}H)inositol metabolites coeluted with inositol bisphosphate (IP{sub 2}) and IP{sub 3} when separated by anion exchange chromatography. However, we could not detect IP{sub 2} or IP{sub 3} when the inositol metabolites were analyzed by paper electrophoresis even though the polyphosphoinositides, which are the source of IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3}, were present in these cells. Thus, ({sup 3}H)inositol metabolites other than IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3} had coeluted on the anion exchange columns. The data indicate that either IP{sub 3} is rapidly metabolized or that it is not present at a detectable level in the carrot cells.

Rincon, M.; Chen, Q.; Boss, W.F. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))



Expression and Assembly of Cholera Toxin B Subunit (CTB) in Transgenic Carrot ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We expressed the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) fused to an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (SEKDEL) in carrot roots\\u000a using an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. Fourteen independent transgenic lines were regenerated via somatic embryogenesis after 6 months\\u000a of culture. The sCTB gene was detected in the genomic DNA of transgenic carrot by PCR amplification. Expressions and assembly\\u000a of sCTB protein into oligomeric

Young-Sook Kim; Mi-Young Kim; Tae-Geum Kim; Moon-Sik Yang



Suboptimal temperature favors reserve formation in biennial carrot (Daucus carota) plants.  


In response to suboptimal temperatures, temperate annual plants often increase root:shoot ratios, build-up carbohydrates and display typical morphological and anatomical changes. We know less about the responses of biennials such as carrot. As a model plant, carrot has the additional feature of two functionally and morphologically distinct root parts: the taproot, which stores carbohydrate and other compounds, and the fibrous root system involved in acquisition of water and nutrients. Here, we analyze the effects of temperature (12 vs 25°C) on growth, carbohydrate accumulation and whole-plant morphology in two carrot cultivars. Our working hypothesis is that suboptimal temperature favors active formation of reserve structures, rather than passive accumulation of storage carbohydrates. In comparison with plants grown at 25°C, plants grown at 12°C had: (1) higher fibrous root:shoot ratio (13%) , (2) thicker (10-15%) and smaller (up to two- to three-fold) leaves, (3) lower leaf cuticular permeance (two- to four-fold), (4) higher taproot:shoot ratio (two-fold), (5) higher phloem:xylem ratios in taproot (two- to six-fold), (6) unchanged percentage dry matter content (%DMC) in leaves, petioles or fibrous roots and (7) higher %DMC in taproot (20%). However, %DMC of individual taproot tissues (phloem and xylem) was unaffected by temperatures and was consistently higher in the phloem (up to 30%). Therefore, the higher %DMC of whole taproots at 12°C was attributed solely to the increased development of phloem tissue. Carrot, therefore, shares many of the most conspicuous elements of temperate plant responses to low temperatures. Consistently with our hypothesis, however, carrots grown at suboptimal temperature promoted reserve structures, rather than the increase in carbohydrate concentration typical of most temperate annual species and woody perennials. PMID:19493310

González, María V; Sadras, Victor O; Equiza, María A; Tognetti, Jorge A



Potential Yield in Carrots ( Daucus carota L.): Theory, Test, and an Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little published information on the physiological behaviour of carrots at the crop level. Here we derive and test a simple model for the potential yield of carrot crops. The model calculates green leaf area index (L) using a daily time step. Dry matter production is related linearly to light interception, calculated fromL and canopy light extinction coefficient (k).

J. B. Reid; J. M. English



Hepatoprotective activity of carrot ( Daucus carota L.) against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in mouse liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of carrot extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver damage was evaluated. The increased serum enzyme levels (viz., glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol and glutamate dehydrogenase) by CCl4-induction were significantly lowered due to pretreatment with the extract. The extract also decreased the elevated serum bilirubin and urea content due to CCl4 administration.

Anupam Bishayee; Alok Sarkar; Malay Chatterjee



The Effect of Variety on Dehydration and Long Term Storage of Carrots ('Daucus carota').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve carrot varieties were analysed for reducing and total sugars, carotene and solids content. Samples of certain varieties were dehydrated and stored at 1, 15 and 37 C for up to two years and subjected to taste panel testing at intervals. Browning was...

G. E. Driver S. Venkata-Raman



Tolerance and metabolism of phenol and chloroderivatives by hairy root cultures of Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairy root cultures are shown to be suitable experimental systems to screen higher plants for tolerance to various inorganic and organic pollutants, and for determining the role of the root matrix in the uptake and further metabolism of contaminants. A number of clones were obtained by infection of carrot tissues with Agrobacterium rhizogenes and two (the fastest and the slowest

Brancilene Santos de Araujo; Barry Victor Charlwood; Marcia Pletsch



Tolerance and metabolism of phenol and chloroderivatives by hairy root cultures of Daucus carota L.  


Hairy root cultures are shown to be suitable experimental systems to screen higher plants for tolerance to various inorganic and organic pollutants, and for determining the role of the root matrix in the uptake and further metabolism of contaminants. A number of clones were obtained by infection of carrot tissues with Agrobacterium rhizogenes and two (the fastest and the slowest growing root clones) were chosen for further experimentation. Both clones showed a similar degree of tolerance towards phenol and its chlorinated derivatives, i.e. the growth of root biomass was maintained in concentrations of phenol equivalent to 1000 micromol/l, whilst the chlorophenols were tolerated only at concentrations 20 times lower (50 micromol/l). Transformed carrot roots were able to remove more than 90% of the exogenous phenolic compounds from the culture medium within 120 h after treatment. Metabolism of these compounds occurred in the root tissue and was accompanied by an increase in peroxidase activity. PMID:11916048

Araujo, Brancilene Santos de; Charlwood, Barry Victor; Pletsch, Marcia



Antioxidants and Antioxidant Capacity of Biofortified Carrots (Daucus Carota, L.) of Various Colors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of seven colored carrots were determined. Five anthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and four carotenoids, were quantified by HPLC. Total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidant capacities of the hydrophilic and hyd...


In vitro culture of unfertilized ovules in carrot ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To induce development of isolated carrot ovules, flowers were pollinated with pollen from different species. Effects of pollen\\u000a origin, medium composition, and light conditions were evaluated for 13 carrot cultivars. The highest efficiency of development\\u000a was recorded following pollination of carrot flowers with parsley pollen. The highest frequency of embryo formation (0.84%)\\u000a was obtained for cv. ‘Flamanka’; whereas the highest

Agnieszka Kie?kowska; Adela Adamus



Biological control of Senecio vulgaris in carrots (Daucus carota) with the rust fungus Puccinia lagenophorae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Senecio vulgaris is a troublesome weed in horticulture that is tolerant or resistant to a range of her- bicides, and is therefore a candidate for biological control. The rust fungus Puccinia lagenophorae is a potential control agent, but being biotrophic, it is not suitable for use as a mycoherbicide. We test- ed the effects of induced rust epidemics on S.

Blair S. Grace; Heinz Müller-Schärer



Molecular and genetic analysis of an embryonic gene, DC 8, from Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the morphogenetic and physiological processes occurring during plant embryogenesis, we isolated cDNA clones homologous to genes preferentially expressed during somatic embryogenesis. One of these cDNA clones detected an embryo-specific mRNA species with a corresponding protein of 66 kDa. The expression pattern of the mRNA is similar between somatic and zygotic embryos of carrots. To characterize the gene encoding

Gerald Franz; Polydefkis Hatzopoulos; Todd J. Jones; Marc Krauss; Z. R. Sung



Elicitor-induced cell death and phytoalexin synthesis in Daucus carota L  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Suspension-cultured carrot cells and intact leaves respond to crude and purified protein elicitors from the non-host fungus\\u000a Pythium aphanidermatum by activating the general phenylpropanoid pathway and incorporating de-novo-synthesized 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) into\\u000a the cell wall. The cultured cells undergo a very rapid elicitor-induced cell death. Both reactions are directly correlated\\u000a in their time course and their dose dependency. Cell

Wolfgang Koch; Claus Wagner; Hanns Ulrich Seitz



7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43 Section... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked...consignments only. (b) Immature âbabyâ carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp....



A study on the effect of few eco-friendly manures on the growth attributes of carrot (Daucus carota L.).  


A pot culture study was carried out at Avinashilingam Deemed University, Coimbatore to assess the effect of few organic manures (herbal microfertilizer, humic acid, farm yard manure (FYM), biofertilizer) and NPK on the growth attributes of carrot. Among the parameters observed, the germination percentage was highest in FYM treated pots on 7 DAS (Days After Sowing) and in NPK treated pots on 21, 28 and 30 DAS. The parameters, such as root length, crown length and vigour index, were studied on 30, 60, 90 and 120 DAS. The root length on 60 and 120 DAS was increased by FYM, whereas on 30 and 90 DAS, increase was observed in NPK treated plants. The crown length was increased by NPK on 30 and 120 DAS, micro herbal fertilizer showed an increase of crown length on 60 DAS and by FYM on 90 DAS. Highest vigour was in FYM treated plants on 30 DAS, in herbal micro fertilizer on 60 DAS in NPK treatment on 90 and 120 DAS. PMID:21114148

Vijayakumari, B; Yadav, R Hiranmai; Sowmya, M




Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular storage parenchyma cells of carrot roots were treated with methanol solutions of radicinin and epi- radicinol produced by Alternaria radicina and with alternariol and alternariol methyl ether produced by A. alternata at concentrations of 25 ?g\\/ml and 250 ?g\\/ml, as well as culture filtrates of both fungi. Cell ultra- structure was observed by TEM. No visible changes were noted




Rapid changes in amplification and methylation pattern of genomic DNA in cultured carrot root explants ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid genomic DNA variation due to methylation and copy number alteration was observed in carrot root explants 6 h after inoculation and during a 36-h period of exponential callus growth. De novo methylation and amplification of restricted BspNI fragments of low molecular weight occurred before cell cycle activation and should, therefore, be independent of progression through the S-phase of the

B. Arnholdt-Schmitt



Clarification and pasteurisation effects on monomeric anthocyanins and percent polymeric colour of black carrot (Daucus carota L.) juice.  


Black carrots (BCs) are a rich source of stable anthocyanins (ACNs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of clarification and pasteurisation on ACNs of black carrot juice (BCJ). Monomeric ACNs, ACN profile and percent polymeric colour were determined during processing of BCJ. While depectinisation and bentonite treatments resulted in 7% and 20% increases in monomeric ACN content of BCJ, respectively, gelatine-kieselsol treatment and pasteurisation resulted in 10% and 3-16% reduction. Percent polymeric colour decreased after clarification, but substantially increased in samples subjected to heat. ACNs of BCJ samples were identified by HPLC-MS. Unclarified BCJ contained cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside-ferulic acid as the major ACN, followed by cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside-coumaric acid, and cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside. After depectinisation, two more ACNs (cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside and cyanidin-3-galactoside-xyloside-glucoside-sinapic acid) were also identified. These results indicated that depectinisation and bentonite treatment had positive effect on the colour of BCJ, while gelatin-kieselsol treatment and pasteurisation had negative effect. PMID:23107727

Türky?lmaz, Meltem; Yemi?, Oktay; Ozkan, Mehmet



Combined effects of gamma irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on bacterial resistance in grated carrots (Daucus carota)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of gamma irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging as an alternative treatment to ensure the innocuity and the shelf life extension of pre-cured vegetables. Grated carrots were inoculated with Escherichia coli (106CFU/g) and packed under air or under MAP condition (60% O2, 30% CO2 and 10% N2). The packages were then, gamma irradiated at doses from 0.15 to 0.9kGy and stored at 4+/-1°C. E. coli counts were periodically evaluated during 50 days of storage. Results showed that at day 1, an irradiation treatment at a dose of 0.15kGy reduced by 3 and 4 log the microbial level representing a level of 3 and 2 logCFU/g when samples were irradiated under air and under MAP respectively. However, a level of 3 log CFU/g was detected in both treated samples after 7 days of storage. When samples were irradiated at doses >=0.3kGy no E.coli were detected during the whole storage in samples treated under MAP. However, when samples were treated under air, a level of 1-2 log CFU/g of E.coli was detected after 5 days of storage.

Lacroix, M.; Lafortune, R.



Effect of Decontamination Agents on the Microbial Population, Sensorial Quality, and Nutrient Content of Grated Carrots (Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several decontamination agents including water, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water, and chlorine dioxide gas were tested for their effectiveness to reduce the natural microflora on grated carrots. Microbial reductions of the total aerobic count obtained after the different treatments varied between 0.11 and 3.29 log colony-forming units (cfu)\\/g. Whether or not a decontamination step induced significant changes

Isabelle Vandekinderen; John Van Camp; Frank Devlieghere; Kim Veramme; Quenten Denon; Peter Ragaert; Bruno De Meulenaer



BK070038 HLA All Set Gold SSP  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 4.0 Data Summary The verification of the perfo~.mance of rhe HLA All~et'~"Gold SSP Test Kit was verified ... All~et'~'Gold SSP Test Kit. ... More results from


Morgan™ HLA SSP ABDRDQ Typing Kit  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Morgan™ HLA SSP ABDRDQ Typing Kit. Applicant: Texas BioGene, Inc. 510(k) number: BK080039. Product: Morgan™ HLA ... More results from


Genetic variation of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in carrots revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial and nuclear genomic diversities of 8 carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus) varieties, including 6 pure lines and\\u000a 2 cytoplasmic male sterile (cms) lines, were taxonomically identified using PCR with 19 RAPD primers. Dendrograms based on\\u000a polymorphisms of both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes were constructed. According to the dendrogram of the mitochondrial\\u000a genome revealed by RAPD, 4 differentiated clusters formed,

Yuki Nakajima; Toshiya Yamamoto; Kenji Oeda



Anthocyanins in purple-orange carrots (Daucus carota L.) do not influence the bioavailability of beta-carotene in young women.  


Purple carrots contain anthocyanins in addition to the provitamin A carotenoids in typical orange carrots. Simultaneous consumption of these phytochemicals in carrots may affect the bioavailability of carotenoids. The bioavailability of beta-carotene in humans was assessed from an acute feeding of orange (OC) and purple (PC) carrots with white (WC) as a control. Carrot smoothies were served to female subjects (n = 5, aged 21-26 years) for breakfast after 1 week on a low carotenoid diet and overnight fast. OC and PC smoothies were equalized to 10.3 mg of all-trans beta-carotene. Plasma beta-carotene was measured for 144 h following treatments. Peak plasma concentrations of OC and PC treatments did not differ. The PC treatment 0-144 h area-under-the-curve for beta-carotene was 76% of the OC treatment (P < 0.05). However, when the first 24 h were compared, OC and PC treatments did not differ, suggesting that anthocyanins in purple carrots do not affect the absorption of beta-carotene postprandially. PMID:20131807

Arscott, Sara A; Simon, Philipp W; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A



The influence of the fungal pathogen Mycocentrospora acerina on the proteome and polyacetylenes and 6-methoxymellein in organic and conventionally cultivated carrots (Daucus carota) during post harvest storage.  


Many carrots are discarded during post harvest cold storage due to development of fungal infections, caused by, e.g., Mycocentrospora acerina (liquorice rot). We compared the susceptibility of carrots grown under conventional and organic agricultural practices. In one year, organically cultivated carrots showed 3× to 7× more symptoms than conventionally cultivated, when studying naturally occurring disease at 4 and 6 months, respectively. On the other hand, we have developed a bioassay for infection studies of M. acerina on carrots and observed that organic roots were more susceptible after one month of storage than conventional ones, but no differences were apparent after four or six months storage. Levels of polyacetylenes (falcarinol, falcarindiol and falcarindiol-3-acetate) did not change, whereas the isocoumarin phytoalexin (6-methoxymellein) accumulated in infected tissue as well as in healthy tissue opposite the infection. The proteomes of carrot and M. acerina were characterized, the intensity of 33 plant protein spots was significantly changed in infected roots including up regulation of defence and stress response proteins but also a decrease of proteins involved in energy metabolism. This combined metabolic and proteomic study indicates that roots respond to fungal infection through altered metabolism: simultaneous induction of 6-methoxymellein and synthesis of defence related proteins. PMID:22075166

Louarn, Sébastien; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Edelenbos, Merete; Jensen, Dan F; Jensen, Ole N; Collinge, David B; Jensen, Birgit



Calcium and calmodulin inhibitor effects on the growth of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in nutrient culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of carrot and radish seedlings in nutrient culture was inhibited by pretreatment with three calmodulin inhibitors. There was little selective effect on specific organs, shoots, tap root and fibrous roots over a range of concentrations. Although pretreatment with CaCl2 (0.5 mM) did not affect growth of untreated seedlings, it partially reduced the inhibitory effects of trifluoperazine over the concentration

Tudor H. Thomas



Effect of buffer and pH on growth and protein content of carrot ( Daucus carota L.) in liquid shake culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate, succinate, acetate and maleate buffers were tested for buffering B5 liquid medium. Phosphate (0·02 M) and acetate (0·002 M) were the most suitable buffers as they promoted dry weight accumulation\\u000a and nitrogen assimilation, they also exhibited less change in pH after 5 days cultivation of carrot cells. The pH increase\\u000a from 5·5 up to 6·5 also increased the dry

R P SINGIK; B D Singh; R B Singh



Influence of Field Attack by Carrot Psyllid ( Trioza apicalis Förster) on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Capacity and Content of Terpenes, Falcarindiol and 6-Methoxymellein of Carrots ( Daucus carota L.).  


The effect of different degrees of attack by carrot psyllid ( Trioza apicalis ) on quality parameters of carrots was studied in field experiments for two years. Treatments were different degrees of physical insect protection by floating row cover. An increasing attack level of psyllids showed an enhancement effect on the antioxidant capacity (ORAC), content of falcarindiol, 6-methoxymellein, and terpenes, and scores for bitter taste, chemical flavor, terpene flavor, and toughness. Carrot psyllid attack decreased the yield, total sugar, fructose, glucose, and sensory attributes sweet taste, color hue, color strength, crispiness, and juiciness. Carrot plants at 8-10 weeks of age tolerated attack by psyllids at low levels (2% leaves with curling or discoloration). PMID:23414489

Seljĺsen, Randi; Vogt, Gjermund; Olsen, Elisabeth; Lea, Per; Hřgetveit, Lars Arne; Tajet, Torgeir; Meadow, Richard; Bengtsson, Gunnar B




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An Ac/Ds based two-element transposon tagging system has been introduced into carrot. F1 progeny containing both 35S:TPase and the Ds element were derived from crosses between 35S:TPase and Ds bearing parents. While excision of Ds was not detected in any F1 plants carrying both 35S:TPase and the Ds...


Early Identification of Stable Transformation Events by Combined Use of Antibiotic Selection and Vital Detection of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in Carrot ( Daucus carota L.) Callus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation is a useful technique to complement conventional breeding in crop improvement. Although carrot has been a model organism for in vitro embryogenesis study, genetic transformation of carrot is still lengthy and labor intensive. An efficient transformation and detection system is desirable. Direct infection of Agrobacterium to carrot calli has provided an easy way for carrot genetic transformation. To

Yuan-Yeu Yau; Seth J Davis; Ahmet Ipek; Philipp W Simon



Composition and chemical variability of Mentha suaveolens ssp. suaveolens and M. suaveolens ssp. insularis from Corsica.  


A detailed analysis of two essential oils from individual plants of Mentha suaveolens ssp. suaveolens growing wild in Corsica was carried out by combination of GC(RI), GC/MS, and (13)C-NMR analyses. One oil sample is characterized by the pre-eminence of piperitenone oxide, and the second is dominated by piperitenone. In contrast, it was reported that the essential oil of M. suaveolens ssp. insularis, an endemic species to Corsica and Sardinia, contained pulegone and cis-cis-p-menthenolide as main components. A principal-component analysis (PCA) carried out on the composition of the essential oil of 59 individual plants of M. suaveolens sp. allowed the classification into three well-defined groups. All the oil samples from Mentha suaveolens ssp. insularis belonged to the same group, while the oils from M. suaveolens ssp. suaveolens were distributed in the two other groups. The composition of the essential oil isolated from aerial parts of M. suaveolens ssp. has been shown to be an additional tool to differentiate the botanically close subspecies suaveolens and insularis. PMID:20397217

Sutour, Sylvain; Bradesi, Pascale; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix



Complete Genome Sequence of Vibrio vulnificus Bacteriophage SSP002  

PubMed Central

Vibrio vulnificus phages are abundant in coastal marine environments, shellfish, clams, and oysters. SSP002, a V. vulnificus-specific bacteriophage, was isolated from oysters from the west coast of South Korea. In this study, the complete genome of SSP002 was sequenced and analyzed for the first time among the V. vulnificus-specific bacteriophages.

Lee, Hyun Sung; Choi, Slae



Helianthus annuus ssp. texanus has chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal RNA genes of Helianthus debilis ssp. cucumerifolius.  


Heiser [Heiser, C. B. (1951) Evolution 5, 42-51] hypothesized that Helianthus annuus ssp. texanus was derived by the introduction of H. annuus into Texas and subsequent introgression of genes from Helianthus debilis ssp. cucumerifolius into H. annuus. Although often considered to be one of the best cases of introgression in plants, alternative hypotheses to introgression, such as convergence or the joint retention of the ancestral condition, could not be ruled out in the original study. To test for the occurrence of introgression we examined 14 populations of H. annuus ssp. texanus, 14 allopatric populations of H. annuus, and three populations of H. debilis ssp. cucumerifolius with reference to diagnostic chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal DNA markers. Thirteen of the 14 populations of H. annuus ssp. texanus had chloroplast DNA and/or ribosomal DNA markers of H. debilis ssp. cucumerifolius. In contrast, no chloroplast DNA or ribosomal DNA markers of H. debilis ssp. cucumerifolius were found in the 14 allopatric populations of H. annuus. Our findings provide strong support, therefore, for the hypothesized introgressive origin of H. annuus ssp. texanus. PMID:11607056

Rieseberg, L H; Beckstrom-Sternberg, S; Doan, K



Studies on the Growth and Fructification of Vegetables in Culture for Seed Production. Part 1. Observations on the Biology of Growth and Fructification of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) (Studia nad Wzrostem i Owocowaniem Roslin Warzyqnych w Uprawie na Nasiona. Czesc I. Obserwacje Biologii Wzrostu i Owocowania Marchwi (Daucus carota L.)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The studies reported concerned the influence of: (a) The habit of carrot plants in culture for seed production; (b) the size of stecklings; and (c) spacing and fertilization on the yield of achenes (seeds) and their reproductive value.

M. Litynski M. Peplinska



The antioxidant and anticancer effects of wild carrot oil extract.  


Daucus carota L. ssp. carota (Apiacea) is used in traditional medicine in Lebanon and in different regions throughout the world. The present study investigates the in vitro anticancer activities of Daucus carota oil extract (DCOE) on four human cancer cell lines as well as its in vitro antioxidant activity. DCOE was extracted from the dried umbels with 50:50 acetone-methanol. The oil extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and screened for its antioxidant properties in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical scavenging assay (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating assay (FIC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The anticancer activity of the oil extract against human colon (HT-29, Caco-2) and breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines was evaluated using the trypan blue exclusion method and the WST-1 cell proliferation assay. DCOE exhibited antioxidant activity in all assays used. The FRAP value was 164?±?5.5?µmol FeSO4 /g, and the IC50 values for DPPH and FIC assays were 2.1?±?0.03?mg/ml and 0.43?±?0.02?mg/ml, respectively. Also, DCOE demonstrated a significant increase in cell death and decrease in cell proliferation. The effect of DCOE on the cell lines exhibited time and dose-dependent responses. The present study established that DCOE possesses both antioxidant and promising anticancer activities. PMID:22815230

Shebaby, Wassim Nasri; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Smith, Kikki Bodman-; Karam, Marc Christoph; Mroueh, Mohamad; Daher, Costantine F



BK070038 HLA AllSet Gold SSP  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Page of 5 lO(k) Number (if known): /4K07 0038 Device Name: HLA ~(l.Set+~' Gold SSP Indications For Use: The Invitrogen Corporation. ... More results from


Bibliography of Selected SCSD, URBS, SSP, SEF, and RAS Publications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The annotated bibliography contains publications and report listings of the following sources--(1) School Construction Systems Development (SCSD), (2) University Residential Building Systems (URBS), (3) Florida Schoolhouse Systems Project (SSP), (4) Study of Educational Facilities (SEF), and (5) Recherches en Amenagements Scolaires (RAS) Building…

Stanford Univ., CA. School Planning Lab.


Isotopomer-flux analysis of Bifidobactrium ssp. carbohydrate metabolism  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bifidobacteria are gram-positive microorganisms widely applied in fermented dairy products due to their health-promoting effects. Biofobacterium ssp. may also represent up to 91% of microbial gut population in the infant colon, but considerably less in adults. Fructose-6 phosphate phosphoketolase ...


QTL Analysis in Recombinant Chromosome Substitution Lines and Doubled Haploid Lines Derived from a Cross between Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare and Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) were developed in BC3 generation to introduce segments of a wild barley strain ‘H602’ (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) into a barley cultivar ‘Haruna Nijo’ (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) genetic background. One hundred thirty four RCSLs were genotyped by 25 SSR and 60 EST markers, which were localized on a linkage map of doubled haploid lines

Kiyosumi Hori; Kazuhiro Sato; Nami Nankaku; Kazuyoshi Takeda



Identification of a Streptococcus gordonii SspB domain that mediates adhesion to Porphyromonas gingivalis.  

PubMed Central

Porphyromonas gingivalis, a primary pathogen in adult periodontitis, may establish itself in the oral cavity by adhering to early plaque bacteria such as Streptococcus gordonii. Our previous studies (R. J. Lamont et al., Microbiology 140:867-872, 1994) suggested that this interaction is mediated by the SspB polypeptide, a member of the antigen I/II family of streptococcal surface proteins. S. gordonii was recently shown to express a second Ssp polypeptide (SspA) that resembles SspB and the structurally homologous antigen I/II polypeptide (Pac) of Streptococcus mutans. To determine if all of these related antigen I/II proteins interacted with P. gingivalis, SspA, SspB, and Pac were tested for adhesion to P. gingivalis cells. Both of the S. gordonii Ssp proteins bound labeled target cells, whereas the S. mutans Pac polypeptide did not, suggesting that antigen I/II-mediated binding of P. gingivalis by streptococci may be species specific. To investigate the molecular basis for this functional difference, the P. gingivalis binding domain of SspB was mapped. The binding properties of a family of truncated SspB polypeptides lacking C-terminal sequences were determined. In addition, the lack of binding activity exhibited by the Pac protein was exploited to construct and analyze chimeric SspB-Pac polypeptides. Both approaches revealed that the region defined by residues 1167 to 1250 of SspB was essential for P. gingivalis binding. This region of SspA and SspB is entirely conserved, consistent with the binding properties determined for these proteins. However, the corresponding region of Pac differs in both the primary sequence and predicted secondary structure, suggesting that the overall structure of this domain may define its functional activity.

Brooks, W; Demuth, D R; Gil, S; Lamont, R J



Moisture-dependent physical properties of caper ( Capparis ssp.) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to determine the effect of moisture content on some physical properties of caper (Capparis ssp.) fruit. Four levels of moisture content ranging from 71.85% to 82.93% w.b. were considered in this study. The fruit length increased from 8.50 to 8.96mm, width from 7.54 to 8.23mm, its thickness from 5.67 to 6.90mm, the geometric mean diameter

A. Sessiz; R. Esgici; S. K?z?l



Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida.  


The ability of a set of Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida strains isolated from different fish species to produce different superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase enzymes was determined. Unlike other bacterial pathogens, P. damselae ssp. piscicida is not able to produce different isoforms of SOD or catalase containing different metal cofactors when cultured under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide or methyl viologen, or under iron depleted conditions. However, iron content of the growth medium influenced the levels of SOD and catalase activity in cells, these levels decreasing with iron availability of the medium. Comparison of virulent and non-virulent strains of P. damselae ssp. piscicida showed similar contents of SOD, but higher levels of catalase were detected in cells of the virulent strain. Incubation of bacteria with sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup), phagocytes has shown that survival rates range from 19% to 62%, these rates being higher for the virulent strain. The increased levels of catalase activity detected in the virulent strain indicates a possible role for this enzyme in bacterial survival. PMID:16768716

Díaz-Rosales, P; Chabrillón, M; Arijo, S; Martinez-Manzanares, E; Morińigo, M A; Balebona, M C



Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as

A. Charania



Binding Properties of Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB (Antigen I\\/II Family) Polypeptides Expressed on the Cell Surface of Lactococcus lactis MG1363  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii expresses two cell wall-associated polypeptides, designated SspA (1,542 amino acid residues) and SspB (1,462 amino acid residues), that have 70% sequence identity. These polypeptides are members of the antigen I\\/II family of oral streptococcal adhesins and mediate the binding of streptococci to salivary glycoproteins, collagen, and other oral microorganisms such as Actinomyces naeslundii. To determine




Calcium-binding properties of SSP-5, the Streptococcus gordonii M5 receptor for salivary agglutinin.  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus gordonii M5 expresses a lectin on its surface (SSP-5) which binds to human salivary agglutinin (SAG). This interaction requires sialic acid residues of SAG and divalent cations and may mediate the colonization of oral tissues by this organism. In this report, we show that the binding of SAG to SSP-5 requires calcium and that SSP-5 is a high-affinity calcium-binding protein. SAG-mediated aggregation of S. gordonii M5 was inhibited by 1 mM EDTA, and the restoration of aggregation occurred only upon the readdition of calcium. To ascertain the level at which calcium exerts its effects, the calcium-binding properties of SSP-5 were evaluated by using a 45Ca binding assay. In addition, a kinetic analysis of calcium binding was carried out by using fura2, a fluorescent calcium-binding dye. These analyses showed that SSP-5 is a high-affinity calcium-binding protein that binds 1 mol of calcium per mol of protein and has a dissociation constant of 0.45 +/- 0.2 microM. The calcium-binding capacity of SSP-5 was also calculated independently to be 1.0 +/- 0.2 mol of Ca per mol of SSP-5 by column chromatography on Sephadex G-25 equilibrated with 10 microM 45Ca. To localize the calcium binding site of SSP-5, a series of C-terminal deletion mutants were expressed in Escherichia coli and evaluated for calcium-binding activity. Deletion of the 250 C-terminal residues of SSP-5 had little effect on calcium binding. However, deletion of residues 1168 to 1250 resulted in the loss of calcium-binding activity, suggesting that this region is important for calcium binding by SSP-5. Images

Duan, Y; Fisher, E; Malamud, D; Golub, E; Demuth, D R



Host plant chemistry and preferences in egg-laying Trioza apicalis (Homoptera, Psylloidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen species belonging to the family Apiaceae were examined for their acceptance as host plants by Trioza apicalis in non-choice tests. The number of eggs laid per day varied from 18 on Daucus carota subsp. sativus to zero on Aegopodium podagraria. In a comparative test, the psyllids landed significantly faster and started egg-laying earlier on carrots (D. carota subsp. sativus)

Irena Valterová; Gunilla Nehlin; Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson



Antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activity of Alnus incana (L.) ssp. incana Moench and A. viridis (Chaix) DC ssp. viridis extracts.  


Antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities of leaves, bark, and cone extracts of Alnus incana (L.) Moench ssp. incana and endemic species A. viridis (Chaix) DC ssp. viridis were evaluated. All extracts were found to be strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavengers, exhibiting 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 3.3-18.9 microg/mL, and also showed activity in inhibition of lipid peroxidation with IC(50) values ranging from 38.5 to 157.4 microg/mL. A. incana and A. viridis extracts exhibited significant cytotoxic effects toward HeLa cells, with IC(50) values ranging from 26.02 to 68.5 microg/mL. The most active extract of A. incana bark also contained great amounts of total phenolics (316.2 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g). In our experiment all extracts were virtually nontoxic on brine shrimps. Extracts were screened for activity against 15 microorganisms, and all extracts investigated showed antimicrobial activity. The most active were dry extracts of cones of A. incana and A. viridis with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.117 to 0.129 mg/mL. PMID:20438323

Stevi?, Tatjana; Savikin, Katarina; Zduni?, Gordana; Stanojkovi?, Tatjana; Jurani?, Zorica; Jankovi?, Teodora; Menkovi?, Nebojsa



Functional characterization of gynodioecy in Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Gynodioecy is a phylogenetically widespread and important sexual system where females coexist with hermaphrodites. Because dioecy can arise from gynodioecy, characterization of gynodioecy in close relatives of dioecious and sub-dioecious species can provide insight into this transition. Thus, we sought to determine whether Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata, a close relative to F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, exhibits the functional and population genetic hallmarks of a gynodioecious species. Methods We compared reproductive allocation of females and hermaphrodites grown in the greenhouse and estimated genetic diversity (allelic diversity, heterozygosity) and inbreeding coefficients for field-collected adults of both sexes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We estimated mating system and early seed fitness from open-pollinated families of both sex morphs. Key Results Under greenhouse conditions, females and hermaphrodites allocated similarly to all reproductive traits except flower number, and, as a consequence, females produced 30 % fewer seeds per plant than hermaphrodites. Under natural conditions, hermaphrodites produce seeds by self-fertilization approx. 75 % of the time, and females produced outcrossed seeds with very little biparental inbreeding. Consistent with inbreeding depression, seeds from open-pollinated hermaphrodites were less likely to germinate than those from females, and family-level estimates of hermaphrodite selfing rates were negatively correlated with germination success and speed. Furthermore, estimates of inbreeding depression based on genetic markers and population genetic theory indicate that inbreeding depression in the field could be high. Conclusions The joint consideration of allocation and mating system suggests that compensation may be sufficient to maintain females given the current understanding of sex determination. Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata exhibited similar sex morph-dependent patterns of mating system and genetic diversity, but less reproductive trait dimorphism, than its sub-dioecious and dioecious congeners.

Li, Junmin; Koski, Matthew H.; Ashman, Tia-Lynn



Seed germination characteristics of Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. viridulus (Astereae, Asteraceae)  

SciTech Connect

Rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pallas) Britt. ssp. viridulus) may prove to be a source of high-quality cis-isoprene rubber, but its establishment is limited by a lack of information on seed germination. Consequently, seeds were germinated at alternating temperatures (5-15, 5-25, 15-25, and 20-30 C) in light and dark as well as constant temperatures (15-40 C with 5-C increments) to determine temperature response. Seeds were also germinated in solutions of polyethylene glycol 6000, salinity regimes at all the above-mentioned temperatures to determine salinity and temperature interaction. The hormones GA/sub 3/ and kinetin were used to study their effect on overcoming salt- and temperature-induced germination inhibition. Seeds of C. nauseosus ssp. viridulus were very sensitive to low temperature. Best germination was achieved at 25 and 30 C, but these seeds also germinated at a higher temperature (35 C). The seeds of rabbit brush germinated at both constant and alternating temperatures. Light appears to play little or no role in controlling germination of the seeds of rubber rabbitbrush. However, seeds of rabbitbrush were sensitive to salinity, and seed germination was progressively inhibited by increase in salt concentration, although a few seeds still germinated at the highest saline level. Progressively higher concentrations of polyethylene glycol also progressively inhibited germination. Suppression of seed germination induced by high salt concentrations and high temperatures can be partially alleviated by the application of either GA/sub 3/ or kinetin. 34 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

Khan, M.A.; Sankhla, N.; Weber, D.J.; McArthur, E.D.



An abstract class loader for the SSP and its implementation in TL.  

SciTech Connect

The SSP is a hardware implementation of a subset of the JVM for use in high consequence embedded applications. In this context, a majority of the activities belonging to class loading, as it is defined in the specification of the JVM, can be performed statically. Static class loading has the net result of dramatically simplifying the design of the SSP as well as increasing its performance. Due to the high consequence nature of its applications, strong evidence must be provided that all aspects of the SSP have been implemented correctly. This includes the class loader. This article explores the possibility of formally verifying a class loader for the SSP implemented in the strategic programming language TL. Specifically, an implementation of the core activities of an abstract class loader is presented and its verification in ACL2 is considered.

Wickstrom, Gregory Lloyd; Winter, Victor Lono (University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE); Fraij, Fares (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Roach, Steve (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Beranek, Jason (University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE)



Recovery Plan for the Mauna kea Silversword (Argyroxiphium Sandwicense ssp. sandwicense).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current Species Status: The Mauna Kea Silversword (Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense) is federally listed as endangered without critical habitat. In 1991, the total population was estimated at 495 individuals, of which about 38 were naturally occ...



[Comparison between MRI and 3D-SSP in olivopontocerebellar atrophy and cortical cerebellar atrophy].  


We compared images of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) of SPECT with MRI images in spinocerebellar degeneration patients (13 olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and 7 cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA)). We analyzed a brain blood flow pattern with an image of statistics by 123I-IMP SPECT. In OPCA patients, a blood flow reduction was more remarkable in 3D-SSP than a degree of cerebellar atrophy in MRI. In patients with CCA, the cerebellum showed little blood flow reduction in 3D-SSP despite of apparent atrophy in MRI. Simultaneous examination both MRI and 3D-SSP might be useful for differential diagnosis of spinocerebellar degenerations. PMID:15287507

Hamaguchi, Hirotoshi; Kanda, Fumio; Hosaka, Kayo; Fujii, Masahiko; Chihara, Kazuo


Micro SSP HLA Class II DNA typing Kit, One Lambda, Inc. ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Contact Person: Don G. Arii Telephone and FAX numbers: W-702-0042 818-702-6904 (fax) Device Name: Micro SSP HLA Class II DNA Typing Kit ... More results from


MglA/SspA Complex Interactions Are Modulated by Inorganic Polyphosphate  

PubMed Central

The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen’s virulence and survival within host cells. Our goal was to determine if an intracellular metabolite modulate these protein/protein interactions. In this study, we identified inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) as a signal molecule that promotes the interaction of MglA and SspA from F. tularensis SCHU S4. Analysis of the Mgla/SspA interaction was carried out using a two-hybrid system. The Escherichia coli reporter strain contained a deletion on the ppK-ppX operon, inhibiting polyP synthesis. The interaction between MglA and SspA was significantly impaired, as was the interaction between the MglA/SspA complex and the regulatory protein, FevR, indicating the stabilizing effect of polyP. In F. tularensis, chromatin immune precipitation studies revealed that in the absence of polyP, binding of the MglA/SspA complex to the promoter region of the pdpD, iglA, fevR and ppK genes is decreased. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that polyP binds directly to the MglA/SspA complex with high affinity (KD?=?0.3 µM). These observations directly correlated with results obtained from calorimetric scans (DSC), where a strong shift in the mid-transition temperature (Tm) of the MglA/SspA complex was observed in the presence of polyP.

Siegel, Sara D.; Pagliai, Fernando A.; Malekiha, Mahsa; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Lorca, Graciela L.



Biotransformation of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes by cell suspension cultures of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation capacity of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium (yarrow) cell suspension cultures was investigated using geraniol (50mg\\/l) and borneol, menthol, thymol and farnesols (25mg\\/l) as substrates. Apart from converting these substrates into several biotransformation products, the cell suspension cultures were also able to glycosylate both the substrates and the biotransformation products. aa]Key Words bb]Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium bb]Yarrow

A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. Joăo Almendra; José G. Barroso; Johannes J. C. Scheffer



High frequency spontaneous production of doubled haploid plants in microspore cultures of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brassica rapa (syn. Brassica campestris) ssp. chinensis is an important vegetable crop, but it is relatively recalcitrant to microspore culture. One genotype each of B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. communisand var. utilis were used formicrospore culture. Embryo production of3.8–42.4 embryos\\/bud was obtained. A high rate of plant regeneration\\u000a directly from microspore-derived embryos without subculture was achieved by an improved protocol

H. H. Gu; W. J. Zhou; P. Hagberg



Creation of new maize germplasm using alien introgression from Zea mays ssp. mexicana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zea mays ssp. mexicana, an annual wild relative of maize, has many desirable characteristics for maize improvement. To transfer alien genetic germplasm\\u000a into maize background, F1 hybrids were generated by using Z. mays ssp. mexicana as the female parent and cultivated maize inbred line Ye515 as the male parent. Alien introgression lines, with a large range\\u000a of genetic diversity, were produced

Lingzhi Wang; Aifang Yang; Chunmei He; Mingli Qu; Juren Zhang



MglA/SspA Complex Interactions Are Modulated by Inorganic Polyphosphate.  


