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Sample records for carotenoid biosynthetic pathway

  1. Diversifying Carotenoid Biosynthetic Pathways by Directed Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Umeno, Daisuke; Tobias, Alexander V.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2005-01-01

    Microorganisms and plants synthesize a diverse array of natural products, many of which have proven indispensable to human health and well-being. Although many thousands of these have been characterized, the space of possible natural products—those that could be made biosynthetically—remains largely unexplored. For decades, this space has largely been the domain of chemists, who have synthesized scores of natural product analogs and have found many with improved or novel functions. New natural products have also been made in recombinant organisms, via engineered biosynthetic pathways. Recently, methods inspired by natural evolution have begun to be applied to the search for new natural products. These methods force pathways to evolve in convenient laboratory organisms, where the products of new pathways can be identified and characterized in high-throughput screening programs. Carotenoid biosynthetic pathways have served as a convenient experimental system with which to demonstrate these ideas. Researchers have mixed, matched, and mutated carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes and screened libraries of these “evolved” pathways for the emergence of new carotenoid products. This has led to dozens of new pathway products not previously known to be made by the assembled enzymes. These new products include whole families of carotenoids built from backbones not found in nature. This review details the strategies and specific methods that have been employed to generate new carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in the laboratory. The potential application of laboratory evolution to other biosynthetic pathways is also discussed. PMID:15755953

  2. A C35 Carotenoid Biosynthetic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Umeno, Daisuke; Arnold, Frances H.

    2003-01-01

    Upon coexpression with Erwinia geranylgeranyldiphosphate (GGDP) synthase in Escherichia coli, C30 carotenoid synthase CrtM from Staphylococcus aureus produces novel carotenoids with the asymmetrical C35 backbone. The products of condensation of farnesyldiphosphate and GDP, C35 structures comprise 40 to 60% of total carotenoid accumulated. Carotene desaturases and carotene cyclases from C40 or C30 pathways accepted and converted the C35 substrate, thus creating a C35 carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in E. coli. Directed evolution to modulate desaturase step number, together with combinatorial expression of the desaturase variants with lycopene cyclases, allowed us to produce at least 10 compounds not previously described. This result highlights the plastic and expansible nature of carotenoid pathways and illustrates how combinatorial biosynthesis coupled with directed evolution can rapidly access diverse chemical structures. PMID:12788765

  3. THE CAROTENOID BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY: THINKING IN ALL DIMENSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Shumskaya, Maria; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

    2013-01-01

    The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway serves manifold roles in plants related to photosynthesis, photoprotection, development, stress hormones, and various volatiles and signalling apocarotenoids. The pathway also produces compounds that impact human nutrition and metabolic products that contribute to fragrance and flavour of food and non-food crops. It is no surprise that the pathway has been a target of metabolic engineering, most prominently in the case of Golden Rice. The future success and predictability of metabolic engineering of carotenoids rests in the ability to target carotenoids for specific physiological purposes as well as to simultaneously modify carotenoids along with other desired traits. Here, we ask whether predictive metabolic engineering of the carotenoid pathway is indeed possible. Despite a long history of research on the pathway, at this point in time we can only describe the pathway as a parts list and have almost no knowledge of the location of the complete pathway, how it is assembled, and whether there exists any trafficking of the enzymes or the carotenoids themselves. We discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the “complete” pathway and make the argument that predictive metabolic engineering of the carotenoid pathway (and other pathways) will require investigation of the three dimensional state of the pathway as it may exist in plastids of different ultrastructures. Along with this message we point out the need to develop new types of visualization tools and resources that better reflect the dynamic nature of biosynthetic pathways. PMID:23683930

  4. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway: thinking in all dimensions.

    PubMed

    Shumskaya, Maria; Wurtzel, Eleanore T

    2013-07-01

    The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway serves manifold roles in plants related to photosynthesis, photoprotection, development, stress hormones, and various volatiles and signaling apocarotenoids. The pathway also produces compounds that impact human nutrition and metabolic products that contribute to fragrance and flavor of food and non-food crops. It is no surprise that the pathway has been a target of metabolic engineering, most prominently in the case of Golden Rice. The future success and predictability of metabolic engineering of carotenoids rests in the ability to target carotenoids for specific physiological purposes as well as to simultaneously modify carotenoids along with other desired traits. Here, we ask whether predictive metabolic engineering of the carotenoid pathway is indeed possible. Despite a long history of research on the pathway, at this point in time we can only describe the pathway as a parts list and have almost no knowledge of the location of the complete pathway, how it is assembled, and whether there exists any trafficking of the enzymes or the carotenoids themselves. We discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the "complete" pathway and make the argument that predictive metabolic engineering of the carotenoid pathway (and other pathways) will require investigation of the three dimensional state of the pathway as it may exist in plastids of different ultrastructures. Along with this message we point out the need to develop new types of visualization tools and resources that better reflect the dynamic nature of biosynthetic pathways. PMID:23683930

  5. Carotenoid biosynthetic and catabolic pathways: gene expression and carotenoid content in grains of maize landraces.

    PubMed

    da Silva Messias, Rafael; Galli, Vanessa; Dos Anjos E Silva, Sérgio Delmar; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

    2014-01-01

    Plant carotenoids have been implicated in preventing several age-related diseases, and they also provide vitamin A precursors; therefore, increasing the content of carotenoids in maize grains is of great interest. It is not well understood, however, how the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated. Fortunately, the maize germplasm exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity that can be exploited for this purpose. Here, the accumulation of carotenoids and the expression of genes from carotenoid metabolic and catabolic pathways were investigated in several maize landraces. The carotenoid content in grains varied from 10.03, in the white variety MC5, to 61.50 μg·g⁻¹, in the yellow-to-orange variety MC3, and the major carotenoids detected were lutein and zeaxanthin. PSY1 (phythoene synthase) expression showed a positive correlation with the total carotenoid content. Additionally, the PSY1 and HYD3 (ferredoxin-dependent di-iron monooxygenase) expression levels were positively correlated with β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, while CYP97C (cytochrome P450-type monooxygenase) expression did not correlate with any of the carotenoids. In contrast, ZmCCD1 (carotenoid dioxygenase) was more highly expressed at the beginning of grain development, as well as in the white variety, and its expression was inversely correlated with the accumulation of several carotenoids, suggesting that CCD1 is also an important enzyme to be considered when attempting to improve the carotenoid content in maize. The MC27 and MC1 varieties showed the highest HYD3/CYP97C ratios, suggesting that they are promising candidates for increasing the zeaxanthin content; in contrast, MC14 and MC7 showed low HYD3/CYP97C, suggesting that they may be useful in biofortification efforts aimed at promoting the accumulation of provitamin A. The results of this study demonstrate the use of maize germplasm to provide insight into the regulation of genes involved in the carotenoid pathway, which would thus

  6. Carotenoid Biosynthetic and Catabolic Pathways: Gene Expression and Carotenoid Content in Grains of Maize Landraces

    PubMed Central

    Messias, Rafael da Silva; Galli, Vanessa; Silva, Sérgio Delmar dos Anjos e; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

    2014-01-01

    Plant carotenoids have been implicated in preventing several age-related diseases, and they also provide vitamin A precursors; therefore, increasing the content of carotenoids in maize grains is of great interest. It is not well understood, however, how the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated. Fortunately, the maize germplasm exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity that can be exploited for this purpose. Here, the accumulation of carotenoids and the expression of genes from carotenoid metabolic and catabolic pathways were investigated in several maize landraces. The carotenoid content in grains varied from 10.03, in the white variety MC5, to 61.50 μg·g−1, in the yellow-to-orange variety MC3, and the major carotenoids detected were lutein and zeaxanthin. PSY1 (phythoene synthase) expression showed a positive correlation with the total carotenoid content. Additionally, the PSY1 and HYD3 (ferredoxin-dependent di-iron monooxygenase) expression levels were positively correlated with β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, while CYP97C (cytochrome P450-type monooxygenase) expression did not correlate with any of the carotenoids. In contrast, ZmCCD1 (carotenoid dioxygenase) was more highly expressed at the beginning of grain development, as well as in the white variety, and its expression was inversely correlated with the accumulation of several carotenoids, suggesting that CCD1 is also an important enzyme to be considered when attempting to improve the carotenoid content in maize. The MC27 and MC1 varieties showed the highest HYD3/CYP97C ratios, suggesting that they are promising candidates for increasing the zeaxanthin content; in contrast, MC14 and MC7 showed low HYD3/CYP97C, suggesting that they may be useful in biofortification efforts aimed at promoting the accumulation of provitamin A. The results of this study demonstrate the use of maize germplasm to provide insight into the regulation of genes involved in the carotenoid pathway, which would thus better

  7. Understanding the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway through observation of four color variants of developing watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nanai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway regulatory mechanisms leading to lycopene accumulation are well defined in the model fruit, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). The regulatory mechanisms leading to accumulation of other carotenoids and flesh colors, however, are poorly understood. The variety ...

  8. Sioxanthin, a novel glycosylated carotenoid, reveals an unusual subclustered biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Richter, Taylor K S; Hughes, Chambers C; Moore, Bradley S

    2015-06-01

    Members of the marine actinomycete genus Salinispora constitutively produce a characteristic orange pigment during vegetative growth. Contrary to the understanding of widespread carotenoid biosynthesis pathways in bacteria, Salinispora carotenoid biosynthesis genes are not confined to a single cluster. Instead, bioinformatic and genetic investigations confirm that four regions of the Salinispora tropica CNB-440 genome, consisting of two gene clusters and two independent genes, contribute to the in vivo production of a single carotenoid. This compound, namely (2'S)-1'-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3',4'-didehydro-1',2'-dihydro-φ,ψ-caroten-2'-ol, is novel and has been given the trivial name 'sioxanthin'. Sioxanthin is a C40 -carotenoid, glycosylated on one end of the molecule and containing an aryl moiety on the opposite end. Glycosylation is unusual among actinomycete carotenoids, and sioxanthin joins a rare group of carotenoids with polar and non-polar head groups. Gene sequence homology predicts that the sioxanthin biosynthetic pathway is present in all of the Salinispora as well as other members of the family Micromonosporaceae. Additionally, this study's investigations of clustering of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in heterotrophic bacteria show that a non-clustered genome arrangement is more common than previously suggested, with nearly half of the investigated genomes showing a non-clustered architecture. PMID:25329237

  9. Sioxanthin, a novel glycosylated carotenoid reveals an unusual subclustered biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Taylor K.S.; Hughes, Chambers C.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Members of the marine actinomycete genus Salinispora constitutively produce a characteristic orange pigment during vegetative growth. Contrary to the understanding of widespread carotenoid biosynthesis pathways in bacteria, Salinispora carotenoid biosynthesis genes are not confined to a single cluster. Instead, bioinformatic and genetic investigations confirm that four regions of the S. tropica CNB-440 genome, consisting of two gene clusters and two independent genes, contribute to the in vivo production of a single carotenoid. This compound, namely (2’S)-1’-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3’,4’-didehydro-1’,2’-dihydro-φ,ψ-caroten-2’-ol, is novel and has been given the trivial name “sioxanthin”. Sioxanthin is a C40-carotenoid, glycosylated on one end of the molecule and containing an aryl moiety on the opposite end. Glycosylation is unusual amongst actinomycete carotenoids, and sioxanthin joins a rare group of carotenoids with polar and non-polar head groups. Gene sequence homology predicts that the sioxanthin biosynthetic pathway is present in all of the Salinispora as well as other members of the family Micromonosporaceae. Additionally, this study’s investigations of clustering of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in heterotrophic bacteria show that a non-clustered genome arrangement is more common than previously suggested, with nearly half of the investigated genomes showing a non-clustered architecture. PMID:25329237

  10. Complete Biosynthetic Pathway of the C50 Carotenoid Bacterioruberin from Lycopene in the Extremely Halophilic Archaeon Haloarcula japonica

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Ando, Ai; Miyoko, Nobuhiro; Fukui, Toshiaki; Takaichi, Shinichi; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Haloarcula japonica, an extremely halophilic archaeon that requires high concentrations of NaCl for growth, accumulates the C50 carotenoid bacterioruberin (BR). By homology analysis, a gene cluster, including c0507, c0506, and c0505, was found and predicted to be involved in the synthesis of bacterioruberin. To elucidate the function of the encoded enzymes, we constructed Ha. japonica mutants of these genes and analyzed carotenoids produced by the mutants. Our research showed that c0507, c0506, and c0505 encoded a carotenoid 3,4-desaturase (CrtD), a bifunctional lycopene elongase and 1,2-hydratase (LyeJ), and a C50 carotenoid 2″,3″-hydratase (CruF), respectively. The above three carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes catalyze the reactions that convert lycopene to bacterioruberin in Ha. japonica. This is the first identification of functional CrtD and CruF in archaea and elucidation of the complete biosynthetic pathway of bacterioruberin from lycopene. IMPORTANCE Haloarcula japonica, an extremely halophilic archaeon, accumulates the C50 carotenoid bacterioruberin (BR). In this study, we have identified three BR biosynthetic enzymes and have elucidated their functions. Among them, two enzymes were found in an archaeon for the first time. Our results revealed the biosynthetic pathway responsible for production of BR in Ha. japonica and provide a basis for investigating carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in other extremely halophilic archaea. Elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in Ha. japonica may also prove useful for producing the C50 carotenoid BR efficiently by employing genetically modified haloarchaeal strains. PMID:25712483

  11. Differential expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes in two contrasting tomato genotypes for lycopene content.

    PubMed

    Pandurangaiah, Shilpa; Ravishankar, Kundapura V; Shivashankar, Kodthalu S; Sadashiva, Avverahally T; Pillakenchappa, Kavitha; Narayanan, Sunil Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the model plant to study carotenoid biosynthesis. In the present study, the fruit carotenoid content were quantified at different developmental stages for two contrasting genotypes, viz. IIHR-249-1 and IIHR-2866 by UPLC. Lycopene content was high in IIHR-249-1 (19.45 mg/100 g fresh weight) compared to IIHR-2866 (1.88 mg/100 g fresh weight) at the ripe stage. qPCR was performed for genes that are involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway to study the difference in lycopene content in fruits of both the genotypes. The expression of Phytoene synthase (PSY) increased by 36-fold and Phytoene desaturase (PDS) increased by 14-fold from immature green stage to ripe stage in IIHR-249-1. The expression of Chloroplast lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-B) and Chromoplast lycopene beta cyclase (CYC-B) decreased gradually from the initial stage to the ripe stage in IIHR-249-1. IIHR 249-1 showed 3- and 1.8-fold decrease in gene expression for Chloroplast lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-B) and Chromoplast lycopene beta-cyclase (CYC-B) .The F2 hybrids derived from IIHR-249-1 and IIHR-2866 were analysed at the ripe stage for lycopene content. The gene expression of Chloroplast lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-B) and Chromoplast lycopene beta-cyclase (CYC-B) in high and low lycopene lines from F2 progenies also showed the decrease in transcript levels of both the genes in high lycopene F2 lines. We wish to suggest that the differential expression of lycopene beta-cyclases can be used in marker-assisted breeding. PMID:27240986

  12. Flower color alteration in Lotus japonicus by modification of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Sakae; Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Misawa, Norihiko; Ogiwara, Isao; Yamamura, Saburo

    2007-07-01

    To establish a model system for alteration of flower color by carotenoid pigments, we modified the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of Lotus japonicus using overexpression of the crtW gene isolated from marine bacteria Agrobacterium aurantiacum and encoding beta-carotene ketolase (4,4'-beta-oxygenase) for the production of pink to red color ketocarotenoids. The crtW gene with the transit peptide sequence of the pea Rubisco small subunit under the regulation of the CaMV35S promoter was introduced to L. japonicus. In most of the resulting transgenic plants, the color of flower petals changed from original light yellow to deep yellow or orange while otherwise exhibiting normal phenotype. HPLC and TLC analyses revealed that leaves and flower petals of these plants accumulated novel carotenoids, believed to be ketocarotenoids consisting of including astaxanthin, adonixanthin, canthaxanthin and echinenone. Results indicated that modification of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is a means of altering flower color in ornamental crops. PMID:17265153

  13. A highly selective biosynthetic pathway to non-natural C50 carotenoids assembled from moderately selective enzymes.

    PubMed

    Furubayashi, Maiko; Ikezumi, Mayu; Takaichi, Shinichi; Maoka, Takashi; Hemmi, Hisashi; Ogawa, Takuya; Saito, Kyoichi; Tobias, Alexander V; Umeno, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology aspires to construct natural and non-natural pathways to useful compounds. However, pathways that rely on multiple promiscuous enzymes may branch, which might preclude selective production of the target compound. Here, we describe the assembly of a six-enzyme pathway in Escherichia coli for the synthesis of C50-astaxanthin, a non-natural purple carotenoid. We show that by judicious matching of engineered size-selectivity variants of the first two enzymes in the pathway, farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDS) and carotenoid synthase (CrtM), branching and the production of non-target compounds can be suppressed, enriching the proportion of C50 backbones produced. We then further extend the C50 pathway using evolved or wild-type downstream enzymes. Despite not containing any substrate- or product-specific enzymes, the resulting pathway detectably produces only C50 carotenoids, including ∼ 90% C50-astaxanthin. Using this approach, highly selective pathways can be engineered without developing absolutely specific enzymes. PMID:26168783

  14. A highly selective biosynthetic pathway to non-natural C50 carotenoids assembled from moderately selective enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Furubayashi, Maiko; Ikezumi, Mayu; Takaichi, Shinichi; Maoka, Takashi; Hemmi, Hisashi; Ogawa, Takuya; Saito, Kyoichi; Tobias, Alexander V; Umeno, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology aspires to construct natural and non-natural pathways to useful compounds. However, pathways that rely on multiple promiscuous enzymes may branch, which might preclude selective production of the target compound. Here, we describe the assembly of a six-enzyme pathway in Escherichia coli for the synthesis of C50-astaxanthin, a non-natural purple carotenoid. We show that by judicious matching of engineered size-selectivity variants of the first two enzymes in the pathway, farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDS) and carotenoid synthase (CrtM), branching and the production of non-target compounds can be suppressed, enriching the proportion of C50 backbones produced. We then further extend the C50 pathway using evolved or wild-type downstream enzymes. Despite not containing any substrate- or product-specific enzymes, the resulting pathway detectably produces only C50 carotenoids, including ∼90% C50-astaxanthin. Using this approach, highly selective pathways can be engineered without developing absolutely specific enzymes. PMID:26168783

  15. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis: A Colorful Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Sola, M. Águila; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are a family of pigments that participate in light harvesting and are essential for photoprotection against excess light. Furthermore, they act as precursors for the production of apocarotenoid hormones such as abscisic acid and strigolactones. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the genes and enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway (which is now almost completely elucidated) and on the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We also discuss the relevance of Arabidopsis as a model system for the study of carotenogenesis and how metabolic engineering approaches in this plant have taught important lessons for carotenoid biotechnology. PMID:22582030

  16. Biochemical characterization and selective inhibition of β-carotene cis-trans isomerase D27 and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase CCD8 on the strigolactone biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Peter J; Newgas, Sophie A; Descombes, Flora; Shepherd, Sarah A; Thompson, Andrew J; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2015-10-01

    The first three enzymatic steps of the strigolactone biosynthetic pathway catalysed by β-carotene cis-trans isomerase Dwarf27 (D27) from Oryza sativa and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases CCD7 and CCD8 from Arabidopsis thaliana have been reconstituted in vitro, and kinetic assays have been developed for each enzyme, in order to develop selective enzyme inhibitors. Recombinant OsD27 shows a UV-visible λmax at 422 nm and is inactivated by silver(I) acetate, consistent with the presence of an iron-sulfur cluster that is used in catalysis. OsD27 and AtCCD7 are not inhibited by hydroxamic acids that cause shoot branching in planta, but OsD27 is partially inhibited by terpene-like hydroxamic acids. The reaction catalysed by AtCCD8 is shown to be a two-step kinetic mechanism using pre-steady-state kinetic analysis. Kinetic evidence is presented for acid-base catalysis in the CCD8 catalytic cycle and the existence of an essential cysteine residue in the CCD8 active site. AtCCD8 is inhibited in a time-dependent fashion by hydroxamic acids D2, D4, D5 and D6 (> 95% inhibition at 100 μm) that cause a shoot branching phenotype in A. thaliana, and selective inhibition of CCD8 is observed using hydroxamic acids D13H and D15 (82%, 71% inhibition at 10 μm). The enzyme inhibition data imply that the biochemical basis of the shoot branching phenotype is due to inhibition of CCD8. PMID:26257333

  17. Apocarotenoids: A New Carotenoid-Derived Pathway.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Juan Camilo Moreno; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are precursors of carotenoid derived molecules termed apocarotenoids, which include isoprenoids with important functions in plant-environment interactions such as the attraction of pollinators and the defense against pathogens and herbivores. Apocarotenoids also include volatile aromatic compounds that act as repellents, chemoattractants, growth simulators and inhibitors, as well as the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactones. In plants, apocarotenoids can be found in several types of plastids (etioplast, leucoplast and chromoplast) and among different plant tissues such as flowers and roots. The structural similarity of some flower and spice isoprenoid volatile organic compounds (β-ionone and safranal) to carotenoids has led to the recent discovery of carotenoid-specific cleavage oxygenases, including carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases and 9-cis-epoxydioxygenases, which tailor and transform carotenoids into apocarotenoids. The great diversity of apocarotenoids is a consequence of the huge amount of carotenoid precursors, the variations in specific cleavage sites and the modifications after cleavage. Lycopene, β-carotene and zeaxanthin are the precursors of the main apocarotenoids described to date, which include bixin, crocin, picrocrocin, abscisic acid, strigolactone and mycorradicin.The current chapter will give rise to an overview of the biosynthesis and function of the most important apocarotenoids in plants, as well as the current knowledge about the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase enzymes involved in these biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27485225

  18. Molecular characterization of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases and the effect of gibberellin, abscisic acid, and sodium chloride on the expression of genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and carotenoid accumulation in the callus of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sanghyun; Chae, Soo Cheon; Park, Sang Un

    2013-06-12

    Three cDNAs encoding carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (SbCCD1, SbCCD4, and SbNCED) were isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis , an important traditional herb in Asia and North America. Amino acid sequence alignments showed that they share high identity and similarity to their orthologs in other plant species. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that SbCCD1 and SbCCD4 were most strongly expressed in flowers, whereas SbNCED was expressed at the highest level in roots. The expression levels of phytoene synthase (SbPSY), phytoene desaturase (SbPDS), ξ-carotene desaturase (SbZDS), β-ring carotene hydroxylase (SbCHXB), zeaxanthin epoxidase (SbZEP), SbCCD1, SbCCD4, and SbNCED in the callus of S. baicalensis varied under different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA). Under NaCl treatment, expression levels of all genes increased with increasing NaCl concentrations. Except for zeaxanthin, increasing GA3, ABA, and NaCl concentrations caused higher losses in the total carotenoid content. The total carotenoid content substantially decreased with increasing GA3, ABA, and NaCl concentrations, with the biggest reductions observed in the NaCl treatment. The isolation and characterization of SbCCD1, SbCCD4, and SbNCED together with the study on the effect of GA3, ABA, and NaCl on carotenoid biosynthesis will be helpful to elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis mechanism in S. baicalensis and may set new trends in metabolic engineering of carotenoids in plants. PMID:23683071

  19. Comparison of carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression between Valencia and Rohde Red Valencia sweet oranges.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xu; Chen, Chunxian; Yu, Qibin; Gady, Antoine; Yu, Yuan; Liang, Guolu; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2014-10-01

    Carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression levels during fruit maturation were compared between ordinary Valencia (VAL) and its more deeply colored mutant Rohde Red Valencia orange (RRV). The two cultivars exhibited different carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms in flavedo and juice sacs, respectively. In flavedo, there was uncoordinated carotenoid accumulation and gene expression in RRV during green stages, which might be related to the expression of certain gene(s) in the MEP (methylerythritol phosphate) pathway. The carotenoid biosynthesis pathway shifting from α,β-xanthophylls to β,β-xanthophylls synthesis occurred in RRV earlier than VAL during orange stages. In juice sacs, the low carotenoid content in both cultivars coincided with low expression of LCYE-Contig03 and LCYE-Contig24 during green stages, suggesting LCYE might be a limiting step for carotenoid accumulation. VAL mainly accumulated violaxanthin, but RRV accumulated β-cryptoxanthin and violaxanthin during orange stages, which corresponded to differences in juice color. Several upstream genes (PDS-Contig17, LCYB-Contig19, and ZDS members) and a downstream gene (ZEP) were expressed at higher levels in RRV than VAL, which might be responsible for greater accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and violaxanthin in RRV, respectively. PMID:25219303

  20. Molecular characterization of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in Lycium chinense.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shicheng; Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Woo Tae; Kim, Yeon Bok; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Yang, Jingli; Li, Cheng Hao; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    Lycium chinense is a shrub that has health benefits and is used as a source of medicines in Asia. In this study, a full-length cDNA clone encoding β-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXB) and partial-length cDNA clones encoding phytoene synthase (LcPSY), phytoene desaturase (LcPDS), ξ-carotene desaturase (LcZDS), lycopene β-cyclase (LcLCYB), lycopene ε-cyclase (LcLCYE), ε-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXE), zeaxanthin epoxidase (LcZEP), carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (LcCCD1), and 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (LcNCED) were identified in L. chinense. The transcripts were constitutively expressed at high levels in leaves, flowers and red fruits, where the carotenoids are mostly distributed. In contrast, most of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were weakly expressed in the roots and stems, which contained only small amounts of carotenoids. The level of LcLCYE transcripts was very high in leaves and correlated with the abundance of lutein in this plant tissue. During maturation, the levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in L. chinense fruits dramatically increased, concomitant with a rise in the level of β-cryptoxanthin. LcPSY, LcPDS, LcZDS, LcLCYB, and LcCHXE were highly expressed in red fruits, leading to their substantially higher total carotenoid content compared to that in green fruits. Total carotenoid content was high in both the leaves and red fruits of L. chinense. Our findings on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in L. chinense provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and may facilitate the optimization of carotenoid production in L. chinense. PMID:25090116

  1. Biosynthetic pathways of ergot alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Gerhards, Nina; Neubauer, Lisa; Tudzynski, Paul; Li, Shu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are nitrogen-containing natural products belonging to indole alkaloids. The best known producers are fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, e.g., Claviceps, Epichloë, Penicillium and Aspergillus species. According to their structures, ergot alkaloids can be divided into three groups: clavines, lysergic acid amides and peptides (ergopeptines). All of them share the first biosynthetic steps, which lead to the formation of the tetracyclic ergoline ring system (except the simplest, tricyclic compound: chanoclavine). Different modifications on the ergoline ring by specific enzymes result in an abundance of bioactive natural products, which are used as pharmaceutical drugs or precursors thereof. From the 1950s through to recent years, most of the biosynthetic pathways have been elucidated. Gene clusters from several ergot alkaloid producers have been identified by genome mining and the functions of many of those genes have been demonstrated by knock-out experiments or biochemical investigations of the overproduced enzymes. PMID:25513893

  2. Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Gerhards, Nina; Neubauer, Lisa; Tudzynski, Paul; Li, Shu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are nitrogen-containing natural products belonging to indole alkaloids. The best known producers are fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, e.g., Claviceps, Epichloë, Penicillium and Aspergillus species. According to their structures, ergot alkaloids can be divided into three groups: clavines, lysergic acid amides and peptides (ergopeptines). All of them share the first biosynthetic steps, which lead to the formation of the tetracyclic ergoline ring system (except the simplest, tricyclic compound: chanoclavine). Different modifications on the ergoline ring by specific enzymes result in an abundance of bioactive natural products, which are used as pharmaceutical drugs or precursors thereof. From the 1950s through to recent years, most of the biosynthetic pathways have been elucidated. Gene clusters from several ergot alkaloid producers have been identified by genome mining and the functions of many of those genes have been demonstrated by knock-out experiments or biochemical investigations of the overproduced enzymes. PMID:25513893

  3. A biosynthetic pathway for anandamide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Lei; Harvey-White, Judith; Osei-Hyiaman, Douglas; Razdan, Raj; Gong, Qian; Chan, Andrew C.; Zhou, Zhifeng; Huang, Bill X.; Kim, Hee-Yong; Kunos, George

    2006-01-01

    The endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anandamide) is a lipid transmitter synthesized and released “on demand” by neurons in the brain. Anandamide is also generated by macrophages where its endotoxin (LPS)-induced synthesis has been implicated in the hypotension of septic shock and advanced liver cirrhosis. Anandamide can be generated from its membrane precursor, N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) through cleavage by a phospholipase D (NAPE–PLD). Here we document a biosynthetic pathway for anandamide in mouse brain and RAW264.7 macrophages that involves the phospholipase C (PLC)-catalyzed cleavage of NAPE to generate a lipid, phosphoanandamide, which is subsequently dephosphorylated by phosphatases, including PTPN22, previously described as a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Bacterial endotoxin (LPS)-induced synthesis of anandamide in macrophages is mediated exclusively by the PLC/phosphatase pathway, which is up-regulated by LPS, whereas NAPE–PLD is down-regulated by LPS and functions as a salvage pathway of anandamide synthesis when the PLC/phosphatase pathway is compromised. Both PTPN22 and endocannabinoids have been implicated in autoimmune diseases, suggesting that the PLC/phosphatase pathway of anandamide synthesis may be a pharmacotherapeutic target. PMID:16938887

  4. Characterization and developmental expression of genes encoding the early carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in Citrus paradisi Macf.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcio G C; Moreira, Cristina D; Melton, John R; Otoni, Wagner C; Moore, Gloria A

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequences of PSY, PDS, and ZDS, encoding the early carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in the carotenoid pathway of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), were isolated and characterized for the first time. CpPSY contained a 1311-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 436 amino acids, CpPDS contained a 1659-bp ORF encoding a polypeptide of 552 amino acids, and CpZDS contained a 1713-bp ORF encoding a polypeptide of 570 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CpPSY shares homology with PSYs from Citrus, tomato, pepper, Arabidopsis, and the monocot PSY1 group, while CpPDS and CpZDS are most closely related to orthologs from Citrus and tomato. Expression analysis revealed fluctuations in CpPSY, CpPDS, and CpZDS transcript abundance and a non-coordinated regulation between the former and the two latter genes during fruit development in albedo and juice vesicles of white ('Duncan') and red ('Flame') grapefruits. A 3× higher upregulation of CpPSY expression in juice vesicles of red-fleshed 'Flame' as compared to white-fruited 'Duncan' was observed in the middle stages of fruit development, which correlates with the well documented accumulation pattern of lycopene in red grapefruit. Together with previous data, our results suggest that the primary mechanism controlling lycopene accumulation in red grapefruit involves the transcriptional upregulation of CpPSY, which controls the flux into the carotenoid pathway, and the downregulated expression of CpLCYB2, which controls the step of cyclization of lycopene in chromoplasts during fruit ripening. A correlation between CpPSY expression and fruit color evolution in red grapefruit is demonstrated. PMID:21594623

  5. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many fruits, including watermelon, are proficient in carotenoid accumulation during ripening. While most genes encoding steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, few transcriptional regulators of these genes have been defined to date. Here we describe the identification of a set of putative carotenoid-related transcription factors resulting from fresh watermelon carotenoid and transcriptome analysis during fruit development and ripening. Our goal is to both clarify the expression profiles of carotenoid pathway genes and to identify candidate regulators and molecular targets for crop improvement. Results Total carotenoids progressively increased during fruit ripening up to ~55 μg g-1 fw in red-ripe fruits. Trans-lycopene was the carotenoid that contributed most to this increase. Many of the genes related to carotenoid metabolism displayed changing expression levels during fruit ripening generating a metabolic flux toward carotenoid synthesis. Constitutive low expression of lycopene cyclase genes resulted in lycopene accumulation. RNA-seq expression profiling of watermelon fruit development yielded a set of transcription factors whose expression was correlated with ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Nineteen putative transcription factor genes from watermelon and homologous to tomato carotenoid-associated genes were identified. Among these, six were differentially expressed in the flesh of both species during fruit development and ripening. Conclusions Taken together the data suggest that, while the regulation of a common set of metabolic genes likely influences carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in watermelon and tomato fruits during development and ripening, specific and limiting regulators may differ between climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, possibly related to their differential susceptibility to and use of ethylene during ripening. PMID:24219562

  6. Molecular characterization of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Jae Kwang; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis has a wide range of biological activities and has been considered as an important traditional drug in Asia and North America for centuries. A partial-length cDNA clone encoding phytoene synthase (SbPSY) and full-length cDNA clonesencoding phytoene desaturase (SbPDS), ξ-carotene desaturase (SbZDS), β-ring carotene hydroxylase (SbCHXB), and zeaxanthin epoxidase (SbZEP)were identifiedin S. baicalensis. Sequence analyses revealed that these proteins share high identity and conserved domains with their orthologous genes. SbPSY, SbPDS, SbZDS, SbCHXB, and SbZEP were constitutively expressed in the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of S.baicalensis. SbPSY, SbPDS, and SbZDS were highly expressed in the stems, leaves, and flowers and showed low expression in the roots, where only trace amounts of carotenoids were detected. SbCHXB and SbZEP transcripts were expressed at relatively high levels in the roots, stems, and flowers and were expressed at low levels in the leaves, where carotenoids were mostly distributed. The predominant carotenoids in S.baicalensiswere lutein and β-carotene, with abundant amounts found in the leaves (517.19 and 228.37 μg g-1 dry weight, respectively). Our study on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in S. baicalensis will provide basic data for elucidating the contribution of carotenoids to the considerable medicinal properties of S. baicalensis. PMID:26417348

  7. Biosynthetic route towards saxitoxin and shunt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Shigeki; Cho, Yuko; Konoki, Keiichi; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Oshima, Yasukatsu; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Saxitoxin, the most potent voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, is one of the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. Recently, putative biosynthetic genes of PSTs were reported in these microorganisms. We previously synthesized genetically predicted biosynthetic intermediates, Int-A’ and Int-C’2, and also Cyclic-C’ which was not predicted based on gene, and identified them all in the toxin-producing cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis (TA04) and the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Axat-2). This study examined the incorporation of 15N-labeled intermediates into PSTs (C1 and C2) in A. circinalis (TA04). Conversions from Int-A’ to Int-C’2, from Int-C’2 to Cyclic-C’, and from Int-A’ and Int-C’2 to C1 and C2 were indicated using high resolution-LC/MS. However, Cyclic-C’ was not converted to C1 and C2 and was detected primarily in the extracellular medium. These results suggest that Int-A’ and Int-C’2 are genuine precursors of PSTs, but Int-C’2 converts partially to Cyclic-C’ which is a shunt product excreted to outside the cells. This paper provides the first direct demonstration of the biosynthetic route towards saxitoxin and a shunt pathway. PMID:26842222

  8. Enrichment of provitamin A content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by introduction of the bacterial carotenoid biosynthetic genes CrtB and CrtI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Zeng, Jian; Li, Yin; Hu, Wei; Chen, Ling; Miao, Yingjie; Deng, Pengyi; Yuan, Cuihong; Ma, Cheng; Chen, Xi; Zang, Mingli; Wang, Qiong; Li, Kexiu; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2014-06-01

    Carotenoid content is a primary determinant of wheat nutritional value and affects its end-use quality. Wheat grains contain very low carotenoid levels and trace amounts of provitamin A content. In order to enrich the carotenoid content in wheat grains, the bacterial phytoene synthase gene (CrtB) and carotene desaturase gene (CrtI) were transformed into the common wheat cultivar Bobwhite. Expression of CrtB or CrtI alone slightly increased the carotenoid content in the grains of transgenic wheat, while co-expression of both genes resulted in a darker red/yellow grain phenotype, accompanied by a total carotenoid content increase of approximately 8-fold achieving 4.76 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight, a β-carotene increase of 65-fold to 3.21 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight, and a provitamin A content (sum of α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) increase of 76-fold to 3.82 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight. The high provitamin A content in the transgenic wheat was stably inherited over four generations. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that enhancement of provitamin A content in transgenic wheat was also a result of the highly coordinated regulation of endogenous carotenoid biosynthetic genes, suggesting a metabolic feedback regulation in the wheat carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. These transgenic wheat lines are not only valuable for breeding wheat varieties with nutritional benefits for human health but also for understanding the mechanism regulating carotenoid biosynthesis in wheat endosperm. PMID:24692648

  9. Evolution-guided optimization of biosynthetic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Srivatsan; Rogers, Jameson K.; Taylor, Noah D.; Church, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Engineering biosynthetic pathways for chemical production requires extensive optimization of the host cellular metabolic machinery. Because it is challenging to specify a priori an optimal design, metabolic engineers often need to construct and evaluate a large number of variants of the pathway. We report a general strategy that combines targeted genome-wide mutagenesis to generate pathway variants with evolution to enrich for rare high producers. We convert the intracellular presence of the target chemical into a fitness advantage for the cell by using a sensor domain responsive to the chemical to control a reporter gene necessary for survival under selective conditions. Because artificial selection tends to amplify unproductive cheaters, we devised a negative selection scheme to eliminate cheaters while preserving library diversity. This scheme allows us to perform multiple rounds of evolution (addressing ∼109 cells per round) with minimal carryover of cheaters after each round. Based on candidate genes identified by flux balance analysis, we used targeted genome-wide mutagenesis to vary the expression of pathway genes involved in the production of naringenin and glucaric acid. Through up to four rounds of evolution, we increased production of naringenin and glucaric acid by 36- and 22-fold, respectively. Naringenin production (61 mg/L) from glucose was more than double the previous highest titer reported. Whole-genome sequencing of evolved strains revealed additional untargeted mutations that likely benefit production, suggesting new routes for optimization. PMID:25453111

  10. Flavoenzymes: Versatile Catalysts in Biosynthetic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Christopher T.; Wencewicz, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Riboflavin-based coenzymes, tightly bound to enzymes catalyzing substrate oxidations and reductions, enable an enormous range of chemical transformations in biosynthetic pathways. Flavoenzymes catalyze substrate oxidations involving amine and alcohol oxidations and desaturations to olefins, the latter setting up Diels-Alder cyclizations in lovastatin and solanapyrone biosyntheses. Both C4a and N5 of the flavin coenzymes are sites for covalent adduct formation. For example, the reactivity of dihydroflavins with molecular oxygen leads to flavin-4a-OOH adducts which then carry out a diverse range of oxygen transfers, including Baeyer-Villiger type ring expansions, olefin epoxidations, halogenations via transient HOCl generation, and an oxidative Favorskii rerrangement during enterocin assembly. PMID:23051833

  11. Biosynthetic pathway of terpenoid indole alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoxuan; Zeng, Xinyi; Sun, Chao; Chen, Shilin

    2014-09-01

    Catharanthus roseus is one of the most extensively investigated medicinal plants, which can produce more than 130 alkaloids, including the powerful antitumor drugs vinblastine and vincristine. Here we review the recent advances in the biosynthetic pathway of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) in C. roseus, and the identification and characterization of the corresponding enzymes involved in this pathway. Strictosidine is the central intermediate in the biosynthesis of different TIAs, which is formed by the condensation of secologanin and tryptamine. Secologanin is derived from terpenoid (isoprenoid) biosynthetic pathway, while tryptamine is derived from indole biosynthetic pathway. Then various specific end products are produced by different routes during downstream process. Although many genes and corresponding enzymes have been characterized in this pathway, our knowledge on the whole TIA biosynthetic pathway still remains largely unknown up to date. Full elucidation of TIA biosynthetic pathway is an important prerequisite to understand the regulation of the TIA biosynthesis in the medicinal plant and to produce valuable TIAs by synthetic biological technology. PMID:25159992

  12. Modification of carotenoid levels by abscission agents and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in 'valencia' sweet orange.

    PubMed

    Alferez, Fernando; Pozo, Luis V; Rouseff, Russell R; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2013-03-27

    The effect of 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP) and ethephon on peel color, flavedo carotenoid gene expression, and carotenoid accumulation was investigated in mature 'Valencia' orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) fruit flavedo at three maturation stages. Abscission agent application altered peel color. CMNP was more effective than ethephon in promoting green-to-red (a) and blue-to-yellow (b) color at the middle and late maturation stages and total carotenoid changes at all maturation stages. Altered flow of carotenoid precursors during maturation due to abscission agents was suggested by changes in phytoene desaturase (Pds) and ζ-carotene desaturase (Zds) gene expression. However, each abscission agent affected downstream expression differentially. Ethephon application increased β-carotene hydroxilase (β-Chx) transcript accumulation 12-fold as maturation advanced from the early to middle and late stages. CMNP markedly increased β- and ε-lycopene cyclase (Lcy) transcript accumulation 45- and 15-fold, respectively, at midmaturation. Patterns of carotenoid accumulation in flavedo were supported in part by gene expression changes. CMNP caused greater accumulation of total flavedo carotenoids at all maturation stages when compared with ethephon or controls. In general, CMNP treatment increased total red carotenoids more than ethephon or the control but decreased total yellow carotenoids at each maturation stage. In control fruit flavedo, total red carotenoids increased and yellow carotenoids decreased as maturation progressed. Trends in total red carotenoids during maturation were consistent with measured a values. Changes in carotenoid accumulation and expression patterns in flavedo suggest that regulation of carotenoid accumulation is under transcriptional, translational, and post-translational control. PMID:23451824

  13. Ochratoxin A Producing Fungi, Biosynthetic Pathway and Regulatory Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Liuqing; Liu, Fei; Wang, Qi; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Zhao, Yueju; Liu, Yang

    2016-03-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), mainly produced by Aspergillus and Penicillum species, is one of the most important mycotoxin contaminants in agricultural products. It is detrimental to human health because of its nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and immunosuppression. OTA structurally consists of adihydrocoumarin moiety linked with l-phenylalanine via an amide bond. OTA biosynthesis has been putatively hypothesized, although several contradictions exist on some processes of the biosynthetic pathway. We discuss recent information on molecular studies of OTA biosynthesis despite insufficient genetic background in detail. Accordingly, genetic regulation has also been explored with regard to the interaction between the regulators and the environmental factors. In this review, we focus on three aspects of OTA: OTA-producing strains, OTA biosynthetic pathway and the regulation mechanisms of OTA production. This can pave the way to assist in protecting food and feed from OTA contamination by understanding OTA biosynthetic pathway and regulatory mechanisms. PMID:27007394

  14. Ochratoxin A Producing Fungi, Biosynthetic Pathway and Regulatory Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Liuqing; Liu, Fei; Wang, Qi; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Zhao, Yueju; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), mainly produced by Aspergillus and Penicillum species, is one of the most important mycotoxin contaminants in agricultural products. It is detrimental to human health because of its nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and immunosuppression. OTA structurally consists of adihydrocoumarin moiety linked with l-phenylalanine via an amide bond. OTA biosynthesis has been putatively hypothesized, although several contradictions exist on some processes of the biosynthetic pathway. We discuss recent information on molecular studies of OTA biosynthesis despite insufficient genetic background in detail. Accordingly, genetic regulation has also been explored with regard to the interaction between the regulators and the environmental factors. In this review, we focus on three aspects of OTA: OTA-producing strains, OTA biosynthetic pathway and the regulation mechanisms of OTA production. This can pave the way to assist in protecting food and feed from OTA contamination by understanding OTA biosynthetic pathway and regulatory mechanisms. PMID:27007394

  15. Evaluation of Biosynthetic Pathway and Engineered Biosynthesis of Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Shinji; Sato, Michio; Tsunematsu, Yuta; Watanabe, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Varieties of alkaloids are known to be produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi and plants, as secondary metabolites that exhibit useful bioactivities. However, understanding of how those metabolites are biosynthesized still remains limited, because most of these compounds are isolated from plants and at a trace level of production. In this review, we focus on recent efforts in identifying the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of those nitrogen-containing natural products and elucidating the mechanisms involved in the biosynthetic processes. The alkaloids discussed in this review are ditryptophenaline (dimeric diketopiperazine alkaloid), saframycin (tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid), strictosidine (monoterpene indole alkaloid), ergotamine (ergot alkaloid) and opiates (benzylisoquinoline and morphinan alkaloid). This review also discusses the engineered biosynthesis of these compounds, primarily through heterologous reconstitution of target biosynthetic pathways in suitable hosts, such as Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans. Those heterologous biosynthetic systems can be used to confirm the functions of the isolated genes, economically scale up the production of the alkaloids for commercial distributions and engineer the biosynthetic pathways to produce valuable analogs of the alkaloids. In particular, extensive involvement of oxidation reactions catalyzed by oxidoreductases, such as cytochrome P450s, during the secondary metabolite biosynthesis is discussed in details. PMID:27548127

  16. Heterologous Expression and Manipulation of Three Tetracycline Biosynthetic Pathways**

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Kim, Woncheol; Pickens, Lauren B.; Gao, Xue; Tang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Three and one: Three tetracycline biosynthetic pathways have been overexpressed and manipulated in heterologous host Streptomyces lividans K4-114. New tetracycline modifying enzymes have been identified through a series of gene inactivation and intermediate characterization. The collection of newly discovered tailoring enzyme and the heterologous platform will promote our understanding of tetracycline biosynthesis, as well as our performance to engineer tetracycline biosynthesis in an efficient manner. PMID:23024027

  17. Integrating an algal β-carotene hydroxylase gene into a designed carotenoid-biosynthesis pathway increases carotenoid production in yeast.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jui-Jen; Thia, Caroline; Lin, Hao-Yeh; Liu, Hsien-Lin; Ho, Feng-Ju; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong; Shih, Ming-Che; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2015-05-01

    The algal β-carotene hydroxylase gene Crchyb from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Czchyb from Chlorella zofingiensis, or Hpchyb from Haematococcus pluvialis and six other carotenoid-synthesis pathway genes were co-integrated into the genome of a yeast host. Each of these three algal genes showed a higher efficiency to convert β-carotene to downstream carotenoids than the fungal genes from Phaffia rhodozyma. Furthermore, the strain with Hpchyb displayed a higher carotenoid productivity than the strains integrated with Crchyb or Czchyb, indicating that Hpchyb is more efficient than Crchyb and Czchyb. These results suggest that β-carotene hydroxylase plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of carotenoids. PMID:25537137

  18. EXPANSION OF BISINDOLE BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS BY COMBINATORIAL CONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yi-Ling; Ryan, Katherine S.

    2015-01-01

    Cladoniamides are indolotryptoline natural products that derive from indolocarbazole precursors. Here, we present a microbial platform to artificially redirect the cladoniamide pathway to generate unnatural bisindoles for drug discovery. Specifically, we target glycosyltransferase, halogenase, and oxidoreductase genes from the phylogenetically-related indolocarbazole rebeccamycin and staurosporine pathways. We generate a series of novel compounds, reveal details about the substrate specificities of a number of enzymes, and set the stage for future efforts to develop new catalysts and compounds by engineering of bisindole genes. The strategy for structural diversification we use here could furthermore be applied to other natural product families with known biosynthetic genes. PMID:25548949

  19. Analysis of Heme Biosynthetic Pathways in a Recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pranawidjaja, Stephanie; Choi, Su-In; Lay, Bibiana W; Kim, Pil

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial heme was produced from a genetic-engineered Escherichia coli via the porphyrin pathway and it was useful as an iron resource for animal feed. The amount of the E. colisynthesized heme, however, was only few milligrams in a culture broth and it was not enough for industrial applications. To analyze heme biosynthetic pathways, an engineered E. coli artificially overexpressing ALA synthase (hemA from Rhodobacter sphaeroides) and pantothenate kinase (coaA gene from self geneome) was constructed as a bacterial heme-producing strain, and both the transcription levels of pathway genes and the intermediates concentrations were determined from batch and continuous cultures. Transcription levels of the pathway genes were not significantly changed among the tested conditions. Intracellular intermediate concentrations indicated that aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coenzyme A (CoA) were enhanced by the hemA-coaA co-expression. Intracellular coproporphyrinogen I and protoporphyrin IX accumulation suggested that the bottleneck steps in the heme biosynthetic pathway could be the spontaneous conversion of HMB to coproporphyrinogen I and the limited conversion of protoporphyrin IX to heme, respectively. A strategy to increase the conversion of ALA to heme is discussed based on the results. PMID:25537720

  20. Manipulating Natural Product Biosynthetic Pathways via DNA Assembler

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zengyi; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    DNA assembler is an efficient synthetic biology method for constructing and manipulating biochemical pathways. The rapidly increasing number of sequenced genomes provides a rich source for discovery of gene clusters involved in synthesizing new natural products. However, both discovery and economical production are hampered by our limited knowledge in manipulating most organisms and the corresponding pathways. By taking advantage of yeast in vivo homologous recombination, DNA assembler synthesizes an entire expression vector containing the target biosynthetic pathway and the genetic elements needed for DNA maintenance and replication. Here we use the spectinabilin clusters originated from two hosts as examples to illustrate the guidelines of using DNA assembler for cluster characterization and silent cluster activation. Such strategies offer unprecedented versatility in cluster manipulation, bypass the traditional laborious strategies to elicit pathway expression, and provide a new platform for de novo cluster assembly and genome mining for discovering new natural products. PMID:24903884

  1. Carotenoid Metabolism: the Biosynthesis, Regulation, and Beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are indispensable to plants and play a critical role in human nutrition and health. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of carotenoid metabolism in plants. The metabolic pathway has been extensively studied, and the genes encoding nearly all of the biosynthetic enzyme...

  2. Carotenoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are lipophilic plant pigments with polyisoprenoid structures that occur naturally in plants and other photosynthetic organisms. There are over 600 known carotenoids with chemical structures characterized by a large (35-40 carbon atoms) conjugated polyene chain, sometimes terminated by ri...