The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen's virulence and survival within host cells. Our goal was to determine if an intracellular metabolite modulate these protein/protein interactions. In this study, we identified inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) as a signal molecule that promotes the interaction of MglA and SspA from F. tularensis SCHU S4. Analysis of the Mgla/SspA interaction was carried out using a two-hybrid system. The Escherichia coli reporter strain contained a deletion on the ppK-ppX operon, inhibiting polyP synthesis. The interaction between MglA and SspA was significantly impaired, as was the interaction between the MglA/SspA complex and the regulatory protein, FevR, indicating the stabilizing effect of polyP. In F. tularensis, chromatin immune precipitation studies revealed that in the absence of polyP, binding of the MglA/SspA complex to the promoter region of the pdpD, iglA, fevR and ppK genes is decreased. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that polyP binds directly to the MglA/SspA complex with high affinity (KD?=?0.3 µM). These observations directly correlated with results obtained from calorimetric scans (DSC), where a strong shift in the mid-transition temperature (Tm) of the MglA/SspA complex was observed in the presence of polyP. PMID:24116108

Wrench, Algevis P; Gardner, Christopher L; Siegel, Sara D; Pagliai, Fernando A; Malekiha, Mahsa; Gonzalez, Claudio F; Lorca, Graciela L



Role of the Streptococcus gordonii SspB protein in the development of Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms on streptococcal substrates.  


Porphyromonas gingivalis is an aggressive periodontal pathogen that persists in the mixed-species plaque biofilm on tooth surfaces. P. gingivalis cells attach to the plaque commensal Streptococcus gordonii and this coadhesion event leads to the development of P. gingivalis biofilms. Binding of these organisms is multimodal, involving both the P. gingivalis major fimbrial FimA protein and the species-specific interaction of the minor fimbrial Mfa1 protein with the streptococcal SspB protein. This study examined the contribution of the Mfa1-SspB interaction to P. gingivalis biofilm formation. P. gingivalis biofilms readily formed on substrata of S. gordonii DL1 but not on Streptococcus mutans cells which lack a coadhesion-mediating homologue of SspB. An insertional inactivation of the mfa1 gene in P. gingivalis resulted in a phenotype deficient in S. gordonii binding and unable to form biofilms. Furthermore, analysis using recombinant streptococci and enterococci showed that P. gingivalis biofilms formed on Enterococcus faecalis strains expressing SspB or translational fusions of SspB with SpaP (the non-adherent SspB homologue in S. mutans) containing the P. gingivalis adherence domain (SspB adherence region, BAR) of SspB. In contrast, an isogenic Ssp null mutant of S. gordonii DL1 was unable to support biofilm growth, even though this strain bound to P. gingivalis FimA at levels similar to wild-type S. gordonii DL1. Finally, site-specific mutation of two functional amino acid residues in BAR resulted in SspB polypeptides that did not promote the development of P. gingivalis biofilms. These results suggest that the induction of P. gingivalis biofilms on a streptococcal substrate requires functional SspB-minor fimbriae interactions. PMID:12055284

Lamont, Richard J; El-Sabaeny, Azza; Park, Yoonsuk; Cook, Guy S; Costerton, J William; Demuth, Donald R



Comparative chemical composition, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activities of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus L. berry and wood oils from Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus) is used in European cuisine for its distinguishing flavour. J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus berry and wood essential oils were tentatively identified by GC and GC\\/MS. Fifty compounds were identified in the berry oil and 23 compounds were identified in the wood oil. The J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus berry oil was characterised by high contents of ?-pinene (27.4%)

Monica R. Loizzo; Rosa Tundis; Filomena Conforti; Antoine M. Saab; Giancarlo A. Statti; Francesco Menichini



In vivo antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum capitulums in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helichrysum species (Asteraceae) are widely found in Anatolia. Decoction prepared from the capitulums of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum is used to alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. In the present study, the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum was evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats. After the oral administration

Mustafa Aslan; Didem Deliorman Orhan; Nilüfer Orhan; Ekrem Sezik; Erdem Yesilada



Austropleospora osteospermi gen. et sp. nov. and its host specificity and distribution on Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hendersonia osteospermi was found for the first time in Australia on leaf spots of the introduced invasive plant Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata (bitou bush) in coastal regions of New South Wales. Pathogenicity tests on species from 11 tribes in the family Asteraceae, demonstrated that H. osteospermi caused severe necrosis on leaves and stems of C. monilifera ssp. rotundata and its

Louise Morin; R. G. Shivas; M. C. Piper; Y. P. Tan



A cellular study of teosinte Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (Poaceae) caryopsis development showing several processes conserved in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although recent molecular studies elucidate the genetic background leading to changed morphology of maize female inflorescence and the structure of the caryopsis during the domestication of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) from its wild progenitor teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), the mechanisms under...


Overexpression of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein 2 ( PGIP2 ) of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis ) increased resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant cell wall glycoproteins that can inhibit microbial polygalacturonase\\u000a (PG) activity. In this study, we cloned five PGIP genes from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Reverse transcription PCR expression analysis showed that the accumulation of BrPGIP transcripts differed among various tissues and in response to biotic (bacterial innoculation) and abiotic stresses (i.e.,\\u000a wounding, jasmonic acid,

Byung Ho Hwang; Hanhong Bae; Hyoun-Sub Lim; Kun Bo Kim; Shin Je Kim; Myoung-Ho Im; Beom-Suk Park; Do Sun Kim; Jongkee Kim



Improvement of the Resistance of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus to Freezing by Natural Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria are often produced as frozen or freeze-dried cultures that can be used for the direct inoculation of milk in cheese and fermented milk pro- duction processes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the resistance of Lactobacillus del- brueckii ssp. bulgaricus to freezing could be improved by natural selection. Three parallel cultures of strain CFL1

C. Monnet; C. Béal; G. Corrieu



Microsatellite genetic variation in small and isolated populations of Magnolia sieboldii ssp. japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnolia sieboldii ssp. japonica, distributed mainly in western Japan, is restricted to high elevation areas (1000–2000 m above sea level) and usually forms small isolated populations. Four microsatellite loci were assayed for 19 populations from six regions spanning the range of distribution, and the levels and distribution of genetic variation were estimated. All four loci were variable, with a total

S Kikuchi; Y Isagi



Identification of antigens for the development of a subunit vaccine against Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida (Ph.d.p.), the causative agent of photobacteriosis, is among the most important pathogens affecting finfish aquaculture globally. With the emergence of recombinant technology, subunit vaccines have been actively pursued, but mostly for viral diseases. Bacterial subunit vaccines are more difficult to develop since the bacterial genome is more complex, with numerous candidate antigens, leading to a lengthy

Li-Ping Ho; John Han-You Lin; Hsiao-Chien Liu; Huey-En Chen; Tzong-Yueh Chen; Huey-Lang Yang



Coding Sequence Divergence Between Two Closely Related Plant Species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the coding-sequence divergence of closely related genomes, we compared DNA sequence divergence between sequences from a Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis EST library isolated from flower buds and genomic sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana. The specific objectives were (i) to determine the distribution of and relationship between Ka and Ks, (ii) to identify genes with the lowest and highest Ka:Ks

Peter Tiffin; Matthew W. Hahn



Transformation of Pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) by Agrobacterium infiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) plants were obtained in the progeny of plants infiltrated by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain carrying a gene for resistance to the herbicide phosphinotricin (Basta). Genetic analysis demonstrates the transmission of the herbicide resistant trait to the progeny. Molecular analyses show that the transgene was inserted in the plant genome and expressed. This work

Cao Ming Qing; Liu Fan; Yao Lei; David Bouchez; Colette Tourneur; Li Yan; Christophe Robaglia



Complete genome sequence of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum strain SS14 determined with oligonucleotide arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum remains the enigmatic pathogen, since no virulence factors have been identified and the pathogenesis of the disease is poorly understood. Increasing rates of new syphilis cases per year have been observed recently. RESULTS: The genome of the SS14 strain was sequenced to high accuracy by an oligonucleotide array strategy requiring hybridization to only

Petra Mat?jková; Michal Strouhal; David Šmajs; Steven J Norris; Timothy Palzkill; Joseph F Petrosino; Erica Sodergren; Jason E Norton; Jaz Singh; Todd A Richmond; Michael N Molla; Thomas J Albert; George M Weinstock



Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-?mglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-?mglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles W.; Skerrett, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David



Variation of glucosinolates in vegetable crops of Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucosinolates of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) from Korea were characterised to determine the total glucosinolate content and the diversity amongst glucosinolates; 24 varieties were analysed. The profiles of 14 glucosinolates identified from the leaves were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate the differences among varieties. The Kori, Sandun and e-Norang varieties separated from the others

Jae Kwang Kim; Sang Mi Chu; Sun Ju Kim; Dong Jin Lee; Si Young Lee; Sun Hyung Lim; Sun-Hwa Ha; Soon Jong Kweon; Hyun Suk Cho




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The tertiary structure of a maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) non-symbiotic hemoglobin (Hbm) was modeled using computer tools and the known tertiary structure of rice Hb1 as a template. This method was tested by predicting the tertiary structure of soybean leghemoglobin a (Lba) from rice Hb1 template. The ...


Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida  

SciTech Connect

Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-mglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-mglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.



Immunostimulatory oligonucleotide, CpG-like motif exists in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus NIAI B6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to find an immunostimulatory oligonucleotide derived from yogurt starter cultures. The chromosomal DNA was purified from nine strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and six strains of Streptococcus thermophilus. An immunostimulatory ability of the DNA was examined in a proliferation of peyer's patch and splenic B cells. Only the DNA from L. bulgaricus NIAI B6

Haruki Kitazawa; Hiroshi Watanabe; Takeshi Shimosato; Yasushi Kawai; Takatoshi Itoh; Tadao Saito



21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...carota L.) with subsequent removal of the hexane by vacuum distillation. The resultant mixture of solid and liquid...the protection of the public health, and therefore batches thereof are exempt from the certification...



Plant Uptake of Pentachlorophenol from Sludge-Amended Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). Plants included all fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum...

C. A. Bellin G. A. O'Connor




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The in vitro binding of bile acids by okra (abelmoschus esculentus), beets (beta vulgaris), asparagus (asparagus officinalis), eggplant (solanum malongena), turnips (brassica rapa rapifera), green beans (phaseolus vulgaris), carrots (daucus carota), and cauliflower (brassica oleracea botrytis) was d...


Isolation and Characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki Strain Toxic to Spodoptera exigua and Culex pipiens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain of Bacillus thuringiensis with dual toxicity was isolated from Korean soil samples and named K2. K2 was determined as ssp. kurstaki (H3a3b3c) by serological test and produced bipyramidal-shaped parasporal inclusions. The plasmid and protein profiles of\\u000a B. thuringiensis K2 were different from those of the reference strain, ssp. kurstaki HD-1. To verify gene type of B. thuringiensis K2,

I. H. Lee; Y. H. Je; J. H. Chang; J. Y. Roh; H. W. Oh; S. G. Lee; S. C. Shin; K. S. Boo



A DNA Vaccine Encoding for TcSSP4 Induces Protection against Acute and Chronic Infection in Experimental Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Immunization of mice with plasmids containing genes of Trypanosoma cruzi induces protective immunity in the murine model of Chagas disease. A cDNA clone that codes for an amastigote-specific surface protein (TcSSP4) was used as a candidate to develop a DNA vaccine. Mice were immunized with the recombinant protein rTcSSP4 and with cDNA for TcSSP4, and challenged with bloodstream trypomastigotes. Immunization with rTcSSP4 protein makes mice more susceptible to trypomastigote infection, with high mortality rates, whereas mice immunized with a eukaryotic expression plasmid containing the TcSSP4 cDNA were able to control the acute phase of infection. Heart tissue of gene-vaccinated animals did not show myocarditis and tissue damage at 365 days following infection, as compared with control animals. INF-? was detected in sera of DNA vaccinated mice shortly after immunization, suggesting the development of a Th1 response. The TcSSP4 gene is a promising candidate for the development of an anti-T. cruzi DNA vaccine.

Arce-Fonseca, Minerva; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Lopez-Monteon, Aracely; Salgado-Jimenez, Berenice; Talamas-Rohana, Patricia; Rosales-Encina, Jose Luis



SSP1, a gene necessary for proper completion of meiotic divisions and spore formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

During meiosis, a diploid cell undergoes two rounds of nuclear division following one round of DNA replication to produce four haploid gametes. In yeast, haploid meiotic products are packaged into spores. To gain new insights into meiotic development and spore formation, we followed differential expression of genes in meiotic versus vegetatively growing cells in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results indicate that there are at least five different classes of transcripts representing genes expressed at different stages of the sporulation program. Here we describe one of these differentially expressed genes, SSP1, which plays an essential role in meiosis and spore formation. SSP1 is expressed midway through meiosis, and homozygous ssp1 diploid cells fail to sporulate. In the ssp1 mutant, meiotic recombination is normal but viability declines rapidly. Both meiotic divisions occur at the normal time; however, the fraction of cells completing meiosis is significantly reduced, and nuclei become fragmented soon after meiosis II. The ssp1 defect does not appear to be related to a microtubule-cytoskeletal-dependent event and is independent of two rounds of chromosome segregation. The data suggest that Ssp1 is likely to function in a pathway that controls meiotic nuclear divisions and coordinates meiosis and spore formation.

Nag, D K; Koonce, M P; Axelrod, J



Cloning and characterization of Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida phospholipase: an enzyme that shows haemolytic activity.  


A phospholipase gene of Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida (ppp) was cloned from a genomic library and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The open reading frame consisted of 1218 bp encoding a protein of 405 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 46 kDa. The PPP had identities (53-55%) with phospholipase and haemolysin of Vibrio spp., while it showed low identities (23-26%) with glycerophospholipid cholesterol acyltransferase of Aeromonas spp. A recombinant PPP (rPPP) with a His tag at the C-terminus expressed in Escherichia coli and purified showed phospholipase activity. The rPPP also showed lecithin-dependent haemolytic activity against mammalian erythrocytes and direct haemolytic activity against fish erythrocytes. The culture supernatant of wild-type P. damselae ssp. piscicida showed phospholipase activity, while that of a PPP gene knockout mutant did not. PMID:17958612

Naka, H; Hirono, I; Aoki, T



Isolation, purification and characterisation of low molecular weight xylanase from Bacillus pumilus SSP-34.  


Low molecular weight endo-xylanase from Bacillus pumilus SSP-34 was purified to homogeneity using ion exchange and size exclusion chromatographies. Xylanases were isolated by novel purification protocol which includes the use of anion exchange matrix such as DEAE Sepharose CL 6B with less affinity towards enzyme protein. The purified B. pumilus SSP-34 have a molecular weight of 20 kDa, with optimum pH and temperature at 6.0 and 50 °C, respectively. The enzyme was stable at 50 °C for 30 min. It showed remarkable stability at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 9 when the reaction was carried out at 50 °C. K (m) and V (max) values, determined with oats spelts xylan were 6.5 mg ml?ą and 1,233 ?mol min?ą mg?ą protein, respectively, and the specific activity was 1,723 U mg?ą. PMID:22350873

Subramaniyan, S



Toxicity of Chitinase-Producing Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki HD1 (G) toward Plutella xylostella  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred fifty isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis were tested for their ability to produce chitinase using colloidal chitin agar as the primary plating medium. Of 14 strains that produced chitinase, B. thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki HD-1(G) was identified as the highest chitinase producer and selected for further study. This bacterium produced the highest amount of chitinase (19.3 mU\\/ml) when it was cultivated

Chanpen Wiwat; Saranya Thaithanun; Somsak Pantuwatana; Amaret Bhumiratana



A descriptive model for citrate utilization by Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis bv diacetylactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the use of citrate by Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis bv diacetylactis CNRZ 125 is proposed. Citrate metabolism by this strain leads to the production of acetate, CO2 and C4 compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, 2,3-butylene glycol). The model furnishes correct simulations, consistent with published results on the pathways used and on lactose-citrate co-metabolism. Citric acid is incorporated independently of

R. Cachon; C. Divdies



Composition of the essential oil from cell suspension cultures of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oil isolated from Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium cell suspension cultures was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The yield of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation or a simultaneous distillation -extraction of these cultures, harvested at days 8–10 (end of exponential phase), was 0.001 % (w\\/w). The analysis of the volatiles showed the presence of thirteen

A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. Salomé; S. Pais; Johannes J. C. Scheffer



Plasticity in life-history traits of Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma Pilger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasticity in life-history characteristics was investigated in three populations of Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma (Pilger), a self-compatible, wind pollinated species with a high self-fertilization rate. The populations studied were selected for their marked differences in biomass accumulation and habitat characteristics such as nutrient availability and interspecific interaction. Plants, raised from seeds collected at three sites, were grown in a

L. A. P. Lotz; C. W. P. M. Blom



Proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in frozen-stored Kashkaval cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in Kashkaval cheeses of varying aging times, stored at ?10 to ?12°C for 12 months, was studied. It was established that the\\u000a proteolysis of Kashkaval cheese induced by the starter culture was significantly delayed by freezing. The noncasein nitrogen\\u000a (NCN\\/TN) and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN\\/TN) as a percentage of total nitrogen increased

Zhelyazko I. Simov; Galin Y. Ivanov



Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Human Bile Reveals SSP411 as a Novel Biomarker of Cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is an intractable cancer, arising from biliary epithelial cells, which has a poor prognosis and is increasing in incidence. Early diagnosis of CC is essential as surgical resection remains the only effective therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify improved biomarkers to facilitate early diagnosis and prognostication in CC. Methods A comparative expression profile of human bile samples from patients with cholangitis and CC was constructed using a classic 2D/MS/MS strategy and the expression of selected proteins was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression levels of selected candidate biomarkers in CC and matched normal tissues. Finally, spermatogenesis associated 20 (SSP411; also named SPATA20) was quantified in serum samples using an ELISA. Results We identified 97 differentially expressed protein spots, corresponding to 49 different genes, of which 38 were upregulated in bile from CC patients. Western blotting confirmed that phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (brain) (PGAM-1), protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (PDIA3), heat shock 60 kDa protein 1 (chaperonin) (HSPD1) and SSP411 were significantly upregulated in individual bile samples from CC patients. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated these proteins were also overexpressed in CC, relative to normal tissues. SSP411 displayed value as a potential serum diagnostic biomarker for CC, with a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 83.3% at a cutoff value of 0.63. Conclusions We successfully constructed a proteomic profile of CC bile proteins, providing a valuable pool novel of candidate biomarkers. SSP411 has potential as a biomarker for the diagnosis of CC.

Shen, Jian; Wang, Weizhi; Wu, Jindao; Feng, Bing; Chen, Wen; Wang, Meng; Tang, Jincao; Wang, Fuqiang; Cheng, Feng; Pu, Liyong; Tang, Qiyun; Wang, Xuehao; Li, Xiangcheng



A draft sequence of the rice ( Oryza sativa ssp. indica ) genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence of the rice genome holds fundamental information for its biology, including physiology, genetics, development,\\u000a and evolution, as well as information on many beneficial phenotypes of economic significance. Using a “whole genome shotgun”\\u000a approach, we have produced a draft rice genome sequence ofOryza sativa ssp.indica, the major crop rice subspecies in China and many other regions of Asia. The

Jun Yu; Songnian Hu; Jun Wang; Songgang Li; Ka-Shu Gane Wong; Bin Liu; Yajun Deng; Li Dai; Yan Zhou; Xiuqing Zhang; Mengliang Cao; Jing Liu; Jiandong Sun; Jiabin Tang; Yanjiong Chen; Xiaobing Huang; Wei Lin; Chen Ye; Wei Tong; Lijuan Cong; Jianing Geng; Yujun Han; Lin Li; Wei Li; Guangqiang Hu; Xiangang Huang; Wenjie Li; Jian Li; Zhanwei Liu; Long Li; Jianping Liu; Qiuhui Qi; Jinsong Liu; Li Li; Xuegang Wang; Hong Lu; Tingting Wu; Miao Zhu; Peixiang Ni; Hua Han; Wei Dong; Xiaoyu Ren; Xiaoli Feng; Peng Cui; Xianran Li; Hao Wang; Xin Xu; Wenxue Zhai; Zhao Xu; Jinsong Zhang; Sijie He; Jianguo Zhang; Jichen Xu; Kunlin Zhang; Xianwu Zheng; Jianhai Dong; Wanyong Zeng; Lin Tao; Xuewei Chen; Jun He; Daofeng Liu; Wei Tian; Chaoguang Tian; Hongai Xia; Gang Li; Hui Gao; Ping Li; Wei Chen; Xudong Wang; Yong Zhang; Jianfei Hu; Jing Wang; Song Liu; Jian Yang; Guangyu Zhang; Yuqing Xiong; Zhijie Li; Long Mao; Chengshu Zhou; Zhen Zhu; Runsheng Chen; Bailin Hao; Weimou Zheng; Shouyi Chen; Wei Guo; Guojie Li; Siqi Liu; Guyang Huang; Ming Tao; Jian Wang; Lihuang Zhu; Longping Yuan; Huanming Yang



Embryogenesis and plant regeneration from isolated microspores of Brassica rapa L. ssp. Oleifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Conditions favourable to embryogenesis from isolated microspores of Brassica rapa L. ssp. oleifera (canola quality) were identified. A population with enhanced responsiveness for microspore embryogenesis (C200) was synthesized by crossing individual plants showing microspore embryogenic potential. For optimal microspore embryogenesis, buds (2–3mm in length, containing mid-late uninucieate microspores) were collected from older plants (2 months old) and microspores isolated and

Laurie Burnett; Stephen Yarrow; Bin Huang



Mapping of a QTL for oleic acid concentration in spring turnip rape ( Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk segregant analysis was used to search for RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers linked to gene(s) affecting oleic acid concentration in an F2 population from the Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera cross Jo4002 x a high oleic acid individual from line Jo4072. Eight primers (=8 markers) out of 104 discriminated the high and low bulks consisting of extreme individuals from

P. K. Tanhuanpää; J. P. Vilkki; H. J. Vilkki



Soil solution chemistry in lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia ) ecosystems, southeastern Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of the principal inorganic and organic solutes in the soil root-zone were measured in six contrasting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp.latifolia) forest ecosystems for five years (1979–1983). Consistent temporal changes in the principal inorganic solutes (Ca, Mg, K, Na, SO4, Cl) were observed in all the forest stands and years of study: high concentrations at the initiation of snowmelt

Timothy J. Fahey; Joseph B. Yavitt



Conservation genetics of Butte County meadowfoam ( Limnanthes floccosa ssp. californica Arroyo), an endangered vernal pool endemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endangered annual plant Limnanthes floccosa ssp. californica Arroyo is restricted to vernal pools in Butte County, California. To identify populations with unique genetic resources,\\u000a guide reintroduction efforts, and design seed collection scenarios for long-term ex situ seed storage we determined extant\\u000a genetic diversity and structure by surveying 457 individuals from 21 distinct populations using nine polymorphic microsatellite\\u000a markers. We

Christina M. Sloop; Carolina Pickens; Sarah P. Gordon



Invasion of an annual grassland in Northern California by Baccharis pilularis ssp. consanguinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the invasion of a California annual grassland by the shrub, Baccharis pilularis ssp. consanguinea (DC) C.B. Wolf. A series of aerial photographs indicated that the shrub had been present at the study site for 35–45 years but spread very little until the early 1970's. A period of slow expansion was followed by rapid outward spread of the shrub

K. Williams; R. J. Hobbs; S. P. Hamburg



The identification of MacSe in Streptococcus equi ssp. equi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi ssp. equi) causes equine strangles, a highly contagious and widespread purulent lymphadenitis of the head and neck. We have identified\\u000a MacSe, a novel protein of S. equi, by screening a phage library of 3–8 kb random DNA fragments of S. equi CF32. MacSe shares 62% and 67.5% amino acid homology with Mac5005 and Mac8345

Jiande Yang; Yanfei Liu; Jun Xu; Jifei Ma



Repetitive somatic embryogenesis in Medicago truncatula ssp. Narbonensis and M. truncatula Gaertn cv. Jemalong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicago truncatula ssp Narbonensis and four genotypes of M. truncatula Gaertn cv. Jemalong were tested for their somatic embryogenesis potential using a two-step protocol. In the first step, embryogenic\\u000a callus was induced in folioles isolated from shoots grown in vitro and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented\\u000a with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and zeatin. In the second step, somatic embryos

L. O. das Neves; S. R. L. Duque; J. S. de Almeida; P. S. Fevereiro



An intensive understanding of vacuum infiltration transformation of pakchoi ( Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis), a kind of Chinese cabbage, is an important vegetable in Asian countries. Agrobacterium mediated in planta vacuum infiltration transformation has been performed in pakchoi since 1998, but a detailed study on this technique was lacking.\\u000a Pakchoi plants 40–50 days old with inflorescences were vacuum infiltrated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 harboring the binary vector pBBBast-gus-intron.

Hengjian Xu; Xiufeng Wang; Hong Zhao; Fan Liu



A secondary hybrid zone between diploid Dactylorhiza incarnata ssp. cruenta and allotetraploid D. lapponica (Orchidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary hybrid zones are not uncommon in Dactylorhiza, but knowledge of ecological and evolutionary consequences of hybridization are scarce. Here, we assess interploidal gene flow and introgression in a hybrid zone between diploid Dactylorhiza incarnata ssp. cruenta (2n=2x=40) and its putative allotetraploid derivative D. lapponica (2n=4x=80). Photometric quantification of DNA content and morphology confirmed that triploids are abundant in sympatric

S M D Aagaard; S M Sĺstad; J Greilhuber; A Moen; SMD Aagaard



Development of genotype-independent regeneration system for transformation of rice ( Oryza sativa ssp. indica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica) is an important economic crop in many countries. Although a variety of conventional methods have been developed to improve\\u000a this plant, manipulation by genetic engineering is still complicated. We have established a system of multiple shoot regeneration\\u000a from rice shoot apical meristem. By use of MS medium containing 4 mg L?1 thidiazuron (TDZ) multiple shoots were successfully

Nimnara Yookongkaew; Methinee Srivatanakul; Jarunya Narangajavana



The efficiency of Viscum album ssp. album and Hypericum perforatum on human immune cells in vitro.  


Viscum album L. ssp. album and Hypericum perforatum L. are used for the treatment of different diseases. In this study, the effects of these herbals on immune cells were assessed in vitro. The phagocytosis, candidacidal activity of neutrophils and adhesion function of epithelial cells were investigated. Also, the expression of the surface markers of lymphocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry. It was observed that V. album ssp. album increased phagocytic activity and candidacidal activity of neutrophils and decreased adhesion function of epithelial cells. We also observed that in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by Viscum album L. ssp. album the levels of CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD8(+)CD25(+) T cells, CD69 expressions in the activated T lymphocytes and CD3(-)CD16(+)CD56(+) NK cells increased compared to the cells that were not stimulated by this herbal. Whereas CD4(+)CD25(+), CD8(+)CD25(+) T cells, CD 69 expression and CD3(-)CD16(+)CD56(+) Natural killer cells did not show any significant differences with the presence of Hypericum perforatum L. compared to the control group. Hypericum perforatum L. increased candidacidal activity of neutrophils and decreased adhesion function of epithelial cells. In the light of these findings, it is considered that these extracts may be used as an adjuvant treatment option for immune activation in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:18668395

Fidan, Isil; Ozkan, Semiha; Gurbuz, Ilhan; Yesilyurt, Emine; Erdal, Berna; Yolbakan, Sultan; Imir, Turgut



Establishing Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis on mined lands: Science and economics  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality enacted regulations governing the reestablishment of woody shrubs on mined lands. The regulation required that an average density of one shrub m{sup -2} be reestablished on at least 20% of the disturbed land area and that the shrub composition must include dominant premine species. In Wyoming, and much of the Northern Great Plains, that meant that Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle and Young) (Wyoming big sagebrush) had to be reestablished on mined lands. Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis had proven difficult to reestablish on mined lands because of poor quality seed, seed dormancy and a poor understanding of the seedbed ecology of this species. Research in the last two decades has produced significant knowledge in the area of direct-seed establishment of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis on mined lands. Our research has shown that reducing grass seeding rates will reduce competition and result in larger sagebrush plants that are more likely to survive and provide greater structural diversity to the plant community. Economic analyses demonstrated that big sagebrush can be established at a cost of $0.01-0.05 per seedling using direct seeding methods compared to transplanting nursery grown seedlings, estimated to cost $0.72-$1.65 per seedling (depending on size) to grow and from $1.30-$2.40 to plant (flat land to 2:1 slopes). An adequate level of precipitation will be necessary to ensure successful establishment of this species no matter what method of propagation is selected and direct seeding gives greater opportunity for success because of the demonstrated longevity of the seed to germinate 3-5 years after the initial seeding.

Schuman, G.E.; Vicklund, L.E.; Belden, S.E. [ARS, Cheyenne, WY (United States). High Plains Grasslands Research Station



Variability of the essential oils composition of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium growing wild in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty samples of inflorescences and leaves of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium with white flowers were collected in 21 habitats (1999 and 2000) in Lithuania. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The volatile oils according to the cluster analysis were divided into four groups containing the same major constituents: I (four samples)—borneol (11.5–13.2%)+camphor (7.2–13.1%); II (four samples)—chamazulene (9.8–23.2%)+?-pinene (9.7–26.5%);

Danute Mockute; Asta Judzentiene



Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans isolated from a sourdough bread culture.  


Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from four different sourdough bread cultures previously investigated for antifungal activity. A total of 116 isolates were obtained and screened for antifungal activity against a battery of molds. The most inhibitory isolate obtained was identified by API 50 CHL and 16s ribosomal RNA genotyping and found to be Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans. This isolate completely inhibited the growth of Fusarium proliferatum M 5689, M 5991 and Fusarium graminearum R 4053 compared to controls in a dual agar plate assay. PMID:18077044

Hassan, Yousef I; Bullerman, Lloyd B



Chemical composition and possible in vitro phytotoxic activity of Helichrsyum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum.  


The chemical composition of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum, collected in the National Park of Cilento and Diano Valley, Southern Italy, was studied by means of GC and GC/MS. Forty four compounds of 45 constituents were identified in the oil, mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The essential oil was evaluated for its potential in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and early radicle elongation of radish and garden cress. The radicle elongation of radish was significantly inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of both seeds was not affected. PMID:21904272

Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Scognamiglio, Maria Rosa; De Feo, Vincenzo



The role of stigma peroxidases in flowering plants: insights from further characterization of a stigma-specific peroxidase (SSP) from Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiosperm stigmas have long been known to exhibit high levels of peroxidase activity when they are mature and most receptive to pollen but the biological function of stigma peroxidases is not known. A novel stigma- specific class III peroxidase gene, SSP (stigma-specific peroxidase) expressed exclusively in the stigmas of Senecio squalidus L. (Asteraceae) has recently been identified. Expression of SSP

Stephanie M. McInnis; David C. Emery; Robert Porter; Radhika Desikan; John T. Hancock; Simon J. Hiscock



Spelt ( Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta ) as a Source of Breadmaking Flours and Bran Naturally Enriched in Oleic Acid and Minerals but Not Phytic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional value of breadmaking cereal spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) is said to be higher than that of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare), but this traditional view is not substantiated by scientific evidence. In an attempt to clarify this issue, wholemeal and milling fractions (sieved flour, fine bran, and coarse bran) from nine dehulled spelt and five soft

Nike L. Ruibal-Mendieta; Dominique L. Delacroix; Eric Mignolet; Jean-Marie Pycke; Carole Marques; Raoul Rozenberg; Géraldine Petitjean; Jean-Louis Habib-Jiwan; Marc Meurens; Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq; Nathalie M. Delzenne; Yvan Larondelle



Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extract of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities, antioxidant and properties of essential oils and methanol extracts of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare plants. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled essential oil of O. vulgare ssp. vulgare was analyzed by a GC\\/MS system. A total 62 constituents were identified. Caryophyllene and spathulenol were found to be the main constituents,

F ?ahin; M Güllüce; D Daferera; A Sökmen; M Sökmen; M Polissiou; G Agar; H Özer



SspA, an outer membrane protein, is highly induced under salt-stressed conditions and is essential for growth under salt-stressed aerobic conditions in Rhodobacter sphaeroides f. sp. denitrificans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that an outer membrane protein, SspA, is prominently induced by salt stress in a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides f. sp. denitrificans IL106 (R. sphaeroides). In this study, we investigated the physiological role of SspA under various stress conditions. Using recombinant SspA expressed in Escherichia coli as an antigen, the polyclonal antiserum of SspA was prepared. Western

M. Tsuzuki; X. Y. Xu; K. Sato; M. Abo; M. Arioka; H. Nakajima; K. Kitamoto; A. Okubo



BcMF13 , a new reproductive organ-specific gene from Brassica rapa. ssp. chinensis , affects pollen development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transcript-derived fragment (GenBank accession number DN237920.1) accumulated in the wild-type flower buds of Chinese cabbage\\u000a (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) was isolated and further investigated. The full length DNA and cDNA of the fragment were cloned by rapid amplification of\\u000a cDNA ends. The gene, BcMF13, encodes a protein of 73 amino acids and

Yanyan Li; Jiashu Cao; Li Huang; Xiaolin Yu; Xun Xiang



The Huygens surface science package (SSP): Flight performance review and lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Surface Science Package (SSP) was one of six instruments flown onboard the Huygens probe to Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, in the framework of the NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission (Matson et al., 2002). The SSP operated throughout the probe's descent and after landing on Titan on 14th January 2005. This paper reviews scientific results from the Surface Science Package, and also reports previously unpublished flight data which illustrate the performance of the measurement systems in the Titan environment. This review provides some lessons learned that may be useful for further detailed analysis of the Huygens mission data, and for payloads for future missions to Titan, in which there has been recent interest (e.g., the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) (Joint TSSM Science Definition Team, 2009), TANDEM (Coustenis et al., 2009) or the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) Discovery-class proposal (Stofan et al., 2010)), as well as for planetary probe missions more generally.

Leese, M. R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Hathi, B.; Zarnecki, J. C.



The Salmonella type III effector SspH2 specifically exploits the NLR co-chaperone activity of SGT1 to subvert immunity.  


To further its pathogenesis, S. Typhimurium delivers effector proteins into host cells, including the novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL) effector SspH2. Using model systems in a cross-kingdom approach we gained further insight into the molecular function of this effector. Here, we show that SspH2 modulates innate immunity in both mammalian and plant cells. In mammalian cell culture, SspH2 significantly enhanced Nod1-mediated IL-8 secretion when transiently expressed or bacterially delivered. In addition, SspH2 also enhanced an Rx-dependent hypersensitive response in planta. In both of these nucleotide-binding leucine rich repeat receptor (NLR) model systems, SspH2-mediated phenotypes required its catalytic E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and interaction with the conserved host protein SGT1. SGT1 has an essential cell cycle function and an additional function as an NLR co-chaperone in animal and plant cells. Interaction between SspH2 and SGT1 was restricted to SGT1 proteins that have NLR co-chaperone function and accordingly, SspH2 did not affect SGT1 cell cycle functions. Mechanistic studies revealed that SspH2 interacted with, and ubiquitinated Nod1 and could induce Nod1 activity in an agonist-independent manner if catalytically active. Interestingly, SspH2 in vitro ubiquitination activity and protein stability were enhanced by SGT1. Overall, this work adds to our understanding of the sophisticated mechanisms used by bacterial effectors to co-opt host pathways by demonstrating that SspH2 can subvert immune responses by selectively exploiting the functions of a conserved host co-chaperone. PMID:23935490

Bhavsar, Amit P; Brown, Nat F; Stoepel, Jan; Wiermer, Marcel; Martin, Dale D O; Hsu, Karolynn J; Imami, Koshi; Ross, Colin J; Hayden, Michael R; Foster, Leonard J; Li, Xin; Hieter, Phil; Finlay, B Brett



Long-term survival and seed transmission of Acidovorax avenae ssp. citrulli in melon and watermelon seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed transmission of Acidovorax avenae ssp. citrulli (Aac) is a key factor in the dissemination of bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbits. In this study, we report seed transmission of Aac from 34-year-old watermelon seed (Citrullus lanatus) and from 40-year-old melon seed (Cucumis melo). The seed lo...


Nickel speciation in the xylem sap of the hyperaccumulator Alyssum serpyllifolium ssp. lusitanicum growing on serpentine soils of northeast Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel speciation was studied in the xylem sap of Alyssum serpyllifolium ssp. lusitanicum, a Ni-hyperaccumulator endemic to the serpentine soils of northeast Portugal. The xylem sap was collected from plants growing in its native habitat and characterized in terms of carboxylic and amino acids content. The speciation of nickel was studied in model and real solutions of xylem sap by

Sheila Alves; Cristina Nabais; Maria de Lurdes Simőes Gonçalves; Margarida M. Correia dos Santos



Effect of reducing agents on the acidification capacity and the proton motive force of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris resting cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing agents are potential inhibitors of the microbial growth. We have shown recently that dithiothreitol (DTT), NaBH4 and H2 can modify the proton motive force of resting cells of Escherichia coli by increasing the membrane protons permeability [Eur. J. Biochem. 262 (1999) 595]. In the present work, the effect of reducing agents on the resting cells of Lactococcus lactis ssp.

Yves Waché; Christophe Riondet; Charles Divičs; Rémy Cachon



Effects of Glomus fasciculatum and isolated rhizosphere microorganisms on growth and phosphate uptake of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was set up in order to study 1) the relationship between net P uptake and dry matter production in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants and 2) the effects of isolated rhizosphere bacteria and fungi on net P uptake and growth of P. major ssp. pleiosperma. A similar relationship between net P uptake and dry matter production was found for

R. Baas



Identification of Fur regulated genes in the bacterial fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida using the Fur titration assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria have developed a series of iron-scavenging and transport systems. The expression of many of the iron utilization genes is tightly regulated by the Fe2+ loaded Fur repressor protein. In this study, the Fur titration assay (FURTA) was used to screen for DNA fragments from a genomic DNA library of Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida containing potential Fe2 +Fur binding sites

Carlos R. Osorio; Manuel L. Lemos; Volkmar Braun



Trypanosoma cruzi SSP4 Amastigote Protein Induces Expression of Immunoregulatory and Immunosuppressive Molecules in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.  


The acute phase of Chagas' disease in mice and human is marked by states of immunosuppression, in which Trypanosoma cruzi replicates extensively and releases immunomodulatory molecules that delay parasite-specific responses mediated by effector T cells. This mechanism of evasion allows the parasite to spread in the host. Parasite molecules that regulate the host immune response during Chagas' disease have not been fully identified, particularly proteins of the amastigote stage. In this work, we evaluated the role of the GPI anchored SSP4 protein of T. cruzi as an immunomodulatory molecule in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). rMBP::SSP4 protein was able to stimulate nitric oxide (NO) production. Likewise, rMBP::SSP4 induced the expression of genes and production of molecules involved in the inflammatory process, such as, cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules (CAMs) as determined by RT-PCR and ELISA. These results suggest that the amastigote SSP4 molecule could play a key role in the immunoregulatory and/or immunosuppressive process observed in the acute phase of infection with T. cruzi. PMID:23209478

Morán-Utrera, Yadira; López-Monteon, Aracely; Rosales-Encina, José Luis; Méndez-Bolaina, Enrique; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel



Embryogenesis and plant regeneration of pakchoi ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) via in vitro isolated microspore culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated microspores of various populations of three varieties of the Chinese cabbage pakchoi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were cultivated in vitro on NLN82 medium (Lichter 1982) and embryos and plantlets obtained with nine cultivars. The best embryo yield per bud was 57.4. A 33°C one day heat treatment was generally necessary to induce embryogenesis. Analysis of ploidy level through flow

Ming Qing Cao; Yan Li; Fan Liu; Claire Doré




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interseeding yellow-flowering alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. falcata) into northern mixed-grass rangelands has been shown to greatly increase total forage production of the rangeland, increase forage quality, increase soil carbon sequestration and increase total soil nitrogen. To evaluate whether the...


Poplar root exudates contain compounds that induce the expression of MiSSP7 in Laccaria bicolor  

PubMed Central

Communication between organisms is crucial for their survival, especially for sessile organisms such as plants that depend upon interactions with mutualistic organisms to maximize their nutrient acquisition. This communication can take the form of the exchange of volatile compounds, metabolites or effectors—small protein signals secreted from the colonizing cell that change the biology of the host cell. We recently characterized the first mutualistic effector protein from an ectomycorrhizal fungus, a small secreted protein named MiSSP7 encoded by Laccaria bicolor. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are soil-borne mutualistic organisms whose hyphae wrap around host roots and grow into the root apoplastic space where the fungus exchanges nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in return for plant derived sugars. The MiSSP7 protein is induced by root exudates and is highly expressed throughout the root colonization process. Its presence was responsible for alterations to the plant transcriptomic profile, a mechanism by which MiSSP7 may aid in the formation of the symbiotic interface. Here we discuss the implications of these findings and, further, we demonstrate that the production of MiSSP7 is induced by two flavonoids, rutin and quercitin, a class of compounds normally found within the exudates of plant roots. We also consider the interesting similarities between the mechanisms of effector induction and action between pathogenic and mutualistic fungi.