  3. The biosynthetic pathway to a novel derivative of 4,4'-diapolycopene-4,4'-oate in a red strain of Sporosarcina aquimarina.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Sabine; Perez-Fons, Laura; Fraser, Paul D; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2012-09-01

    In a red bacterial strain SF238 belonging to Sporosarcina aquimarina, a C(30) carotenoid biosynthetic pathway was identified. It has been reconstructed by analysis of intermediates that accumulate in two different pigment mutants. It starts with the synthesis of 4,4'-diapophytoene and proceeds with its desaturation to 4,4'-diapolycopene, which is then oxidized to 4,4'-diapolycopene-4,4'-dioate. Using a combination of HPLC-PDA and LC-MS/MS analyses, the final product of this pathway was identified as acetyl-4,4'-diapolycopene-4,4'-dioate. This is a novel carotenoid not reported in any organisms to date. It could be demonstrated that this carotenoid has excellent antioxidative properties to protect from photosensitized peroxidation reactions like other related 4,4'-diapolycopene-4,4'-dioate derivatives. PMID:22526266

  4. Substrate specificity of the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Christina L.; Goon, Scarlett; Yarema, Kevin J.; Hinderlich, Stephan; Hang, Howard C.; Chai, Diana H.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2001-07-18

    Unnatural analogs of sialic acid can be delivered to mammalian cell surfaces through the metabolic transformation of unnatural N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) derivatives. In previous studies, mannosamine analogs bearing simple N-acyl groups up to five carbon atoms in length were recognized as substrates by the biosynthetic machinery and transformed into cell-surface sialoglycoconjugates [Keppler, O. T., et al. (2001) Glycobiology 11, 11R-18R]. Such structural alterations to cell surface glycans can be used to probe carbohydrate-dependent phenomena. This report describes our investigation into the extent of tolerance of the pathway toward additional structural alterations of the N-acyl substituent of ManNAc. A panel of analogs with ketone-containing N-acyl groups that varied in the lengthor steric bulk was chemically synthesized and tested for metabolic conversion to cell-surface glycans. We found that extension of the N-acyl chain to six, seven, or eight carbon atoms dramatically reduced utilization by the biosynthetic machinery. Likewise, branching from the linear chain reduced metabolic conversion. Quantitation of metabolic intermediates suggested that cellular metabolism is limited by the phosphorylation of the N-acylmannosamines by ManNAc 6-kinase in the first step of the pathway. This was confirmed by enzymatic assay of the partially purified enzyme with unnatural substrates. Identification of ManNAc 6-kinase as a bottleneck for unnatural sialic acid biosynthesis provides a target for expanding the metabolic promiscuity of mammalian cells.

  5. Evolution of the C30 Carotenoid Synthase CrtM for Function in a C40 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Umeno, Daisuke; Tobias, Alexander V.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2002-01-01

    The C30 carotene synthase CrtM from Staphylococcus aureus and the C40 carotene synthase CrtB from Erwinia uredovora were swapped into their respective foreign C40 and C30 biosynthetic pathways (heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli) and evaluated for function. Each displayed negligible ability to synthesize the natural carotenoid product of the other. After one round of mutagenesis and screening, we isolated 116 variants of CrtM able to synthesize C40 carotenoids. In contrast, we failed to find a single variant of CrtB with detectable C30 activity. Subsequent analysis revealed that the best CrtM mutants performed comparably to CrtB in an in vivo C40 pathway. These mutants showed significant variation in performance in their original C30 pathway, indicating the emergence of enzymes with broadened substrate specificity as well as those with shifted specificity. We discovered that Phe 26 alone determines the specificity of CrtM. The plasticity of CrtM with respect to its substrate and product range highlights the potential for creating further new carotenoid backbone structures. PMID:12426357

  6. Detection of additional genes of the patulin biosynthetic pathway in Penicillium griseofulvum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genes in the patulin biosynthetic pathway are likely to be arranged in a cluster as has been found for biosynthetic pathways of other mycotoxins. The mycotoxin patulin, common in apples and apple juice, is most often associated with Penicillium expansum. However, of 15 fungal species capable of sy...

  7. Overexpression of the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Hans; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background High cell density cultures of Pichia pastoris grown on methanol tend to develop yellow colored supernatants, attributed to the release of free flavins. The potential of P. pastoris for flavin overproduction is therefore given, but not pronounced when the yeast is grown on glucose. The aim of this study is to characterize the relative regulatory impact of each riboflavin synthesis gene. Deeper insight into pathway control and the potential of deregulation is established by overexpression of the single genes as well as a combined deregulation of up to all six riboflavin synthesis genes. Results Overexpression of the first gene of the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway (RIB1) is already sufficient to obtain yellow colonies and the accumulation of riboflavin in the supernatant of shake flask cultures growing on glucose. Sequential deregulation of all the genes, by exchange of their native promoter with the strong and constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter (PGAP) increases the riboflavin accumulation significantly. Conclusion The regulation of the pathway is distributed over more than one gene. High cell density cultivations of a P. pastoris strain overexpressing all six RIB genes allow the accumulation of 175 mg/L riboflavin in the supernatant. The basis for rational engineering of riboflavin production in P. pastoris has thus been established. PMID:18664246

  8. Implications of Carotenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Apocarotenoid Formation during the Stigma Development of Crocus sativus and Its Closer Relatives1

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Raquel; Fernández, José-Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2005-01-01

    Crocus sativus is a triploid sterile plant characterized by its long red stigmas, which produce and store significant quantities of the apocarotenoids crocetin and crocin, formed from the oxidative cleavage of zeaxanthin. Here, we investigate the accumulation and the molecular mechanisms that regulate the synthesis of these apocarotenoids during stigma development in C. sativus. We cloned the cDNAs for phytoene synthase, lycopene-β-cyclase, and β-ring hydroxylase from C. sativus. With the transition of yellow undeveloped to red fully developed stigmas, an accumulation of zeaxanthin was observed, accompanying the expression of CsPSY, phytoene desaturase, and CsLYCb, and the massive accumulation of CsBCH and CsZCD transcripts. We analyzed the expression of these two transcripts in relation to zeaxanthin and apocarotenoid accumulation in other Crocus species. We observed that only the relative levels of zeaxanthin in the stigma of each cultivar were correlated with the level of CsBCH transcripts. By contrast, the expression levels of CsZCD were not mirrored by changes in the apocarotenoid content, suggesting that the reaction catalyzed by the CsBCH enzyme could be the limiting step in the formation of saffron apocarotenoids in the stigma tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of the CsBCH intron sequences allowed us to determine the relationships among 19 Crocus species and to identify the closely related diploids of C. sativus. In addition, we examined the levels of the carotenoid and apocarotenoid biosynthetic genes in the triploid C. sativus and its closer relatives to determine whether the quantities of these specific mRNAs were additive or not in C. sativus. Transcript levels in saffron were clearly higher and nonadditive, suggesting that, in the triploid gene, regulatory interactions that produce novel effects on carotenoid biosynthesis genes are involved. PMID:16183835

  9. Reconstruction of cytosolic fumaric acid biosynthetic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fumaric acid is a commercially important component of foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals and industrial materials, yet the current methods of production are unsustainable and ecologically destructive. Results In this study, the fumarate biosynthetic pathway involving reductive reactions of the tricarboxylic acid cycle was exogenously introduced in S. cerevisiae by a series of simple genetic modifications. First, the Rhizopus oryzae genes for malate dehydrogenase (RoMDH) and fumarase (RoFUM1) were heterologously expressed. Then, expression of the endogenous pyruvate carboxylase (PYC2) was up-regulated. The resultant yeast strain, FMME-001 ↑PYC2 + ↑RoMDH, was capable of producing significantly higher yields of fumarate in the glucose medium (3.18 ± 0.15 g liter-1) than the control strain FMME-001 empty vector. Conclusions The results presented here provide a novel strategy for fumarate biosynthesis, which represents an important advancement in producing high yields of fumarate in a sustainable and ecologically-friendly manner. PMID:22335940

  10. The bifurcation of the cyanogenic glucoside and glucosinolate biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Mette; Kannangara, Rubini M; Olsen, Carl E; Blomstedt, Cecilia K; Gleadow, Roslyn M; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Bak, Søren; Motawie, Mohammed S; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2015-11-01

    The biosynthetic pathway for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in sorghum has previously been shown to involve the sequential production of (E)- and (Z)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime. In this study we used microsomes prepared from wild-type and mutant sorghum or transiently transformed Nicotiana benthamiana to demonstrate that CYP79A1 catalyzes conversion of tyrosine to (E)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime whereas CYP71E1 catalyzes conversion of (E)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime into the corresponding geometrical Z-isomer as required for its dehydration into a nitrile, the next intermediate in cyanogenic glucoside synthesis. Glucosinolate biosynthesis is also initiated by the action of a CYP79 family enzyme, but the next enzyme involved belongs to the CYP83 family. We demonstrate that CYP83B1 from Arabidopsis thaliana cannot convert the (E)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime to the (Z)-isomer, which blocks the route towards cyanogenic glucoside synthesis. Instead CYP83B1 catalyzes the conversion of the (E)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime into an S-alkyl-thiohydroximate with retention of the configuration of the E-oxime intermediate in the final glucosinolate core structure. Numerous microbial plant pathogens are able to detoxify Z-oximes but not E-oximes. The CYP79-derived E-oximes may play an important role in plant defense. PMID:26361733

  11. Arabidopsis OR proteins are the major post-transcriptional regulators of phytoene synthase in mediating carotenoid biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are indispensable natural pigments to plants and humans. Phytoene synthase (PSY), the rate-limiting enzyme in carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, and ORANGE (OR), a regulator of chromoplast differentiation and enhancer of carotenoid biosynthesis, represent two key proteins that control caro...

  12. Pathway engineering strategies for production of beneficial carotenoids in microbial hosts.

    PubMed

    Ye, Victor M; Bhatia, Sujata K

    2012-08-01

    Carotenoids, such as lycopene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin have many benefits for human health. In addition to the functional role of carotenoids as vitamin A precursors, adequate consumption of carotenoids prevents the development of a variety of serious diseases. Biosynthesis of carotenoids is a complex process and it starts with the common isoprene precursors. Condensation of these precursors and subsequent modifications, by introducing hydroxyl- and keto-groups, leads to the generation of diversified carotenoid structures. To improve carotenoid production, metabolic engineering has been explored in bacteria, yeast, and algae. The success of the pathway engineering effort depends on the host metabolism, specific enzymes used, the enzyme expression levels, and the strategies employed. Despite the difficulty of pathway engineering for carotenoid production, great progress has been made over the past decade. We review metabolic engineering approaches used in a variety of microbial hosts for carotenoid biosynthesis. These advances will greatly expedite our efforts to bring the health benefits of carotenoids and other nutritional compounds to our diet. PMID:22488437

  13. The Strigolactone Germination Stimulants of the Plant-Parasitic Striga and Orobanche spp. Are Derived from the Carotenoid Pathway1

    PubMed Central

    Matusova, Radoslava; Rani, Kumkum; Verstappen, Francel W.A.; Franssen, Maurice C.R.; Beale, Michael H.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2005-01-01

    The seeds of parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Orobanche will only germinate after induction by a chemical signal exuded from the roots of their host. Up to now, several of these germination stimulants have been isolated and identified in the root exudates of a series of host plants of both Orobanche and Striga spp. In most cases, the compounds were shown to be isoprenoid and belong to one chemical class, collectively called the strigolactones, and suggested by many authors to be sesquiterpene lactones. However, this classification was never proven; hence, the biosynthetic pathways of the germination stimulants are unknown. We have used carotenoid mutants of maize (Zea mays) and inhibitors of isoprenoid pathways on maize, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and assessed the effects on the root exudate-induced germination of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche crenata. Here, we show that for these three host and two parasitic plant species, the strigolactone germination stimulants are derived from the carotenoid pathway. Furthermore, we hypothesize how the germination stimulants are formed. We also discuss this finding as an explanation for some phenomena that have been observed for the host-parasitic plant interaction, such as the effect of mycorrhiza on S. hermonthica infestation. PMID:16183851

  14. The Magnesium Branch of the Tetrapyrrole Biosynthetic Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, S. I.

    2004-05-11

    It should be noted that the focus of the research changed somewhat during the course of the current award. The initial focus is indicated by the title of the current grant, ''The Magnesium Branch of the Chlorophyll Biosynthetic Pathway''. During the current grant period, Dr. Robert Willows, a postdoctoral associate, joined the faculty of McQuarie University in Australia. When he left my lab, we decided that he should independently pursue research on structure/function relationships in Mg chelatase and that our laboratories would collaborate on regulatory studies of this enzyme. Also, during the current award period, I began collaborating with Dr. Ariane Atteia and Mr. Robert van Lis, who were at the time located at the Autonomous University of Mexico. Dr. Atteia has since joined my laboratory and Mr. van Lis will also do so when he obtains his Ph.D. in the near future. These individuals bring to the laboratory their interests and expertise in the respiratory components of Chlamydomonas and their desire to become experts in tetrapyrrole metabolism. Recently, in a collaboration with Dr. David Bollivar, a former postdoctoral associate who is now at Illinois Wesleyan University, and Dr. Caroline Walker, who was at Clemson University but has since left this research area, we recently made a major breakthrough on the oxygen-independent cyclase reaction, which has now become an important component of the current proposal. Finally, our research on phycobilin biosynthesis in Synechucystis has revealed that this organism can grow at very low oxygen concentrations and its genome contains several genes that may encode for enzymes that catalyze alternative oxygen-independent reactions for tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, so characterizing the genes, their enzymes, and regulation of expression have also become parts of the current proposal.

  15. Carotenoid biosynthesis in extremophilic Deinococcus-Thermus bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bing; Hua, Yuejin

    2010-11-01

    Bacteria from the phylum Deinococcus-Thermus are known for their resistance to extreme stresses including radiation, oxidation, desiccation and high temperature. Cultured Deinococcus-Thermus bacteria are usually red or yellow pigmented because of their ability to synthesize carotenoids. Unique carotenoids found in these bacteria include deinoxanthin from Deinococcus radiodurans and thermozeaxanthins from Thermus thermophilus. Investigations of carotenogenesis will help to understand cellular stress resistance of Deinococcus-Thermus bacteria. Here, we discuss the recent progress toward identifying carotenoids, carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes and pathways in some species of Deinococcus-Thermus extremophiles. In addition, we also discuss the roles of carotenoids in these extreme bacteria. PMID:20832321

  16. Assembly of functional photosystem complexes in Rhodobacter sphaeroides incorporating carotenoids from the spirilloxanthin pathway.

    PubMed

    Chi, Shuang C; Mothersole, David J; Dilbeck, Preston; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Zhang, Hao; Qian, Pu; Vasilev, Cvetelin; Grayson, Katie J; Jackson, Philip J; Martin, Elizabeth C; Li, Ying; Holten, Dewey; Neil Hunter, C

    2015-02-01

    Carotenoids protect the photosynthetic apparatus against harmful radicals arising from the presence of both light and oxygen. They also act as accessory pigments for harvesting solar energy, and are required for stable assembly of many light-harvesting complexes. In the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides phytoene desaturase (CrtI) catalyses three sequential desaturations of the colourless carotenoid phytoene, extending the number of conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds, N, from three to nine and producing the yellow carotenoid neurosporene; subsequent modifications produce the yellow/red carotenoids spheroidene/spheroidenone (N=10/11). Genomic crtI replacements were used to swap the native three-step Rba. sphaeroides CrtI for the four-step Pantoea agglomerans enzyme, which re-routed carotenoid biosynthesis and culminated in the production of 2,2'-diketo-spirilloxanthin under semi-aerobic conditions. The new carotenoid pathway was elucidated using a combination of HPLC and mass spectrometry. Premature termination of this new pathway by inactivating crtC or crtD produced strains with lycopene or rhodopin as major carotenoids. All of the spirilloxanthin series carotenoids are accepted by the assembly pathways for LH2 and RC-LH1-PufX complexes. The efficiency of carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer for 2,2'-diketo-spirilloxanthin (15 conjugated CC bonds; N=15) in LH2 complexes is low, at 35%. High energy transfer efficiencies were obtained for neurosporene (N=9; 94%), spheroidene (N=10; 96%) and spheroidenone (N=11; 95%), whereas intermediate values were measured for lycopene (N=11; 64%), rhodopin (N=11; 62%) and spirilloxanthin (N=13; 39%). The variety and stability of these novel Rba. sphaeroides antenna complexes make them useful experimental models for investigating the energy transfer dynamics of carotenoids in bacterial photosynthesis. PMID:25449968

  17. Assembly of a novel biosynthetic pathway for production of the plant flavonoid fisetin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Stahlhut, Steen G; Siedler, Solvej; Malla, Sailesh; Harrison, Scott J; Maury, Jérôme; Neves, Ana Rute; Forster, Jochen

    2015-09-01

    Plant secondary metabolites are an underutilized pool of bioactive molecules for applications in the food, pharma and nutritional industries. One such molecule is fisetin, which is present in many fruits and vegetables and has several potential health benefits, including anti-cancer, anti-viral and anti-aging activity. Moreover, fisetin has recently been shown to prevent Alzheimer's disease in mice and to prevent complications associated with diabetes type I. Thus far the biosynthetic pathway of fisetin in plants remains elusive. Here, we present the heterologous assembly of a novel fisetin pathway in Escherichia coli. We propose a novel biosynthetic pathway from the amino acid, tyrosine, utilizing nine heterologous enzymes. The pathway proceeds via the synthesis of two flavanones never produced in microorganisms before--garbanzol and resokaempferol. We show for the first time a functional biosynthetic pathway and establish E. coli as a microbial platform strain for the production of fisetin and related flavonols. PMID:26192693

  18. Enzymic Pathways for Formation of Carotenoid Cleavage Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischmann, Peter; Zorn, Holger

    Degraded carotenoids (apocarotenoids, norisoprenoids) have been a subject of intensive research for several decades. From the perspective of human physiology and nutrition, the retinoids, acting as vitamins, signalling molecules, and visual pigments, attracted the greatest attention (Chapters 15 and 16). Plant scientists, however, detected a wealth of different apocarotenoids, presumably derived by the excentric cleavage of carotenoids in various species, the plant hormone abscisic acid (1, Scheme 6) being the best-investigated example. With the onset of fruit ripening, flower opening or senescence of green tissues, carotenoids are degraded oxidatively to smaller, volatile compounds. The natural biological functions of the reaction products are outlined in Chapter 15. As many of these apocarotenoids act as potent flavour compounds, food chemists and flavourists worldwide have investigated meticulously their structural and sensory properties. Many aspects of carotenoid metabolites and breakdown products as aroma compounds are presented in a comprehensive book [1].

  19. Nutrient shortage triggers the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway via the GCN2-ATF4 signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chaveroux, Cédric; Sarcinelli, Carmen; Barbet, Virginie; Belfeki, Sofiane; Barthelaix, Audrey; Ferraro-Peyret, Carole; Lebecque, Serge; Renno, Toufic; Bruhat, Alain; Fafournoux, Pierre; Manié, Serge N.

    2016-01-01

    The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) is a nutrient-sensing metabolic pathway that produces the activated amino sugar UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, a critical substrate for protein glycosylation. Despite its biological significance, little is known about the regulation of HBP flux during nutrient limitation. Here, we report that amino acid or glucose shortage increase GFAT1 production, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the HBP. GFAT1 is a transcriptional target of the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) induced by the GCN2-eIF2α signalling pathway. The increased production of GFAT1 stimulates HBP flux and results in an increase in O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine protein modifications. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that ATF4 provides a link between nutritional stress and the HBP for the regulation of the O-GlcNAcylation-dependent cellular signalling. PMID:27255611

  20. Nutrient shortage triggers the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway via the GCN2-ATF4 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chaveroux, Cédric; Sarcinelli, Carmen; Barbet, Virginie; Belfeki, Sofiane; Barthelaix, Audrey; Ferraro-Peyret, Carole; Lebecque, Serge; Renno, Toufic; Bruhat, Alain; Fafournoux, Pierre; Manié, Serge N

    2016-01-01

    The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) is a nutrient-sensing metabolic pathway that produces the activated amino sugar UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, a critical substrate for protein glycosylation. Despite its biological significance, little is known about the regulation of HBP flux during nutrient limitation. Here, we report that amino acid or glucose shortage increase GFAT1 production, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the HBP. GFAT1 is a transcriptional target of the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) induced by the GCN2-eIF2α signalling pathway. The increased production of GFAT1 stimulates HBP flux and results in an increase in O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine protein modifications. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that ATF4 provides a link between nutritional stress and the HBP for the regulation of the O-GlcNAcylation-dependent cellular signalling. PMID:27255611

  1. The genes and enzymes of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are a heterogeneous group of plant isoprenoids primarily involved in photosynthesis. In plants the cleavage of carotenoids leads to the formation of the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactone, and C13-norisoprenoids involved in the characteristic flavour and aroma compounds in flowers and fruits and are of specific importance in the varietal character of grapes and wine. This work extends the previous reports of carotenoid gene expression and photosynthetic pigment analysis by providing an up-to-date pathway analysis and an important framework for the analysis of carotenoid metabolic pathways in grapevine. Results Comparative genomics was used to identify 42 genes putatively involved in carotenoid biosynthesis/catabolism in grapevine. The genes are distributed on 16 of the 19 chromosomes and have been localised to the physical map of the heterozygous ENTAV115 grapevine sequence. Nine of the genes occur as single copies whereas the rest of the carotenoid metabolic genes have more than one paralogue. The cDNA copies of eleven corresponding genes from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage were characterised, and four where shown to be functional. Microarrays provided expression profiles of 39 accessions in the metabolic pathway during three berry developmental stages in Sauvignon blanc, whereas an optimised HPLC analysis provided the concentrations of individual carotenoids. This provides evidence of the functioning of the lutein epoxide cycle and the respective genes in grapevine. Similarly, orthologues of genes leading to the formation of strigolactone involved in shoot branching inhibition were identified: CCD7, CCD8 and MAX1. Moreover, the isoforms typically have different expression patterns, confirming the complex regulation of the pathway. Of particular interest is the expression pattern of the three VvNCEDs: Our results support previous findings that VvNCED3 is likely the isoform linked to ABA content in berries. Conclusions The

  2. Biosynthetic Pathway Analysis for Improving the Cordycepin and Cordycepic Acid Production in Hirsutella sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Xue, Ya-Ping; Baker, Peter James; Wu, Hui; Xu, Feng; Teng, Yi; Brathwaite, Mgavi Elombe; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-06-01

    Hirsutella sinensis is considered as the only correct anamorph of Ophiocordyceps sinensis. To improve cordycepin and cordycepic acid production in H. sinensis, the biosynthetic pathways of cordycepin and cordycepic acid were predicted, and verified by cloning and expressing genes involved in these pathways, respectively. Then, 5'-nucleotidase participating in biosynthetic pathway of cordycepin, hexokinase, and glucose phosphate isomerase involved in biosynthetic pathway of cordycepic acid, were demonstrated playing important roles in the corresponding biosynthetic pathway by real-time PCR, accompanying with significantly up-regulated 15.03-, 5.27-, and 3.94-fold, respectively. Moreover, the metabolic regulation of H. sinensis was performed. As expected, cordycepin production reached 1.09 mg/g when additional substrate of 5'-nucleotidase was 4 mg/mL, resulting in an increase of 201.1 % compared with the control. In the same way, cordycepic acid production reached 26.6 and 23.4 % by adding substrate of hexokinase or glucose phosphate isomerase, leading to a rise of 77.3 and 55.1 %, respectively. To date, this is the first time to improve cordycepin and cordycepic acid production through metabolic regulation based on biosynthetic pathway analysis, and metabolic regulation is proved as a simple and effective way to enhance the output of cordycepin and cordycepic acid in submerged cultivation of H. sinensis. PMID:26922724

  3. Recent advances in the heterologous expression of microbial natural product biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Ongley, Sarah E; Bian, Xiaoying; Neilan, Brett A; Müller, Rolf

    2013-08-01

    The heterologous expression of microbial natural product biosynthetic pathways coupled with advanced DNA engineering enables optimisation of product yields, functional elucidation of cryptic gene clusters, and generation of novel derivatives. This review summarises the recent advances in cloning and maintenance of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters for heterologous expression and the efforts fundamental for discovering novel natural products in the post-genomics era, with a focus on polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetases (NRPS). PMID:23832108

  4. BCDO2 acts as a carotenoid scavenger and gatekeeper for the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Glenn P.; Isken, Andrea; Hoff, Sylvia; Babino, Darwin; von Lintig, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids and their metabolites are widespread and exert key biological functions in living organisms. In vertebrates, the carotenoid oxygenase BCMO1 converts carotenoids such as β,β-carotene to retinoids, which are required for embryonic pattern formation and cell differentiation. Vertebrate genomes encode a structurally related protein named BCDO2 but its physiological function remains undefined. Here, we show that BCDO2 is expressed as an oxidative stress-regulated protein during zebrafish development. Targeted knockdown of this mitochondrial enzyme resulted in anemia at larval stages. Marker gene analysis and staining for hemoglobin revealed that erythropoiesis was not impaired but that erythrocytes underwent apoptosis in BCDO2-deficient larvae. To define the mechanism of this defect, we have analyzed the role of BCDO2 in human cell lines. We found that carotenoids caused oxidative stress in mitochondria that eventually led to cytochrome c release, proteolytic activation of caspase 3 and PARP1, and execution of the apoptotic pathway. Moreover, BCDO2 prevented this induction of the apoptotic pathway by carotenoids. Thus, our study identifying BCDO2 as a crucial protective component against oxidative stress establishes this enzyme as mitochondrial carotenoid scavenger and a gatekeeper of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:22764054

  5. Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Patterns in Microbial Carotenoid Biosynthesis Are Revealed by Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Klassen, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are multifunctional, taxonomically widespread and biotechnologically important pigments. Their biosynthesis serves as a model system for understanding the evolution of secondary metabolism. Microbial carotenoid diversity and evolution has hitherto been analyzed primarily from structural and biosynthetic perspectives, with the few phylogenetic analyses of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic proteins using either used limited datasets or lacking methodological rigor. Given the recent accumulation of microbial genome sequences, a reappraisal of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic diversity and evolution from the perspective of comparative genomics is warranted to validate and complement models of microbial carotenoid diversity and evolution based upon structural and biosynthetic data. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparative genomics were used to identify and analyze in silico microbial carotenoid biosynthetic pathways. Four major phylogenetic lineages of carotenoid biosynthesis are suggested composed of: (i) Proteobacteria; (ii) Firmicutes; (iii) Chlorobi, Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes; and (iv) Archaea, Bacteroidetes and two separate sub-lineages of Actinobacteria. Using this phylogenetic framework, specific evolutionary mechanisms are proposed for carotenoid desaturase CrtI-family enzymes and carotenoid cyclases. Several phylogenetic lineage-specific evolutionary mechanisms are also suggested, including: (i) horizontal gene transfer; (ii) gene acquisition followed by differential gene loss; (iii) co-evolution with other biochemical structures such as proteorhodopsins; and (iv) positive selection. Conclusions/Significance Comparative genomics analyses of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic proteins indicate a much greater taxonomic diversity then that identified based on structural and biosynthetic data, and divides microbial carotenoid biosynthesis into several, well-supported phylogenetic lineages not evident previously. This

  6. Biosynthetic pathway for mannopeptimycins, lipoglycopeptide antibiotics active against drug-resistant gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Magarvey, Nathan A; Haltli, Brad; He, Min; Greenstein, Michael; Hucul, John A

    2006-06-01

    The mannopeptimycins are a novel class of lipoglycopeptide antibiotics active against multidrug-resistant pathogens with potential as clinically useful antibacterials. This report is the first to describe the biosynthesis of this novel class of mannosylated lipoglycopeptides. Included here are the cloning, sequencing, annotation, and manipulation of the mannopeptimycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces hygroscopicus NRRL 30439. Encoded by genes within the mannopeptimycin biosynthetic gene cluster are enzymes responsible for the generation of the hexapeptide core (nonribosomal peptide synthetases [NRPS]) and tailoring reactions (mannosylation, isovalerylation, hydroxylation, and methylation). The NRPS system is noncanonical in that it has six modules utilizing only five amino acid-specific adenylation domains and it lacks a prototypical NRPS macrocyclizing thioesterase domain. Analysis of the mannopeptimycin gene cluster and its engineering has elucidated the mannopeptimycin biosynthetic pathway and provides the framework to make new and improved mannopeptimycins biosynthetically. PMID:16723579

  7. Biosynthetic Pathway for Mannopeptimycins, Lipoglycopeptide Antibiotics Active against Drug-Resistant Gram-Positive Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Magarvey, Nathan A.; Haltli, Brad; He, Min; Greenstein, Michael; Hucul, John A.

    2006-01-01

    The mannopeptimycins are a novel class of lipoglycopeptide antibiotics active against multidrug-resistant pathogens with potential as clinically useful antibacterials. This report is the first to describe the biosynthesis of this novel class of mannosylated lipoglycopeptides. Included here are the cloning, sequencing, annotation, and manipulation of the mannopeptimycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces hygroscopicus NRRL 30439. Encoded by genes within the mannopeptimycin biosynthetic gene cluster are enzymes responsible for the generation of the hexapeptide core (nonribosomal peptide synthetases [NRPS]) and tailoring reactions (mannosylation, isovalerylation, hydroxylation, and methylation). The NRPS system is noncanonical in that it has six modules utilizing only five amino acid-specific adenylation domains and it lacks a prototypical NRPS macrocyclizing thioesterase domain. Analysis of the mannopeptimycin gene cluster and its engineering has elucidated the mannopeptimycin biosynthetic pathway and provides the framework to make new and improved mannopeptimycins biosynthetically. PMID:16723579

  8. Diversity in Biosynthetic Pathways of Galactolipids in the Light of Endosymbiotic Origin of Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Naoki; Awai, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and chloroplasts perform oxygenic photosynthesis, and share a common origin. Galactolipids are present in the photosynthetic membranes of both cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, but the biosynthetic pathways of the galactolipids are significantly different in the two systems. In this minireview, we explain the history of the discovery of the cyanobacterial pathway, and present a probable scenario of the evolution of the two pathways. PMID:26904079

  9. Assembly of functional photosystem complexes in Rhodobacter sphaeroides incorporating carotenoids from the spirilloxanthin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Shuang C.; Mothersole, David J.; Dilbeck, Preston; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Zhang, Hao; Qian, Pu; Vasilev, Cvetelin; Grayson, Katie J.; Jackson, Philip J.; Martin, Elizabeth C.; Li, Ying; Holten, Dewey; Neil Hunter, C.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids protect the photosynthetic apparatus against harmful radicals arising from the presence of both light and oxygen. They also act as accessory pigments for harvesting solar energy, and are required for stable assembly of many light-harvesting complexes. In the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides phytoene desaturase (CrtI) catalyses three sequential desaturations of the colourless carotenoid phytoene, extending the number of conjugated carbon–carbon double bonds, N, from three to nine and producing the yellow carotenoid neurosporene; subsequent modifications produce the yellow/red carotenoids spheroidene/spheroidenone (N = 10/11). Genomic crtI replacements were used to swap the native three-step Rba. sphaeroides CrtI for the four-step Pantoea agglomerans enzyme, which re-routed carotenoid biosynthesis and culminated in the production of 2,2′-diketo-spirilloxanthin under semi-aerobic conditions. The new carotenoid pathway was elucidated using a combination of HPLC and mass spectrometry. Premature termination of this new pathway by inactivating crtC or crtD produced strains with lycopene or rhodopin as major carotenoids. All of the spirilloxanthin series carotenoids are accepted by the assembly pathways for LH2 and RC–LH1–PufX complexes. The efficiency of carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer for 2,2′-diketo-spirilloxanthin (15 conjugated C 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 C bonds; N = 15) in LH2 complexes is low, at 35%. High energy transfer efficiencies were obtained for neurosporene (N = 9; 94%), spheroidene (N = 10; 96%) and spheroidenone (N = 11; 95%), whereas intermediate values were measured for lycopene (N = 11; 64%), rhodopin (N = 11; 62%) and spirilloxanthin (N = 13; 39%). The variety and stability of these novel Rba. sphaeroides antenna complexes make them useful experimental models for investigating the

  10. PERTURBATIONS OF THE LIGNIN BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY AND THEIR POTENTIAL TO IMPACT PLANT CELL WALL UTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects on lignification of perturbing most of the genes for enzymes on the monolignol biosynthetic pathway have now been reasonably well studied, particularly in angiosperms. Early studies sought to reduce lignin content with the idea of targeting the key barrier to efficient utilization of pla...

  11. PERTURBATIONS OF THE LIGNIN BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY AND THEIR POTENTIAL TO IMPACT PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects on lignification of perturbing most of the genes for enzymes on the monolignol biosynthetic pathway have now been reasonably well studied, particularly in angiosperms. Early studies sought to reduce lignin content with the idea of targeting the key barrier to efficient utilization of pla...

  12. THE ISOAMYL OXIDASE GENE IN PENICILLIUM GRISEOFULVUM IS PART OF THE PATULIN BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genes for the patulin biosynthetic pathway are likely to be arranged in a cluster, as is the case for other mycotoxins. GeneWalking was performed to identify genes both upstream and downstream of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene in Penicillium griseofulvum NRRL 2159A. A gene with high sequ...

  13. Characterization of Cyanobacterial Hydrocarbon Composition and Distribution of Biosynthetic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Coates, R. Cameron; Podell, Sheila; Korobeynikov, Anton; Lapidus, Alla; Pevzner, Pavel; Sherman, David H.; Allen, Eric E.; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria possess the unique capacity to naturally produce hydrocarbons from fatty acids. Hydrocarbon compositions of thirty-two strains of cyanobacteria were characterized to reveal novel structural features and insights into hydrocarbon biosynthesis in cyanobacteria. This investigation revealed new double bond (2- and 3-heptadecene) and methyl group positions (3-, 4- and 5-methylheptadecane) for a variety of strains. Additionally, results from this study and literature reports indicate that hydrocarbon production is a universal phenomenon in cyanobacteria. All cyanobacteria possess the capacity to produce hydrocarbons from fatty acids yet not all accomplish this through the same metabolic pathway. One pathway comprises a two-step conversion of fatty acids first to fatty aldehydes and then alkanes that involves a fatty acyl ACP reductase (FAAR) and aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (ADO). The second involves a polyketide synthase (PKS) pathway that first elongates the acyl chain followed by decarboxylation to produce a terminal alkene (olefin synthase, OLS). Sixty-one strains possessing the FAAR/ADO pathway and twelve strains possessing the OLS pathway were newly identified through bioinformatic analyses. Strains possessing the OLS pathway formed a cohesive phylogenetic clade with the exception of three Moorea strains and Leptolyngbya sp. PCC 6406 which may have acquired the OLS pathway via horizontal gene transfer. Hydrocarbon pathways were identified in one-hundred-forty-two strains of cyanobacteria over a broad phylogenetic range and there were no instances where both the FAAR/ADO and the OLS pathways were found together in the same genome, suggesting an unknown selective pressure maintains one or the other pathway, but not both. PMID:24475038

  14. Computational genomic identification and functional reconstitution of plant natural product biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Medema, Marnix H; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-08-27

    Covering: 2003 to 2016The last decade has seen the first major discoveries regarding the genomic basis of plant natural product biosynthetic pathways. Four key computationally driven strategies have been developed to identify such pathways, which make use of physical clustering, co-expression, evolutionary co-occurrence and epigenomic co-regulation of the genes involved in producing a plant natural product. Here, we discuss how these approaches can be used for the discovery of plant biosynthetic pathways encoded by both chromosomally clustered and non-clustered genes. Additionally, we will discuss opportunities to prioritize plant gene clusters for experimental characterization, and end with a forward-looking perspective on how synthetic biology technologies will allow effective functional reconstitution of candidate pathways using a variety of genetic systems. PMID:27321668

  15. TREX: a universal tool for the transfer and expression of biosynthetic pathways in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Loeschcke, Anita; Markert, Annette; Wilhelm, Susanne; Wirtz, Astrid; Rosenau, Frank; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Drepper, Thomas

    2013-01-18

    Secondary metabolites represent a virtually inexhaustible source of natural molecules exhibiting a high potential as pharmaceuticals or chemical building blocks. To gain broad access to these compounds, sophisticated expression systems are needed that facilitate the transfer and expression of large chromosomal regions, whose genes encode complex metabolic pathways. Here, we report on the development of the novel system for the transfer and expression of biosynthetic pathways (TREX), which comprises all functional elements necessary for the delivery and concerted expression of clustered pathway genes in different bacteria. TREX employs (i) conjugation for DNA transfer, (ii) randomized transposition for its chromosomal insertion, and (iii) T7 RNA polymerase for unimpeded bidirectional gene expression. The applicability of the TREX system was demonstrated by establishing the biosynthetic pathways of two pigmented secondary metabolites, zeaxanthin and prodigiosin, in bacteria with different metabolic capacities. Thus, TREX represents a valuable tool for accessing natural products by allowing comparative expression studies with clustered genes. PMID:23656323

  16. Evolution of alternative biosynthetic pathways for vitamin C following plastid acquisition in photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Glen; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Pornsaksit, Varissa; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an enzyme co-factor in eukaryotes that also plays a critical role in protecting photosynthetic eukaryotes against damaging reactive oxygen species derived from the chloroplast. Many animal lineages, including primates, have become ascorbate auxotrophs due to the loss of the terminal enzyme in their biosynthetic pathway, L-gulonolactone oxidase (GULO). The alternative pathways found in land plants and Euglena use a different terminal enzyme, L-galactonolactone dehydrogenase (GLDH). The evolutionary processes leading to these differing pathways and their contribution to the cellular roles of ascorbate remain unclear. Here we present molecular and biochemical evidence demonstrating that GULO was functionally replaced with GLDH in photosynthetic eukaryote lineages following plastid acquisition. GULO has therefore been lost repeatedly throughout eukaryote evolution. The formation of the alternative biosynthetic pathways in photosynthetic eukaryotes uncoupled ascorbate synthesis from hydrogen peroxide production and likely contributed to the rise of ascorbate as a major photoprotective antioxidant. PMID:25768426

  17. A simple biosynthetic pathway for large product generation from small substrate amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Marko; Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2012-10-01

    A recently emerging discipline of synthetic biology has the aim of constructing new biosynthetic pathways with useful biological functions. A major application of these pathways is generating a large amount of the desired product. However, toxicity due to the possible presence of toxic precursors is one of the main problems for such production. We consider here the problem of generating a large amount of product from a potentially toxic substrate. To address this, we propose a simple biosynthetic pathway, which can be induced in order to produce a large number of the product molecules, by keeping the substrate amount at low levels. Surprisingly, we show that the large product generation crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of the substrate molecules. We derive an optimal induction strategy, which allows as much as three orders of magnitude increase in the product amount through biologically realistic parameter values. We point to a recently discovered bacterial immune system (CRISPR/Cas in E. coli) as a putative example of the pathway analysed here. We also argue that the scheme proposed here can be used not only as a stand-alone pathway, but also as a strategy to produce a large amount of the desired molecules with small perturbations of endogenous biosynthetic pathways.

  18. Localization and interactions between Arabidopsis auxin biosynthetic enzymes in the TAA/YUC-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Kriechbaumer, Verena; Botchway, Stanley W; Hawes, Chris

    2016-07-01

    The growth regulator auxin is involved in all key developmental processes in plants. A complex network of a multiplicity of potential biosynthetic pathways as well as transport, signalling plus conjugation and deconjugation lead to a complex and multifaceted system system for auxin function. This raises the question how such a system can be effectively organized and controlled. Here we report that a subset of auxin biosynthetic enzymes in the TAA/YUC route of auxin biosynthesis is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER microsomal fractions also contain a significant percentage of auxin biosynthetic activity. This could point toward a model of auxin function using ER membrane location and subcellular compartmentation for supplementary layers of regulation. Additionally we show specific protein-protein interactions between some of the enzymes in the TAA/YUC route of auxin biosynthesis. PMID:27208541

  19. Biosynthetic Pathway for the Epipolythiodioxopiperazine Acetylaranotin in Aspergillus terreus Revealed by Genome-based Deletion Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Yeh, Hsu-Hua; Chiang, Yi Ming; Sanchez, James F.; Chang, ShuLin; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Wang, Clay C.

    2013-04-15

    Abstract Epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs) are a class of fungal secondary metabolites derived from cyclic peptides. Acetylaranotin belongs to one structural subgroup of ETPs characterized by the presence of a seven-membered dihydrooxepine ring. Defining the genes involved in acetylaranotin biosynthesis should provide a means to increase production of these compounds and facilitate the engineering of second-generation molecules. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus produces acetylaranotin and related natural products. Using targeted gene deletions, we have identified a cluster of 9 genes including one nonribosomal peptide synthase gene, ataP, that is required for acetylaranotin biosynthesis. Chemical analysis of the wild type and mutant strains enabled us to isolate seventeen natural products that are either intermediates in the normal biosynthetic pathway or shunt products that are produced when the pathway is interrupted through mutation. Nine of the compounds identified in this study are novel natural products. Our data allow us to propose a complete biosynthetic pathway for acetylaranotin and related natural products.

  20. Reassembled biosynthetic pathway for large-scale carbohydrate synthesis: alpha-Gal epitope producing "superbug".

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Ziye; Zhang, Jianbo; Zhang, Wei; Kowal, Przemyslaw; Wang, Peng George

    2002-01-01

    A metabolic pathway engineered Escherichia coli strain (superbug) containing one plasmid harboring an artificial gene cluster encoding all the five enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of Galalpha l,3Lac through galactose metabolism has been developed. The plasmid contains a lambda promoter, a c1857 repressor gene, an ampicillin resistance gene, and a T7 terminator. Each gene was preceded by a Shine - Dalgarno sequence for ribosome binding. In a reaction catalyzed by the recombinant E. coli strain, Galalpha 1,3Lac trisaccharide accumulated at concentrations of 14.2 mM (7.2 gL(-1)) in a reaction mixture containing galactose, glucose, lactose, and a catalytic amount of uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose. This work demonstrates that large-scale synthesis of complex oligosaccharides can be achieved economically and efficiently through a single, biosynthetic pathway engineered microorganism. PMID:17590953

  1. Localization of the pre-squalene segment of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway in mammalian peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Werner J; Tape, Khanichi N; Shackelford, Janis E; Duan, Xueying; Kasumov, Takhar; Kelleher, Joanne K; Brunengraber, Henri; Krisans, Skaidrite K

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the early steps in the isoprenoid/cholesterol biosynthetic pathway occur in peroxisomes. However, the role of peroxisomes in cholesterol biosynthesis has recently been questioned in several reports concluding that three of the peroxisomal cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes, namely mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, and mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase, do not localize to peroxisomes in human cells even though they contain consensus peroxisomal targeting signals. We re-investigated the subcellular localization of the cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes of the pre-squalene segment in human cells by using new stable isotopic techniques and data computations with isotopomer spectral analysis, in combination with immunofluorescence and cell permeabilization techniques. Our present findings clearly show and confirm previous studies that the pre-squalene segment of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is localized to peroxisomes. In addition, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that acetyl-CoA derived from peroxisomal beta-oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids and medium-chain dicarboxylic acids is preferentially channeled to cholesterol synthesis inside the peroxisomes without mixing with the cytosolic acetyl-CoA pool. PMID:17180682

  2. Subchromoplast Sequestration of Carotenoids Affects Regulatory Mechanisms in Tomato Lines Expressing Different Carotenoid Gene Combinations[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Marilise; Mora, Leticia; Enfissi, Eugenia M.A.; Bramley, Peter M.; Fraser, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic engineering of the carotenoid pathway in recent years has successfully enhanced the carotenoid contents of crop plants. It is now clear that only increasing biosynthesis is restrictive, as mechanisms to sequestrate these increased levels in the cell or organelle should be exploited. In this study, biosynthetic pathway genes were overexpressed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines and the effects on carotenoid formation and sequestration revealed. The bacterial Crt carotenogenic genes, independently or in combination, and their zygosity affect the production of carotenoids. Transcription of the pathway genes was perturbed, whereby the tissue specificity of transcripts was altered. Changes in the steady state levels of metabolites in unrelated sectors of metabolism were found. Of particular interest was a concurrent increase of the plastid-localized lipid monogalactodiacylglycerol with carotenoids along with membranous subcellular structures. The carotenoids, proteins, and lipids in the subchromoplast fractions of the transgenic tomato fruit with increased carotenoid content suggest that cellular structures can adapt to facilitate the sequestration of the newly formed products. Moreover, phytoene, the precursor of the pathway, was identified in the plastoglobule, whereas the biosynthetic enzymes were in the membranes. The implications of these findings with respect to novel pathway regulation mechanisms are discussed. PMID:24249831

  3. Harvestman phenols and benzoquinones: characterisation and biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Daniele F O; Wouters, Felipe C; Zampieri, Dávila S; Brocksom, Timothy J; Machado, Glauco; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2013-01-01

    Benzoquinones are usually present in arthropod defence exudates. Here, we describe the chemical profiles of 12 harvestman species belonging to the neotropical family Gonyleptidae. Nine of the studied species produced benzoquinones, while three produced alkyl phenols. Two benzoquinones and one phenol exhibited biological activity against bacteria and fungi. We also studied the biosynthesis of 2-ethyl-1,4-benzoquinone by feeding Magnispina neptunus individuals with ¹³C-labelled precursors; the benzoquinones were biosynthesised through a polyketide pathway using acetate and propionate building blocks. PMID:24043140

  4. Evolution of tryptophan biosynthetic pathway in microbial genomes: a comparative genetic study.

    PubMed

    Priya, V K; Sarkar, Susmita; Sinha, Somdatta

    2014-03-01

    Biosynthetic pathway evolution needs to consider the evolution of a group of genes that code for enzymes catalysing the multiple chemical reaction steps leading to the final end product. Tryptophan biosynthetic pathway has five chemical reaction steps that are highly conserved in diverse microbial genomes, though the genes of the pathway enzymes show considerable variations in arrangements, operon structure (gene fusion and splitting) and regulation. We use a combined bioinformatic and statistical analyses approach to address the question if the pathway genes from different microbial genomes, belonging to a wide range of groups, show similar evolutionary relationships within and between them. Our analyses involved detailed study of gene organization (fusion/splitting events), base composition, relative synonymous codon usage pattern of the genes, gene expressivity, amino acid usage, etc. to assess inter- and intra-genic variations, between and within the pathway genes, in diverse group of microorganisms. We describe these genetic and genomic variations in the tryptophan pathway genes in different microorganisms to show the similarities across organisms, and compare the same genes across different organisms to find the possible variability arising possibly due to horizontal gene transfers. Such studies form the basis for moving from single gene evolution to pathway evolutionary studies that are important steps towards understanding the systems biology of intracellular pathways. PMID:24592292

  5. A revised biosynthetic pathway for phosphatidylinositol in Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Morii, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Midori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Koga, Yosuke

    2010-11-01

    For the last decade, it has been believed that phosphatidylinositol (PI) in mycobacteria is synthesized from free inositol and CDP-diacylglycerol by PI synthase in the presence of ATP. The role of ATP in this process, however, is not understood. Additionally, the PI synthase activity is extremely low compared with the PI synthase activity of yeast. When CDP-diacylglycerol and [(14)C]1L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate were incubated with the cell wall components of Mycobacterium smegmatis, both phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) and PI were formed, as identified by fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography. PI was formed from PIP by incubation with the cell wall components. Thus, mycobacterial PI was synthesized from CDP-diacylglycerol and myo-inositol 1-phosphate via PIP, which was dephosphorylated to PI. The gene-encoding PIP synthase from four species of mycobacteria was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and PIP synthase activity was confirmed. A very low, but significant level of free [(3)H]inositol was incorporated into PI in mycobacterial cell wall preparations, but not in recombinant E. coli cell homogenates. This activity could be explained by the presence of two minor PI metabolic pathways: PI/inositol exchange reaction and phosphorylation of inositol by ATP prior to entering the PIP synthase pathway. PMID:20798167

  6. Thermodynamic constraints on kinetic proofreading in biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenberg, M; Blomberg, C

    1980-01-01

    We develop a quantitative theory of kinetic proofreading with an arbitrary number of checking steps after the hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate. In particular, we investigate the relationship between the minimum dissipation of free energy required for a given error frequency in such systems. Several conclusions can be drawn from the present treatment: first, the ultimate accuracy of error correcting selective pathways is set by the displacement from equilibrium of the nucleoside triphosphates. Second, it is advantageous to achieve a desired accuracy at a small energy dissipation with several checking steps rather than a single one. This could explain antinomies in the amino acylation reaction as well as in mRNA translation, where small structural differences lead to large differences in flow rates between right and wrong substrates. Third, all checking steps should contribute equally to the accuracy, which implies a specific and symmetrical set of rate constants for the checking events on the enzyme. PMID:7260292

  7. A biosynthetic pathway for a prominent class of microbiota-derived bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, A. Sloan; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The gut bile acid pool is millimolar in concentration, varies widely in composition among individuals, and is linked to metabolic disease and cancer. Although these molecules derive almost exclusively from the microbiota, remarkably little is known about which bacterial species and genes are responsible for their biosynthesis. Here, we report a biosynthetic pathway for the second most abundant class in the gut, iso (3β-hydroxy) bile acids, whose levels exceed 300 µM in some humans and are absent in others. We show, for the first time, that iso bile acids are produced by Ruminococcus gnavus, a far more abundant commensal than previously known producers; and that the iso bile acid pathway detoxifies deoxycholic acid, favoring the growth of the keystone genus Bacteroides. By revealing the biosynthetic genes for an abundant class of bile acids, our work sets the stage for predicting and rationally altering the composition of the bile acid pool. PMID:26192599

  8. Biosynthetic pathway for acrylic acid from glycerol in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wenhua; Xu, Ying; Xian, Mo; Niu, Wei; Guo, Jiantao; Liu, Huizhou; Zhao, Guang