Plett, Jonathan M.; Martin, Francis



Effects of sodium chloride concentrations on seed germination of Acacia nilotica ssp. tomentosa and Acacia gerrardii var. najdensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to evaluate the seed germination of Acacia nilotica ssp. tomentosa (L.) Willd. Ex. Del and Acacia gerrardii (Benth.) var. najdensis Chaudhary. under salinity conditions. The experiment was carried out in Forestry Laboratory at College of Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The collected seeds of both species were treated with boiling water then left

Ibrahim M. Aref; L. I. El-Juhany; K. F. Elkhalifa


Descent motions of the Huygens probe as measured by the Surface Science Package (SSP): Turbulent evidence for a cloud layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Huygens probe underwent vigorous short-period motions during its parachute descent through the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan in January 2005, at least some of which were excited by the Titan environment. Several sensors in the Huygens Surface Science Package (SSP) detect these motions, indicating the transition to the smaller stabilizer parachute, the changing probe spin rate, aerodynamic buffeting, and

Ralph D. Lorenz; John C. Zarnecki; Martin C. Towner; Mark R. Leese; Andrew J. Ball; Brijen Hathi; Axel Hagermann; Nadeem A. L. Ghafoor



Electroantennogram responses of the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis , to oilseed rape, Brassica napus ssp. Oleifera , volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from male and female cabbage seed weevils (Ceutorhynchus assimilis Payk.) in response to volatiles isolated and identified from the odor of oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp.oleifera DC. cv. Ariana). Relatively large EAGs were obtained on stimulation with volatiles produced by the oilseed rape crop at the time when seed weevils were actively searching for host plants.

K. A. Evans; L. J. Allen-Williams



The effect of calcium ions on adhesion and competitive exclusion of Lactobacillus ssp. and E. coli O138  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adhesion abilities of 11 strains of Lactobacillus were determined in vitro using the IPEC-J2 cell line as a model system. Bacteria cultures included the probiotic strains L. rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri ATCC 55730, L. johnsonii NCC 533 and L. reuteri DSM 12246, and new isolates of Lactobacillus ssp. Adhesion was quantified by scintillation counting of radiolabelled bound bacteria. The

Nadja Larsen; Peter Nissen; William G. T. Willats



Intrascrotal Abscess, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The Propionibacterium acnes and the Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii are occasional pathogenic bacteria. The intrascrotal localization of the Propionibacterium acnes is exceptional. The Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii is not able to colonize the urogenital apparatus but it is the most frequently responsible for blood culture contamination even if it can sustain, in particular conditions, systemic infections. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who is under observation for pain and swelling of the left hemiscrotum associated to high fever. The scrotal ultrasound shows the presence of a left intra-scrotal abscess with didymus, epididymis, and intact didymus-epididymis tunicae. The blood culture executed for evening fever during antibiotic therapy has underlined an infection with Propionibacterium acnes. A following blood culture has shown an increase in Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii. Due to fever the patient has undergone left orchifunicolectomy with inguino-scrotal toilet. The anatomical pathological examination has also shown the presence of nonspecific granulomatous inflammation compatible with Propionibacterium acnes infection. Conclusion. The onset of an intrascrotal abscess likely sustained by Propionibacterium acnes complicated by a possible systemic Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii suprainfection is an exceptional event that, in our case, has been resolved with surgical toilet.

Stefano, Masciovecchio; Del Rosso, Alessandro; Saldutto, Pietro; Paradiso Galatioto, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Carlo



Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed



Laboratory and field evaluation of Teknar HP-D, a biolarvicidal formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, against mosquito vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvicidal efficacy of Teknar HP-D, an improved biolarvicidal formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis (Bti), against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was determined in the laboratory, and in field the efficacy of the formulation was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding in cesspits, unused wells and drains. The toxicity of the formulation to Gambusia affinis (larvivorous fish), Notonecta sp.

K. Gunasekaran; P. S. Boopathi Doss; K. Vaidyanathan



Trypanosoma cruzi SSP4 Amastigote Protein Induces Expression of Immunoregulatory and Immunosuppressive Molecules in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells  

PubMed Central

The acute phase of Chagas' disease in mice and human is marked by states of immunosuppression, in which Trypanosoma cruzi replicates extensively and releases immunomodulatory molecules that delay parasite-specific responses mediated by effector T cells. This mechanism of evasion allows the parasite to spread in the host. Parasite molecules that regulate the host immune response during Chagas' disease have not been fully identified, particularly proteins of the amastigote stage. In this work, we evaluated the role of the GPI anchored SSP4 protein of T. cruzi as an immunomodulatory molecule in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). rMBP::SSP4 protein was able to stimulate nitric oxide (NO) production. Likewise, rMBP::SSP4 induced the expression of genes and production of molecules involved in the inflammatory process, such as, cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules (CAMs) as determined by RT-PCR and ELISA. These results suggest that the amastigote SSP4 molecule could play a key role in the immunoregulatory and/or immunosuppressive process observed in the acute phase of infection with T. cruzi.

Moran-Utrera, Yadira; Lopez-Monteon, Aracely; Rosales-Encina, Jose Luis; Mendez-Bolaina, Enrique; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel



Essential Oil of Satureja montana, L. ssp. montana. Composition and Yields of Plants Grown Under Different Environmental Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield and composition of essential oils of Satureja montana L. ssp. montana plants growing naturally in a calcareous, rocky and arid area were determined and compared with those that were transplanted and grown in environmental conditions different in altitude, light intensity and soil moisture.During the two years of experimentation the plants, which were found to be of the carvacrol

Anna Rita Bilia; Pierluigi Cioni; Ivano Morelli; Claudio Coppi; Angelo Lippi; Paolo E. Tomei



Inactivation of the gene encoding surface protein SspA in Streptococcus gordonii DL1 affects cell interactions with human salivary agglutinin and oral actinomyces.  

PubMed Central

Cell surface protein SSP-5 in the oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii M5 binds human salivary agglutinin in a Ca(2+)-dependent reaction (D.R. Demuth, E.E. Golub, and D. Malamud, J. Biol. Chem. 265:7120-7126, 1990). The region of the gene encoding an N-terminal segment of a related polypeptide (SspA) in S. gordonii DL1 (Challis) was isolated following polymerase chain reaction amplification of genomic DNA. The sspA gene in S. gordonii DL1 was insertionally inactivated by homologous recombination of the erythromycin resistance (Emr) determinant ermAM onto the streptococcal chromosome. The SspA polypeptide (apparent molecular mass, 210 kDa) was detected on Western blots (immunoblots) of spheroplast extracts and extracellular culture medium proteins from wild-type strain DL1 but was absent from Emr mutants. One SspA- mutant (designated OB220) was not altered in rate or extent of aggregation by whole saliva or parotid saliva but showed reduced aggregation in the presence of purified salivary agglutinin. Mutant bacteria were unaffected in their ability to adhere to hydroxylapatite beads coated with whole or parotid saliva and were unaltered in cell surface hydrophobicity. However, the SspA- strain OB220 was deficient in binding salivary agglutinin and in binding to six strains of Actinomyces naeslundii. Therefore, expression of SspA polypeptide in S. gordonii is associated with both agglutinin-dependent and agglutinin-independent aggregation and adherence reactions of streptococcal cells. Images

Jenkinson, H F; Terry, S D; McNab, R; Tannock, G W



Structural characterization of a D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.  


Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases, responsible for the stereospecific conversion of 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids in lactic acid producing bacteria, have a range of biotechnology applications including antibiotic synthesis, flavor development in dairy products and the production of valuable synthons. The genome of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, a member of the heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria, encodes multiple hydroxyacid dehydrogenases whose structural and functional properties remain poorly characterized. Here, we report the apo and coenzyme NAD? complexed crystal structures of the L. bulgaricusD-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, D2-HDH. Comparison with closely related members of the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase family reveals that whilst the D2-HDH core fold is structurally conserved, the substrate-binding site has a number of non-canonical features that may influence substrate selection and thus dictate the physiological function of the enzyme. PMID:23110853

Holton, Simon J; Anandhakrishnan, Madhankumar; Geerlof, Arie; Wilmanns, Matthias



E-cinnamic acid derivatives and phenolics from Chilean strawberry fruits, Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis.  


Three E-cinnamic acid glycosides, tryptophan, and cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from ripe fruits of the Chilean strawberry Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis. 1-O-E-Cinnamoyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside, 1-O-E-cinnamoyl-beta-D-rhamnopyranoside, and 1-O-E-cinnamoyl-alpha-xylofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranose are reported for the first time. The cinnamic acid glycosides and aromatic compound patterns in F. chiloensis fruits were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC analyses of extracts showed that cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and free ellagic acid are present in achenes while the E-cinnamoyl derivatives and tryptophan were identified only in the thalamus. The free radical scavenging effect of the fruit extract can be associated with the anthocyanin content. PMID:16248546

Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Saud, Guillermo; Caligari, Peter D S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo



meta-Tyrosine in Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue) is synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine.  


m-Tyrosine is a non-protein amino acid that is structurally similar to the common protein amino acids p-tyrosine and phenylalanine. Copious amounts of m-tyrosine can be found in root exudates of the fine fescue cultivar, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue). The phytotoxicity of m-tyrosine may contribute to the allelopathic potential of F. rubra. m-Tyrosine in Euphorbia myrsinites (donkey-tail spurge), was previously shown to be synthesized via transamination of m-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Here we show that m-tyrosine biosynthesis in F. rubra occurs through direct hydroxylation of phenylalanine in the root tips, perhaps through the activity of a cytochrome P450 enzyme. Hence, E. myrsinites and F. rubra, the only two plant species known to produce m-tyrosine, use distinct biosynthetic pathways that likely arose independently in evolutionary history. PMID:22192329

Huang, Tengfang; Rehak, Ludmila; Jander, Georg



Chemical variability of the needle oil of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina from Corsica.  


The composition of 109 samples of essential oil isolated from the needles of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina growing wild in Corsica was investigated by GC (in combination with retention indices), GC/MS, and 13C-NMR. Forty-four compounds accounting for 86.7-96.7% of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, in particular, limonene (9.2-53.9%), beta-phellandrene (3.7-25.2%), alpha-pinene (1.4-33.7%), and sabinene (0.1-33.6%). The 109 oil compositions were submitted to k-means partitioning and principal component analysis, which allowed the distinction of two groups within the oil samples. The composition of the major group (92% of the samples) was dominated by limonene and beta-phellandrene, while the second group contained mainly sabinene beside limonene and beta-phellandrene. PMID:20020451

Ottavioli, Josephine; Gonny, Marcelle; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange



SspA up-regulates gene expression of the LEE pathogenicity island by decreasing H-NS levels in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) colonizes the intestinal epithelium and causes attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions. Expression of virulence genes, particularly those from the locus of the enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island is required for the formation of a type three secretion system, which induces A/E lesion formation. Like other horizontally acquired genetic elements, expression of the LEE is negatively regulated by H-NS. In the non-pathogenic Escherichia coli K-12 strain the stringent starvation protein A (SspA) inhibits accumulation of H-NS, and thereby allows de-repression of the H-NS regulon during the stationary phase of growth. However, the effect of SspA on the expression of H-NS-controlled virulence genes in EHEC is unknown. Results Here we assess the effect of SspA on virulence gene expression in EHEC. We show that transcription of virulence genes including those of the LEE is decreased in an sspA mutant, rendering the mutant strain defective in forming A/E lesions. A surface exposed pocket of SspA is functionally important for the regulation of the LEE and for the A/E phenotype. Increased expression of ler alleviates LEE expression in an sspA mutant, suggesting that the level of Ler in the mutant is insufficient to counteract H-NS-mediated repression. We demonstrate that the H-NS level is two-fold higher in an sspA mutant compared to wild type, and that the defects of the sspA mutant are suppressed by an hns null mutation, indicating that hns is epistatic to sspA in regulating H-NS repressed virulence genes. Conclusions SspA positively regulates the expression of EHEC virulence factors by restricting the intracellular level of H-NS. Since SspA is conserved in many bacterial pathogens containing horizontally acquired pathogenicity islands controlled by H-NS, our study suggests a common mechanism whereby SspA potentially regulates the expression of virulence genes in these pathogens.



Characterization of a male sterile related gene BcMF15 from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.  


Data from cDNA-AFLP analysis based on the genome-wide transcriptional profiling on the flower buds of the male meiotic cytokinesis (mmc) mutant and its wild-type of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis, indicated that mutation of the MMC gene resulted in changes in expression of a variety of genes. A transcript-derived fragment specifically accumulated in the wild-type flower buds was isolated, and the corresponding full-length cDNA and DNA was subsequently amplified. Bioinformatical analyses of this gene named BcMF15 (GenBank accession number EF600901) showed that it encoded a protein with 103 amino acids. The BcMF15 had a 88% nucleotide similarity to a lipid transfer protein-like gene. Moreover, sequence prediction indicated that BcMF15 might encode a membrane protein with a signal peptide at the N-terminus. Meanwhile, six domains were predicted in the deduced BcMF15 protein, such as the AAI domain existing in some crucial proteins of pollen development-preferential, signal peptide, transmembrane domain, vWF domain, ZnF_C4 domain, and Tryp_alpha_amyl domain. Spatial and temporal expression patterns analysis by RT-PCR indicated that BcMF15 was exclusively expressed in the fertile line, which indicated this gene is male sterile related. Phylogenetic analysis in Cruciferae revealed that the BcMF15 was relative conservative in evolution. We suppose BcMF15 may be a critical molecule in the transmembrane transportation and signal transduction during microspore development. PMID:18034318

Tian, Aimei; Cao, Jiashu; Huang, Li; Yu, Xiaolin; Ye, Wanzhi



The SspA subtilisin-like protease of Streptococcus suis triggers a pro-inflammatory response in macrophages through a non-proteolytic mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen worldwide that causes meningitis, septicemia, arthritis, and endocarditis. Using animal models,\\u000a a surface-associated subtilisin-like protease (SspA) has recently been shown to be an important virulence factor for S. suis. In this study, we hypothesized that the S. suis SspA subtilisin-like protease may modulate cytokine secretion by macrophages thus contributing to the pathogenic

Laetitia Bonifait; Daniel Grenier



Enhancement of Diacetyl Production by a Diacetyl-Resistant Mutant of Citrate-Positive Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis 3022 and by Aerobic Conditions of Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of Cu2+ and Fe3+ inhibited citrate uptake by citrate-positive Lacto- coccus lacris ssp. lads 3022 and stimu- lated the production of diacetyl, probably because citrate uptake activity of the cells is lowered by diacetyl. A diacetyl-resis- tant mutant, HK-7, derived from citrate- positive L. lactis ssp. lactis 3022, in which diacetyl production was deregulat- ed, produced a larger amount

Tsutomu Kaneko; Yukari Watanabe; Hideki Suzuki



Bone-seed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera) invasion effects on native regeneration in New Zealand coastal plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone-seed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.), is an environmental weed of coastal vegetation communities scattered throughout New Zealand. To assess the long-term implications for native forest regeneration in sites where bone-seed is present, we selected four study sites around Wellington, New Zealand, where bone-seed was abundant. We compared seed bank composition in bone-seed-invaded sites with nearby native forest patches, and

Kate G. McAlpine; Susan M. Timmins; Ian Westbrooke


In-house validation of a real-time PCR method for rapid detection of Salmonella ssp. in food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for Salmonella ssp. detection in food samples has been developed and validated in-house. The specificity of the assay was confirmed by tests with 295 different Salmonella strains, including four strains of Salmonella bongori. When tested with extracted Salmonella DNA the lowest detected amount was found to be 5 fg, which is equivalent to approximately

Dietrich Mäde; Roger Petersen; Klaus Trümper; Regine Stark; Lutz Grohmann



Effects of rhizosphere soil, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate on Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma Pilger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotic factors in the rhizosphere and their effect on the growth ofPlantago major L. ssp.pleiosperma Pilger (Great plantain) were studied. In a pot experiment the effect on shoot growth of the addition of 2.5% rhizosphere soil at four levels of phosphate was highly dependent on the availability of phosphate: a promoting effect at low phosphate levels was observed while a

R. Baas; C. VAN DIJK; S. R. Troelstra



Functional analysis of a novel male fertility CYP86MF gene in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis makino)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our earlier work, a cytochrome P450 CYP86MF gene was isolated from floral bud of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa L.) by mRNA differential display PCR (DD-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). To unravel the biological function of CYP86MF gene, the antisense fragment from the CYP86MF gene was transferred into Chinese cabbage

J. S. Cao; X. L. Yu; W. Z. Ye; G. Lu; X. Xiang



Agrobacterium -mediated transformation and regeneration of fertile transgenic plants of chinese cabbage ( brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis cv. ‘spring flavor’)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the regeneration of fertile transgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis cv. Spring Flavor) is presented in this report. The protocol is based on infection of cotyledon explants of 5-d-old seedlings with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying a disarmed binary vector pTOK\\/BKS-1. The T-DNA region of this binary vector contains the nopaline synthase\\/neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII)

Se Jun; Seok Yoon Kwon; Kee Yoeup Pack; Kyung-Hee Paek



Positive effects of the introduced green alga, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides , on recruitment and survival of mussels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green macroalga, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides, is an important component of sheltered low-shore assemblages on breakwaters along sandy shores in the northern Adriatic\\u000a Sea. Macroscopic thalli of C. fragile are not perennial, but develop from propagules and\\/or undifferentiated forms in early spring, when the dominant native space-occupier,\\u000a the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, recruits. By mid-summer, rapid growth of C. fragile

F. Bulleri; L. Airoldi; G. M. Branca; M. Abbiati



Association of gene-linked SSR markers to seed glucosinolate content in oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ssp. napus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding of oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. napus) has evoked a strong bottleneck selection towards double-low (00) seed quality with zero erucic acid and low seed glucosinolate\\u000a content. The resulting reduction of genetic variability in elite 00-quality oilseed rape is particularly relevant with regard\\u000a to the development of genetically diverse heterotic pools for hybrid breeding. In contrast, B. napus genotypes

M. Hasan; W. Friedt; J. Pons-Kühnemann; N. M. Freitag; K. Link; R. J. Snowdon



Short Communication: Salt Extends the Upper Temperature Limit for Growth of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris on Solid M17 Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined conditions for plating of the Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris laboratory strain MG1363 on solid M17 broth at 38°C, which is required for the optimal use of the pGhost plasmids. The addi- tion of 1% NaCl (or KCl, potassium acetate, or sucrose at 170 mM) to M17 agar plates results in extension of the upper temperature limit for

M. Kilstrup; K. Hammer



Factors involved in Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer into Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotyledons from dissected sterile embryos of salgareńo pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco) were inoculated with different disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains harbouring the binary vector p35SGUSint. The transient expression of a ?-glucuronidase gene (uidA) was studied, using a histochemical staining procedure. Nineteen days after inoculation, the activity of ?-glucuronidase\\u000a was detected in epidermal and subepidermal layers of cotyledonary

Marián López; Jaime M. Humara; Roberto Rodríguez; Ricardo J. Ordás



Genetic (RAPD) diversity between Oleria onega agarista and Oleria onega ssp. (Ithomiinae, Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera) in north-eastern Peru.  


Oleria onega agarista Felder and Felder and Oleria onega ssp. nov. are two Ithomiinae subspecies from north-eastern Peru, that differ for some morphological and behavioural traits. Two contact zones are known near the town of Tarapoto: Ahuashiyacu, where both subspecies cohabit but do not seem to hybridise, and Estero (near the village of Shapaja), where they apparently hybridise. Genetic differences between the two subspecies and between populations were investigated with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Both Cluster and Principal Coordinates Analyses (CCoA and PCoA) performed using these data, provided a clear but weak discrimination between the two subspecies. Genetic diversity is much higher within the populations than between them. Moreover, the geographically more distant populations are grouped together by the genetic data. Morphological traits on the wing patterns of the hybrids are intermediary between the two butterflies subspecies, while RAPDs data place them closer to O. onega agarista than to O. onega ssp. The individuals of the Ahuashiyacu population are clearly separated into two groups, those of O. onega ssp. and O. onega agarista, by both morphology and RAPDs data. Moreover, none of those individuals show RAPD similarity with the hybrids, suggesting that hybridisation has not occurred in this population. PMID:15098738

Gallusser, S; Guadagnuolo, R; Rahier, M



Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats  

PubMed Central

Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum) were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8??L per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24?h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration.

Farkas, Agnes; Molnar, Reka; Morschhauser, Tamas; Hahn, Istvan



Identification of antigens for the development of a subunit vaccine against Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida.  


Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida (Ph.d.p.), the causative agent of photobacteriosis, is among the most important pathogens affecting finfish aquaculture globally. With the emergence of recombinant technology, subunit vaccines have been actively pursued, but mostly for viral diseases. Bacterial subunit vaccines are more difficult to develop since the bacterial genome is more complex, with numerous candidate antigens, leading to a lengthy and laborious screening process. Immunoproteomics, using western blotting on protein analyzed with 2DE and LC-MS/MS to isolate immune-reactive proteins and acquire amino acid sequences, followed by recombinant technology to clone the candidate gene, identified eight candidate antigens from Ph.d.p., which have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). These proteins were purified and used as antigens in an efficacy trial. Three, rHSP60, rENOLASE, and rGAPDH proteins, elicited higher specific antibody titers and stronger protective immunity than the other five and an inactivated Ph.d.p. whole bacterial vaccine. These three antigens may be candidates for the development of a subunit vaccine against Ph.d.p. PMID:21134466

Ho, Li-Ping; Han-You Lin, John; Liu, Hsiao-Chien; Chen, Huey-En; Chen, Tzong-Yueh; Yang, Huey-Lang



Proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in frozen-stored Kashkaval cheese.  


Proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in Kashkaval cheeses of varying aging times, stored at -10 to -12 degrees C for 12 months, was studied. It was established that the proteolysis of Kashkaval cheese induced by the starter culture was significantly delayed by freezing. The noncasein nitrogen (NCN/TN) and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN/TN) as a percentage of total nitrogen increased slightly during frozen storage of Kashkaval. It was found that NCN/TN and NPN/TN values increased to a larger extent in frozen-stored Kashkaval samples with shorter aging time. Enhanced proteolysis was observed during ripening of thawed Kashkaval cheese. There was greater accumulation of noncasein nitrogen in thawed Kashkaval samples compared to the control samples. The enhanced proteolysis during ripening of thawed Kashkaval cheese resulted in larger amounts of high and medium molecular weight peptides and lower amounts of low molecular weight peptides and free amino acids as compared to controls. PMID:16091941

Simov, Zhelyazko I; Ivanov, Galin Y



Identification of a surface protective antigen, CSP of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus.  


Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (Streptococcus zooepidemicus, SEZ) is an important pathogen associated with opportunistic infections of a wide range of species, including horses, pigs and humans. The absence of suitable vaccine confounds the control of SEZ infection. Cell surface protein (CSP) has been identified as an immunogenic protein in the previous study but its protective efficacy is not clear. In the present study, the purified recombinant CSP could elicit a significant humoral antibody response and could confer significant protection against challenge with lethal dose of SEZ in mice model. CSP could adhere to the HEp-2 cells confirmed by flow cytometry and inhibit adherence of SEZ to HEp-2 cells in an adherence inhibition assay. In addition, real-time PCR demonstrated that CSP was induced in vivo following infection of mice with SEZ. Our findings suggest that CSP may play a potential role in the pathogenesis of SEZ and could be a target for the development of a novel subunit vaccine against SEZ infection. PMID:23306366

Fu, Qiang; Wei, Zigong; Chen, Yaosheng; Xiao, Pingping; Lu, Zhaohui; Liu, Xiaohong



Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in several herds of Arctic Caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp.).  


Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a common pathogen in domestic ruminants that causes granulomatous inflammation of the small intestine leading to emaciation and wasting. Clinical disease (Johne's disease) is also reported for several wild ruminant species. Between 2007 and 2009 we collected 561 fecal samples from caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp.) representing 10 herds of migratory caribou, two herds of caribou from Greenland, and three populations of boreal woodland caribou. Feces were tested for MAP by bacterial culture and PCR targeting the IS900 insertion sequence. In total, 31 samples from eight different populations representing all three ecotypes were found positive for MAP by PCR, with one sample from the Rivičre-aux-Feuilles herd also being culture positive for the type II (cattle) strain. The proportion of positive animals was particularly high in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd in Greenland, and Rivičre-aux-Feuilles and Rivič re-George herds in northeastern Canada (23.4, 11.5, and 10.0%, respectively). Our results indicate that MAP is present in several caribou herds of different ecotypes in northern Canada and Greenland and that MAP circulates within wildlife populations that do not have ongoing contact with domestic livestock. The epidemiology, pathogenicity, and effects on the health of caribou in northern ecosystems remain unknown. PMID:23060493

Forde, Taya; Orsel, Karin; De Buck, Jeroen; Côté, Steeve D; Cuyler, Christine; Davison, Tracy; Elkin, Brett; Kelly, Allicia; Kienzler, Martin; Popko, Richard; Taillon, Joëlle; Veitch, Alasdair; Kutz, Susan



Genotypic variation of the glucosinolate profile in pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).  


Thirteen different pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) cultivars were characterized regarding their glucosinolate profile analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS. The identified glucosinolates were subjected to principal component analysis, and three distinct groups of pak choi sprouts were identified. Group differences were marked mainly by variations in the aliphatic glucosinolate profile such as differing levels of 3-butenyl glucosinolate and 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl glucosinolate as well as by their varying proportional ratios. In addition, the three groups of pak choi sprouts varied by the presence or absence of 2-hydroxy-4-pentenyl glucosinolate and in level and composition of butyl glucosinolates. This classification is reflected by relative mRNA expression level of 2-oxoacid-dependent dioxygenase. As in sprouts, the major glucosinolates in mature leaves were found to be the aliphatic glucosinolates. However, unlike in sprouts, an additional aliphatic glucosinolate, 5-methylsulfinylpentyl glucosinolate, was detected as characteristic ontogenetic variation in mature leaves in 12 of the 13 pak choi cultivars analyzed. PMID:23350944

Wiesner, Melanie; Zrenner, Rita; Krumbein, Angelika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Schreiner, Monika



Characterization of a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) die-off on the Handford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site contains one of the few remaining contiguous areas of shrub-steppe habitat left in Washington State. This habitat is home to many native plant and wildlife species, some of which are threatened with extinction or are unique to the Site. The importance of the Hanford Site increases as other lands surrounding the Site are developed, and these native species and habitats are lost. Stands of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) on the Site are a particularly important component of shrub-steppe habitat, because a number of wildlife require big sagebrush for food and cover. Since 1993, researchers and field biologists have made anecdotal observations of dying and declining sagebrush in stands of shrubs near the 100 Areas. This study was initiated to delineate and document the general boundary where sagebrush stands appear to be declining. We mapped the areal extent of the die-off using a global positioning system and found that the central portion of the die-off encompasses 280 hectares. Shrub stand defoliation was estimated to be near or greater than 80% in this area. The remainder of the die-off area exhibits varying mixtures of completely defoliated, partially defoliated, and healthy-looking stands. Declining sagebrush stands comprise a total of 1776 hectares.

Cardenas, A.; Lewinsohn, J.; Auger, C.; Downs, J.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Burrows, R.



Midgut glycosidases activities in monophagous larvae of Apollo butterfly, Parnassius apollo ssp. frankenbergeri.  


Parnassius apollo (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) declines on numerous localities all over Europe. Its local subspecies frankenbergeri, inhabiting the Pieniny Mts (southern Poland) and successfully recovered from extinction, is monophagous in larval stage. In natural conditions, it completes development on the orpine Sedum telephium ssp. maximum. Since proper quality and quantity of necessary nutritional compounds of the food plant ensure developmental success, the digestive processes in the insect midgut should reflect adaptation to a specific food source. The paper presents, for the first time, the activity of detected glycolytic enzymes in midgut tissue and liquid gut contents of the L4 and L5 instars of P. apollo larvae. alpha-Amylase plays the main role in utilization of carbohydrates, contrary to cellulase activity. Saccharase seems to be the main disaccharidase, and high activity of beta-glycosidase enables hydrolysis of the plant glycosides. Trehalase activity was unexpectedly low and comparable to those of cellobiase and lactase. alpha-Amylolytic and other glycolytic activities indicate that larvae utilize starch and other carbohydrate compounds as energy sources. Possible use of some plant allelochemicals as energy sources by Apollo larvae is discussed. PMID:17027637

Nakonieczny, Miros?aw; Michalczyk, Katarzyna; Kedziorski, Andrzej



Curated genome annotation of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica and comparative genome analysis with Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

We present here the annotation of the complete genome of rice Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cultivar Nipponbare. All functional annotations for proteins and non-protein-coding RNA (npRNA) candidates were manually curated. Functions were identified or inferred in 19,969 (70%) of the proteins, and 131 possible npRNAs (including 58 antisense transcripts) were found. Almost 5000 annotated protein-coding genes were found to be disrupted in insertional mutant lines, which will accelerate future experimental validation of the annotations. The rice loci were determined by using cDNA sequences obtained from rice and other representative cereals. Our conservative estimate based on these loci and an extrapolation suggested that the gene number of rice is ?32,000, which is smaller than previous estimates. We conducted comparative analyses between rice and Arabidopsis thaliana and found that both genomes possessed several lineage-specific genes, which might account for the observed differences between these species, while they had similar sets of predicted functional domains among the protein sequences. A system to control translational efficiency seems to be conserved across large evolutionary distances. Moreover, the evolutionary process of protein-coding genes was examined. Our results suggest that natural selection may have played a role for duplicated genes in both species, so that duplication was suppressed or favored in a manner that depended on the function of a gene.

Itoh, Takeshi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Barrero, Roberto A.; Yamasaki, Chisato; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Hilton, Phillip B.; Antonio, Baltazar A.; Aono, Hideo; Apweiler, Rolf; Bruskiewich, Richard; Bureau, Thomas; Burr, Frances; Costa de Oliveira, Antonio; Fuks, Galina; Habara, Takuya; Haberer, Georg; Han, Bin; Harada, Erimi; Hiraki, Aiko T.; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Hoen, Douglas; Hokari, Hiroki; Hosokawa, Satomi; Hsing, Yue; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Imanishi, Tadashi; Ito, Yukiyo; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Kanno, Masako; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Toshiyuki; Kawashima, Hiroaki; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Komatsu, Setsuko; Koyanagi, Kanako O.; Kubooka, Hiromi; Lieberherr, Damien; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Lonsdale, David; Matsumoto, Takashi; Matsuya, Akihiro; McCombie, W. Richard; Messing, Joachim; Miyao, Akio; Mulder, Nicola; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Nam, Jongmin; Namiki, Nobukazu; Numa, Hisataka; Nurimoto, Shin; O'Donovan, Claire; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Okido, Toshihisa; OOta, Satoshi; Osato, Naoki; Palmer, Lance E.; Quetier, Francis; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Saichi, Naomi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Sakai, Yasumichi; Sakata, Katsumi; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Sato, Fumihiko; Sato, Yoshiharu; Schoof, Heiko; Seki, Motoaki; Shibata, Michie; Shimizu, Yuji; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Shinso, Yuji; Singh, Nagendra K.; Smith-White, Brian; Takeda, Jun-ichi; Tanino, Motohiko; Tatusova, Tatiana; Thongjuea, Supat; Todokoro, Fusano; Tsugane, Mika; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Vanavichit, Apichart; Wang, Aihui; Wing, Rod A.; Yamaguchi, Kaori; Yamamoto, Mayu; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Yu, Yeisoo; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Qiang; Higo, Kenichi; Burr, Benjamin; Gojobori, Takashi; Sasaki, Takuji



Retrogenes in Rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) Exhibit Correlated Expression with Their Source Genes  

PubMed Central

Gene duplication occurs by either DNA- or RNA-based processes; the latter duplicates single genes via retroposition of messenger RNA. The expression of a retroposed gene copy (retrocopy) is expected to be uncorrelated with its source gene because upstream promoter regions are usually not part of the retroposition process. In contrast, DNA-based duplication often encompasses both the coding and the intergenic (promoter) regions; hence, expression is often correlated, at least initially, between DNA-based duplicates. In this study, we identified 150 retrocopies in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp japonica), most of which represent ancient retroposition events. We measured their expression from high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq) data generated from seven tissues. At least 66% of the retrocopies were expressed but at lower levels than their source genes. However, the tissue specificity of retrogenes was similar to their source genes, and expression between retrocopies and source genes was correlated across tissues. The level of correlation was similar between RNA- and DNA-based duplicates, and they decreased over time at statistically indistinguishable rates. We extended these observations to previously identified retrocopies in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting they may be general features of the process of retention of plant retrogenes.

Sakai, Hiroaki; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Wakimoto, Hironobu; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoh, Takeshi; Gaut, Brandon S.



Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 Protects against Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Permeability in Rats  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects such as erosion and increased permeability are common during the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Our objective was to assess whether Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 protects against NSAID-induced GI side effects in a rat model. A total of 120 male Wistar rats were allocated into groups designated as control, NSAID, and probiotic. The NSAID and probiotic groups were challenged with indomethacin (10?mg/kg?1; single dose). The probiotic group was also supplemented daily with 1010?CFU of B. lactis 420 for seven days prior to the indomethacin administration. The control group rats received no indomethacin or probiotic. The permeability of the rat intestine was analysed using carbohydrate probes and the visual damage of the rat stomach mucosa was graded according to severity. B. lactis 420 significantly reduced the indomethacin-induced increase in stomach permeability. However, the protective effect on the visual mucosal damage was not significant. The incidence of severe NSAID-induced lesions was, nevertheless, reduced from 50% to 33% with the probiotic treatment. To conclude, the B. lactis 420 supplementation protected the rats from an NSAID-induced increase in stomach permeability and may reduce the formation of more serious GI mucosal damage and/or enhance the recovery rate of the stomach mucosa.

Lyra, Anna; Saarinen, Markku; Putaala, Heli; Olli, Kaisa; Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Madetoja, Mari; Tiihonen, Kirsti



Development of genotype-independent regeneration system for transformation of rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica).  


Rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica) is an important economic crop in many countries. Although a variety of conventional methods have been developed to improve this plant, manipulation by genetic engineering is still complicated. We have established a system of multiple shoot regeneration from rice shoot apical meristem. By use of MS medium containing 4 mg L(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ) multiple shoots were successfully developed directly from the meristem without an intervening callus stage. All rice cultivars tested responded well on the medium and regenerated to plantlets that were readily transferred to soil within 5-8 weeks. The tissue culture system was suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and different factors affecting transformation efficiency were investigated. Agrobacterium strain EHA105 containing the plasmid pCAMBIA1301 was used. The lowest concentration of hygromycin B in combined with either 250 mg L(-1) carbenicillin or 250 mg L(-1) cefotaxime to kill the rice shoot apical meristem was 50 mg L(-1) and carbenicillin was more effective than cefotaxime. Two-hundred micromolar acetosyringone had no effect on the efficiency of transient expression. Sonication of rice shoot apical meristem for 10 s during bacterial immersion increased transient GUS expression in three-day co-cultivated seedlings. The gus gene was found to be integrated into the genome of the T(0) transformant plantlets. PMID:17139419

Yookongkaew, Nimnara; Srivatanakul, Methinee; Narangajavana, Jarunya



Two intramolecular isopeptide bonds are identified in the crystal structure of the Streptococcus gordonii SspB C-terminal domain  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus gordonii is a primary colonizer, involved in the formation of dental plaque. This bacterium expresses several surface proteins. One of them is the adhesin SspB, which is a member of the Antigen I/II family of proteins. SspB is a large multi-domain protein that has interactions with surface molecules on other bacteria and on host cells, and is thus a key factor in the formation of biofilms. Here, we report the crystal structure of a truncated form of the SspB C-terminal domain, solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion to 1.5 Ĺ resolution. The structure represents the first of a C-terminal domain from a streptococcal Antigen I/II protein and is comprised of two structurally related ?-sandwich domains, C2 and C3, both with a Ca2+ ion bound in equivalent positions. In each of the domains, a covalent isopeptide bond is observed between a lysine and an asparagine, a feature that is believed to be a common stabilization mechanism in gram positive surface proteins. S. gordonii biofilms contain attachment sites for the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and the SspB C-terminal domain has been shown to have one such recognition motif, the SspB adherence region. The motif protrudes from the protein, and serves as a handle for attachment. The structure suggests several additional putative binding surfaces, and other binding clefts may be created when the full-length protein is folded.

Forsgren, Nina; Lamont, Richard J; Persson, Karina



[From farm to fork--Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) as zoonotic agent?].  


Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of the paratuberculosis (Para Tb) in ruminants. In addition, this pathogen has been suspected to be implicated in the pathogenesis of Morbus Crohn disease (MC), causing chronic inflammatory intestine changes of humans. The participation of MAP in this illness is discussed intensively and has very contradictory opinions. On the one hand several times succeeded in proving MAP DNA in changed human tissues as well as, in recent time, the bacteria has been isolated from patient's blood. On the other hand there are many publications which support the opposite opinion. In critical evaluation of already available data, therefore the hypothesis can be formulated that MAP could possibly take part in the MC of humans. The reliable verification of this hypothesis will only be possible, if the diagnostic procedures can be refined upon the substantial deficit concerning the sensitivity and/or specificity of the diagnostic methods. In addition, till now there is lack of optimized statistically case control studies. The conceivable transmission of the bacteria to humans by the direct animal contact has been considered as possible vector, furthermore, MAP has been detected in pasteurised milk and other food of animal origin. The prevalence data, usually estimated by ELISA for milk cattle stock show over 80% prevalence in many counties of the Federal Republic of Germany with an individual case prevalence ranging between 1% and 17% in different stocks. Comparable data are present also from other countries as well as for small ruminants. MAP has been concerned as a global problem, moreover the high spreading rate of MAP in wild animal populations as well as the considerable ability of the bacteria to survive in different stages of the infectious- and contamination-cycle, which might hardly be broken through. Thus it requires intensive research efforts for the development of the methodical diagnostic process as basis for valid epidemiological investigations of animals, humans and food. PMID:16206925

Bülte, Michael; Schönenbrücher, Holger; Abdulmawjood, Amir


A high-resolution karyotype of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis revealed by pachytene analysis and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular cytogenetic map of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, 2 n=20) was constructed based on the 4?-6-diamino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride-stained mitotic metaphase and pachytene chromosomes and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (McFISH), using three repetitive DNA sequences, 5S rDNA, 45S rDNA, and C11-350H. The lengths of mitotic metaphase chromosomes ranged from 1.46 ?m to 3.30 ?m. Five 45S and three 5S

Dal-Hoe Koo; Prikshit Plaha; Yong Pyo Lim; Yoonkang Hur; Jae-Wook Bang



Autumn fertilization of Quercus ilex ssp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. nursery seedlings: effects on morpho-physiology and field performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Background\\u000a   The Holm oak (Quercus ilex ssp. ballota [Desf.] Samp.) is an evergreen tree widely distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Forest restoration programs using\\u000a this species have enjoyed only limited success, and knowledge concerning the effect of fertilization on plant quality and\\u000a post-transplantation response is sparse.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • Methods\\u000a    We assessed the effect of autumn fertilization using different

Enrique Andivia; Manuel Fernández; Javier Vázquez-Piqué



Partial characterization and dynamics of synthesis of high molecular mass exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exopolysaccharide (EPS) preparations from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) strains LBB.B26 and LBB.B332 and Streptococcus thermophilus strains LBB.T54 and LBB.T6V were characterized using ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. All four preparations\\u000a contained a neutral EPS with molecular mass in the range of 1.3?1.6 × 106 Da (HMM-EPS). The EPS preparations from the two L. bulgaricus strains also contained an acidic low molecular

Z. L. Urshev; Z. P. Dimitrov; N. S. Fatchikova; I. G. Petrova; D. I. Ishlimova



Molecular identification of a new powdery mildew resistance gene on chromosome 2BS from Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum.  