    2016-06-01

    Acrylic acid is an important industrial feedstock. In this study, a de novo acrylate biosynthetic pathway from inexpensive carbon source glycerol was constructed in Escherichia coli. The acrylic acid was produced from glycerol via 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA, and acrylyl-CoA. The acrylate production was improved by screening and site-directed mutagenesis of key enzyme enoyl-CoA hydratase and chromosomal integration of some exogenous genes. Finally, our recombinant strain produced 37.7 mg/L acrylic acid under shaking flask conditions. Although the acrylate production is low, our study shows feasibility of engineering an acrylate biosynthetic pathway from inexpensive carbon source. Furthermore, the reasons for limited acrylate production and further strain optimization that should be performed in the future were also discussed. PMID:26782744

  9. The Methymycin/Pikromycin Biosynthetic Pathway: A Model for Metabolic Diversity in Natural Product Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kittendorf, Jeffrey D.; Sherman, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The methymycin/pikromycin (Pik) macrolide pathway represents a robust metabolic system for analysis of modular polyketide biosynthesis. The enzymes that comprise this biosynthetic pathway display unprecedented substrate flexibility, combining to produce six structurally diverse macrolide antibiotics in Streptomyces venezuelae. Thus, it is appealing to consider that the pikromycin biosynthetic enzymes could be leveraged for high throughput production of novel macrolide antibiotics. Accordingly, efforts over the past decade have focused on the detailed investigation of the six-module polyketide synthase, desosamine sugar assembly and glycosyl transfer, and the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that is responsible for hydroxylation. This review summarizes the advances in understanding of pikromycin biosynthesis that have been gained during the course of these investigations. PMID:19027305

  10. Contribution of trehalose biosynthetic pathway to drought stress tolerance of Capparis ovata Desf.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, S; Ozdemir, F; Bor, M

    2015-03-01

    Trehalose and the trehalose biosynthetic pathway are important contributors and regulators of stress responses in plants. Among recent findings for trehalose and its metabolism, the role of signalling in the regulation of growth and development and its potential for use as a storage energy source can be listed. The xerophytic plant Capparis ovata (caper) is well adapted to drought and high temperature stress in arid and semi-arid regions of the Mediterranean. The contribution of trehalose and the trehalose biosynthetic pathway to drought stress responses and tolerance in C. ovata are not known. We investigated the effects of PEG-mediated drought stress in caper plants and analysed physiological parameters and trehalose biosynthetic pathway components, trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP), trehalase activity, trehalose and proline content in drought stress-treated and untreated plants. Our results indicated that trehalose and the trehalose biosynthetic pathway contributed to drought stress tolerance of C. ovata. Overall growth and leaf water status were not dramatically affected by drought, as both high relative growth rate and relative water content were recorded even after 14 days of drought stress. Trehalose accumulation increased in parallel to induced TPS and TPP activities and decreased trehalase activity in caper plants on day 14. Constitutive trehalose levels were 28.75 to 74.75 μg·g·FW(-1) , and drought stress significantly induced trehalose accumulation (385.25 μg·g·FW(-1) on day 14) in leaves of caper. On day 14 of drought, proline levels were lower than on day 7. Under drought stress the discrepancy between trehalose and proline accumulation trends might result from the mode of action of these osmoprotectant molecules in C. ovata. PMID:25294040

  11. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis During Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Lado, Joanna; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Rodrigo, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are recognized as the main pigments in most fruit crops, providing colours that range from yellow and pink to deep orange and red. Moreover, the edible portion of widely consumed fruits or their derived products represent a major dietary source of carotenoids for animals and humans. Therefore, these pigments are crucial compounds contributing to fruit aesthetic and nutritional quality but may also have protecting and ecophysiological functions in coloured fruits. Among plant organs, fruits display one of the most heterogeneous carotenoids patterns in terms of diversity and abundance. In this chapter a comprehensive list of the carotenoid content and profile in the most commonly cultivated fleshy fruits is reported. The proposed fruit classification systems attending to carotenoid composition are revised and discussed. The regulation of carotenoids in fruits can be rather complex due to the dramatic changes in content and composition during ripening, which are also dependent on the fruit tissue and the developmental stage. In addition, carotenoid accumulation is a dynamic process, associated with the development of chromoplasts during ripening. As a general rule, carotenoid accumulation is highly controlled at the transcriptional level of the structural and accessory proteins of the biosynthetic and degradation pathways, but other mechanisms such as post-transcriptional modifications or the development of sink structures have been recently revealed as crucial factors in determining the levels and stability of these pigments. In this chapter common key metabolic reactions regulating carotenoid composition in fruit tissues are described in addition to others that are restricted to certain species and generate unique carotenoids patterns. The existence of fruit-specific isoforms for key steps such as the phytoene synthase, lycopene β-cyclases or catabolic carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases has allowed an independent regulation of the pathway in fruit tissues

  12. Different Biosynthetic Pathways to Fosfomycin in Pseudomonas syringae and Streptomyces Species

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Young; Ju, Kou-San; Metcalf, William W.; Evans, Bradley S.; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa

    2012-01-01

    Fosfomycin is a wide-spectrum antibiotic that is used clinically to treat acute cystitis in the United States. The compound is produced by several strains of streptomycetes and pseudomonads. We sequenced the biosynthetic gene cluster responsible for fosfomycin production in Pseudomonas syringae PB-5123. Surprisingly, the biosynthetic pathway in this organism is very different from that in Streptomyces fradiae and Streptomyces wedmorensis. The pathways share the first and last steps, involving conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to phosphonopyruvate (PnPy) and 2-hydroxypropylphosphonate (2-HPP) to fosfomycin, respectively, but the enzymes converting PnPy to 2-HPP are different. The genome of P. syringae PB-5123 lacks a gene encoding the PnPy decarboxylase found in the Streptomyces strains. Instead, it contains a gene coding for a citrate synthase-like enzyme, Psf2, homologous to the proteins that add an acetyl group to PnPy in the biosynthesis of FR-900098 and phosphinothricin. Heterologous expression and purification of Psf2 followed by activity assays confirmed the proposed activity of Psf2. Furthermore, heterologous production of fosfomycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a fosmid encoding the fosfomycin biosynthetic cluster from P. syringae PB-5123 confirmed that the gene cluster is functional. Therefore, two different pathways have evolved to produce this highly potent antimicrobial agent. PMID:22615277

  13. Different biosynthetic pathways to fosfomycin in Pseudomonas syringae and Streptomyces species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Young; Ju, Kou-San; Metcalf, William W; Evans, Bradley S; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2012-08-01

    Fosfomycin is a wide-spectrum antibiotic that is used clinically to treat acute cystitis in the United States. The compound is produced by several strains of streptomycetes and pseudomonads. We sequenced the biosynthetic gene cluster responsible for fosfomycin production in Pseudomonas syringae PB-5123. Surprisingly, the biosynthetic pathway in this organism is very different from that in Streptomyces fradiae and Streptomyces wedmorensis. The pathways share the first and last steps, involving conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to phosphonopyruvate (PnPy) and 2-hydroxypropylphosphonate (2-HPP) to fosfomycin, respectively, but the enzymes converting PnPy to 2-HPP are different. The genome of P. syringae PB-5123 lacks a gene encoding the PnPy decarboxylase found in the Streptomyces strains. Instead, it contains a gene coding for a citrate synthase-like enzyme, Psf2, homologous to the proteins that add an acetyl group to PnPy in the biosynthesis of FR-900098 and phosphinothricin. Heterologous expression and purification of Psf2 followed by activity assays confirmed the proposed activity of Psf2. Furthermore, heterologous production of fosfomycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a fosmid encoding the fosfomycin biosynthetic cluster from P. syringae PB-5123 confirmed that the gene cluster is functional. Therefore, two different pathways have evolved to produce this highly potent antimicrobial agent. PMID:22615277

  14. Conserved biosynthetic pathways for phosalacine, bialaphos and newly discovered phosphonic acid natural products.

    PubMed

    Blodgett, Joshua A V; Zhang, Jun Kai; Yu, Xiaomin; Metcalf, William W

    2016-01-01

    Natural products containing phosphonic or phosphinic acid functionalities often display potent biological activities with applications in medicine and agriculture. The herbicide phosphinothricin-tripeptide (PTT) was the first phosphinate natural product discovered, yet despite numerous studies, questions remain surrounding key transformations required for its biosynthesis. In particular, the enzymology required to convert phosphonoformate to carboxyphosphonoenolpyruvate and the mechanisms underlying phosphorus methylation remain poorly understood. In addition, the model for non-ribosomal peptide synthetase assembly of the intact tripeptide product has undergone numerous revisions that have yet to be experimentally tested. To further investigate the biosynthesis of this unusual natural product, we completely sequenced the PTT biosynthetic locus from Streptomyces hygroscopicus and compared it with the orthologous cluster from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. We also sequenced and analyzed the closely related phosalacine (PAL) biosynthetic locus from Kitasatospora phosalacinea. Using data drawn from the comparative analysis of the PTT and PAL pathways, we also evaluate three related recently discovered phosphonate biosynthetic loci from Streptomyces sviceus, Streptomyces sp. WM6386 and Frankia alni. Our observations address long-standing biosynthetic questions related to PTT and PAL production and suggest that additional members of this pharmacologically important class await discovery. PMID:26328935

  15. Conserved biosynthetic pathways for phosalacine, bialaphos and newly discovered phosphonic acid natural products

    PubMed Central

    Blodgett, Joshua A. V; Zhang, Jun Kai; Yu, Xiaomin; Metcalf, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products containing phosphonic or phosphinic acid functionalities often display potent biological activities with applications in medicine and agriculture. The herbicide phosphinothricin-tripeptide (PTT) was the first phosphinate natural product discovered, yet despite numerous studies, questions remain surrounding key transformations required for its biosynthesis. In particular, the enzymology required to convert phosphonoformate to carboxyphosphonoenolpyruvate and the mechanisms underlying phosphorus-methylation remain poorly understood. In addition, the model for NRPS assembly of the intact tripeptide product has undergone numerous revisions that have yet to be experimentally tested. To further investigate the biosynthesis of this unusual natural product, we completely sequenced the PTT biosynthetic locus from Streptomyces hygroscopicus and compared it to the orthologous cluster from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. We also sequenced and analysed the closely related phosalacine (PAL) biosynthetic locus from Kitasatospora phosalacinea. Using data drawn from the comparative analysis of the PTT and PAL pathways, we also evaluate three related recently discovered phosphonate biosynthetic loci from Streptomyces sviceus, Streptomyces sp. WM6386 and Frankia alni. Our observations address long-standing biosynthetic questions related to PTT and PAL production and suggest that additional members of this pharmacologically important class await discovery. PMID:26328935

  16. ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE Activity Potentiates Carotenoid Degradation in Maturing Seed.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Jorge, Sabrina; Mehrshahi, Payam; Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Lipka, Alexander E; Angelovici, Ruthie; Gore, Michael A; DellaPenna, Dean

    2016-07-01

    Elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway has enabled altering the composition and content of carotenoids in various plants, but to achieve desired nutritional impacts, the genetic components regulating carotenoid homeostasis in seed, the plant organ consumed in greatest abundance, must be elucidated. We used a combination of linkage mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and pathway-level analysis to identify nine loci that impact the natural variation of seed carotenoids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE (ZEP) was the major contributor to carotenoid composition, with mutants lacking ZEP activity showing a remarkable 6-fold increase in total seed carotenoids relative to the wild type. Natural variation in ZEP gene expression during seed development was identified as the underlying mechanism for fine-tuning carotenoid composition, stability, and ultimately content in Arabidopsis seed. We previously showed that two CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE enzymes, CCD1 and CCD4, are the primary mediators of seed carotenoid degradation, and here we demonstrate that ZEP acts as an upstream control point of carotenoid homeostasis, with ZEP-mediated epoxidation targeting carotenoids for degradation by CCD enzymes. Finally, four of the nine loci/enzymatic activities identified as underlying natural variation in Arabidopsis seed carotenoids also were identified in a recent GWAS of maize (Zea mays) kernel carotenoid variation. This first comparison of the natural variation in seed carotenoids in monocots and dicots suggests a surprising overlap in the genetic architecture of these traits between the two lineages and provides a list of likely candidates to target for selecting seed carotenoid variation in other species. PMID:27208224

  17. Yellow flowers generated by expression of the aurone biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Eiichiro; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakamura, Noriko; Fukui, Yuko; Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Nakayama, Toru; Tanaka, Takaharu; Kusumi, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Flower color is most often conferred by colored flavonoid pigments. Aurone flavonoids confer a bright yellow color on flowers such as snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) and dahlia (Dahlia variabilis). A. majus aureusidin synthase (AmAS1) was identified as the key enzyme that catalyzes aurone biosynthesis from chalcones, but transgenic flowers overexpressing AmAS1 gene failed to produce aurones. Here, we report that chalcone 4′-O-glucosyltransferase (4′CGT) is essential for aurone biosynthesis and yellow coloration in vivo. Coexpression of the Am4′CGT and AmAS1 genes was sufficient for the accumulation of aureusidin 6-O-glucoside in transgenic flowers (Torenia hybrida). Furthermore, their coexpression combined with down-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in yellow flowers. An Am4′CGT-GFP chimeric protein localized in the cytoplasm, whereas the AmAS1(N1-60)-RFP chimeric protein was localized to the vacuole. We therefore conclude that chalcones are 4′-O-glucosylated in the cytoplasm, their 4′-O-glucosides transported to the vacuole, and therein enzymatically converted to aurone 6-O-glucosides. This metabolic pathway is unique among the known examples of flavonoid, including anthocyanin biosynthesis because, for all other compounds, the carbon backbone is completed before transport to the vacuole. Our findings herein not only demonstrate the biochemical basis of aurone biosynthesis but also open the way to engineering yellow flowers for major ornamental species lacking this color variant. PMID:16832053

  18. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway for Okenone in Thiodictyon sp. CAD16 leads to the discovery of two novel carotene ketolases.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Kajetan; Bryant, Donald A

    2011-11-01

    Okenone is a unique ketocarotenoid found in many purple sulfur bacteria; it is important because of its unique light absorption and photoprotection properties. Okenane, a compound formed by diagenetic reduction of okenone, is an important biomarker in geochemical analyses of sedimentary rocks. Despite its ecological and biogeochemical importance, the biochemical pathway for okenone synthesis has not yet been fully described. The genome sequence of an okenone-producing organism, Thiodictyon sp. strain CAD16, revealed four genes whose predicted proteins had strong sequence similarity to enzymes known to produce ψ-end group modifications of carotenoids in proteobacteria. These four genes encoded homologs of a 1,2-carotenoid hydratase (CrtC), an O-methyltransferase (CrtF), and two paralogs of carotenoid 3,4-desaturases (CrtD). Expression studies in lycopene- or neurosporene-producing strains of Escherichia coli confirmed the functions of crtC and crtF, but the crtD paralogs encoded enzymes with previously undescribed functions. One enzyme, CruS, was only distantly related to CrtD desaturases, was bifunctional, and performed a 3,4-desaturation and introduced a C-2 keto group into neurosporene derivatives in the presence of dioxygen. The enzyme encoded by the other crtD paralog also represents a new enzyme in carotenogenesis and was named cruO. CruO encodes the C-4/4' ketolase uniquely required for okenone biosynthesis. The identification of CruO and the demonstration of its biochemical activity complete the elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway for okenone and other related ketocarotenoids. PMID:21921032

  19. Elucidation of the Biosynthetic Pathway for Okenone in Thiodictyon sp. CAD16 Leads to the Discovery of Two Novel Carotene Ketolases*

    PubMed Central

    Vogl, Kajetan; Bryant, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    Okenone is a unique ketocarotenoid found in many purple sulfur bacteria; it is important because of its unique light absorption and photoprotection properties. Okenane, a compound formed by diagenetic reduction of okenone, is an important biomarker in geochemical analyses of sedimentary rocks. Despite its ecological and biogeochemical importance, the biochemical pathway for okenone synthesis has not yet been fully described. The genome sequence of an okenone-producing organism, Thiodictyon sp. strain CAD16, revealed four genes whose predicted proteins had strong sequence similarity to enzymes known to produce ψ-end group modifications of carotenoids in proteobacteria. These four genes encoded homologs of a 1,2-carotenoid hydratase (CrtC), an O-methyltransferase (CrtF), and two paralogs of carotenoid 3,4-desaturases (CrtD). Expression studies in lycopene- or neurosporene-producing strains of Escherichia coli confirmed the functions of crtC and crtF, but the crtD paralogs encoded enzymes with previously undescribed functions. One enzyme, CruS, was only distantly related to CrtD desaturases, was bifunctional, and performed a 3,4-desaturation and introduced a C-2 keto group into neurosporene derivatives in the presence of dioxygen. The enzyme encoded by the other crtD paralog also represents a new enzyme in carotenogenesis and was named cruO. CruO encodes the C-4/4′ ketolase uniquely required for okenone biosynthesis. The identification of CruO and the demonstration of its biochemical activity complete the elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway for okenone and other related ketocarotenoids. PMID:21921032

  20. Hybrubins: Bipyrrole Tetramic Acids Obtained by Crosstalk between a Truncated Undecylprodigiosin Pathway and Heterologous Tetramic Acid Biosynthetic Genes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhilong; Shi, Ting; Xu, Min; Brock, Nelson L; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Wang, Yemin; Deng, Zixin; Pang, Xiuhua; Tao, Meifeng

    2016-02-01

    Heterologous expression of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the genomic library of Streptomyces variabilis Snt24 in Streptomyces lividans SBT5 which carried a truncated undecylprodigiosin biosynthetic gene cluster led to the identification of hybrubins A-C. The hybrubins represent a new carbon skeleton in which a tetramic acid moiety is fused to a 2,2'-dipyrrole building block. Gene knockout experiments confirmed that hybrubins are derived from two convergent biosynthetic pathways including the remaining genomic red genes of S. lividans SBT5 as well as the BAC encoded hbn genes for the production of 5-ethylidenetetramic acid. A possible biosynthetic pathway was also proposed. PMID:26800378

  1. A retro-biosynthetic approach to the prediction of biosynthetic pathways from position-specific isotope analysis as shown for tramadol

    PubMed Central

    Romek, Katarzyna M.; Nun, Pierrick; Remaud, Gérald S.; Silvestre, Virginie; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Lecerf-Schmidt, Florine; Boumendjel, Ahcène; De Waard, Michel; Robins, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Tramadol, previously only known as a synthetic analgesic, has now been found in the bark and wood of roots of the African medicinal tree Nauclea latifolia. At present, no direct evidence is available as to the biosynthetic pathway of its unusual skeleton. To provide guidance as to possible biosynthetic precursors, we have adopted a novel approach of retro-biosynthesis based on the position-specific distribution of isotopes in the extracted compound. Relatively recent developments in isotope ratio monitoring by 13C NMR spectrometry make possible the measurement of the nonstatistical position-specific natural abundance distribution of 13C (δ13Ci) within the molecule with better than 1‰ precision. Very substantial variation in the 13C positional distribution is found: between δ13Ci = −11 and −53‰. Distribution is not random and it is argued that the pattern observed can substantially be interpreted in relation to known causes of isotope fractionation in natural products. Thus, a plausible biosynthetic scheme based on sound biosynthetic principals of precursor–substrate relationships can be proposed. In addition, data obtained from the 18O/16O ratios in the oxygen atoms of the compound add support to the deductions made from the carbon isotope analysis. This paper shows how the use of 13C NMR at natural abundance can help with proposing a biosynthetic route to compounds newly found in nature or those difficult to tackle by conventional means. PMID:26106160

  2. Distribution of. delta. -aminolevulinic acid biosynthetic pathways among phototrophic and related bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Avissar, Y.J.; Beale, S.I. ); Ormerod, J.G. )

    1989-04-01

    Two biosynthetic pathways are known for the universal tetrapyrrole precursor, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid (ALA): condensation of glycine and succinyl-CoA to form ALA with the loss of C-1 of glycine as CO{sub 2}, and conversion of the intact carbon skeleton of glutamate to ALA in a process requiring tRNA{sup Glu}, ATP, Mg{sup 2+}, NADPH, and pyridoxal phosphate. The distribution of the two ALA biosynthetic pathways among various bacterial genera was determined, using cell-free extracts obtained from representative organisms. Evidence for the operation of the glutamate pathway was obtained by the measurement of RNase-sensitive label incorporation from glutamate into ALA using 3,4-({sup 3}H)glutamate and 1-({sup 14}C)glutamate as substrate. The glycine pathway was indicated by RNase-insensitive incorporation of level from 2-({sup 14}C)glycine into ALA. The distribution of the two pathways among the bacteria tested was in general agreement with their previously phylogenetic relationships and clearly indicates that the glutamate pathway is the more ancient process, whereas the glycine pathway probably evolved much later. The glutamate pathway is the more widely utilized one among bacteria, while the glycine pathway is apparently limited to the {alpha} subgroup of purple bacteria (including Rhodobacter, Rhodospirillum, and Rhizobium). E. coli was found ALA via the glutamate pathway. The ALA-requiring hemA mutant of E. coli was determined to lack the dehydrogenase activity that utilizes glutamyl-tRNA as a substrate.

  3. Assembly of Lipoic Acid on Its Cognate Enzymes: an Extraordinary and Essential Biosynthetic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cronan, John E

    2016-06-01

    Although the structure of lipoic acid and its role in bacterial metabolism were clear over 50 years ago, it is only in the past decade that the pathways of biosynthesis of this universally conserved cofactor have become understood. Unlike most cofactors, lipoic acid must be covalently bound to its cognate enzyme proteins (the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases and the glycine cleavage system) in order to function in central metabolism. Indeed, the cofactor is assembled on its cognate proteins rather than being assembled and subsequently attached as in the typical pathway, like that of biotin attachment. The first lipoate biosynthetic pathway determined was that of Escherichia coli, which utilizes two enzymes to form the active lipoylated protein from a fatty acid biosynthetic intermediate. Recently, a more complex pathway requiring four proteins was discovered in Bacillus subtilis, which is probably an evolutionary relic. This pathway requires the H protein of the glycine cleavage system of single-carbon metabolism to form active (lipoyl) 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases. The bacterial pathways inform the lipoate pathways of eukaryotic organisms. Plants use the E. coli pathway, whereas mammals and fungi probably use the B. subtilis pathway. The lipoate metabolism enzymes (except those of sulfur insertion) are members of PFAM family PF03099 (the cofactor transferase family). Although these enzymes share some sequence similarity, they catalyze three markedly distinct enzyme reactions, making the usual assignment of function based on alignments prone to frequent mistaken annotations. This state of affairs has possibly clouded the interpretation of one of the disorders of human lipoate metabolism. PMID:27074917

  4. Isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway inhibition disrupts monoclonal protein secretion and induces the unfolded protein response pathway in multiple myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Holstein, Sarah A.; Hohl, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Myeloma is characterized by the overproduction and secretion of monoclonal protein. Inhibitors of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway (IBP) have pleiotropic effects in myeloma cells. To investigate whether IBP inhibition interferes with monoclonal protein secretion, human myeloma cells were treated with specific inhibitors of the IBP or prenyltransferases. These studies demonstrate that agents that inhibit Rab geranylgeranylation disrupt light chain trafficking, lead to accumulation of light chain in the endoplasmic reticulum, activate the unfolded protein response pathway and induce apoptosis. These studies provide a novel mechanism of action for IBP inhibitors and suggest that further exploration of Rab-targeted agents in myeloma is warranted. PMID:20828814

  5. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Photosynthetic Organs.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Briardo

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the dazzling diversity of colors displayed by living organisms throughout the tree of life is determined by the presence of carotenoids, which most often provide distinctive yellow, orange and red hues. These metabolites play fundamental roles in nature that extend far beyond their importance as pigments. In photosynthetic lineages, carotenoids are essential to sustain life, since they have been exploited to maximize light harvesting and protect the photosynthetic machinery from photooxidative stress. Consequently, photosynthetic organisms have evolved several mechanisms that adjust the carotenoid metabolism to efficiently cope with constantly fluctuating light environments. This chapter will focus on the current knowledge concerning the regulation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in leaves, which are the primary photosynthetic organs of most land plants. PMID:27485221

  6. Gene fusions for the directed modification of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Mucor circinelloides.

    PubMed

    Iturriaga, Enrique A; Papp, Tamás; Alvarez, María Isabel; Eslava, Arturo P

    2012-01-01

    Several fungal species, particularly some included in the Mucorales, have been used to develop fermentation processes for the production of β-carotene. Oxygenated derivatives of β-carotene are more valuable products, and the preference by the market of carotenoids from biological sources has increased the research in different carotenoid-producing organisms. We currently use Mucor circinelloides as a model organism to develop strains able to produce new, more valuable, and with an increased content of carotenoids. In this chapter we describe part of our efforts to construct active gene fusions which could advance in the diversification of carotenoid production by this fungus. The main carotenoid accumulated by M. circinelloides is β-carotene, although it has some hydroxylase activity and produces low amounts of zeaxanthin. Two enzymatic activities are required for the production of astaxanthin from β-carotene: a hydroxylase and a ketolase. We used the ctrW gene of Paracoccus sp. N81106, encoding a bacterial β-carotene ketolase, to construct gene fusions with two fungal genes essential for the modification of the pathway in M. circinelloides. First we fused it to the carRP gene of M. circinelloides, which is responsible for the phytoene synthase and lycopene cyclase activities in this fungus. The expected activity of this fusion gene would be the accumulation by M. circinelloides of canthaxanthin and probably some astaxanthin. A second construction was the fusion of the crtW gene of Paracoccus sp. to the crtS gene of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, responsible for the synthesis of astaxanthin from β-carotene in this fungus, but which was shown to have only hydroxylase activity in M. circinelloides. The expected result in M. circinelloides transformants was the accumulation of astaxanthin. Here we describe a detailed and empirically tested protocol for the construction of these gene fusions. PMID:22711120

  7. Coordinate regulation of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and indolic phytoalexin accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J; Last, R L

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms that couple regulation of secondary metabolic pathways to the synthesis of primary metabolic precursors. Camalexin, an indolic secondary metabolite, appears to be the major phytoalexin in Arabidopsis. It was previously shown that camalexin accumulation is caused by infection with plant pathogens, by abiotic elicitors, and in spontaneous lesions in the accelerated cell death mutant acd2. We demonstrate that the accumulation of this phytoalexin is accompanied by the induction of the mRNAs and proteins for all of the tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes tested. A strong correlation was observed between the magnitude of camalexin accumulation and the induction of tryptophan biosynthetic proteins, indicating coordinate regulation of these processes. Production of disease symptoms is not sufficient for the response because systemic infection with cauliflower mosaic virus or cucumber mosaic virus did not induce the tryptophan pathway enzymes or camalexin accumulation. Salicylic acid appears to be required, but unlike other documented pathogenesis-related proteins, it is not sufficient for the coordinate induction. Results with trp mutants suggest that the tryptophan pathway is not rate limiting for camalexin accumulation. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the regulation of the tryptophan pathway in plants responds to needs for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. PMID:8989880

  8. Analysis of Polygala tenuifolia Transcriptome and Description of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Pathways by Illumina Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hongling; Xu, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Fusheng; Wang, Yaoqin; Guo, Shuhong; Qin, Xuemei; Du, Guanhua

    2015-01-01

    Radix polygalae, the dried roots of Polygala tenuifolia and P. sibirica, is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Radix polygalae contains various saponins, xanthones, and oligosaccharide esters and these compounds are responsible for several pharmacological properties. To provide basic breeding information, enhance molecular biological analysis, and determine secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways of P. tenuifolia, we applied Illumina sequencing technology and de novo assembly. We also applied this technique to gain an overview of P. tenuifolia transcriptome from samples with different years. Using Illumina sequencing, approximately 67.2% of unique sequences were annotated by basic local alignment search tool similarity searches against public sequence databases. We classified the annotated unigenes by using Nr, Nt, GO, COG, and KEGG databases compared with NCBI. We also obtained many candidates CYP450s and UGTs by the analysis of genes in the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways, including putative terpenoid backbone and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway. With this transcriptome sequencing, future genetic and genomics studies related to the molecular mechanisms associated with the chemical composition of P. tenuifolia may be improved. Genes involved in the enrichment of secondary metabolite biosynthesis-related pathways could enhance the potential applications of P. tenuifolia in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26543847

  9. Analysis of Polygala tenuifolia Transcriptome and Description of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Pathways by Illumina Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hongling; Xu, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Fusheng; Wang, Yaoqin; Guo, Shuhong; Qin, Xuemei; Du, Guanhua

    2015-01-01

    Radix polygalae, the dried roots of Polygala tenuifolia and P. sibirica, is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Radix polygalae contains various saponins, xanthones, and oligosaccharide esters and these compounds are responsible for several pharmacological properties. To provide basic breeding information, enhance molecular biological analysis, and determine secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways of P. tenuifolia, we applied Illumina sequencing technology and de novo assembly. We also applied this technique to gain an overview of P. tenuifolia transcriptome from samples with different years. Using Illumina sequencing, approximately 67.2% of unique sequences were annotated by basic local alignment search tool similarity searches against public sequence databases. We classified the annotated unigenes by using Nr, Nt, GO, COG, and KEGG databases compared with NCBI. We also obtained many candidates CYP450s and UGTs by the analysis of genes in the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways, including putative terpenoid backbone and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway. With this transcriptome sequencing, future genetic and genomics studies related to the molecular mechanisms associated with the chemical composition of P. tenuifolia may be improved. Genes involved in the enrichment of secondary metabolite biosynthesis-related pathways could enhance the potential applications of P. tenuifolia in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26543847

  10. Evolution of alternative biosynthetic pathways for vitamin C following plastid acquisition in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Glen; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Pornsaksit, Varissa; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an enzyme co-factor in eukaryotes that also plays a critical role in protecting photosynthetic eukaryotes against damaging reactive oxygen species derived from the chloroplast. Many animal lineages, including primates, have become ascorbate auxotrophs due to the loss of the terminal enzyme in their biosynthetic pathway, l-gulonolactone oxidase (GULO). The alternative pathways found in land plants and Euglena use a different terminal enzyme, l-galactonolactone dehydrogenase (GLDH). The evolutionary processes leading to these differing pathways and their contribution to the cellular roles of ascorbate remain unclear. Here we present molecular and biochemical evidence demonstrating that GULO was functionally replaced with GLDH in photosynthetic eukaryote lineages following plastid acquisition. GULO has therefore been lost repeatedly throughout eukaryote evolution. The formation of the alternative biosynthetic pathways in photosynthetic eukaryotes uncoupled ascorbate synthesis from hydrogen peroxide production and likely contributed to the rise of ascorbate as a major photoprotective antioxidant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06369.001 PMID:25768426

  11. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Momordica cochinchinensis to identify genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Rim, Yeonggil; Jang, Hui-Jeong; Kim, Cheol Hong; Park, Jongsun; Kumar, Ritesh; Lee, Sunghoon; Kim, Byung Chul; Bhak, Jong; Nguyen-Quoc, Binh; Kim, Seon-Won; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2012-07-01

    The ripe fruit of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac, is featured by very high carotenoid content. Although this plant might be a good resource for carotenoid metabolic engineering, so far, the genes involved in the carotenoid metabolic pathways in gac were unidentified due to lack of genomic information in the public database. In order to expedite the process of gene discovery, we have undertaken Illumina deep sequencing of mRNA prepared from aril of gac fruit. From 51,446,670 high-quality reads, we obtained 81,404 assembled unigenes with average length of 388 base pairs. At the protein level, gac aril transcripts showed about 81.5% similarity with cucumber proteomes. In addition 17,104 unigenes have been assigned to specific metabolic pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and all of known enzymes involved in terpenoid backbones biosynthetic and carotenoid biosynthetic pathways were also identified in our library. To analyze the relationship between putative carotenoid biosynthesis genes and alteration of carotenoid content during fruit ripening, digital gene expression analysis was performed on three different ripening stages of aril. This study has revealed putative phytoene synthase, 15-cis-phytone desaturase, zeta-carotene desaturase, carotenoid isomerase and lycopene epsilon cyclase might be key factors for controlling carotenoid contents during aril ripening. Taken together, this study has also made availability of a large gene database. This unique information for gac gene discovery would be helpful to facilitate functional studies for improving carotenoid quantities. PMID:22580955

  12. A novel interaction linking the FAS-II and phthiocerol dimycocerosate (PDIM) biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Kruh, Nicole A; Borgaro, Janine G; Ruzsicska, Béla P; Xu, Hua; Tonge, Peter J

    2008-11-14

    The fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway in Mycobacterium tuberculosis generates long chain fatty acids that serve as the precursors to mycolic acids, essential components of the mycobacterial cell wall. Enzymes in the FAS-II pathway are thought to form one or more noncovalent multi-enzyme complexes within the cell, and a bacterial two-hybrid screen was used to search for missing components of the pathway and to furnish additional data on interactions involving these enzymes in vivo. Using the FAS-II beta-ketoacyl synthase, KasA, as bait, an extensive bacterial two-hybrid screen of a M. tuberculosis genome fragment library unexpectedly revealed a novel interaction between KasA and PpsB as well as PpsD, two polyketide modules involved in the biosynthesis of the virulence lipid phthiocerol dimycocerosate (PDIM). Sequence analysis revealed that KasA interacts with PpsB and PpsD in the region of the acyl carrier domain of each protein, raising the possibility that lipids could be transferred between the FAS-II and PDIM biosynthetic pathways. Subsequent studies utilizing purified proteins and radiolabeled lipids revealed that fatty acids loaded onto PpsB were transferred to KasA and also incorporated into long chain fatty acids synthesized using a Mycobacterium smegmatis lysate. These data suggest that in addition to producing PDIMs, the growing phthiocerol product can also be shuttled into the FAS-II pathway via KasA as an entry point for further elongation. Interactions between these biosynthetic pathways may exist as a simple means to increase mycobacterial lipid diversity, enhancing functionality and the overall complexity of the cell wall. PMID:18703500

  13. Narrow-spectrum inhibitors targeting an alternative menaquinone biosynthetic pathway of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Matsui, Hidenori; Yamaji, Kenzaburo; Takahashi, Tetsufumi; Øverby, Anders; Nakamura, Masahiko; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Nonaka, Kenichi; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Ōmura, Satoshi; Nakano, Hirofumi

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to identify narrow-spectrum natural compounds that specifically inhibit an alternative menaquinone (MK; vitamin K2) biosynthetic pathway (the futalosine pathway) of Helicobacter pylori. Culture broth samples of 6183 microbes were examined using the paper disc method with different combinations of 2 of the following 3 indicator microorganisms: Bacillus halodurans C-125 and Kitasatospora setae KM-6054(T), which have only the futalosine pathway of MK biosynthesis, and Bacillus subtilis H17, which has only the canonical MK biosynthetic pathway. Most of the active compounds isolated from culture broth samples were from the families of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Only one compound isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. K12-1112, siamycin I (a 21-residue lasso peptide antibiotic), targeted the futalosine pathway. The inhibitory activities of representative PUFAs and siamycin I against the growth of B. halodurans or K. setae were abrogated by supplementation with MK. Thereafter, the growth of H. pylori strains SS1 and TN2GF4 in broth cultures was dose-dependently suppressed by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or siamycin I, and these inhibitory effects were reduced by supplementation with MK. Daily administration of EPA (100 μM), DHA (100 μM), or siamycin I (2.5 μM) in drinking water reduced the H. pylori SS1 colonization in the gastric mucosa of C57BL/6 mice by 96%, 78%, and 68%, respectively. These data suggest that EPA, DHA, and siamycin I prevented H. pylori infection by inhibiting the futalosine pathway of MK biosynthesis. PMID:27346378

  14. Biosynthetic Pathway of the Reduced Polyketide Product Citreoviridin in Aspergillus terreus var. aureus Revealed by Heterologous Expression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Shyang; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Wang, Clay C C

    2016-03-18

    Citreoviridin (1) belongs to a class of F1-ATPase β-subunit inhibitors that are synthesized by highly reducing polyketide synthases. These potent mycotoxins share an α-pyrone polyene structure, and they include aurovertin, verrucosidin, and asteltoxin. The identification of the citreoviridin biosynthetic gene cluster in Aspergillus terreus var. aureus and its reconstitution using heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans are reported. Two intermediates were isolated that allowed the proposal of the biosynthetic pathway of citreoviridin. PMID:26954888

  15. Two Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases Catalyze Early Hydroxylation Steps in the Potato Steroid Glycoalkaloid Biosynthetic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayasu, Masaru; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Mizutani, Masaharu; Seki, Hikaru; Saito, Kazuki; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2016-08-01

    α-Solanine and α-chaconine, steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) found in potato (Solanum tuberosum), are among the best-known secondary metabolites in food crops. At low concentrations in potato tubers, SGAs are distasteful; however, at high concentrations, SGAs are harmful to humans and animals. Here, we show that POTATO GLYCOALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PGA1) and PGA2, two genes that encode cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP72A208 and CYP72A188), are involved in the SGA biosynthetic pathway, respectively. The knockdown plants of either PGA1 or PGA2 contained very little SGA, yet vegetative growth and tuber production were not affected. Analyzing metabolites that accumulated in the plants and produced by in vitro enzyme assays revealed that PGA1 and PGA2 catalyzed the 26- and 22-hydroxylation steps, respectively, in the SGA biosynthetic pathway. The PGA-knockdown plants had two unique phenotypic characteristics: The plants were sterile and tubers of these knockdown plants did not sprout during storage. Functional analyses of PGA1 and PGA2 have provided clues for controlling both potato glycoalkaloid biosynthesis and tuber sprouting, two traits that can significantly impact potato breeding and the industry. PMID:27307258

  16. Indole-3-acetic acid in Fusarium graminearum: Identification of biosynthetic pathways and characterization of physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kun; Rocheleau, Hélène; Qi, Peng-Fei; Zheng, You-Liang; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Ouellet, Thérèse

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a devastating pathogenic fungus causing fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat. This fungus can produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and a very large amount of IAA accumulates in wheat head tissues during the first few days of infection by F. graminearum. Using liquid culture conditions, we have determined that F. graminearum can use tryptamine (TAM) and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) as biosynthetic intermediates to produce IAA. It is the first time that F. graminearum is shown to use the l-tryptophan-dependent TAM and IAN pathways rather than the indole-3-acetamide or indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways to produce IAA. Our experiments also showed that exogenous IAA was metabolized by F. graminearum. Exogenous IAA, TAM, and IAN inhibited mycelial growth; IAA and IAN also affected the hyphae branching pattern and delayed macroconidium germination. IAA and TAM had a small positive effect on the production of the mycotoxin 15-ADON while IAN inhibited its production. Our results showed that IAA and biosynthetic intermediates had a significant effect on F. graminearum physiology and suggested a new area of exploration for fungicidal compounds. PMID:27567719

  17. exo-Brevicomin biosynthetic pathway enzymes from the Mountain Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae.

    PubMed

    Song, Minmin; Delaplain, Patrick; Nguyen, Trang T; Liu, Xibei; Wickenberg, Leah; Jeffrey, Christopher; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

    2014-10-01

    exoBrevicomin (exo-7-ethyl-5-methyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane) is an important semiochemical for a number of beetle species, including the highly destructive Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). It is also found in other insects and the African elephant. Despite its significance, very little is known about its biosynthesis. A recent microarray analysis implicated a small cluster of three D. ponderosae genes in exo-brevicomin biosynthesis, two of which had identifiable open reading frames (Aw et al., 2010; BMC Genomics 11:215). Here we report further expression profiling of two genes in that cluster and functional analysis of their recombinantly-produced enzymes. One encodes a short-chain dehydrogenase that used NAD(P)(+) as a co-factor to catalyze the oxidation of (Z)-6-nonen-2-ol to (Z)-6-nonen-2-one. We therefore named the enzyme (Z)-6-nonen-2-ol dehydrogenase (ZnoDH). The other encodes the cytochrome P450, CYP6CR1, which epoxidized (Z)-6-nonen-2-one to 6,7-epoxynonan-2-one with very high specificity and substrate selectivity. Both the substrates and products of the two enzymes are intermediates in the exo-brevicomin biosynthetic pathway. Thus, ZnoDH and CYP6CR1 are enzymes that apparently catalyze the antepenultimate and penultimate steps in the exo-brevicomin biosynthetic pathway, respectively. PMID:25138711

  18. A cell-free framework for rapid biosynthetic pathway prototyping and enzyme discovery.

    PubMed

    Karim, Ashty S; Jewett, Michael C

    2016-07-01

    Speeding up design-build-test (DBT) cycles is a fundamental challenge facing biochemical engineering. To address this challenge, we report a new cell-free protein synthesis driven metabolic engineering (CFPS-ME) framework for rapid biosynthetic pathway prototyping. In our framework, cell-free cocktails for synthesizing target small molecules are assembled in a mix-and-match fashion from crude cell lysates either containing selectively enriched pathway enzymes from heterologous overexpression or directly producing pathway enzymes in lysates by CFPS. As a model, we apply our approach to n-butanol biosynthesis showing that Escherichia coli lysates support a highly active 17-step CoA-dependent n-butanol pathway in vitro. The elevated degree of flexibility in the cell-free environment allows us to manipulate physiochemical conditions, access enzymatic nodes, discover new enzymes, and prototype enzyme sets with linear DNA templates to study pathway performance. We anticipate that CFPS-ME will facilitate efforts to define, manipulate, and understand metabolic pathways for accelerated DBT cycles without the need to reengineer organisms. PMID:26996382

  19. Two different pathways of internal conversion in carotenoids depending on the length of the conjugated chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Ritsuko; Inaba, Toru; Watanabe, Yasutaka; Koyama, Yasushi; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2003-02-01

    Near-infrared, subpicosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of all- trans carotenoids having the number of conjugated double bonds, n=9-13, identified two different pathways of internal conversion in accordance with the energy diagram recently determined by measurements of resonance-Raman excitation profiles (RREPs) [K. Furuichi, T. Sashima, Y. Koyama, Chem. Phys. Lett. 356 (2002) 547]: the 1B u+→1B u-→2A g- internal conversion for neurosporene ( n=9) and spheroidene ( n=10), whereas the 1B u+→3A g-→2A g- internal conversion for lycopene ( n=11), anhydrorhodovibrin ( n=12) and spirilloxanthin ( n=13).

  20. Biosynthetic pathway of the phytohormone auxin in insects and screening of its inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Yokokura, Junpei; Ito, Tsukasa; Arai, Ryoma; Yokoyama, Chiaki; Toshima, Hiroaki; Nagata, Shinji; Asami, Tadao; Suzuki, Yoshihito

    2014-10-01

    Insect galls are abnormal plant tissues induced by galling insects. The galls are used for food and habitation, and the phytohormone auxin, produced by the insects, may be involved in their formation. We found that the silkworm, a non-galling insect, also produces an active form of auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), by de novo synthesis from tryptophan (Trp). A detailed metabolic analysis of IAA using IAA synthetic enzymes from silkworms indicated an IAA biosynthetic pathway composed of a three-step conversion: Trp → indole-3-acetaldoxime → indole-3-acetaldehyde (IAAld) → IAA, of which the first step is limiting IAA production. This pathway was shown to also operate in gall-inducing sawfly. Screening of a chemical library identified two compounds that showed strong inhibitory activities on the conversion step IAAld → IAA. The inhibitors can be efficiently used to demonstrate the importance of insect-synthesized auxin in gall formation in the future. PMID:25111299

  1. Probing a Coral Genome for Components of the Photoprotective Scytonemin Biosynthetic Pathway and the 2-Aminoethylphosphonate Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shoguchi, Eiichi; Tanaka, Makiko; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Shinzato, Chuya; Satoh, Nori

    2013-01-01

    Genome sequences of the reef-building coral, Acropora digitifera, have been decoded. Acropora inhabits an environment with intense ultraviolet exposure and hosts the photosynthetic endosymbiont, Symbiodinium. Acropora homologs of all four genes necessary for biosynthesis of the photoprotective cyanobacterial compound, shinorine, are present. Among metazoans, these genes are found only in anthozoans. To gain further evolutionary insights into biosynthesis of photoprotective compounds and associated coral proteins, we surveyed the Acropora genome for 18 clustered genes involved in cyanobacterial synthesis of the anti-UV compound, scytonemin, even though it had not previously been detected in corals. We identified candidates for only 6 of the 18 genes, including tyrP, scyA, and scyB. Therefore, it does not appear that Acropora digitifera can synthesize scytonemin independently. On the other hand, molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that one tyrosinase gene is an ortholog of vertebrate tyrosinase genes and that the coral homologs, scyA and scyB, are similar to bacterial metabolic genes, phosphonopyruvate (ppyr) decarboxylase and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), respectively. Further genomic searches for ppyr gene-related biosynthetic components indicate that the coral possesses a metabolic pathway similar to the bacterial 2-aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) biosynthetic pathway. The results suggest that de novo synthesis of carbon-phosphorus compounds is performed in corals. PMID:23434798

  2. Toxicity of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway intermediate carbamyl aspartate in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbough, C L; Bochner, B R

    1985-01-01

    Growth of Salmonella typhimurium pyrC or pyrD auxotrophs was severely inhibited in media that caused derepressed pyr gene expression. No such inhibition was observed with derepressed pyrA and pyrB auxotrophs. Growth inhibition was not due to the depletion of essential pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway intermediates or substrates. This result and the pattern of inhibition indicated that the accumulation of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway intermediate carbamyl aspartate was toxic. This intermediate is synthesized by the sequential action of the first two enzymes of the pathway encoded by pyrA and pyrB and is a substrate for the pyrC gene product. It should accumulate to high levels in pyrC or pyrD mutants when expression of the pyrA and pyrB genes is elevated. The introduction of either a pyrA or pyrB mutation into a pyrC strain eliminated the observed growth inhibition. Additionally, a direct correlation was shown between the severity of growth inhibition of a pyrC auxotroph and the levels of the enzymes that synthesize carbamyl aspartate. The mechanism of carbamyl aspartate toxicity was not identified, but many potential sites of growth inhibition were excluded. Carbamyl aspartate toxicity was shown to be useful as a phenotypic trait for classifying pyrimidine auxotrophs and may also be useful for positive selection of pyrA or pyrB mutants. Finally, we discuss ways of overcoming growth inhibition of pyrC and pyrD mutants under derepressing conditions. PMID:3894327

  3. Characterization of the CDP-2-Glycerol Biosynthetic Pathway in Streptococcus pneumoniae▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quan; Xu, Yanli; Perepelov, Andrei V.; Xiong, Wei; Wei, Dongmei; Shashkov, Alexander S.; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Capsule polysaccharide (CPS) plays an important role in the virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is usually used as the pneumococcal vaccine target. Glycerol-2-phosphate is found in the CPS of S. pneumoniae types 15A and 23F and is rarely found in the polysaccharides of other bacteria. The biosynthetic pathway of the nucleotide-activated form of glycerol-2-phosphate (NDP-2-glycerol) has never been identified. In this study, three genes (gtp1, gtp2, and gtp3) from S. pneumoniae 23F that have been proposed to be involved in the synthesis of NDP-2-glycerol were cloned and the enzyme products were expressed, purified, and assayed for their respective activities. Capillary electrophoresis was used to detect novel products from the enzyme-substrate reactions, and the structure of the product was elucidated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Gtp1 was identified as a reductase that catalyzes the conversion of 1,3-dihydroxyacetone to glycerol, Gtp3 was identified as a glycerol-2-phosphotransferase that catalyzes the conversion of glycerol to glycerol-2-phosphate, and Gtp2 was identified as a cytidylyltransferase that transfers CTP to glycerol-2-phosphate to form CDP-2-glycerol as the final product. The kinetic parameters of Gtp1 and Gtp2 were characterized in depth, and the effects of temperature, pH, and cations on these two enzymes were analyzed. This is the first time that the biosynthetic pathway of CDP-2-glycerol has been identified biochemically; this pathway provides a method to enzymatically synthesize this compound. PMID:20729354

  4. Increasing antioxidant levels in tomatoes through modification of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Verhoeyen, M E; Bovy, A; Collins, G; Muir, S; Robinson, S; de Vos, C H R; Colliver, S

    2002-10-01

    Flavonoids are a diverse group of phenolic secondary metabolites that occur naturally in plants and therefore form an integral component of the human diet. Many of the compounds belonging to this group are potent antioxidants in vitro and epidemiological studies suggest a direct correlation between high flavonoid intake and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and other age-related diseases. Enhancing flavonoid biosynthesis in chosen crops may provide new raw materials that have the potential to be used in foods designed for specific benefits to human health. Using genetic modification, it was possible to generate several tomato lines with significantly altered flavonoid content and to probe the role and importance of several key enzymatic steps in the tomato flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Most notably an up to 78-fold increase in total fruit flavonols was achieved through ectopic expression of a single biosynthetic enzyme, chalcone isomerase. In addition, chalcone synthase and flavonol synthase transgenes were found to act synergistically to up-regulate flavonol biosynthesis significantly in tomato flesh tissues. PMID:12324533

  5. Genome sequence of Thermofilum pendens reveals an exceptional loss of biosynthetic pathways without genome reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrpides, Nikos; Anderson, Iain; Rodriguez, Jason; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Reich, Claudia; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Lykidis, Athanasios; Kim, Edwin; Thompson, Linda S.; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Detter, Chris; Zhulin, Igor B.; Olsen, Gary J.; Whitman, William; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    We report the complete genome of Thermofilum pendens, a deep-branching, hyperthermophilic member of the order Thermoproteales within the archaeal kingdom Crenarchaeota. T. pendens is a sulfur-dependent, anaerobic heterotroph isolated from a solfatara in Iceland. It is an extracellular commensal, requiring an extract of Thermoproteus tenax for growth, and the genome sequence reveals that biosynthetic pathways for purines, most amino acids, and most cofactors are absent. In fact T. pendens has fewer biosynthetic enzymes than obligate intracellular parasites, although it does not display other features common among obligate parasites and thus does not appear to be in the process of becoming a parasite. It appears that T. pendens has adapted to life in an environment rich in nutrients. T. pendens was known to utilize peptides as an energy source, but the genome reveals substantial ability to grow on carbohydrates. T. pendens is the first crenarchaeote and only the second archaeon found to have a transporter of the phosphotransferase system. In addition to fermentation, T. pendens may gain energy from sulfur reduction with hydrogen and formate as electron donors. It may also be capable of sulfur-independent growth on formate with formate hydrogenlyase. Additional novel features are the presence of a monomethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase, the first time this enzyme has been found outside of Methanosarcinales, and a presenilin-related protein. Predicted highly expressed proteins do not include housekeeping genes, and instead include ABC transporters for carbohydrates and peptides, and CRISPR-associated proteins.