Powdery mildew caused by the fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a destructive foliar disease on wheat in many regions of the world. Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum (2n=4x=28) shows particular promises as a donor source of useful genetic variation for several traits, including disease resistances that could be introgressed to cultivated wheats. Accession MG5323, resistant to powdery mildew, was crossed to the susceptible durum cultivar Latino and a set of 122 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was produced. F? and F? progenies and the RIL population were tested with one isolate of Blumeria graminis and data obtained indicated that a single dominant gene, temporarily designated Ml5323, controlled resistance at the seedling stage. Molecular markers were used to characterize and map the powdery mildew resistance gene. Twelve microsatellite markers were linked to the resistance gene, and among them, EST-SSR CA695634 was tightly linked to the resistance gene, which was assigned to chromosome arm 2BS and physically mapped to the gene rich region of fragment length (FL) 0.84-1.00. An allelism test showed that the Ml5323 gene and the resistant gene Pm26 of ssp. dicoccoides localized in the same bin, are not allelic and tightly linked. PMID:23017904

Piarulli, Luciana; Gadaleta, Agata; Mangini, Giacomo; Signorile, Massimo Antonio; Pasquini, Marina; Blanco, Antonio; Simeone, Rosanna



Actinobacillus equuli ssp. haemolyticus in a semi-occlusively treated horse bite wound in a 2-year-old girl.  


We report on the isolation of Actinobacillus equuli ssp. haemolyticus from wound smears of a 2-year-old girl who was admitted to the hospital due to partial amputation of the distal phalanx of her right middle finger caused by a horse bite. A. equuli typically causes diseases in horses and only very few reports describing human infections (mostly associated with wounds) are available in the literature. Interestingly, although the bacteria could be found in consecutive samples taken at different points in time, there were no signs of advancing infection or inflammation. Moreover, the fingertip regenerated after 74 days under semi-occlusive dressings with very pleasant results. For strain identification two automated systems were employed producing discrepant results: VITEK 2 described the pathogens as Pasteurella pneumotropica while MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed A. equuli. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA gene finally confirmed A. equuli ssp. haemolyticus as the isolated strain. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to the CLSI criteria for Pasteurella spp. Additionally we conducted a test according to the EUCAST criteria. PMID:24068980

Schröttner, Percy; Schultz, Jurek; Rudolph, Wolfram; Gunzer, Florian; Thürmer, Alexander; Fitze, Guido; Jacobs, Enno



The Genetic Basis of Zinc Tolerance in the Metallophyte Arabidopsis halleri ssp. halleri (Brassicaceae): An Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci  

PubMed Central

The species Arabidopsis halleri, an emerging model for the study of heavy metal tolerance and accumulation in plants, has evolved a high level of constitutive zinc tolerance. Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) was used to investigate the genetic architecture of zinc tolerance in this species. A first-generation backcross progeny of A. halleri ssp. halleri from a highly contaminated industrial site and its nontolerant relative A. lyrata ssp. petraea was produced and used for QTL mapping of zinc tolerance. A genetic map covering most of the A. halleri genome was constructed using 85 markers. Among these markers, 65 were anchored in A. thaliana and revealed high synteny with other Arabidopsis genomes. Three QTL of comparable magnitude on three different linkage groups were identified. At all QTL positions zinc tolerance was enhanced by A. halleri alleles, indicating directional selection for higher zinc tolerance in this species. The two-LOD support intervals associated with these QTL cover 24, 4, and 13 cM. The importance of each of these three regions is emphasized by their colocalization with HMA4, MTP1-A, and MTP1-B, respectively, three genes well known to be involved in metal homeostasis and tolerance in plants.

Willems, Glenda; Drager, Dorthe B.; Courbot, Mikael; Gode, Cecile; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre



A comparison of isozyme and quantitative genetic variation in Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia by F{sub ST}  

SciTech Connect

We employed F-statistics to analyze quantitative and isozyme variation among five populations of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, a wind-pollinated outcrossing conifer with wide and continuous distribution in west North America. Estimates of population differentiation (F{sub ST}) for six quantitative traits were compared with the overall estimate of the differentiation (F*{sub ST}) from 19 isozymes that tested neutral to examine whether similar evolutionary processes were involved in morphological and isozyme differentiation. While the F{sub ST} estimates for specific gravity, stem diameter, stem height and branch length were significantly greater than the F*{sub ST} estimate, as judged from the 95% confidence intervals by bootstrapping, the F{sub ST} estimates for branch angle and branch diameter were indistinguishable from the F*{sub ST} estimate. Differentiation in stem height and stem diameter might reflect the inherent adaptation of the populations for rapid growth to escape suppression by neighboring plants during establishment and to regional differences in photoperiod, precipitation and temperature. In contrast, divergences in wood specific gravity and branch length might be correlated responses to population differentiation in stem growth. Possible bias in the estimation of F{sub ST} due to Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (F{sub IS} {ne} 0), linkage disequilibrium, maternal effects and nonadditive genetic effects was discussed with special reference to P. contorta ssp. latifolia. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, F.C. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Yanchuk, A.D. [British Columbia Ministry of Forests (Canada)



'Lysobacter enzymogenes ssp. cookii ' Christensen 1978 should be recognized as an independent species, Lysobacter cookii sp. nov.  


'Lysobacter enzymogenes ssp. cookii' was proposed by Christensen and Cook in 1978; however, this subspecies name has not been cited in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and therefore the nomenclature has not been validated. In our genetic approach to clarify the relationships of the designated type strain of 'L. enzymogenes ssp. cookii' PAGU 1119 (GenBank accession number ATCC29488) within the genus Lysobacter revealed that the strain was closely related to Lysobacter capsiciYC5194(T) (99.4%) rather than L. enzymogenesDSM2043(T) (97.2%). The value for whole genome DNA-DNA relatedness between strain PAGU 1119 and L. enzymogenes DSM 2043(T) or L. capsiciYC5194(T) was 20.7-26.1% or 60.9-62.0%, respectively. Although PAGU 1119 and L. capsiciYC5194(T) showed relatively high DNA relationships, the fatty acid profiles and some phenotypic characteristics were different, and we concluded that PAGU 1119 should be placed in a new species. We therefore propose a new species with the name Lysobacter cookii sp. nov. The type strain is PAGU 1119(T) (ATCC29488). PMID:19659731

Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Tomida, Junko; Morita, Yuji; Naka, Takashi; Mizuno, Seiko; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi



Effect of organic matter additions on uptake of weathered DDT by Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo cv. Howden.  


Greenhouse studies were conducted to assess the impact of organic matter additions on plant uptake of DDT [2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane] from weathered soil. Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo cv. Howden pumpkins were grown in 100 g of DDT contaminated soil ([DDT] - 1100 ng/g) mixed with equal volumes of either clean soil, perlite, vermiculite, peat, potting soil, or granular activated carbon (GAC) to give total organic carbon contents of 2.4%, 2.5%, 2.6%, 11.5%, 12.2%, and 27.3%, respectively. As in other studies, root DDT concentrations were significantly lower in soils with high organic matter. Root bioaccumulation factors (BAF = [DDT]root/[DDT]soil) approximated this trend. Root concentrations correlated with organic matter concentrations and not with soil DDT concentrations. Conversely, shoot DDT concentrations, shoot BAFs and translocation factors (TLF = BAF(shoot)/BAF(root)) were not significantly different between treatment groups, except for plants grown in GAC/DDT soil. This suggests that amendments with a range of organic matter contents may be added to improve soil conditions at industrial sites without significant adverse effects on phytoextraction potential of C. pepo ssp. pepo. PMID:20734916

Lunney, Alissa I; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A


Actinobacillus equuli ssp. haemolyticus in a semi-occlusively treated horse bite wound in a 2-year-old girl  

PubMed Central

We report on the isolation of Actinobacillus equuli ssp. haemolyticus from wound smears of a 2-year-old girl who was admitted to the hospital due to partial amputation of the distal phalanx of her right middle finger caused by a horse bite. A. equuli typically causes diseases in horses and only very few reports describing human infections (mostly associated with wounds) are available in the literature. Interestingly, although the bacteria could be found in consecutive samples taken at different points in time, there were no signs of advancing infection or inflammation. Moreover, the fingertip regenerated after 74 days under semi-occlusive dressings with very pleasant results. For strain identification two automated systems were employed producing discrepant results: VITEK 2 described the pathogens as Pasteurella pneumotropica while MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed A. equuli. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA gene finally confirmed A. equuli ssp. haemolyticus as the isolated strain. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to the CLSI criteria for Pasteurella spp. Additionally we conducted a test according to the EUCAST criteria.

Schrottner, Percy; Schultz, Jurek; Rudolph, Wolfram; Gunzer, Florian; Thurmer, Alexander; Fitze, Guido; Jacobs, Enno



Mapping QTLs for mineral accumulation and shoot dry biomass under different Zn nutritional conditions in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetables in China. Genetic dissection of leaf mineral accumulation and tolerance to Zn stress is important for the improvement of the nutritional quality of Chinese cabbage by breeding. A mapping population with 183 doubled haploid (DH) lines was used to study the genetics of mineral accumulation and

Jian Wu; Yu-Xiang Yuan; Xiao-Wei Zhang; Xiaofei Song; Ying Li; Xiaonan Li; Rifei Sun; Maarten Koornneef; Mark G. M. Aarts; Xiao-Wu Wang



Growth and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus in batch and membrane bioreactor: influence of yeast extract and Tryptone enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichment of the medium with yeast extract (20 g.l ) and Tryptone (40 g.l ) increased the growth of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosusand its production of lactic acid in both batch and cell-recycle cultures without affecting glucose consumption and the lactic acid production rate.

A. Olmos-Dichara; F. Ampe; J.-L. Uribelarrea; A. Pareilleux; G. Goma



Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties.  


Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:23579100

Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure



A survey of fruit-feeding insects and their parasitoids occurring on wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata, in the Eastern Cape of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits of wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Cif., were collected in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, during 2003–2005 to quantify levels of fruit-infesting pests and their parasitoids. Two species of Tephritidae, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) and B. biguttula (Bezzi), were the most abundant insects recovered and were reared from most samples. Fruit infestation rates by the

Nolwazi Mkize; Kim A. Hoelmer; Martin H. Villet



Fumigant properties of physical preparations from mountain big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. v aseyana (Rydb.) beetle for stored grain insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapors released from foliage of mountain big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle, through a patented process, were hypothesized to have an insecticidal time of action (24h or less after time of exposure) similar to the fumigant methyl bromide. Patented preparations were more effective from plants harvested from a relatively wet site in mid to late summer (5

Florence V. Dunkel; L. Joseph Sears



Symbiont nitrogenase, alder growth, and soil nitrate response to phosphorus addition in alder ( Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) wetlands of the Adirondack Mountains, New York State, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speckled alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) is a characteristic species of scrub-shrub 1-type wetlands, the second most common wetland type in major watersheds of the Adirondack Mountains in New York State. Speckled alder is an actinorhizal nitrogen fixer that relies heavily on N2 over soil N and fixes substantial amounts of nitrogen in wetlands, resulting in little vegetation processing of

Kemal Gökkaya; Todd M. Hurd; Dudley J. Raynal




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of this study was to understand protein chemistry behind gluten quality of spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta), to classify European spelt cultivars based on gluten quality, and to compare their protein composition to modern wheat. Gluten quality of two sets of 25 spelt cultivars was studi...


Survival, acid and bile tolerance, and surface hydrophobicity of microencapsulated B. animalis ssp. lactis Bb12 during storage at room temperature.  


Survival, acid and bile tolerance, and surface hydrophobicity of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12 were studied during storage at room temperature (25 °C) at low water activity (0.07, 0.1, and 0.2). Two types of alginate-based systems were prepared with and without mannitol as microencapsulant of B. animalis ssp. lactis Bb12. Formation of gel beads containing cells was achieved by dropping each emulsion into CaCl(2) solution; then, the beads were freeze dried. Survival, acid tolerance during 2-h exposure in de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) broth at pH 2.0, bile tolerance during 8-h exposure in MRS broth containing taurocholic acid at pH 5.8, and retention of surface hydrophobicity were determined after freeze drying and during storage. The result showed that neither alginate nor alginate-mannitol formulation was effective in protecting B. animalis ssp. lactis Bb12 during freezing and freeze drying. The viability in alginate-mannitol and alginate formulations after freeze drying was 6.61 and 6.34 log CFU/g, respectively. Storage at low a(w) improved survival, acid tolerance, bile tolerance, and surface hydrophobicity retention of microencapsulated B. animalis ssp. lactis Bb12 when compared with controlled storage in an aluminum foil (with a(w) of 0.38 and 0.40 for alginate-mannitol and alginate formulations, respectively). Alginate mannitol was more effective than the alginate system during a short period of storage, but its effectiveness decreased during a long period of storage (80% survival at 10 wk). Nevertheless, storage of microencapsulated B. animalis ssp. lactis Bb12 in an aluminum foil without a(w) adjustment during 10 wk at room temperature was not effective (survival was 64% to 65%). PMID:22416710

Dianawati, Dianawati; Shah, Nagendra P


Effects of gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine, secoiridoids from gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra), on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts.  


Wound healing properties of Gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra) extract and its main constituents, gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine (compounds 1-3, respectively) were evaluated by comparison with dexpanthenol on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts. The extract was also analyzed by HPLC to quantify its constituents. Chicken embryonic fibroblasts from fertilized eggs were incubated with the plant extract and its constituents, compounds 1-3. Using microscopy, mitotic ability, morphological changes and collagen production in the cultured fibroblasts were evaluated as parameters. Wound healing activity of Gentian seems to be mainly due to the increase in the stimulation of collagen production and the mitotic activity by compounds 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.005 in all cases). All three compounds also exhibited cytoprotective effects, which may cause a synergism in terms of wound healing activity of Gentian. The findings demonstrated the wound healing activity of Gentian, which has previously been based only on ethnomedical data. PMID:16557467

Oztürk, Nilgün; Korkmaz, Seval; Oztürk, Yusuf; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can



Enhanced glucosinolates in root exudates of Brassica rapa ssp. rapa mediated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate.  


Elicitation studies with salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) inducing a targeted rhizosecretion of high levels of anticarcinogenic glucosinolates in Brassica rapa ssp. rapa plants were conducted. Elicitor applications not only led to an accumulation of individual indole glucosinolates and the aromatic 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate in the turnip organs but also in turnip root exudates. This indicates an extended systemic response, which comprises the phyllosphere with all aboveground plant organs and the rhizosphere including the belowground root system and also root exudates. Both elicitor applications induced a doubling in 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate in root exudates, whereas application of MJ enhanced rhizosecreted indole glucosinolates up to 4-fold. In addition, the time course study revealed that maximal elicitation was observed on the 10th day of SA and MJ treatment. This study may provide an essential contribution using these glucosinolates as bioactive additives in functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:21265537

Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna



The isolation of bioactive flavonoids from Jacaranda obtusifolia H. B. K. ssp. rhombifolia (G. F. W. Meijer) Gentry.  


The paper describes the bioassay-guided isolation, structure elucidation and anticancer evaluation of five flavonoids (-)-liquiritigenin (1), (-)-neoliquiritin (2), isoliquiritigenin (3), isoliquiritin (4) and formononetin (5) from the twigs of Jacaranda obtusifolia H. B. K. ssp. rhombifolia (G. F. W. Meijer) Gentry. The structures were elucidated based on ąH, ąłC NMR, comprehensive 2D NMR, MS analyses and comparison with previously reported spectral data. Compounds 1 and 3 were demonstrated to be inhibitory in vitro against NCI-H187 (small cell lung cancer) with IC?? values of 30.1 and 16.6 ?g mL?ą, respectively. The isolates were non-cytotoxic to Vero cells (African green monkey kidney). PMID:22750816

Khamsan, Sorachai; Liawruangrath, Saisunee; Teerawutkulrag, Aphiwat; Pyne, Stephen G; Garson, Mary J; Liawruangrath, Boonsom



Sequence of a new DR12 allele with two silent mutations that affect PCR-SSP typing.  


A new HLA-DR12 allele has been identified in a European Caucasoid bone marrow donor. The DRB1*12012 allele differs from DRB1*12011 by two silent substitutions at codons 72 and 78, two polymorphic positions used for DNA subtyping of the DR12 serotype. The co-occurence of the two nucleotide changes is unique to the DR12 group and results in a new PCR-SSP typing pattern. The complete HLA type of the donor is A24, A68; B55, B61; Cw*01, Cw*0304; DRB1*12012, DRB1*1402; DRB3*0101, DRB3*0202; DQB1*0301. HLA-DRB1*12012 is a rare allele as it occurs in < 0.2% of DR12 donors. PMID:12028552

Zanone, R; Bettens, F; Tiercy, J-M



Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu


Functional characteristics of a tiny but specialized olfactory system: olfactory receptor neurons of carrot psyllids (Homoptera: Triozidae).  


With only approximately 50 olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis (Homoptera: Psylloidea) may have the smallest olfactory system described in adult Neopteran insects. Using single sensillum recordings (SSR) and gas chromatograph-linked SSR, we characterized 4 olfactory sensilla forming a distinct morphological type, which together house approximately 25% of all ORNs. We recorded responses to extracts and single constituents from Daucus carota ssp. sativus, from the conifers Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, and Juniperus communis, as well as from male and female T. apicalis. Receptor neurons were highly selective; only 9 compounds in total elicited repeatable responses, and each neuron responded to at most 3 individual compounds. Chemical profiles of carrot and conifers showed significant overlap, with 4 out of 9 electrophysiologically active compounds occurring in more than one type of extract, but a carrot-specific compound elicited the most repeated responses. We identified 4 tentative neuron classes and found a rather high degree of neuronal redundancy, with 1 neuron class present in 3 and another present in all 4 of the sensilla, respectively. PMID:18653644

Kristoffersen, Lina; Larsson, Mattias C; Anderbrant, Olle



Cloning and sequence analysis of the X-Prolyl-dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase gene (pepX) from Lactobacillus delbrückii ssp. lactis DSM7290  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrückii ssp. lactis DSM7290 possesses an X-prolyl-dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase, designated PepX, which catalyses the hydrolytic removal of N-terminal dipeptidyl residues from peptides containing proline in the penultimate position. Using the specific substrate L-Ala-L-Pro-p-nitroanilide, PepX was purified by a four-step procedure including ammonium sulphate fractionation, hydrophobic interaction chromotography, ion exchange chromotography, and affinity chromotography. The N-terminus of the purified protein was sequenced.

Elke Christel Meyer-Barton; Jiirgen Robert Klein; Mohamed Imam; Roland Plapp



Regeneration of Oxalis triangularis ssp. triangularis from suspension cells cultured in three different systems (solid, liquid-flask and bioreactor cultures)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In attemps to establish in vitro cultures of Oxalis triangularis ssp. Triangularis, the explants of leaves, petioles, bulb scales and suspension cells derived from regenerated bulbs were examined using solid\\u000a (petri dish), liquid-flask and bioreactor cultures. Only bulb-derived suspension cells were able to regenerate in all culture\\u000a systems. The liquid-flask and bioreactor cultures supported organogenesis and yielded larger amount of

W.-L. Teng; Y. W. Ngai



Estimation of leaf number and leaf area of hydroponic pak-choi plants ( Brassica campestns ssp, chinensis ) using growing degree-days  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature is a principal environmental factor that directly affects the growth and timing of appearance for crop leaves.\\u000a To estimate the leaf number and leaf area of ‘Seoul’ pak-choi plants (Brassica campestns ssp.chinensis), we applied the concept of growing degree-days GDD=(Tavg-Tbase) × days, where Tavg, Tbase and days were the daily average air temperature, base temperature, and days after transplanting,

Young Yeol Cho; Jung Eek Son



Generalized model of the effect of pH on lactate fermentation and citrate bioconversion in Lactococcus lactis ssp. Lactis biovar. diacetylactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aroma-imparting mesophilic lactic starter (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis) was studied in batch culture in medium with 50 g·l-1 lactose and 2 g·l-1 citrate. The effect of pH on the physiology of growth and the production of flavour compounds was investigated with a mathematical model. The specific rates of growth and of lactose fermentation obeyed a law of

R. Cachon; C. Diviés



Generalized model of the effect of pH on lactate fermentation and citrate bioconversion in Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aroma-imparting mesophilic lactic starter ( Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis) was studied in batch culture in medium with 50?g·l –-1 lactose and 2?g·l –-1 citrate. The effect of pH on the physiology of growth and the production of flavour compounds was investigated with a mathematical model. The specific rates of growth and of lactose fermentation obeyed a law

R. Cachon; C. Divičs



Mapping and cloning of FAD2 gene to develop allele-specific PCR for oleic acid in spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously identified QTL for oleic acid content observed in an F2 population from the Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera cross Jo4002 × Jo4072 (a high-oleic-acid individual) was mapped more precisely by adding markers to the linkage group which harbours the locus. In addition, the fad2 gene, which is known to encode the 18:1 desaturase in Arabidopsis, was mapped in Brassica,

Pirjo Tanhuanpää; Juha Vilkki; Mauno Vihinen



Development of PCR-based chloroplast DNA markers that characterize domesticated cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. unguiculata ) and highlight its crop-weed complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, Vaillancourt and Weeden discovered a very important mutation for studying cowpea evolution and domestication. A loss\\u000a of a BamHI restriction site in chloroplast DNA characterized all domesticated accessions and a few wild (Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accessions. In order to screen a larger number of accessions, primers were designed to check this mutation using PCR RFLP

Y. Feleke; R. S. Pasquet; P. Gepts



Use of the polymerase chain reaction to isolate an S-locus glycoprotein cDNA introgressed from Brassica campestris into B. napus ssp. oleifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-incompatible canola-quality Brassica napus ssp. oleifera line (W1) was generated by introgressing the S-locus from a self-incompatible B. campestris plant into the Westar cultivar. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers derived from conserved regions in S-locus glycoprotein (SLG) alleles, the central region of the active SLG gene (910) was obtained. The remaining portions of the cDNA for

Daphne R. Goring; Paul Banks; allace D. Beversdorf; Steven J. Rothstein



Vacuum infiltration transformation of non-heading Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis ) with the pinII gene and bioassay for diamondback moth resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) is a popular vegetable in Asian countries. The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), an insect with worldwide distribution, is a main pest of Brassicaceae crops and causes enormous crop losses. Transfer\\u000a of the anti-insect gene into the plant genome by transgenic technology and subsequent breeding of insect-resistant varieties\\u000a will be an

Junjie Zhang; Fan Liu; Lei Yao; Chen Luo; Qing Zhao; Yubi Huang



Influence of cryoprotectants on the viability and acidifying activity of frozen and freeze-dried cells of the novel starter strain Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis CECT 5180  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis CECT 5180 is a novel starter strain with highly desirable technological properties, selected to be used a starter culture\\u000a for the manufacture of Afuega'l Pitu cheese, a farmhouse cheese very popular in Asturias (Northern Spain). In order to optimise\\u000a biomass preservation of this strain the effect of different substances on the viability and acidifying activity of

R. Cárcoba; A. Rodríguez



Cloning and sequencing of the novel abortive infection gene abiH of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis S94  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene which encodes resistance by abortive infection (Abi+) to bacteriophage was cloned from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis S94. This gene was found to confer a reduction in efficiency of plating and plaque size for prolate-headed bacteriophage ?53 (group I of homology) and total resistance to the small isometric-headed bacteriophage ?59 (group III of homology). The cloned gene

Fabien Prévots; Marlčne Daloyau; Odile Bonin; Xavier Dumont; Sandrine Tolou



Reconstruction of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis Cry11A Endotoxin from Fragments Corresponding to Its N- and C-Moieties Restores Its Original Biological Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subtilisin hydrolyzes Cry11A endotoxin (of 70 kD) produced by Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis to fragments of 33- and 36-kD, which correspond to N- and C-terminal halves of the endotoxin molecule. Thermitase (a serine protease from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris) and insect gut proteases from Diptera and Lepidoptera exhibit the same hydrolytic effect on Cry11A. Hydrolyzates maintain high toxicity with respect to larvae

L. P. Revina; L. I. Kostina; L. A. Ganushkina; A. L. Mikhailova; I. A. Zalunin; G. G. Chestukhina



Set up of simple sequence repeat markers and first investigation of the genetic diversity of West-African watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ssp. vulgaris oleaginous type)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrullus lanatus ssp. vulgaris oleaginous type (West-African watermelon) is a crop cultivated in sub-Saharan Africa for its dried seeds reported to be rich\\u000a in nutrients. In previous studies, little polymorphism was found in watermelon—cultivated for its flesh with the use of microsatellite\\u000a (SSR) markers. Such study has never been applied to the oleaginous type until now. The objectives of the

L.-A. Minsart; I. A. Zoro bi; Y. Djč; J.-P. Baudoin; A.-L. Jacquemart; P. Bertin



Synergistic action of entomopathogenic hyphomycetes and the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. morrisoni in the infection of Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synchronous coinfection of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) with the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. morrisoni Bonnifoi & de Barjak var. tenebrionis Krieg et al. and hyphomycete Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin or Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill leads to the rapid death of 95–100% of larvae. The bacteria arrest the nutrition of insects, while the fungal\\u000a spores kill

V. Yu. Kryukov; V. P. Khodyrev; O. N. Yaroslavtseva; A. S. Kamenova; B. A. Duisembekov; V. V. Glupov



DAIRY FOODS RESEARCH PAPERS Identification and Cloning of Plasmid Deoxyribonucleic Acid Coding for Abortive Phage Infection from Streptococcus\\/actis ssp. diacety\\/actis KR21  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phage insensitivity mechanism of Streptococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis KR2 was investigated. This strain har- bored seven detectable plasmids ranging in size from 2.9 to 32 Mdaltons. Trans- formation of KR2 plasmid DNA into plasmid-free Streptococcus lactis LM0230 yielded lactose-positive transformants that were either sensitive or exhibited a re- duced sensitivity to c2 phage. The latter possessed plasmids of 23.6



Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)  

PubMed Central

Background Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide, which has experienced thousands of years in cultivation and artificial selection. The entire Chinese cabbage genome sequence, and more than forty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. The genome has undergone triplication events since its divergence from Arabidopsis thaliana (13 to 17 Mya), however a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between the two species. Arabidopsis is therefore a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Variation in the number of members in gene families due to genome triplication may contribute to the broad range of phenotypic plasticity, and increased tolerance to environmental extremes observed in Brassica species. Transcription factors are important regulators involved in plant developmental and physiological processes. The AP2/ERF proteins, one of the most important families of transcriptional regulators, play a crucial role in plant growth, and in response to biotic and abiotic stressors. Our analysis will provide resources for understanding the tolerance mechanisms in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis. Results In the present study, 291 putative AP2/ERF transcription factor proteins were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database, and compared with proteins from 15 additional species. The Chinese cabbage AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into four families, including AP2, ERF, RAV, and Soloist. The ERF family was further divided into DREB and ERF subfamilies. The AP2/ERF superfamily was subsequently divided into 15 groups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns, and interaction networks of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily were predicted and analyzed. Distribution mapping results showed AP2/ERF superfamily genes were localized on the 10 Chinese cabbage chromosomes. AP2/ERF transcription factor expression levels exhibited differences among six tissue types based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs). In the AP2/ERF superfamily, 214 orthologous genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. Orthologous gene interaction networks were constructed, and included seven CBF and four AP2 genes, primarily involved in cold regulatory pathways and ovule development, respectively. Conclusions The evolution of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage resulted from genome triplication and tandem duplications. A comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of AP2/ERF superfamily genes in Chinese cabbage is required to fully elucidate AP2/ERF, which provides us with rich resources and opportunities to understand crop stress tolerance mechanisms.



Comparison of transcriptional profiles of flavonoid genes and anthocyanin contents during fruit development of two botanical forms of Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis.  


Difference in fruit pigmentation observed between two botanical forms of Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis (form chiloensis and form patagonica) was studied through transcriptional and chemical approaches. The proportion of different anthocyanins was demonstrated to be characteristic of each botanical form, with pelargonidin 3-glucoside being the most abundant in f. patagonica fruit and cyaniding 3-glucoside as the major one in f. chiloensis fruit. Partial gene sequences of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were isolated from the native Chilean strawberry fruits, and used to design gene-specific primers in order to perform transcriptional analyses by qRT-PCR. These genes showed spatial, developmental, and genotypic associated patterns. The red fruit of f. patagonica exhibited higher transcript levels of anthocyanin-related genes and higher levels of anthocyanins compared to the barely pigmented fruit of f. chiloensis. The anthocyanin accumulation in F. chiloensis ssp. chiloensis fruits was concomitant with the particular progress of the transcriptional activity of genes involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoid pigments. The differences in anthocyanin contents, both in terms of type and quantity, between the two botanical forms of F. chiloensis ssp. chiloensis were coincident with the differential transcriptional patterns found in the anthocyanin-related genes. PMID:20800857

Salvatierra, Ariel; Pimentel, Paula; Moya-Leon, Maria Alejandra; Caligari, Peter D S; Herrera, Raul



Trichoderma sp. as a microbial suppressive agent of Sclerotium rolfsii on vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma sp. was shown to be effective in preventing the growth of the plant pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii and the consequent rotting of Beta vulgaris L., Daucus carota L., Amorphophallus campanulatus Blume and Momordica charantia L. under post-harvest conditions. It may be useful as a protecting agent during storage and transport of vegetables.

P. K. Mukherjee; K. Raghu




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We studied the form of nitrogen stored and transported by the fungal partner in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbosis. The AM fungus Glomus intraradices was cultured in association with transformed roots of Daucus carota L. in petri dishes with two compartments. [15N]-NH4Cl, [guanido-15N]arginin...


Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some plant extracts and their heat, pH and storage stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, three plant foods, namely, drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera), mint leaves (Mentha spicata) and carrot tuber (Daucus carota) were extracted with ethanol and analyzed for their antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated according to the amount of malonaldehyde (MDA) formed by the FeSO4-induced oxidation of linoleic acid and a high PUFA oil (sunflower oil)

Saeedeh Arabshahi-D; D. Vishalakshi Devi; Asna Urooj



Natural Genetic Transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes . Annual Flowering in Two Biennials, Belgian Endive and Carrot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation of Belgian endive (Cichorium intybus) and carrot (Daucus carota) by Agrobacterium rhizogenes resulted in a transformed phenotype, including annual flowering. Back- crossing of transformed (R1) endive plants produced a line that retained annual flowering in the absence of the other traits associ- ated with A. rhizogenes transformation. Annualism was correlated with the segregation of a truncated transferred DNA

M. Anis Limami; Li-Yan Sun; Corinne Douat; John Helgeson; David Tepfer



Analysis of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs in asymmetric somatic hybrids between tobacco and carrot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs have been examined by comparison of restriction enzyme patterns in asymmetric hybrid plants, resulting from the fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae), and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of Daucus carota (Umbellifereae). These somatic hybrids with normal tobacco morphology were selected as a consequence of the transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot

M. A. Smith; A. Pay; D. Dudits



Influence of temperature and edible coating on the physical and chemical parameters and sensory acceptance of fresh-cut organic carrots Influencia de la temperatura y cobertura comestible en los parámetros físicos y químicos y aceptación sensorial de las zanahorias cortadas frescas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of storage temperature and edible coating on the microbiological, physical, and chemical properties and sensory acceptance of fresh-cut organic carrots (Daucus Carota L. cv. Brasília) were investigated. The samples were diced, sanitized in sodium hypochlorite, and the excess water was drained in a centrifuge. The dry samples were then immersed in a 2% gelatin solution, packed in multilayer

Lisiane das Neves Barbosa; Renata Dias de Mello Castanho Amboni; Alcilene Rodrigues Monteiro



Pinwheel inclusions in morphogenesis: A possible alternative to induction by viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Pinwheel inclusions (PWs) were found in cells of callus tissue derived from explants of secondary phloem parenchyma of carrot(Daucus carota) storage root and grown on a basal medium containing zeatin and indoleacetic acid or coconut milk, naphthalene acetic acid, or combinations of these. Preliminary attempts to demonstrate the presence of viruses in the callus tissue failed. The possibility that

H. J. Wilson; R. M. Goodman; H. W. Israel




Microsoft Academic Search

The interactive effect of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) bioaccumulation on physiological and biochemical characteristics of carrot (Daucus carota L. var Pusa Kesar) plants grown with different levels of Cd and Zn was examined. The combined application of Cd and Zn (Cd+Zn) had synergistic and antagonistic effects at low and high concentrations, respectively, on Cd accumulations in plants, chlorophyll b,

Rajesh Kumar Sharma; Madhoolika Agrawal; Shashi Bhushan Agrawal



Quality of minimally processed carrots as affected by warm water washing and chlorination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different applications of cold and warm tap water (4 °C and 50 °C) with and without chlorination, respectively, in the washing of uncut peeled carrots (Daucus carota L.) were conducted, and their effects on sensory and microbiological properties during storage for 9 days at 4 °C were assessed. To minimise cross-contamination of almost sterile inner root parts with the highly

Ralph Günther Klaiber; Sascha Baur; Gudrun Wolf; Walter Peter Hammes; Reinhold Carle



Acquisition of embryogenic potential in carrot cell-suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryogenic suspension cultures of domesticated carrot (Daucus carota L.) are characterized by the presence of proembryogenic masses (PEMs) from which somatic embryos develop under conditions of low cell density in the absence of phytohormones. A culture system, referred to as starting cultures, was developed that allowed analysis of the emergence of PEMs in newly initiated hypocotyl-derived suspension cultures. Embryogenic potential,

Sacco C. de Vries; Hilbert Booij; Peter Meyerink; Gert Huisman; H. Dayton Wilde; Terry L. Thomas; Ab van Kammen



Tunicamycin-inhibited carrot somatic embryogenesis can be restored by secreted cationic peroxidase isoenzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryogenesis of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is inhibited by the glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin. This inhibition is reversible by the addition of correctly glycosylated glycoproteins which have been secreted into the culture medium. To identify the proteins responsible for complementation, glycoproteins present in the medium of embryo cultures were purified and tested for their activity in the tunicamycin inhibition\\/ complementation

J. H. G. Cordewener; Hiibert Booij; Hans van der Zandt; Fred van Engelen; Ab van Kammen; Sacco de Vries



Assessment of Disturbances in Growth and Physiology of Carrot Caused by Chromium Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

To see the deleterious effects of excess chromium (Cr) on carrot (Daucus carota L.) the cv. ‘Pusa Keshari’ was grown in refined sand under controlled glasshouse conditions with a complete nutrient solution (without Cr) for 48 days. On the 49th day, pots with two plants each were separated into three sets. One set served as a control. In each of

B. K. Dube; Pratima Sinha; C. Chatterjee



Transfer of Resistance Traits from Carrot into Tobacco by Asymmetric Somatic Hybridization: Regeneration of Fertile Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly

Denes Dudits; Eszter Maroy; Tunde Praznovszky; Zoltan Olah; Janos Gyorgyey; Rino Cella



Particle surface characteristics may play an important role in phytotoxicity of alumina nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytotoxicity of alumina nanoparticles loaded with and without phenanthrene (Phen) was investigated by means of root elongation (RE) experiments in this study. Five plant species, Zea mays (corn), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Glycine max (soybean), Brassica oleracea (cabbage), and Daucus carota (carrot) were used in our study of phytotoxicity by root elongation experiments. The surface characteristics of Phen-loaded and Phen-nonloaded

Ling Yang; Daniel J. Watts



Density dependence of Anaphes sordidatus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) parasitism on eggs of Listronotus oregonensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listronotus oregonensis (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposits in carrot leaves and the larvae feed in carrot roots. Its eggs are parasitized by Anaphes sordidatus (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) throughout its oviposition period. This parasitoid is the major biotic mortality factor for L. oregonensis. Parasitism by A. sordidatus was studied for three years in sequentially sown plots of carrots, Daucus carota var. sativa.

Guy Boivin



Description of somatic-embryo-forming single cells in carrot suspension cultures employing video cell tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cell-tracking system was established to determine the capability of individual single suspension cells of carrot (Daucus carota L.) to develop into somatic embryos. When immobilised in phytagel, 127 out of 30 318 single suspension cells smaller than 22 µm in diameter developed into a somatic embryo. Single cells present at the start of the experiment were classified on the

Marcel A. J. Toonen; Theo Hendriks; Ed D. L. Schmidt; Harrie A. Verhoeven; Kammen van A; Sacco C. Vries



Daucus for the flora of North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Flora of North America Project will treat more than 20,000 species of plants native or naturalized in North America north of Mexico, about 7% of the world's total. This contribution presents a floristic account of the two species of wild carrots (Daucus) occurring in North America, Daucus carota...


First Report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in Carrots in Europe  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot (Daucus carota) plants exhibiting symptoms that resembled those of carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) damage were observed in commercial fields in southern Finland in August 2008. Carrot psyllid is a serious pest of carrots in northern and central Europe, where it can cause up to 100% yield los...


Osmolarity as a measure of growth of plant cells in suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass estimation in cell suspension cultures of Capsicum frutescens and Daucus carota was correlated with the conductivity and osmolarity of the medium. The medium conductivity was influenced by nitrates, CaCl2, and minor and major elements. The addition of organic constituents such as vitamins did not substantially alter the conductivity. The addition of sucrose resulted in decreased conductivity of the culture

R. Madhusudhan; S. Ramachandra Rao; G. A. Ravishankar



Transient expression of electroporated DNA in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient expression of electroporated DNA was monitored in protoplasts of several monocot and dicot species by assaying for expression of chimeric chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene constructions. Expression was obtained in the dicot species of Daucus carota, Glycine max and Petunia hybrida and the monocot species of Triticum monococcum, Pennisetum purpureum, Panicum maximum, Saccharum officinarum, and a double cross, trispecific hybrid

R. M. Hauptmann; P. Ozias-Akins; V. Vasil; Z. Tabaeizadeh; S. G. Rogers; R. B. Horsch; I. K. Vasil; R. T. Fraley



Salt effects on germination and seedling emergence of several vegetable crops and guayule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt effects on seed germination and seedling emergence of several crops are evaluated to understand poor plant stands occurring in furrow-irrigated fields in saline areas. The test crops were carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Imperator 58), chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. New Mexico 6-4), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum M. cv. Rutgers), and guayule (Parthenium argentatum G. cv. 593). Seed germination

S. Miyamoto; K. Piela; J. Petticrew



Effects of non-carbonaceous meteoritic extracts on the germination, growth and chlorophyll content of edible plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted an investigation on the effects that the extracts of a non-carbonaceous meteorite could have on the germination and growth of plants and the ability of non-carbonaceous meteoritic resource to serve as nutrient source for young plants of edible types. Selected plants were two dicotyledons (Lycopersicon esculentum and Daucus carota) and one monocotyledon (Zea mays). Solution cultures were

Vicente Marcano; Paula Matheus; Cesyen Cedeńo; Nelson Falcon; Ernesto Palacios-Prü



Differential effect of sample preservation methods on plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of methods are commonly used for preserving environmental samples prior to molecular analyses. However, the effect of these preservation methods on fungal DNA is not understood. The objective of this study was to test the effect of eight different preservation methods on the quality and yield of DNA extracted from Bromus inermis and Daucus carota roots colonized

L. D. Bainard; J. N. Klironomos; M. M. Hart



Role of auxin and sucrose in the differentiation of sieve and tracheary elements in plant tissue cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differentiation of sieve and tracheary elements was studied in callus culture of Daucus carota L., Syringa vulgaris L., Glycine max (L.) Merr., Helianthus annuus L., Hibiscus cannabinus L. and Pisum sativum L. By the lacmoid clearing technique it was found that development of the phloem commenced before that of the xylem. In not one of the calluses was differentiation

Roni Aloni; S. Wise




EPA Science Inventory

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). lants included all fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum I.). Minimal intact...


Physiological state of female and light intensity affect the host-plant selection of carrot psyllid, Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the effect of different light gradient regimes on host-plant selection of the carrot psyllid, Trioza apicalis Förster. In both a strong and a weak light gradient, carrot psyllids preferred a carrot leaf placed in higher light intensity. When the choice was between the host (carrot Daucus carota L.) and a non-host (barley Hordeum vulgare L.) virgin adults




HrpM is involved in glucan biosynthesis, biofilm formation and pathogenicity in Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri.  


Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc) is the causal agent of citrus canker. This bacterium develops a characteristic biofilm on both biotic and abiotic surfaces. A biofilm-deficient mutant was identified in a screening of a transposon mutagenesis library of the Xcc 306 strain constructed using the commercial Tn5 transposon EZ-Tn5 Tnp Transposome (Epicentre). Sequence analysis of a mutant obtained in the screening revealed that a single copy of the EZ-Tn5 was inserted at position 446 of hrpM, a gene encoding a putative enzyme involved in glucan synthesis. We demonstrate for the first time that the product encoded by the hrpM gene is involved in ?-1,2-glucan synthesis in Xcc. A mutation in hrpM resulted in no disease symptoms after 4 weeks of inoculation in lemon and grapefruit plants. The mutant also showed reduced ability to swim in soft agar and decreased resistance to H(2)O(2) in comparison with the wild-type strain. All defective phenotypes were restored to wild-type levels by complementation with the plasmid pBBR1-MCS containing an intact copy of the hrpM gene and its promoter. These results indicate that the hrpM gene contributes to Xcc growth and adaptation in its host plant. PMID:22738424

Malamud, Florencia; Conforte, Valeria P; Rigano, Luciano A; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Marano, María Rosa; Morais do Amaral, Alexandre; Vojnov, Adrian A



Sphenostylisins A-K: Bioactive Modified Isoflavonoid Constituents of the Root Bark of Sphenostylis marginata ssp. erecta.  


Sphenostylisins A-C (1-3), three complex dimeric compounds representing two novel carbon skeletons, along with an additional eight new compounds, sphenostylisins D-K (4-11), were isolated from the active chloroform-soluble extract of the root bark of Sphenostylis marginata ssp. erecta using a bioactivity-guided isolation approach. The structures were elucidated by means of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including NMR and HRESIMS analysis, and tandem MS fragmentation was utilized to further support the structures of 1-3. The absolute configuration of sphenostylisin C (3) was established by electronic circular dichroism analysis. Plausible biogenetic relationships between the modified isoflavonoids 1-11 are proposed, and a cyclization reaction of 9 was conducted to support one of the biogenetic proposals made. All of these pure isolates were evaluated against a panel of in vitro bioassays, and among the results obtained, sphenostylisin A (1) was found to be a very potent NF-?B inhibitor (IC50 = 6 nM). PMID:24044416

Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Deng, Ye; Muńoz-Acuńa, Ulyana; Yuan, Chunhua; Lai, Hongshan; Chai, Heebyung; Chagwedera, Tangai E; Farnsworth, Norman R; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J; Li, Chenglong; Soejarto, Djaja D; Kinghorn, A Douglas



Discrimination of cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) cultivars grown in different geographical areas using ąH NMR-based metabolomics.  


Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most popular foods in Asia and is widely cultivated in many countries for the production of lightly fermented vegetables. In this study, metabolomic analysis was performed to distinguish two cultivars of cabbage grown in different geographical areas, Korea and China, using ąH NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear discrimination between extracts of cabbage grown in Korea and China for two different cultivars (Chunmyeong and Chunjung). The major biochemicals (metabolites) that contributed to discrimination between cabbages grown in the two regions were 4-aminobutyrate (GABA), acetate, asparagine, leucine, isoleucine, O-phosphocholine, phenylacetate, phenylalanine, succinate, sucrose, tyrosine, and valine. These results suggest that the levels of the major metabolites that differ significantly between cabbages grown in these two areas were influenced by environmental factors such as climate and geology. Our study demonstrates that ąH NMR based on metabolomics, coupled with multivariate statistics, can be applied to identify the regions of cultivation of various cabbage cultivars. PMID:23199992

Kim, Jahan; Jung, Youngae; Song, Byeongyeol; Bong, Yeon-Sik; Ryu, Do Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Hwang, Geum-Sook



Deletion of yncD gene in Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhi leads to attenuation in mouse model.  


TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) are bacterial outer membrane proteins that are usually involved in the uptake of certain key nutrients, for example iron. In the genome of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhi, the yncD gene encodes a putative TBDT and was identified recently as an in vivo-induced antigen. In the present study, a yncD-deleted mutant was constructed to evaluate the role of the yncD gene in virulence. Our results showed that the mutant is attenuated in a mouse model by intraperitoneal injection and its virulence is restored by the transformation of a complement plasmid. The competition experiments showed that the survival ability of the yncD-deleted mutant decreases significantly in vivo. To evaluate its vaccine potential, the yncD-deleted mutant was inoculated intranasally in the mouse model. The findings demonstrated a significant immunoprotection against the lethal wild-type challenge. The regulation analysis showed that yncD gene promoter is upregulated under acidic condition. The present study demonstrates that the yncD gene plays an important role in bacterial survival inside the host and is suitable for the construction of attenuated vaccine strains as a candidate target gene. PMID:22150228

Xiong, Kun; Chen, Zhijin; Xiang, Guiming; Wang, Jing; Rao, Xiancai; Hu, Fuquan; Cong, Yanguang



A comprehensive analysis of flowering transition in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton by using transcriptomic and proteomic techniques.  


Comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed to gain further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of floral initiation in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis. Samples of stem apexes were collected at three different time points including the vegetative, induced, and reproductive period. A total of 374 transcript-derived fragments and 72 proteins showed significant differential expression between the samples. The largest proportion of the identified genes and proteins are involved in metabolism, followed by signal transduction, protein fate, cellular transport, and biogenesis of cellular components. A large number of these genes and proteins were upregulated during the induced and reproductive stages. Their expression profiles demonstrate that carbohydrate metabolism provides nutrients foundation for floral initiation in Agapanthus. Furthermore, a transcription factors GAI (GA insensitive protein) that negatively regulates gibberellin signaling, auxin receptor protein TIR1 (Transport inhibitor response 1), a key enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis SAMS (S-adenosylmethionine synthase), and ethylene receptor protein ETR were isolated and identified. Expression patterns of these proteins, in combination with the results of quantitative phytohormone and immunolocalization analyses, indicated that GA, indole-acetic acid (IAA), and ethylene regulate floral morphogenesis and flowering. In conclusion, these data provide novel insight into the early regulatory steps of flowering in Agapanthus. PMID:23333928

Zhang, Di; Ren, Li; Yue, Jian-Hua; Wang, Ling; Zhuo, Li-Huan; Shen, Xiao-Hui



Congruence of phytochemical and morphological profiles along an altitudinal gradient in Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare from Venetian Region (NE Italy).  


Plants of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare from the Veneto region (NE Italy) were selected to study the variability of the essential-oil composition from leaves and inflorescences throughout an elevation gradient. We investigated also the morphology of non-glandular and glandular trichomes, their distribution on the vegetative and reproductive organs, as well as the histochemistry of the secreted products, with special focus on the terpenoidic fraction. Since glandular trichomes are prerequisite for the essential-oil synthesis, the second objective was to establish whether its production is related to glandular hair number, and density. Essential-oil contents decline with increasing altitude, and the micromorphological observations revealed a decrease in trichome density along the same direction. Moreover, GC/MS analysis together with principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the three investigated populations were significantly different in chemical composition. Therefore, an important interpopulation variability for low-, mid-, and high-altitude sites was established, suggesting the likely occurrence of different biotypes associated with altitudinal levels. Hence, the involvement of abiotic factors such as temperature and drought in the chemical polymorphism of O. vulgare associated with elevation is briefly discussed. PMID:23576343

Giuliani, Claudia; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Maleci Bini, Laura



Bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. urealyticus caused by infected pressure ulcer: case report and review of the literature.  


CONTEXT Coagulase-negative staphylococci are common colonizers of the human skin and have become increasingly recognized as agents of clinically significant nosocomial infections. CASE REPORT The case of a 79-year-old male patient with multi-infarct dementia who presented systemic inflammatory response syndrome is reported. This was attributed to bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. urealyticus, which was grown on blood cultures originating from an infected pressure ulcer. The few cases of Staphylococcus cohnii infection reported in the literature consist of bacteremia relating to catheters, surgical prostheses, acute cholecystitis, brain abscess, endocarditis, pneumonia, urinary tract infection and septic arthritis, generally presenting a multiresistant profile, with nearly 90% resistance to methicillin. CONCLUSIONS The reported case is, to our knowledge, the first case of true bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus caused by an infected pressure ulcer. It shows that this species may be underdiagnosed and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for community-acquired skin infections. PMID:23538597

Soldera, Jonathan; Nedel, Wagner Luis; Cardoso, Paulo Ricardo Cerveira; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves



Complete structure determination of the A chain of mistletoe lectin III from Viscum album L. ssp. album.  


The complete primary structure of the A chain of mistletoe lectin III (ML3A), a type II ribosome-inactivating protein, was determined using proteolytic digests of ML3A, HPLC separation of the peptides, Edman degration and MALDI-MS. Based on our results, ML3A consists of 254 amino acid residues, showing a high homology to the A chain of isolectin ML1 with only 24 amino acid residue exchanges. A striking important structural difference compared with ML1A is the lack of the single N-glycosylation site in ML3A due to an amino acid exchange at position 112 (ML1A: NL112GS ==> ML3A: T112GS). The alignment of ML3A with the A chains of ML1, isoabrins, ricin D, Ricinus communis agglutinin and three lectins, identified from the Korean mistletoe Viscum album ssp. coloratum, demonstrates the rigid conservation of all amino acid residues, responsible for the RNA-N-glycosidase activity as reported for ricin D. In addition, the fully determined primary structure of ML3A will give further information about the biological mechanism of mistletoe lectin therapy. PMID:15113086

Wacker, Roland; Stoeva, Stanka; Pfüller, Karola; Pfüller, Uwe; Voelter, Wolfgang



TP0262 is a modulator of promoter activity of tpr Subfamily II genes of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.  


Transcriptional regulation in Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is poorly understood, primarily because this organism cannot be cultivated in vitro or genetically manipulated. We have recently shown a phase variation mechanism controlling transcription initiation of Subfamily II tpr (T. pallidumrepeat) genes (tprE, tprG and tprJ), a group of virulence factor candidates. Furthermore, the same study suggested that additional mechanisms might influence the level of transcription of these tprs. The T. pallidum genome sequence has revealed a few open reading frames with similarity to known bacterial transcription factors, including four catabolite activator protein homologues. In this work, sequences matching the Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein (CRP) binding motif were identified in silico upstream of tprE, tprG and tprJ. Using elecrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNaseI footprinting assay, recombinant TP0262, a T. pallidum CRP homologue, was shown to bind specifically to amplicons obtained from the tpr promoters containing putative CRP binding motifs. Using a heterologous reporter system, binding of TP0262 to these promoters was shown to either increase (tprE and tprJ) or decrease (tprG) tpr promoter activity. This is the first characterization of a T. pallidum transcriptional modulator that influences tpr promoter activity. PMID:19432808

Giacani, Lorenzo; Godornes, Charmie; Puray-Chavez, Maritza; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Tompa, Martin; Lukehart, Sheila A; Centurion-Lara, Arturo



Esterase SeE of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is a Novel Non-specific Carboxylic Ester Hydrolase  

PubMed Central

Extracellular carboxylic ester hydrolases are produced by many bacterial pathogens and have been shown recently to be important for virulence of some pathogens. However, these hydrolases are poorly characterized in enzymatic activity. This study prepared and characterized the secreted ester hydrolase of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (designated SeE for S. equi esterase). SeE hydrolyzes ethyl acetate, acetylsalicylic acid, and tributyrin but not ethyl butyrate. This substrate specificity pattern does not match those of the three conventional types of non-specific carboxylic ester hydrolases (carboxylesterases, arylesterases, and acetylesterases). To determine whether SeE has lipase activity, a number of triglycerides and vinyl esters were tested in SeE-catalyzed hydrolysis. SeE does not hydrolyze triglycerides and vinyl esters of long chain carboxylic acids nor display interfacial activation, indicating that SeE is not a lipase. Like the conventional carboxylesterases, SeE is inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate. These findings indicate that SeE is a novel non-specific carboxylic ester hydrolase that has broader substrate specificity than the conventional carboxylesterases.

Xie, Gang; Liu, Mengyao; Zhu, Hui; Lei, Benfang



Ogura-CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) causes delayed expression of many nuclear genes.  


We investigated the mechanism regulating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis using floral bud transcriptome analyses of Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line in B. rapa 300-K oligomeric probe (Br300K) microarrays. Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage produced few and infertile pollen grains on indehiscent anthers. Compared to the maintainer line, CMS plants had shorter filaments and plant growth, and delayed flowering and pollen development. In microarray analysis, 4646 genes showed different expression, depending on floral bud size, between Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line. We found 108 and 62 genes specifically expressed in Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line, respectively. Ogura-CMS line-specific genes included stress-related, redox-related, and B. rapa novel genes. In the maintainer line, genes related to pollen coat and germination were specifically expressed in floral buds longer than 3mm, suggesting insufficient expression of these genes in Ogura-CMS is directly related to dysfunctional pollen. In addition, many nuclear genes associated with auxin response, ATP synthesis, pollen development and stress response had delayed expression in Ogura-CMS plants compared to the maintainer line, which is consistent with the delay in growth and development of Ogura-CMS plants. Delayed expression may reduce pollen grain production and/or cause sterility, implying that mitochondrial, retrograde signaling delays nuclear gene expression. PMID:23265314

Dong, Xiangshu; Kim, Wan Kyu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Hur, Yoonkang



[Outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta hemolytic group L streptococci (S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis) in an Austrian dairy herd].  


This study is reporting an outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta-hemolytic group L streptococci in an Austrian dairy herd with a history of high somatic cell count. At the first survey 16 of 33 lactating cows (28 quarters of 132) were cultured positive for beta-hemolytic, CAMP and esculin negative cocci that grew on Columbia blood agar with small grey catalase negative colonies. With the commercial API 20 Strep system (bioMerieux, F) isolates were classified as members of streptococci group L. All tested strains (eight of 28) produced acid from ribose, lactose, trehalose, amidon and glycogen; they hydrolysed hippurate and showed beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucinaminopeptidase and arginindehydrolase activity. Isolates were sensitive to bacitracin but resistant to tetracycline. Using phenotypic characterisation as well as sequence analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of a representative strain, recovered isolates were identified as Streptococcus (S.) dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis. Mastitis was characterized by normal milk secretions and absence of clinical abnormalities but high elevations of somatic cell count. Based on the characteristics of the strains and on the observations during the first herd survey, contagious transmission during milking as a result of poor milking hygiene was assumed. The mastitis was controlled through implementation of a strict hygiene protocol including use of single-use udder towels, post milking teat desinfection and cluster disinfection between milking cows in combination with antibiotic treatment of infected udders. PMID:22059292

Baumgartner, Martina; Giffinger, Friederike; Hoppe, Jan Christoph; Spergser, Joachim


Structure and polymorphism of the Chironomus thummi gene encoding special lobe-specific silk protein, ssp160 1 Published in conjunction with A Wisconsin Gathering Honoring Waclaw Szybalski on the occasion of his 75th year and 20 years of Editorship-in-Chief of Gene, 10–11 August 1997, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

cDNA encoding Chironomus thummi ssp160 was used to isolate a genomic clone that hybridized in situ to band A2b on polytene chromosome IV, the site of the ssp160 gene. DNA sequencing, primer extension and gene\\/cDNA nucleotide sequence alignment revealed the gene contains six exons and five introns; 70% of ssp160 is encoded in exon 3. Variations between cDNA and gene

Eugene Berezikov; Alexander G Blinov; Svetlana Scherbik; Carol K Cox; Steven T Case



Genetic mapping of stem rust resistance gene Sr13 in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum L.).  


Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, can cause significant yield losses. To combat the disease, breeders have deployed resistance genes both individually and in combinations to increase resistance durability. A new race, TTKSK (Ug99), identified in Uganda in 1999 is virulent on most of the resistance genes currently deployed, and is rapidly spreading to other regions of the world. It is therefore important to identify, map, and deploy resistance genes that are still effective against TTKSK. One of these resistance genes, Sr13, was previously assigned to the long arm of chromosome 6A, but its precise map location was not known. In this study, the genome location of Sr13 was determined in four tetraploid wheat (T. turgidum ssp. durum) mapping populations involving the TTKSK resistant varieties Kronos, Kofa, Medora and Sceptre. Our results showed that resistance was linked to common molecular markers in all four populations, suggesting that these durum lines carry the same resistance gene. Based on its chromosome location and infection types against different races of stem rust, this gene is postulated to be Sr13. Sr13 was mapped within a 1.2-2.8 cM interval (depending on the mapping population) between EST markers CD926040 and BE471213, which corresponds to a 285-kb region in rice chromosome 2, and a 3.1-Mb region in Brachypodium chromosome 3. These maps will be the foundation for developing high-density maps, identifying diagnostic markers, and positional cloning of Sr13. PMID:20857083

Simons, Kristin; Abate, Zewdie; Chao, Shiaoman; Zhang, Wenjun; Rouse, Matt; Jin, Yue; Elias, Elias; Dubcovsky, Jorge



Effect of Lactobacillus helveticus and Propionibacterium freudenrichii ssp. shermanii combinations on propensity for split defect in Swiss cheese.  


One of the least controlled defects in Swiss cheese is development of splits that appear during refrigerated storage after cheese is removed from the warm room. Such fissures, or cracks, in the body of the cheese can be as short as 1 cm, or long enough to span a 90-kg block. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment was used to determine the effect of different Lactobacillus helveticus/Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii starter culture combinations on the occurrence of split defect in Swiss cheese. Eights vats of cheese were made in summer and eight in winter. Each 90-kg block of cheese was cut into twenty-four 4-kg blocks and graded based on the presence of splits. Only small variations were found in the composition of cheeses made during the same season. There were no correlations between moisture, pH, fat, protein, calcium, lactose contents, D/L lactate ratio, or protein degradation that could be used to predict splits after 90 d of storage. However, cheese made in the summer had 2% higher moisture content and a greater prevalence of splits. There was a sixfold increase in amount of downgraded cheese between the best and worst culture combinations used during cheese manufacture. After 90-d storage, 14 to 90% of cheese had splits in the summer, and 1 to 6% in the winter. Split formation increased with time from 60 to 120 d of storage and extent of split formation was influenced by both the lactobacilli and propionibacteria cultures used. PMID:12703606

White, S R; Broadbent, J R; Oberg, C J; McMahon, D J



Step-by-step evolution of neo-sex chromosomes in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.  

PubMed Central

Geographical subspecies of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), differ considerably in sex chromosome constitution owing to sex chromosome fusions with autosomes, which leads to variation in chromosome numbers. We cloned S. cynthia orthologues of 16 Bombyx mori genes and mapped them to chromosome spreads of S. cynthia subspecies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine the origin of S. cynthia neo-sex chromosomes. FISH mapping revealed that the Z chromosome and chromosome 12 of B. mori correspond to the Z chromosome and an autosome (A1) of S. c. ricini (Vietnam population, 2n=27, Z0 in female moths), respectively. B. mori chromosome 11 corresponds partly to another autosome (A2) and partly to a chromosome carrying nucleolar organizer region (NOR) of this subspecies. The NOR chromosome of S. c. ricini is also partly homologous to B. mori chromosome 24. Furthermore, our results revealed that two A1 homologues each fused with the W and Z chromosomes in a common ancestor of both Japanese subspecies S. c. walkeri (Sapporo population, 2n=26, neo-Wneo-Z) and S. cynthia subsp. indet. (Nagano population, 2n=25, neo-WZ1Z2). One homologue, corresponding to the A2 autosome in S. c. ricini and S. c. walkeri, fused with the W chromosome in S. cynthia subsp. indet. Consequently, the other homologue became a Z2 chromosome. These results clearly showed a step-by-step evolution of the neo-sex chromosomes by repeated autosome–sex chromosome fusions. We suggest that the rearrangements of sex chromosomes may facilitate divergence of S. cynthia subspecies towards speciation.

Yoshido, A; Sahara, K; Marec, F; Matsuda, Y



Abundance of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in Adirondack Mountain shrub wetlands and its influence on inorganic nitrogen.  


The purpose of this research was to determine the abundance of the nitrogen-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (speckled alder), in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State and to determine whether its abundance affects the concentration or accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in wetland substrates. Alder/willow wetlands are the second most common wetland type in the Adirondack region. The Adirondack Park Agency's digital GIS database of wetland types was used to determine the areal extent of alder/willow wetlands in the Adirondacks. Randomly selected wetlands were sampled to determine the size and abundance of alder. Alder densities averaged approximately 7000 stems ha(-1) and alder was present in 75% of the wetlands. As an indication of short-term accumulation of NO(3-) and NH4(+) in wetland substrates, ion exchange resins were used to sample ground water in high and low alder density wetlands as well as from wetlands lacking alder and dominated by conifers. Additionally, NO(3-) and NH(4+) concentrations in ground water samples were measured. NH(4+) accumulation levels from exchange resins were low for all wetland types while groundwater NH(4+) concentration was highest in the low-density alder sites. Wetlands with high alder density had approximately six times higher NO(3-) accumulation than other wetlands. Substrate groundwater NO(3-) concentrations in wetlands of high-density alder exceeded by three times levels in low or no alder wetlands, showing the importance of alder to local N budgets. To assess the recovery of shrub wetlands from acidification, future studies should determine the fate of fixed N in wetland systems. PMID:12667762

Kiernan, B D; Hurd, T M; Raynal, D J



The influence of collection zone on glucosinolates, polyphenols and flavonoids contents and biological profiles of Capparis sicula ssp. sicula.  


This study aimed to evaluate the influence of collection zone on total phenol, flavonoid and glucosinolate contents and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of caper (Capparis sicula ssp. sicula). This species has been characterized through the detection, isolation and quantitative evaluation of chemical markers (polyphenols, flavonoids and glucosinolates). The chemical investigation showed a different composition between the two collection zones. While the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids of the two samples were quite the same, their high-performance liquid chromatography profiles were very different. In both samples, the most abundant aglycone was quercetin which accounted for 60% of total flavonoids. Nuclear magnetic resonance data analysis allowed the identification of two compounds: 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids which represented 6.67% and 15.94%, respectively, of the total amount of flavonoids in sample 1. In sample 2, these two acids were still present, but their percentages were much less (2.20% and 1.71%, respectively). As far as we know, this is the first report about the presence of dicaffeoylquinic acids in Capparis. With regard to glucosinolate content, sample 1 showed a higher content of glucosinolates. In both samples, glucocapparin was the most abundant compound. Antioxidant activity of the methanolic C. sicula extracts using diphenyl picrylhydrazyl, ?-carotene bleaching test and oxygen radical absorbance capacity showed that the sample 2 was more active than 1. As regards the inhibition of NO production, the extracts from sample 2 were more active than those from sample 1. PMID:21436235

Conforti, F; Marcotullio, M C; Menichini, F; Statti, G A; Vannutelli, L; Burini, G; Menichini, F; Curini, M



High-throughput sequencing discovery of conserved and novel microRNAs in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).  


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-24 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that down-regulate gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. miRNAs have been extensively analyzed in a few model plant species such as Arabidopsis, rice and Populus, and partially investigated in other non-model plant species. However, only a few conserved miRNAs have been identified in Chinese cabbage, a common and economically important crop in Asia. To identify novel and conserved miRNAs in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) we constructed a small RNA library. Using high-throughput Solexa sequencing to identify microRNAs we found 11,210 unique sequences belonging to 321 conserved miRNA families and 228 novel miRNAs. We ran a Blast search with these sequences against the Chinese cabbage mRNA database and found 2,308 and 736 potential target genes for 221 conserved and 125 novel miRNAs, respectively. The BlastX search against the Arabidopsis genome and GO analysis suggested most of the targets were involved in plant growth, metabolism, development and stress response. This study provides the first large scale-cloning and characterization of Chinese cabbage miRNAs and their potential targets. These miRNAs add to the growing database of new miRNAs, prompt further study on Chinese cabbage miRNA regulation mechanisms, and help toward a greater understanding of the important roles of miRNAs in Chinese cabbage. PMID:22643909

Wang, Fengde; Li, Libin; Liu, Lifeng; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Yihui; Yao, Yingyin; Ni, Zhongfu; Gao, Jianwei



?-Casein hydrolysate generated by the cell envelope-associated proteinase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581 protects against trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice.  


Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581, a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium used as a starter culture for the manufacture of several fermented dairy products, possesses an efficient proteolytic system that is able to release a series of potentially bioactive peptides (i.e., antihypertensive and phosphopeptides) from ?- and ?-caseins. Considering the potential beneficial health effects of the peptides released by L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581 from milk proteins, the aim of this work was to analyze the anti-mutagenic and anti-inflammatory properties of the casein hydrolysates generated by the cell envelope-associated proteinase of this bacterium. The ability of ?- and ?-casein hydrolysates to suppress the mutagenesis of a direct-acting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 increased concomitantly with the time of casein hydrolysis. The anti-inflammatory effect of the ?-casein hydrolysate was evaluated using a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced Crohn's disease murine model. The hydrolysate was administered to mice 10 d before the intrarectal inoculation of TNBS. The mice that received ?-casein hydrolysate previously to TNBS showed decreased mortality rates, faster recovery of initial body weight loss, less microbial translocation to the liver, decreased ?-glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase activities in the gut, and decreased colonic macroscopic and microscopic damage compared with the animals that did not receive this hydrolysate. In addition, ?-casein hydrolysate exerted a beneficial effect on acute intestinal inflammation by increased interleukin 10 and decreased IFN-? production in the gut. Our findings are consistent with the health-promoting attributes of the milk products fermented by L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581 and open up new opportunities for developing novel functional foods. PMID:22365194

Espeche Turbay, M B; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Perdigón, G; Savoy de Giori, G; Hebert, E M



Reduced-gravity Testing of The Huygens Probe Ssp Tiltmeter and Hasi Accelerometer Sensors and Their Role In Reconstruction of The Probe Descent Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the ESA Huygens Probe arrives at Titan in 2005, measurements taken during and after the descent through the atmosphere are likely to revolutionise our under- standing of SaturnSs most enigmatic moon. The accurate atmospheric profiling of Titan from these measurements will require knowledge of the probe descent trajectory and in some cases attitude history, whilst certain atmospheric information (e.g. wind speeds) may be inferred directly from the probe dynamics during descent. Two of the instruments identified as contributing valuable information for the reconstruction of the probeSs parachute descent dynamics are the Surface Science Package Tilt sensor (SSP-TIL) and the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument servo accelerometer (HASI-ACC). This presentation provides an overview of these sensors and their static calibration before describing an investigation into their real-life dynamic performance under simulated Titan-gravity conditions via a low-cost parabolic flight opportunity. The combined use of SSP-TIL and HASI-ACC in characterising the aircraft dynam- ics is also demonstrated and some important challenges are highlighted. Results from some simple spin tests are also presented. Finally, having validated the performance of the sensors under simulated Titan conditions, estimates are made as to the output of SSP-TIL and HASI-ACC under a variety of probe dynamics, ranging from verti- cal descent with spin to a simple 3 degree-of-freedom parachute descent model with horizontal gusting. It is shown how careful consideration must be given to the instru- mentsS principles of operation in each case, and also the impact of the sampling rates and resolutions as selected for the Huygens mission. The presentation concludes with a discussion of ongoing work on more advanced descent modelling and surface dy- namics modelling, and also of a proposal for the testing of the sensors on a sea-surface.

Ghafoor, N.; Zarnecki, J.


A cDNA Clone of BcHSP81-4 from the Sterility Line (Pol CMS) of Non-heading Chinese Cabbage ( Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

BcHSP81-4 gene, a member of heat shock proteins, was identified from a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library in non-heading\\u000a Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino). The deduced amino acid sequence of the BcHSP81-4 cDNA revealed that it has high homology to other plant organelle isoforms and similar homology to both cytoplasmic and prokaryotic\\u000a HSP90s. To study the regulation of

Tongkun Liu; Xilin Hou; Jingyi Zhang; Yuping Song; Shuning Zhang; Ying Li



Variation of total phenolic content and individual low-molecular-weight phenolics in foliage of mountain birch trees ( Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied seasonal and between-tree variation in the composition and content of total and individual low-molecular-weight phenolics (LMWP) in leaves of mountain birch trees (Betula pubescens ssp.tortuosa). The major phenolic compounds were chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-(5-acetyl)-L-rhamnopyranoside, and 1-O-galloyl-?-D-(2-O-acetyl)-glucopyranose. The content of total phenolics, as well as the sum of individual LMWP, varied only slightly among trees while variation in contents

Kimmo Nurmi; Vladimir Ossipov; Erkki Haukioja; Kalevi Pihlaja



Genotypic differences in nitrate uptake, translocation and assimilation of two Chinese cabbage cultivars [Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis (L.)].  


A hydroponic trial was conducted to investigate genotypic differences in nitrate uptake, translocation and assimilation between low nitrate accumulator L18 and high accumulator H96 of Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis (L.)]. The results suggested that H96 could uptake more nitrate than L18 in the root but lower transport inside leaf cells and assimilation in the leaf. It was showed that root morphology parameters - length, surface area and volume of H96 were 18.0%, 31.6% and 46.5% higher than L18. Nitrate transporters NRT1.1 and NRT2.1 transcription levels were 41.6% and 269.6% higher than those of L18 respectively. NRT1.1 and NRT2.1 expression amount in leaf blade of two cultivars were opposite to in the root, L18 NRT1.1 and NRT2.1 expressions were 279.2% and 80.0% higher than H96. In addition, nitrate assimilation capacity of L18 was significantly higher than H96 in leaf. It was showed that Nitrate Reductase (NR; EC activity and NIA expression level of L18 leaf were 234 0.4% and 105.4% higher than those of H96, Glutamine Synthetase (GS; EC activity, Gln1 and Gln2 expression levels in the leaf blade of L18 were 43.9%, 331.5% and 124.8% higher than those of H96 respectively. Nitrate assimilation products-Glu, total amino acid, soluble protein content in the leaf of L18 were all significantly higher than those of H96. The results above suggested that nitrate accumulation differences were due to differential capacities to uptake, mechanisms for nitrate transport in leaves and assimilate nitrate. Comparing contribution of three aspects in nitrate accumulation, translocation and assimilation were contributed more in low nitrate concentration in the leaf blade. PMID:23770590

Tang, Yafang; Sun, Xuecheng; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Zhao, Xiaohu



A new phenanthrene derivative and two diarylheptanoids from the roots of Brassica rapa ssp. campestris inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines and LDL-oxidation.  


Brassica rapa ssp. campestris (Brassicaceae) is a conical, deep purple, edible root vegetable commonly known as a turnip. We initiated phytochemical and pharmacological studies to search for biological active compounds from the roots of B. rapa ssp. campestris. We isolated a novel phenanthrene derivative, 6-methoxy-1-[10-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)phenanthren-3-yl]undecane-2,4-dione, named brassicaphenanthrene A (3) along with two known diarylheptanoid compounds, 6-paradol (1) and trans-6-shogaol (2), through the repeated silica gel (SiO2), octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic data analyses including nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and infra-red spectroscopy. All compounds exhibited high inhibitory activity against the growth of human cancer lines, HCT-116, MCF-7, and HeLa, with IC50 values ranging from 15.0 to 35.0 ?M and against LDL-oxidation with IC50 values ranging from 2.9 to 7.1 ?M. PMID:23435947

Wu, Qian; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Yoo, Ki-Hyun; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Park, Ji-Hae; Kim, Su-Yeon; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Chung, In-Sik; Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Chung, Hae-Gon; Bang, Myun-Ho; Baek, Nam-In



Growth and exopolysaccharide yield of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 in batch and continuous bioreactor experiments at constant pH.  


Some Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains are able to synthesize exopolysaccharides (EPS) and are therefore highly important for the dairy industry as starter cultures. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional requirements for growth and EPS production of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus DSM 20081. A medium was developed from a semi-defined medium (SDM) in which glucose was replaced by lactose and different combinations of supplements (nucleobases, vitamins, salts, sodium formate and orotic acid) were added. Constant pH batch fermentation with the modified medium resulted in an EPS yield of approximately 210 mg glucose equivalents per liter medium. This was a 10-fold increase over flask cultivation of this strain in SDM. Although not affecting cell growth, the mixture of salts enhanced the EPS synthesis. Whereas EPS production was approximately 12 mg/g dry biomass without salt supplementation, a significantly higher yield (approximately 20 mg/g dry biomass) was observed after adding the salt mixture. In continuous fermentation, a maximal EPS concentration was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.31/h (80 mg EPS/L), which corresponded to a specific EPS production of 49 mg/g dry biomass. PMID:22074989

Mende, Susann; Krzyzanowski, Leona; Weber, Jost; Jaros, Doris; Rohm, Harald



DHS SSP Template  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... The SCC Governance Principles and Operating Procedures ... to satisfy the requirements of the ... to maintain order, deliver minimum essential public ... More results from



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cultivated species Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum (i.e., andigena per nomenclature used at the US Potato Genebank, USPG) is well known as a rich source of valuable traits for potato breeding, especially for resistance to diseases and pests. The Potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis Wo...


[Synergistic action of entomopathogenic hyphomycetes and the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. morrisoni in the infection of Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata].  


A synchronous coinfection of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) with the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. morrisoni Bonnifoi & de Barjak var. tenebrionis Krieg et al. and hyphomycete Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin or Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill leads to the rapid death of 95-100% of larvae. The bacteria arrest the nutrition of insects, while the fungal spores kill the weakened larvae. The synergistic effect of two pathogens is recorded at a relatively low hyphomycete titer (1-5 x 10(6) conidia/ml) and is evident in the mortality dynamics at all larval ages. These bacterial and fungal pathogens display no antagonism on artificial nutrient media. This microbial complex is highly efficient under natural conditions (80-90% larval mortality rate and no plant defoliation). PMID:19845290

Kriukov, V Iu; Khodyrev, V P; Iaroslavtseva, O N; Kamenova, A S; Du?sembekov, B A; Glupov, V V


Characterization of a novel gene, BcMF7, that is expressed preferentially in pollen of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino.  


Pollen formation is important for plant sexual reproduction. To identify the genes that are involved in pollen formation, we performed the genome-wide transcriptional profiling in the flower buds of both male meiotic cytokinesis (mmc) mutant and its wild-type plants of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis. cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis showed that the mmc mutation resulted in changes in expression of a variety of genes. BcMF7, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF) accumulated in the wild-type flower buds was further characterized. The BcMF7 gene has 1161 bp in length with two introns. The full-length BcMF7 cDNA has 609 bp in length and encodes a protein of 129 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of BcMF7 protein shares no similarity to any function-known protein in Swiss-Prot database, but has 8 protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 2 caselin kinase II phosphorylation sites, 2 tyrosine kinase phosphorylation sites, 2 N-glycosylation sites and 2 N-myristolyation sites. Spatial and temporal expression patterns analysis showed that BcMF7 was expressed exclusively in pollen. The expression signal of BcMF7 was first detected at the tetrad stage of microspore development, reached a peak level at the uninucleate stage, and decreased to a slightly low level at the mature pollen stage. All these results show that BcMF7 may play a certain role in the signal transduction during pollen development. PMID:17653671

Huang, Li; Cao, JiaShu; Zhang, YuChao; Ye, YiQun



Transcriptional differences between the male-sterile mutant bcms and wild-type Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis reveal genes related to pollen development.  


A novel male-sterile mutant which lacks mature pollen, Brassisa campestris male sterile (bcms), was identified in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino (syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis). Genetic analysis revealed that bcms was controlled by a single recessive mutation locus. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling was performed on the flower buds of both the bcms mutant and the wild-type from which it originated, and profiling analysis indicated that there were numerous changes in gene expression attributable to the gene mutation. This mutation resulted in down-regulation of a variety of genes and up-regulated expression of a few other genes. A total of 51 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were isolated: 32 specifically and 12 predominantly accumulated in wild-type flower buds, and two specifically and five predominantly accumulated in bcms flower buds. Sequence analysis showed that some of these TDFs share significant similarities with genes involved in different aspects of cellular development, such as signal transduction, cell wall biosynthesis and regulation. Most other TDFs showed no or very poor sequence similarities to entries in any database and might represent new candidate proteins involved in pollen development. Furthermore, spatial and temporal expression pattern analysis of 20 genes derived from cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism in different tissues of both the bcms and wild-type plants revealed their complex and dynamic expression patterns. The bcms mutant and the genes isolated in this paper provide excellent material for future studies on the molecular mechanism of male sterility. PMID:18426481

Huang, L; Cao, J; Ye, W; Liu, T; Jiang, L; Ye, Y



Insight into the specific virulence related genes and toxin-antitoxin virulent pathogenicity islands in swine streptococcosis pathogen Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC35246  

PubMed Central

Background Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an important pathogen causing swine streptococcosis in China. Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) of S. zooepidemicus have been transferred among bacteria through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and play important roles in the adaptation and increased virulence of S. zooepidemicus. The present study used comparative genomics to examine the different pathogenicities of S. zooepidemicus. Results Genome of S. zooepidemicus ATCC35246 (Sz35246) comprises 2,167,264-bp of a single circular chromosome, with a GC content of 41.65%. Comparative genome analysis of Sz35246, S. zooepidemicus MGCS10565 (Sz10565), Streptococcus equi. ssp. equi. 4047 (Se4047) and S. zooepidemicus H70 (Sz70) identified 320 Sz35246-specific genes, clustered into three toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems PAIs and one restriction modification system (RM system) PAI. These four acquired PAIs encode proteins that may contribute to the overall pathogenic capacity and fitness of this bacterium to adapt to different hosts. Analysis of the in vivo and in vitro transcriptomes of this bacterium revealed differentially expressed PAI genes and non-PAI genes, suggesting that Sz35246 possess mechanisms for infecting animals and adapting to a wide range of host environments. Analysis of the genome identified potential Sz35246 virulence genes. Genes of the Fim III operon were presumed to be involved in breaking the host-restriction of Sz35246. Conclusion Genome wide comparisons of Sz35246 with three other strains and transcriptome analysis revealed novel genes related to bacterial virulence and breaking the host-restriction. Four specific PAIs, which were judged to have been transferred into Sz35246 genome through HGT, were identified for the first time. Further analysis of the TA and RM systems in the PAIs will improve our understanding of the pathogenicity of this bacterium and could lead to the development of diagnostics and vaccines.



A novel cold-inducible gene from Pak-choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis), BcWRKY46, enhances the cold, salt and dehydration stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.  


WRKY TFs belong to one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants and form integral parts of signaling webs that modulate many plant processes. BcWRKY46, a cDNA clone encoding a polypeptide of 284 amino acids and exhibited the structural features of group III of WRKY protein family, was isolated from the cold-treated leaves of Pak-choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) using the cDNA-AFLP technique. Expression of this gene was induced quickly and strongly in response to various environmental stresses, including low temperatures, ABA, salt and dehydration. Constitutive expression of BcWRKY46 in tobacco under the control of the CaMV35S promoter reduced the susceptibility of transgenic tobacco to freezing, ABA, salt and dehydration stresses. Our studies suggest that BcWRKY46 plays an important role in responding to ABA and abiotic stress. PMID:21938429

Wang, Feng; Hou, Xilin; Tang, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Shuming; Jiang, Fangling; Li, Ying



Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Organic and Inorganic Controlled-release Fertilizers: Effect on Growth and Leachate of Container-grown Bush Morning Glory (Ipomoea carnea ssp. fi stulosa) Under High Production Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research determined the effects of two commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inocula, organic slow-release fertilizer (OSRF), and inorganic controlled-release fertilizer (ICRF) on plant growth, market- ability and leachate of container-grown Ipomoea carnea N. von Jacquin ssp. fi stulosa (K. Von Martinus ex J. Choisy) D. Austin (bush morning glory) grown outdoors under high temperature summer conditions (maximum container media

Lucila Amaya Carpio; Fred T. Davies; Michael A. Arnold


Aromatic Plants of Yugoslavia. I. Chemical Composition of Oils of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. pannonica (Scheele) Hayak, A. crithmifolia W. et K., A. serbica Nym. and A. tanacetifolia All  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used GC\\/MS to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of wild Achillea plants native to Yugoslavia: Achillea millefolium L. ssp. pannonica (Scheele) Hayak, A. crithmifolia W. et K., A. serbica Nym. and A. tanacetifolia All. Seventy-four components were identified. All four oils contained camphor (4–16%), 1,8-cineole (6–23%) and borneol (4–16%). In addition, artemisia ketone (4%) was found

Jean-Claude Chalchat; M. S. Gorunovic; S. D. Petrovic



Physical mapping and microsynteny of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis genome corresponding to a 222 kbp gene-rich region of Arabidopsis chromosome 4 and partially duplicated on chromosome 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, designated as KBrH, from high molecular weight genomic DNA\\u000a of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage). This library, which was constructed using HindIII-cleaved genomic DNA, consists of 56,592 clones with average insert size of 115 kbp. Using a partially duplicated DNA\\u000a sequence of Arabidopsis, represented by 19 and 9 predicted genes on chromosome

J. Y. Park; D. H. Koo; C. P. Hong; S. J. Lee; J. W. Jeon; S. H. Lee; P. Y. Yun; B. S. Park; H. R. Kim; J. W. Bang; P. Plaha; I. Bancroft; Y. P. Lim



A comprehensive study on removal and recovery of copper(II) from aqueous solutions by NaOH-pretreated Marrubium globosum ssp. globosum leaves powder: Potential for utilizing the copper(II) condensed desorption solutions in agricultural applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on removal and recovery of copper(II) ions from aqueous solutions under batch experimental conditions using NaOH-pretreated powdered leaves of Marrubium globosum ssp. globosum plant. Experimental results showed that pH was optimized at the value of 5.5 by 16.23mg\\/g. The increasing metal concentration and temperature caused an increase in biosorption capacity and the process reached its equilibrium in

Mehmet K?l?ç; Hüseyin Yaz?c?; Murat Solak



RAPD, ISSR and RFLP fingerprints as useful markers to evaluate genetic integrity of micropropagated plants of three diploid and triploid elite tea clones representing Camellia sinensis (China type) and C. assamica ssp. assamica (Assam-India type)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient in vitro propagation method using enhanced axillary branching cultures produced plants from nodal explants of three mature, elite tea clones: diploid UPASI 26 and UPASI 27 (2n=2x=30) representing Camellia sinensis (China type) and triploid UPASI 3 (2n=3x=45) representing C. assamica ssp. assamica (Assam-India type). The genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants of these three tea clones was assessed

R. M. Devarumath; S. Nandy; V. Rani; S. Marimuthu; N. Muraleedharan; S. N. Raina



Insecticidal efficacy of silica gel with Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) essential oil against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).  


Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effect of silica gel enhanced with the essential oil (EO) of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) (derived from berry specimens from Greece) against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). For that purpose, a dry mixture consisting of 500 mg of silica gel that had absorbed 2.18 mg of EO (total weight: 502.18 mg) was tested at three doses; 0.125, 0.250, and 0.5 g/kg of wheat, corresponding to 125, 250, and 500 ppm, respectively, and silica gel alone at 0.5 g/kg of wheat corresponding to 500 ppm, at different exposure intervals (24 and 48 h and 7 and 14 d for S. oryzae; 24 and 48 h and 7, 14, and 21 d for T. confusum). The chemical content of the specific EO was determined by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses indicating the presence of 31 constituents with myrcene and germacrene-D being the predominant compounds. The bioactivity results for S. oryzae indicated that 48 h of exposure in wheat resulted in an 82% mortality for treatment with 500 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. For 7 d of exposure, 100 and 98% of S. oryzae adults died when they were treated with 500 and 250 ppm of enhanced silica gel, respectively. At 14 d of exposure, all adults died both at 250 and 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. At 48 h, 7 and 14 d of exposure significantly less S. oryzae adults died in wheat treated with silica gel alone than at 250 or 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. In the case of T. confusum, at 7 d of exposure, mortality in wheat treated with silica gel only was significantly higher in comparison to the other treatments. At the 14 d of exposure mortality in wheat treated with 500 ppm of silica gel alone was significantly higher than 125 and 250 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. Similar trends were also noted at 21 d of exposure, indicating that there is no enhancement effect from the addition of the EO. Results herein suggest that the simultaneous use of silica gel and J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus EO enhances significantly its activity against S. oryzae. PMID:24020309

Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas C; Evergetis, Epameinondas; Katsoula, Anna-Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A



Microsatellite analysis of a population crash and bottleneck in the Mauna Kea silversword, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense (Asteraceae), and its implications for reintroduction.  


The Mauna Kea silversword, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense, has experienced both a severe population crash associated with an increase in alien ungulate populations on Mauna Kea, and a population bottleneck associated with reintroduction. In this paper, we address the genetic consequences of both demographic events using eight microsatellite loci. The population crash was not accompanied by a significant reduction in number of alleles or heterozygosity. However, the population bottleneck was accompanied by significant reductions in observed number of alleles, effective number of alleles, and expected heterozygosity, though not in observed heterozygosity. The effective size of the population bottleneck was calculated using both observed heterozygosities and allele frequency variances. Both methods corroborated the historical census size of the population bottleneck of at most three individuals. The results suggest that: (i) small populations, even those that result from severe reductions in historical population size and extent, are not necessarily genetically depauperate; and (ii) species reintroduction plans need to be conceived and implemented carefully, with due consideration to the genetic impact of sampling for reintroduction. PMID:11123615

Friar, E A; Ladoux, T; Roalson, E H; Robichaux, R H



Expression of NAD(H) kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase improve NADPH supply and L-isoleucine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum.  


Corynebacterium glutamicum is the workhorse for the production of amino acids, including L-isoleucine (Ile). During Ile biosynthesis, NADPH is required as a crucial cofactor. In this study, four NADPH-supplying strategies based on NAD kinase, NADH kinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and NAD kinase coupling with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were compared, and their influences on Ile biosynthesis were examined. PpnK is a NAD kinase of C. glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum JHI3-156 that predominantly phosphorylates NAD(+) to produce NADP(+). Pos5 is a NADH kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that predominantly phosphorylates NADH to produce NADPH. Zwf is a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of JHI3-156. The ppnK, POS5, zwf, and zwf-ppnK genes were overexpressed in the Ile-producing strain JHI3-156. The expression of all four genes increased intracellular NADPH concentration and Ile production. The increase of NADPH concentration and Ile production in a POS5-expressing strain (229 and 75.6 %, respectively) was higher than that in a ppnK-expression strain. The expression of zwf also increased NADPH supply and Ile biosynthesis, but the constitutive expression of zwf was not as effective as the inducible expression of zwf. Coexpression of zwf and ppnK genes greatly enhanced NADPH supply and thus improved Ile production by up to 85.9 %, indicating that this strategy was the most effective one. These results are helpful for improving Ile biosynthesis and other biosynthetic processes. PMID:23868449

Shi, Feng; Li, Kun; Huan, Xiaojing; Wang, Xiaoyuan



CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg Cells Induced by rSSP4 Derived from T. cruzi Amastigotes Increase Parasitemia in an Experimental Chagas Disease Model  

PubMed Central

Currently, there is a considerable controversy over the participation of Treg cells during Trypanosoma cruzi infection, the main point being whether these cells play a negative or a positive role. In this work, we found that the adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells from rSSP4- (a recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi amastigote derived protein, previously shown to have immunomodulatory properties on macrophages) immunized BALB/c donors into syngenic recipients simultaneously with T. cruzi challenge reduces cardiac inflammation and prolongs hosts' survival but increases blood parasitemia and parasite loads in the heart. These CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg cells from immunized mice have a relatively TGF-?-dependent suppressive activity on CD4+ T cells. Therefore, regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells play a positive role in the development of acute T. cruzi infection by inducing immunosuppressive activity that controls early cardiac inflammation during acute Chagas disease, prolonging survival, but at the same time promoting parasite growth.

Flores-Garcia, Y.; Rosales-Encina, J. L.; Rosales-Garcia, V. H.; Satoskar, A. R.; Talamas-Rohana, P.



Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis Cyt1Aa enhances activity of Cry11Aa toxin by facilitating the formation of a pre-pore oligomeric structure  

PubMed Central

Summary Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis (Bti) has been used worldwide for the control of dipteran insect pests. This bacterium produces several Cry and Cyt toxins that individually show activity against mosquitoes but together show synergistic effect. Previous work demonstrated that Cyt1Aa synergizes the toxic activity of Cry11Aa by functioning as a membrane-bound receptor. In the case of Cry toxins active against lepidopteran insects, receptor interaction triggers the formation of a pre-pore oligomer that is responsible for pore formation and toxicity. In this work we report that binding of Cry11Aa to Cyt1Aa facilitates the formation of a Cry11Aa pre-pore oligomeric structure that is capable of forming pores in membrane vesicles. Cry11Aa and Cyt1A point mutants affected in binding and in synergism had a correlative effect on the formation of Cry11Aa pre-pore oligomer and on pore-formation activity of Cry11Aa. These data further support that Cyt1Aa interacts with Cry11Aa and demonstrate the molecular mechanism by which Cyt1Aa synergizes or suppresses resistance to Cry11Aa, by providing a binding site for Cry11Aa that will result in an efficient formation of Cry11Aa pre-pore that inserts into membranes and forms ionic pores.

Perez, Claudia; Munoz-Garay, Carlos; Portugal, Leivi C.; Sanchez, Jorge; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra



An ?-amylase is a novel receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Summary Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis (Bti) produces four Cry toxins (Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, Cry10Aa and Cry11Aa), and two Cyt proteins (Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba), toxic to mosquito-larvae of the genus Aedes, Anopheles and Culex, important human disease vectors that transmit dengue virus, malaria and filarial parasites respectively. Previous work showed that Bti is highly toxic to Anopheles albimanus, the main vector for transmission of malaria in Mexico. In this work, we analysed the toxicity of isolated Cry proteins of Bti and identified an An. albimanus midgut protein as a putative Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa receptor molecule. Biossays showed that Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa of Bti are toxic to An. albimanus larvae. Ligand blot assays indicated that a 70 kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositolanchored protein present in midgut brush border membrane vesicles of An. albimanus interacts with Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins. This protein was identified as an ?-amylase by mass spectrometry and enzymatic activity assays. The cDNA that codes for the ?-amylase was cloned by means of 5?- and 3?-RACE experiments. Recombinant ?-amylase expressed in Escherichia coli specifically binds Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins.

Fernandez-Luna, Maria Teresa; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberon, Mario; Miranda-Rios, Juan



From introduced species to invader: what determines variation in the success of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) in the North Atlantic Ocean?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) has been introduced accidentally and successfully from Japan to many shores of the northern and southern hemispheres, including those of the Northeast and Northwest Atlantic Ocean. On most European coasts, Codium occurs regularly but at low abundances in the intertidal zone and is absent from subtidal habitats. In contrast, Codium is extremely abundant in subtidal kelp beds in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean where it often reaches nuisance proportions. This differential success cannot be accounted for by either the properties of the invader or by physico-chemical differences between invaded coasts. A theoretical comparison between two regions on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean, i.e. Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada, and south central Britain, illustrates how the resident benthic community may determine the difference in relative abundance of Codium in subtidal habitats between northeast America and Europe. In this review, low floral species diversity, biological disturbance and facilitation by a previous species invasion are suggested as potential factors for the establishment, success and abundance of Codium in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, but these require testing in field experiments.

Chapman, Annelise Sabine



Identification of a wound-induced inhibitor of a nuclear factor that binds the carrot extensin gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following wounding of carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots, the activity of a nuclear factor (EGBF-1) that binds a 5?-region of the carrot extensin gene declines to undetectable\\u000a levels within 48 h. Mixing of nuclear extracts from wounded roots with nuclear extracts from unwounded roots has demonstrated\\u000a the existence of a wound-induced inhibitor of EGBF-1. Inhibition of EGBF-1 DNA-binding activity by

Michael J. Holdsworth; George G. Laties



Proteomics as a way to identify extra-radicular fungal proteins from Glomus intraradices – RiT-DNA carrot root mycorrhizas  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify fungal proteins involved in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, root-inducing transferred-DNA transformed roots of carrot (Daucus carota L.) were in vitro inoculated with Glomus intraradices. Proteins extracted from the extra-radical fungus were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A fungal reference map displaying 438 spots was set up. Four proteins, among the 14 selected for tandem mass spectrometry analysis, were

Eliane Dumas-Gaudot; Ghislaine Recorbet; Marc St-Arnaud; Bastien Fontaine; Marc Dieu; Martine Raes; Ramu Subramania Saravanan; Silvio Gianinazzi



Carrot injury and yield response to ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Container-grown plants of carrot (Daucus carota L.) exposed intermittently to 0.19 or 0.25 ppm ozone throughout their growth increased in plant height and total number of leaves in spite of the development of chlorotic leaves. Leaf dry weight was unaffected by ozone, but root dry matter decreased 32 to 46%. As a result, the root weight\\/total dry weight ration and

J. P. Bennett; R. J. Oshima



DcAGP1, a secreted arabinogalactan protein, is related to a family of basic proline-rich proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA corresponding to the core protein of an immunoaffinity-purified arabinogalactan protein (AGP) secreted by Daucus carota (carrot) cells in liquid culture was isolated. This cDNA, DcAGP1, encodes a new class of `non-classical' AGP with strong similarity to a family of basic proline-rich proteins. The protein is rich in proline (17%), alanine (10%) and lysine (11%) and contains four distinct

Timothy C. Baldwin; Concha Domingo; Thomas Schindler; Gouri Seetharaman; Nicola Stacey; Keith Roberts



Expression Pattern of the Carrot EP3 Endochitinase Genes in Suspension Cultures and in Developing Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrot (Daucus carota) extracellular protein 3 (EP3) class IV endochitinases were previously identified based on their ability to rescue somatic embryos of the temperature-sensitive cell line ts11. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that a subset of the morphologically distinguishable cell types in embryogenic and non- embryogenic suspension cultures, including ts11, express EP3 genes. No expression was found in somatic embryos.

Arjon J. van Hengel; Flavia Guzzo; Ab van Kammen; Sacco C. de Vries



Metabolic engineering of novel ketocarotenoid production in carrot plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids constitute a vast group of pigments that are ubiquitous throughout nature. Carrot (Daucus\\u000a carota L.) roots provide an important source of dietary ?-carotene (provitamin A), ?-carotene and lutein. Ketocarotenoids, such\\u000a as canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are produced by some algae and cyanobacteria but are rare in plants. Ketocarotenoids are\\u000a strong antioxidants that are chemically synthesized and used as dietary supplements

Jayaraman Jayaraj; Robert Devlin; Zamir Punja



Isolation of Additional Bacteriophages with Genomes of Segmented Double-Stranded RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight different bacteriophages were isolated from leaves of Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Lycopersicon esculentum, Daucus carota sativum, Raphanus sativum, and Ocimum basilicum. All contain three segments of double-stranded RNA and have genomic-segment sizes that are similar but not identical to those of previously described bacteriophage f6. All appear to have lipid-containing membranes. The base sequences of some of the viruses




Intergeneric gene transfer mediated by plant protoplast fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In attempts at somatic transfer of plant genomes of reduced size, X-irradiated leaf protoplasts of parsley (Petroselinum hortense, 2n=22) were fused with cell culture protoplasts of a nuclear albino mutant of carrot (Daucus carota, 2n=18). Introduction of genes from the irradiated parsley nuclei into the carrot genome was shown by the correction of the albino defect and by the appearance

Dénes Dudits; Olga Fejér; Gyula Hadlaczky; Csaba Koncz; Gábor B. Lázár; Gábor Horváth



Utilization of metabolic energy under saline conditions: changes in properties of ATP dependent enzymes in plant cells grown under saline conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of growth in saline medium on the activity of two ATP utilizing enzymes was studied. Hexokinase in carrot (Daucus\\u000a carota L.) cells grown in suspension culture either in the absence or presence of 150 ml NaCl, and tonoplast H+-ATPase in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Wisconsin 38) cells grown in suspension culture either in the absence of presence

M. Reuveni



cDNA cloning of an extracellular dermal glycoprotein of carrot and its expression in response to wounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspension-cultured cells of carrot (Daucus carota L.) synthesize and secrete a glycoprotein that is normally found only in dermal tissues (epidermis, endodermis and periderm). This protein, previously called GP57, is now referred to as EDGP (E xtracellular D ermal G lyco P rotein). We purified sufficient quantities of EDGP to obtain amino-acid sequences on two internal tryptic peptides and screened

Shinobu Satoh I; Arnd Sturm; Tadashi Fujii; Maarten J. Chrispeels



A procedure for the establishment of Glomus mosseae in dual culture with Ri T-DNA-transformed carrot roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stepwise procedure was investigated to determine the optimal conditions for the establishment of Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe in dual in vitro culture with Ri T-DNA-transformed roots of Daucus carota L. Glomus mosseae spores germinated best in 10?mm Tris or MES-buffered medium at pH?values just above neutral. Growth of hyphae from germinated spores was much greater

David D. Douds Jr.



Expression of glyphosate resistance in carrot somatic hybrid cells through the transfer of an amplified 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Daucus carota cell line selected as resistant to N-(phosphonomethyl)-glycine (glyphosate) was found to have increased levels of 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity of 5.5 times over wild-type carrot and an EPSPS protein level increase of 8.7 times as confirmed by Western hybridization analysis. Southern blot hybridization using a petunia EPSPS probe showed increases in the number of copies of

R. M. Hauptmann; G. della-Cioppa; A. G. Smith; G. M. Kishore; J. M. Widholm



Selection of a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia universal hybridizer and its use in intergeneric somatic hybrid formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cell strain carrying a positive (dominant) trait, resistance to azetidine-2-carboxylate (A2C), was selected in strain NX1 which lacked nitrate reductase activity (a negative or recessive trait). This universal hybridizer strain, denoted NXAr, was fused with dextran to a Daucus carota strain, PR, which carried glyphosate (GLP) resistance. A large number of hybrids were selected in a medium

Jingsong Ye; Randal M. Hauptmann; Alan G. Smith; Jack M. Widholm



Glyphosate selected amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene in cultured carrot cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAR and C1, two carrot (Daucus carota L.) suspension cultures of different genotypes, were subjected to stepwise selection for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl)glycine]. The specific activity of the target enzyme, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), as well as the mRNA level and copy number of the structural gene increased with each glyphosate selection step. Therefore, the tolerance to glyphosate is

Yu-Yau Joanne Shyr; Angus G. Hepburn; Jack M. Widhohn



Isolation of two genes that were induced upon the initiation of somatic embryogenesis on carrot hypocotyls by high concentrations of 2,4-D  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the formation of somatic embryos directly on the surface of hypocotyl sections of Daucus carota L. after exposure to 450??M of 2,4-D for 2?h, followed by culturing without 2,4-D for 2 weeks. A search for differentially expressed genes immediately\\u000a after the 2,4-D treatment resulted in the identification of two genes, Dchsp-1 and Dcarg-1. Dchsp-1 has homology to

E. Kitamiya; S. Suzuki; T. Sano; T. Nagata



The vapour action of essential oils and monoterpenoids against pathogenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vapour action of pure monoterpenoids and volatile oils has been screened for their antifungal activity against four sugarcane\\u000a pathogenic fungi using inverted petriplate method. Among tested monoterpenoids, menthol caused complete mycelial inhibition\\u000a againstCurvularia pallescens at 2000 ppm, geraniol againstColletotrichum falcatum at 3000 ppm, linalool againstC. pallescens at 3000 ppm concentrations. Among tested essential oils, seed oil ofDaucus carota showed

Gurdip Singh; Om Prakash Singh; G. P. Rao; S. R. Sharma



Green fluorescent protein as an efficient selection marker for Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated carrot transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation combined with a visual selection for green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been applied effectively\\u000a in carrot (Daucus carota L.) transformation. Carrot root discs were inoculated with A4, A4T, LBA1334 and LBA9402 strains, all bearing gfp gene in pBIN-m-gfp5-ER. The results indicate that transformed adventitious roots can be visually selected solely based on\\u000a GFP fluorescence with a

R. Baranski; E. Klocke; G. Schumann



The roles of Ri rol and Ng rol genes in hairy root induction in Nicotiana debneyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of Rirol genes in TL-DNA of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes has been previously studied in Nicotiana tabacum and Daucus carota, but it was reported that these plants have a TL-DNA-similar sequence in their genome. We investigated the function of Rirol genes in N. debneyi by infection with A. tumefaciens harboring these genes, because the genome of

Seishiro Aoki; Kunihiko Sy?no



Liposome-mediated delivery of DNA to carrot protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The encapsulation of DNA within liposomes and subsequent fusion of the liposomes with carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts were examined to determine optimum conditions for effective liposome-mediated delivery of DNA to protoplasts. Escherichia coli [3H]DNA could be encapsulated with 50% efficiency using encapsulation volumes as low as 0.5 ml. Incorporation of liposome-encapsulated [3H]DNA by carrot protoplasts increased linearly for 2.5

Benjamin F. Matthews; Dean E. Cress



Development and organ-specific expression of the genes for sucrose synthase and three isoenzymes of acid ?-fructofuranosidase in carrot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady-state levels of transcripts for cellwall ß-fructofuranosidase (cwßF), for isoenzymes I and II of soluble acid ß-fructofuranosidase (sI, sII), and for sucrose synthase (ss) were determined in the sink and source organs of developing carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants. The expression patterns of the four genes clearly differed. The expression of the gene for cwßF was development-specific but not

Arnd Sturm; Veronika Šebková; Kathrin Lorenz; Markus Hardegger; Susanne Lienhard; Christoph Unger



Antibody localization of extensin in cell walls of carrot storage roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation and cross-linking of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) in cell walls of dicotyledonous plants has been correlated with a number of wall-strengthening phenomena. Polyclonal antibodies raised against glycosylated extensin-1, the most abundant HRGP in carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell walls, recognize this antigen on gel and dot blots and on thin sections of epoxy-embedded carrot-root cell walls. Since wall labeling

Joel P. Stafstrom; L. Andrew Staehelin



Developmental regulation of polyamine metabolism in growth and differentiation of carrot culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamine levels and the activities of two polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase (EC and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (EC, were determined during somatic embryogenesis of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell cultures. Embryogenic cultures showed severalfold increases in polyamine levels over nondifferentiating controls. A mutant cell line that failed to form embryos but grew at the same rate as the wild-type

A. A. Fienberg; J. H. Choi; W. P. Lubich; Z. R. Sung



Characterization of a nuclear phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase in carrot suspension culture cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have shown previously that a nuclear phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase activity was present in intact nuclei isolated from carrot suspension culture cells (Daucus carota L.). Here, we further characterized the enzyme activity of the nuclear enzyme. We found that the pH optimum of the nuclear-associated PI kinase varied with assay conditions. The enzyme had a broad pH optimum between 6.5–7.5

Camellia Moses Okpodu



Calcium delays senescence-related membrane lipid changes and increases net synthesis of membrane lipid components in shredded carrots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of Ca2+ on firmness and membrane lipid structural components was evaluated during storage of shredded (wound-stressed) carrot tissues (Daucus carota L. ‘Caropak’). During 10 days of storage at 10 °C and 95% RH, Ca2+ treatment (applied as 1% w\\/v CaCl2 upon shredding) provided 6–16% greater firmness retention than did a water control treatment. Calcium accentuated net increases in

G. A. Picchioni; A. E. Watada; B. D. Whitaker; A. Reyes



Pectin esterification is spatially regulated both within cell walls and between developing tissues of root apices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoclonal antibodies recognizing un-esterified (JIM5) and methyl-esterified (JIM7) epitopes of pectin have been used to locate these epitopes by indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy in the root apex of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Both antibodies labelled the walls of cells in all tissues of the developing root apex. Immunogold labelling observed at the level of the electron microscope indicated

J. Paul Knox; Paul J. Linstead; Janet King; Christine Cooper; Keith Roberts



Expression pattern of the Arabidopsis thaliana AtEP3 \\/ AtchitIV endochitinase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The carrot (Daucus carota L.) EP3 chitinase was shown to be essential for somatic embryo formation in a carrot mutant cell line. We identified the\\u000a Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ortholog of the carrot EP3-3 chitinase gene, designated as AtEP3\\/AtchitIV and analyzed its expression in Arabidopsis by means of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and promoter::?-glucuronidase and luciferase fusions. As in

Paul A. Passarinho; Arjon J. Van Hengel; Paul F. Fransz; Sacco C. de Vries



The detection of fucose residues in plant nuclear envelopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplasts from suspension-culturedDaucus carota L. cells, when fixed and incubated with fluorescein conjugates of the fucosyl-specific lectinUlex europaeus agglutinin I, exhibited the following pattern of labeling: plasma membranes were not marked, but striking halos of fluorescence appeared around the periphery of all nucleic. Identical observations were made with protoplasts fromVicia faba L. leaves,Pisum sativum L. epicotyls,Zea mays L. roots andGlycine

Peter J. Gruber; Kathleen A. Sweeney; Sue Ellen Frederick



Rhamnogalacturonan II, a dominant polysaccharide in juices produced by enzymic liquefaction of fruits and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), a small complex pectic polysaccharide, is released from apple (Malus domestica), carrot (Daucus carota), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by treatment with two commercial liquefying enzyme preparations. RG-II was isolated by size-exclusion chromatography from apple, tomato, and carrot juices obtained by enzymic liquefaction. All the RG-IIs contained the diagnostic sugars, apiose, 2-O-methyl-l-fucose, 2-O-methyl-d-xylose, aceric acid, Kdo and Dha.

Thierry Doco; Pascale Williams; Stéphane Vidal; Patrice Pellerin



DNA analysis of a radiotolerant bacterium Pantoea agglomerans by FT-IR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiation tolerance strain, Pantoea agglomerans was isolated from ?-irradiated carrot samples (Daucus carota). D10 determination showed that the radioresistance of this bacterium is five-fold higher than Escherichia coli, both belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. DNA isolated from untreated and irradiated bacterial cells was analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy to investigate the radiotolerance of this bacterium. At doses <5kGy, an

Canh Le-Tien; Roxanne Lafortune; Francois Shareck; Monique Lacroix



Increase in anthocyanin yield from wild-carrot cell cultures by a selection system based on cell-aggregate size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild-carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell cultures were screened to yield small (less than 63 µm) or large (greater than 170 µm) cell aggregates which were then subcultured. Cultures of the small-size class had a higher, those of the large-size class a lower anthocyanin yield than the unscreened culture. This relationship became accentuated with an increasing number of passages with screening

Alan M. Kinnersley; Donald K. Dougall



Stereoselective biotransformation of ?-alkyl-?-keto esters by endophytic bacteria and yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several strains of endophytic bacteria and yeast were isolated from Daucus carota, Erythrina crista-galli, Curcubita maxima and Fortunella margarita, and tested for the reduction of two model ?-alkyl-?-ketoesters. The yeast strains resulted better biocatalysts for the reduction of the tested substrates with the exception of Enterobacter agglomerans C8 strain, isolated from Erythrina crista-galli, that provided the best results for the

Paula Rodríguez; Beatriz Reyes; María Barton; Camila Coronel; Pilar Menéndez; David Gonzalez; Sonia Rodríguez



Factors affecting transformation of cell cultures from three dicotyledonous pigment-producing species using microprojectile bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene transfer methods were established for cell suspension cultures of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), ohelo (Vaccinium pahalae) and carrot (Daucus carota, two lines) using micro-projectile bombardment. Several parameters were studied (particle size\\/type, helium pressure, stage height, DNA concentration, pre-culture period) to determine which significantly affected transformation efficiency. All the physical parameters influenced transient gene expression, with particle size and type

Simon Deroles; Mary Anne Lila Smith; Carmella Lee



Effects of initial cell density, pH and dissolved oxygen on bioreactor production of carrot somatic embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of initial cell density, pH and dissolved oxygen on bioreactor production of somatic embryos of carrot (Daucus carota L.) were investigated using the cell suspension culture induced from hypocotyl segments in MS medium containing 0.5 mg\\/l 2,4-D. The best embryo production (140 torpedo-shaped embryos\\/ml-medium) was achieved with a medium pH of 5.2 at an initial cell density of 1

Jun-ichi Shigeta; Kenji Sato; Masahiro Mii



Quantitation of gibberellins and the metabolism of [ 3 H]gibberellin A 1 during somatic embryogenesis in carrot and anise cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell line lacking the ability to undergo somatic embryogenasis, and in carrot and anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) cell lines in which embryogenesis could be regulated by presence or absence of 2,4-dichlorophen-oxyacetic acid (2,4-D), in the medium (+2,4-D=no embryogenesis,-2,4-D=embryo differentiation and development), the levels of endogenous gibberellin(s) (GA) were determined by the dwarfrice bioassay, and

Masana Noma; Jochen Huber; Dieter Ernst; Richard P. Pharis



Differential nuclear envelope assembly at the end of mitosis in suspension-cultured Apium graveolens cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

NMCP1 is a plant protein that has a long coiled-coil domain within the molecule. Newly identified NMCP2 of Daucus carota and Apium graveolens showed similar peripheral localization in the interphase nucleus, and the sequence spanning the coiled-coil domain exhibited\\u000a significant similarity with the corresponding region of NMCP1. To better understand disassembly and assembly of the nuclear\\u000a envelope (NE) during mitosis,

Yuta Kimura; Chie Kuroda; Kiyoshi Masuda



Theoretical and Experimental Models of Hormetic Fusion Tubulogenesis  

PubMed Central

Hormetic morphogens are morphogens such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) in mammals and auxin in plants that induce hormetic responses. For example, in vitro, TGF-? stimulates and inhibits cell proliferation at low and high concentrations respectively. I developed a model of hormetic morphogen gradient control of the morphogenesis of the fusion of bilateral aortic precursors (Anlagen) that form the aorta during development; and validated the model with findings obtained by Daucus Carota fusion experiments. Theoretically, radial concentration gradients of a hormetic morphogen can form hollow (vessels) or solid (Carota) tubular structures. In arteries, blood flow and pressure can shape mural gradients and determine wall curvature and thereby vessel diameter. As Anlagen grow they form a temporary common wall that is subsequently removed, which results in fusion of the Anlagen lumina and an aorta with a lumen diameter that accommodates the combined blood flow to the iliac arteries. Carota seedlings grown close together exhibited proximally fused root cones, serial cross-sections of which exhibited coaxial fusion patterns that closely resembled the predicted vascular fusion patterns, thus validating a role for hormesis and hormetic morphogens in the morphogenesis of the aorta and possibly the morphogenesis of other human midline structures.

Fosslien, Egil



Effects of oral administration of yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 and its exopolysaccharides against influenza virus infection in mice.  


Yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 (1073R-1) has been shown to reduce the risk of catching cold in the healthy elderly (Makino et al., Br. J. Nutr., 104, 998-1006, 2010). In addition, the exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by 1073R-1 were also reported to exert immunostimulatory effects in mice such as the augmentation of NK cell activity (Makino et al., J. Dairy Sci., 89, 2873-81, 2006). So, we investigated anti-influenza virus effects of this yogurt and EPS in mice. The yogurt (0.4 ml/day) and EPS (20 ?g/day) were orally administered to BALB/c mice for 21 days prior to intranasal infection with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). As a result, the survival periods were prolonged in both yogurt- and EPS-treated groups compared to the water-treated group. Moreover, in these groups, we observed significant decrease of influenza virus titer and significant increase of anti-influenza virus antibodies (IgA, IgG(1)) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 4 days post infection NK cell activity of splenocytes in both groups was also increased significantly. EPS was further fractionated into neutral EPS (NPS) and acidic EPS (APS), and the NPS (20 ?g/day) or the APS (20 ?g/day) was orally administered to mice for 21 days prior to the intranasal infection. The survival periods were prolonged in APS-treated group, but not in NPS-treated group. Consequently, we concluded that the yogurt fermented with 1073R-1 exerted anti-influenza virus effects in mice by its immunopotentiating activity, and suggested that the APS produced by 1073R-1 was one of active ingredients. PMID:21986509

Nagai, Takayuki; Makino, Seiya; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Haruki



Molecular cloning of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) caspase-8 gene and its involvement in Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida triggered apoptosis.  


Caspase-8 is an initiator caspase that plays a crucial role in some cases of apoptosis by extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Caspase-8 structure and function have been extensively studied in mammals, but in fish the characterization of that initiator caspase is still scarce. In this work, the sea bass counterpart of mammalian caspase-8 was sequenced and characterized, and its involvement in the apoptogenic activity of a toxin from a fish pathogen was assessed. A 2472 bp cDNA of sea bass caspase-8 was obtained, consisting of 1455 bp open reading frame coding for 484 amino acids and with a predicted molecular weight of 55.2 kDa. The sea bass caspase-8 gene has 6639 bp and is organized in 11 introns and 12 exons. Several distinctive features of sea bass caspase-8 were identified, which include two death effector domains, the caspase family domains p20 and p10, the caspase-8 active-site pentapeptide and potential aspartic acid cleavage sites. The sea bass caspase-8 sequence revealed a significant degree of similarity to corresponding sequences from several vertebrate taxonomic groups. A low expression of sea bass caspase-8 was detected in various tissues of non-stimulated sea bass. Furthermore, it is shown that stimulation of sea bass with mid-exponential phase culture supernatants from Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida (Phdp), known to induce selective apoptosis of macrophages and neutrophils, resulted in an increased expression of caspase-8 in the spleen, one of the main affected organs by Phdp infection. PMID:20202478

Reis, Marta I R; Costa-Ramos, Carolina; do Vale, Ana; dos Santos, Nuno M S



ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene apparently created by homoeologous recombination in Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides.  


High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are of considerable interest, because they play a crucial role in determining dough viscoelastic properties and end-use quality of wheat flour. In this paper, ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric HMW-GS gene from Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (AABB, 2n=4x=28) accession D129, was isolated and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the electrophoretic mobility of the glutenin subunit encoded by ChAy/Bx was slightly faster than that of 1Dy12. The complete ORF of ChAy/Bx contained 1671bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 555 amino acid residues (or 534 amino acid residues for the mature protein), making it the smallest HMW-GS gene known from Triticum species. Sequence analysis showed that ChAy/Bx was neither a conventional x-type nor a conventional y-type subunit gene, but a novel chimeric gene. Its first 1305 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Ay type genes, while its final 366 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Bx type genes. The mature ChAy/Bx protein consisted of the N-terminus of 1Ay type subunit (the first 414 amino acid residues) and the C-terminus of 1Bx type subunit (the final 120 amino acid residues). Secondary structure prediction showed that ChAy/Bx contained some domains of 1Ay subunit and some domains of 1Bx subunit. The special structure of this HMW glutenin chimera ChAy/Bx subunit might have unique effects on the end-use quality of wheat flour. Here we propose that homoeologous recombination might be a novel pathway for allelic variation or molecular evolution of HMW-GSs. PMID:24012818

Guo, Xiao-Hui; Bi, Zhe-Guang; Wu, Bi-Hua; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Hu, Ji-Liang; Zheng, You-Liang; Liu, Deng-Cai



Process-scale reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography purification of LL-E19020 alpha, a growth promoting antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lydicus ssp. tanzanius.  


LL-E19020 alpha is a novel antibiotic produced by fermentation of the soil microorganism Streptomyces lydicus ssp. tanzanius. The compound is highly effective in inducing increases in weight gain and feed conversion efficiency in livestock. In order to obtain kilogram quantities of the material for field trials, pilot plant scale fermentations (up to 7500 l) were carried out. The antibiotic was recovered from the fermentation broth by solvent extraction. The resultant crude extract was subjected to reversed-phase (C18) chromatography on a process-scale high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) unit. The heart of the instrumentation is the Millipore Kiloprep chromatograph with the standard 12-l cartridge column. The laboratory housing the chromatograph has been specifically designed for this work. Tanks for mobile phase preparation are mounted on load cells for precise measurement of components. In this explosion-proof laboratory, all solvent handling areas are well ventilated and a separate breathing air system is provided for the operators. For the purification of the LL-E19020 antibiotics, the mobile phase consisted of a gradient of acetonitrile in 0.1 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.5. The effluent was monitored by UV absorbance at 325 nm. Fractions were collected across the peaks of interest and these were analyzed by analytical HPLC. The maximum yield of LL-E19020 alpha obtained in a single run was approximately 100 g. The antibiotic was recovered from the mobile phase by extraction with methylene chloride. The methylene chloride phase was concentrated under reduced pressure to yield a gummy residue which was finally freeze-dried from tertiary butanol to yield an off-white solid suitable for blending with various feed components. PMID:2613793

Williams, D R; Carter, G T; Pinho, F; Borders, D B



Development of diagnostic markers for use in breeding potatoes resistant to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3 using germplasm derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena CPC 2802.  


Quantitative resistance to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3, originally derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC) accession 2802, is present in several potato cultivars and advanced breeding lines. One genetic component of this resistance, a large effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) on linkage group IV (which we have renamed GpaIV(adg)(s)) has previously been mapped in the tetraploid breeding line 12601ab1. In this study, we show that GpaIV(adg)(s) is also present in a breeding line called C1992/31 via genetic mapping in an F(1) population produced by crossing C1992/31 with the G. pallida susceptible cultivar Record. C1992/31 is relatively divergent from 12601ab1, confirming that GpaIV(adg)(s) is an ideal target for marker-assisted selection in currently available germplasm. To generate markers exhibiting diagnostic potential for GpaIV(adg)(s), three bacterial artificial chromosome clones were isolated from the QTL region, sequenced, and used to develop 15 primer sets generating single-copy amplicons, which were examined for polymorphisms exhibiting linkage to GpaIV(adg)(s) in C1992/31. Eight such polymorphisms were found. Subsequently, one insertion/deletion polymorphism, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and a specific allele of the microsatellite marker STM3016 were shown to exhibit diagnostic potential for the QTL in a panel of 37 potato genotypes, 12 with and 25 without accession CPC2082 in their pedigrees. STM3016 and one of the SNP polymorphisms, C237(119), were assayed in 178 potato genotypes, arising from crosses between C1992/31 and 16 G. pallida susceptible genotypes, undergoing selection in a commercial breeding programme. The results suggest that the diagnostic markers would most effectively be employed in MAS-based approaches to pyramid different resistance loci to develop cultivars exhibiting strong, durable resistance to G. pallida pathotype Pa2/3. PMID:19882336

Moloney, Claire; Griffin, Denis; Jones, Peter W; Bryan, Glenn J; McLean, Karen; Bradshaw, John E; Milbourne, Dan



Resequencing of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum Strains Nichols and SS14: Correction of Sequencing Errors Resulted in Increased Separation of Syphilis Treponeme Subclusters  

PubMed Central

Background Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA), the causative agent of syphilis, is a highly clonal bacterium showing minimal genetic variability in the genome sequence of individual strains. Nevertheless, genetically characterized syphilis strains can be clearly divided into two groups, Nichols-like strains and SS14-like strains. TPA Nichols and SS14 strains were completely sequenced in 1998 and 2008, respectively. Since publication of their complete genome sequences, a number of sequencing errors in each genome have been reported. Therefore, we have resequenced TPA Nichols and SS14 strains using next-generation sequencing techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings The genomes of TPA strains Nichols and SS14 were resequenced using the 454 and Illumina sequencing methods that have a combined average coverage higher than 90x. In the TPA strain Nichols genome, 134 errors were identified (25 substitutions and 109 indels), and 102 of them affected protein sequences. In the TPA SS14 genome, a total of 191 errors were identified (85 substitutions and 106 indels) and 136 of them affected protein sequences. A set of new intrastrain heterogenic regions in the TPA SS14 genome were identified including the tprD gene, where both tprD and tprD2 alleles were found. The resequenced genomes of both TPA Nichols and SS14 strains clustered more closely with related strains (i.e. strains belonging to same syphilis treponeme subcluster). At the same time, groups of Nichols-like and SS14-like strains were found to be more distantly related. Conclusion/Significance We identified errors in 11.5% of all annotated genes and, after correction, we found a significant impact on the predicted proteomes of both Nichols and SS14 strains. Corrections of these errors resulted in protein elongations, truncations, fusions and indels in more than 11% of all annotated proteins. Moreover, it became more evident that syphilis is caused by treponemes belonging to two separate genetic subclusters.

Strouhal, Michal; Cejkova, Darina; Zobanikova, Marie; Mikalova, Lenka; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Smajs, David



Evidence for cross-tolerance to nutrient deficiency in three disjunct populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata in response to substrate calcium to magnesium ratio.  


Species with widespread distributions that grow in varied habitats may consist of ecotypes adapted to a particular habitat, or may exhibit cross-tolerance that enables them to exploit a variety of habitats. Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata (L.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz grow in a wide variety of edaphic settings including serpentine soil, limestone sand, and alluvial flood plains. While all three of these environments share some stressors, a crucial difference among these environments is soil calcium to magnesium ratio, which ranges from 25:1 in the limestone sand to 0.2:1 in serpentine soil. The three populations found on these substrates were subjected to three different Ca to Mg ratios under controlled environmental conditions during germination and rosette growth. Response to Ca to Mg ratio was evaluated through germination success and radicle growth rate, rosette growth rate, and the content of Ca and Mg in the rosette. All three populations were particularly efficient in fueling growth under nutrient deficiency, with the highest nutrient efficiency ratio for Ca under Ca deficiency and for Mg under Mg deficiency. Although the serpentine population had significantly higher leaf Ca to Mg ratio than the limestone or flood plain populations under all three Ca to Mg ratios, this increase did not result in any advantage in growth or appearance of the serpentine plants, during early life stages before the onset of flowering, even in the high Mg substrate. The three populations showed no population by substrate interaction for any of the parameters measured indicating that these populations may have cross-tolerance to substrate Ca to Mg ratio. PMID:23650547

Veatch-Blohm, Maren E; Roche, Bernadette M; Campbell, Maryjean



Characterization of a novel murine model of Staphylococcus saprophyticus urinary tract infection reveals roles for Ssp and SdrI in virulence.  