  6. Genome Sequence of Thermofilum pendens Reveals an Exceptional Loss of Biosynthetic Pathways without Genome Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Rodriquez, Jason; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, I.; Reich, Claudia; Ulrich, Luke; Elkins, James G; Mavromatis, K; Lykidis, A; Kim, Edwin; Thompson, Linda S; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam L; Copeland, A; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Detter, J C; Zhulin, Igor B; Olsen, Gary; Whitman, W. B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2008-01-01

    We report the complete genome of Thermofilum pendens, a deep-branching member of class Thermoproteales of Crenarchaeota. T. pendens is a sulfur-dependent, anaerobic heterotroph isolated from a solfatara in Iceland. It was known to utilize peptides as an energy source, but the genome reveals substantial ability to grow on carbohydrates. T. pendens is the first Crenarchaeote and only the second archaeon found to have transporters of the phosphotransferase system. T. pendens is known to require an extract of Thermoproteus tenax for growth, and the genome sequence reveals that biosynthetic pathways for purines, most amino acids, and most cofactors are absent. T. pendens has fewer biosynthetic enzymes than any other free-living organism. In addition to heterotrophy, T. pendens may gain energy from sulfur reduction with hydrogen and formate as electron donors. It may also be capable of sulfur-independent growth on formate with formate hydrogenlyase. Additional novel features are the presence of a monomethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase, the first time this enzyme has been found outside of Methanosarcinales, and a presenilin-related protein from a new subfamily. Predicted highly expressed proteins include ABC transporters for carbohydrates and peptides, and CRISPR-associated proteins, suggesting that defense against viruses is a high priority.

  7. Regulation of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and its integration with fatty acid biosynthesis in the oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sterols are vital structural and regulatory components in eukaryotic cells; however, their biosynthetic pathways and functional roles in microalgae remain poorly understood. Results In the oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica, the sterol biosynthetic pathway produces phytosterols as minor products and cholesterol as the major product. The evidence together with their deduced biosynthetic pathways suggests that N. oceanica exhibits features of both higher plants and mammals. Temporal tracking of sterol profiles and sterol-biosynthetic transcripts in response to changes in light intensity and nitrogen supply reveal that sterols play roles in cell proliferation, chloroplast differentiation, and photosynthesis. Furthermore, the dynamics of fatty acid (FA) and FA-biosynthetic transcripts upon chemical inhibitor-induced sterol depletion reveal possible co-regulation of sterol production and FA synthesis, in that the squalene epoxidase inhibitor terbinafine reduces sterol content yet significantly elevates free FA production. Thus, a feedback regulation of sterol and FA homeostasis is proposed, with the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS, the committed enzyme in isoprenoid and sterol biosynthesis) gene potentially subject to feedback regulation by sterols. Conclusion These findings reveal features of sterol function and biosynthesis in microalgae and suggest new genetic engineering or chemical biology approaches for enhanced oil production in microalgae. PMID:24920959

  8. Trehalose Polyphleates Are Produced by a Glycolipid Biosynthetic Pathway Conserved across Phylogenetically Distant Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Burbaud, Sophie; Laval, Françoise; Lemassu, Anne; Daffé, Mamadou; Guilhot, Christophe; Chalut, Christian

    2016-02-18

    Mycobacteria synthesize a variety of structurally related glycolipids with major biological functions. Common themes have emerged for the biosynthesis of these glycolipids, including several families of proteins. Genes encoding these proteins are usually clustered on bacterial chromosomal islets dedicated to the synthesis of one glycolipid family. Here, we investigated the function of a cluster of five genes widely distributed across non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Using defined mutant analysis and in-depth structural characterization of glycolipids from wild-type or mutant strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium abscessus, we established that they are involved in the formation of trehalose polyphleates (TPP), a family of compounds originally described in Mycobacterium phlei. Comparative genomics and lipid analysis of strains distributed along the mycobacterial phylogenetic tree revealed that TPP is synthesized by a large number of non-tuberculous mycobacteria. This work unravels a novel glycolipid biosynthetic pathway in mycobacteria and extends the spectrum of bacteria that produce TPP. PMID:27028886

  9. Complete set of glycosyltransferase structures in the calicheamicin biosynthetic pathway reveals the origin of regiospecificity

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Aram; Singh, Shanteri; Helmich, Kate E.; Goff, Randal D.; Bingman, Craig A.; Thorson, Jon S.; Phillips, Jr., George N.

    2012-03-15

    Glycosyltransferases are useful synthetic catalysts for generating natural products with sugar moieties. Although several natural product glycosyltransferase structures have been reported, design principles of glycosyltransferase engineering for the generation of glycodiversified natural products has fallen short of its promise, partly due to a lack of understanding of the relationship between structure and function. Here, we report structures of all four calicheamicin glycosyltransferases (CalG1, CalG2, CalG3, and CalG4), whose catalytic functions are clearly regiospecific. Comparison of these four structures reveals a conserved sugar donor binding motif and the principles of acceptor binding region reshaping. Among them, CalG2 possesses a unique catalytic motif for glycosylation of hydroxylamine. Multiple glycosyltransferase structures in a single natural product biosynthetic pathway are a valuable resource for understanding regiospecific reactions and substrate selectivities and will help future glycosyltransferase engineering.

  10. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  11. Discovery and reconstitution of the cycloclavine biosynthetic pathway--enzymatic formation of a cyclopropyl group.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Dorota; Caputi, Lorenzo; Hatsch, Anaëlle; Nielsen, Curt A F; Diefenbacher, Melanie; Klein, Jens; Molt, Andrea; Schröder, Hartwig; Cheng, Johnathan Z; Naesby, Michael; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2015-04-20

    The ergot alkaloids, a class of fungal-derived natural products with important biological activities, are derived from a common intermediate, chanoclavine-I, which is elaborated into a set of diverse structures. Herein we report the discovery of the biosynthetic pathway of cycloclavine, a complex ergot alkaloid containing a cyclopropyl moiety. We used a yeast-based expression platform along with in vitro biochemical experiments to identify the enzyme that catalyzes a rearrangement of the chanoclavine-I intermediate to form a cyclopropyl moiety. The resulting compound, cycloclavine, was produced in yeast at titers of >500 mg L(-1) , thus demonstrating the feasibility of the heterologous expression of these complex alkaloids. PMID:25712404

  12. Biosynthesis of hibarimicins. II. Elucidation of biosynthetic pathway by cosynthesis using blocked mutants.

    PubMed

    Kajiura, Takayuki; Furumai, Tamotsu; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Hori, Hiroshi; Higashi, Kazuaki; Ishiyama, Tadayuki; Uramoto, Masakazu; Uehara, Yoshimasa; Oki, Toshikazu

    2002-01-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of hibarimicin (HBM) was proposed on the basis of the experimental results obtained by using blocked mutants of Microbispora rosea subsp. hibaria TP-A0121, the HBM producer. In its biosynthesis, the oxidative coupling of the aromatic undecaketide unit generates a symmetrical aglycon HMP-Y1 (hibarimicin-mutant product Y1), which is oxidatively modified to hibarimicinone, the HBM aglycon. The following glycosylation of hibarimicinone gives rise to the HBM complex. We identified that HMP-Y1 prepared by methanolysis of HMP-Y6, a glycosylated metabolite from a blocked mutant, was the key intermediate: transformation of 13C-labeled HMP-Y1 to HBM B was confirmed by NMR measurements. Mutant strain produced another type of aglycon HMP-P1 in which the coupled polyketide units were intramolecularly bridged by the ether bond. This metabolite also arose by the spontaneous elimination of methanol molecule from hibarimicinone. PMID:11918066

  13. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  14. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering. PMID:26377817

  15. ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE Activity Potentiates Carotenoid Degradation in Maturing Seed1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Lipka, Alexander E.; Angelovici, Ruthie; DellaPenna, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway has enabled altering the composition and content of carotenoids in various plants, but to achieve desired nutritional impacts, the genetic components regulating carotenoid homeostasis in seed, the plant organ consumed in greatest abundance, must be elucidated. We used a combination of linkage mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and pathway-level analysis to identify nine loci that impact the natural variation of seed carotenoids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE (ZEP) was the major contributor to carotenoid composition, with mutants lacking ZEP activity showing a remarkable 6-fold increase in total seed carotenoids relative to the wild type. Natural variation in ZEP gene expression during seed development was identified as the underlying mechanism for fine-tuning carotenoid composition, stability, and ultimately content in Arabidopsis seed. We previously showed that two CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE enzymes, CCD1 and CCD4, are the primary mediators of seed carotenoid degradation, and here we demonstrate that ZEP acts as an upstream control point of carotenoid homeostasis, with ZEP-mediated epoxidation targeting carotenoids for degradation by CCD enzymes. Finally, four of the nine loci/enzymatic activities identified as underlying natural variation in Arabidopsis seed carotenoids also were identified in a recent GWAS of maize (Zea mays) kernel carotenoid variation. This first comparison of the natural variation in seed carotenoids in monocots and dicots suggests a surprising overlap in the genetic architecture of these traits between the two lineages and provides a list of likely candidates to target for selecting seed carotenoid variation in other species. PMID:27208224

  16. Insights into the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum as chemotherapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Krungkrai, Sudaratana R; Krungkrai, Jerapan

    2016-06-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Artemisinins remain as the first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria although drug resistance has already emerged and spread in Southeast Asia. Thus, to fight this disease, there is an urgent need to develop new antimalarial drugs for malaria chemotherapy. Unlike human host cells, P. falciparum cannot salvage preformed pyrimidine bases or nucleosides from the extracellular environment and relies solely on nucleotides synthesized through the de novo biosynthetic pathway. This review presents significant progress on understanding the de novo pyrimidine pathway and the functional enzymes in the human parasite P. falciparum. Current knowledge in genomics and metabolomics are described, particularly focusing on the parasite purine and pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism. These include gene annotation, characterization and molecular mechanism of the enzymes that are different from the human host pathway. Recent elucidation of the three-dimensional crystal structures and the catalytic reactions of three enzymes: dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, and orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, as well as their inhibitors are reviewed in the context of their therapeutic potential against malaria. PMID:27262062

  17. Auxin Input Pathway Disruptions Are Mitigated by Changes in Auxin Biosynthetic Gene Expression in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Spiess, Gretchen M; Hausman, Amanda; Yu, Peng; Cohen, Jerry D; Rampey, Rebekah A; Zolman, Bethany K

    2014-06-01

    Auxin is a phytohormone involved in cell elongation and division. Levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the primary auxin, are tightly regulated through biosynthesis, degradation, sequestration, and transport. IAA is sequestered in reversible processes by adding amino acids, polyol or simple alcohols, or sugars, forming IAA conjugates, or through a two-carbon elongation forming indole-3-butyric acid. These sequestered forms of IAA alter hormone activity. To gain a better understanding of how auxin homeostasis is maintained, we have generated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants that combine disruptions in the pathways, converting IAA conjugates and indole-3-butyric acid to free IAA. These mutants show phenotypes indicative of low auxin levels, including delayed germination, abnormal vein patterning, and decreased apical dominance. Root phenotypes include changes in root length, root branching, and root hair growth. IAA levels are reduced in the cotyledon tissue but not meristems or hypocotyls. In the combination mutants, auxin biosynthetic gene expression is increased, particularly in the YUCCA/Tryptophan Aminotransferase of Arabidopsis1 pathway, providing a feedback mechanism that allows the plant to compensate for changes in IAA input pathways and maintain cellular homeostasis. PMID:24891612

  18. Comprehensive Analysis of the Triterpenoid Saponins Biosynthetic Pathway in Anemone flaccida by Transcriptome and Proteome Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Chuansong; Li, Xiaohua; Zhao, Zeying; Yang, Tewu; Wang, Xuekui; Luo, Biaobiao; Zhang, Qiyun; Hu, Yanru; Hu, Xuebo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemone flaccida Fr. Shmidt (Ranunculaceae), commonly known as ‘Di Wu’ in China, is a perennial herb with limited distribution. The rhizome of A. flaccida has long been used to treat arthritis as a tradition in China. Studies disclosed that the plant contains a rich source of triterpenoid saponins. However, little is known about triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis in A. flaccida. Results: In this study, we conducted the tandem transcriptome and proteome profiling of a non-model medicinal plant, A. flaccida. Using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing and iTRAQ technique, a total of 46,962 high-quality unigenes were obtained with an average sequence length of 1,310 bp, along with 1473 unique proteins from A. flaccida. Among the A. flaccida transcripts, 36,617 (77.97%) showed significant similarity (E-value < 1e-5) to the known proteins in the public database. Of the total 46,962 unigenes, 36,617 open reading frame (ORFs) were predicted. By the fragments per kilobases per million reads (FPKM) statistics, 14,004 isoforms/unigenes were found to be upregulated, and 14,090 isoforms/unigenes were down-regulated in the rhizomes as compared to those in the leaves. Based on the bioinformatics analysis, all possible enzymes involved in the triterpenoid saponins biosynthetic pathway of A. flaccida were identified, including cytosolic mevalonate pathway (MVA) and the plastidial methylerythritol pathway (MEP). Additionally, a total of 126 putative cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and 32 putative UDP glycosyltransferases were selected as the candidates of triterpenoid saponins modifiers. Among them, four of them were annotated as the gene of CYP716A subfamily, the key enzyme in the oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, based on RNA-Seq and proteome analysis, as well as quantitative RT-PCR verification, the expression level of gene and protein committed to triterpenoids biosynthesis in the leaf versus the rhizome was compared. Conclusion: A

  19. Novel expression patterns of carotenoid pathway-related gene in citrus leaves and maturing fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are abundant in citrus fruits and vary among cultivars and species. In the present study, HPLC and real-time PCR were used to investigate the expression patterns of 23 carotenoid biosynthesis gene family members and their possible relation with carotenoid accumulation in flavedo, juice s...

  20. Major QTL for Carrot Color are Associated with Carotenoid Biosynthetic Genes and Interact Epistatically in a Domesticated x Wild Carrot Cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild carrot roots are white and do not accumulate pigments while the cultivated carrot is one of the richest sources of carotenoid pigments – mainly provitamin A alpha and beta carotenes. In this study we performed QTL analyses for pigment content on a carotenoid biosynthesis function map based on t...

  1. Metabolic engineering of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway into transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-López, Noemi; Sayanova, Olga; Napier, Johnathan A; Haslam, Richard P

    2012-04-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 Δ5,8,11,14,17) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 Δ4,7,10,13,16,19) have been shown to have significant roles in human health. Currently the primary dietary source of these fatty acids are marine fish; however, the increasing demand for fish and fish oil (in particular the expansion of the aquaculture industry) is placing enormous pressure on diminishing marine stocks. Such overfishing and concerns related to pollution in the marine environment have directed research towards the development of a viable alternative sustainable source of VLC-PUFAs. As a result, the last decade has seen many genes encoding the primary VLC-PUFA biosynthetic activities identified and characterized. This has allowed the reconstitution of the VLC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway in oilseed crops, producing transgenic plants engineered to accumulate ω-3 VLC-PUFAs at levels approaching those found in native marine organisms. Moreover, as a result of these engineering activities, knowledge of the fundamental processes surrounding acyl exchange and lipid remodelling has progressed. The application of new technologies, for example lipidomics and next-generation sequencing, is providing a better understanding of seed oil biosynthesis and opportunities for increasing the production of unusual fatty acids. Certainly, it is now possible to modify the composition of plant oils successfully, and, in this review, the most recent developments in this field and the challenges of producing VLC-PUFAs in the seed oil of higher plants will be described. PMID:22291131

  2. Utility of the Biosynthetic Folate Pathway for Targets in Antimicrobial Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Christina R.

    2014-01-01

    The need for new antimicrobials is great in face of a growing pool of resistant pathogenic organisms. This review will address the potential for antimicrobial therapy based on polypharmacological activities within the currently utilized bacterial biosynthetic folate pathway. The folate metabolic pathway leads to synthesis of required precursors for cellular function and contains a critical node, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), which is shared between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The DHFR enzyme is currently targeted by methotrexate in anti-cancer therapies, by trimethoprim for antibacterial uses, and by pyrimethamine for anti-protozoal applications. An additional anti-folate target is dihyropteroate synthase (DHPS), which is unique to prokaryotes as they cannot acquire folate through dietary means. It has been demonstrated as a primary target for the longest standing antibiotic class, the sulfonamides, which act synergistically with DHFR inhibitors. Investigations have revealed most DHPS enzymes possess the ability to utilize sulfa drugs metabolically, producing alternate products that presumably inhibit downstream enzymes requiring the produced dihydropteroate. Recent work has established an off-target effect of sulfonamide antibiotics on a eukaryotic enzyme, sepiapterin reductase, causing alterations in neurotransmitter synthesis. Given that inhibitors of both DHFR and DHPS are designed to mimic their cognate substrate, which contain shared substructures, it is reasonable to expect such “off-target” effects. These inhibitors are also likely to interact with the enzymatic neighbors in the folate pathway that bind products of the DHFR or DHPS enzymes and/or substrates of similar substructure. Computational studies designed to assess polypharmacology reiterate these conclusions. This leads to hypotheses exploring the vast utility of multiple members of the folate pathway for modulating cellular metabolism, and includes an appealing capacity for prokaryotic

  3. Effective Antibiofilm Polyketides against Staphylococcus aureus from the Pyranonaphthoquinone Biosynthetic Pathways of Streptomyces Species.

    PubMed

    Oja, Terhi; San Martin Galindo, Paola; Taguchi, Takaaki; Manner, Suvi; Vuorela, Pia M; Ichinose, Koji; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko; Fallarero, Adyary

    2015-10-01

    Streptomyces bacteria are renowned for their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Recently, synthetic biology has enabled the production of intermediates and shunt products, which may have altered biological activities compared to the end products of the pathways. Here, we have evaluated the potential of recently isolated alnumycins and other closely related pyranonaphthoquinone (PNQ) polyketides against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. The antimicrobial potency of the compounds against planktonic cells and biofilms was determined by redox dye-based viability staining, and the antibiofilm efficacy of the compounds was confirmed by viable counting. A novel antistaphylococcal polyketide, alnumycin D, was identified. Unexpectedly, the C-ribosylated pathway shunt product alnumycin D was more active against planktonic and biofilm cells than the pathway end product alnumycin A, where a ribose unit has been converted into a dioxane moiety. The evaluation of the antibiofilm potential of other alnumycins revealed that the presence of the ribose moiety in pyranose form is essential for high activity against preformed biofilms. Furthermore, the antibiofilm potential of other closely related PNQ polyketides was examined. Based on their previously reported activity against planktonic S. aureus cells, granaticin B, kalafungin, and medermycin were also selected for testing, and among them, granaticin B was found to be the most potent against preformed biofilms. The most active antibiofilm PNQs, alnumycin D and granaticin B, share several structural features that may be important for their antibiofilm activity. They are uncharged, glycosylated, and also contain a similar oxygenation pattern of the lateral naphthoquinone ring. These findings highlight the potential of antibiotic biosynthetic pathways as a source of effective antibiofilm compounds. PMID:26195520

  4. Effective Antibiofilm Polyketides against Staphylococcus aureus from the Pyranonaphthoquinone Biosynthetic Pathways of Streptomyces Species

    PubMed Central

    San Martin Galindo, Paola; Taguchi, Takaaki; Manner, Suvi; Vuorela, Pia M.; Ichinose, Koji; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces bacteria are renowned for their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Recently, synthetic biology has enabled the production of intermediates and shunt products, which may have altered biological activities compared to the end products of the pathways. Here, we have evaluated the potential of recently isolated alnumycins and other closely related pyranonaphthoquinone (PNQ) polyketides against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. The antimicrobial potency of the compounds against planktonic cells and biofilms was determined by redox dye-based viability staining, and the antibiofilm efficacy of the compounds was confirmed by viable counting. A novel antistaphylococcal polyketide, alnumycin D, was identified. Unexpectedly, the C-ribosylated pathway shunt product alnumycin D was more active against planktonic and biofilm cells than the pathway end product alnumycin A, where a ribose unit has been converted into a dioxane moiety. The evaluation of the antibiofilm potential of other alnumycins revealed that the presence of the ribose moiety in pyranose form is essential for high activity against preformed biofilms. Furthermore, the antibiofilm potential of other closely related PNQ polyketides was examined. Based on their previously reported activity against planktonic S. aureus cells, granaticin B, kalafungin, and medermycin were also selected for testing, and among them, granaticin B was found to be the most potent against preformed biofilms. The most active antibiofilm PNQs, alnumycin D and granaticin B, share several structural features that may be important for their antibiofilm activity. They are uncharged, glycosylated, and also contain a similar oxygenation pattern of the lateral naphthoquinone ring. These findings highlight the potential of antibiotic biosynthetic pathways as a source of effective antibiofilm compounds. PMID:26195520

  5. Mechanisms for autophagy modulation by isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway inhibitors in multiple myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Dykstra, Kaitlyn M.; Allen, Cheryl; Born, Ella J.; Tong, Huaxiang; Holstein, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the production of monoclonal protein (MP). We have shown previously that disruption of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway (IBP) causes a block in MP secretion through a disruption of Rab GTPase activity, leading to an enhanced unfolded protein response and subsequent apoptosis in MM cells. Autophagy is induced by cellular stressors including nutrient deprivation and ER stress. IBP inhibitors have been shown to have disparate effects on autophagy. Here we define the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of IBP inhibitors on autophagic flux in MM cells utilizing specific pharmacological inhibitors. We demonstrate that IBP inhibition induces a net increase in autophagy as a consequence of disruption of isoprenoid biosynthesis which is not recapitulated by direct geranylgeranyl transferase inhibition. IBP inhibitor-induced autophagy is a cellular defense mechanism as treatment with the autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 enhances the cytotoxic effects of GGPP depletion, but not geranylgeranyl transferase inhibition. Immunofluorescence microscopy studies revealed that IBP inhibitors disrupt ER to Golgi trafficking of monoclonal light chain protein and that this protein is not a substrate for alternative degradative pathways such as aggresomes and autophagosomes. These studies support further development of specific GGTase II inhibitors as anti-myeloma agents. PMID:26595805

  6. Inhibition of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Akash K.; Shojaie, Ali; Panzitt, Katrin; Sonavane, Rajni; Venghatakrishnan, Harene; Manikkam, Mohan; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Putluri, Vasanta; Vasu, Vihas T.; Zhang, Yiqing; Khan, Ayesha S.; Lloyd, Stacy; Szafran, Adam T.; Dasgupta, Subhamoy; Bader, David A.; Stossi, Fabio; Li, Hangwen; Samanta, Susmita; Cao, Xuhong; Tsouko, Efrosini; Huang, Shixia; Frigo, Daniel E.; Chan, Lawrence; Edwards, Dean P.; Kaipparettu, Benny A.; Mitsiades, Nicholas; Weigel, Nancy L.; Mancini, Michael; McGuire, Sean E.; Mehra, Rohit; Ittmann, Michael M.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Putluri, Nagireddy; Palapattu, Ganesh S.; Michailidis, George; Sreekumar, Arun

    2016-01-01

    The precise molecular alterations driving castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are not clearly understood. Using a novel network-based integrative approach, here, we show distinct alterations in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) to be critical for CRPC. Expression of HBP enzyme glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNPNAT1) is found to be significantly decreased in CRPC compared with localized prostate cancer (PCa). Genetic loss-of-function of GNPNAT1 in CRPC-like cells increases proliferation and aggressiveness, in vitro and in vivo. This is mediated by either activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway in cells expressing full-length androgen receptor (AR) or by specific protein 1 (SP1)-regulated expression of carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) in cells containing AR-V7 variant. Strikingly, addition of the HBP metabolite UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) to CRPC-like cells significantly decreases cell proliferation, both in-vitro and in animal studies, while also demonstrates additive efficacy when combined with enzalutamide in-vitro. These observations demonstrate the therapeutic value of targeting HBP in CRPC. PMID:27194471

  7. Inhibition of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Akash K; Shojaie, Ali; Panzitt, Katrin; Sonavane, Rajni; Venghatakrishnan, Harene; Manikkam, Mohan; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Putluri, Vasanta; Vasu, Vihas T; Zhang, Yiqing; Khan, Ayesha S; Lloyd, Stacy; Szafran, Adam T; Dasgupta, Subhamoy; Bader, David A; Stossi, Fabio; Li, Hangwen; Samanta, Susmita; Cao, Xuhong; Tsouko, Efrosini; Huang, Shixia; Frigo, Daniel E; Chan, Lawrence; Edwards, Dean P; Kaipparettu, Benny A; Mitsiades, Nicholas; Weigel, Nancy L; Mancini, Michael; McGuire, Sean E; Mehra, Rohit; Ittmann, Michael M; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Putluri, Nagireddy; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Michailidis, George; Sreekumar, Arun

    2016-01-01

    The precise molecular alterations driving castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are not clearly understood. Using a novel network-based integrative approach, here, we show distinct alterations in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) to be critical for CRPC. Expression of HBP enzyme glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNPNAT1) is found to be significantly decreased in CRPC compared with localized prostate cancer (PCa). Genetic loss-of-function of GNPNAT1 in CRPC-like cells increases proliferation and aggressiveness, in vitro and in vivo. This is mediated by either activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway in cells expressing full-length androgen receptor (AR) or by specific protein 1 (SP1)-regulated expression of carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) in cells containing AR-V7 variant. Strikingly, addition of the HBP metabolite UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) to CRPC-like cells significantly decreases cell proliferation, both in-vitro and in animal studies, while also demonstrates additive efficacy when combined with enzalutamide in-vitro. These observations demonstrate the therapeutic value of targeting HBP in CRPC. PMID:27194471

  8. Unique carotenoid lactoside, P457, in Symbiodinium sp. of dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Wakahama, Takahiro; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Maoka, Takashi; Takaichi, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellates are a large group of unicellular alge in marine and fresh water. Some are an endosymbiont of marine animals. Photosynthetic dinoflagellates have peridinin, a light-harvesting carotenoid. In addition, a unique carotenoid, P457, was found from Amphinidium. The presence of P457 in Symbiodinium derived from marine animals has not been reported. We reconfirmed the molecular structure of P457, a neoxanthin-like carotenoid with an aldehyde group and a lactoside, from Symbiodinium sp. NBRC 104787 isolated from a sea anemone. In addition, we investigated the distribution of P457 and peridinin in various Symbiodinium and scleractinian coral species, and possible biosynthetic pathways of these carotenoids are proposed. PMID:22428117

  9. Differential Contribution of the First Two Enzymes of the MEP Pathway to the Supply of Metabolic Precursors for Carotenoid and Chlorophyll Biosynthesis in Carrot (Daucus carota)

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Kevin; Quiroz, Luis F.; Rodriguez-Concepción, Manuel; Stange, Claudia R.

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids and chlorophylls are photosynthetic pigments synthesized in plastids from metabolic precursors provided by the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. The first two steps in the MEP pathway are catalyzed by the deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and reductoisomerase (DXR) enzymes. While DXS has been recently shown to be the main flux-controlling step of the MEP pathway, both DXS and DXR enzymes have been proven to be able to promote an increase in MEP-derived products when overproduced in diverse plant systems. Carrot (Daucus carota) produces photosynthetic pigments (carotenoids and chlorophylls) in leaves and in light-exposed roots, whereas only carotenoids (mainly α- and β-carotene) accumulate in the storage root in darkness. To evaluate whether DXS and DXR activities influence the production of carotenoids and chlorophylls in carrot leaves and roots, the corresponding Arabidopsis thaliana genes were constitutively expressed in transgenic carrot plants. Our results suggest that DXS is limiting for the production of both carotenoids and chlorophylls in roots and leaves, whereas the regulatory role of DXR appeared to be minor. Interestingly, increased levels of DXS (but not of DXR) resulted in higher transcript abundance of endogenous carrot genes encoding phytoene synthase, the main rate-determining enzyme of the carotenoid pathway. These results support a central role for DXS on modulating the production of MEP-derived precursors to synthesize carotenoids and chlorophylls in carrot, confirming the pivotal relevance of this enzyme to engineer healthier, carotenoid-enriched products.

  10. Living with high putrescine: expression of ornithine and arginine biosynthetic pathway genes in high and low putrescine producing poplar cells.

    PubMed

    Page, Andrew F; Minocha, Rakesh; Minocha, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    Arginine (Arg) and ornithine (Orn), both derived from glutamate (Glu), are the primary substrates for polyamine (PA) biosynthesis, and also play important roles as substrates and intermediates of overall N metabolism in plants. Their cellular homeostasis is subject to multiple levels of regulation. Using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), we studied changes in the expression of all genes of the Orn/Arg biosynthetic pathway in response to up-regulation [via transgenic expression of mouse Orn decarboxylase (mODC)] of PA biosynthesis in poplar (Populus nigra × maximowiczii) cells grown in culture. Cloning and sequencing of poplar genes involved in the Orn/Arg biosynthetic pathway showed that they have high homology with similar genes in other plants. The expression of the genes of Orn, Arg and PA biosynthetic pathway fell into two hierarchical clusters; expression of one did not change in response to high putrescine, while members of the other cluster showed a shift in expression pattern during the 7-day culture cycle. Gene expression of branch point enzymes (N-acetyl-Glu synthase, Orn aminotransferase, Arg decarboxylase, and spermidine synthase) in the sub-pathways, constituted a separate cluster from those involved in intermediary reactions of the pathway (N-acetyl-Glu kinase, N-acetyl-Glu-5-P reductase, N-acetyl-Orn aminotransferase, N (2)-acetylOrn:N-acetyl-Glu acetyltransferase, N (2)-acetyl-Orn deacetylase, Orn transcarbamylase, argininosuccinate synthase, carbamoylphosphate synthetase, argininosuccinate lyase, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, spermine synthase). We postulate that expression of all genes of the Glu-Orn-Arg pathway is constitutively coordinated and is not influenced by the increase in flux rate through this pathway in response to increased utilization of Orn by mODC; thus the pathway involves mostly biochemical regulation rather than changes in gene expression. We further suggest that Orn itself plays a major role in the

  11. Functional characterization of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase, kaurene synthase and kaurene oxidase in the Salvia miltiorrhiza gibberellin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping; Tong, Yuru; Cheng, Qiqing; Hu, Yating; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Jian; Teng, Zhongqiu; Gao, Wei; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is highly valued in traditional Chinese medicine for its roots and rhizomes. Its bioactive diterpenoid tanshinones have been reported to have many pharmaceutical activities, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Previous studies found four different diterpenoid biosynthetic pathways from the universal diterpenoid precursor (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) in S. miltiorrhiza. Here, we describe the functional characterization of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (SmCPSent), kaurene synthase (SmKS) and kaurene oxidase (SmKO) in the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathway. SmCPSent catalyzes the cyclization of GGPP to ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP), which is converted to ent-kaurene by SmKS. Then, SmKO catalyzes the three-step oxidation of ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid. Our results show that the fused enzyme SmKS-SmCPSent increases ent-kaurene production by several fold compared with separate expression of SmCPSent and SmKS in yeast strains. In this study, we clarify the GA biosynthetic pathway from GGPP to ent-kaurenoic acid and provide a foundation for further characterization of the subsequent enzymes involved in this pathway. These insights may allow for better growth and the improved accumulation of bioactive tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza through the regulation of the expression of these genes during developmental processes. PMID:26971881

  12. New Insight into the Ochratoxin A Biosynthetic Pathway through Deletion of a Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Gene in Aspergillus carbonarius

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, A.; Bruno, K. S.; Solfrizzo, M.; Perrone, G.; Mule, G.; Visconti, A.; Baker, S. E.

    2012-09-14

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, is composed of a dihydroisocoumarin ring linked to phenylalanine and its biosynthetic pathway has not yet been completely elucidated. Most of the knowledge regarding the genetic and enzymatic aspects of OTA biosynthesis has been obtained in Penicillium species. In Aspergillus species only pks genes involved in the initial steps of the pathway have been partially characterized. In our study, the inactivation of a gene encoding a nonribosomal peptide synthetase in OTA producing A. carbonarius ITEM 5010 has removed the ability of the fungus to produce OTA. This is the first report on the involvement of an nrps gene product in OTA biosynthetic pathway in Aspergillus species. The absence of OTA and ochratoxin α-the isocoumaric derivative of OTA, and the concomitant increase of ochratoxin β- the dechloro analog of ochratoxin α- were observed in the liquid culture of transformed strain. The data provide the first evidence that the enzymatic step adding phenylalanine to polyketide dihydroisocoumarin precedes the chlorination step to form OTA in A. carbonarius, and that ochratoxin α is a product of hydrolysis of OTA, giving an interesting new insight in the biosynthetic pathway of the toxin.

  13. Functional characterization of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase, kaurene synthase and kaurene oxidase in the Salvia miltiorrhiza gibberellin biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ping; Tong, Yuru; Cheng, Qiqing; Hu, Yating; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Jian; Teng, Zhongqiu; Gao, Wei; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is highly valued in traditional Chinese medicine for its roots and rhizomes. Its bioactive diterpenoid tanshinones have been reported to have many pharmaceutical activities, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Previous studies found four different diterpenoid biosynthetic pathways from the universal diterpenoid precursor (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) in S. miltiorrhiza. Here, we describe the functional characterization of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (SmCPSent), kaurene synthase (SmKS) and kaurene oxidase (SmKO) in the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathway. SmCPSent catalyzes the cyclization of GGPP to ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP), which is converted to ent-kaurene by SmKS. Then, SmKO catalyzes the three-step oxidation of ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid. Our results show that the fused enzyme SmKS-SmCPSent increases ent-kaurene production by several fold compared with separate expression of SmCPSent and SmKS in yeast strains. In this study, we clarify the GA biosynthetic pathway from GGPP to ent-kaurenoic acid and provide a foundation for further characterization of the subsequent enzymes involved in this pathway. These insights may allow for better growth and the improved accumulation of bioactive tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza through the regulation of the expression of these genes during developmental processes. PMID:26971881

  14. Spliced X-box binding protein 1 couples the unfolded protein response to hexosamine biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao V; Deng, Yingfeng; Gao, Ningguo; Pedrozo, Zully; Li, Dan L; Morales, Cyndi R; Criollo, Alfredo; Luo, Xiang; Tan, Wei; Jiang, Nan; Lehrman, Mark A; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Lavandero, Sergio; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Ferdous, Anwarul; Gillette, Thomas G; Scherer, Philipp E; Hill, Joseph A

    2014-03-13

    The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) generates uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) for glycan synthesis and O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) protein modifications. Despite the established role of the HBP in metabolism and multiple diseases, regulation of the HBP remains largely undefined. Here, we show that spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1s), the most conserved signal transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR), is a direct transcriptional activator of the HBP. We demonstrate that the UPR triggers HBP activation via Xbp1s-dependent transcription of genes coding for key, rate-limiting enzymes. We further establish that this previously unrecognized UPR-HBP axis is triggered in a variety of stress conditions. Finally, we demonstrate a physiologic role for the UPR-HBP axis by showing that acute stimulation of Xbp1s in heart by ischemia/reperfusion confers robust cardioprotection in part through induction of the HBP. Collectively, these studies reveal that Xbp1s couples the UPR to the HBP to protect cells under stress. PMID:24630721

  15. Spliced X-box Binding Protein 1 Couples the Unfolded Protein Response to Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao V.; Deng, Yingfeng; Gao, Ningguo; Pedrozo, Zully; Li, Dan L.; Morales, Cyndi R.; Criollo, Alfredo; Luo, Xiang; Tan, Wei; Jiang, Nan; Lehrman, Mark A.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Lavandero, Sergio; Mammen, Pradeep P.A.; Ferdous, Anwarul; Gillette, Thomas G.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) generates UDP-GlcNAc (uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine) for glycan synthesis and O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) protein modifications. Despite the established role of the HBP in metabolism and multiple diseases, regulation of the HBP remains largely undefined. Here, we show that spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1s), the most conserved signal transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR), is a direct transcriptional activator of the HBP. We demonstrate that the UPR triggers HBP activation via Xbp1s-dependent transcription of genes coding for key, rate-limiting enzymes. We further establish that this previously unrecognized UPR-HBP axis is triggered in a variety of stress conditions. Finally, we demonstrate a physiologic role for the UPR-HBP axis, by showing that acute stimulation of Xbp1s in heart by ischemia/reperfusion confers robust cardioprotection in part through induction of the HBP. Collectively, these studies reveal that Xbp1s couples the UPR to the HBP to protect cells under stress. PMID:24630721

  16. Biosynthetic investigation of phomopsins reveals a widespread pathway for ribosomal natural products in Ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wei; Liu, Wan-Qiu; Jia, Youli; Li, Yongzhen; van der Donk, Wilfred A; Zhang, Qi

    2016-03-29

    Production of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) has rarely been reported in fungi, even though organisms of this kingdom have a long history as a prolific source of natural products. Here we report an investigation of the phomopsins, antimitotic mycotoxins. We show that phomopsin is a fungal RiPP and demonstrate the widespread presence of a pathway for the biosynthesis of a family of fungal cyclic RiPPs, which we term dikaritins. We characterize PhomM as an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent α-N-methyltransferase that converts phomopsin A to anN,N-dimethylated congener (phomopsin E), and show that the methyltransferases involved in dikaritin biosynthesis have evolved differently and likely have broad substrate specificities. Genome mining studies identified eight previously unknown dikaritins in different strains, highlighting the untapped capacity of RiPP biosynthesis in fungi and setting the stage for investigating the biological activities and unknown biosynthetic transformations of this family of fungal natural products. PMID:26979951

  17. Purification of a 40-kilodalton methyltransferase active in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, N P; Dischinger, H C; Bhatnagar, D; Cleveland, T E; Ullah, A H

    1993-01-01

    The penultimate step in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus involves conversion of sterigmatocystin to O-methylsterigmatocystin. An S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase that catalyzes this reaction was purified to homogeneity (> 90%) from 78-h-old mycelia of A. parasiticus SRRC 163. Purification of this soluble enzyme was carried out by five soft-gel chromatographic steps: cell debris remover treatment, QMA ACELL chromatography, hydroxylapatite-Ultrogel chromatography, DEAE-Spherodex chromatography, and Octyl Avidgel chromatography, followed by MA7Q high-performance liquid chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the protein peak from this step on silver staining identified a single band of approximately 40 kDa. This purified protein was distinct from the dimeric 168-kDa methyltransferase purified from the same fungal strain under identical growth conditions (D. Bhatnagar, A. H. J. Ullah, and T. E. Cleveland, Prep. Biochem. 18:321-349, 1988). The chromatographic behavior and N-terminal sequence of the 40-kDa enzyme were also distinct from those of the 168-kDa methyltransferase. The molar extinction coefficient of the 40-kDa enzyme at 278 nm was estimated to be 4.7 x 10(4) M-1 cm-1 in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5). Images PMID:8434913

  18. Elucidation of the complete ferrichrome A biosynthetic pathway in Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Winterberg, Britta; Uhlmann, Stefanie; Linne, Uwe; Lessing, Franziska; Marahiel, Mohamed A; Eichhorn, Heiko; Kahmann, Regine; Schirawski, Jan

    2010-03-01

    Iron is an important element for many essential processes in living organisms. To acquire iron, the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis synthesizes the iron-chelating siderophores ferrichrome and ferrichrome A. The chemical structures of these siderophores have been elucidated long time ago but so far only two enzymes involved in their biosynthesis have been described. Sid1, an ornithine monoxygenase, is needed for the biosynthesis of both siderophores, and Sid2, a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), is involved in ferrichrome generation. In this work we identified four novel enzymes, Fer3, Fer4, Fer5 and Hcs1, involved in ferrichrome A biosynthesis in U. maydis. By HPLC-MS analysis of siderophore accumulation in culture supernatants of deletion strains, we show that Fer3, an NRPS, Fer4, an enoyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-hydratase, and Fer5, an acylase, are required for ferrichrome A production. We demonstrate by conditional expression of the hydroxymethyl glutaryl (HMG)-CoA synthase Hcs1 in U. maydis that HMG-CoA is an essential precursor for ferrichrome A. In addition, we heterologously expressed and purified Hcs1, Fer4 and Fer5, and demonstrated the enzymatic activities by in vitro experiments. Thus, we describe the first complete fungal siderophore biosynthetic pathway by functionally characterizing four novel genes responsible for ferrichrome A biosynthesis in U. maydis. PMID:20070524

  19. Molecular and Biochemical Analysis of Chalcone Synthase from Freesia hybrid in Flavonoid Biosynthetic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Meng, Xiangyu; Liang, Lingjie; Jiang, Wangshu; Huang, Yafei; He, Jing; Hu, Haiyan; Almqvist, Jonas; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzes the first committed step in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, the cDNA (FhCHS1) encoding CHS from Freesia hybrida was successfully isolated and analyzed. Multiple sequence alignments showed that both the conserved CHS active site residues and CHS signature sequence were found in the deduced amino acid sequence of FhCHS1. Meanwhile, crystallographic analysis revealed that protein structure of FhCHS1 is highly similar to that of alfalfa CHS2, and the biochemical analysis results indicated that it has an enzymatic role in naringenin biosynthesis. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect the transcript levels of FhCHS1 in flowers and different tissues, and patterns of FhCHS1 expression in flowers showed significant correlation to the accumulation patterns of anthocyanin during flower development. To further characterize the functionality of FhCHS1, its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana tt4 mutants and Petunia hybrida was performed. The results showed that overexpression of FhCHS1 in tt4 mutants fully restored the pigmentation phenotype of the seed coats, cotyledons and hypocotyls, while transgenic petunia expressing FhCHS1 showed flower color alteration from white to pink. In summary, these results suggest that FhCHS1 plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of flavonoid in Freesia hybrida and may be used to modify the components of flavonoids in other plants. PMID:25742495

  20. Discovery of cahuitamycins as biofilm inhibitors derived from a convergent biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Ryeol; Tripathi, Ashootosh; Wu, Jianfeng; Schultz, Pamela J.; Yim, Isaiah; McQuade, Thomas J.; Yu, Fengan; Arevang, Carl-Johan; Mensah, Abraham Y.; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Xi, Chuanwu; Sherman, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic microorganisms often have the ability to attach to a surface, building a complex matrix where they colonize to form a biofilm. This cellular superstructure can display increased resistance to antibiotics and cause serious, persistent health problems in humans. Here we describe a high-throughput in vitro screen to identify inhibitors of Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms using a library of natural product extracts derived from marine microbes. Analysis of extracts derived from Streptomyces gandocaensis results in the discovery of three peptidic metabolites (cahuitamycins A–C), with cahuitamycin C being the most effective inhibitor (IC50=14.5 μM). Biosynthesis of cahuitamycin C proceeds via a convergent biosynthetic pathway, with one of the steps apparently being catalysed by an unlinked gene encoding a 6-methylsalicylate synthase. Efforts to assess starter unit diversification through selective mutasynthesis lead to production of unnatural analogues cahuitamycins D and E of increased potency (IC50=8.4 and 10.5 μM). PMID:26880271

  1. The hedgehog Pathway Gene shifted Functions together with the hmgcr-Dependent Isoprenoid Biosynthetic Pathway to Orchestrate Germ Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Girish; Zhou, Keren; Wan, Joy Y.; Friedrich, Jana; Jourjine, Nicholas; Smith, Daniel; Schedl, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila embryonic gonad is assembled from two distinct cell types, the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs) and the Somatic Gonadal Precursor cells (SGPs). The PGCs form at the posterior of blastoderm stage embryos and are subsequently carried inside the embryo during gastrulation. To reach the SGPs, the PGCs must traverse the midgut wall and then migrate through the mesoderm. A combination of local repulsive cues and attractive signals emanating from the SGPs guide migration. We have investigated the role of the hedgehog (hh) pathway gene shifted (shf) in directing PGC migration. shf encodes a secreted protein that facilitates the long distance transmission of Hh through the proteoglycan matrix after it is released from basolateral membranes of Hh expressing cells in the wing imaginal disc. shf is expressed in the gonadal mesoderm, and loss- and gain-of-function experiments demonstrate that it is required for PGC migration. Previous studies have established that the hmgcr-dependent isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway plays a pivotal role in generating the PGC attractant both by the SGPs and by other tissues when hmgcr is ectopically expressed. We show that production of this PGC attractant depends upon shf as well as a second hh pathway gene gγ1. Further linking the PGC attractant to Hh, we present evidence indicating that ectopic expression of hmgcr in the nervous system promotes the release/transmission of the Hh ligand from these cells into and through the underlying mesodermal cell layer, where Hh can contact migrating PGCs. Finally, potentiation of Hh by hmgcr appears to depend upon cholesterol modification. PMID:24068944

  2. Carotenoids Play a Positive Role in the Degradation of Heterocycles by Sphingobium yanoikuyae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaorui; Gai, Zhonghui; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Microbial oxidative degradation is a potential way of removing pollutants such as heterocycles from the environment. During this process, reactive oxygen species or other oxidants are inevitably produced, and may cause damage to DNA, proteins, and membranes, thereby decreasing the degradation rate. Carotenoids can serve as membrane-integrated antioxidants, protecting cells from oxidative stress. Findings Several genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway were cloned and characterized from a carbazole-degrading bacterium Sphingobium yanoikuyae XLDN2-5. In addition, a yellow-pigmented carotenoid synthesized by strain XLDN2-5 was identified as zeaxanthin that was synthesized from β-carotene through β-cryptoxanthin. The amounts of zeaxanthin and hydrogen peroxide produced were significantly and simultaneously enhanced during the biodegradation of heterocycles (carbazole < carbazole + benzothiophene < carbazole + dibenzothiophene). These higher production levels were consistent with the transcriptional increase of the gene encoding phytoene desaturase, one of the key enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis. Conclusions/Significance Sphingobium yanoikuyae XLDN2-5 can enhance the synthesis of zeaxanthin, one of the carotenoids, which may modulate membrane fluidity and defense against intracellular oxidative stress. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the positive role of carotenoids in the biodegradation of heterocycles, while elucidating the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in the Sphingobium genus. PMID:22745775

  3. The Or gene enhances carotenoid accumulation and stability during post-harvest storage of potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yang, Yong; Xu, Qiang; Owsiany, Katherine; Welsch, Ralf; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Lu, Shan; Van Eck, Joyce; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Failla, Mark; Thannhauser, Theodore W

    2012-03-01

    Provitamin A carotenoids in staple crops are not very stable during storage and their loss compromises nutritional quality. To elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation and stability, we investigated transgenic potato tubers that expressed the cauliflower Orange (Or) gene. We found that the Or transgene not only promoted retention of β-carotene level, but also continuously stimulated its accumulation during 5 months of cold storage. In contrast, no increased levels of carotenoids were observed in the tubers of vector-only controls or a yellow-flesh variety during the same period of storage. The increased carotenoid accumulation was found to be associated with the formation of lipoprotein-carotenoid sequestering structures, as well as with the enhanced abundance of phytoene synthase, a key enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, the provitamin A carotenoids stored were shown to be stable during simulated digestion and accessible for uptake by human intestinal absorptive cells. Proteomic analysis identified three major functional groups of proteins (i.e. heat shock proteins, glutathione-S-transferases, and carbohydrate metabolic proteins) that are potentially important in the Or-regulated carotenoid accumulation. Our results show that regulation of carotenoid sequestration capacity is an important mechanism by which carotenoid stability is regulated. Our findings suggest that induction of a proper sink structure formation in staple crops may provide the crops with a unique ability to promote and/or stabilize provitamin A accumulation during plant growth and post-harvest storage. PMID:22155949

  4. Enhancement of artemisinin content in tetraploid Artemisia annua plants by modulating the expression of genes in artemisinin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiuyan; Zhou, Yin; Zhang, Jianjun; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Fangyuan; Shen, Qian; Wu, Shaoyan; Chen, Yunfei; Wang, Tao; Tang, Kexuan

    2011-01-01

    Tetraploid Artemisia annua plants were successfully inducted by using colchicine, and their ploidy was confirmed by flow cytometry. Higher stomatal length but lower frequency in tetraploids were revealed and could be considered as indicators of polyploidy. The average level of artemisinin in tetraploids was increased from 39% to 56% than that of the diploids during vegetation period, as detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector. Gene expressions of 10 key enzymes related to artemisinin biosynthetic pathway in different ploidy level were analyzed by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction and significant upregulation of FPS, HMGR, and artemisinin metabolite-specific Aldh1 genes were revealed in tetraploids. Slight increased expression of ADS was also detected. Our results suggest that higher artemisinin content in tetraploid A. annua may result from the upregulated expression of some key enzyme genes related to artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. PMID:21446959

  5. A R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor from Epimedium sagittatum Regulates the Flavonoid Biosynthetic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Haiyan; Luo, Ming; Zeng, Shaohua; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling; Wang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Herba epimedii (Epimedium), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used as a kidney tonic and antirheumatic medicine for thousands of years. The bioactive components in herba epimedii are mainly prenylated flavonol glycosides, end-products of the flavonoid pathway. Epimedium species are also used as garden plants due to the colorful flowers and leaves. Many R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) have been identified to regulate the flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthetic pathways. However, little is known about the R2R3-MYB TFs involved in regulation of the flavonoid pathway in Epimedium. Here, we reported the isolation and functional characterization of the first R2R3-MYB TF (EsMYBA1) from Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. Et Zucc.) Maxim. Conserved domains and phylogenetic analysis showed that EsMYBA1 belonged to the subgroup 6 clade (anthocyanin-related MYB clade) of R2R3-MYB family, which includes Arabidopsis AtPAP1, apple MdMYB10 and legume MtLAP1. EsMYBA1 was preferentially expressed in leaves, especially in red leaves that contain higher content of anthocyanin. Alternative splicing of EsMYBA1 resulted in three transcripts and two of them encoded a MYB-related protein. Yeast two-hybrid and transient luciferase expression assay showed that EsMYBA1 can interact with several bHLH regulators of the flavonoid pathway and activate the promoters of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). In both transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis, overexpression of EsMYBA1 induced strong anthocyanin accumulation in reproductive and/or vegetative tissues via up-regulation of the main flavonoid-related genes. Furthermore, transient expression of EsMYBA1 in E. sagittatum leaves by Agrobacterium infiltration also induced anthocyanin accumulation in the wounded area. This first functional characterization of R2R3-MYB TFs in Epimedium species will promote further studies of the flavonoid biosynthesis and regulation in medicinal plants. PMID:23936468

  6. Enhancement of carotenoid biosynthesis in transplastomic tomatoes by induced lycopene-to-provitamin A conversion.

    PubMed

    Apel, Wiebke; Bock, Ralph

    2009-09-01

    Carotenoids are essential pigments of the photosynthetic apparatus and an indispensable component of the human diet. In addition to being potent antioxidants, they also provide the vitamin A precursor beta-carotene. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits, carotenoids accumulate in specialized plastids, the chromoplasts. How the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated and what limits total carotenoid accumulation in fruit chromoplasts is not well understood. Here, we have introduced the lycopene beta-cyclase genes from the eubacterium Erwinia herbicola and the higher plant daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) into the tomato plastid genome. While expression of the bacterial enzyme did not strongly alter carotenoid composition, expression of the plant enzyme efficiently converted lycopene, the major storage carotenoid of the tomato fruit, into provitamin A (beta-carotene). In green leaves of the transplastomic tomato plants, more lycopene was channeled into the beta-branch of carotenoid biosynthesis, resulting in increased accumulation of xanthophyll cycle pigments and correspondingly reduced accumulation of the alpha-branch xanthophyll lutein. In fruits, most of the lycopene was converted into beta-carotene with provitamin A levels reaching 1 mg per g dry weight. Unexpectedly, transplastomic tomatoes also showed a >50% increase in total carotenoid accumulation, indicating that lycopene beta-cyclase expression enhanced the flux through the pathway in chromoplasts. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis and demonstrate the potential of plastids genome engineering for the nutritional enhancement of food crops. PMID:19587100

  7. Polycistronic expression of a β-carotene biosynthetic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae coupled to β-ionone production.