Staphylococcus saprophyticus, an obligate human pathogen, is the most common Gram-positive causative agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in young, healthy women. Despite the clinical importance of S. saprophyticus, little is known about how it causes disease in the urinary tract or how the host responds to the infection. Here we established an in vivo model to study both host and bacterial factors contributing to S. saprophyticus UTI. Using this model, we show that S. saprophyticus preferentially infects C3H/HeN murine kidneys instead of the bladder, a trait observed for multiple clinical isolates. Bacterial persistence in the kidneys was observed in C3H/HeN mice but not in C57BL/6 mice, indicating that host factors strongly contribute to the ability of S. saprophyticus to cause UTI. Using C3H/HeN mice as a model, histologic and immunofluorescence analyses of infected tissues revealed that S. saprophyticus induced epithelial cell shedding in the bladder and an inflammatory response characterized by macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the bladder and kidneys. The inflammatory response correlated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in both the bladder and the kidneys. Finally, we observed that the putative S. saprophyticus virulence factors Ssp and SdrI were important for persistence, but not for initial colonization, in the murine urinary tract. Thus, we characterized both host and bacterial factors involved in progression of S. saprophyticus UTI, and we describe a useful model system for studying factors involved in the pathogenesis of this Gram-positive uropathogen. PMID:20176795

Kline, Kimberly A; Ingersoll, Molly A; Nielsen, Hailyn V; Sakinc, Türkan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Gatermann, Sören; Caparon, Michael G; Hultgren, Scott J



Characterization of a Novel Murine Model of Staphylococcus saprophyticus Urinary Tract Infection Reveals Roles for Ssp and SdrI in Virulence?  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus saprophyticus, an obligate human pathogen, is the most common Gram-positive causative agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in young, healthy women. Despite the clinical importance of S. saprophyticus, little is known about how it causes disease in the urinary tract or how the host responds to the infection. Here we established an in vivo model to study both host and bacterial factors contributing to S. saprophyticus UTI. Using this model, we show that S. saprophyticus preferentially infects C3H/HeN murine kidneys instead of the bladder, a trait observed for multiple clinical isolates. Bacterial persistence in the kidneys was observed in C3H/HeN mice but not in C57BL/6 mice, indicating that host factors strongly contribute to the ability of S. saprophyticus to cause UTI. Using C3H/HeN mice as a model, histologic and immunofluorescence analyses of infected tissues revealed that S. saprophyticus induced epithelial cell shedding in the bladder and an inflammatory response characterized by macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the bladder and kidneys. The inflammatory response correlated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in both the bladder and the kidneys. Finally, we observed that the putative S. saprophyticus virulence factors Ssp and SdrI were important for persistence, but not for initial colonization, in the murine urinary tract. Thus, we characterized both host and bacterial factors involved in progression of S. saprophyticus UTI, and we describe a useful model system for studying factors involved in the pathogenesis of this Gram-positive uropathogen.

Kline, Kimberly A.; Ingersoll, Molly A.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Sakinc, Turkan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Gatermann, Soren; Caparon, Michael G.; Hultgren, Scott J.



Determination of ACC-induced cell-programmed death in roots of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining.  


Fluorescence staining with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) showed that nuclei of cortex root cells of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-treated Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings differed in color. Measurement of resultant fluorescence intensity (RFI) showed that it increased when the color of nuclear chromatin was changed from green to red, indicating that EB moved to the nuclei via the cell membrane which lost its integrity and stained nuclei red. AO/EB staining showed that changes in color of the nuclear chromatin were accompanied by DNA condensation, nuclei fragmentation, and chromatin degradation which were also shown after 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining. These results indicate that ACC induced programmed cell death. The increasing values of RFI together with the corresponding morphological changes of nuclear chromatin were the basis to prepare the standard curve; cells with green unchanged nuclear chromatin were alive while those with dark orange and bright red nuclei were dead. The cells with nuclei with green-yellow, yellow-orange, and bright orange chromatin with or without their condensation and fragmentation chromatin were dying. The prepared curve has became the basis to draw up the digital method for detection and determination of the number of living, dying, and dead cells in an in planta system and revealed that ACC induced death in about 20% of root cortex cells. This process was accompanied by increase in ion leakage, shortening of cells and whole roots, as well as by increase in weight and width of the apical part of roots and appearance of few aerenchymatic spaces while not by internucleosomal DNA degradation. PMID:22350735

Byczkowska, Anna; Kunikowska, Anita; Ka?mierczak, Andrzej



Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections.  


College students are susceptible to upper respiratory infections (URI) due to inadequate sleep, stress and close living quarters. Certain probiotic strains modulate immune function and may improve health-related quality of life (HRQL) during URI. The present study recruited apparently healthy college students and assessed the effect of probiotics on HRQL outcomes (i.e. self-reported duration, symptom severity and functional impairment of URI) in those who developed URI. Missed school and work days due to URI were also considered. Subjects (n 231) were apparently healthy college students living on campus in residence halls at the Framingham State University (Framingham, MA, USA), and were randomised to receive placebo (n 117) or probiotic-containing powder (daily dose of minimum 1 billion colony-forming units of each Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® (LGG®) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® (BB-12®); n 114) for 12 weeks. Subjects completed The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 to assess HRQL during URI. The final analyses included 198 subjects (placebo, n 97 and probiotics, n 101). The median duration of URI was significantly shorter by 2 d and median severity score was significantly lower by 34% with probiotics v. placebo (P,0·001), indicating a higher HRQL during URI. Number of missed work days was not different between groups (P=0·429); however, the probiotics group missed significantly fewer school days (mean difference = 0·2 d) compared to the placebo group (P=0·002). LGG® and BB-12® may be beneficial among college students with URI for mitigating decrements in HRQL. More research is warranted regarding mechanisms of action associated with these findings and the cost-benefit of prophylactic supplementation. PMID:23020819

Smith, Tracey J; Rigassio-Radler, Diane; Denmark, Robert; Haley, Timothy; Touger-Decker, Riva



Lactobacillus casei ssp.casei induced Th1 cytokine profile and natural killer cells activity in invasive ductal carcinoma bearing mice.  


Lactic acid bacteria which are used as probiotics have ability to modulate immune responses and modify immune mechanisms. It has also been indicated that some strains of this family can affect the immune responses against solid tumors. In the present work, we proposed to study the effects of oral administration of L.cacesi ssp casei on the NK cells cytotoxicity and also production of cytokines in spleen cells culture of BALB/c mice bearing invasive ductal carcinoma. 30 female In-bred BALB/c mice, were used and divided in two groups of test and control each containing 15 mice. Every day from 2 weeks before tumor transplantation 0.5 ml of PBS containing 2.7×108 CFU/ml of L.casei spp casei was orally administered to the test mice and it was followed 3 weeks after transplantation as well with 3 days interval between each week. Control mice received an equal volume of PBS in a same manner. Results showed that oral administration of L. casei significantly increased the production of IL-12 and IFN-? (P<0.05) and increased the natural killer cells (NK) cytotoxicity in spleen cells culture of test mice (P<0.05). It has also been demonstrated that the growth rate of tumor in the test mice was decreased and their survival was significantly prolonged in comparison to the controls. Our findings suggest that daily intake of L.casei can improve immune responses in mice bearing invasive ductal carcinoma, but further studies are needed to investigate the other involving mechanisms in this case. PMID:22761192

Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Yazdi, Mohammad Hossein; Holakuyee, Marzieh; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Mahdavi, Mehdi



Comparison of different preenrichment broths, egg:preenrichment broth ratios, and surface disinfection for the detection of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Enteritidis in shell eggs.  


Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is the leading reported cause of Salmonella infections. Most Salmonella Enteritidis infections are associated with whole shell eggs and egg products. This project attempted to lay the foundation for improving the Food and Drug Administration's current Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs. Two Salmonella Enteritidis isolates were used for comparisons among different preenrichment and enrichment media and for the evaluation of egg:preenrichment broth ratios for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs. The effect of surface disinfection on the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs was also investigated. The results indicated that tryptic soy broth (TSB) was similar to TSB plus ferrous sulfate, but significantly (? = 0.05) better than nutrient broth, Universal Preenrichment broth, and buffered peptone water when used for preenrichment of Salmonella in shell eggs. Salmonella Enteritidis populations after enrichment with Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth were 0.40 to 1.11 log cfu/mL of culture lower than those in preenrichment cultures. The reduction was statistically significant (? = 0.05). Egg:broth ratios at 1:9 and 1:2 produced significantly (? = 0.05) higher Salmonella Enteritidis populations after preenrichment with TSB with inoculum levels at 4 cfu/100 g of eggs and 40 cfu/1,000 g of eggs than the ratio at 1:1. Salmonella Enteritidis populations in TSB preenrichment cultures of shell eggs surface-disinfected with 70% alcohol:iodine/potassium iodide solution and untreated control were 9.11 ± 0.11 and 9.18 ± 0.05 log cfu/mL, respectively, for SE 13-2, and 9.20 ± 0.04 and 9.16 ± 0.05 log cfu/mL, respectively, for SE CDC_2010K_1543. Surface disinfection of eggs did not reduce the sensitivity of detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid eggs. These results could improve the Food and Drug Administration's current Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for the detection of Salmonella in shell eggs by simplifying the preenrichment medium and changing the sample handling before enrichment. PMID:24135606

Zhang, G; Brown, E W; Hammack, T S



AllSet Gold SSP  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

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An Ecological Friendly Dragee Technic Application on Crop Seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summary: In Brazíl, in EMBRAPA/CNPH was developing a dragée technic for seeds of crops and vegetables of carrot (Daucus carota L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), micro tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Andropogon ssp. and Eucalyptus ssp. using as inert material the dolomite (CaCO3 96%) powder fractions (0.05 to 1.00 mm) and as cementing adhesives the polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and Gumma arabicum (Ga) (0 to 80% in water). On dragée process were using fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mankoceb (1 to 5 g fungicide/kg dolomite powder) and nutrients (N, P2O5, K2O 0.05 to 0.5, MgO, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co 0.000005 to 0.1 g/ kg dolomite powder) were applied from 1990. to 1993. Best results obtained with fraction of dolomite powder of 0.07 to 0.60 mm of diameter and adhesive of polyvinyl acetate (PVA) with the concentration between 10 to 20%. The dragées obtained presented a mechanical resistance of 0.5 kg/cm2 had show a germination higher than 90% without any phytotoxical effects to the seedlings. Fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mankoceb with the concentration 3-3 and mineral nutrients N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co with the concentration 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, 0.06, 0.00045, 0.00025, 0.0011, 0.00057, 0.00045, 0.000084, 0.00001 g/kg dolomite powder were showed best reultes, respectively. With this dragée utilization we could make possible the intensive use of highest quality seeds wich because of their higher costs are prohibitive in the actual systems of production. Keywords:crops, vegetables, seeds, dragée, nutrients, fungicides Introduction: In Latin America, Brazíl is the far greatest producer of crops and vegetables, with an annual production estimated at 9.631.000 tons in the value of 1.576 million dollars. Fifty species are cultivated of which 35 are producing botanical seeds including 162 varieties commercialized. The average national production of vegetable seeds is of 1.329,73 tons per year with an additional importation of 553,14 tons (Warley and Homero 1991). Most of the seeds of species are small requiring special preparation of the soil or the formation of seedlings and transplantation limiting the possibilities to mechanized planting. Besides the small size of seeds their trichome contents their wrinkle and their sensibility to mechanical damage difficult their uniform and precise distribution at sowing. To avoid error of "stand" and excessive number of seeds is sown followed by thinning out to eliminate exceeding plants. That results in the rise of production costs leding the producer to the utilization of cheaper seeds giving up extra gains that may results from the usage of better cultivars. The dragée facilitates the uniform distribution of seeds and makes precision mechanical planting possible (Márton 1993). In the process of plant productions the use of dragéed seeds facilitates the distribution of seeds that rises productive rentability (Silva and Márton 1992). The National Research Center for Vegetable Crops was developing dragée techniques of seeds based on Hungarian technology viewing the utilization of natural resources from the Brazílian situation from 1990 to 1993 (Márton 1999, 2000). Material and Method: At the first stage an equipment was developed for the production of dragées on the laboratory scale. The apparatus was permitting different material tests of seeds of various species obtaining dragées of carrot (Daucus carota L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and micro tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Andropogon ssp. and Eucalyptus ssp. using as inert material the dolomite (CaCO3 96%) powder fractions (0.05 to 1.00 mm) and as cementing adhesives the polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and Gumma arabicum (Ga) (0 to 80% in water). On dragée process were using fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mancoceb (1 to 5 g fungicide/kg dolomite powder) and mineral nutrients (N, P2O5, K2O 0.

László, M.



Identification and characterization of anthocyanins in yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis L.) by High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) analysis.  


Anthocyanins play an important role in physiological functions related to human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the profiles of anthocyanins in the immature purple pods and black seeds of yard-long beans ( Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis L.) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (DAD-ESI/MS) analysis. The individual anthocyanins were identified by comparing their mass spectrometric data and retention times. In the purple pods, five individual anthocyanins were identified: delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (2), cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside (4), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (5), pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (7), and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (8). From the black seed coat of the yard-long beans, seven anthocyanins were identified, including delphinidin-3-O-galactoside (1), cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (3), petunidin-3-O-glucoside (6), and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (9), together with compounds 2, 5, and 8. In this study, we report for the first time anthocyanin profiles for the pod and seed coat of yard-long beans. PMID:20121192

Ha, Tae Joung; Lee, Myoung-Hee; Park, Chang-Hwan; Pae, Suk-Bok; Shim, Kang-Bo; Ko, Jong-Min; Shin, Sang-Ouk; Baek, In-Youl; Park, Keum-Yong



Enhanced formation of aerenchyma and induction of a barrier to radial oxygen loss in adventitious roots of Zea nicaraguensis contribute to its waterlogging tolerance as compared with maize (Zea mays ssp. mays).  


Enhancement of oxygen transport from shoot to root tip by the formation of aerenchyma and also a barrier to radial oxygen loss (ROL) in roots is common in waterlogging-tolerant plants. Zea nicaraguensis (teosinte), a wild relative of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), grows in waterlogged soils. We investigated the formation of aerenchyma and ROL barrier induction in roots of Z.?nicaraguensis, in comparison with roots of maize (inbred line Mi29), in a pot soil system and in hydroponics. Furthermore, depositions of suberin in the exodermis/hypodermis and lignin in the epidermis of adventitious roots of Z.?nicaraguensis and maize grown in aerated or stagnant deoxygenated nutrient solution were studied. Growth of maize was more adversely affected by low oxygen in the root zone (waterlogged soil or stagnant deoxygenated nutrient solution) compared with Z.?nicaraguensis. In stagnant deoxygenated solution, Z.?nicaraguensis was superior to maize in transporting oxygen from shoot base to root tip due to formation of larger aerenchyma and a stronger barrier to ROL in adventitious roots. The relationships between the ROL barrier formation and suberin and lignin depositions in roots are discussed. The ROL barrier, in addition to aerenchyma, would contribute to the waterlogging tolerance of Z.?nicaraguensis. PMID:22471697

Abiko, Tomomi; Kotula, Lukasz; Shiono, Katsuhiro; Malik, Al Imran; Colmer, Timothy David; Nakazono, Mikio



Characterization of the O-4 phosphorylated and O-5 substituted Kdo reducing end group and sequencing of the core oligosaccharide of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp salmonicida lipopolysaccharide using tandem mass spectrometry.  


The molecular structure of the wild strain of the lipopolysaccharide core of Aeromonas salmonicida, ssp salmonicida has been sequenced using tandem mass spectrometry. The core oligosaccharide was determined to contain an O-4 phosphorylated and O-5 substituted Kdo reducing group, and its structure is proposed as the follows: [structure: see text] After the core oligosaccharide of LPS was released from the lipid A portion by conventional treatment with 1% acetic acid, we demonstrated the existence of a homogeneous mixture composed mainly of the native core oligosaccharide containing the Kdo with its O-4 phosphate group intact, and a degraded core oligosaccharide mixture, which eliminated the O-4 phosphate group with extreme facility. The precise molecular structure and glycone sequence of the homogeneous mixture of phosphorylated and dephosphorylated core oligosaccharides was determined by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometric analysis. CID-MS/MS of the homogeneous mixture of permethylated core oligosaccharides afforded a series of diagnostic product ions which confirmed the established sequence of the glycones to be determined. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) tandem mass spectrometry reconfirmed the molecular structure of the dephosphorylated homogeneous permethylated mixture of the core oligosaccharides containing the diastereomeric 4,8- and 4,7-anhydro-alpha-keto acids. PMID:15531806

Banoub, Joseph; El Aneed, Anas; Cohen, Alejandro; Martin, Patrick



Identification of betalains from petioles of differently colored Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. cicla [L.] Alef. Cv. Bright Lights) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  


The betalain pattern of differently colored Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. cicla [L.] Alef. cv. Bright Lights) was investigated for the first time. Nineteen betaxanthins and nine betacyanins were identified by RP-HPLC and positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry, co-injection experiments with semisynthetic reference compounds, and standards derived from authentic plant material, respectively. Histamine-betaxanthin and alanine-betaxanthin were found to be novel betaxanthins, which to the best of our knowledge have not been reported as natural compounds until now. Furthermore, tyramine-betaxanthin (miraxanthin III) and 3-methoxytyramine-betaxanthin, which to date were known only from families other than the Chenopodiaceae, were detected for the first time in colored Swiss chard. The betacyanin pattern of purple petioles was composed of betanin, isobetanin, betanidin, and isobetanidin. Although phyllocactin was present in only trace amounts, further acylated structures such as betanidin-monoferuloyl-5-O-beta-diglucoside and lampranthin II, accompanied by their corresponding C(15)-epimers, were identified. In addition, quantification of betalains and CIE LCh degrees measurements were performed with the colored extracts to correlate the visual appearance with the respective pigment patterns. Besides the novel phytochemical findings, the present study is useful for the evaluation of betalainic Swiss chard as a potential coloring foodstuff. PMID:15137842

Kugler, Florian; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold



EPR as an analytical tool in assessing the mineral nutrients and irradiated food products-vegetables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EPR spectral investigations of some commonly available vegetables in south India, which are of global importance like Daucus carota (carrot), Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (cluster beans), Coccinia indica (little gourd) and Beta vulgaris (beet root) have been carried out. In all the vegetable samples a free radical corresponding to cellulose radical is observed. Almost all the samples under investigation exhibit Mn ions in different oxidation states. The temperature variation EPR studies are done and are discussed in view of the paramagnetic oxidation states. The radiation-induced defects have also been assessed by using the EPR spectra of such irradiated food products.

Prasuna, C. P. Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Gopal, N. O.



Thioredoxin and NADP-thioredoxin reductase from cultured carrot cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dark-grown carrot (Daucus carota L.) tissue cultures were found to contain both protein components of the NADP\\/thioredoxin system—NADP—thioredoxin reductase and the thioredoxin characteristic of heterotrophic systems, thioredoxin h. Thioredoxin h was purified to apparent homogeneity and, like typical bacterial counterparts, was a 12-kdalton (kDa) acidic protein capable of activating chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC more effectively than fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC

Thomas C. Johnson; Ri Qiang Cao; Jacob E. Kung; Bob B. Buchanan



Pyrophosphate:fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase operates in net gluconeogenic direction in taproots of cold and drought stressed carrot plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to further investigate the regulatory interplay between pyrophosphate:fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP) and its positive ef- fector fuctose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) in heterotrophic tissues. Transformation of carrot plants (Daucus carota L. cv. Nantes Duke) with mutated mammalian 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase \\/ fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase gene (6-PF-2-K\\/ Fru 2,6-P2ase) produced carrot taproots which possessed between 163% and 410% of the

Gabriella Kovács; Seppo Sorvari; Peter Scott; Ottó Toldi



Alcataenia fraterculae sp. n. from the horned puffin, Fratercula corniculata (Naumann), Alcataenia cerorhincae sp. n. from the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas), and Alcataenia larina pacifica ssp. n. (Cestoda: Dilepididae) in the North Pacific basin.  


Three Cestodes representing two species of the genus Alcataenia Spasskaia, 1971 and a subspecies of Alcataenia larina (Krabbe, 1869) are described. Alcataenia fraterculae sp. n. (Cestoda: Dilepididae) was found in horned puffins, Fratercula corniculata (Naumann), and other species of seabirds from localities in the western Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, and Chukchi Sea. Alcataenia cerorhincae sp. n. is described from the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas) in the eastern North Pacific Ocean and western Aleutian Islands. Alcataenia larina pacifica ssp. n. is recognized from species of Laridae and other seabirds in the North Pacific Ocean, Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea and the region of the Arctic Ocean near Bering Strait. It is distinguished from A. larina larina (Krabbe, 1869) by a greater number of testes, a longer cirrus sac, and variation in the position of the genital ducts which may be either dorsal to or between the osmoregulatory canals. A fraterculae and A. cerorhincae are most similar to A. larina and particularly to the North Pacific form A. l. pacifica. Generally specimens of A. fraterculae can be distinguished from the other taxa by larger rostellar hooks, a longer cirrus sac, and a combination of other characters. A. fraterculae, A. cerorhincae, and A. l. pacifica however represent a complex of cryptic species in which there is extensive overlap in some morphological characters. Results of a discriminant analysis among these nominal taxa were significant and, in combination with data about other morphological characters and host and geographic distribution, clearly indicated that these represent three species in the North Pacific basin. PMID:6486621

Hoberg, E P



Mass spectrometric analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae rough strain R20 (O1-: K20-) lipopolysaccharide preparations: identification of novel core oligosaccharide components and three 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic artifacts.  


In an attempt to find the best approach for the mass spectrometric analysis of the whole range of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structures from Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae rough strain R20 (O1-:K20-), various methods of LPS preparation were applied and the products were analyzed using a range of mass spectrometric techniques. The most productive approach proved to be the removal of lipid A by mild acid hydrolysis and the study of the core oligosaccharide structures using nanoelectrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) in combination with collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. This procedure is very sensitive, but results in the generation of a reducing 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid residue (Kdo) that is susceptible to the formation of artifacts, which give rise to pseudomolecular ions 18, 46, and 88 Da below the pseudomolecular ion for the unmodified species. Alternatively, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization TOF-MS combined with post-source decay can be used to study the de-O-acylated LPS preparation and especially to identify those residues bearing phosphate groups and the residues involved in the linkage between the core and lipid A. In addition to the five LPS core structures defined using NMR spectroscopy by Süsskind et al., several extra related LPS structure were identified. Larger LPS species were observed, which surprisingly do not represent species containing longer versions of the novel Klebsiella heptoglycan, but instead are species having the defined core and heptoglycan extended with up to three extra hexuronic acid and one or two extra hexose residues. PMID:10394628

Olsthoorn, M M; Haverkamp, J; Thomas-Oates, J E



Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems. Initial assessment of plant DNA mutation spectra as a biomarker  

SciTech Connect

Munitions material can enter the environment as a result of manufacturing activities and field usage. Predictor methodologies, or biomarkers would enhance evaluation of environmental impacts. The goal of this exploratory study deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mutation frequency as a biomarker for munitions exposure. The approach e resolution of an effective repetitive sequence probe for the identification of characteristic mutations, and (2) the development of a testing media [a clonal cell line of carrot (Daucus carota) spension cells]. Commercially available probes demonstrated marginal resolution therefore a low-C{sub o}t library was then constructed. Three colonies from the low-C{sub o}t DNA library were screened and the DNA isolates sequenced. A suspension culture of carrot (Daucus carota) was developed. A mutation spectra experiment was initiated at a 10-mg TNT/L exposure concentration with the attempt to clone over 1500 single TNT-exposed cells. Over the following six months greater than 98% of the initially isolated cells were unable to survive and produce micro calluses. The remaining calli were too few to be statistically significant and the experiment was terminated. The biomarker concept itself remains to be disproved, but the need for large numbers of uniform clones to differentiate true mutations suggest that more direct techniques using whole tissues need to be developed.

Leung, F.; Cataldo, D.A.; Fellows, R.J.; Jarrell, A.E.; Harvey, S.D.



Susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria ssp  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with {sup 3}H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with {sup 125}I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae.

Whiteman, L.Y.



The NERSC Sustained System Performance (SSP) Metric  

SciTech Connect

Most plans and reports recently discuss only one of four distinct purposes benchmarks are used. The obvious purpose is selection of a system from among its competitors, something that is the main focus of this paper. This purpose is well discussed in many workshops and reports. The second use of benchmarks is validating the selected system actually works the way expected once it arrives. This purpose may be more important than the first reason. The second purpose is particularly key when systems are specified and selected based on performance projections rather than actual runs on the actual hardware. The third use of benchmarks, seldom mentioned, is to assure the system performs as expected throughout its lifetime1, (e.g. after upgrades, changes, and regular use.) Finally, benchmarks are used to guide system designs, something covered in detail in a companion paper from Berkeley's Institute for Performance Studies (BIPS).

Kramer, William; Shalf, John; Strohmaier, Erich



Dynamics of Nitrogenous Assimilate Partitioning between Cytoplasmic and Vacuolar Fractions in Carrot Cell Suspension Cultures 1  

PubMed Central

Bulk vacuole isolation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,, and high-performance liquid chromatography have been used to investigate the accumulation and partitioning of assimilated nitrogen supplied as 15NH4Cl between vacuolar and extravacuolar (cytoplasmic) fractions of protoplasts from suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv Chantenay). Glutamine was the most abundant amino acid in the vacuole of protoplasts from late-exponential phase cells, whereas alanine, glutamate, and ?-aminobutyric acid were located primarily in the cytoplasmic fraction. In 15N-feeding studies, newly synthesized glutamine partitioned strongly to the vacuole, whereas glutamate partitioned strongly to the cytoplasm, ?-aminobutyric acid was totally excluded from the vacuole, and alanine was distributed in both compartments. Comparison of the 15N-enrichment patterns suggests that initial assimilation to glutamine occurs within a subcompartment of the cytoplasmic fraction. The protoplast-feeding technique may be extended to investigate cytoplasmic compartmentation further. Images Figure 1

Carroll, Andrew D.; Stewart, George R.; Phillips, Richard



Simulation of germination of pioneer species along an experimental drought gradient.  


The germination of ten plant species from the Iberian Peninsula was assessed along a water deficit gradient between -0. 1652 (moist) and -0.4988 MPa (dry) of osmotic potential, created by addition of increasing concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) to distilled water in which plants were grown hydroponically. The level and rate of germination of Daucus carota and Thapsia villosa significantly decreased with decreasing psi. Seeds of Dactylis glomerata and Dittrichia viscosa had positive germination responses to low osmotic potentials; germination of Epilobium hirsutum was not affected by osmotic potential. Germination of Medicago arabica, Cynosurus cristatus, Cistus ladanifer and Cistus albidus, was no favored by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Germination of Foeniculum vulgare and Thapsia villosa was inhibited by PEG. PMID:17405330

Pérez-Fernández, María A; Calvo-Magro, E; Ferrer-Castán, D



Antioxidant enzymes in phytoparasitic nematodes.  


Presence of different antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and ascorbate, p-phenilendiamine-pyrocathecol (PPD-PC), o-dianisidine, and guaiacol isoperoxidases, was shown in the phytoparasific nematode species Meloidogyne incognita, M. hapla, Globodera rostochiensis, G. pallida, Heterodera schachtii, H. carotae, and Xiphinema index. The activity of the enzymes tested differed among the life stages examined. SOD was present in cysts but was not detected in Meloidogyne egg masses. Catalase activity of Meloidogyne females was higher than that of preparasitic stages and cyst-nematode females. For the first time, ascorbate peroxidase was found to occur commonly in phytoparasitic nematodes, with the highest activity in the invading life-stages. In all the life stages examined, the antioxidant enzyme activities of M. hapla were markedly higher than those of M. incognita. Glutathione peroxidase was not found in the species examined. PMID:19274144

Molinari, S; Miacola, C



Plant uptake of sludge-borne PCBs  

SciTech Connect

Plant uptake of sludge-borne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (similar to Aroclor 1248) was evaluated in a greenhouse study with two food-chain crops and a grass species. Polychlorinated biphenyl loading to two soils was varied in one experiment by adding different rates of a municipal sewage sludge heavily contaminated (52 mg/kg) with PCBs. In a second experiment, Aroclor 1248 was spiked into unamended soils or soils amended with another sludge containing <1mg/kg PCBs. Analysis of PCBs was by GC/MS with a reliable detection limit in plants of 20 microg/kg for individual chlorinated classes (tri, tetra-, and pentachlorobiphenyls) and total PCBs. Only carrots (Daucus carota) were contaminated with PCBs, and contamination was restricted to carrot peels. Current USEPA guidelines for land application of sludges based on sludge PCB content are shown to be extremely conservative.

O'Connor, G.A.; Kiehl, D.; Eiceman, G.A.; Ryan, J.A.



Radiosensitivity of different tissues from carrot root at different phases of growth in culture  

SciTech Connect

The present work compares the effect of ..gamma..-radiation dose and time in culture on the growth of cambium and phloem carrot (Daucus carota) root explants. It was found that the phloem is more radiosensitive than the cambium and that both tissues were more radiosensitive when irradiated on excision at the G/sub 1/ phase rather than at the end of the lag phase on the ninth day of growth in culture when cells were predominantly at the G/sub 2/ phase. The nuclear volumes of cells from both tissues were similar but were larger at the end of the more radioresistant lag phase than those of the G/sub 1/ phase on excision. However, nuclear volume could not account for the differences in radiosensitivity between either the tissues or irradiation times in culture.

Degani, N.; Pickholtz, D.



Nitrogen Metabolism in Plant Cell Suspension Cultures  

PubMed Central

Certain amino acids inhibit growth of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. xanthi), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) carrot (Daucus carota), and soybean (Glycerine max L. co. Mandarin) cell cultures when nitrate or urea are the nitrogen sources but not when ammonia is the nitrogen source. These amino acids also inhibit development of nitrate reductase activity (NADH:nitrate oxidoreductase EC in tobacco and tomato cultures. Threonine, the most inhibitory amino acid, also inhibits nitrate uptake in tobacco cells. Arginine, and some other amino acids, abolish the inhibition effects caused by other amino acids. We suggest that amino acids inhibit assimilation of intracellular ammonium into amino acids in cells grown on nitrate or urea.

Behrend, Josef; Mateles, Richard I.



Quantitative permeability imaging of plant tissues.  


A method for mapping tissue permeability based on time-dependent diffusion measurements is presented. A pulsed field gradient sequence to measure the diffusion encoding time dependence of the diffusion coefficients based on the detection of stimulated spin echoes to enable long diffusion times is combined with a turbo spin echo sequence for fast NMR imaging (MRI). A fitting function is suggested to describe the time dependence of the apparent diffusion constant in porous (bio-)materials, even if the time range of the apparent diffusion coefficient is limited due to relaxation of the magnetization. The method is demonstrated by characterizing anisotropic cell dimensions and permeability on a subpixel level of different tissues of a carrot (Daucus carota) taproot in the radial and axial directions. PMID:19921172

Sibgatullin, Timur A; Vergeldt, Frank J; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk



Transfer of resistance traits from carrot into tobacco by asymmetric somatic hybridization: Regeneration of fertile plants  

PubMed Central

Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly lower chromosome number than predicted by simple addition of parental chromosome number. The methotrexate resistance phenotype was correlated with the expression of carrot-specific dihydrofolate reductase as judged by isozyme and immunological characteristics of the enzyme. The genomic construct of these somatic hybrids made the transmission of the resistance character into the next sexual generation possible. Images

Dudits, Denes; Maroy, Eszter; Praznovszky, Tunde; Olah, Zoltan; Gyorgyey, Janos; Cella, Rino



Reconstitution of intermediate filaments from a higher plant.  

PubMed Central

Immunological studies have shown that plants contain intermediate-filament antigens, but it is not known whether these proteins are capable in themselves of forming filaments. To address this problem, a detergent-resistant and high-salt-insoluble fraction from carrot (Daucus carota L.) suspension cells was solubilized with 9 M-urea and then subjected to a two-step dialysis procedure, devised for the reconstitution of animal intermediate filaments. This induced the self-assembly of 10 nm filaments and large bundles of filaments. The predominant components of reconstituted material were polypeptides with apparent molecular masses between 58 and 62 kDa. These polypeptides immunoblotted with two monoclonal antibodies known to show broad cross-reactivity with intermediate filaments across the phylogenetic spectrum. This establishes that the antigens are able to self-assemble into intermediate-sized filaments. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

Hargreaves, A J; Goodbody, K C; Lloyd, C W



Improved Method for HPLC Analysis of Polyamines, Agmatine and Aromatic Monoamines in Plant Tissue  

PubMed Central

The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of Flores and Galston (1982 Plant Physiol 69: 701) for the separation and quantitation of benzoylated polyamines in plant tissues has been widely adopted by other workers. However, due to previously unrecognized problems associated with the derivatization of agmatine, this important intermediate in plant polyamine metabolism cannot be quantitated using this method. Also, two polyamines, putrescine and diaminopropane, also are not well resolved using this method. A simple modification of the original HPLC procedure greatly improves the separation and quantitation of these amines, and further allows the simulation analysis of phenethylamine and tyramine, which are major monoamine constituents of tobacco and other plant tissues. We have used this modified HPLC method to characterize amine titers in suspension cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissues. Images Figure 4 Figure 5

Slocum, Robert D.; Flores, Hector E.; Galston, Arthur W.; Weinstein, Leonard H.



Sensitivity of Carrot Cell Cultures and RNA Polymerase II to Amatoxins 1  

PubMed Central

Protoplast and cell suspension cultures of Daucus carota L. were evaluated for their sensitivity toward the three amatoxin derivatives, ?-amanitin, 6?-deoxy-?-amanitin, and 6?-O-methyl-?-amanitin using inhibition of DNA synthesis to measure cell viability. Protoplasts appeared approximately 10-fold more refractory than suspension cells and ?-amanitin was much less effective than the other two amatoxins, even though Ki values for isolated RNA polymerase II were similar (4-5 nanomolar). Additional studies evaluating the recoveries of all three amatoxins from cell suspension supernates indicate one basis for these differences to be the selective degradation of ?-amanitin. A mechanism involving the activation of the hydroxyindole moiety of the ?-amanitin is thus invoked to explain these differences and we postulate the involvement of plant oxidases in this role.

Little, Michael C.; Preston, James F.



Texas Trailing Phlox(Phlox nivalis ssp. texensis) Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current Status: The Texas trailing phlox is listed as endangered. Once occurring at 17 sites in Hardin, Polk, and Typer counties, only two populations are currently known to properties owned by the nature Conservancy and private landowners, and on highway...

M. J. Warnock



[Viability and activity of the lactic bacteria (Streptococcus salivarius ssp thermophilus y Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp bulgaricus) del yogurt en Venezuela].  


National and international legislations have agreed that the population of lactic bacteria in yogurt must be viable and not less than 10(6) ufc/g. In Venezuela, during last years, observations indicate that the number of viable cells in some commercial samples show high variations, as low levels. This research attempted to find the origin of this problem in the local industry. For this purpose 105 commercial samples were analyzed during their shelf life and 32 samples of yogurt prepared in the laboratory following the flow diagram of the local industry. The different conditions of freeze dried lactic culture, were also analyzed. These samples were evaluated for viable cell count of lactic bacteria and possible variations of pH and acidity. The absence or low number of lactic bacteria detected in some commercial samples is due to the use of inadequate working cultures that show imbalanced proportions of the two microorganisms, besides a low count below 106 ufc/g. The succesive propagation and storage time of mother culture, and the overacidification of the product, produce subletal injury to the microbial cells of the yogurt starter culture. The data indicate that manufacturing practices significantly affect the survival of the lactic flora. PMID:11510428

Briceńo, A G; Martínez, R; García, K



Osmotically Induced Proton Extrusion from Carrot Cells in Suspension Culture 1  

PubMed Central

Addition of 200 mm of a polyol to anthocyanin containing carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells in suspension culture decreased turgor pressure to zero and induced hyperpolarization of the membrane potential and acidification of the medium due to H+ extrusion. These changes were shown to be slightly affected by vanadate. In parallel, a decrease in intracellular ATP and total adenylate concentrations were observed. However, when the osmoticum was NaCl acidification of the medium occurred in the absence of considerable changes in intracellular ATP concentration. These results are interpreted as indicating that a drop of turgor, by addition of a polyol, triggers a proton extrusion activity which is only slightly inhibited by vanadate but apparently ATP utilizing. The observed decrease in ATP level occurs without a change in respiration rate and is accompanied by a drop in total adenylate pool. However when NaCl is the osmoticum it is assumed that ??H+ is enhanced through a Na+/H+ antiporter. The difference between the two types of osmotica as related to their ability to penetrate through the cellular membrane is discussed.

Reuveni, Moshe; Colombo, Roberta; Lerner, Henri R.; Pradet, Alain; Poljakoff-Mayber, Alexandra



Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone for plant nuclear antigen 21D7 associated with cell division.  

PubMed Central

A cDNA clone was isolated from a carrot (Daucus carota L.) cDNA expression library using monoclonal antibody 21D7, which recognizes a nuclear antigen associated with cell division in plant cells. To show that the isolated cDNA encodes the 21D7 antigen, a polyclonal antiserum was raised against a recombinant fusion protein specified by the cDNA. Both the polyclonal antiserum and the monoclonal antibody 21D7 recognized the same plant protein on immunoblots, in immunoprecipitation experiments, and in peptide mapping. Analysis of the cDNA revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence has 45% identity to the predicted sequence of the mouse transplantation antigen P91A from mutant tumor cells that is responsible for the immune rejection of the corresponding cell clone in a syngeneic mouse. The expression of the plant cDNA at the mRNA level was highly correlated with cell proliferation. In suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G Don. cells, the highest level of expression was observed during the midlogarithmic phase of growth. When auxin was added to stimulate cell division of auxin-starved cells arrested in the G1 phase, transcription was immediately enhanced, and the level of expression remained high throughout the G1 and S phases and dropped dramatically at the end of DNA replication.

Smith, M W; Ito, M; Yamada, T; Suzuki, T; Komamine, A



Carbonaceous soil amendments to biofortify crop plants with zinc.  


Carbonaceous soil amendments, comprising mixtures of biosolids and biochar, have been demonstrated to improve fertility while reducing nitrate leaching. We aimed to determine the efficacy of a biosolids/biochar soil amendment in biofortification of vegetables with Zn, an element that is deficient in one third of humanity. We grew beetroot (Beta vulgaris), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus), broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), leek (Allium ampeloprsum), onion (Allium cepa), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), corn (Zea mays), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and courgette (also called zucchini - Cucurbita pepo) in an unamended soil (silt loam, pH5.6), and soil amended (by volume) with 10% biosolids, 20% biochar, and 10% biosolids+20% biochar. The biosolids and biosolids+biochar treatments significantly increased the biomass and Zn concentration of most species, with a large interspecific variation. Beetroot showed the greatest increase, with dry weight Zn concentrations of up to 178 and 1200mgkg(-1) in the bulbs and leaves respectively. Cadmium, Cu and Pb were below guideline levels in all samples, except the leaves of spinach and beetroot, which slightly exceeded the World Health Organisation's maximum permitted concentration of 0.1mgCdkg(-1) fresh weight. A mixture of biosolids and biochar is an effective means to biofortify crops with edible leaves as well as beetroot with Zn. Future research should investigate the efficacy of the system in other soil types and the role of biochar in the immobilisation/inactivation of organic contaminants and pathogens contained within the biosolids. PMID:23146312

Gartler, Jörg; Robinson, Brett; Burton, Karen; Clucas, Lynne



Studies on the Pectic Substances of Plant Cell Walls  

PubMed Central

Pectate lyase was isolated from the cell extract of Erwinia aroideae. The enzyme was further purified to a high degree by a procedure involving ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50 and on Sephadex G-200. The enzyme attacked its substrate in an endo fashion and was more active on the sodium salt of acid-insoluble polygalacturonate or pectic acid than it was on the methoxylated pectin. The enzyme had an optimum pH at 9.3, was stimulated by calcium ions, and was completely inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. In addition, the reaction products showed an absorption maximum between 230 and 235 nm and reacted with thiobarbituric acid. These results indicate that the purified enzyme is an endopectate lyase. The endopectate lyase also had the ability to solubilize effectively the pectic fraction from the cell walls of carrot (Daucus carota) root tissue. The enzyme released 30.5% of the wall as soluble products and also liberated all of the galacturonic acid present in the walls. The total neutral sugars released by the enzyme were 10.6% of the walls, which corresponded to 71.5% of noncellulosic neutral sugars. The soluble products were separated into five fractions by DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column chromatography. Based on the analysis of sugar composition of each fraction, the pectic fraction of carrot cell wall is presented.

Konno, Haruyoshi; Yamasaki, Yoshiki



Uranium in vegetable foodstuffs: should residents near the Cunha Baixa uranium mine site (Central Northern Portugal) be concerned?  