    PubMed

    Beekwilder, Jules; van Rossum, Harmen M; Koopman, Frank; Sonntag, Frank; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens; Hall, Robert D; Bosch, Dirk; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2014-12-20

    The flavour and fragrance compound β-ionone, which naturally occurs in raspberry and many other fruits and flowers, is currently produced by synthetic chemistry. This study describes a synthetic biology approach for β-ionone production from glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is partially based on polycistronic expression. Experiments with model proteins showed that the T2A sequence of the Thosea asigna virus mediated efficient production of individual proteins from a single transcript in S. cerevisiae. Subsequently, three β-carotene biosynthesis genes from the carotenoid-producing ascomycete Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (crtI, crtE and crtYB) were expressed in S. cerevisiae from a single polycistronic construct. In this construct, the individual crt proteins were separated by T2A sequences. Production of the individual proteins from the polycistronic construct was confirmed by Western blot analysis and by measuring the production of β-carotene. To enable β-ionone production, a carotenoid-cleavage dioxygenase from raspberry (RiCCD1) was co-expressed in the β-carotene producing strain. In glucose-grown cultures with a second phase of dodecane, β-ionone and geranylacetone accumulated in the organic phase. Thus, by introducing a polycistronic construct encoding a fungal carotenoid pathway and an expression cassette encoding a plant dioxygenase, a novel microbial production system has been established for a fruit flavour compound. PMID:24486029

  8. The biosynthetic pathway for a thousand-year-old natural food colorant and citrinin in Penicillium marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lam, Ching-Wan; Tam, Emily W. T.; Lee, Kim-Chung; Yung, Karrie K. Y.; Leung, Chris K. F.; Sze, Kong-Hung; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-01-01

    Monascorubrin and its derivatives are polyketides used as natural colorants for a wide range of food for more than one thousand years. Since the biosynthetic pathway for this ancient chemical compound is unknown and genome sequence unavailable for any Monascus species, monascorubrin production has relied on extraction from fungal cultures of Monascus species. In vitro synthesis and genetic manipulation are not possible. Here we report the polyketide gene cluster and pathway for monascorubrin biosynthesis in Penicillium marneffei, a diffusible red pigment-producing, thermal dimorphic fungus, taking advantage of available genome sequence and faster growth rate than Monascus species. We also documented that the red pigment of P. marneffei is a mixture of more than 16 chemical compounds, which are amino acid conjugates of monascorubrin and rubropunctatin, and showed that this polyketide gene cluster and pathway are also responsible for biosynthesis of ankaflavin and citrinin, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic activity in mammals. The present study on elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway of monascorubrin is a proof-of-the-concept study that serves as a cornerstone for future studies on monascorubrin biosynthesis pathway dissection in Monascus species. PMID:25335861

  9. The biosynthetic pathway for a thousand-year-old natural food colorant and citrinin in Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lam, Ching-Wan; Tam, Emily W T; Lee, Kim-Chung; Yung, Karrie K Y; Leung, Chris K F; Sze, Kong-Hung; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-01-01

    Monascorubrin and its derivatives are polyketides used as natural colorants for a wide range of food for more than one thousand years. Since the biosynthetic pathway for this ancient chemical compound is unknown and genome sequence unavailable for any Monascus species, monascorubrin production has relied on extraction from fungal cultures of Monascus species. In vitro synthesis and genetic manipulation are not possible. Here we report the polyketide gene cluster and pathway for monascorubrin biosynthesis in Penicillium marneffei, a diffusible red pigment-producing, thermal dimorphic fungus, taking advantage of available genome sequence and faster growth rate than Monascus species. We also documented that the red pigment of P. marneffei is a mixture of more than 16 chemical compounds, which are amino acid conjugates of monascorubrin and rubropunctatin, and showed that this polyketide gene cluster and pathway are also responsible for biosynthesis of ankaflavin and citrinin, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic activity in mammals. The present study on elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway of monascorubrin is a proof-of-the-concept study that serves as a cornerstone for future studies on monascorubrin biosynthesis pathway dissection in Monascus species. PMID:25335861

  10. The biosynthetic pathway of crucifer phytoalexins and phytoanticipins: de novo incorporation of deuterated tryptophans and quasi-natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Okinyo-Owiti, Denis P; Thoms, Ken; Adio, Adewale M

    2009-06-01

    Although several biosynthetic intermediates in pathways to cruciferous phytoalexins and phytoanticipins are common, questions regarding the introduction of substituents at N-1 of the indole moiety remain unanswered. Toward this end, we investigated the potential incorporations of several perdeuterated d- and l-1'-methoxytryptophans, d- and l-tryptophans and other indol-3-yl derivatives into pertinent phytoalexins and phytoanticipins (indolyl glucosinolates) produced in rutabaga (Brassica napus L. ssp. rapifera) roots. In addition, we probed the potential transformations of quasi-natural compounds, these being analogues of biosynthetic intermediates that might lead to "quasi-natural" products (products similar to natural products but not produced under natural conditions). No detectable incorporations of deuterium labeled 1'-methoxytryptophans into phytoalexins or glucobrassicin were detected. l-tryptophan was incorporated in a higher percentage than d-tryptophan into both phytoalexins and phytoanticipins. However, in the case of the phytoalexin rapalexin A, both d- and l-tryptophan were incorporated to the same extent. Furthermore, the transformations of both 1'-methylindolyl-3'-acetaldoxime and 1'-methylindolyl-3'-acetothiohydroxamic acid (quasi-natural products) into 1'-methylglucobrassicin but not into phytoalexins suggested that post-aldoxime enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of indolyl glucosinolates are not substrate-specific. Hence, it would appear that the 1-methoxy substituent of the indole moiety is introduced downstream from tryptophan and that the post-aldoxime enzymes of the glucosinolate pathway are different from the enzymes of the phytoalexin pathway. A higher substrate specificity of some enzymes of the phytoalexin pathway might explain the relatively lower structural diversity among phytoalexins than among glucosinolates. PMID:19560792

  11. The diffusible factor synthase XanB2 is a bifunctional chorismatase that links the shikimate pathway to ubiquinone and xanthomonadins biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian; Wang, Jia-Yuan; Wu, Ji'en; Wang, Jianhe; Poplawsky, Alan; Lin, Shuangjun; Zhu, Bangshang; Chang, Changqing; Zhou, Tielin; Zhang, Lian-Hui; He, Ya-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The diffusible factor synthase XanB2, originally identified in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), is highly conserved across a wide range of bacterial species, but its substrate and catalytic mechanism have not yet been investigated. Here, we show that XanB2 is a unique bifunctional chorismatase that hydrolyses chorismate, the end-product of the shikimate pathway, to produce 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (3-HBA) and 4-HBA. 3-HBA and 4-HBA are respectively associated with the yellow pigment xanthomonadin biosynthesis and antioxidant activity in Xcc. We further demonstrate that XanB2 is a structurally novel enzyme with three putative domains. It catalyses 3-HBA and 4-HBA biosynthesis via a unique mechanism with the C-terminal YjgF-like domain conferring activity for 3-HBA biosynthesis and the N-terminal FGFG motif-containing domain responsible for 4-HBA biosynthesis. Furthermore, we show that Xcc produces coenzyme Q8 (CoQ8) via a new biosynthetic pathway independent of the key chorismate-pyruvate lyase UbiC. XanB2 is the alternative source of 4-HBA for CoQ8 biosynthesis. The similar CoQ8 biosynthetic pathway, xanthomonadin biosynthetic gene cluster and XanB2 homologues are well conserved in the bacterial species within Xanthomonas, Xylella, Xylophilus, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodanobacter, Frateuria, Herminiimonas and Variovorax, suggesting that XanB2 may be a conserved metabolic link between the shikimate pathway, ubiquinone and xanthomonadin biosynthetic pathways in diverse bacteria. PMID:23113660

  12. Identification of a dTDP-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway that oscillates with the molting cycle in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Likui; Shou, Qingyao; Butcher, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    L-Rhamnose is a common component of cell-wall polysaccharides, glycoproteins and some natural products in bacteria and plants, but is rare in fungi and animals. In the present study, we identify and characterize a biosynthetic pathway for dTDP-rhamnose in Caenorhabditis elegans that is highly conserved across nematode species. We show that RML-1 activates glucose 1-phosphate (Glc-1-P) in the presence of either dTTP or UTP to yield dTDP-glucose or UDP-glucose, respectively. RML-2 is a dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase, converting dTDP-glucose into dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose. Using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, we demonstrate that coincubation of dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose with RML-3 (3,5-epimerase) and RML-4 (4-keto-reductase) produces dTDP-rhamnose. RML-4 could only be expressed and purified in an active form through co-expression with a co-regulated protein, RML-5, which forms a complex with RML-4. Analysis of the sugar nucleotide pool in C. elegans established the presence of dTDP-rhamnose in vivo. Targeting the expression of the rhamnose biosynthetic genes by RNAi resulted in significant reductions in dTDP-rhamnose, but had no effect on the biosynthesis of a closely related sugar, ascarylose, found in the ascaroside pheromones. Therefore, the rhamnose and ascarylose biosynthetic pathways are distinct. We also show that transcriptional reporters for the rhamnose biosynthetic genes are expressed highly in the embryo, in the hypodermis during molting cycles and in the hypodermal seam cells specifically before the molt to the stress-resistant dauer larval stage. These expression patterns suggest that rhamnose biosynthesis may play an important role in hypodermal development or the production of the cuticle or surface coat during molting. PMID:27009306

  13. Identification of a dTDP-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway that oscillates with the molting cycle in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Feng, Likui; Shou, Qingyao; Butcher, Rebecca A

    2016-06-01

    L-Rhamnose is a common component of cell-wall polysaccharides, glycoproteins and some natural products in bacteria and plants, but is rare in fungi and animals. In the present study, we identify and characterize a biosynthetic pathway for dTDP-rhamnose in Caenorhabditis elegans that is highly conserved across nematode species. We show that RML-1 activates glucose 1-phosphate (Glc-1-P) in the presence of either dTTP or UTP to yield dTDP-glucose or UDP-glucose, respectively. RML-2 is a dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase, converting dTDP-glucose into dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose. Using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, we demonstrate that coincubation of dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose with RML-3 (3,5-epimerase) and RML-4 (4-keto-reductase) produces dTDP-rhamnose. RML-4 could only be expressed and purified in an active form through co-expression with a co-regulated protein, RML-5, which forms a complex with RML-4. Analysis of the sugar nucleotide pool in C. elegans established the presence of dTDP-rhamnose in vivo Targeting the expression of the rhamnose biosynthetic genes by RNAi resulted in significant reductions in dTDP-rhamnose, but had no effect on the biosynthesis of a closely related sugar, ascarylose, found in the ascaroside pheromones. Therefore, the rhamnose and ascarylose biosynthetic pathways are distinct. We also show that transcriptional reporters for the rhamnose biosynthetic genes are expressed highly in the embryo, in the hypodermis during molting cycles and in the hypodermal seam cells specifically before the molt to the stress-resistant dauer larval stage. These expression patterns suggest that rhamnose biosynthesis may play an important role in hypodermal development or the production of the cuticle or surface coat during molting. PMID:27009306

  14. Structure-Based Design of Inhibitors of the Crucial Cysteine Biosynthetic Pathway Enzyme O-Acetyl Serine Sulfhydrylase.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Mohit; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2016-01-01

    The cysteine biosynthetic pathway is of fundamental importance for the growth, survival, and pathogenicity of the many pathogens. This pathway is present in many species but is absent in mammals. The ability of pathogens to counteract the oxidative defences of a host is critical for the survival of these pathogens during their long latent phases, especially in anaerobic pathogens such as Entamoeba histolytica, Leishmania donovani, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Salmonella typhimurium. All of these organisms rely on the de novo cysteine biosynthetic pathway to assimilate sulphur and maintain a ready supply of cysteine. The de novo cysteine biosynthetic pathway, on account of its being important for the survival of pathogens and at the same time being absent in mammals, is an important drug target for diseases such as amoebiasis, trichomoniasis & tuberculosis. Cysteine biosynthesis is catalysed by two enzymes: serine acetyl transferase (SAT) followed by O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS). OASS is well studied, and with the availability of crystal structures of this enzyme in different conformations, it is a suitable template for structure-based inhibitor development. Moreover, OASS is highly conserved, both structurally and sequence-wise, among the above-mentioned organisms. There have been several reports of inhibitor screening and development against this enzyme from different organisms such as Salmonella typhimurium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Entamoeba histolytica. All of these inhibitors have been reported to display micromolar to nanomolar binding affinities for the open conformation of the enzyme. In this review, we highlight the structural similarities of this enzyme in different organisms and the attempts for inhibitor development so far. We also propose that the intermediate state of the enzyme may be the ideal target for the design of effective highaffinity inhibitors. PMID:26303427

  15. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    PubMed Central

    del Rocío Gómez-García, María; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  16. Biochemistry and molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis in chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, María del Rocío; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits' yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  17. Differential involvement of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathways in pathogenicity and epiphytic fitness of Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae.

    PubMed

    Manulis, S; Haviv-Chesner, A; Brandl, M T; Lindow, S E; Barash, I

    1998-07-01

    Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae (Ehg), which induces galls on Gypsophila paniculata, harbors two major pathways for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) synthesis, the indole-3-acetamide (IAM) and indole-3-pyruvate (IPyA) routes, as well as cytokinin biosynthetic genes. Mutants were generated in which the various biosynthetic routes were disrupted separately or jointly in order to assess the contribution of IAA of various origins and cytokinins to pathogenicity and epiphytic fitness. Inactivation of the IAM pathway or cytokinin biosynthesis caused the largest reduction in gall size. Inactivation of the IPyA pathway caused a minor, nonsignificant decrease in pathogenicity. No further reduction in gall size was observed by the simultaneous inactivation of both IAA pathways only or in combination with that of cytokinin production. However, inactivation of the IPyA pathway caused a 14-fold reduction in the population of Ehg on bean plants. Inactivation of the IAM pathway or cytokinin production did not affect epiphytic fitness. While the apparent transcriptional activity of iaaM-inaZ fusion increased slightly in cells of Ehg on bean and gypsophila leaves, compared with that in culture, very high levels of induction were observed in cells injected into gypsophila stems. In contrast, moderate levels of induction of ipdC-inaZ in Ehg were observed on leaves of these plants and in gypsophila stems, when compared with that in culture. These results suggest that the IAM pathway is involved primarily in gall formation and support the main contribution of the IpyA pathway to the epiphytic fitness of this bacterial species. PMID:9650296

  18. Metabolic engineering of the purine biosynthetic pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum results in increased intracellular pool sizes of IMP and hypoxanthine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Purine nucleotides exhibit various functions in cellular metabolism. Besides serving as building blocks for nucleic acid synthesis, they participate in signaling pathways and energy metabolism. Further, IMP and GMP represent industrially relevant biotechnological products used as flavor enhancing additives in food industry. Therefore, this work aimed towards the accumulation of IMP applying targeted genetic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Results Blocking of the degrading reactions towards AMP and GMP lead to a 45-fold increased intracellular IMP pool of 22 μmol gCDW-1. Deletion of the pgi gene encoding glucose 6-phosphate isomerase in combination with the deactivated AMP and GMP generating reactions, however, resulted in significantly decreased IMP pools (13 μmol gCDW-1). Targeted metabolite profiling of the purine biosynthetic pathway further revealed a metabolite shift towards the formation of the corresponding nucleobase hypoxanthine (102 μmol gCDW-1) derived from IMP degradation. Conclusions The purine biosynthetic pathway is strongly interconnected with various parts of the central metabolism and therefore tightly controlled. However, deleting degrading reactions from IMP to AMP and GMP significantly increased intracellular IMP levels. Due to the complexity of this pathway further degradation from IMP to the corresponding nucleobase drastically increased suggesting additional targets for future strain optimization. PMID:23092390

  19. Physiological and molecular responses of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway in a drought-resistant Mediterranean shrub, Cistus creticus exposed to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Falara, Vasiliki; Pateraki, Irene; López-Carbonell, Marta; Cela, Jana; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2009-01-30

    The goal of the present research was to obtain new insights into the mechanisms underlying drought stress resistance in plants. Specifically, we evaluated changes in the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in isoprenoid biosynthesis, together with the levels of the corresponding metabolites (chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols and abscisic acid), in a drought-resistant Mediterranean shrub, Cistus creticus grown under Mediterranean field conditions. Summer drought led to reductions in the relative leaf water content (RWC) by 25%, but did not alter the maximum efficiency of PSII, indicating the absence of damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. While the expression of genes encoding C. creticus chlorophyll a oxygenase/chlorophyll b synthase (CAO) and phytoene synthase (PSY) were not affected by water deficit, the genes encoding homogentisate phytyl-transferase (HPT) and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) were induced in water-stressed (WS) plants. Drought-induced changes in gene expression were observed at early stages of drought and were strongly correlated with levels of the corresponding metabolites, with simultaneous increases in abscisic acid and alpha-tocopherol levels of up to 4-fold and 62%, respectively. Furthermore, alpha-tocopherol levels were strongly positively correlated with abscisic acid contents, but not with the levels of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. We conclude that the abscisic acid and tocopherol biosynthetic pathway may be regulated at the transcript level in WS C. creticus plants, and that the genes encoding HPT and NCED may play a key role in the drought stress resistance of this Mediterranean shrub by modulating abscisic acid and tocopherol biosynthesis. PMID:18455260

  20. The second enzyme in pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic pathway is related to the heme-dependent dioxygenase superfamily†

    PubMed Central

    De Laurentis, Walter; Khim, Leang; Anderson, J.L. Ross; Adam, Ariane; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Phillips, Robert S.; Chapman, Stephen K.; van Pee, Karl-Heinz; Naismith, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin is a commonly used and clinically effective treatment for fungal infections and provides the structural basis for the more widely used fludioxinil. The pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic pathway consists of four chemical steps, the second of which is the rearrangement of 7-chloro-tryptophan by the enzyme PrnB, a reaction that is so far unprecedented in biochemistry. When expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens, PrnB is red in color due to the fact that it contains 1 mole of heme b per mole of protein. The crystal structure unexpectedly establishes PrnB as a member of the heme-dependent dioxygenase superfamily with significant structural but not sequence homology to the two-domain indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme (IDO). The heme-binding domain is also structurally similar to that of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Here we report the binary complex structures of PrnB with D- and L-tryptophan and D- and L-chloro-tryptophan. The structures identify a common hydrophobic pocket for the indole ring but exhibit unusual heme ligation and substrate binding when compared with that observed in the TDO crystal structures. Our solution studies support the heme ligation observed in the crystal structures. Purification of the hexahistidine-tagged PrnB yields homogeneous protein that only displays in vitro activity with 7-chloro-L-tryptophan after reactivation with crude extract from the host strain, suggesting that an as yet unknown cofactor is required for activity. Mutation of the proximal heme ligand results, not surprisingly, in inactive enzyme. Redox titrations show that PrnB displays a significantly different reduction potential to that of IDO or TDO, indicating possible differences in the PrnB catalytic cycle. This is confirmed by the absence of tryptophan dioxygenase activity in PrnB, although a stable oxyferrous adduct (which is the first intermediate in the TDO/IDO catalytic cycle) can be generated. We propose that PrnB shares a key catalytic step with TDO and IDO

  1. Quenching Capabilities of Long-Chain Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting-2 Complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides with an Engineered Carotenoid Synthesis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dilbeck, Preston L; Tang, Qun; Mothersole, David J; Martin, Elizabeth C; Hunter, C Neil; Bocian, David F; Holten, Dewey; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M

    2016-06-23

    Six light-harvesting-2 complexes (LH2) from genetically modified strains of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides were studied using static and ultrafast optical methods and resonance Raman spectroscopy. These strains were engineered to incorporate carotenoids for which the number of conjugated groups (N = NC═C + NC═O) varies from 9 to 15. The Rb. sphaeroides strains incorporate their native carotenoids spheroidene (N = 10) and spheroidenone (N = 11), as well as longer-chain analogues including spirilloxanthin (N = 13) and diketospirilloxantion (N = 15) normally found in Rhodospirillum rubrum. Measurements of the properties of the carotenoid first singlet excited state (S1) in antennas from the Rb. sphaeroides set show that carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) interactions are similar to those in LH2 complexes from various other bacterial species and thus are not significantly impacted by differences in polypeptide composition. Instead, variations in carotenoid-to-BChl a energy transfer are primarily regulated by the N-determined energy of the carotenoid S1 excited state, which for long-chain (N ≥ 13) carotenoids is not involved in energy transfer. Furthermore, the role of the long-chain carotenoids switches from a light-harvesting supporter (via energy transfer to BChl a) to a quencher of the BChl a S1 excited state B850*. This quenching is manifested as a substantial (∼2-fold) reduction of the B850* lifetime and the B850* fluorescence quantum yield for LH2 housing the longest carotenoids. PMID:27285777

  2. Quenching Capabilities of Long-Chain Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting-2 Complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides with an Engineered Carotenoid Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Six light-harvesting-2 complexes (LH2) from genetically modified strains of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides were studied using static and ultrafast optical methods and resonance Raman spectroscopy. These strains were engineered to incorporate carotenoids for which the number of conjugated groups (N = NC=C + NC=O) varies from 9 to 15. The Rb. sphaeroides strains incorporate their native carotenoids spheroidene (N = 10) and spheroidenone (N = 11), as well as longer-chain analogues including spirilloxanthin (N = 13) and diketospirilloxantion (N = 15) normally found in Rhodospirillum rubrum. Measurements of the properties of the carotenoid first singlet excited state (S1) in antennas from the Rb. sphaeroides set show that carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) interactions are similar to those in LH2 complexes from various other bacterial species and thus are not significantly impacted by differences in polypeptide composition. Instead, variations in carotenoid-to-BChl a energy transfer are primarily regulated by the N-determined energy of the carotenoid S1 excited state, which for long-chain (N ≥ 13) carotenoids is not involved in energy transfer. Furthermore, the role of the long-chain carotenoids switches from a light-harvesting supporter (via energy transfer to BChl a) to a quencher of the BChl a S1 excited state B850*. This quenching is manifested as a substantial (∼2-fold) reduction of the B850* lifetime and the B850* fluorescence quantum yield for LH2 housing the longest carotenoids. PMID:27285777

  3. Identification of alleles of carotenoid pathway genes important for zeaxanthin accumulation in potato tubers

    PubMed Central

    Uitdewilligen, Jan G. A. M. L.; Kloosterman, Bjorn A.; Hutten, Ronald C. B.; Visser, Richard G. F.; van Eck, Herman J.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the genetics and molecular biology of orange flesh colour in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). To this end the natural diversity in three genes of the carotenoid pathway was assessed by SNP analyses. Association analysis was performed between SNP haplotypes and flesh colour phenotypes in diploid and tetraploid potato genotypes. We observed that among eleven beta-carotene hydroxylase 2 (Chy2) alleles only one dominant allele has a major effect, changing white into yellow flesh colour. In contrast, none of the lycopene epsilon cyclase (Lcye) alleles seemed to have a large effect on flesh colour. Analysis of zeaxanthin epoxidase (Zep) alleles showed that all (diploid) genotypes with orange tuber flesh were homozygous for one specific Zep allele. This Zep allele showed a reduced level of expression. The complete genomic sequence of the recessive Zep allele, including the promoter, was determined, and compared with the sequence of other Zep alleles. The most striking difference was the presence of a non-LTR retrotransposon sequence in intron 1 of the recessive Zep allele, which was absent in all other Zep alleles investigated. We hypothesise that the presence of this large sequence in intron 1 caused the lower expression level, resulting in reduced Zep activity and accumulation of zeaxanthin. Only genotypes combining presence of the dominant Chy2 allele with homozygosity for the recessive Zep allele produced orange-fleshed tubers that accumulated large amounts of zeaxanthin. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11103-010-9647-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20490894

  4. Laccase‐catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols: from in vivo biosynthetic pathways to green synthetic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jong‐Rok; Baldrian, Petr; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Chang, Yoon‐Seok

    2012-01-01

    Summary Laccases are oxidases that contain several copper atoms, and catalyse single‐electron oxidations of phenolic compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The enzymes are particularly widespread in ligninolytic basidiomycetes, but also occur in certain prokaryotes, insects and plants. Depending on the species, laccases are involved in various biosynthetic processes contributing to carbon recycling in land ecosystems and the morphogenesis of biomatrices, wherein low‐molecular‐weight naturally occurring phenols serve as key enzyme substrates. Studies of these in vivo synthetic pathways have afforded new insights into fungal laccase applicability in green synthetic chemistry. Thus, we here review fungal laccase‐catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols that are particularly relevant to the synthesis of fine organic chemicals, and we discuss how the discovered synthetic strategies mimic laccase‐involved in vivo pathways, thus enhancing the green nature of such reactions. Laccase‐catalysed in vivo processes yield several types of biopolymers, including those of cuticles, lignin, polyflavonoids, humus and the melanin pigments, using natural mono‐ or poly‐phenols as building blocks. The in vivo synthetic pathways involve either phenoxyl radical‐mediated coupling or cross‐linking reactions, and can be adapted to the design of in vitro oxidative processes involving fungal laccases in organic synthesis; the laccase substrates and the synthetic mechanisms reflect in vivo processes. Notably, such in vitro synthetic pathways can also reproduce physicochemical properties (e.g. those of chromophores, and radical‐scavenging, hydration and antimicrobial activities) found in natural biomaterials. Careful study of laccase‐associated in vivo metabolic pathways has been rewarded by the discovery of novel green applications for fungal laccases. This review comprehensively summarizes the available data on laccase

  5. Laccase-catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols: from in vivo biosynthetic pathways to green synthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Baldrian, Petr; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-05-01

    Laccases are oxidases that contain several copper atoms, and catalyse single-electron oxidations of phenolic compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The enzymes are particularly widespread in ligninolytic basidiomycetes, but also occur in certain prokaryotes, insects and plants. Depending on the species, laccases are involved in various biosynthetic processes contributing to carbon recycling in land ecosystems and the morphogenesis of biomatrices, wherein low-molecular-weight naturally occurring phenols serve as key enzyme substrates. Studies of these in vivo synthetic pathways have afforded new insights into fungal laccase applicability in green synthetic chemistry. Thus, we here review fungal laccase-catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols that are particularly relevant to the synthesis of fine organic chemicals, and we discuss how the discovered synthetic strategies mimic laccase-involved in vivo pathways, thus enhancing the green nature of such reactions. Laccase-catalysed in vivo processes yield several types of biopolymers, including those of cuticles, lignin, polyflavonoids, humus and the melanin pigments, using natural mono- or poly-phenols as building blocks. The in vivo synthetic pathways involve either phenoxyl radical-mediated coupling or cross-linking reactions, and can be adapted to the design of in vitro oxidative processes involving fungal laccases in organic synthesis; the laccase substrates and the synthetic mechanisms reflect in vivo processes. Notably, such in vitro synthetic pathways can also reproduce physicochemical properties (e.g. those of chromophores, and radical-scavenging, hydration and antimicrobial activities) found in natural biomaterials. Careful study of laccase-associated in vivo metabolic pathways has been rewarded by the discovery of novel green applications for fungal laccases. This review comprehensively summarizes the available data on laccase-catalysed biosynthetic pathways and associated

  6. Localization of p24 putative cargo receptors in the early secretory pathway depends on the biosynthetic activity of the cell.

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, R P; Bouw, G; Janssen, K P; Rötter, J; van Herp, F; Martens, G J

    2001-01-01

    Members of the p24 family of putative cargo receptors (subdivided into p24-alpha, -beta, -gamma and -delta) are localized in the intermediate-and cis-Golgi compartments of the early secretory pathway, and are thought to play an important role in protein transport. In the present study, we wondered what effect increased biosynthetic cell activity with resulting high levels of protein transport would have on the subcellular localization of p24. We examined p24 localization in Xenopus intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells, which in black- and white-adapted animals are biosynthetically highly active and virtually inactive respectively. In addition, p24 localization was studied in Xenopus anterior pituitary cells whose activity is not changed during background adaptation. Using organelle fractionation, we found that in the inactive melanotropes and moderately active anterior pituitary cells of white-adapted animals, the p24-alpha, -beta, -gamma and -delta proteins are all located in the Golgi compartment. In the highly active melanotropes, but not in the anterior cells of black-adapted animals, the steady-state distribution of all four p24 members changed towards the intermediate compartment and subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), most probably the ER exit sites. In the active melanotropes, the major cargo protein pro-opiomelanocortin was mostly localized to ER subdomains and partially co-localized with the p24 proteins. Furthermore, in the active cells, in vitro blocking of protein biosynthesis by cycloheximide or dispersion of the Golgi complex by brefeldin A led to a redistribution of the p24 proteins, indicating their involvement in ER-to-Golgi protein transport and extensive cycling in the early secretory pathway. We conclude that the subcellular localization of p24 proteins is dynamic and depends on the biosynthetic activity of the cell. PMID:11716771

  7. Metabolic engineering Corynebacterium glutamicum for the L-lysine production by increasing the flux into L-lysine biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianzhong; Han, Mei; Zhang, Junlan; Guo, Yanfeng; Zhang, Weiguo

    2014-09-01

    The experiments presented here were based on the conclusions of our previous results. In order to avoid introduction of expression plasmid and to balance the NADH/NAD ratio, the NADH biosynthetic enzyme, i.e., NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), was replaced by NADP-dependent GADPH, which was used to biosynthesize NADPH rather than NADH. The results indicated that the NADH/NAD ratio significantly decreased, and glucose consumption and L-lysine production drastically improved. Moreover, increasing the flux through L-lysine biosynthetic pathway and disruption of ilvN and hom, which involve in the branched amino acid and L-methionine biosynthesis, further improved L-lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum. Compared to the original strain C. glutamicum Lys5, the L-lysine production and glucose conversion efficiency (α) were enhanced to 81.0 ± 6.59 mM and 36.45% by the resulting strain C. glutamicum Lys5-8 in shake flask. In addition, the by-products (i.e., L-threonine, L-methionine and L-valine) were significantly decreased as results of genetic modification in homoserine dehydrogenase (HSD) and acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS). In fed-batch fermentation, C. glutamicum Lys5-8 began to produce L-lysine at post-exponential growth phase and continuously increased over 36 h to a final titer of 896 ± 33.41 mM. The L-lysine productivity was 2.73 g l(-1) h(-1) and the α was 47.06% after 48 h. However, the attenuation of MurE was not beneficial to increase the L-lysine production because of decreasing the cell growth. Based on the above-mentioned results, we get the following conclusions: cofactor NADPH, precursor, the flux through L-lysine biosynthetic pathway and DCW are beneficial to improve L-lysine production in C. glutamicum. PMID:24879631

  8. Structure, function and regulation of the enzymes in the starch biosynthetic pathway.

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, Jim

    2013-11-30

    structure of ADP- Glucose pyrophosphorylase from potato in its inhibited conformation, and bound to both ATP and ADP-glucose. In addition, we have determined the first structure of glycogen synthase in its "closed", catalytically active conformation bound to ADP-glucose. We also determined the structure of glycogen synthase bound to malto-oligosaccharides, showing for the first time that an enzyme in the starch biosynthetic pathway recognizes glucans not just in its active site but on binding sites on the surface of the enzyme ten’s of Angstroms from the active site. In addition our structure of a glycogen branching enzyme bound to malto-oligosaccharides identified seven distinct binding sites distributed about the surface of the enzyme. We will now determine the function of these sites to get a molecular-level picture of exactly how these enzymes interact with their polymeric substrates and confer specificity leading to the complex structure of the starch granule. We will extend our studies to other isoforms of the enzymes, to understand how their structures give rise to their distinct function. Our goal is to understand what accounts for the various functional differences between SS and SBE isoforms at a molecular level.

  9. Two Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases Catalyze Early Hydroxylation Steps in the Potato Steroid Glycoalkaloid Biosynthetic Pathway1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nakayasu, Masaru; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    α-Solanine and α-chaconine, steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) found in potato (Solanum tuberosum), are among the best-known secondary metabolites in food crops. At low concentrations in potato tubers, SGAs are distasteful; however, at high concentrations, SGAs are harmful to humans and animals. Here, we show that POTATO GLYCOALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PGA1) and PGA2, two genes that encode cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP72A208 and CYP72A188), are involved in the SGA biosynthetic pathway, respectively. The knockdown plants of either PGA1 or PGA2 contained very little SGA, yet vegetative growth and tuber production were not affected. Analyzing metabolites that accumulated in the plants and produced by in vitro enzyme assays revealed that PGA1 and PGA2 catalyzed the 26- and 22-hydroxylation steps, respectively, in the SGA biosynthetic pathway. The PGA-knockdown plants had two unique phenotypic characteristics: The plants were sterile and tubers of these knockdown plants did not sprout during storage. Functional analyses of PGA1 and PGA2 have provided clues for controlling both potato glycoalkaloid biosynthesis and tuber sprouting, two traits that can significantly impact potato breeding and the industry. PMID:27307258

  10. Targeting of the polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway to the plastids of Arabidopsis thaliana results in high levels of polymer accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrath, C.; Poirier, Y.; Somerville, C. )

    1994-12-20

    In the bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus, three genes encode the enzymes necessary to catalyze the synthesis of poly[(R)-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) from acetyl-CoA. In order to target these enzymes into the plastids of higher plants, the genes were modified by addition of DNA fragments encoding a pea chloroplast transit peptide, a constitutive plant promoter, and a poly(A) addition sequence. Each of the modified bacterial genes was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and plants containing all three genes were obtained by sexual crosses. These plans accumulated PHB up to 14% of the dry weight as 0.2- to 0.7-[mu]m granules within plastids. In contrast to earlier experiments in which expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in the cytoplasm led to a deleterious effect on growth, expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in plastids had no obvious effect on the growth or fertility of the transgenic plants and resulted in a 100-fold increase in the amount of PHB in higher plants. The high level of PHB accumulation also suggests that the synthesis of plastid acetyl-CoA is regulated by a mechanism which responds to metabolic demand. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Contribution of taxane biosynthetic pathway gene expression to observed variability in paclitaxel accumulation in Taxus suspension cultures

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rohan A.; Kolewe, Martin E.; Normanly, Jennifer; Walker, Elsbeth L.; Roberts, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Variability in product accumulation is one of the major obstacles limiting the widespread commercialization of plant cell culture technology to supply natural product pharmaceuticals. Despite extensive process engineering efforts, which have led to increased yields, plant cells exhibit variability in productivity that is poorly understood. Elicitation of Taxus cultures with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induces paclitaxel accumulation, but to varying extents in different cultures. In this work, cultures with different aggregation profiles were established to create predictable differences in paclitaxel accumulation upon MeJA elicitation. Expression of known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes in MeJA-elicited cultures exhibiting both substantial (15-fold) and moderate (2-fold) differences in paclitaxel accumulation was analyzed using qRT-PCR. Each population exhibited the characteristic large increase in paclitaxel pathway gene expression following MeJA elicitation; however, differences in expression between populations were minor, and only observed for the cultures with the 15-fold variation in paclitaxel content. These data suggest that although upregulation of biosynthetic pathway gene expression contributes to observed increases in paclitaxel synthesis upon elicitation with MeJA, there are additional factors that need to be uncovered before paclitaxel productivity can be fully optimized. PMID:22095859

  12. Two separate gene clusters encode the biosynthetic pathway for the meroterpenoids, austinol and dehydroaustinol in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hsien-Chun; Entwistle, Ruth; Guo, Chun-Jun; Ahuja, Manmeet; Szewczyk, Edyta; Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Oakley, Berl R.; Wang, Clay C. C.

    2012-01-01

    Meroterpenoids are a class of fungal natural products that are produced from polyketide and terpenoid precursors. An understanding of meroterpenoid biosynthesis at the genetic level should facilitate engineering of second-generation molecules and increasing production of first-generation compounds. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has previously been found to produce two meroterpenoids, austinol and dehydroaustinol. Using targeted deletions that we created, we have determined that, surprisingly, two separate gene clusters are required for meroterpenoid biosynthesis. One is a cluster of four genes including a polyketide synthase gene, ausA. The second is a cluster of ten additional genes including a prenyltransferase gene, ausN, located on a separate chromosome. Chemical analysis of mutant extracts enabled us to isolate 3,5-dimethylorsellinic acid and ten additional meroterpenoids that are either intermediates or shunt products from the biosynthetic pathway. Six of them were identified as novel meroterpenoids in this study. Our data, in aggregate, allow us to propose a complete biosynthetic pathway for the A. nidulans meroterpenoids. PMID:22329759

  13. Towards a palaeosalinity proxy: hydrogen isotopic fractionation between source water and lipids produced via different biosynthetic pathways in haptophyte algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivall, David; M'Boule, Daniela; Heinzelmann, Sandra M.; Kasper, Sebastian; Sinke-Schoen, Daniëlle; Sininnghe-Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2014-05-01

    Palaeosalinity is one of the most important oceanographic parameters that cannot currently be quantified with reasonable accuracy from sedimentary records. Hydrogen isotopic fractionation between water and alkenones is dependent, amongst other factors, upon the salinity in which alkenone-producing haptophyte algae grow and is represented by the fractionation factor, α, increasing with salinity.1 As such, the hydrogen isotopic composition of alkenones is emerging as a palaeosalinity proxy. Understanding the mechanism behind the sensitivity of fractionation to salinity is important for the correct application of the proxy, however this mechanism is currently unknown. Here we present hydrogen isotopic compositions of lipids produced via different biosynthetic pathways from batch cultures of Emiliania huxleyi CCMP 1516 and Isochrysis galbana CCMP 1323 grown over a range of salinities and discuss the possible sources of the sensitivity of hydrogen isotope fractionation to salinity. α for C37 alkenones (produced via an unknown biosynthetic pathway but assumed to be acetogenic; e.g.2) and that for C14:0, C16:0, and C18:1 fatty acids (acetogenic) from exponential growth phase I. galbana show a similar sensitivity to salinity, increasing at 0.0013-0.0019 per salinity unit (S-1). Meanwhile, in exponential growth phase E. huxleyi, α for C37 alkenones and α for brassicasterol (mevalonate pathway) increase at 0.0015-0.0022 S-1, but α for phytol (methylerythritol pathway) shows no significant relationship with salinity. These results suggest that fractionation is sensitive to salinity for lipids formed both in the chloroplast and cytosol. They also suggest that the sensitivity may either originate in glyceralde-3-phosphate or pyruvate but is then lost through hydrogen exchange with cell water during sugar rearrangements in the methylerythritol pathway or sensitivity originates with the production and consumption of acetate. References Schouten, S., Ossebaar, J., Schreiber

  14. Confirmation of a Protein-Protein Interaction in the Pantothenate Biosynthetic Pathway by Using Sortase-Mediated Labelling.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Philip M; Balmforth, Matthew R; Ness, Samuel W; Williamson, Daniel J; Rugen, Michael D; Turnbull, W Bruce; Webb, Michael E

    2016-04-15

    High-throughput studies have been widely used to identify protein-protein interactions; however, few of these candidate interactions have been confirmed in vitro. We have used a combination of isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence anisotropy to screen candidate interactions within the pantothenate biosynthetic pathway. In particular, we observed no interaction between the next enzyme in the pathway, pantothenate synthetase (PS), and aspartate decarboxylase, but did observe an interaction between PS and the putative Nudix hydrolase, YfcD. Confirmation of the interaction by fluorescence anisotropy was dependent upon labelling an adventitiously formed glycine on the protein N-terminal affinity purification tag by using Sortase. Subsequent formation of the protein-protein complex led to apparent restriction of the dynamics of this tag, thus suggesting that this approach could be generally applied to a subset of other protein-protein interaction complexes. PMID:26818742

  15. Enhancing a Pathway-Genome Database (PGDB) to Capture Subcellular Localization of Metabolites and Enzymes: The Nucleotide-Sugar Biosynthetic Pathways of Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, A.; Karpinets, T. V.; Chang, C. H.; Bar-Peled, M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how cellular metabolism works and is regulated requires that the underlying biochemical pathways be adequately represented and integrated with large metabolomic data sets to establish a robust network model. Genetically engineering energy crops to be less recalcitrant to saccharification requires detailed knowledge of plant polysaccharide structures and a thorough understanding of the metabolic pathways involved in forming and regulating cell-wall synthesis. Nucleotide-sugars are building blocks for synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. The biosynthesis of nucleotide-sugars is catalyzed by a multitude of enzymes that reside in different subcellular organelles, and precise representation of these pathways requires accurate capture of this biological compartmentalization. The lack of simple localization cues in genomic sequence data and annotations however leads to missing compartmentalization information for eukaryotes in automatically generated databases, such as the Pathway-Genome Databases (PGDBs) of the SRI Pathway Tools software that drives much biochemical knowledge representation on the internet. In this report, we provide an informal mechanism using the existing Pathway Tools framework to integrate protein and metabolite sub-cellular localization data with the existing representation of the nucleotide-sugar metabolic pathways in a prototype PGDB for Populus trichocarpa. The enhanced pathway representations have been successfully used to map SNP abundance data to individual nucleotide-sugar biosynthetic genes in the PGDB. The manually curated pathway representations are more conducive to the construction of a computational platform that will allow the simulation of natural and engineered nucleotide-sugar precursor fluxes into specific recalcitrant polysaccharide(s).

  16. Formation of norisoprenoid flavor compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots: characterization of a cyclic-specific carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments that upon oxidative cleavage lead to the production of norisoprenoids that have profound effect on flavor and aromas of agricultural produce. The biosynthetic pathway to norisoprenoids in carrots (Daucus carota L.) is still widely unknown. We found that geranial i...

  17. Ansalactams B-D Illustrate Further Biosynthetic Plasticity within the Ansamycin Pathway.

    PubMed

    Le, Tu Cam; Yang, Inho; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Nam, Sang-Jip; Fenical, William

    2016-05-01

    Further chemical investigation of a marine-derived bacterium of the genus Streptomyces has led to the isolation of ansalactams B-D (1-3) along with the previously reported metabolite ansalactam A (4). Ansalactams B-D are significantly modified ansamycins, representing three new carbon skeletons and further illustrating the biosynthetic plasticity of the ansalactam class. Unlike ansalactam A, ansalactams B and D are penta- and hexacyclic metabolites, while ansalactam C illustrates an open polyene chain with a terminal carboxylic acid. PMID:27120128

  18. Violacein and related tryptophan metabolites produced by Chromobacterium violaceum: biosynthetic mechanism and pathway for construction of violacein core.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tsutomu

    2011-09-01

    Violacein is a natural violet pigment produced by several gram-negative bacteria, including Chromobacterium violaceum, Janthinobacterium lividum, and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata D2, among others. This pigment has potential medical applications as antibacterial, anti-trypanocidal, anti-ulcerogenic, and anticancer drugs. The structure of violacein consists of three units: a 5-hydroxyindole, an oxindole, and a 2-pyrrolidone. The biosynthetic origins of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon in the pyrrolidone nucleus were established by feeding experiments using various stable isotopically labeled tryptophans (Trps). Pro-S hydrogen of CH(2) at the 3-position of Trp is retained during biosynthesis. The nitrogen atom is exclusively from the α-amino group, and the skeletal carbon atoms originate from the side chains of the two Trp molecules. All three oxygen atoms in the violacein core are derived from molecular oxygen. The most interesting biosynthetic mechanism is the 1,2-shift of the indole nucleus on the left side of the violacein scaffold. The alternative Trp molecule is directly incorporated into the right side of the violacein core. This indole shift has been observed only in violacein biosynthesis, despite the large number of natural products having been isolated. There were remarkable advances in biosynthetic studies in 2006-2008. During the 3 years, most of the intermediates and the complete pathway were established. Two independent processes are involved: the enzymatic process catalyzed by the five proteins VioABCDE or the alternative nonenzymatic oxidative decarboxylation reactions. The X-ray crystallographic structure of VioE that mediates the indole rearrangement reaction was recently identified, and the mechanism of the indole shift is discussed here. PMID:21779844

  19. Fluorescent probes for tracking the transfer of iron-sulfur cluster and other metal cofactors in biosynthetic reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Vranish, James N; Russell, William K; Yu, Lusa E; Cox, Rachael M; Russell, David H; Barondeau, David P

    2015-01-14

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are protein cofactors that are constructed and delivered to target proteins by elaborate biosynthetic machinery. Mechanistic insights into these processes have been limited by the lack of sensitive probes for tracking Fe-S cluster synthesis and transfer reactions. Here we present fusion protein- and intein-based fluorescent labeling strategies that can probe Fe-S cluster binding. The fluorescence is sensitive to different cluster types ([2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters), ligand environments ([2Fe-2S] clusters on Rieske, ferredoxin (Fdx), and glutaredoxin), and cluster oxidation states. The power of this approach is highlighted with an extreme example in which the kinetics of Fe-S cluster transfer reactions are monitored between two Fdx molecules that have identical Fe-S spectroscopic properties. This exchange reaction between labeled and unlabeled Fdx is catalyzed by dithiothreitol (DTT), a result that was confirmed by mass spectrometry. DTT likely functions in a ligand substitution reaction that generates a [2Fe-2S]-DTT species, which can transfer the cluster to either labeled or unlabeled Fdx. The ability to monitor this challenging cluster exchange reaction indicates that real-time Fe-S cluster incorporation can be tracked for a specific labeled protein in multicomponent assays that include several unlabeled Fe-S binding proteins or other chromophores. Such advanced kinetic experiments are required to untangle the intricate networks of transfer pathways and the factors affecting flux through branch points. High sensitivity and suitability with high-throughput methodology are additional benefits of this approach. We anticipate that this cluster detection methodology will transform the study of Fe-S cluster pathways and potentially other metal cofactor biosynthetic pathways. PMID:25478817

  20. Possible evolutionary relationships between streptomycin and bluensomycin biosynthetic pathways: detection of novel inositol kinase and O-carbamoyltransferase activities.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J B

    1990-01-01

    Bluensomycin (glebomycin) is an aminocyclitol antibiotic that differs structurally from dihydrostreptomycin in having bluensidine (1D-1-O-carbamoyl-3-guanidinodeoxy-scyllo-inositol) rather than streptidine (1,3-diguanidino-1,3-dideoxy-scyllo-inositol) as its aminocyclitol moiety. Extracts of the bluensomycin producer Streptomyces hygroscopicus form glebosus ATCC 14607 (S. glebosus) were found to have aminodeoxy-scyllo-inositol kinase activity but to lack 1D-1-guanidino-3-amino-1,3-dideoxy-scyllo-inositol kinase activity, showing for the first time that these two reactions in streptomycin producers must be catalyzed by different enzymes. S. glebosus extracts therefore possess the same five enzymes required for synthesis of guanidinodeoxy-scyllo-inositol from myo-inositol that are found in streptomycin producers but lack the next three of the four enzymes found in streptomycin producers that are required to synthesize the second guanidino group of streptidine-P. In place of a second guanidino group, S. glebosus extracts were found to catalyze a Mg2(+)-dependent carbamoylation of guanidinodeoxy-scyllo-inositol to form bluensidine, followed by a phosphorylation to form bluensidine-P. The novel carbamoyl-P:guanidinodeoxy-scyllo-inositol O-carbamoyltransferase and ATP:bluensidine phosphotransferase activities were not detected in streptomycin producers or in S. glebosus during its early rapid growth phase. Free bluensidine appears to be a normal intermediate in bluensomycin biosynthesis, in contrast to the case of streptomycin biosynthesis; in the latter, although exogenous streptidine can enter the pathway via streptidine-P, free streptidine is not an intermediate in the endogenous biosynthetic pathway. Comparison of the streptomycin and bluensomycin biosynthetic pathways provides a unique opportunity to evaluate those proposed mechanisms for the evolutionary acquisition of new biosynthetic capabilities that involve gene duplication and subsequent mutational changes in

  1. Annotation and functional assignment of the genes for the C30 carotenoid pathways from the genomes of two bacteria: Bacillus indicus and Bacillus firmus.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Sabine; Perez-Fons, Laura; Cutting, Simon M; Fraser, Paul D; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus indicus and Bacillus firmus synthesize C30 carotenoids via farnesyl pyrophosphate, forming apophytoene as the first committed step in the pathway. The products of the pathways were methyl 4'-[6-O-acyl-glycosyl)oxy]-4,4'-diapolycopen-4-oic acid and 4,4'-diapolycopen-4,4'-dioic acid with putative glycosyl esters. The genomes of both bacteria were sequenced, and the genes for their early terpenoid and specific carotenoid pathways annotated. All genes for a functional 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase pathway were identified in both species, whereas genes of the mevalonate pathway were absent. The genes for specific carotenoid synthesis and conversion were found on gene clusters which were organized differently in the two species. The genes involved in the formation of the carotenoid cores were assigned by functional complementation in Escherichia coli. This bacterium was co-transformed with a plasmid mediating the formation of the putative substrate and a second plasmid with the gene of interest. Carotenoid products in the transformants were determined by HPLC. Using this approach, we identified the genes for a 4,4'-diapophytoene synthase (crtM), 4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase (crtNa), 4,4'-diapolycopene ketolase (crtNb) and 4,4'-diapolycopene aldehyde oxidase (crtNc). The three crtN genes were closely related and belonged to the crtI gene family with a similar reaction mechanism of their enzyme products. Additional genes encoding glycosyltransferases and acyltransferases for the modification of the carotenoid skeleton of the diapolycopenoic acids were identified by comparison with the corresponding genes from other bacteria. PMID:25326460

  2. Increased Nicotiana tabacum fitness through positive regulation of carotenoid, gibberellin and chlorophyll pathways promoted by Daucus carota lycopene β-cyclase (Dclcyb1) expression.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J C; Cerda, A; Simpson, K; Lopez-Diaz, I; Carrera, E; Handford, M; Stange, C

    2016-04-01

    Carotenoids, chlorophylls and gibberellins are derived from the common precursor geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). One of the enzymes in carotenoid biosynthesis is lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) that catalyzes the conversion of lycopene into β-carotene. In carrot, Dclcyb1 is essential for carotenoid synthesis in the whole plant. Here we show that when expressed in tobacco, increments in total carotenoids, β-carotene and chlorophyll levels occur. Furthermore, photosynthetic efficiency is enhanced in transgenic lines. Interestingly, and contrary to previous observations where overexpression of a carotenogenic gene resulted in the inhibition of the synthesis of gibberellins, we found raised levels of active GA4 and the concommitant increases in plant height, leaf size and whole plant biomass, as well as an early flowering phenotype. Moreover, a significant increase in the expression of the key carotenogenic genes, Ntpsy1, Ntpsy2 and Ntlcyb, as well as those involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll (Ntchl), gibberellin (Ntga20ox, Ntcps and Ntks) and isoprenoid precursors (Ntdxs2 and Ntggpps) was observed. These results indicate that the expression of Dclcyb1 induces a positive feedback affecting the expression of isoprenoid gene precursors and genes involved in carotenoid, gibberellin and chlorophyll pathways leading to an enhancement in fitness measured as biomass, photosynthetic efficiency and carotenoid/chlorophyll composition. PMID:26893492

  3. Increased Nicotiana tabacum fitness through positive regulation of carotenoid, gibberellin and chlorophyll pathways promoted by Daucus carota lycopene β-cyclase (Dclcyb1) expression

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, J.C.; Cerda, A.; Simpson, K.; Lopez-Diaz, I.; Carrera, E; Handford, M.; Stange, C.

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids, chlorophylls and gibberellins are derived from the common precursor geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). One of the enzymes in carotenoid biosynthesis is lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) that catalyzes the conversion of lycopene into β-carotene. In carrot, Dclcyb1 is essential for carotenoid synthesis in the whole plant. Here we show that when expressed in tobacco, increments in total carotenoids, β-carotene and chlorophyll levels occur. Furthermore, photosynthetic efficiency is enhanced in transgenic lines. Interestingly, and contrary to previous observations where overexpression of a carotenogenic gene resulted in the inhibition of the synthesis of gibberellins, we found raised levels of active GA4 and the concommitant increases in plant height, leaf size and whole plant biomass, as well as an early flowering phenotype. Moreover, a significant increase in the expression of the key carotenogenic genes, Ntpsy1, Ntpsy2 and Ntlcyb, as well as those involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll (Ntchl), gibberellin (Ntga20ox, Ntcps and Ntks) and isoprenoid precursors (Ntdxs2 and Ntggpps) was observed. These results indicate that the expression of Dclcyb1 induces a positive feedback affecting the expression of isoprenoid gene precursors and genes involved in carotenoid, gibberellin and chlorophyll pathways leading to an enhancement in fitness measured as biomass, photosynthetic efficiency and carotenoid/chlorophyll composition. PMID:26893492

  4. Diversity in the carotenoid profiles and the expression of genes related to carotenoid accumulation among citrus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Kato, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are not only important to the plants themselves but also are beneficial to human health. Since citrus fruit is a good source of carotenoids for the human diet, it is important to study carotenoid profiles and the accumulation mechanism in citrus fruit. Thus, in the present paper, we describe the diversity in the carotenoid profiles of fruit among citrus genotypes. In regard to carotenoids, such as β-cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin, lycopene, and β-citraurin, the relationship between the carotenoid profile and the expression of carotenoid-biosynthetic genes is discussed. Finally, recent results of quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of carotenoid contents and expression levels of carotenoid-biosynthetic genes in citrus fruit are shown. PMID:27069398

  5. Diversity in the carotenoid profiles and the expression of genes related to carotenoid accumulation among citrus genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Kato, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are not only important to the plants themselves but also are beneficial to human health. Since citrus fruit is a good source of carotenoids for the human diet, it is important to study carotenoid profiles and the accumulation mechanism in citrus fruit. Thus, in the present paper, we describe the diversity in the carotenoid profiles of fruit among citrus genotypes. In regard to carotenoids, such as β-cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin, lycopene, and β-citraurin, the relationship between the carotenoid profile and the expression of carotenoid-biosynthetic genes is discussed. Finally, recent results of quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of carotenoid contents and expression levels of carotenoid-biosynthetic genes in citrus fruit are shown. PMID:27069398

  6. Integrative genomic mining for enzyme function to enable engineering of a non-natural biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Wai Shun; Tran, Stephen; Marcheschi, Ryan; Bertolani, Steve; Thompson, James; Baker, David; Liao, James C.; Siegel, Justin B.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to biosynthetically produce chemicals beyond what is commonly found in Nature requires the discovery of novel enzyme function. Here we utilize two approaches to discover enzymes that enable specific production of longer-chain (C5–C8) alcohols from sugar. The first approach combines bioinformatics and molecular modelling to mine sequence databases, resulting in a diverse panel of enzymes capable of catalysing the targeted reaction. The median catalytic efficiency of the computationally selected enzymes is 75-fold greater than a panel of naively selected homologues. This integrative genomic mining approach establishes a unique avenue for enzyme function discovery in the rapidly expanding sequence databases. The second approach uses computational enzyme design to reprogramme specificity. Both approaches result in enzymes with >100-fold increase in specificity for the targeted reaction. When enzymes from either approach are integrated in vivo, longer-chain alcohol production increases over 10-fold and represents >95% of the total alcohol products. PMID:26598135

  7. Integrative genomic mining for enzyme function to enable engineering of a non-natural biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Mak, Wai Shun; Tran, Stephen; Marcheschi, Ryan; Bertolani, Steve; Thompson, James; Baker, David; Liao, James C; Siegel, Justin B

    2015-01-01

    The ability to biosynthetically produce chemicals beyond what is commonly found in Nature requires the discovery of novel enzyme function. Here we utilize two approaches to discover enzymes that enable specific production of longer-chain (C5-C8) alcohols from sugar. The first approach combines bioinformatics and molecular modelling to mine sequence databases, resulting in a diverse panel of enzymes capable of catalysing the targeted reaction. The median catalytic efficiency of the computationally selected enzymes is 75-fold greater than a panel of naively selected homologues. This integrative genomic mining approach establishes a unique avenue for enzyme function discovery in the rapidly expanding sequence databases. The second approach uses computational enzyme design to reprogramme specificity. Both approaches result in enzymes with >100-fold increase in specificity for the targeted reaction. When enzymes from either approach are integrated in vivo, longer-chain alcohol production increases over 10-fold and represents >95% of the total alcohol products. PMID:26598135

  8. First Biosynthetic pathway of 1-hepten-3-one in Iporangaia pustulosa (Opiliones)

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Daniele F. O.; Wouters, Felipe C.; Machado, Glauco; Marsaioli, Anita J.

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods produce a great variety of natural compounds, many of which have unexplored biosynthesis. Among the armored harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) of the suborder Laniatores, the defensive gland exudates contain vinyl ketones and other constituents of supposed polyketide origin. We have studied the biosynthesis of 1-hepten-3-one in the Neotropical harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa by feeding individuals with 13C-labeled precursors, demonstrating its mixed acetate/propionate origin. 13C NMR spectroscopy showed an unusual labeling pattern suggesting different propionate sources for starting and extender units. Our analysis also indicates the presence of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, converting acetate into propionyl-CoA via succinyl-CoA, together with other C3 unit routes. This is the first biosynthetic study of alkyl vinyl ketones in arthropods. Our results shed light on the origin and diversification of chemical compounds in a major arthropod group. PMID:24193576

  9. A red pigment synthesized by an Aspergillus parasiticus mutant as a possible new intermediate in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    García, M E; Herce, M D; Blanco, J L; Suárez, G

    1994-11-01

    The isolation of a red pigment from an Aspergillus parasiticus mutant obtained by 366 nm u.v. light treatment of A. parasiticus NRRL 2999 is described. Studies of conversion in aflatoxin B1 and G1 suggest that the red pigment could be a possible new intermediate in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway not described to date, and this has been verified by studies in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The solubility and stability characteristics under refrigeration storage, and the influence of the temperature and the pH on its production by the A. parasiticus mutant were also studied. It grew best at 30 degrees C and pH 6. The red pigment was most soluble in ethyl acetate. The results obtained in water are emphasized where there was high stability. PMID:8002480

  10. Plastid-localized amino acid biosynthetic pathways of Plantae are predominantly composed of non-cyanobacterial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Moustafa, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Studies of photosynthetic eukaryotes have revealed that the evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria involved the recruitment of non-cyanobacterial proteins. Our phylogenetic survey of >100 Arabidopsis nuclear-encoded plastid enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis identified only 21 unambiguous cyanobacterial-derived proteins. Some of the several non-cyanobacterial plastid enzymes have a shared phylogenetic origin in the three Plantae lineages. We hypothesize that during the evolution of plastids some enzymes encoded in the host nuclear genome were mistargeted into the plastid. Then, the activity of those foreign enzymes was sustained by both the plastid metabolites and interactions with the native cyanobacterial enzymes. Some of the novel enzymatic activities were favored by selective compartmentation of additional complementary enzymes. The mosaic phylogenetic composition of the plastid amino acid biosynthetic pathways and the reduced number of plastid-encoded proteins of non-cyanobacterial origin suggest that enzyme recruitment underlies the recompartmentation of metabolic routes during the evolution of plastids. PMID:23233874

  11. Anti-leishmanial evaluation of C2-aryl quinolines: mechanistic insight on bioenergetics and sterol biosynthetic pathway of Leishmania braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Bompart, Daznia; Núñez-Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Daniel; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V; Meléndez Gómez, Carlos M; Sojo, Felipe; Arvelo, Francisco; Visbal, Gonzalo; Alvarez, Alvaro; Serrano-Martín, Xenón; García-Marchán, Yael

    2013-07-15

    A series of diverse simple C2-aryl quinolines was synthesized de novo via a straightforward synthesis based on the acid-catalyzed multicomponent imino Diels-Alder reactions. Seven selected quinolines were evaluated at different stages of Leishmania braziliensis parasite. Among them, the 6-ethyl-2-phenylquinoline 5f was able to inhibit the growth of promastigotes of this parasite without affecting the mammalian cells viability and decreasing the number of intracellular L. braziliensis amastigotes on BMDM macrophages. The mechanism of action studied for the selected compound consisted in: (1) alteration of parasite bioenergetics, by disrupting mitochondrial electrochemical potential and alkalinization of acidocalcisomes, and (2) inhibition of ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in promastigote forms. These results validate the efficiency of quinoline molecules as leishmanicide compounds. PMID:23719286

  12. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Pseudaminic Acid Biosynthetic Pathway: Targeting Motility as a Key Bacterial Virulence Factor

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, Robert; Schoenhofen, Ian C.; Tao, Limei; Aubry, Annie; Bouchard, Patrice; Reid, Christopher W.; Lachance, Paule; Twine, Susan M.; Fulton, Kelly M.; Cui, Qizhi; Hogues, Hervé; Purisima, Enrico O.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is motile by means of polar flagella, and this motility has been shown to play a critical role in pathogenicity. The major structural flagellin proteins have been shown to be glycosylated with the nonulosonate sugar, pseudaminic acid (Pse). This glycan is unique to microorganisms, and the process of flagellin glycosylation is required for H. pylori flagellar assembly and consequent motility. As such, the Pse biosynthetic pathway offers considerable potential as an antivirulence drug target, especially since motility is required for H. pylori colonization and persistence in the host. This report describes screening the five Pse biosynthetic enzymes for small-molecule inhibitors using both high-throughput screening (HTS) and in silico (virtual screening [VS]) approaches. Using a 100,000-compound library, 1,773 hits that exhibited a 40% threshold inhibition at a 10 μM concentration were identified by HTS. In addition, VS efforts using a 1.6-million compound library directed at two pathway enzymes identified 80 hits, 4 of which exhibited reasonable inhibition at a 10 μM concentration in vitro. Further secondary screening which identified 320 unique molecular structures or validated hits was performed. Following kinetic studies and structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of selected inhibitors from our refined list of 320 compounds, we demonstrated that three inhibitors with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of approximately 14 μM, which belonged to a distinct chemical cluster, were able to penetrate the Gram-negative cell membrane and prevent formation of flagella. PMID:25267679

  13. Diterpene synthesis in Stevia rebaudiana: recruitment and up-regulation of key enzymes from the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Richman, A S; Gijzen, M; Starratt, A N; Yang, Z; Brandle, J E

    1999-08-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves accumulate a mixture of at least eight different glycosides derived from the tetracyclic diterpene steviol. These natural products taste intensely sweet and have similar biosynthetic origins to those of gibberellic acid (GA). The initial steps leading to the formation of GA result from the two-step cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to (-)-kaurene via the action of two terpene cyclases (-)-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and (-)-kaurene synthase (KS). Steviol biosynthesis probably uses the same mechanism although the genes and enzymes from S. rebaudiana that are involved in the cyclization of GGDP have not been characterized. We have isolated both the CPS and KS genes from S. rebaudiana and found that recombinant CPS and KS were catalytically active, suggesting that the CPS and KS genes participate in steviol biosynthesis. The genes coding for CPS and KS are usually present in single copies in most plant species and their expression is normally low and limited to rapidly growing tissues. The KS gene has been duplicated in the S. rebaudiana genome and both the KS and CPS genes are highly expressed in mature leaves, a pattern opposite to that found with GA biosynthesis. This pattern may, at least in part, lead to temporal and spatial separation of GA and steviol biosynthesis and probably helps to prevent over-expression from interfering with normal GA metabolism. Our results show that CPS and KS are part of the steviol glycoside biosynthetic pathway and that Stevia rebaudiana has recruited two genes to secondary metabolism from a highly regulated pathway involved in hormone biosynthesis. PMID:10504563

  14. Carbon partitioning to the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway enables heterologous β-phellandrene production in Escherichia coli cultures.

    PubMed

    Formighieri, Cinzia; Melis, Anastasios

    2014-12-01

    Escherichia coli was used as a microbial system for the heterologous synthesis of β-phellandrene, a monoterpene of plant origin with several potential commercial applications. Expression of Lavandula angustifolia β-phellandrene synthase (PHLS), alone or in combination with Picea abies geranyl-diphosphate synthase in E. coli, resulted in no β-phellandrene accumulation, in sharp contrast to observations with PHLS-transformed cyanobacteria. Lack of β-phellandrene biosynthesis in E. coli was attributed to the limited endogenous carbon partitioning through the native 2-C-methylerythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Heterologous co-expression of the mevalonic acid pathway, enhancing cellular carbon partitioning and flux toward the universal isoprenoid precursors, isopentenyl-diphosphate and dimethylallyl-diphosphate, was required to confer β-phellandrene production. Differences in endogenous carbon flux toward the synthesis of isoprenoids between photosynthetic (Synechocystis) and non-photosynthetic bacteria (E. coli) are discussed in terms of differences in the regulation of carbon partitioning through the MEP biosynthetic pathway in the two systems. PMID:25116411

  15. Applications of Genetically-Encoded Biosensors for the Construction and Control of Biosynthetic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Michener, Josh K.; Thodey, Kate; Liang, Joe C.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2011-01-01

    Cells are filled with biosensors, molecular systems that measure the state of the cell and respond by regulating host processes. In much the same way that an engineer would monitor a chemical reactor, the cell uses these sensors to monitor changing intracellular environments and produce consistent behavior despite the variable environment. While natural systems derive a clear benefit from pathway regulation, past research efforts in engineering cellular metabolism have focused on introducing new pathways and removing existing pathway regulation. Synthetic biology is a rapidly growing field that focuses on the development of new tools that support the design, construction, and optimization of biological systems. Recent advances have been made in the design of genetically-encoded biosensors and the application of this class of molecular tools for optimizing and regulating heterologous pathways. Biosensors to cellular metabolites can be taken directly from natural systems, engineered from natural sensors, or constructed entirely in vitro. When linked to reporters, such as antibiotic resistance markers, these metabolite sensors can be used to report on pathway productivity, allowing high-throughput screening for pathway optimization. Future directions will focus on the application of biosensors to introduce feedback control into metabolic pathways, providing dynamic control strategies to increase the efficient use of cellular resources and pathway reliability. PMID:21946159

  16. Novel bioassay for the discovery of inhibitors of the 2-C-Methyl-D-Erythritol 4-Phosphate (MEP) and terpenoid pathways leading to carotenoid biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway leads to the synthesis of isopentenyl-phosphate (IPP) in plastids. It is a major branch point providing precursors for the synthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols, plastoquinone and the phytyl chain of chlorophylls, as well as the hormones abscisi...

  17. Ethylene Responses in Rice Roots and Coleoptiles Are Differentially Regulated by a Carotenoid Isomerase-Mediated Abscisic Acid Pathway[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Cui-Cui; Ma, Biao; Collinge, Derek Phillip; Pogson, Barry James; He, Si-Jie; Xiong, Qing; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Chen, Hui; Yang, Chao; Lu, Xiang; Wang, Yi-Qin; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Sun, Xiao-Hong; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jin-Fang; Lu, Tie-Gang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) act synergistically or antagonistically to regulate plant growth and development. ABA is derived from the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. Here, we analyzed the interplay among ethylene, carotenoid biogenesis, and ABA in rice (Oryza sativa) using the rice ethylene response mutant mhz5, which displays a reduced ethylene response in roots but an enhanced ethylene response in coleoptiles. We found that MHZ5 encodes a carotenoid isomerase and that the mutation in mhz5 blocks carotenoid biosynthesis, reduces ABA accumulation, and promotes ethylene production in etiolated seedlings. ABA can largely rescue the ethylene response of the mhz5 mutant. Ethylene induces MHZ5 expression, the production of neoxanthin, an ABA biosynthesis precursor, and ABA accumulation in roots. MHZ5 overexpression results in enhanced ethylene sensitivity in roots and reduced ethylene sensitivity in coleoptiles. Mutation or overexpression of MHZ5 also alters the expression of ethylene-responsive genes. Genetic studies revealed that the MHZ5-mediated ABA pathway acts downstream of ethylene signaling to inhibit root growth. The MHZ5-mediated ABA pathway likely acts upstream but negatively regulates ethylene signaling to control coleoptile growth. Our study reveals novel interactions among ethylene, carotenogenesis, and ABA and provides insight into improvements in agronomic traits and adaptive growth through the manipulation of these pathways in rice. PMID:25841037

  18. Carotenoids of biotechnological importance.

    PubMed

    Sandmann, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are natural pigments with antioxidative functions that protect against oxidative stress. They are essential for humans and must be supplied through the diet. Carotenoids are the precursors for the visual pigment rhodopsin, and lutein and zeaxanthin must be accumulated in the yellow eye spot to protect the retina from excess light and ultraviolet damage. There is a global market for carotenoids as food colorants, animal feed, and nutraceuticals. Some carotenoids are chemically synthesized, whereas others are from natural sources. Microbial mass production systems of industrial interest for carotenoids are in use, and new ones are being developed by metabolic pathway engineering of bacteria, fungi, and plants. Several examples will be highlighted in this chapter. PMID:25326165

  19. Carotenoids in Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, Vitalia; Escobar, Carolina; Galarza, Janeth; Gimpel, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of isoprenoids synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms as well as by some non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi with broad applications in food, feed and cosmetics, and also in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. Microalgae represent an important source of high-value products, which include carotenoids, among others. Carotenoids play key roles in light harvesting and energy transfer during photosynthesis and in the protection of the photosynthetic apparatus against photooxidative damage. Carotenoids are generally divided into carotenes and xanthophyls, but accumulation in microalgae can also be classified as primary (essential for survival) and secondary (by exposure to specific stimuli).In this chapter, we outline the high value carotenoids produced by commercially important microalgae, their production pathways, the improved production rates that can be achieved by genetic engineering as well as their biotechnological applications. PMID:27485224

  20. Engineering a novel biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli for production of renewable ethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Brian; Zhang, Haoran; De Mey, Marjan; Lim, Chin Giaw; Li, Zheng-Jun; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) is an important commodity chemical with broad industrial applications. It is presently produced from petroleum or natural gas feedstocks in processes requiring consumption of significant quantities of non-renewable resources. Here, we report a novel pathway for biosynthesis of EG from the renewable sugar glucose in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli. Serine-to-EG conversion was first achieved through a pathway comprising serine decarboxylase, ethanolamine oxidase, and glycolaldehyde reductase. Serine provision in E. coli was then enhanced by overexpression of the serine-biosynthesis pathway. The integration of these two parts into the complete EG-biosynthesis pathway in E. coli allowed for production of 4.1 g/L EG at a cumulative yield of 0.14 g-EG/g-glucose, establishing a foundation for a promising biotechnology. PMID:26221864

  1. Novel Key Metabolites Reveal Further Branching of the Roquefortine/Meleagrin Biosynthetic Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Marco I.; Ali, Hazrat; Lankhorst, Peter P.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Vreeken, Rob J.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic profiling and structural elucidation of novel secondary metabolites obtained from derived deletion strains of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum were used to reassign various previously ascribed synthetase genes of the roquefortine/meleagrin pathway to their corresponding products. Next to the structural characterization of roquefortine F and neoxaline, which are for the first time reported for P. chrysogenum, we identified the novel metabolite roquefortine L, including its degradation products, harboring remarkable chemical structures. Their biosynthesis is discussed, questioning the exclusive role of glandicoline A as key intermediate in the pathway. The results reveal that further enzymes of this pathway are rather unspecific and catalyze more than one reaction, leading to excessive branching in the pathway with meleagrin and neoxaline as end products of two branches. PMID:24225953

  2. Constructing de novo biosynthetic pathways for chemical synthesis inside living cells†

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Amy M.; Chang, Michelle C. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Living organisms have evolved a vast array of catalytic functions that make them ideally suited for the production of medicinally and industrially relevant small-molecule targets. Indeed, native metabolic pathways in microbial hosts have long been exploited and optimized for the scalable production of both fine and commodity chemicals. Our increasing capacity for DNA sequencing and synthesis has revealed the molecular basis for the biosynthesis of a variety of complex and useful metabolites and enables the de novo construction of novel metabolic pathways for the production of new and exotic molecular targets in genetically tractable microbes. However, the development of commercially viable processes for these engineered pathways is currently limited by our ability to quickly identify or engineer enzymes with the correct reaction and substrate selectivity as well as the speed by which metabolic bottlenecks can be determined and corrected. Efforts in understanding the relationship between sequence, structure, and function in the basic biochemical sciences can advance these goals for synthetic biology applications while also serving as an experimental platform to elucidate the in vivo specificity and function of enzymes and to reconstitute complex biochemical traits for study in a living model organism. Furthermore, the continuing discovery of natural mechanisms for the regulation of metabolic pathways has revealed new principles for the design of high-flux pathways with minimized metabolic burden and has inspired the development of new tools and approaches to engineer synthetic pathways in microbial hosts for chemical production. PMID:21591680

  3. Mevalonate Analogues as Substrates of Enzymes in the Isoprenoid Biosynthetic Pathway of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Kudoh, Takashi; Park, Chan Sun; Lefurgy, Scott T.; Sun, Meihao; Michels, Theodore; Leyh, Thomas S.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Survival of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae requires a functional mevalonate pathway, which produces isopentenyl diphosphate, the essential building block of isoprenoids. Flux through this pathway appears to be regulated at the mevalonate kinase (MK) step, which is strongly feedback-inhibited by diphosphomevalonate (DPM), the penultimate compound in the pathway. The human mevalonate pathway is not regulated by DPM, making the bacterial pathway an attractive antibiotic target. Since DPM has poor drug characteristics, being highly charged, we propose to use unphosphorylated, cell-permeable prodrugs based on mevalonate that will be phosphorylated in turn by MK and phosphomevalonate kinase (PMK) to generate the active compound in situ. To test the limits of this approach, we synthesized a series of C3-substituted mevalonate analogues to probe the steric and electronic requirements of the MK and PMK active sites. MK and PMK accepted substrates with up to two additional carbons, showing a preference for small substitutents. This result establishes the feasibility of using a prodrug strategy for DPM-based antibiotics in S. pneumoniae and identified several analogues to be tested as inhibitors of MK. Among the substrates accepted by both enzymes were cyclopropyl, vinyl, and ethynyl mevalonate analogues that, when diphosphorylated, might be mechanism-based inactivators of the next enzyme in the pathway, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase. PMID:20056424

  4. Time Dependency of Chemodiversity and Biosynthetic Pathways: An LC-MS Metabolomic Study of Marine-Sourced Penicillium

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, Catherine; Bertrand, Samuel; Blanchet, Elodie; Peigné, Mathilde; Robiou du Pont, Thibaut; Guitton, Yann; Pouchus, Yves François; Grovel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed at studying metabolome variations of marine fungal strains along their growth to highlight the importance of the parameter “time” for new natural products discovery. An untargeted time-scale metabolomic study has been performed on two different marine-derived Penicillium strains. They were cultivated for 18 days and their crude extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-HRMS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry) each day. With the example of griseofulvin biosynthesis, a pathway shared by both strains, this work provides a new approach to study biosynthetic pathway regulations, which could be applied to other metabolites and more particularly new ones. Moreover, the results of this study emphasize the interest of such an approach for the discovery of new chemical entities. In particular, at every harvesting time, previously undetected features were observed in the LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) data. Therefore, harvesting times for metabolite extraction should be performed at different time points to access the hidden metabolome. PMID:27213411

  5. Regulatory role of hexosamine biosynthetic pathway on hepatic cancer stem cell marker CD133 under low glucose conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu-Hai; Liu, Tengfei; Ming, Xiaoyan; Tang, Zhi; Fu, Li; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Kanawati, Basem; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-02-01

    Cancer was hypothesized to be driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs), but the metabolic determinants of CSC-like phenotype still remain elusive. Here, we present that hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) at least in part rescues cancer cell fate with inactivation of glycolysis. Firstly, metabolomic analysis profiled cellular metabolome in CSCs of hepatocellular carcinoma using CD133 cell-surface marker. The metabolic signatures of CD133-positive subpopulation compared to CD133-negative cells highlighted HBP as one of the distinct metabolic pathways, prompting us to uncover the role of HBP in maintenance of CSC-like phenotype. To address this, CSC-like phenotypes and cell survival were investigated in cancer cells under low glucose conditions. As a result, HBP inhibitor azaserine reduced CD133-positive subpopulation and CD133 expression under high glucose condition. Furthermore, treatment of N-Acetylglucosamine in part restores CD133-positive subpopulation when either 2.5 mM glucose in culture media or glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose in HCC cell lines was applied, enhancing CD133 expression as well as promoting cancer cell survival. Together, HBP might be a key metabolic determinant in the functions of hepatic CSC marker CD133.

  6. Time Dependency of Chemodiversity and Biosynthetic Pathways: An LC-MS Metabolomic Study of Marine-Sourced Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Roullier, Catherine; Bertrand, Samuel; Blanchet, Elodie; Peigné, Mathilde; Robiou du Pont, Thibaut; Guitton, Yann; Pouchus, Yves François; Grovel, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    This work aimed at studying metabolome variations of marine fungal strains along their growth to highlight the importance of the parameter "time" for new natural products discovery. An untargeted time-scale metabolomic study has been performed on two different marine-derived Penicillium strains. They were cultivated for 18 days and their crude extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-HRMS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry) each day. With the example of griseofulvin biosynthesis, a pathway shared by both strains, this work provides a new approach to study biosynthetic pathway regulations, which could be applied to other metabolites and more particularly new ones. Moreover, the results of this study emphasize the interest of such an approach for the discovery of new chemical entities. In particular, at every harvesting time, previously undetected features were observed in the LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) data. Therefore, harvesting times for metabolite extraction should be performed at different time points to access the hidden metabolome. PMID:27213411

  7. Triterpenoid Saponin Biosynthetic Pathway Profiling and Candidate Gene Mining of the Ilex asprella Root Using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiasheng; Xu, Hui; Ma, Xinye; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen

    2014-01-01

    Ilex asprella, which contains abundant α-amyrin type triterpenoid saponins, is an anti-influenza herbal drug widely used in south China. In this work, we first analysed the transcriptome of the I. asprella root using RNA-Seq, which provided a dataset for functional gene mining. mRNA was isolated from the total RNA of the I. asprella root and reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Then, the cDNA library was sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, which generated 55,028,452 clean reads. De novo assembly of these reads generated 51,865 unigenes, in which 39,269 unigenes were annotated (75.71% yield). According to the structures of the triterpenoid saponins of I. asprella, a putative biosynthetic pathway downstream of 2,3-oxidosqualene was proposed and candidate unigenes in the transcriptome data that were potentially involved in the pathway were screened using homology-based BLAST and phylogenetic analysis. Further amplification and functional analysis of these putative unigenes will provide insight into the biosynthesis of Ilex triterpenoid saponins. PMID:24722569

  8. Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathways in the basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum.

    PubMed

    Nutaratat, Pumin; Srisuk, Nantana; Arunrattiyakorn, Panarat; Limtong, Savitree

    2016-07-01

    Microorganisms produce plant growth regulators, such as auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins, to promote plant growth. Auxins are a group of compounds with an indole ring that have a positive effect on plant growth. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a plant growth hormone classified as an indole derivative of the auxin family. IAA biosynthesis pathways have been reported and widely studied in several groups of bacteria. Only a few studies on IAA biosynthesis pathways have been conducted in yeast. This study aimed to investigate IAA biosynthesis pathways in a basidiomycetous yeast (Rhodosporidium paludigenum DMKU-RP301). Investigations were performed both with and without a tryptophan supplement. Indole compound intermediates were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Indole-3-lactic acid and indole-3-ethanol were found as a result of the enzymatic reduction of indole-3-pyruvic acid and indole-3-acetaldehyde, in IAA biosynthesis via an indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway. In addition, we also found indole-3-pyruvic acid in culture supernatants determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Identification of tryptophan aminotransferase activity supports indole-3-pyruvic acid-routed IAA biosynthesis in R. paludigenum DMKU-RP301. We hence concluded that R. paludigenum DMKU-RP301 produces IAA through an indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway. PMID:26899734

  9. Novel Bioassay for the Discovery of Inhibitors of the 2-C-Methyl-D-erythritol 4-Phosphate (MEP) and Terpenoid Pathways Leading to Carotenoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Corniani, Natália; Velini, Edivaldo D.; Silva, Ferdinando M. L.; Nanayakkara, N. P. Dhammika; Witschel, Matthias; Dayan, Franck E.

    2014-01-01

    The 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway leads to the synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate in plastids. It is a major branch point providing precursors for the synthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols, plastoquinone and the phytyl chain of chlorophylls, as well as the hormones abscisic acid and gibberellins. Consequently, disruption of this pathway is harmful to plants. We developed an in vivo bioassay that can measure the carbon flow through the carotenoid pathway. Leaf cuttings are incubated in the presence of a phytoene desaturase inhibitor to induce phytoene accumulation. Any compound reducing the level of phytoene accumulation is likely to interfere with either one of the steps in the MEP pathway or the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate. This concept was tested with known inhibitors of steps of the MEP pathway. The specificity of this in vivo bioassay was also verified by testing representative herbicides known to target processes outside of the MEP and carotenoid pathways. This assay enables the rapid screen of new inhibitors of enzymes preceding the synthesis of phytoene, though there are some limitations related to the non-specific effect of some inhibitors on this assay. PMID:25077957

  10. Modulation of the Isoprenoid/Cholesterol Biosynthetic Pathway During Neuronal Differentiation In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Cartocci, Veronica; Segatto, Marco; Di Tunno, Ilenia; Leone, Stefano; Pfrieger, Frank W; Pallottini, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    During differentiation, neurons acquire their typical shape and functional properties. At present, it is unclear, whether this important developmental step involves metabolic changes. Here, we studied the contribution of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway to neuronal differentiation using the mouse neuroblastoma cell line N1E-115 as experimental model. Our results show that during differentiation, the activity of 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), a key enzyme of MVA pathway, and the level of Low Density Lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) decrease, whereas the level of LDLr-related protein-1 (LRP1) and the dimerization of Scavanger Receptor B1 (SRB-1) rise. Pharmacologic inhibition of HMGR by simvastatin accelerated neuronal differentiation by modulating geranylated proteins. Collectively, our data suggest that during neuronal differentiation, the activity of the MVA pathway decreases and we postulate that any interference with this process impacts neuronal morphology and function. Therefore, the MVA pathway appears as an attractive pharmacological target to modulate neurological and metabolic symptoms of developmental neuropathologies. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2036-2044, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27392312

  11. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis in varroa mites: identification of halloween genes from the biosynthetic pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosynthesis of ecdysteroids involves sequential enzymatic hydroxylations by microsomal enzymes and mitochondrial cytochrome P450’s. Enzymes of the pathway are collectively known as Halloween genes. Complete sequences for three Halloween genes, spook (Vdspo), disembodied (Vddib) and shade (Vdshd), w...

  12. De novo Transcriptome Assembly and the Putative Biosynthetic Pathway of Steroidal Sapogenins of Dioscorea composita

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuqi; Xie, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The plant Dioscorea composita has important applications in the medical and energy industries, and can be used for the extraction of steroidal sapogenins (important raw materials for the synthesis of steroidal drugs) and bioethanol production. However, little is known at the genetic level about how sapogenins are biosynthesized in this plant. Using Illumina deep sequencing, 62,341 unigenes were obtained by assembling its transcriptome, and 27,720 unigenes were annotated. Of these, 8,022 unigenes were mapped to 243 specific pathways, and 531 unigenes were identified to be involved in 24 secondary metabolic pathways. 35 enzymes, which were encoded by 79 unigenes, were related to the biosynthesis of steroidal sapogenins in this transcriptome database, covering almost all the nodes in the steroidal pathway. The results of real-time PCR experiments on ten related transcripts (HMGR, MK, SQLE, FPPS, DXS, CAS, HMED, CYP51, DHCR7, and DHCR24) indicated that sapogenins were mainly biosynthesized by the mevalonate pathway. The expression of these ten transcripts in the tuber and leaves was found to be much higher than in the stem. Also, expression in the shoots was low. The nucleotide and protein sequences and conserved domains of four related genes (HMGR, CAS, SQS, and SMT1) were highly conserved between D. composita and D. zingiberensis; but expression of these four genes is greater in D. composita. However, there is no expression of these key enzymes in potato and no steroidal sapogenins are synthesized. PMID:25860891

  13. De novo transcriptome assembly and the putative biosynthetic pathway of steroidal sapogenins of Dioscorea composita.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Chen, Dijia; Wang, Yuqi; Xie, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The plant Dioscorea composita has important applications in the medical and energy industries, and can be used for the extraction of steroidal sapogenins (important raw materials for the synthesis of steroidal drugs) and bioethanol production. However, little is known at the genetic level about how sapogenins are biosynthesized in this plant. Using Illumina deep sequencing, 62,341 unigenes were obtained by assembling its transcriptome, and 27,720 unigenes were annotated. Of these, 8,022 unigenes were mapped to 243 specific pathways, and 531 unigenes were identified to be involved in 24 secondary metabolic pathways. 35 enzymes, which were encoded by 79 unigenes, were related to the biosynthesis of steroidal sapogenins in this transcriptome database, covering almost all the nodes in the steroidal pathway. The results of real-time PCR experiments on ten related transcripts (HMGR, MK, SQLE, FPPS, DXS, CAS, HMED, CYP51, DHCR7, and DHCR24) indicated that sapogenins were mainly biosynthesized by the mevalonate pathway. The expression of these ten transcripts in the tuber and leaves was found to be much higher than in the stem. Also, expression in the shoots was low. The nucleotide and protein sequences and conserved domains of four related genes (HMGR, CAS, SQS, and SMT1) were highly conserved between D. composita and D. zingiberensis; but expression of these four genes is greater in D. composita. However, there is no expression of these key enzymes in potato and no steroidal sapogenins are synthesized. PMID:25860891

  14. Modulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes and anthocyanins due to virus infection in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Symptoms of grapevine leafroll disease (GLRD) in red-fruited wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars consist of green veins and red and reddish-purple discoloration of inter-veinal areas of leaves. The reddish-purple color of symptomatic leaves may be due to the accumulation of anthocyanins and could reflect an up-regulation of genes involved in their biosynthesis. Results We examined six putative constitutively expressed genes, Ubiquitin, Actin, GAPDH, EF1-a, SAND and NAD5, for their potential as references for normalization of gene expression in reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Using the geNorm program, a combination of two genes (Actin and NAD5) was identified as the stable set of reference genes for normalization of gene expression data obtained from grapevine leaves. By using gene-specific RT-qPCR in combination with a reliable normalization factor, we compared relative expression of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes between leaves infected with Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and exhibiting GLRD symptoms and virus-free green leaves obtained from a red-fruited wine grape cultivar (cv. Merlot). The expression levels of these different genes ranged from two- to fifty-fold increase in virus-infected leaves. Among them, CHS3, F3'5'H, F3H1, LDOX, LAR1 and MybA1 showed greater than 10-fold increase suggesting that they were expressed at significantly higher levels in virus-infected symptomatic leaves. HPLC profiling of anthocyanins extracted from leaves indicated the presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside only in virus-infected symptomatic leaves. The results also showed 24% higher levels of flavonols in virus-infected symptomatic leaves than in virus-free green leaves, with quercetin followed by myricetin being the predominant compounds. Proanthocyanidins, estimated as total tannins by protein precipitation method, were 36% higher in virus-infected symptomatic

  15. Yeast artificial chromosomes employed for random assembly of biosynthetic pathways and production of diverse compounds in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Naesby, Michael; Nielsen, Søren VS; Nielsen, Curt AF; Green, Trine; Tange, Thomas Ø; Simón, Ernesto; Knechtle, Philipp; Hansson, Anders; Schwab, Markus S; Titiz, Olca; Folly, Christophe; Archila, Roberto E; Maver, Milena; van Sint Fiet, Stephan; Boussemghoune, Thiamo; Janes, Michael; Kumar, A S Sathish; Sonkar, Shailendra P; Mitra, Partha P; Benjamin, V Ajai Kumar; Korrapati, Nimitha; Suman, Inala; Hansen, Esben H; Thybo, Tanja; Goldsmith, Neil; Sorensen, Alexandra Santana

    2009-01-01

    Background Natural products are an important source of drugs and other commercially interesting compounds, however their isolation and production is often difficult. Metabolic engineering, mainly in bacteria and yeast, has sought to circumvent some of the associated problems but also this approach is impeded by technical limitations. Here we describe a novel strategy for production of diverse natural products, comprising the expression of an unprecedented large number of biosynthetic genes in a heterologous host. Results As an example, genes from different sources, representing enzymes of a seven step flavonoid pathway, were individually cloned into yeast expression cassettes, which were then randomly combined on Yeast Artificial Chromosomes and used, in a single transformation of yeast, to create a variety of flavonoid producing pathways. Randomly picked clones were analysed, and approximately half of them showed production of the flavanone naringenin, and a third of them produced the flavonol kaempferol in various amounts. This reflected the assembly of 5–7 step multi-species pathways converting the yeast metabolites phenylalanine and/or tyrosine into flavonoids, normally only produced by plants. Other flavonoids were also produced that were either direct intermediates or derivatives thereof. Feeding natural and unnatural, halogenated precursors to these recombinant clones demonstrated the potential to further diversify the type of molecules that can be produced with this technology. Conclusion The technology has many potential uses but is particularly suited for generating high numbers of structurally diverse compounds, some of which may not be amenable to chemical synthesis, thus greatly facilitating access to a huge chemical space in the search for new commercially interesting compounds PMID:19678954

  16. Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Induces Aberrant Glycosylation through Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway Activation.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Miguel C; Carvalho-Cruz, Patricia; Donadio, Joana L; Oliveira, Isadora A; de Queiroz, Rafaela M; Marinho-Carvalho, Monica M; Sola-Penna, Mauro; de Paula, Iron F; Gondim, Katia C; McComb, Mark E; Costello, Catherine E; Whelan, Stephen A; Todeschini, Adriane R; Dias, Wagner B

    2016-06-17

    Deregulated cellular metabolism is a hallmark of tumors. Cancer cells increase glucose and glutamine flux to provide energy needs and macromolecular synthesis demands. Several studies have been focused on the importance of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway. However, a neglected but very important branch of glucose metabolism is the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). The HBP is a branch of the glucose metabolic pathway that consumes ∼2-5% of the total glucose, generating UDP-GlcNAc as the end product. UDP-GlcNAc is the donor substrate used in multiple glycosylation reactions. Thus, HBP links the altered metabolism with aberrant glycosylation providing a mechanism for cancer cells to sense and respond to microenvironment changes. Here, we investigate the changes of glucose metabolism during epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the role of O-GlcNAcylation in this process. We show that A549 cells increase glucose uptake during EMT, but instead of increasing the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway, the glucose is shunted through the HBP. The activation of HBP induces an aberrant cell surface glycosylation and O-GlcNAcylation. The cell surface glycans display an increase of sialylation α2-6, poly-LacNAc, and fucosylation, all known epitopes found in different tumor models. In addition, modulation of O-GlcNAc levels was demonstrated to be important during the EMT process. Taken together, our results indicate that EMT is an applicable model to study metabolic and glycophenotype changes during carcinogenesis, suggesting that cell glycosylation senses metabolic changes and modulates cell plasticity. PMID:27129262

  17. Giant Virus Megavirus chilensis Encodes the Biosynthetic Pathway for Uncommon Acetamido Sugars*

    PubMed Central

    Piacente, Francesco; De Castro, Cristina; Jeudy, Sandra; Molinaro, Antonio; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; Bernardi, Cinzia; Abergel, Chantal; Tonetti, Michela G.

    2014-01-01

    Giant viruses mimicking microbes, by the sizes of their particles and the heavily glycosylated fibrils surrounding their capsids, infect Acanthamoeba sp., which are ubiquitous unicellular eukaryotes. The glycans on fibrils are produced by virally encoded enzymes, organized in gene clusters. Like Mimivirus, Megavirus glycans are mainly composed of virally synthesized N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). They also contain N-acetylrhamnosamine (RhaNAc), a rare sugar; the enzymes involved in its synthesis are encoded by a gene cluster specific to Megavirus close relatives. We combined activity assays on two enzymes of the pathway with mass spectrometry and NMR studies to characterize their specificities. Mg534 is a 4,6-dehydratase 5-epimerase; its three-dimensional structure suggests that it belongs to a third subfamily of inverting dehydratases. Mg535, next in the pathway, is a bifunctional 3-epimerase 4-reductase. The sequential activity of the two enzymes leads to the formation of UDP-l-RhaNAc. This study is another example of giant viruses performing their glycan synthesis using enzymes different from their cellular counterparts, raising again the question of the origin of these pathways. PMID:25035429

  18. Giant virus Megavirus chilensis encodes the biosynthetic pathway for uncommon acetamido sugars.

    PubMed

    Piacente, Francesco; De Castro, Cristina; Jeudy, Sandra; Molinaro, Antonio; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; Bernardi, Cinzia; Abergel, Chantal; Tonetti, Michela G

    2014-08-29

    Giant viruses mimicking microbes, by the sizes of their particles and the heavily glycosylated fibrils surrounding their capsids, infect Acanthamoeba sp., which are ubiquitous unicellular eukaryotes. The glycans on fibrils are produced by virally encoded enzymes, organized in gene clusters. Like Mimivirus, Megavirus glycans are mainly composed of virally synthesized N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). They also contain N-acetylrhamnosamine (RhaNAc), a rare sugar; the enzymes involved in its synthesis are encoded by a gene cluster specific to Megavirus close relatives. We combined activity assays on two enzymes of the pathway with mass spectrometry and NMR studies to characterize their specificities. Mg534 is a 4,6-dehydratase 5-epimerase; its three-dimensional structure suggests that it belongs to a third subfamily of inverting dehydratases. Mg535, next in the pathway, is a bifunctional 3-epimerase 4-reductase. The sequential activity of the two enzymes leads to the formation of UDP-l-RhaNAc. This study is another example of giant viruses performing their glycan synthesis using enzymes different from their cellular counterparts, raising again the question of the origin of these pathways. PMID:25035429

  19. Hijacking the Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway to Promote EMT-Mediated Neoplastic Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Taparra, Kekoa; Tran, Phuoc T; Zachara, Natasha E

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved program necessary for orchestrating distant cell migration during embryonic development. Multiple studies in cancer have demonstrated a critical role for EMT during the initial stages of tumorigenesis and later during tumor invasion. Transcription factors (TFs) such as SNAIL, TWIST, and ZEB are master EMT regulators that are aberrantly overexpressed in many malignancies. Recent evidence correlates EMT-related transcriptomic alterations with metabolic reprograming in cancer. Metabolic alterations may allow cancer to adapt to environmental stressors, supporting the irregular macromolecular demand of rapid proliferation. One potential metabolic pathway of increasing importance is the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). The HBP utilizes glycolytic intermediates to generate the metabolite UDP-GlcNAc. This and other charged nucleotide sugars serve as the basis for biosynthesis of glycoproteins and other glycoconjugates. Recent reports in the field of glycobiology have cultivated great curiosity within the cancer research community. However, specific mechanistic relationships between the HBP and fundamental pathways of cancer, such as EMT, have yet to be elucidated. Altered protein glycosylation downstream of the HBP is well positioned to mediate many cellular changes associated with EMT including cell-cell adhesion, responsiveness to growth factors, immune system evasion, and signal transduction programs. Here, we outline some of the basics of the HBP and putative roles the HBP may have in driving EMT-related cancer processes. With novel appreciation of the HBP's connection to EMT, we hope to illuminate the potential for new therapeutic targets of cancer. PMID:27148477

  20. Hijacking the Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway to Promote EMT-Mediated Neoplastic Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Taparra, Kekoa; Tran, Phuoc T.; Zachara, Natasha E.