Large uranium accumulations in vegetable foodstuffs may present risks of human health if they are consumed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the uranium concentrations in different vegetable foodstuffs and grown in agricultural soils, which are then consumed by the residents of the village of Cunha Baixa (Portugal),--located in an former uranium mining area. This study was conducted to address concerns expressed by the local farmers as well as to provide data for uranium-related health risk assessments for the area. Soils, irrigation water and edible tissues of lettuce, potato, green bean, carrot, cabbage, apple and maize (Latuca sativa L., Solanum tuberosum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L., Malus domestica Borkh, Zea mays L., respectively) were sampled and uranium determined. High uranium concentrations were found in some soils (U(total) > 50 mg/kg), in irrigation waters (218 to 1,035 ?g/l) and in some vegetable foodstuffs (up to 234, 110, 30, 26, 22, 16 and 1.6 ?g/kg fresh weight for lettuce, potato with peel, green bean pods, cabbage, corn, carrot and apple, respectively). However, the results of the toxicity hazard analysis were reassuring the estimated level of uranium exposure through the ingestion of these vegetable foodstuffs was low, suggesting no chemical health risk (hazard quotient <1) to this uranium exposure pathway for a local residents during their lifetime, even for the most sensitive part of the population (child). PMID:21964853

Neves, M O; Abreu, M M; Figueiredo, V



Fourier-Transform Raman and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (An Investigation of Five Higher Plant Cell Walls and Their Components).  

PubMed Central

Infrared and Raman spectra of sequentially extracted primary cell walls and their pectic polymers were obtained from five angiosperm plants. Fourier-transform Raman spectrometry was shown to be a powerful tool for the investigation of primary cell-wall architecture at a molecular level, providing complementary information to that obtained by Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy. The use of an extraction procedure using imidazole instead of cyclohexane trans-1,2-N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-diaminotetraacetate allows the extension of the infrared spectral window for data interpretation from 1300 to 800 cm-1, to 2000 to 800 cm-1, and allows us to obtain Raman spectra from extracted cell-wall material. Wall constituents such as pectins, proteins, aromatic phenolics, cellulose, and hemicellulose have characteristic spectral features that can be used to identify and/or fingerprint these polymers without, in most cases, the need for any physical separation. The Gramineae (rice [Oryza sativa], polypogon [Polypogon fugax steud], and sweet corn [Zea mays]) are spectroscopically very different from the nongraminaceous monocotyledon (onion [Allium cepa]) and the dicotyledon (carrot [Daucus carota]); this reflects differences in chemical composition and cross-linking of the walls. The possibility of a taxonomic classification of plant cell walls based on infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the use of spectral fingerprinting for authentication and detection of adulteration of products rich in cell-wall materials are discussed.

Sene, CFB.; McCann, M. C.; Wilson, R. H.; Grinter, R.



Synthesis of Methylated Ethanolamine Moieties  

PubMed Central

Cultured cell suspensions of both carrot (Daucus carota L.) and soybean (Glycine max) take up exogenous choline efficiently from their respective growth media. During sustained growth at a concentration near 50 micromolar choline, this compound was taken up at rates which exceeded those at which phosphatidylcholine, is synthesized by cells growing in standard (i.e. choline-free) media. In 50 micromolar choline, both types of cells metabolized this compound to phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine, but not to other detected metabolites, and marked accumulations of phosphocholine and choline occurred relative to phosphatidylcholine. Pregrowth in 50 micromolar choline for several doublings decreased the rate at which carrot cells transferred 3H from l-[3H3C] methionine into the network of all methylated derivatives of ethanolamine by some 98%. With soybean cells, a decrease of 77% was observed. In both cell types, transfer of 3H into S-methylmethionine, pectin methyl esters, methylated nucleic acids, and nonpolar lipid continued unabated. Gel-filtered extracts of carrot cells pregrown in 50 micromolar choline had marked decreases in the specific activities of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent phosphoethanolamine, phosphomethylethanolamine, and phosphodimethylethanolamine N-methyltransferases; extracts of soybean cells had a similar decrease in phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase. The significance of these findings for regulation of the rate of synthesis of methylated ethanolamine moieties is discussed.

Mudd, S. Harvey; Datko, Anne H.



Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens from different cultivated soils.  


The occurrence of Clostridium perfringens was estimated in 750 samples originated from a variety of soils bearing various bulb crops: Brawnica oderacea (vegetable), Olea europaea, Daucus carota (carote), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Phaseolus vulgaris (green haricot), Beta vulgaris var. rapaceum (beetroot), Cucurbita pepo (squash), Allium cepa (onion), Cucumis sativus (cucumber) and Capsicum annum (pepper). All isolated strains were tested for their antimicrobial activities to amoxicillin, penicillin G, kanamycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and metronidazole. When considering the type of the bulb production, it was observed increased number of C. perfringens spore densities in the most undersurface bulb soils. Moreover, C. perfringens spore are likely to occur in particularly large numbers in soil contaminated by fecal matter. Additionally, there is a close relationship between the spore amount and nature of organic content. Presence of C. perfringens was associated with acidic soil. Most of our strains showed resistance to the studied antibiotics applied usually for human and veterinary care. A systematic monitoring of the cultivated soil ecosystems must include bacteriological parameters together with chemical indices of organic pollution in order to obtain information adequate for assessing their overall quality. PMID:21621626

Voidarou, C; Bezirtzoglou, E; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Stefanis, C; Papadopoulos, I; Vavias, S; Stavropoulou, E; Fotou, K; Tzora, A; Skoufos, I



Methyl mercury toxicity in plant cultures: modification of resistance and demethylation by light and/or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid  

SciTech Connect

Cultures of Daucus carota, Ca-68-10, and Lactuca sativa, Le-67, were grown at increasing methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations ranging from initial doses of 0.05 to 5.0 micrograms/ml per day for 4 days with or without 0.15 microgram/ml 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in the presence or absence of light. The presence of 2,4-D interacted with light synergistically in the expression of MeHg toxicity within the whole range of concentrations. Demethylation patterns increased or decreased depending on the species, the 2,4-D concentration in the medium, and methyl mercury concentration used in the treatment. Lettuce was more sensitive to this interaction than carrot. In lettuce, the presence of 2,4-D in the light lowered the concentration of total Hg (or MeHg) required to reduce growth by 50%, about 13 times relative to that in the dark (i.e., it sensitized the cells). In the absence of 2,4-D the pattern was reversed. In carrot the pattern was similar but less pronounced. This suggests that, in these cell populations, MeHg toxicity is partly a hormone-mediated and light-sensitive event.

Czuba, M.



Tissue-dependent distribution and accumulation of chlorobenzenes by vegetables in urban area.  


Five seasonal vegetables from three growing sites in Hangzhou city, Zhejiang Province, were studied for the levels of four chlorobenzenes(CBs): o-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB), p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB), m-dichlorobenzene (m-DCB), and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB). Samples of each vegetable from each site were subdivided into leaves, stems, and roots, and these subsamples were analyzed separately for the levels of accumulated CBs. Relations between the levels of CBs in vegetables with the total organic carbon (TOC) of the soil, the lipid content of the vegetable, and the physicochemical properties of CBs were established. Results showed that o-DCB, p-DCB, m-DCB, 1,2,4-TCB were present in all vegetables analyzed. For spinaches (Spinacia oleracea), Chinese cabbages (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), and celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce), the highest level of CBs was with roots, followed by leaves. While for radishes (Raphanus sativus), and carrots (Daucus carota subsp. sativus), the highest level was with leaves, followed by stems. The accumulation of CBs was found to have a good correlation with the plant-tissue lipid content, the contaminant air-water Henry's coefficient (H), the contaminant octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)), and the physiological characteristics of the vegetables. PMID:16002141

Zhang, Jianying; Zhao, Wei; Pan, Jun; Qiu, Limin; Zhu, Yinmei



Detection and prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in the agricultural ecosystem.  


The sensitivity of four different enrichment procedures to detect Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of high levels of Streptococcus faecalis was investigated. Defined mixed cultures of Strep. faecalis and L. monocytogenes gave better results with one-stage enrichment techniques. For manure samples, however, two-stage enrichment techniques gave the best performance. The so-called cold enrichment techniques were found to be unsatisfactory for samples from natural environments. The following materials were examined for the presence of L. monocytogenes: fresh pig faeces (16% positive), fresh cattle faeces (20% positive), stored liquid manure (0% positive), manured soil samples (0% positive) and ground water samples (5% positive). After 3 weeks of storage L. monocytogenes could be detected in only one of the initially nine positive fresh faeces samples. Two months after inoculation of stored liquid pig manure, stored liquid cattle manure and soil with L. monocytogenes, this bacterium could not be traced in any of these materials. Radishes (Raphanus sativus) and carrots (Daucus carota), sown in soil inoculated with L. monocytogenes, were gathered after 3 months and examined for the presence of L. monocytogenes. Three of six radish samples were found to be positive. Remarkably, however, all carrot samples (six) were free of L. monocytogenes. PMID:1955415

Van Renterghem, B; Huysman, F; Rygole, R; Verstraete, W



Phytotoxicity, uptake and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene by plant cells  

SciTech Connect

Phytotoxicity, uptake, and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) by carrot (Daucus carota L.), soybean (Glycine max. L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and red goosefoot (Chenopodiun rubrum L.) cell suspension cultures were studied. Sealed glass systems were utilized for the investigation because 1,4-DCB is volatile. The sealed systems affect the growth of plant cells, but do not provide different results when testing xenobiotic uptake and metabolism. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene (40 {micro}g in 40 ml medium) was taken up by carrot (49%), soybean (50%), and red goosefoot (62%) cells. Only the soybean cell cultures provided evidence of the existence of metabolites of this compound, probably conjugates of chlorophenols. Conditions for phytotoxicity tests were modified because the growth of cell cultures was affected when sealed for longer than 2 d. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene is toxic to cell cultures of the three tested plant species (tomato, soybean, and carrot). Concentrations of 0.5 mM caused 50% growth inhibition in carrot and soybean cultures. The tomato cultures were more sensitive, with 0.05 mM causing 50% growth inhibition.

Wang, M.J. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Biological Sciences]|[Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences; Bokern, M.; Boehme, C.; Harms, H. [Federal Agricultural Research Center, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science; Jones, K.C. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Biological Sciences



Isolation and characterization of a carrot nucleolar protein with structural and sequence similarity to the vertebrate PESCADILLO protein.  


The nuclear matrix is involved in many nuclear events, but its protein architecture in plants is still not fully understood. A cDNA clone was isolated by immunoscreening with a monoclonal antibody raised against nuclear matrix proteins of Daucus carota L. Its deduced amino acid sequence showed about 40% identity with the PESCADILLO protein of zebrafish and humans. Primary structure analysis of the protein revealed a Pescadillo N-terminus domain, a single breast cancer C-terminal domain, two nuclear localization signals, and a potential coiled-coil region as also found in animal PESCADILLO proteins. Therefore, we designated this gene DcPES1. Although DcPES1 mRNA was detected in all tissues examined, its levels were highest in tissues with proliferating cells. Immunofluorescence using specific antiserum against the recombinant protein revealed that DcPES1 localized exclusively in the nucleolus. Examination of fusion proteins with green fluorescent protein revealed that the N-terminal portion was important for localization to the nucleoli of tobacco and onion cells. Moreover, when the nuclear matrix of carrot cells was immunostained with an anti-DcPES1 serum, the signal was detected in the nucleolus. Therefore, the DcPES1 protein appears to be a component of or tightly bound to components of the nuclear matrix. PMID:23683933

Ueda, Kenji; Xu, Zheng-Jun; Miyagi, Nobuaki; Ono, Michiyuki; Wabiko, Hiroetsu; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Masayasu



Ozone degrades into hydroxyl radical under physiological conditions: a spin trapping study  

SciTech Connect

Defining the reactants is a critical step towards elucidating the mechanism of ozone toxicity to biomembranes. To document ozone-induced HO x radicals, the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide was used and the resulting spin adduct was monitored with electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Chelexed potassium phosphate buffer a pH 7.2 and 7.8 was exposed to ozone by directing a stream of ozone over the surface for 60 seconds. Under these conditions, no HO x was detected. Using 0.5 x 10/sup -4/ molar caffeic acid in phosphate buffer, strong DMPO x OH electron spin resonance signals were obtained, indicating HO x production. High pH (7.8) enhanced signal strength. Furthermore, with sorbitol a net HO x signal loss of 28% was observed, while a carbon-centered sorbitol radical adduct appeared. Although HO x radicals were produced, no breakage of Daucus carota protoplast plasma membranes was observed nor were differences in membrane fluidity observed as determined by 5-doxyl stearic acid.

Grimes, H.D.; Perkins, K.K.; Boss, W.F.



Intracellular pH in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi1  

PubMed Central

A method was developed to perform real-time analysis of cytosolic pH of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in culture using dye and ratiometric measurements (490/450 nm excitations). The study was mainly performed using photometric analysis, although some data were confirmed using image analysis. The use of nigericin allowed an in vivo calibration. Experimental parameters such as loading time and concentration of the dye were determined so that pH measurements could be made for a steady-state period on viable cells. A characteristic pH profile was observed along hyphae. For Gigaspora margarita, the pH of the tip (0–2 ?m) was typically 6.7, increased sharply to 7.0 behind this region (9.5 ?m), and decreased over the next 250 ?m to a constant value of 6.6. A similar pattern was obtained for Glomus intraradices. The pH profile of G. margarita germ tubes was higher when cultured in the presence of carrot (Daucus carota) hairy roots (nonmycorrhizal). Similarly, extraradical hyphae of G. intraradices had a higher apical pH than the germ tubes. The use of a paper layer to prevent the mycorrhizal roots from being in direct contact with the medium selected hyphae with an even higher cytosolic pH. Results suggest that this method could be useful as a bioassay for studying signal perception and/or H+ cotransport of nutrients by arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae.

Jolicoeur, Mario; Germette, Sophie; Gaudette, Martin; Perrier, Michel; Becard, Guillaume



Assessment of allelopathic properties of Aloe ferox Mill. on turnip, beetroot and carrot.  


Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa L.), beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) are common vegetables in South Africa. The allelopathic potential of aqueous leaf and root extracts of Aloe ferox Mill.- a highly valued medicinal plant- was evaluated against seed germination and seedling growth of the three vegetables in Petri dish experiments. The extracts were tested at concentrations of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/mL. Leaf extract concentrations above 4 mg/mL inhibited the germination of all the crops, while the root extract had no significant effect on germination irrespective of concentration. Interestingly, the lowest concentration of leaf extract stimulated root length elongation of beetroot by 31.71%. Other concentrations significantly inhibited both root and shoot growth of the vegetable crops except the turnip shoot. The most sensitive crop was carrot, with percentage inhibition ranging from 29.15 to 100% for root and shoot lengths. Lower percentage inhibition was observed for the root extract than the leaf extract against shoot growth of beetroot and carrot. The results from this study suggested the presence of allelochemicals mostly in the leaves of A. ferox that could inhibit the growth of the turnip, beetroot and carrot. PMID:23558992

Arowosegbe, Sunday; Afolayan, Anthony J



DcSto: carrot Stowaway-like elements are abundant, diverse, and polymorphic.  


We investigated nine families of Stowaway-like miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in the carrot genome, named DcSto1 to DcSto9. All of them were AT-rich and shared a highly conserved 6 bp-long TIR typical for Stowaways. The copy number of DcSto1 elements was estimated as ca. 5,000 per diploid genome. We observed preference for clustered insertions of DcSto and other MITEs. Distribution of DcSto1 hybridization signals revealed presence of DcSto1 clusters within euchromatic regions along all chromosomes. An arrangement of eight regions encompassing DcSto insertion sites, studied in detail, was highly variable among plants representing different populations of Daucus carota. All of these insertions were polymorphic which most likely suggests a very recent mobilization of those elements. Insertions of DcSto near carrot genes and presence of putative promoters, regulatory motifs, and polyA signals within their sequences might suggest a possible involvement of DcSto in the regulation of gene expression. PMID:23775534

Macko-Podgorni, Alicja; Nowicka, Anna; Grzebelus, Ewa; Simon, Philipp W; Grzebelus, Dariusz



Cadmium-sulfide crystallites in Cd-. gamma. -glutamyl peptide complexes from Lycopersicon and Daucus  

SciTech Connect

Hydroponically-grown tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Mill. cv stone) and suspension-cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota L.) exposed to 100 {mu}M cadmium salts produced metal-{gamma}-glutamyl peptide complexes containing acid labile sulfur. The properties of the complexes resemble the Cd-{gamma}-glutamyl complexes from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida glabrata, known to contain a CdS crystallite core. The crystallite core is stabilized by a coating of peptides of the general structure ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub n}-Gly. The Cd-peptide complexes contain predominantly peptides of n{sub 2}, n{sub 3}, n{sub 4} and n{sub 3}desGly. Zn-peptide complexes were also isolated from carrot cultures grown in MS medium supplemented with 2 mM Zn and cysteine. Results of preliminary characterization of these complexes are consistent with the presence of a colloidal particle similar to that of the Cd-complexes.

Reese, R.N. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings (USA)); Winge, D.R. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (USA))



Rapid Purification and Thermostability of the Cytoplasmic Aspartate Aminotransferase from Carrot Suspension Cultures 1  

PubMed Central

Several isoenzymic forms of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) have been identified in protein extracts from carrot (Daucus carota) cell suspension cultures. The cellular location of the major form (form I) of AAT in carrot suspension cultures was determined by heat inactivation, subcellular fractionation, and amino acid sequence analysis. In mammalian systems, there are two forms of AAT, a heat-stable cytoplasmic form and a heat-labile form in the mitochondria. The thermostability of three isoenzymes of carrot AAT was examined, and the results showed that form I was more thermostable than forms II or III. Organelles were separated in sucrose gradients by isopynic centrifugation. Activity for form I was identified in the soluble fractions and not in fractions containing peroxisomes, proplastids, or mitochondria. Form I was purified to homogeneity and endoproteolytically cleaved, and the peptide fragments were separated by reverse phase chromatography. Analysis of the sequence data from two of the polypeptides showed that the amino acid identity of form I is more conserved to the animal cytoplasmic AAT than to animal mitochondrial AAT sequences. These data strongly suggest that form I of AAT from carrot is the cytoplasmic isoenzyme. Additionally, a rapid purification scheme for form I of AAT from carrot is presented using selective heat denaturation and anion-exchange chromatography. ImagesFigure 4Figure 6

Turano, Frank J.; Wilson, Barbara J.; Matthews, Benjamin F.



Plants as biofactories: physiological role of reactive oxygen species on the accumulation of phenolic antioxidants in carrot tissue under wounding and hyperoxia stress.  


Plants subjected to postharvest abiotic stresses synthesize secondary metabolites with health-promoting properties. Here, we report the potential use of carrots (Daucus carota) as biofactories of caffeoylquinic acids when subjected to wounding and hyperoxia stresses. Wounding stress induced an increase of ?287% in total phenolic content (PC) in carrots stored for 48 h at 20 °C. This increase was higher (?349%) in the wounded tissue treated with hyperoxia stress. To further understand the physiological role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a signaling molecule for the stress-induced accumulation of phenolics in carrots, the respiration rate as well as the enzymatic activities of NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase were evaluated. Likewise, shredded carrots were treated with diphenyleneiodonium chloride solution to block NADPH oxidase ROS productions, and the phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity and total PC were evaluated. Results demonstrated that ROS play a key role as a signaling molecule for the stress-induced accumulation of PC in carrots. PMID:21553806

Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés B; Del C Rodríguez, Silvia; Cao, Cong-Mei; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis



Phosphoglycerylethanolamine Posttranslational Modification of Plant Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1?1  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic elongation factor 1? (eEF-1A) is a multifunctional protein. There are three known posttranslational modifications of eEF-1A that could potentially affect its function. Except for phosphorylation, the other posttranslational modifications have not been demonstrated in plants. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry and peptide mass mapping, we show that carrot (Daucus carota L.) eEF-1A contains a phosphoglycerylethanolamine (PGE) posttranslational modification. eEF-1A was the only protein labeled with [14C]ethanolamine in carrot cells and was the predominant ethanolamine-labeled protein in Arabidopsis seedlings and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell cultures. In vivo-labeling studies using [3H]glycerol, [32P]Pi, [14C]myristic acid, and [14C]linoleic acid indicated that the entire phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine is covalently attached to the protein. The PGE lipid modification did not affect the partitioning of eEF-1A in Triton X-114 or its actin-binding activity in in vitro assays. Our in vitro data indicate that this newly characterized posttranslational modification alone does not affect the function of eEF-1A. Therefore, the PGE lipid modification may work in combination with other posttranslational modifications to affect the distribution and the function of eEF-1A within the cell.

Ransom, Wendy D.; Lao, Pao-Chi; Gage, Douglas A.; Boss, Wendy F.



Characterization of Carrot Cell Wall Protein 1  

PubMed Central

A single glycoprotein accounts for the majority of radioactivity secreted to the cell wall when incubated carrot (Daucus carota) discs are labeled with radioactive proline or arabinose. The ferrous chelator ?,??-dipyridyl prevents the synthesis of this protein. A new proline-labeled protein is made in the presence of ?,??-dipyridyl and is secreted to the cell wall. The protein has little, if any, carbohydrate attached to it and has a molecular weight of 55,000 daltons. This protein appears to be the nonhydroxylated, nonglycosylated form of the major cell wall glycoprotein. ?,??-Dipyridyl does not prevent proline label from becoming tightly (presumably covalently) bound to the cell wall, providing further evidence that hydroxylation and arabinosylation are not required for the covalent attachment of proteins to the cell wall. Messenger RNA extracted from incubated carrot discs produces a product which electrophoreses similarly to the protein made in the presence of ?,??-dipyridyl. The possible use of the carrot disc system to study gene structure and regulation is discussed. Images

Smith, Macky A.



Biology, ecology, and management of the bulb mites of the genus Rhizoglyphus (Acari: Acaridae).  


Bulb mites of the genus Rhizoglyphus (Claparčde) (Acari: Acaridae) have been identified as pests of many crops and ornamentals in storage, in the greenhouse, and in the field. The most important hosts are species in the family Liliaceae (e.g. Allium spp.), but bulb mites will often attack other important crops such as potatoes (Solanum sp.) and carrots (Daucus carota). Despite their economic importance and broad distribution, the systematics of the genus remains in a state of confusion and is in need of a comprehensive revision. In addition, the field biology and ecology of these mites is not well understood, and methods for sampling, monitoring, and loss assessment are limited. Management of bulb mites is complicated by their short generation time, high reproductive potential, broad food niche, interactions with other pests and pathogens, and unique adaptations for dispersal. Historically, control of these acarine pests has relied on the use of synthetic miticides and insecticides, but this option is now limited due to documented resistance and withdrawal of registration of some products. Alternative control strategies, including cultural and biological control, have shown limited success, but need to be further developed and implemented. PMID:11108390

Díaz, A; Okabe, K; Eckenrode, C J; Villani, M G; Oconnor, B M



Influence of boron on carrot cell wall structure and its resistance to fracture.  


Plant cell wall structure integrity and associated tissue mechanical properties is one of key determinants for the perceived texture of plant-based foods. Carrots (Daucus carota) were used to investigate the effect of mineral supply of boron (B) and/or calcium (Ca), during plant growth, on the plant cell wall structure and mechanical properties of matured root tissues. Five commercial cultivars of carrots, Kuroda (orange), Dragon Purple, Kuttiger White, Yellow, and Nutri-Red, were cultivated under controlled glasshouse conditions over two seasons. Significant increases in the accumulation of B and Ca were found for all cultivars of carrots when additional B and Ca were included in the nutrient feeding solutions throughout the plant growth period. Elevated levels of B in carrot root tissue reduced the uptake of Ca and other mineral nutrients and enhanced plant cell wall structural integrity, its resistance to fracture, and the weight and size (both diameter and length) of carrots. Although higher amounts of Ca were accumulated in the plant materials, the additional supply of Ca did not have a significant effect on the mechanical properties of mature plant tissues or on the uptake of B by the plant. The results suggest that B cross-linking of pectin (rhamnogalacturonan II) has a greater influence on mature tissue mechanical properties than Ca cross-linking of pectin (homogalacturonan) when supplied during plant growth. PMID:23654242

Singh, Davinder Pal; Liu, Li Hui; Řiseth, Sofia Kihlman; Beloy, Joel; Lundin, Leif; Gidley, Michael J; Day, Li



Crop heterosis and herbicide  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Heterosis designates the increased growth or other augmented action resulting from crossing, however it is produced. Male sterility of female parent is an important biological mechanism for the commercial production of hybrid seed. Male sterility can be created by genetic manipulation, environmental influences, chemical induction and biological engineering. In principle, male sterility is a physiological disorder and the creation of complete male sterility either is costly or brings about other physiological disorders. Integrating the resistance gene to a non-selective herbicide into male parent and spraying the herbicide onto the hybrid population resulting from mating with the male parent for securing hybrid purity reduce the strict demand for complete male sterility. Therefore, simple and practical methodologies such as environmental and chemical means can be employed in the induction of male sterility, and the conflict of male sterility with other physiological disorders can be well balanced. The concept of this invention is applicable to all the crops and plants in which male sterility has been studied for heterosis purposes including rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor(L.) Moench], rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), pearl millet [Pennisetum typhoides (Burm) Stspf et Hubb.], alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), petunia (Petunia hybrida Hort.), and carrot (Daucus carota L.).

Yan; Wengui (Stuttgart, AR)



Abscisic Acid Regulation of DC8, A Carrot Embryonic Gene 1  

PubMed Central

DC8 encodes a hydrophylic 66 kilodalton protein located in the cytoplasm and cell walls of carrot (Daucus carota) embryo and endosperm. During somatic embryogenesis, the levels of DC8 mRNA and protein begin to increase 5 days after removal of auxin. To study the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of DC8 gene, fluridone, 1-methyl-3-phenyl,-5(3-trifluoro-methyl-phenyl)-4(1H)-pyridinone, was used to inhibit the endogenous ABA content of the embryos. Fluridone, 50 micrograms per milliliter, effectively inhibits the accumulation of ABA in globular-tage enbryos. Western and Northern analysis show that when fluridone is added to the culture medium DC8 protein and mRNA decrease to very low levels. ABA added to fluridone supplemented culture media restores the DC8 protein and mRNA to control levels. Globular-stage embryos contain 0.9 to 1.4 × 10?7 molar ABA while 10?6 molar exogenously supplied ABA is the optimal concentration for restoration of DC8 protein accumulation in fluridone-treated embryos. The mRNA level is increased after 15 minutes of ABA addition and reaches maximal levels by 60 minutes. Evidence is presented that, unlike other ABA-regulated genes, DC8 is not induced in nonembryonic tissues via desiccation nor addition of ABA. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis; Fong, Franklin; Sung, Z. Renee



Carbon Uptake and the Metabolism and Transport of Lipids in an Arbuscular Mycorrhiza1  

PubMed Central

Both the plant and the fungus benefit nutritionally in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis: The host plant enjoys enhanced mineral uptake and the fungus receives fixed carbon. In this exchange the uptake, metabolism, and translocation of carbon by the fungal partner are poorly understood. We therefore analyzed the fate of isotopically labeled substrates in an arbuscular mycorrhiza (in vitro cultures of Ri T-DNA-transformed carrot [Daucus carota] roots colonized by Glomus intraradices) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Labeling patterns observed in lipids and carbohydrates after substrates were supplied to the mycorrhizal roots or the extraradical mycelium indicated that: (a) 13C-labeled glucose and fructose (but not mannitol or succinate) are effectively taken up by the fungus within the root and are metabolized to yield labeled carbohydrates and lipids; (b) the extraradical mycelium does not use exogenous sugars for catabolism, storage, or transfer to the host; (c) the fungus converts sugars taken up in the root compartment into lipids that are then translocated to the extraradical mycelium (there being little or no lipid synthesis in the external mycelium); and (d) hexose in fungal tissue undergoes substantially higher fluxes through an oxidative pentose phosphate pathway than does hexose in the host plant.

Pfeffer, Philip E.; Douds, David D.; Becard, Guillaume; Shachar-Hill, Yair



Reversal of Glyphosate Inhibition of Carrot Cell Culture Growth by Glycolytic Intermediates and Organic and Amino Acids 1  

PubMed Central

Various cytokinins and purines were ineffective in reversing glyphosate (0.25 millimolar)-induced growth inhibition of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures. Aspartate was particularly effective in reversing glyphosate inhibition, but asparagine and various combinations of lysine, methionine, threonine, and homoserine (eventual products of aspartate metabolism) were not effective. When organic acids of the tricarboxylic acid cycle were added to the medium, particularly good reversal of inhibition could be obtained with ?-ketoglutarate, succinate, and malate. Citrate provided only moderate reversal but the reversal given by glutamate was comparable to that of aspartate and the more effective tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Pyruvate was somewhat toxic to cells when added early in the cell cycle but was most effective at reversing glyphosate inhibition when added at this time. If pyruvate addition was delayed, it was less toxic but was also a less effective reversing agent for glyphosate inhibition. All of the effective reversing agents for glyphosate inhibition found in this study can serve either directly or indirectly as carbon skeletons for respiration and ammonia assimilation and have previously been shown to be effective detoxifying agents for ammonia in cell culture systems. The results of this study suggest that glyphosate inhibition of growth in this system may be due to depletion of respiratory substrate which may eventually result in ammonia accumulation.

Killmer, John; Widholm, Jack; Slife, Fred



Calmodulin immunolocalization to cortical microtubules is calcium independent  

SciTech Connect

Calcium affects the stability of cortical microtubules (MTs) in lysed protoplasts. This calmodulin (CaM)-mediated interaction may provide a mechanism that serves to integrate cellular behavior with MT function. To test the hypothesis that CaM associates with these MTs, monoclonal antibodies were produced against CaM, and one (designated mAb1D10), was selected for its suitability as an immunocytochemical reagent. It is shown that CaM associates with the cortical Mats of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.) cells. Inasmuch as CaM interacts with calcium and affects the behavior of these Mats, we hypothesized that calcium would alter this association. To test this, protoplasts containing taxol-stabilized Mats were lysed in the presence of various concentrations of calcium and examined for the association of Cam with cortical Mats. At 1 {mu}M calcium, many protoplasts did not have CaM in association with the cortical Mats, while at 3.6 {mu}M calcium, this association was completely abolished. The results are discussed in terms of a model in which CaM associates with Mats via two types of interactions; one calcium dependent and one independent.

Fisher, D.D.; Cyr, R.J.



Calmodulin immunolocalization to cortical microtubules is calcium independent  

SciTech Connect

Calcium affects the stability of cortical microtubules (MTs) in lysed protoplasts. This calmodulin (CaM)-mediated interaction may provide a mechanism that serves to integrate cellular behavior with MT function. To test the hypothesis that CaM associates with these MTs, monoclonal antibodies were produced against CaM, and one (designated mAb1D10), was selected for its suitability as an immunocytochemical reagent. It is shown that CaM associates with the cortical Mats of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.) cells. Inasmuch as CaM interacts with calcium and affects the behavior of these Mats, we hypothesized that calcium would alter this association. To test this, protoplasts containing taxol-stabilized Mats were lysed in the presence of various concentrations of calcium and examined for the association of Cam with cortical Mats. At 1 [mu]M calcium, many protoplasts did not have CaM in association with the cortical Mats, while at 3.6 [mu]M calcium, this association was completely abolished. The results are discussed in terms of a model in which CaM associates with Mats via two types of interactions; one calcium dependent and one independent.

Fisher, D.D.; Cyr, R.J.



Molecular genetics of the maize (Zea mays L.) aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase gene family.  

PubMed Central

Aspartate kinase (AK) and homoserine dehydrogenase (HSDH) are enzymes in the aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthetic pathway. Recent biochemical evidence indicates that an AK-HSDH bifunctional enzyme exists in maize (Zea mays L.). In this report, we characterize three genes that encode subunits of AK-HSDH. Two cDNAs, pAKHSDH1 and pAKHSDH2, containing the full-coding sequence, and one partial cDNA, pAKHSDH3, encode amino acid sequences similar to the reported monofunctional AK and HSDH enzymes from prokaryotes and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and to AK-HSDH bifunctional enzymes of prokaryotes, yeast, carrot (Daucus carota), and Arabidopsis thaliana. Immunological and biochemical analyses verify that the cDNAs encode AK-HSDH and indicate that both the AK and HSDH activities are feedback inhibited by threonine. RNA blots identify a 3.2-kb transcript in all maize tissues examined. pAKHSDH1 and pAKHSDH2 map to chromosomes 4L and 2S, respectively. This study shows that maize contains AK-HSDH bifunctional enzyme(s) encoded by a small gene family of at least three genes. Maize AK-HSDH has conserved sequences found in communication modules of prokaryotic two-component regulatory systems, which has led us to propose that maize AK-HSDH may be involved in a similar regulatory mechanism.

Muehlbauer, G J; Somers, D A; Matthews, B F; Gengenbach, B G



Apparent Inhibition of ?-Fructosidase Secretion by Tunicamycin May Be Explained by Breakdown of the Unglycosylated Protein during Secretion 1  

PubMed Central

Suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota) cells synthesize and secrete ?-fructosidase, a glycoprotein with asparagine-linked glycans. Treatment of the cells with tunicamycin completely inhibits the apparent secretion of ?-fructosidase as measured by the accumulation of the radioactive protein in the cell wall or the culture medium. In the past, such a result has been interpreted as an inhibition of secretion by tunicamycin, but we suggest another explanation based on the following results. In the presence of tunicamycin, unglycosylated ?-fructosidase is synthesized and is associated with an endoplasmic-reticulum-rich microsomal fraction. Pulse-chase experiments show that the unglycosylated ?-fructosidase does not remain in the cells and appears to be secreted in the same way as glycosylated ?-fructosidase; however, no radioactive, unglycosylated ?-fructosidase accumulates extracellularly (cell wall or medium). Protoplasts obtained from carrot cells secrete ?-fructosidase protein and activity, and treatment of the protoplasts with tunicamycin results in the synthesis of unglycosylated ?-fructosidase. In the presence of tunicamycin, there is no accumulation of ?-fructosidase activity or unglycosylated ?-fructosidase polypeptide in the protoplast incubation medium. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the glycans of ?-fructosidase are necessary for its stability, and that in these suspension-cultured cells, the unglycosylated enzyme is degraded during the last stage(s) of secretion, or immediately after its arrival in the wall. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Faye, Loic; Chrispeels, Maarten J.



Expression of DcPRP1 is linked to carrot storage root formation and is induced by wounding and auxin treatment.  

PubMed Central

A carrot (Daucus carota, L.) genomic clone (DcPRP1) was isolated on the basis of its homology to previously described cDNAs encoding a wound-inducible, proline-rich cell wall protein. DNA sequence analysis showed that DcPRP1 contains a single open-reading frame encoding a 235-amino acid protein that is colinear with that predicted from the cDNA sequence with the exception of four amino acids at the N terminus and a 60-nucleotide insertion present within the genomic clone. Genomic Southern hybridization analysis showed that the cloned sequence hybridized with a single restriction enzyme fragment using several restriction enzymes. Primer extension and northern hybridization analysis indicated that the expression of DcPRP1 is developmentally regulated and linked to the formation of storage roots, where this gene is expressed at high levels after wounding. The level of DcPRP1 mRNA was greatest in tissue immediately adjacent to the wound site. Treatment of unwounded carrot storage roots with 10 microM 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid, indoleacetic acid, or naphthalene-1-acetic acid also resulted in the accumulation of DcPRP1 transcripts to a level equal to that seen in wounded tissue.

Ebener, W; Fowler, T J; Suzuki, H; Shaver, J; Tierney, M L



Structure of the major carrot allergen Dau c 1.  


Dau c 1 is a major allergen of carrot (Daucus carota) which displays IgE cross-reactivity with the homologous major birch-pollen allergen Bet v 1. The crystal structure of Dau c 1 has been determined to a resolution of 2.7 A, revealing tight dimers. The structure of Dau c 1 is similar to those of the major allergens from celery, Api g 1, and birch pollen, Bet v 1. Electron density has been observed in the hydrophobic cavity of each monomer and has been modelled with polyethylene glycol oligomers of varying length. Comparison of the surface topology and physicochemical properties of Dau c 1 and Bet v 1 revealed that they may have some, but not all, epitopes in common. This is in agreement with the observation that the majority of carrot-allergic patients have Bet v 1 cross-reactive IgE antibodies, whereas others have Dau c 1-specific IgE antibodies which do not recognize Bet v 1. PMID:19923716

Markovi?-Housley, Zora; Basle, Arnaud; Padavattan, Sivaraman; Maderegger, Bernhard; Schirmer, Tilman; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin



Differential nuclear envelope assembly at the end of mitosis in suspension-cultured Apium graveolens cells.  


NMCP1 is a plant protein that has a long coiled-coil domain within the molecule. Newly identified NMCP2 of Daucus carota and Apium graveolens showed similar peripheral localization in the interphase nucleus, and the sequence spanning the coiled-coil domain exhibited significant similarity with the corresponding region of NMCP1. To better understand disassembly and assembly of the nuclear envelope (NE) during mitosis, subcellular distribution of NMCP1 and NMCP2 was examined using A. graveolens cells. AgNMCP1 (NMCP1 in Apium) disassembled at prometaphase, dispersed mainly within the spindle, and accumulated on segregating chromosomes, while AgNMCP2 (NMCP2 in Apium), following disassembly at prometaphase with timing similar to that of AgNMCP1, dispersed throughout the mitotic cytoplasm at metaphase and anaphase. The protein accumulated at the periphery of reforming nuclei at telophase. A probe for the endomembrane indicated that the nuclear membrane (NM) disappears at prometaphase and begins to reappear at early telophase. Growth of the NM continued after mitosis was completed. NMCP2 in the mitotic cytoplasm localized in vesicular structures that could be distinguished from the bulk endomembrane system. These results suggest that NMCP1 and NMCP2 are recruited for NE assembly in different pathways in mitosis and that NMCP2 associates with NM-derived vesicles in the mitotic cytoplasm. PMID:19997923

Kimura, Yuta; Kuroda, Chie; Masuda, Kiyoshi



Plant uptake of pentachlorophenol from sludge-amended soils  

SciTech Connect

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of {sup 14}C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). Plants included tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Minimal intact PCP was detected in the fescue and lettuce by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. No intact PCP was detected in the carrot tissue extracts. Chile pepper was not analyzed for intact PCP because methylene chloride extracts contained minimal {sup 14}C. The GC/MS analysis of soil extracts at harvest suggests a half-life of PCP of about 10 d independent of sludge rate or PCP loading rate. Rapid degradation of PCP in the soil apparently limited PCP availability to the plant. Bioconcentration factors (dry plant wt./initial soil PCP concentration) based on intact PCP were <0.01 for all crops, suggesting little PCP uptake. Thus, food-chain crop PCP uptake in these alkaline soils should not limit land application of sludge.

Bellin, C.A.; O'Connor, G.A.



Ethylene-Mediated Phospholipid Catabolic Pathway in Glucose-Starved Carrot Suspension Cells1  

PubMed Central

Glucose (Glc) starvation of suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells resulted in sequential activation of phospholipid catabolic enzymes. Among the assayed enzymes involved in the degradation, phospholipase D (PLD) and lipolytic acyl hydrolase were activated at the early part of starvation, and these activities were followed by ?-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle enzymes in order. The activity of PLD and lipolytic acyl hydrolase was further confirmed by in vivo-labeling experiments. It was demonstrated that Glc added to a medium containing starving cells inhibited the phospholipid catabolic activities, indicating that phospholipid catabolism is negatively regulated by Glc. There was a burst of ethylene production 6 h after starvation. Ethylene added exogeneously to a Glc-sufficient medium activated PLD, indicating that ethylene acts as an element in the signal transduction pathway leading from Glc depletion to PLD activation. Activation of lipid peroxidation, suggestive of cell death, occurred immediately after the decrease of the phospholipid degradation, suggesting that the observed phospholipid catabolic pathway is part of the metabolic strategies by which cells effectively survive under Glc starvation.

Hyun Lee, Soo; Sook Chae, Hyun; Kyun Lee, Taek; Hee Kim, Se; Ho Shin, Sung; Huey Cho, Bong; Ho Cho, Sung; Kang, Bin G.; Sung Lee, Woo



Survival of three commercially available natural enemies exposed to Michigan wildflowers.  


Flowering plants are often used in habitat management programs to conserve the arthropod natural enemies of insect pests. In this study, nine species of flowering plants representing six families commonly found in North America east of the Rocky Mountains were evaluated based on how much they extended th