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved program necessary for orchestrating distant cell migration during embryonic development. Multiple studies in cancer have demonstrated a critical role for EMT during the initial stages of tumorigenesis and later during tumor invasion. Transcription factors (TFs) such as SNAIL, TWIST, and ZEB are master EMT regulators that are aberrantly overexpressed in many malignancies. Recent evidence correlates EMT-related transcriptomic alterations with metabolic reprograming in cancer. Metabolic alterations may allow cancer to adapt to environmental stressors, supporting the irregular macromolecular demand of rapid proliferation. One potential metabolic pathway of increasing importance is the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). The HBP utilizes glycolytic intermediates to generate the metabolite UDP–GlcNAc. This and other charged nucleotide sugars serve as the basis for biosynthesis of glycoproteins and other glycoconjugates. Recent reports in the field of glycobiology have cultivated great curiosity within the cancer research community. However, specific mechanistic relationships between the HBP and fundamental pathways of cancer, such as EMT, have yet to be elucidated. Altered protein glycosylation downstream of the HBP is well positioned to mediate many cellular changes associated with EMT including cell–cell adhesion, responsiveness to growth factors, immune system evasion, and signal transduction programs. Here, we outline some of the basics of the HBP and putative roles the HBP may have in driving EMT-related cancer processes. With novel appreciation of the HBP’s connection to EMT, we hope to illuminate the potential for new therapeutic targets of cancer. PMID:27148477

  1. Functional analysis of aromatic biosynthetic pathways in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Molina-Henares, M Antonia; García-Salamanca, Adela; Molina-Henares, A Jesús; de la Torre, Jesús; Herrera, M Carmen; Ramos, Juan L; Duque, Estrella

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a non-pathogenic prototrophic bacterium with high potential for biotechnological applications. Despite all that is known about this strain, the biosynthesis of essential chemicals has not been fully analysed and auxotroph mutants are scarce. We carried out massive mini-Tn5 random mutagenesis and screened for auxotrophs that require aromatic amino acids. The biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids was analysed in detail including physical and transcriptional organization of genes, complementation assays and feeding experiments to establish pathway intermediates. There is a single pathway from chorismate leading to the biosynthesis of tryptophan, whereas the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine is achieved through multiple convergent pathways. Genes for tryptophan biosynthesis are grouped in unlinked regions with the trpBA and trpGDE genes organized as operons and the trpI, trpE and trpF genes organized as single transcriptional units. The pheA and tyrA gene-encoding multifunctional enzymes for phenylalanine and tyrosine biosynthesis are linked in the chromosome and form an operon with the serC gene involved in serine biosynthesis. The last step in the biosynthesis of these two amino acids requires an amino transferase activity for which multiple tyrB-like genes are present in the host chromosome. PMID:21261884

  2. The initial step in the archaeal aspartate biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by a monofunctional aspartokinase

    PubMed Central

    Faehnle, Christopher R.; Liu, Xuying; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Viola, Ronald E.

    2006-01-01

    The activation of the β-carboxyl group of aspartate catalyzed by aspartokinase is the commitment step to amino-acid biosynthesis in the aspartate pathway. The first structure of a microbial aspartokinase, that from Methanococcus jannaschii, has been determined in the presence of the amino-acid substrate l-­aspartic acid and the nucleotide product MgADP. The enzyme assembles into a dimer of dimers, with the interfaces mediated by both the N- and C-terminal domains. The active-site functional groups responsible for substrate binding and specificity have been identified and roles have been proposed for putative catalytic functional groups. PMID:17012784

  3. The Structure of L-Tyrosine 2,3-Aminomutase frmo the C-1027 Enediyne Antitumor Antibiotic Biosynthetic Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson,C.; Montavon, T.; Van Lanen, S.; Shen, B.; Bruner, S.

    2007-01-01

    The SgcC4 L-tyrosine 2,3-aminomutase (SgTAM) catalyzes the formation of (S)-{beta}-tyrosine in the biosynthetic pathway of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027. SgTAM is homologous to the histidine ammonia lyase family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on the methylideneimidazole-5-one (MIO) cofactor. Unlike the lyase enzymes, SgTAM catalyzes additional chemical transformations resulting in an overall stereospecific 1,2-amino shift in the substrate L-tyrosine to generate (S)-{beta}-tyrosine. Previously, we provided kinetic, spectroscopic, and mutagenesis data supporting the presence of MIO in the active site of SgTAM [Christenson, S. D.; Wu, W.; Spies, A.; Shen, B.; and Toney, M. D. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 12708-12718]. Here we report the first X-ray crystal structure of an MIO-containing aminomutase, SgTAM, and confirm the structural homology of SgTAM to ammonia lyases. Comparison of the structure of SgTAM to the L-tyrosine ammonia lyase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides provides insight into the structural basis for aminomutase activity. The results show that SgTAM has a closed active site well suited to retain ammonia and minimize the formation of lyase elimination products. The amino acid determinants for substrate recognition and catalysis can be predicted from the structure, setting the framework for detailed mechanistic investigations.

  4. Crystal Structure of Baeyer−Villiger Monooxygenase MtmOIV, the Key Enzyme of the Mithramycin Biosynthetic Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Beam, Miranda P.; Bosserman, Mary A.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Wehenkel, Marie; Rohr, Jurgen; Kentucky

    2009-06-01

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs), mostly flavoproteins, were shown to be powerful biocatalysts for synthetic organic chemistry applications and were also suggested to play key roles for the biosyntheses of various natural products. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of MtmOIV, a 56 kDa homodimeric FAD- and NADPH-dependent monooxygenase, which catalyzes the key frame-modifying step of the mithramycin biosynthetic pathway and currently the only BVMO proven to react with its natural substrate via a Baeyer-Villiger reaction. MtmOIV's structure was determined by X-ray crystallography using molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.9 A. MtmOIV cleaves a C-C bond, essential for the conversion of the biologically inactive precursor, premithramycin B, into the active drug mithramycin. The MtmOIV structure combined with substrate docking calculations and site-directed mutagenesis experiments identifies several residues that participate in cofactor and substrate binding. Future experimentation aimed at broadening the substrate specificity of the enzyme could facilitate the generation of chemically diverse mithramycin analogues through combinatorial biosynthesis.

  5. Rhodobacter sphaeroides mutants overexpressing chlorophyllide a oxidoreductase of Blastochloris viridis elucidate functions of enzymes in late bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tsukatani, Yusuke; Harada, Jiro; Nomata, Jiro; Yamamoto, Haruki; Fujita, Yuichi; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies we have demonstrated that chlorophyllide a oxidoreductases (CORs) from bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a-producing Rhodobacter species and BChl b-producing Blastochloris viridis show distinct substrate recognition and different catalytic hydrogenation reactions, and that these two types of CORs therefore cause committed steps for BChls a and b biosynthesis. In this study, COR genes from B. viridis were incorporated and overexpressed in a series of Rhodobacter sphaeroides mutants. We found that the following two factors are essential in making R. sphaeroides produce BChl b: the loss of functions of both intrinsic COR and 8-vinyl reductase (BciA) in the host R. sphaeroides strain; and expression of the BchYZ catalytic components of COR from B. viridis, not the complete set of COR (BchXYZ), in the host strain. In addition, we incorporated bchYZ of B. viridis into the R. sphaeroides mutant lacking BchJ and BciA, resulting in the strain accumulating both BChl a and BChl b. This is the first example of an anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium producing BChls a and b together. The results suggest that BchJ enhances activity of the intrinsic COR. The physiological significance of BchJ in pigment biosynthetic pathways will be discussed. PMID:25978726

  6. Depth-related distribution of a key gene of the tetraether lipid biosynthetic pathway in marine Thaumarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Laura; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT) lipids synthesized by Thaumarchaeota has been shown to be temperature-dependent in world oceans. Depth-related differences in the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) of Thaumarchaeota have led to the classification of 'shallow' and 'deep water' clusters, potentially affecting GDGT distributions. Here, we investigate if this classification is also reflected in a key gene of the thaumarchaeotal lipid biosynthetic pathway coding for geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate (GGGP) synthase. We investigated metagenomic databases, suspended particulate matter and surface sediment of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone. These revealed significant differences in amoA and GGGP synthase between 'shallow' and 'deep water' Thaumarchaeota. Intriguingly, amoA and GGGP synthase sequences of benthic Thaumarchaeota clustered with the 'shallow water' rather than with 'deep water' Thaumarchaeota. This suggests that pressure and temperature are unlikely factors that drive the differentiation, and suggests an important role of ammonia concentration that is higher in benthic and 'shallow water' niches. Analysis of the relative abundance of GDGTs in the Arabian Sea and in globally distributed surface sediments showed differences in GDGT distributions from subsurface to deep waters that may be explained by differences in the GGGP synthase, suggesting a genetic control on GDGT distributions. PMID:24813867

  7. Expression of genes associated with the biosynthetic pathways of abscisic acid, gibberellin, and ethylene during the germination of lettuce seeds.

    PubMed

    Clemente, A C S; Guimarães, R M; Martins, D C; Gomes, L A A; Caixeta, F; Reis, R G E; Rosa, S D V F

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination and dormancy are complex phenomena that are controlled by many genes and environmental factors. Such genes are indicated by phytohormones that interact with each other, and may cause dormancy or promote seed germination. The objective of this study was to investigate gene expression associated with the biosynthetic pathways of abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA), and ethylene (ET) in dormant and germinated lettuce seeds. The expressions of LsNCED, LsGA3ox1, and ACO-B were evaluated in germinating and dormant seeds from the cultivars Everglades, Babá de Verão, Verônica, Salinas, Colorado, and Regina 71. The expressions of LsNCED, LsGA3ox1, and ACO-B were related to the biosynthesis of ABA, GA, and ET, respectively; therefore, the presence of these substances depends on genotype. LsNCED expression only occurred in dormant seeds, and was connected to dormancy. LsGA3ox1expression only occurred in germinated seeds, and was connected to germination. The ACO-B gene was involved in ET biosynthesis, and was expressed differently in germinated and dormant seeds, depending on the genotype, indicating different functions for different characteristics. Furthermore, sensitivity to phytohormones appeared to be more important than the expression levels of LsNCED, LsGA3ox1, or ACO-B. PMID:25966245

  8. The structure of L-tyrosine 2,3-aminomutase from the C-1027 enediyne antitumor antibiotic biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Carl V; Montavon, Timothy J; Van Lanen, Steven G; Shen, Ben; Bruner, Steven D

    2007-06-19

    The SgcC4 l-tyrosine 2,3-aminomutase (SgTAM) catalyzes the formation of (S)-beta-tyrosine in the biosynthetic pathway of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027. SgTAM is homologous to the histidine ammonia lyase family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on the methylideneimidazole-5-one (MIO) cofactor. Unlike the lyase enzymes, SgTAM catalyzes additional chemical transformations resulting in an overall stereospecific 1,2-amino shift in the substrate l-tyrosine to generate (S)-beta-tyrosine. Previously, we provided kinetic, spectroscopic, and mutagenesis data supporting the presence of MIO in the active site of SgTAM [Christenson, S. D.; Wu, W.; Spies, A.; Shen, B.; and Toney, M. D. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 12708-12718]. Here we report the first X-ray crystal structure of an MIO-containing aminomutase, SgTAM, and confirm the structural homology of SgTAM to ammonia lyases. Comparison of the structure of SgTAM to the l-tyrosine ammonia lyase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides provides insight into the structural basis for aminomutase activity. The results show that SgTAM has a closed active site well suited to retain ammonia and minimize the formation of lyase elimination products. The amino acid determinants for substrate recognition and catalysis can be predicted from the structure, setting the framework for detailed mechanistic investigations. PMID:17516659

  9. Crystal structure of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase MtmOIV, the key enzyme of the mithramycin biosynthetic pathway .

    PubMed

    Beam, Miranda P; Bosserman, Mary A; Noinaj, Nicholas; Wehenkel, Marie; Rohr, Jürgen

    2009-06-01

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs), mostly flavoproteins, were shown to be powerful biocatalysts for synthetic organic chemistry applications and were also suggested to play key roles for the biosyntheses of various natural products. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of MtmOIV, a 56 kDa homodimeric FAD- and NADPH-dependent monooxygenase, which catalyzes the key frame-modifying step of the mithramycin biosynthetic pathway and currently the only BVMO proven to react with its natural substrate via a Baeyer-Villiger reaction. MtmOIV's structure was determined by X-ray crystallography using molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.9 A. MtmOIV cleaves a C-C bond, essential for the conversion of the biologically inactive precursor, premithramycin B, into the active drug mithramycin. The MtmOIV structure combined with substrate docking calculations and site-directed mutagenesis experiments identifies several residues that participate in cofactor and substrate binding. Future experimentation aimed at broadening the substrate specificity of the enzyme could facilitate the generation of chemically diverse mithramycin analogues through combinatorial biosynthesis. PMID:19364090

  10. Role of Magnesium Chelatase Activity in the Early Steps of the Tetrapyrrole Biosynthetic Pathway1

    PubMed Central

    Papenbrock, Jutta; Mock, Hans-Peter; Tanaka, Ryouichi; Kruse, Elisabeth; Grimm, Bernhard

    2000-01-01

    Magnesium-protoporphyrin IX chelatase (Mg-chelatase) is located at the branchpoint of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, at which point protoporphyrin IX is distributed for the synthesis of chlorophyll and heme. We investigated the regulatory contribution of Mg-chelatase to the flow of metabolites. In plants, the enzyme complex consists of three subunits, designated CHL D, CHL I, and CHL H. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing antisense RNA for the Mg-chelatase subunit CHL H were analyzed to elucidate further the role of Mg-chelatase in the distribution of protoporphyrin IX into the branched tetrapyrrolic pathway. The transgenic plants displayed a reduced growth rate and chlorophyll deficiency. Both phenotypical properties were correlated with lower Mg-chelatase activity. Unexpectedly, less protoporphyrin IX and heme accumulated, and a decrease in 5-aminolevulinate (ALA)-synthesizing capacity and ALA dehydratase activity paralleled the progressive reduction in Mg-chelatase activity in the transformants compared with control plants. The reduced activities of the early enzymatic steps corresponded with lower levels of transcripts encoding glutamyl-tRNA reductase and ALA-dehydratase. The decreased expression and activities of early enzymes in the pathway could be explained by a feedback-controlled mechanism in response to lower Mg-chelatase activity. We discuss intercompartmental signaling that synchronizes the activities of the first steps in tetrapyrrolic metabolism with the late steps for the synthesis of end products. PMID:10759511

  11. Membrane lipids in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: biosynthetic pathways and importance for pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Meriyem; Danne, Linna; Möller, Philip; Narberhaus, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Many cellular processes critically depend on the membrane composition. In this review, we focus on the biosynthesis and physiological roles of membrane lipids in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The major components of A. tumefaciens membranes are the phospholipids (PLs), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cardiolipin, and ornithine lipids (OLs). Under phosphate-limited conditions, the membrane composition shifts to phosphate-free lipids like glycolipids, OLs and a betaine lipid. Remarkably, PC and OLs have opposing effects on virulence of A. tumefaciens. OL-lacking A. tumefaciens mutants form tumors on the host plant earlier than the wild type suggesting a reduced host defense response in the absence of OLs. In contrast, A. tumefaciens is compromised in tumor formation in the absence of PC. In general, PC is a rare component of bacterial membranes but amount to ~22% of all PLs in A. tumefaciens. PC biosynthesis occurs via two pathways. The phospholipid N-methyltransferase PmtA methylates PE via the intermediates monomethyl-PE and dimethyl-PE to PC. In the second pathway, the membrane-integral enzyme PC synthase (Pcs) condenses choline with CDP-diacylglycerol to PC. Apart from the virulence defect, PC-deficient A. tumefaciens pmtA and pcs double mutants show reduced motility, enhanced biofilm formation and increased sensitivity towards detergent and thermal stress. In summary, there is cumulative evidence that the membrane lipid composition of A. tumefaciens is critical for agrobacterial physiology and tumor formation. PMID:24723930

  12. A specialized flavone biosynthetic pathway has evolved in the medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Gang; Hill, Lionel; Weng, Jing-Ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Xue, Hongwei; Martin, Cathie

    2016-04-01

    Wogonin and baicalein are bioactive flavones in the popular Chinese herbal remedy Huang-Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi). These specialized flavones lack a 4'-hydroxyl group on the B ring (4'-deoxyflavones) and induce apoptosis in a wide spectrum of human tumor cells in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo in different mouse tumor models. Root-specific flavones (RSFs) from Scutellaria have a variety of reported additional beneficial effects including antioxidant and antiviral properties. We describe the characterization of a new pathway for the synthesis of these compounds, in which pinocembrin (a 4'-deoxyflavanone) serves as a key intermediate. Although two genes encoding flavone synthase II (FNSII) are expressed in the roots of S. baicalensis, FNSII-1 has broad specificity for flavanones as substrates, whereas FNSII-2 is specific for pinocembrin. FNSII-2 is responsible for the synthesis of 4'-deoxyRSFs, such as chrysin and wogonin, wogonoside, baicalein, and baicalin, which are synthesized from chrysin. A gene encoding a cinnamic acid-specific coenzyme A ligase (SbCLL-7), which is highly expressed in roots, is required for the synthesis of RSFs by FNSII-2, as demonstrated by gene silencing. A specific isoform of chalcone synthase (SbCHS-2) that is highly expressed in roots producing RSFs is also required for the synthesis of chrysin. Our studies reveal a recently evolved pathway for biosynthesis of specific, bioactive 4'-deoxyflavones in the roots of S. baicalensis. PMID:27152350

  13. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  14. A specialized flavone biosynthetic pathway has evolved in the medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Gang; Hill, Lionel; Weng, Jing-Ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Xue, Hongwei; Martin, Cathie

    2016-01-01

    Wogonin and baicalein are bioactive flavones in the popular Chinese herbal remedy Huang-Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi). These specialized flavones lack a 4′-hydroxyl group on the B ring (4′-deoxyflavones) and induce apoptosis in a wide spectrum of human tumor cells in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo in different mouse tumor models. Root-specific flavones (RSFs) from Scutellaria have a variety of reported additional beneficial effects including antioxidant and antiviral properties. We describe the characterization of a new pathway for the synthesis of these compounds, in which pinocembrin (a 4′-deoxyflavanone) serves as a key intermediate. Although two genes encoding flavone synthase II (FNSII) are expressed in the roots of S. baicalensis, FNSII-1 has broad specificity for flavanones as substrates, whereas FNSII-2 is specific for pinocembrin. FNSII-2 is responsible for the synthesis of 4′-deoxyRSFs, such as chrysin and wogonin, wogonoside, baicalein, and baicalin, which are synthesized from chrysin. A gene encoding a cinnamic acid–specific coenzyme A ligase (SbCLL-7), which is highly expressed in roots, is required for the synthesis of RSFs by FNSII-2, as demonstrated by gene silencing. A specific isoform of chalcone synthase (SbCHS-2) that is highly expressed in roots producing RSFs is also required for the synthesis of chrysin. Our studies reveal a recently evolved pathway for biosynthesis of specific, bioactive 4′-deoxyflavones in the roots of S. baicalensis. PMID:27152350

  15. Use of the valine biosynthetic pathway to convert glucose into isobutanol.

    PubMed

    Savrasova, Ekaterina A; Kivero, Aleksander D; Shakulov, Rustem S; Stoynova, Nataliya V

    2011-09-01

    Microbiological synthesis of higher alcohols (1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, etc.) from plant biomass is critically important due to their advantages over ethanol as a motor fuel. In recent years, the use of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis pathways together with heterologous Ehrlich pathway enzyme system (Hazelwood et al. in Appl Environ Microbiol 74:2259-2266, 2008) has been proposed by the Liao group as an alternative approach to aerobic production of higher alcohols as new-generation biofuels (Atsumi et al. in Nature 451:86-90, 2008; Atsumi et al. in Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85:651-657, 2010; Cann and Liao in Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 81:89-98, 2008; Connor and Liao in Appl Environ Microbiol 74:5769-5775, 2008; Shen and Liao in Metab Eng 10:312-320, 2008; Yan and Liao in J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 36:471-479, 2009). On the basis of these remarkable investigations, we re-engineered Escherichia coli valine-producing strain H-81, which possess overexpressed ilvGMED operon, for the aerobic conversion of sugar into isobutanol. To redirect valine biosynthesis to the production of alcohol, we also--as has been demonstrated previously (Atsumi et al. in Nature 451:86-90, 2008; Atsumi et al. in Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85:651-657, 2010; Cann and Liao in Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 81:89-98, 2008; Connor and Liao in Appl Environ Microbiol 74:5769-5775, 2008; Shen and Liao in Metab Eng 10:312-320, 2008; Yan and Liao in J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 36:471-479, 2009)--used enzymes of Ehrlich pathway. In particular, in our study, the following heterologous proteins were exploited: branched-chain 2-keto acid decarboxylase (BCKAD) encoded by the kdcA gene from Lactococcus lactis with rare codons substituted, and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) encoded by the ADH2 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that expression of both of these genes in the valine-producing strain H-81 results in accumulation of isobutanol instead of valine. Expression of BCKAD

  16. The role of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in Cryptococcus neoformans high temperature growth and virulence

    PubMed Central

    de Gontijo, Fabiano Assis; Pascon, Renata C.; Fernandes, Larissa; Machado, Joel; Alspaugh, J. Andrew; Vallim, Marcelo A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are often difficult to treat due to the inherent similarities between fungal and animal cells and the resulting host toxicity from many antifungal compounds. Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans that causes life-threatening disease, primarily in immunocompromised patients. Since antifungal therapy for this microorganism is limited, many investigators have explored novel drug targets aim at virulence factors, such as the ability to grow at mammalian physiological temperature (37°C). To address this issue, we used the Agrobacterium tumefaciens gene delivery system to create a random insertion mutagenesis library that was screened for altered growth at elevated temperatures. Among several mutants unable to grow at 37°C, we explored one bearing an interruption in the URA4 gene. This gene encodes dihydroorotase (DHOase) that is involved in the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides. Loss of the C. neoformans Ura4 protein, by targeted gene interruption, resulted in an expected uracil/uridine auxotrophy and an unexpected high temperature growth defect. In addition, the ura4 mutant displayed phenotypic defects in other prominent virulence factors (melanin, capsule and phospholipase) and reduced stress response compared to wild type and reconstituted strains. Accordingly, this mutant had a decreased survival rate in macrophages and attenuated virulence in a murine model of cryptococcal infection. Quantitative PCR analysis suggests that this biosynthetic pathway is induced during the transition from 30°C to 37°C, and that transcriptional regulation of de novo and salvage pyrimidine pathway are under the control of the Ura4 protein. PMID:25011011

  17. Engineering Salidroside Biosynthetic Pathway in Hairy Root Cultures of Rhodiola crenulata Based on Metabolic Characterization of Tyrosine Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lingjiang; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Qiu, Fei; Zheng, Weilie; Quan, Hong; Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Min; Huang, Wenlin; Liu, Wanhong; Wang, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine decarboxylase initializes salidroside biosynthesis. Metabolic characterization of tyrosine decarboxylase gene from Rhodiola crenulata (RcTYDC) revealed that it played an important role in salidroside biosynthesis. Recombinant 53 kDa RcTYDC converted tyrosine into tyramine. RcTYDC gene expression was induced coordinately with the expression of RcUDPGT (the last gene involved in salidroside biosynthesis) in SA/MeJA treatment; the expression of RcTYDC and RcUDPGT was dramatically upregulated by SA, respectively 49 folds and 36 folds compared with control. MeJA also significantly increased the expression of RcTYDC and RcUDPGT in hairy root cultures. The tissue profile of RcTYDC and RcUDPGT was highly similar: highest expression levels found in stems, higher expression levels in leaves than in flowers and roots. The gene expressing levels were consistent with the salidroside accumulation levels. This strongly suggested that RcTYDC played an important role in salidroside biosynthesis in R. crenulata. Finally, RcTYDC was used to engineering salidroside biosynthetic pathway in R. crenulata hairy roots via metabolic engineering strategy of overexpression. All the transgenic lines showed much higher expression levels of RcTYDC than non-transgenic one. The transgenic lines produced tyramine, tyrosol and salidroside at higher levels, which were respectively 3.21–6.84, 1.50–2.19 and 1.27–3.47 folds compared with the corresponding compound in non-transgenic lines. In conclusion, RcTYDC overexpression promoted tyramine biosynthesis that facilitated more metabolic flux flowing toward the downstream pathway and as a result, the intermediate tyrosol was accumulated more that led to the increased production of the end-product salidroside. PMID:24124492

  18. Discovery of the Elusive UDP-Diacylglucosamine Hydrolase in the Lipid A Biosynthetic Pathway in Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Young, Hayley E.; Zhao, Jinshi; Barker, Jeffrey R.; Guan, Ziqiang; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Constitutive biosynthesis of lipid A via the Raetz pathway is essential for the viability and fitness of Gram-negative bacteria, including Chlamydia trachomatis. Although nearly all of the enzymes in the lipid A biosynthetic pathway are highly conserved across Gram-negative bacteria, the cleavage of the pyrophosphate group of UDP-2,3-diacyl-GlcN (UDP-DAGn) to form lipid X is carried out by two unrelated enzymes: LpxH in beta- and gammaproteobacteria and LpxI in alphaproteobacteria. The intracellular pathogen C. trachomatis lacks an ortholog for either of these two enzymes, and yet, it synthesizes lipid A and exhibits conservation of genes encoding other lipid A enzymes. Employing a complementation screen against a C. trachomatis genomic library using a conditional-lethal lpxH mutant Escherichia coli strain, we have identified an open reading frame (Ct461, renamed lpxG) encoding a previously uncharacterized enzyme that complements the UDP-DAGn hydrolase function in E. coli and catalyzes the conversion of UDP-DAGn to lipid X in vitro. LpxG shows little sequence similarity to either LpxH or LpxI, highlighting LpxG as the founding member of a third class of UDP-DAGn hydrolases. Overexpression of LpxG results in toxic accumulation of lipid X and profoundly reduces the infectivity of C. trachomatis, validating LpxG as the long-sought-after UDP-DAGn pyrophosphatase in this prominent human pathogen. The complementation approach presented here overcomes the lack of suitable genetic tools for C. trachomatis and should be broadly applicable for the functional characterization of other essential C. trachomatis genes. PMID:27006461

  19. Hereditary Tyrosinemia and the Heme Biosynthetic Pathway. PROFOUND INHIBITION OF δ-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID DEHYDRATASE ACTIVITY BY SUCCINYLACETONE

    PubMed Central

    Sassa, Shigeru; Kappas, Attallah

    1983-01-01

    Succinylacetone (4,6-dioxoheptanoic acid) is an abnormal metabolite produced in patients with hereditary tyrosinemia as a consequence of an inherited deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. It is known that patients with this hereditary disease excrete excessive amounts of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in urine and that certain patients have an accompanying clinical syndrome resembling that of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). In order to elucidate the relation of succinylacetone to the heme biosynthetic pathway, we have examined the effects of this metabolite on the cellular heme content of cultured avian hepatocytes and on the activity of purified ALA dehydratase from normal human erythrocytes and from mouse and bovine liver. Our data indicate that succinylacetone is an extremely potent competitive inhibitor of ALA dehydratase in human as well as in animal tissues. By using purified preparations of the enzyme from human erythrocytes and mouse and bovine liver, an inhibitor constant ranging from 2 × 10-7 M to 3 × 10-7 M was obtained. In cultured hepatocytes, succinylacetone also inhibited ALA dehydratase activity, decreased the cellular content of heme and cytochrome P-450, and greatly potentiated the induction response of ALA synthase to drugs such as phenobarbital, chemicals such as allylisopropylacetamide and 3,5-dicarbethoxy-1,4-dihydrocollidine, and natural steroids such as etiocholanolone. Four patients with hereditary tyrosinemia have been studied and all were found to have greatly depressed levels of erythrocyte ALA dehydratase activity and elevated concentrations of this inhibitor in urine. These findings indicate that tyrosinemia is a disorder of special pharmacogenetic interest because succinylacetone, an abnormal product of the tyrosine metabolic pathway, resulting from the primary gene defect of the disease, profoundly inhibits heme biosynthesis in normal cells through a blockade at the ALA dehydratase level, leading to clinical and metabolic

  20. Arctic mustard flower color polymorphism controlled by petal-specific downregulation at the threshold of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Dick, Cynthia A; Buenrostro, Jason; Butler, Timothy; Carlson, Matthew L; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Whittall, Justen B

    2011-01-01

    Intra- and interspecific variation in flower color is a hallmark of angiosperm diversity. The evolutionary forces underlying the variety of flower colors can be nearly as diverse as the colors themselves. In addition to pollinator preferences, non-pollinator agents of selection can have a major influence on the evolution of flower color polymorphisms, especially when the pigments in question are also expressed in vegetative tissues. In such cases, identifying the target(s) of selection starts with determining the biochemical and molecular basis for the flower color variation and examining any pleiotropic effects manifested in vegetative tissues. Herein, we describe a widespread purple-white flower color polymorphism in the mustard Parrya nudicaulis spanning Alaska. The frequency of white-flowered individuals increases with increasing growing-season temperature, consistent with the role of anthocyanin pigments in stress tolerance. White petals fail to produce the stress responsive flavonoid intermediates in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP), suggesting an early pathway blockage. Petal cDNA sequences did not reveal blockages in any of the eight enzyme-coding genes in white-flowered individuals, nor any color differentiating SNPs. A qRT-PCR analysis of white petals identified a 24-fold reduction in chalcone synthase (CHS) at the threshold of the ABP, but no change in CHS expression in leaves and sepals. This arctic species has avoided the deleterious effects associated with the loss of flavonoid intermediates in vegetative tissues by decoupling CHS expression in petals and leaves, yet the correlation of flower color and climate suggests that the loss of flavonoids in the petals alone may affect the tolerance of white-flowered individuals to colder environments. PMID:21490971

  1. Genome Engineering of the 2,3-Butanediol Biosynthetic Pathway for Tight Regulation in Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Nozzi, Nicole E; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-11-20

    Cyanobacteria have gained popularity among the metabolic engineering community as a tractable photosynthetic host for renewable chemical production. However, though a number of successfully engineered production systems have been reported, long-term genetic stability remains an issue for cyanobacterial systems. The genetic engineering toolbox for cyanobacteria is largely lacking inducible systems for expression control. The characterization of tight regulation systems for use in cyanobacteria may help to alleviate this problem. In this work we explore the function of the IPTG inducible promoter P(L)lacO1 in the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as well as the effect of gene order within an operon on pathway expression. According to our experiments, P(L)lacO1 functions well as an inducible promoter in S. elongatus. Additionally, we found that gene order within an operon can strongly influence control of expression of each gene. PMID:25974153

  2. Bioinformatic and Biochemical Characterizations of C–S Bond Formation and Cleavage Enzymes in the Fungus Neurospora crassa Ergothioneine Biosynthetic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ergothioneine is a histidine thiol derivative. Its mycobacterial biosynthetic pathway has five steps (EgtA-E catalysis) with two novel reactions: a mononuclear nonheme iron enzyme (EgtB) catalyzed oxidative C–S bond formation and a PLP-mediated C–S lyase (EgtE) reaction. Our bioinformatic and biochemical analyses indicate that the fungus Neurospora crassa has a more concise ergothioneine biosynthetic pathway because its nonheme iron enzyme, Egt1, makes use of cysteine instead of γ-Glu-Cys as the substrate. Such a change of substrate preference eliminates the competition between ergothioneine and glutathione biosyntheses. In addition, we have identified the N. crassa C–S lyase (NCU11365) and reconstituted its activity in vitro, which makes the future ergothioneine production through metabolic engineering feasible. PMID:25275953

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa d-Arabinofuranose Biosynthetic Pathway and Its Role in Type IV Pilus Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Hanjeong; Kus, Julianne V.; Tessier, Luc; Kelly, John; Burrows, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains PA7 and Pa5196 glycosylate their type IVa pilins with α1,5-linked d-arabinofuranose (d-Araf), a rare sugar configuration identical to that found in cell wall polymers of the Corynebacterineae. Despite this chemical identity, the pathway for biosynthesis of α1,5-d-Araf in Gram-negative bacteria is unknown. Bioinformatics analyses pointed to a cluster of seven P. aeruginosa genes, including homologues of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes Rv3806c, Rv3790, and Rv3791, required for synthesis of a polyprenyl-linked d-ribose precursor and its epimerization to d-Araf. Pa5196 mutants lacking the orthologues of those genes had non-arabinosylated pilins, poor twitching motility, and significantly fewer surface pili than the wild type even in a retraction-deficient (pilT) background. The Pa5196 pilus system assembled heterologous non-glycosylated pilins efficiently, demonstrating that it does not require post-translationally modified subunits. Together the data suggest that pilins of group IV strains need to be glycosylated for productive subunit-subunit interactions. A recombinant P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain co-expressing the genes for d-Araf biosynthesis, the pilin modification enzyme TfpW, and the acceptor PilAIV produced arabinosylated pili, confirming that the Pa5196 genes identified are both necessary and sufficient. A P. aeruginosa epimerase knock-out could be complemented with the corresponding Mycobacterium smegmatis gene, demonstrating conservation between the systems of the Corynebacterineae and Pseudomonas. This work describes a novel Gram-negative pathway for biosynthesis of d-Araf, a key therapeutic target in Corynebacterineae. PMID:21676874

  4. Metabolic Reprogramming by Hexosamine Biosynthetic and Golgi N-Glycan Branching Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ryczko, Michael C.; Pawling, Judy; Chen, Rui; Abdel Rahman, Anas M.; Yau, Kevin; Copeland, Julia K.; Zhang, Cunjie; Surendra, Anu; Guttman, David S.; Figeys, Daniel; Dennis, James W.

    2016-01-01

    De novo uridine-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) biosynthesis requires glucose, glutamine, acetyl-CoA and uridine, however GlcNAc salvaged from glycoconjugate turnover and dietary sources also makes a significant contribution to the intracellular pool. Herein we ask whether dietary GlcNAc regulates nutrient transport and intermediate metabolism in C57BL/6 mice by increasing UDP-GlcNAc and in turn Golgi N-glycan branching. GlcNAc added to the drinking water showed a dose-dependent increase in growth of young mice, while in mature adult mice fat and body-weight increased without affecting calorie-intake, activity, energy expenditure, or the microbiome. Oral GlcNAc increased hepatic UDP-GlcNAc and N-glycan branching on hepatic glycoproteins. Glucose homeostasis, hepatic glycogen, lipid metabolism and response to fasting were altered with GlcNAc treatment. In cultured cells GlcNAc enhanced uptake of glucose, glutamine and fatty-acids, and enhanced lipid synthesis, while inhibition of Golgi N-glycan branching blocked GlcNAc-dependent lipid accumulation. The N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase enzymes of the N-glycan branching pathway (Mgat1,2,4,5) display multistep ultrasensitivity to UDP-GlcNAc, as well as branching-dependent compensation. Indeed, oral GlcNAc rescued fat accumulation in lean Mgat5−/− mice and in cultured Mgat5−/− hepatocytes, consistent with N-glycan branching compensation. Our results suggest GlcNAc reprograms cellular metabolism by enhancing nutrient uptake and lipid storage through the UDP-GlcNAc supply to N-glycan branching pathway. PMID:26972830

  5. Metabolic Reprogramming by Hexosamine Biosynthetic and Golgi N-Glycan Branching Pathways.

    PubMed

    Ryczko, Michael C; Pawling, Judy; Chen, Rui; Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Yau, Kevin; Copeland, Julia K; Zhang, Cunjie; Surendra, Anu; Guttman, David S; Figeys, Daniel; Dennis, James W

    2016-01-01

    De novo uridine-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) biosynthesis requires glucose, glutamine, acetyl-CoA and uridine, however GlcNAc salvaged from glycoconjugate turnover and dietary sources also makes a significant contribution to the intracellular pool. Herein we ask whether dietary GlcNAc regulates nutrient transport and intermediate metabolism in C57BL/6 mice by increasing UDP-GlcNAc and in turn Golgi N-glycan branching. GlcNAc added to the drinking water showed a dose-dependent increase in growth of young mice, while in mature adult mice fat and body-weight increased without affecting calorie-intake, activity, energy expenditure, or the microbiome. Oral GlcNAc increased hepatic UDP-GlcNAc and N-glycan branching on hepatic glycoproteins. Glucose homeostasis, hepatic glycogen, lipid metabolism and response to fasting were altered with GlcNAc treatment. In cultured cells GlcNAc enhanced uptake of glucose, glutamine and fatty-acids, and enhanced lipid synthesis, while inhibition of Golgi N-glycan branching blocked GlcNAc-dependent lipid accumulation. The N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase enzymes of the N-glycan branching pathway (Mgat1,2,4,5) display multistep ultrasensitivity to UDP-GlcNAc, as well as branching-dependent compensation. Indeed, oral GlcNAc rescued fat accumulation in lean Mgat5(-/-) mice and in cultured Mgat5(-/-) hepatocytes, consistent with N-glycan branching compensation. Our results suggest GlcNAc reprograms cellular metabolism by enhancing nutrient uptake and lipid storage through the UDP-GlcNAc supply to N-glycan branching pathway. PMID:26972830

  6. Overexpression of the Coq8 Kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae coq Null Mutants Allows for Accumulation of Diagnostic Intermediates of the Coenzyme Q6 Biosynthetic Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Letian X.; Ozeir, Mohammad; Tang, Jeniffer Y.; Chen, Jia Y.; Jaquinod, Sylvie-Kieffer; Fontecave, Marc; Clarke, Catherine F.; Pierrel, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Most of the Coq proteins involved in coenzyme Q (ubiquinone or Q) biosynthesis are interdependent within a multiprotein complex in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lack of only one Coq polypeptide, as in Δcoq strains, results in the degradation of several Coq proteins. Consequently, Δcoq strains accumulate the same early intermediate of the Q6 biosynthetic pathway; this intermediate is therefore not informative about the deficient biosynthetic step in a particular Δcoq strain. In this work, we report that the overexpression of the protein Coq8 in Δcoq strains restores steady state levels of the unstable Coq proteins. Coq8 has been proposed to be a kinase, and we provide evidence that the kinase activity is essential for the stabilizing effect of Coq8 in the Δcoq strains. This stabilization results in the accumulation of several novel Q6 biosynthetic intermediates. These Q intermediates identify chemical steps impaired in cells lacking Coq4 and Coq9 polypeptides, for which no function has been established to date. Several of the new intermediates contain a C4-amine and provide information on the deamination reaction that takes place when para-aminobenzoic acid is used as a ring precursor of Q6. Finally, we used synthetic analogues of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid to bypass deficient biosynthetic steps, and we show here that 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid is able to restore Q6 biosynthesis and respiratory growth in a Δcoq7 strain overexpressing Coq8. The overexpression of Coq8 and the use of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid analogues represent innovative tools to elucidate the Q biosynthetic pathway. PMID:22593570

  7. High isoprenoid flux Escherichia coli as a host for carotenoids production.

    PubMed

    Suh, Wonchul

    2012-01-01

    A noncarotenogenic microbe E. coli was engineered for high production of carotenoids. To increase the isoprenoid flux, the chromosomal native promoters of the rate-controlling steps (dxs, idi and ispDispF) in the isoprenoid pathway were replaced with a strong bacteriophage T5 promoter (P(T5)) by using the λ-Red recombinase system in combination with the Flp/FRT site-specific recombination system for marker excision and P1 transduction for gene trait stacking. The resulting high isoprenoid flux E. coli can be used as a starting strain to produce various carotenoids by introducing heterologous carotenoid genes. In this study, the high isoprenoid flux E. coli was transformed with a plasmid carrying the β-carotene biosynthetic genes from Pantoea stewartii for β-carotene production. PMID:22144352

  8. Cytochrome P450 promiscuity leads to a bifurcating biosynthetic pathway for tanshinones.

    PubMed

    Guo, Juan; Ma, Xiaohui; Cai, Yuan; Ma, Ying; Zhan, Zhilai; Zhou, Yongjin J; Liu, Wujun; Guan, Mengxin; Yang, Jian; Cui, Guanghong; Kang, Liping; Yang, Lei; Shen, Ye; Tang, Jinfu; Lin, Huixin; Ma, Xiaojing; Jin, Baolong; Liu, Zhenming; Peters, Reuben J; Zhao, Zongbao K; Huang, Luqi

    2016-04-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play a key role in generating the structural diversity of terpenoids, the largest group of plant natural products. However, functional characterization of CYPs has been challenging because of the expansive families found in plant genomes, diverse reactivity and inaccessibility of their substrates and products. Here we present the characterization of two CYPs, CYP76AH3 and CYP76AK1, which act sequentially to form a bifurcating pathway for the biosynthesis of tanshinones, the oxygenated diterpenoids from the Chinese medicinal plant Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). These CYPs had similar transcription profiles to that of the known gene responsible for tanshinone production in elicited Danshen hairy roots. Biochemical and RNA interference studies demonstrated that both CYPs are promiscuous. CYP76AH3 oxidizes ferruginol at two different carbon centers, and CYP76AK1 hydroxylates C-20 of two of the resulting intermediates. Together, these convert ferruginol into 11,20-dihydroxy ferruginol and 11,20-dihydroxy sugiol en route to tanshinones. Moreover, we demonstrated the utility of these CYPs by engineering yeast for heterologous production of six oxygenated diterpenoids, which in turn enabled structural characterization of three novel compounds produced by CYP-mediated oxidation. Our results highlight the incorporation of multiple CYPs into diterpenoid metabolic engineering, and a continuing trend of CYP promiscuity generating complex networks in terpenoid biosynthesis. PMID:26682704

  9. Divergent non-heme iron enzymes in the nogalamycin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Siitonen, Vilja; Selvaraj, Brinda; Niiranen, Laila; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko

    2016-05-10

    Nogalamycin, an aromatic polyketide displaying high cytotoxicity, has a unique structure, with one of the carbohydrate units covalently attached to the aglycone via an additional carbon-carbon bond. The underlying chemistry, which implies a particularly challenging reaction requiring activation of an aliphatic carbon atom, has remained enigmatic. Here, we show that the unusual C5''-C2 carbocyclization is catalyzed by the non-heme iron α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)-dependent SnoK in the biosynthesis of the anthracycline nogalamycin. The data are consistent with a mechanistic proposal whereby the Fe(IV) = O center abstracts the H5'' atom from the amino sugar of the substrate, with subsequent attack of the aromatic C2 carbon on the radical center. We further show that, in the same metabolic pathway, the homologous SnoN (38% sequence identity) catalyzes an epimerization step at the adjacent C4'' carbon, most likely via a radical mechanism involving the Fe(IV) = O center. SnoK and SnoN have surprisingly similar active site architectures considering the markedly different chemistries catalyzed by the enzymes. Structural studies reveal that the differences are achieved by minor changes in the alignment of the substrates in front of the reactive ferryl-oxo species. Our findings significantly expand the repertoire of reactions reported for this important protein family and provide an illustrative example of enzyme evolution. PMID:27114534

  10. Small Rho GTPases and Cholesterol Biosynthetic Pathway Intermediates in African Swine Fever Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Quetglas, Jose I.; Hernáez, Bruno; Galindo, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Moreno, Raquel; Cuesta-Geijo, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    The integrity of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway is required for efficient African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection. Incorporation of prenyl groups into Rho GTPases plays a key role in several stages of ASFV infection, since both geranylgeranyl and farnesyl pyrophosphates are required at different infection steps. We found that Rho GTPase inhibition impaired virus morphogenesis and resulted in an abnormal viral factory size with the accumulation of envelope precursors and immature virions. Furthermore, abundant defective virions reached the plasma membrane, and filopodia formation in exocytosis was abrogated. Rac1 was activated at early ASFV infection stages, coincident with microtubule acetylation, a process that stabilizes microtubules for virus transport. Rac1 inhibition did not affect the viral entry step itself but impaired subsequent virus production. We found that specific Rac1 inhibition impaired viral induced microtubule acetylation and viral intracellular transport. These findings highlight that viral infection is the result of a carefully orchestrated modulation of Rho family GTPase activity within the host cell; this modulation results critical for virus morphogenesis and in turn, triggers cytoskeleton remodeling, such as microtubule stabilization for viral transport during early infection. PMID:22114329

  11. Divergent non-heme iron enzymes in the nogalamycin biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Siitonen, Vilja; Selvaraj, Brinda; Niiranen, Laila; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Nogalamycin, an aromatic polyketide displaying high cytotoxicity, has a unique structure, with one of the carbohydrate units covalently attached to the aglycone via an additional carbon–carbon bond. The underlying chemistry, which implies a particularly challenging reaction requiring activation of an aliphatic carbon atom, has remained enigmatic. Here, we show that the unusual C5′′–C2 carbocyclization is catalyzed by the non-heme iron α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)–dependent SnoK in the biosynthesis of the anthracycline nogalamycin. The data are consistent with a mechanistic proposal whereby the Fe(IV) = O center abstracts the H5′′ atom from the amino sugar of the substrate, with subsequent attack of the aromatic C2 carbon on the radical center. We further show that, in the same metabolic pathway, the homologous SnoN (38% sequence identity) catalyzes an epimerization step at the adjacent C4′′ carbon, most likely via a radical mechanism involving the Fe(IV) = O center. SnoK and SnoN have surprisingly similar active site architectures considering the markedly different chemistries catalyzed by the enzymes. Structural studies reveal that the differences are achieved by minor changes in the alignment of the substrates in front of the reactive ferryl-oxo species. Our findings significantly expand the repertoire of reactions reported for this important protein family and provide an illustrative example of enzyme evolution. PMID:27114534

  12. Involvement of the Octadecanoid Pathway and Protein Phosphorylation in Fungal Elicitor-Induced Expression of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthetic Genes in Catharanthus roseus

    PubMed Central

    Menke, Frank L.H.; Parchmann, Stefanie; Mueller, Martin J.; Kijne, Jan W.; Memelink, Johan

    1999-01-01

    Two key genes in terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis, Tdc and Str, encoding tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase, respectively, are coordinately induced by fungal elicitors in suspension-cultured Catharanthus roseus cells. We have studied the roles of the jasmonate biosynthetic pathway and of protein phosphorylation in signal transduction initiated by a partially purified elicitor from yeast extract. In addition to activating Tdc and Str gene expression, the elicitor also induced the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid. The jasmonate precursor α-linolenic acid or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) itself induced Tdc and Str gene expression when added exogenously . Diethyldithiocarbamic acid, an inhibitor of jasmonate biosynthesis, blocked both the elicitor-induced formation of jasmonic acid and the activation of terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic genes. The protein kinase inhibitor K-252a abolished both elicitor-induced jasmonate biosynthesis and MeJA-induced Tdc and Str gene expression. Analysis of the expression of Str promoter/gusA fusions in transgenic C. roseus cells showed that the elicitor and MeJA act at the transcriptional level. These results demonstrate that the jasmonate biosynthetic pathway is an integral part of the elicitor-triggered signal transduction pathway that results in the coordinate expression of the Tdc and Str genes and that protein kinases act both upstream and downstream of jasmonates. PMID:10198087

  13. Tissue-Specific Whole Transcriptome Sequencing in Castor, Directed at Understanding Triacylglycerol Lipid Biosynthetic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Swarbreck, David; Febrer, Melanie; Larson, Tony R.; Graham, Ian A.; Caccamo, Mario; Slabas, Antoni R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Storage triacylglycerols in castor bean seeds are enriched in the hydroxylated fatty acid ricinoleate. Extensive tissue-specific RNA-Seq transcriptome and lipid analysis will help identify components important for its biosynthesis. Methodology/Findings Storage triacylglycerols (TAGs) in the endosperm of developing castor (Ricinus communis) seeds are highly enriched in ricinoleic acid (18:1-OH). We have analysed neutral lipid fractions from other castor tissues using TLC, GLC and mass spectrometry. Cotyledons, like the endosperm, contain high levels of 18:1-OH in TAG. Pollen and male developing flowers accumulate TAG but do not contain 18:1-OH and leaves do not contain TAG or 18:1-OH. Analysis of acyl-CoAs in developing endosperm shows that ricinoleoyl-CoA is not the dominant acyl-CoA, indicating that either metabolic channelling or enzyme substrate selectivity are important in the synthesis of tri-ricinolein in this tissue. RNA-Seq transcriptomic analysis, using Illumina sequencing by synthesis technology, has been performed on mRNA isolated from two stages of developing seeds, germinating seeds, leaf and pollen-producing male flowers in order to identify differences in lipid-metabolic pathways and enzyme isoforms which could be important in the biosynthesis of TAG enriched in 18:1-OH. This study gives comprehensive coverage of gene expression in a variety of different castor tissues. The potential role of differentially expressed genes is discussed against a background of proteins identified in the endoplasmic reticulum, which is the site of TAG biosynthesis, and transgenic studies aimed at increasing the ricinoleic acid content of TAG. Conclusions/Significance Several of the genes identified in this tissue-specific whole transcriptome study have been used in transgenic plant research aimed at increasing the level of ricinoleic acid in TAG. New candidate genes have been identified which might further improve the level of ricinoleic acid in transgenic

  14. Identification of Thiotetronic Acid Antibiotic Biosynthetic Pathways by Target-directed Genome Mining.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Li, Jie; Millán-Aguiñaga, Natalie; Zhang, Jia Jia; O'Neill, Ellis C; Ugalde, Juan A; Jensen, Paul R; Mantovani, Simone M; Moore, Bradley S

    2015-12-18

    Recent genome sequencing efforts have led to the rapid accumulation of uncharacterized or "orphaned" secondary metabolic biosynthesis gene clusters (BGCs) in public databases. This increase in DNA-sequenced big data has given rise to significant challenges in the applied field of natural product genome mining, including (i) how to prioritize the characterization of orphan BGCs and (ii) how to rapidly connect genes to biosynthesized small molecules. Here, we show that by correlating putative antibiotic resistance genes that encode target-modified proteins with orphan BGCs, we predict the biological function of pathway specific small molecules before they have been revealed in a process we call target-directed genome mining. By querying the pan-genome of 86 Salinispora bacterial genomes for duplicated house-keeping genes colocalized with natural product BGCs, we prioritized an orphan polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase hybrid BGC (tlm) with a putative fatty acid synthase resistance gene. We employed a new synthetic double-stranded DNA-mediated cloning strategy based on transformation-associated recombination to efficiently capture tlm and the related ttm BGCs directly from genomic DNA and to heterologously express them in Streptomyces hosts. We show the production of a group of unusual thiotetronic acid natural products, including the well-known fatty acid synthase inhibitor thiolactomycin that was first described over 30 years ago, yet never at the genetic level in regards to biosynthesis and autoresistance. This finding not only validates the target-directed genome mining strategy for the discovery of antibiotic producing gene clusters without a priori knowledge of the molecule synthesized but also paves the way for the investigation of novel enzymology involved in thiotetronic acid natural product biosynthesis. PMID:26458099

  15. Elucidation of Pseurotin Biosynthetic Pathway Points to Trans-Acting C-Methyltransferase and Source of Chemical Diversity Generation**

    PubMed Central

    Tsunematsu, Yuta; Fukutomi, Manami; Saruwatari, Takayoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kenji; Hotta, Kinya; Tang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Pseurotins comprise a family of structurally related Aspergillal natural products having interesting bioactivity. However, little is known about the biosynthetic steps involved in the formation of their complex chemical features. Here, we systematically deleted the pseurotin biosynthetic genes in A. fumigatus and performed in vivo and in vitro characterization of the tailoring enzymes to determine the biosynthetic intermediates and the gene products responsible for the formation of each intermediate. This allowed us to elucidate the main biosynthetic steps leading to the formation of pseurotin A from the predominant precursor, azaspirene. The study revealed the combinatorial nature of the biosynthesis of the pseurotin family of compounds and the intermediates. Most interestingly, we report the first identification of an epoxidase–C-methyltransferase bifunctional fusion protein PsoF that appears to methylate the nascent polyketide backbone carbon atom in trans. PMID:24939566

  16. Carotenoid Distribution in Nature.

    PubMed

    Alcaíno, Jennifer; Baeza, Marcelo; Cifuentes, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are naturally occurring red, orange and yellow pigments that are synthesized by plants and some microorganisms and fulfill many important physiological functions. This chapter describes the distribution of carotenoid in microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, microalgae, filamentous fungi and yeasts. We will also focus on their functional aspects and applications, such as their nutritional value, their benefits for human and animal health and their potential protection against free radicals. The central metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of carotenoids is described as the three following principal steps: (i) the synthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and the formation of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, (ii) the synthesis of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and (iii) the synthesis of carotenoids per se, highlighting the differences that have been found in several carotenogenic organisms and providing an evolutionary perspective. Finally, as an example, the synthesis of the xanthophyll astaxanthin is discussed. PMID:27485217

  17. Association Mapping of Total Carotenoids in Diverse Soybean Genotypes Based on Leaf Extracts and High-Throughput Canopy Spectral Reflectance Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapal, Arun Prabhu; Ray, Jeffery D.; Singh, Shardendu K.; Hoyos-Villegas, Valerio; Smith, James R.; Purcell, Larry C.; King, C. Andy; Fritschi, Felix B.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are organic pigments that are produced predominantly by photosynthetic organisms and provide antioxidant activity to a wide variety of plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is highly conserved in plants and occurs mostly in chromoplasts and chloroplasts. Leaf carotenoids play important photoprotective roles and targeted selection for leaf carotenoids may offer avenues to improve abiotic stress tolerance. A collection of 332 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes was grown in two years and total leaf carotenoid content was determined using three different methods. The first method was based on extraction and spectrophotometric determination of carotenoid content (eCaro) in leaf tissue, whereas the other two methods were derived from high-throughput canopy spectral reflectance measurements using wavelet transformed reflectance spectra (tCaro) and a spectral reflectance index (iCaro). An association mapping approach was employed using 31,253 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify SNPs associated with total carotenoid content using a mixed linear model based on data from two growing seasons. A total of 28 SNPs showed a significant association with total carotenoid content in at least one of the three approaches. These 28 SNPs likely tagged 14 putative loci for carotenoid content. Six putative loci were identified using eCaro, five loci with tCaro, and nine loci with iCaro. Three of these putative loci were detected by all three carotenoid determination methods. All but four putative loci were located near a known carotenoid-related gene. These results showed that carotenoid markers can be identified in soybean using extract-based as well as by high-throughput canopy spectral reflectance-based approaches, demonstrating the utility of field-based canopy spectral reflectance phenotypes for association mapping. PMID:26368323

  18. Carotenoids present in halotolerant Bacillus spore formers.

    PubMed

    Duc, Le H; Fraser, Paul D; Tam, Nguyen K M; Cutting, Simon M

    2006-02-01

    Six isolates of pigmented spore-forming bacteria were recovered from human faeces from subjects in Vietnam. 16S rRNA analysis demonstrated close association with known pigmented Bacillus species. All isolates were able to tolerate growth on 8% NaCl and were resistant to arsenate, characteristics that make them most related to Bacillus indicus. Two visible pigments were apparent, a yellow pigment found in vegetative cells and an orange pigment found only in spores. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to characterize and quantify these pigments and found them to be carotenoids. The biosynthetic pathway that generates them branches with one that could lead to the spore-associated orange pigmentation. Although these bacteria were found in faeces, the seafood-rich diet of Vietnam and the recovery of other pigmented Bacillus species from seafood and marine environments makes it highly probable that the true origin of these bacteria is from ingested seafood. PMID:16448498

  19. Enhanced accumulation of carotenoids in sweetpotato plants overexpressing IbOr-Ins gene in purple-fleshed sweetpotato cultivar.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Chul; Kim, Sun Ha; Park, Seyeon; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Lee, Joon Seol; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Yun-Hee; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] is an important root crop that produces low molecular weight antioxidants such as carotenoids and anthocyanin. The sweetpotato orange (IbOr) protein is involved in the accumulation of carotenoids. To increase the levels of carotenoids in the storage roots of sweetpotato, we generated transgenic sweetpotato plants overexpressing IbOr-Ins under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in an anthocyanin-rich purple-fleshed cultivar (referred to as IbOr plants). IbOr plants exhibited increased carotenoid levels (up to 7-fold) in their storage roots compared to wild type (WT) plants, as revealed by HPLC analysis. The carotenoid contents of IbOr plants were positively correlated with IbOr transcript levels. The levels of zeaxanthin were ∼ 12 times elevated in IbOr plants, whereas β-carotene increased ∼ 1.75 times higher than those of WT. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that most carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes were up-regulated in the IbOr plants, including PDS, ZDS, LCY-β, CHY-β, ZEP and Pftf, whereas LCY-ɛ was down-regulated. Interestingly, CCD1, CCD4 and NCED, which are related to the degradation of carotenoids, were also up-regulated in the IbOr plants. Anthocyanin contents and transcription levels of associated biosynthetic genes seemed to be altered in the IbOr plants. The yields of storage roots and aerial parts of IbOr plants and WT plants were not significantly different under field cultivation. Taken together, these results indicate that overexpression of IbOr-Ins can increase the carotenoid contents of sweetpotato storage roots. PMID:25438140

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of UV-treated rice leaves reveals UV-induced phytoalexin biosynthetic pathways and their regulatory networks in rice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Lin; Lee, Sang-Won; Jung, Ki-Hong; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Cho, Man-Ho

    2013-12-01

    Rice produces diterpenoid and flavonoid phytoalexins for defense against pathogen attack. The production of phytoalexins in rice is also induced by UV-irradiation. To understand the metabolic networks involved in UV-induced phytoalexin biosynthesis and their regulation, phytochemical and transcriptomic analyses of UV-treated rice leaves were performed. In response to UV treatment, the accumulation of flavonoids was observed in rice leaves, which may serve as antioxidants against UV-induced oxidative stress. The phytochemical analysis confirmed sakuranetin accumulation and also demonstrated the induction of phenylamide synthesis in rice leaves by UV-irradiation. Transcriptomic analysis established that aromatic amino acid biosynthetic genes were immediately up-regulated after UV treatment. The genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway and flavonoid biosynthesis were also up-regulated. These findings suggest that the aromatic amino acid and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways are coordinately activated for the production of flavonoids and phenolic phytoalexins such as sakuranetin and phenylamides. An in silico analysis of UV-induced O-methyltransferase and acyltransferase genes suggested that these genes may be implicated in sakuranetin and phenylamide synthesis, respectively. The transcriptomic analysis also showed up-regulation of both methylerythritol phosphate pathway and the diterpenoid phytoalexin biosynthetic genes in response to UV treatment. A functional gene network analysis of phytoalexin biosynthetic and UV-induced genes for signaling components and transcription factors using RiceNet suggested that regulatory networks comprising signal perceiving receptor kinases, G-proteins, signal transducing mitogen-activated protein kinases and calcium signaling components, and transcription factors control flavonoid and phytoalexin biosynthesis in rice leaves under UV-C stress conditions. PMID:24035516

  1. Evolution of a Genome-Encoded Bias in Amino Acid Biosynthetic Pathways Is a Potential Indicator of Amino Acid Dynamics in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Fasani, Rick A.; Savageau, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Overcoming the stress of starvation is one of an organism’s most challenging phenotypic responses. Those organisms that frequently survive the challenge, by virtue of their fitness, will have evolved genomes that are shaped by their specific environments. Understanding this genotype–environment–phenotype relationship at a deep level will require quantitative predictive models of the complex molecular systems that link these aspects of an organism’s existence. Here, we treat one of the most fundamental molecular systems, protein synthesis, and the amino acid biosynthetic pathways involved in the stringent response to starvation. These systems face an inherent logical dilemma: Building an amino acid biosynthetic pathway to synthesize its product—the cognate amino acid of the pathway—may require that very amino acid when it is no longer available. To study this potential “catch-22,” we have created a generic model of amino acid biosynthesis in response to sudden starvation. Our mathematical analysis and computational results indicate that there are two distinctly different outcomes: Partial recovery to a new steady state, or full system failure. Moreover, the cell’s fate is dictated by the cognate bias, the number of cognate amino acids in the corresponding biosynthetic pathway relative to the average number of that amino acid in the proteome. We test these implications by analyzing the proteomes of over 1,800 sequenced microbes, which reveals statistically significant evidence of low cognate bias, a genetic trait that would avoid the biosynthetic quandary. Furthermore, these results suggest that the pattern of cognate bias, which is readily derived by genome sequencing, may provide evolutionary clues to an organism’s natural environment. PMID:25118252

  2. Constitutively High Expression of the Histidine Biosynthetic Pathway Contributes to Nickel Tolerance in Hyperaccumulator PlantsW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Robert A.; Mugford, Sam T.; Rees, Jonathan D.; Campbell, Malcolm M.; Smith, J. Andrew C.

    2005-01-01

    Plants that hyperaccumulate Ni exhibit an exceptional degree of Ni tolerance and the ability to translocate Ni in large amounts from root to shoot. In hyperaccumulator plants in the genus Alyssum, free His is an important Ni binding ligand that increases in the xylem proportionately to root Ni uptake. To determine the molecular basis of the His response and its contribution to Ni tolerance, transcripts representing seven of the eight enzymes involved in His biosynthesis were investigated in the hyperaccumulator species Alyssum lesbiacum by RNA gel blot analysis. None of the transcripts changed in abundance in either root or shoot tissue when plants were exposed to Ni, but transcript levels were constitutively higher in A. lesbiacum than in the congeneric nonaccumulator A. montanum, especially for the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway, ATP-phosphoribosyltransferase (ATP-PRT). Comparison with the weak hyperaccumulator A. serpyllifolium revealed a close correlation between Ni tolerance, root His concentration, and ATP-PRT transcript abundance. Overexpression of an A. lesbiacum ATP-PRT cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana increased the pool of free His up to 15-fold in shoot tissue, without affecting the concentration of any other amino acid. His-overproducing lines also displayed elevated tolerance to Ni but did not exhibit increased Ni concentrations in either xylem sap or shoot tissue, suggesting that additional factors are necessary to recapitulate the complete hyperaccumulator phenotype. These results suggest that ATP-PRT expression plays a major role in regulating the pool of free His and contributes to the exceptional Ni tolerance of hyperaccumulator Alyssum species. PMID:15923352

  3. The Distribution of Coumarins and Furanocoumarins in Citrus Species Closely Matches Citrus Phylogeny and Reflects the Organization of Biosynthetic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Dugrand-Judek, Audray; Olry, Alexandre; Hehn, Alain; Costantino, Gilles; Ollitrault, Patrick; Froelicher, Yann; Bourgaud, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Citrus plants are able to produce defense compounds such as coumarins and furanocoumarins to cope with herbivorous insects and pathogens. In humans, these chemical compounds are strong photosensitizers and can interact with medications, leading to the “grapefruit juice effect”. Removing coumarins and furanocoumarins from food and cosmetics imply additional costs and might alter product quality. Thus, the selection of Citrus cultivars displaying low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents constitutes a valuable alternative. In this study, we performed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analyses to determine the contents of these compounds within the peel and the pulp of 61 Citrus species representative of the genetic diversity all Citrus. Generally, Citrus peel contains larger diversity and higher concentrations of coumarin/furanocoumarin than the pulp of the same fruits. According to the chemotypes found in the peel, Citrus species can be separated into 4 groups that correspond to the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, mandarins, citrons and papedas) and extended with their respective secondary species descendants. Three of the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, citrons and papedas) synthesize high amounts of these compounds, whereas mandarins appear practically devoid of them. Additionally, all ancestral taxa and their hybrids are logically organized according to the coumarin and furanocoumarin pathways described in the literature. This organization allows hypotheses to be drawn regarding the biosynthetic origin of compounds for which the biogenesis remains unresolved. Determining coumarin and furanocoumarin contents is also helpful for hypothesizing the origin of Citrus species for which the phylogeny is presently not firmly established. Finally, this work also notes favorable hybridization schemes that will lead to low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents, and we propose to select mandarins and Ichang papeda as Citrus varieties for use in

  4. Molecular interaction of the first 3 enzymes of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway of Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Nara, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Muneaki; Hirawake, Hiroko; Liao, Chien-Wei; Fukai, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Shigeo; Tsubouchi, Akiko; Morales, Jorge; Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko; Fan, Chia-Kwung; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Inoue, Masayuki; Tanaka, Akiko; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi; and others

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An Escherichia coli strain co-expressing CPSII, ATC, and DHO of Trypanosoma cruzi was constructed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular interactions between CPSII, ATC, and DHO of T. cruzi were demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CPSII bound with both ATC and DHO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATC bound with both CPSII and DHO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A functional tri-enzyme complex might precede the establishment of the fused enzyme. -- Abstract: The first 3 reaction steps of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway are catalyzed by carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase II (CPSII), aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC), and dihydroorotase (DHO), respectively. In eukaryotes, these enzymes are structurally classified into 2 types: (1) a CPSII-DHO-ATC fusion enzyme (CAD) found in animals, fungi, and amoebozoa, and (2) stand-alone enzymes found in plants and the protist groups. In the present study, we demonstrate direct intermolecular interactions between CPSII, ATC, and DHO of the parasitic protist Trypanosoma cruzi, which is the causative agent of Chagas disease. The 3 enzymes were expressed in a bacterial expression system and their interactions were examined. Immunoprecipitation using an antibody specific for each enzyme coupled with Western blotting-based detection using antibodies for the counterpart enzymes showed co-precipitation of all 3 enzymes. From an evolutionary viewpoint, the formation of a functional tri-enzyme complex may have preceded-and led to-gene fusion to produce the CAD protein. This is the first report to demonstrate the structural basis of these 3 enzymes as a model of CAD. Moreover, in conjunction with the essentiality of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis in the parasite, our findings provide a rationale for new strategies for developing drugs for Chagas disease, which target the intermolecular interactions of these 3 enzymes.

  5. An R2R3 MYB transcription factor associated with regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Rosaceae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The control of plant anthocyanin accumulation is via transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding the biosynthetic enzymes. A key activator appears to be an R2R3 MYB transcription factor. In apple fruit, skin anthocyanin levels are controlled by a gene called MYBA or MYB1, while the gene determining fruit flesh and foliage anthocyanin has been termed MYB10. In order to further understand tissue-specific anthocyanin regulation we have isolated orthologous MYB genes from all the commercially important rosaceous species. Results We use gene specific primers to show that the three MYB activators of apple anthocyanin (MYB10/MYB1/MYBA) are likely alleles of each other. MYB transcription factors, with high sequence identity to the apple gene were isolated from across the rosaceous family (e.g. apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches, raspberries, rose, strawberry). Key identifying amino acid residues were found in both the DNA-binding and C-terminal domains of these MYBs. The expression of these MYB10 genes correlates with fruit and flower anthocyanin levels. Their function was tested in tobacco and strawberry. In tobacco, these MYBs were shown to induce the anthocyanin pathway when co-expressed with bHLHs, while over-expression of strawberry and apple genes in the crop of origin elevates anthocyanins. Conclusions This family-wide study of rosaceous R2R3 MYBs provides insight into the evolution of this plant trait. It has implications for the development of new coloured fruit and flowers, as well as aiding the understanding of temporal-spatial colour change. PMID:20302676

  6. p-Coumaroyl-CoA:monolignol transferase (PMT) acts specifically in the lignin biosynthetic pathway in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Deborah L; Karlen, Steven D; Cass, Cynthia L; Padmakshan, Dharshana; Lu, Fachuang; Liu, Sarah; Le Bris, Philippe; Antelme, Sébastien; Santoro, Nicholas; Wilkerson, Curtis G; Sibout, Richard; Lapierre, Catherine; Ralph, John; Sedbrook, John C

    2014-01-01

    Grass lignins contain substantial amounts of p-coumarate (pCA) that acylate the side-chains of the phenylpropanoid polymer backbone. An acyltransferase, named p-coumaroyl-CoA:monolignol transferase (OsPMT), that could acylate monolignols with pCA in vitro was recently identified from rice. In planta, such monolignol-pCA conjugates become incorporated into lignin via oxidative radical coupling, thereby generating the observed pCA appendages; however p-coumarates also acylate arabinoxylans in grasses. To test the authenticity of PMT as a lignin biosynthetic pathway enzyme, we examined Brachypodium distachyon plants with altered BdPMT gene function. Using newly developed cell wall analytical methods, we determined that the transferase was involved specifically in monolignol acylation. A sodium azide-generated Bdpmt-1 missense mutant had no (<0.5%) residual pCA on lignin, and BdPMT RNAi plants had levels as low as 10% of wild-type, whereas the amounts of pCA acylating arabinosyl units on arabinoxylans in these PMT mutant plants remained unchanged. pCA acylation of lignin from BdPMT-overexpressing plants was found to be more than three-fold higher than that of wild-type, but again the level on arabinosyl units remained unchanged. Taken together, these data are consistent with a defined role for grass PMT genes in encoding BAHD (BEAT, AHCT, HCBT, and DAT) acyltransferases that specifically acylate monolignols with pCA and produce monolignol p-coumarate conjugates that are used for lignification in planta. PMID:24372757

  7. Crystal Structure of a Sulfur Carrier Protein Complex Found in the Cysteine Biosynthetic Pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgenson, Christopher T.; Burns, Kristin E.; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2008-10-02

    The structure of the protein complex CysM-CysO from a new cysteine biosynthetic pathway found in the H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been determined at 1.53 {angstrom} resolution. CysM (Rv1336) is a PLP-containing {beta}-replacement enzyme and CysO (Rv1335) is a sulfur carrier protein with a ubiquitin-like fold. CysM catalyzes the replacement of the acetyl group of O-acetylserine by CysO thiocarboxylate to generate a protein-bound cysteine that is released in a subsequent proteolysis reaction. The protein complex in the crystal structure is asymmetric with one CysO protomer binding to one end of a CysM dimer. Additionally, the structures of CysM and CysO were determined individually at 2.8 and 2.7 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Sequence alignments with homologues and structural comparisons with CysK, a cysteine synthase that does not utilize a sulfur carrier protein, revealed high conservation of active site residues; however, residues in CysM responsible for CysO binding are not conserved. Comparison of the CysM-CysO binding interface with other sulfur carrier protein complexes revealed a similarity in secondary structural elements that contribute to complex formation in the ThiF-ThiS and MoeB-MoaD systems, despite major differences in overall folds. Comparison of CysM with and without bound CysO revealed conformational changes associated with CysO binding.

  8. RNA interference-based gene silencing of phytoene synthase impairs growth, carotenoids, and plastid phenotype in Oncidium hybrid orchid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Xin; Chiou, Chung-Yi; Shen, Chin-Hui; Chen, Peng-Jen; Liu, Yao-Chung; Jian, Chin-Der; Shen, Xiao-Lan; Shen, Fu-Quan; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2014-01-01

    Phytoene synthase (PSY) is the first rate-limiting regulatory enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. In order to modify the floral color pattern by reducing carotenoid contents, a phytoene synthase-RNAi construct was delivered into protocorm-like body (PLB) of Oncidium hybrid orchid. The transgenic orchids show down-regulated level of PSY and geranyl synthase gene. They displayed semi-dwarf phenotype and brilliant green leaves. The microscopic anatomy revealed development-arrested plastids with rare grana. The total carotenoid content was decreased and the efficiency of the photosynthetic electron transport was declined. The chlorophyll level and the expression of chlorophyll biosynthetic genes, such as OgGLUTR and OgCS were dramatically reduced. HPLC analysis showed that the endogenous level of gibberellic acid and abscisic acid in the dwarf transformants are 4-fold lower than in wild type plants. In addition, chilling tolerance of the transgenic Oncidium plants was reduced. The data showed that down-regulation of PSY resulted in alterations of gene expression in enzymes involved in many metabolic pathways, such as carotenoid, gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway as well as causes predominant defects in plant growth and development. PMID:25221736

  9. Response differences between Ectocarpus siliculosus populations to copper stress involve cellular exclusion and induction of the phytochelatin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Roncarati, Francesca; Sáez, Claudio A; Greco, Maria; Gledhill, Martha; Bitonti, Maria B; Brown, Murray T

    2015-02-01

    Some populations of brown seaweed species inhabit metal-polluted environments and can develop tolerance to metal stress, but the mechanisms by which this is accomplished are still to be elucidated. To address this, the responses of two strains of the model brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus isolated from sites with different histories of metal contamination exposed to total copper (CuT) concentrations ranging between 0 and 2.4 μM for 10 days were investigated. The synthesis of the metal-chelator phytochelatin (PCs) and relative levels of transcripts encoding the enzymes γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), glutathione synthase (GS) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS) that participate in the PC biosynthetic pathway were measured, along with the effects on growth, and adsorption and uptake of Cu. Growth of strain LIA, from a pristine site in Scotland, was inhibited to a greater extent, and at lower concentrations, than that of Es524, isolated from a Cu-contaminated site in Chile. Concentrations of intra-cellular Cu were higher and the exchangeable fraction was lower in LIA than Es524, especially at the highest exposure levels. Total glutathione concentrations increased in both strains with Cu exposure, whereas total PCs levels were higher in Es524 than LIA; PC2 and PC3 were detected in Es524 but PC2 only was found in LIA. The greater production and levels of polymerisation of PCs in Es524 can be explained by the up-regulation of genes encoding for key enzymes involved in the synthesis of PCs. In Es524 there was an increase in the transcripts of γ-GCS, GS and PCS, particularly under high Cu exposure, whereas in LIA4 transcripts of γ-GCS1 increased only slightly, γ-GCS2 and GS decreased and PCS did not change. The consequences of higher intra-cellular concentrations of Cu, lower production of PCs, and lower expression of enzymes involved in GSH-PCs synthesis may be contributing to an induced oxidative stress condition in LIA, which explains, at least in part, the

  10. HERBICIDES: CAROTENOID BIOSYNTHESIS INHIBITORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiological functions of carotenoids are essential for the health of plants. In particular, their ability to quench excess energy due to photoexcitation of chlorophyll under high light intensity is necessary to stabilize the photosynthetic apparatus. Inhibiting this pathway with herbicides i...

  11. Structure of ThiM from Vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway of Staphylococcus aureus – Insights into a novel pro-drug approach addressing MRSA infections

    PubMed Central

    Drebes, Julia; Künz, Madeleine; Windshügel, Björn; Kikhney, Alexey G.; Müller, Ingrid B.; Eberle, Raphael J.; Oberthür, Dominik; Cang, Huaixing; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Wrenger, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are today known to be a substantial threat for global health. Emerging multi-drug resistant bacteria have created a substantial need to identify and discover new drug targets and to develop novel strategies to treat bacterial infections. A promising and so far untapped antibiotic target is the biosynthesis of vitamin B1 (thiamin). Thiamin in its activated form, thiamin pyrophosphate, is an essential co-factor for all organisms. Therefore, thiamin analogous compounds, when introduced into the vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway and further converted into non-functional co-factors by the bacterium can function as pro-drugs which thus block various co-factor dependent pathways. We characterized one of the key enzymes within the S. aureus vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway, 5-(hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole kinase (SaThiM; EC 2.7.1.50), a potential target for pro-drug compounds and analyzed the native structure of SaThiM and complexes with the natural substrate 5-(hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole (THZ) and two selected substrate analogues. PMID:26960569

  12. Structure of ThiM from Vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway of Staphylococcus aureus – Insights into a novel pro-drug approach addressing MRSA infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drebes, Julia; Künz, Madeleine; Windshügel, Björn; Kikhney, Alexey G.; Müller, Ingrid B.; Eberle, Raphael J.; Oberthür, Dominik; Cang, Huaixing; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Wrenger, Carsten

    2016-03-01

    Infections caused by the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are today known to be a substantial threat for global health. Emerging multi-drug resistant bacteria have created a substantial need to identify and discover new drug targets and to develop novel strategies to treat bacterial infections. A promising and so far untapped antibiotic target is the biosynthesis of vitamin B1 (thiamin). Thiamin in its activated form, thiamin pyrophosphate, is an essential co-factor for all organisms. Therefore, thiamin analogous compounds, when introduced into the vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway and further converted into non-functional co-factors by the bacterium can function as pro-drugs which thus block various co-factor dependent pathways. We characterized one of the key enzymes within the S. aureus vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway, 5-(hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole kinase (SaThiM; EC 2.7.1.50), a potential target for pro-drug compounds and analyzed the native structure of SaThiM and complexes with the natural substrate 5-(hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole (THZ) and two selected substrate analogues.

  13. Biosynthetic pathways of the osmolytes N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine, beta-glutamine, and betaine in Methanohalophilus strain FDF1 suggested by nuclear magnetic resonance analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, M F; Lai, M C; Gunsalus, R P

    1992-01-01

    Methanohalophilus strain FDF1 synthesizes beta-glutamine, betaine, and N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine as osmoprotective agents when the cells are grown in high external concentrations of NaCl. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses of 13CH3OH-12CO2 label incorporation by the cells provide information on the biosynthetic pathways of these organic osmolytes. The labeling studies indicate that Methanohalophilus strain FDF1 produces glutamate and beta-glutamine via a partial oxidative Krebs pathway. 13C labeling of betaine is consistent with methylation of glycine generated from serine (via serine hydroxymethyltransferase). The labeling pattern for N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine is consistent with the synthesis of its precursor alpha-lysine occurring by the diaminopimelate pathway in these cells. PMID:1400220

  14. Carotenoids' production from halophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Moreno, María; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; García, María Teresa; Mellado, Encarnación

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids have received considerable attention due to their interesting industrial applications and, more importantly, their potential beneficial effects on human health. Halophiles comprise a heterogeneous group of microorganisms that need salts for optimal growth. The pigments produced by these halophilic organisms comprise phytoene, β-carotene, lycopene, derivatives of bacterioruberin, and salinixanthin. Here, we describe the procedure to obtain salinixanthin from the extremely halophilic bacterium Salinibacter ruber. Additionally, we describe the expression of the β-carotene biosynthetic genes crtE, crtY, crtI, and crtB from Pantoea agglomerans in the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata obtaining a strain able to produce practically pure β-carotene. Thus, the use of these halophilic microorganisms as a source of carotenoids constitutes an important commercial alternative in the production of carotenoids from biological sources. PMID:22623305

  15. Increase in nutritionally important sweet corn kernel carotenoids following Mesotrione and atrazine applications.

    PubMed

    Kopsell, Dean A; Armel, Gregory R; Mueller, Thomas C; Sams, Carl E; Deyton, Dennis E; McElroy, J Scott; Kopsell, David E

    2009-07-22

    The herbicide mesotrione inhibits a critical enzyme, phytoene desaturase, in plant carotenoid biosynthesis. Mesotrione is currently labeled for selective weed control in sweet corn ( Zea mays var. rugosa). Mesotrione applied alone, or in mixtures with the photosystem II inhibitor atrazine, acted to increase concentrations of kernel antheraxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin carotenoids in several sweet corn genotypes. Kernel lutein and zeaxanthin levels significantly increased 15.6% after mesotrione + atrazine early postemergence applications, as compared to the control treatment. It appears that mesotrione applications resulted in greater pools of kernel carotenoids once the sweet corn genotypes expressing moderate injury overcame the initial herbicidal photo-oxidative stress. This is the first report of herbicides directly up-regulating the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in corn kernels, which is associated with the nutritional quality of sweet corn. Enhanced accumulation of lutein and zeaxanthin is important because dietary carotenoids function in suppressing aging eye diseases such as macular degeneration, now affecting 1.75 million older Americans. PMID:19537793

  16. Effect of an Introduced Phytoene Synthase Gene Expression on Carotenoid Biosynthesis in the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Kadono, Takashi; Kira, Nozomu; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu; Ohama, Takeshi; Okada, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Akakabe, Mai; Tsuda, Masashi; Adachi, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids exert beneficial effects on human health through their excellent antioxidant activity. To increase carotenoid productivity in the marine Pennales Phaeodactylum tricornutum, we genetically engineered the phytoene synthase gene (psy) to improve expression because RNA-sequencing analysis has suggested that the expression level of psy is lower than other enzyme-encoding genes that are involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. We isolated psy from P. tricornutum, and this gene was fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene to detect psy expression. After transformation using the microparticle bombardment technique, we obtained several P. tricornutum transformants and confirmed psy expression in their plastids. We investigated the amounts of PSY mRNA and carotenoids, such as fucoxanthin and β-carotene, at different growth phases. The introduction of psy increased the fucoxanthin content of a transformants by approximately 1.45-fold relative to the levels in the wild-type diatom. However, some transformants failed to show a significant increase in the carotenoid content relative to that of the wild-type diatom. We also found that the amount of PSY mRNA at log phase might contribute to the increase in carotenoids in the transformants at stationary phase. PMID:26308005

  17. Effect of an Introduced Phytoene Synthase Gene Expression on Carotenoid Biosynthesis in the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Kadono, Takashi; Kira, Nozomu; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu; Ohama, Takeshi; Okada, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Akakabe, Mai; Tsuda, Masashi; Adachi, Masao

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids exert beneficial effects on human health through their excellent antioxidant activity. To increase carotenoid productivity in the marine Pennales Phaeodactylum tricornutum, we genetically engineered the phytoene synthase gene (psy) to improve expression because RNA-sequencing analysis has suggested that the expression level of psy is lower than other enzyme-encoding genes that are involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. We isolated psy from P. tricornutum, and this gene was fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene to detect psy expression. After transformation using the microparticle bombardment technique, we obtained several P. tricornutum transformants and confirmed psy expression in their plastids. We investigated the amounts of PSY mRNA and carotenoids, such as fucoxanthin and β-carotene, at different growth phases. The introduction of psy increased the fucoxanthin content of a transformants by approximately 1.45-fold relative to the levels in the wild-type diatom. However, some transformants failed to show a significant increase in the carotenoid content relative to that of the wild-type diatom. We also found that the amount of PSY mRNA at log phase might contribute to the increase in carotenoids in the transformants at stationary phase. PMID:26308005

  18. MYB58 and MYB63 are transcriptional activators of the lignin biosynthetic pathway during secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianli; Lee, Chanhui; Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2009-01-01

    It has previously been shown that SECONDARY WALL-ASSOCIATED NAC DOMAIN PROTEIN1 (SND1) is a key transcription factor regulating secondary cell wall formation, including the biosynthesis of cellulose, xylan, and lignin. In this study, we show that two closely related SND1-regulated MYB transcription factors, MYB58 and MYB63, are transcriptional regulators specifically activating lignin biosynthetic genes during secondary wall formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. MYB58 and MYB63 are phylogenetically distinct from previously characterized MYBs shown to be associated with secondary wall formation or phenylpropanoid metabolism. Expression studies showed that MYB58 and MYB63 are specifically expressed in fibers and vessels undergoing secondary wall thickening. Dominant repression of their functions led to a reduction in secondary wall thickening and lignin content. Overexpression of MYB58 and MYB63 resulted in specific activation of lignin biosynthetic genes and concomitant ectopic deposition of lignin in cells that are normally unlignified. MYB58 was able to activate directly the expression of lignin biosynthetic genes and a secondary wall-associated laccase (LAC4) gene. Furthermore, the expression of MYB58 and MYB63 was shown to be regulated by the SND1 close homologs NST1, NST2, VND6, and VND7 and their downstream target MYB46. Together, our results indicate that MYB58 and MYB63 are specific transcriptional activators of lignin biosynthesis in the SND1-mediated transcriptional network regulating secondary wall formation. PMID:19122102

  19. Resistance Gene-Guided Genome Mining: Serial Promoter Exchanges in Aspergillus nidulans Reveal the Biosynthetic Pathway for Fellutamide B, a Proteasome Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hsu-Hua; Ahuja, Manmeet; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Oakley, C Elizabeth; Moore, Shauna; Yoon, Olivia; Hajovsky, Heather; Bok, Jin-Woo; Keller, Nancy P; Wang, Clay C C; Oakley, Berl R

    2016-08-19

    Fungal genome projects are revealing thousands of cryptic secondary metabolism (SM) biosynthetic gene clusters that encode pathways that potentially produce valuable compounds. Heterologous expression systems should allow these clusters to be expressed and their products obtained, but approaches are needed to identify the most valuable target clusters. The inp cluster of Aspergillus nidulans contains a gene, inpE, that encodes a proteasome subunit, leading us to hypothesize that the inp cluster produces a proteasome inhibitor and inpE confers resistance to this compound. Previous efforts to express this cluster have failed, but by sequentially replacing the promoters of the genes of the cluster with a regulatable promotor, we have expressed them successfully. Expression reveals that the product of the inp cluster is the proteasome inhibitor fellutamide B, and our data allow us to propose a biosynthetic pathway for the compound. By deleting inpE and activating expression of the inp cluster, we demonstrate that inpE is required for resistance to internally produced fellutamide B. These data provide experimental validation for the hypothesis that some fungal SM clusters contain genes that encode resistant forms of the enzymes targeted by the compound produced by the cluster. PMID:27294372

  20. Simvastatin Treatment Highlights a New Role for the Isoprenoid/Cholesterol Biosynthetic Pathway in the Modulation of Emotional Reactivity and Cognitive Performance in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Segatto, Marco; Manduca, Antonia; Lecis, Claudio; Rosso, Pamela; Jozwiak, Adam; Swiezewska, Ewa; Moreno, Sandra; Trezza, Viviana; Pallottini, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to shed light on the role played by the isoprenoid/cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in the modulation of emotional reactivity and memory consolidation in rodents through the inhibition of the key and rate-limiting enzyme 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) both in vivo and in vitro with simvastatin. Three-month-old male Wistar rats treated for 21 days with simvastatin or vehicle were tested in the social interaction, elevated plus-maze, and inhibitory avoidance tasks; after behavioral testing, the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, dorsal, and ventral striatum were dissected out for biochemical assays. In order to delve deeper into the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed effects, primary rat hippocampal neurons were used. Our results show that HMGR inhibition by simvastatin induces anxiogenic-like effects in the social interaction but not in the elevated plus-maze test, and improves memory consolidation in the inhibitory avoidance task. These effects are accompanied by imbalances in the activity of specific prenylated proteins, Rab3 and RhoA, involved in neurotransmitter release, and synaptic plasticity, respectively. Taken together, the present findings indicate that the isoprenoid/cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is critically involved in the physiological modulation of both emotional and cognitive processes in rodents. PMID:24108067

  1. The deazapurine biosynthetic pathway revealed: In vitro enzymatic synthesis of preQ0 from guanosine-5′-triphosphate in four steps†

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Reid M.; Somogyi, Árpád; Lin, Guangxin; Jacobsen, Neil E.; Bandarian, Vahe

    2009-01-01

    Deazapurine-containing secondary metabolites comprise a broad range of structurally diverse nucleoside analogs found throughout biology including various antibiotics produced by species of Streptomyces bacteria and the hypermodified tRNA bases queuosine and archaeosine. Despite early interest in deazapurines as antibiotic, antiviral, and antineoplastic agents, the biosynthetic route toward deazapurine production has remained largely elusive for more than 40 years. Here we present the first in vitro preparation of the deazapurine nucleoside, preQ0, by the successive action of four enzymes. The pathway includes the conversion of the recently identified biosynthetic intermediate, 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin, to a novel intermediate, 7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine (CDG), by an unusual transformation catalyzed by B. subtilis QueE, a member of the radical SAM enzyme superfamily. The carboxylate moiety on CDG is converted subsequently to a nitrile to yield preQ0 by either B. subtilis QueC or S. rimosus ToyM in an ATP-dependent reaction, in which ammonia serves as the nitrogen source. The results presented here are consistent with early radiotracer studies on deazapurine biosynthesis and provide a unified pathway for the production of deazapurines in nature. PMID:19354300

  2. A R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates the Flavonol Biosynthetic Pathway in a Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plant, Epimedium sagittatum

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenjun; Khaldun, A. B. M.; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Chanjuan; Lv, Haiyan; Yuan, Ling; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Flavonols as plant secondary metabolites with vital roles in plant development and defense against UV light, have been demonstrated to be the main bioactive components (BCs) in the genus Epimedium plants, several species of which are used as materials for Herba Epimedii, an important traditional Chinese medicine. The flavonol biosynthetic pathway genes had been already isolated from Epimedium sagittatum, but a R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulating the flavonol synthesis has not been functionally characterized so far in Epimedium plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized the R2R3-MYB transcription factor EsMYBF1 involved in regulation of the flavonol biosynthetic pathway from E. sagittatum. Sequence analysis indicated that EsMYBF1 belongs to the subgroup 7 of R2R3-MYB family which contains the flavonol-specific MYB regulators identified to date. Transient reporter assay showed that EsMYBF1 strongly activated the promoters of EsF3H (flavanone 3-hydroxylase) and EsFLS (flavonol synthase), but not the promoters of EsDFRs (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase) and EsANS (anthocyanidin synthase) in transiently transformed Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Both yeast two-hybrid assay and transient reporter assay validated EsMYBF1 to be independent of EsTT8, or AtTT8 bHLH regulators of the flavonoid pathway as cofactors. Ectopic expression of EsMYBF1 in transgenic tobacco resulted in the increased flavonol content and the decreased anthocyanin content in flowers. Correspondingly, the structural genes involved in flavonol synthesis were upregulated in the EsMYBF1 overexpression lines, including NtCHS (chalcone synthase), NtCHI (chalcone isomerase), NtF3H and NtFLS, whereas the late biosynthetic genes of the anthocyanin pathway (NtDFR and NtANS) were remarkably downregulated, compared to the controls. These results suggest that EsMYBF1 is a flavonol-specific R2R3-MYB regulator, and involved in regulation of the biosynthesis of the flavonol-derived BCs in E. sagittatum. Thus

  3. A R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates the Flavonol Biosynthetic Pathway in a Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plant, Epimedium sagittatum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenjun; Khaldun, A B M; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Chanjuan; Lv, Haiyan; Yuan, Ling; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Flavonols as plant secondary metabolites with vital roles in plant development and defense against UV light, have been demonstrated to be the main bioactive components (BCs) in the genus Epimedium plants, several species of which are used as materials for Herba Epimedii, an important traditional Chinese medicine. The flavonol biosynthetic pathway genes had been already isolated from Epimedium sagittatum, but a R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulating the flavonol synthesis has not been functionally characterized so far in Epimedium plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized the R2R3-MYB transcription factor EsMYBF1 involved in regulation of the flavonol biosynthetic pathway from E. sagittatum. Sequence analysis indicated that EsMYBF1 belongs to the subgroup 7 of R2R3-MYB family which contains the flavonol-specific MYB regulators identified to date. Transient reporter assay showed that EsMYBF1 strongly activated the promoters of EsF3H (flavanone 3-hydroxylase) and EsFLS (flavonol synthase), but not the promoters of EsDFRs (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase) and EsANS (anthocyanidin synthase) in transiently transformed Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Both yeast two-hybrid assay and transient reporter assay validated EsMYBF1 to be independent of EsTT8, or AtTT8 bHLH regulators of the flavonoid pathway as cofactors. Ectopic expression of EsMYBF1 in transgenic tobacco resulted in the increased flavonol content and the decreased anthocyanin content in flowers. Correspondingly, the structural genes involved in flavonol synthesis were upregulated in the EsMYBF1 overexpression lines, including NtCHS (chalcone synthase), NtCHI (chalcone isomerase), NtF3H and NtFLS, whereas the late biosynthetic genes of the anthocyanin pathway (NtDFR and NtANS) were remarkably downregulated, compared to the controls. These results suggest that EsMYBF1 is a flavonol-specific R2R3-MYB regulator, and involved in regulation of the biosynthesis of the flavonol-derived BCs in E. sagittatum. Thus

  4. Emergence of diversity and stereochemical outcomes in the biosynthetic pathways of cyclobutane-centered marine alkaloid dimers.

    PubMed

    Beniddir, Mehdi A; Evanno, Laurent; Joseph, Delphine; Skiredj, Adam; Poupon, Erwan

    2016-07-28

    Covering: up to 2016Dictazoles and sceptrins are singular metabolites of marine origin. The present dichotomic case study provides a comprehensive perspective on these cyclobutane-centered alkaloids and their respective families. Indeed, their upstream and downstream chemistry are both treated herein. Relevant isolation reports and bio-inspired total syntheses are used to decipher the currently admitted biosynthetic hypotheses as well as the emergence of diversity in the two series. This review proposes a transversal vision of the topic, where most aspects of natural product chemistry have a critical importance. PMID:27220412

  5. Genome mining of astaxanthin biosynthetic genes from Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 for heterologous overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian; Zhou, Yuanjie; Li, Xiaowei; Zhu, Fayin; Cheng, Yongbo; Liu, Yi; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2016-02-01

    As a highly valued keto-carotenoid, astaxanthin is widely used in nutritional supplements and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for biosynthetic astaxanthin and improved efficiency of astaxanthin biosynthesis has driven the investigation of metabolic engineering of native astaxanthin producers and heterologous hosts. However, microbial resources for astaxanthin are limited. In this study, we found that the α-Proteobacterium Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 could produce astaxanthin naturally. We used whole-genome sequencing to identify the astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway using a combined PacBio-Illumina approach. The putative astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway in Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 was predicted. For further confirmation, a high-efficiency targeted engineering carotenoid synthesis platform was constructed in E. coli for identifying the functional roles of candidate genes. All genes involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis showed discrete distributions on the chromosome. Moreover, the overexpression of exogenous E. coli idi in Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 increased astaxanthin production by 5.4-fold. This study described a new astaxanthin producer and provided more biosynthesis components for bioengineering of astaxanthin in the future. PMID:26580858

  6. Organization of the terminal two enzymes of the heme biosynthetic pathway. Orientation of protoporphyrinogen oxidase and evidence for a membrane complex.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, G C; Andrew, T L; Karr, S W; Dailey, H A

    1988-03-15

    Protoporhyrinogen oxidase (EC 1.3.3.4), the penultimate enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes the removal of six hydrogens from protoporphyrinogen IX to form protoporphyrin IX. The enzyme in eukaryotes is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. In the present study we have examined requirements for solubilization of this enzyme and find that it behaves as an intrinsic membrane protein that is solubilized only with detergents such as sodium cholate. The in situ orientation of the enzyme with respect to the inner mitochondrial membrane places the active site on the cytosolic face of this membrane rather than the matrix side where the active site of ferrochelatase, the terminal pathway enzyme, is located. Examination of the kinetics of the two terminal enzymes in mitochondrial membranes demonstrates that substrate channeling occurs between these terminal two-pathway enzymes. However, examination of solubilized and membrane-reconstituted enzymes shows no evidence for a stable complex. Based upon these and previous data a model for the terminal three-pathway enzymes is presented. PMID:3346226

  7. Metagenomic natural product discovery in lichen provides evidence for a family of biosynthetic pathways in diverse symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Kampa, Annette; Gagunashvili, Andrey N.; Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Morinaka, Brandon I.; Daolio, Cristina; Godejohann, Markus; Miao, Vivian P. W.; Piel, Jörn; Andrésson, Ólafur S.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria are a major source of natural products that provide rich opportunities for both chemical and biological investigation. Although the vast majority of known bacterial metabolites derive from free-living organisms, increasing evidence supports the widespread existence of chemically prolific bacteria living in symbioses. A strategy based on bioinformatic prediction, symbiont cultivation, isotopic enrichment, and advanced analytics was used to characterize a unique polyketide, nosperin, from a lichen-associated Nostoc sp. cyanobacterium. The biosynthetic gene cluster and the structure of nosperin, determined from 30 μg of compound, are related to those of the pederin group previously known only from nonphotosynthetic bacteria associated with beetles and marine sponges. The presence of this natural product family in such highly dissimilar associations suggests that some bacterial metabolites may be specific to symbioses with eukaryotes and encourages exploration of other symbioses for drug discovery and better understanding of ecological interactions mediated by complex bacterial metabolites. PMID:23898213

  8. Expression of the Bacterial Type III Effector DspA/E in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Down-regulates the Sphingolipid Biosynthetic Pathway Leading to Growth Arrest*

    PubMed Central

    Siamer, Sabrina; Guillas, Isabelle; Shimobayashi, Mitsugu; Kunz, Caroline; Hall, Michael N.; Barny, Marie-Anne

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium responsible for fire blight, relies on a type III secretion system and a single injected effector, DspA/E, to induce disease in host plants. DspA/E belongs to the widespread AvrE family of type III effectors that suppress plant defense responses and promote bacterial growth following infection. Ectopic expression of DspA/E in plant or in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is toxic, indicating that DspA/E likely targets a cellular process conserved between yeast and plant. To unravel the mode of action of DspA/E, we screened the Euroscarf S. cerevisiae library for mutants resistant to DspA/E-induced growth arrest. The most resistant mutants (Δsur4, Δfen1, Δipt1, Δskn1, Δcsg1, Δcsg2, Δorm1, and Δorm2) were impaired in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Exogenously supplied sphingolipid precursors such as the long chain bases (LCBs) phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine also suppressed the DspA/E-induced yeast growth defect. Expression of DspA/E in yeast down-regulated LCB biosynthesis and induced a rapid decrease in LCB levels, indicating that serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, was repressed. SPT down-regulation was mediated by dephosphorylation and activation of Orm proteins that negatively regulate SPT. A Δcdc55 mutation affecting Cdc55-PP2A protein phosphatase activity prevented Orm dephosphorylation and suppressed DspA/E-induced growth arrest. PMID:24828506

  9. Expression of the bacterial type III effector DspA/E in Saccharomyces cerevisiae down-regulates the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway leading to growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Siamer, Sabrina; Guillas, Isabelle; Shimobayashi, Mitsugu; Kunz, Caroline; Hall, Michael N; Barny, Marie-Anne

    2014-06-27

    Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium responsible for fire blight, relies on a type III secretion system and a single injected effector, DspA/E, to induce disease in host plants. DspA/E belongs to the widespread AvrE family of type III effectors that suppress plant defense responses and promote bacterial growth following infection. Ectopic expression of DspA/E in plant or in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is toxic, indicating that DspA/E likely targets a cellular process conserved between yeast and plant. To unravel the mode of action of DspA/E, we screened the Euroscarf S. cerevisiae library for mutants resistant to DspA/E-induced growth arrest. The most resistant mutants (Δsur4, Δfen1, Δipt1, Δskn1, Δcsg1, Δcsg2, Δorm1, and Δorm2) were impaired in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Exogenously supplied sphingolipid precursors such as the long chain bases (LCBs) phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine also suppressed the DspA/E-induced yeast growth defect. Expression of DspA/E in yeast down-regulated LCB biosynthesis and induced a rapid decrease in LCB levels, indicating that serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, was repressed. SPT down-regulation was mediated by dephosphorylation and activation of Orm proteins that negatively regulate SPT. A Δcdc55 mutation affecting Cdc55-PP2A protein phosphatase activity prevented Orm dephosphorylation and suppressed DspA/E-induced growth arrest. PMID:24828506

  10. Novel Bread Wheat Lines Enriched in Carotenoids Carrying Hordeum chilense Chromosome Arms in the ph1b Background

    PubMed Central

    Rey, María-Dolores; Calderón, María-Carmen; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Alós, Enriqueta; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The use of crop wild relative species to improve major crops performance is well established. Hordeum chilense has a high potential as a genetic donor to increase the carotenoid content of wheat. Crosses between the 7Hch H. chilense substitution lines in wheat and the wheat pairing homoeologous1b (ph1b) mutant allowed the development of wheat-H. chilense translocation lines for both 7Hchα and 7Hchβ chromosome arms in the wheat background. These translocation lines were characterized by in situ hybridization and using molecular markers. In addition, reverse phase chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to evaluate the carotenoid content and both 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines. The carotenoid content in 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines was higher than the wheat-7Hch addition line and double amount of carotenoids than the wheat itself. A proteomic analysis confirmed that the presence of chromosome 7Hch introgressions in wheat scarcely altered the proteomic profile of the wheat flour. The Psy1 (Phytoene Synthase1) gene, which is the first committed step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, was also cytogenetically mapped on the 7Hchα chromosome arm. These new wheat-H. chilense translocation lines can be used as a powerful tool in wheat breeding programs to enrich the diet in bioactive compounds. PMID:26241856

  11. Cloning and Characterization of a Putative R2R3 MYB Transcriptional Repressor of the Rosmarinic Acid Biosynthetic Pathway from Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuncang; Ma, Pengda; Yang, Dongfeng; Li, Wenjing; Liang, Zongsuo; Liu, Yan; Liu, Fenghua

    2013-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is one of the most renowned traditional medicinal plants in China. Phenolic acids that are derived from the rosmarinic acid pathway, such as rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B, are important bioactive components in S. miltiorrhiza. Accumulations of these compounds have been reported to be induced by various elicitors, while little is known about transcription factors that function in their biosynthetic pathways. We cloned a subgroup 4 R2R3 MYB transcription factor gene (SmMYB39) from S. miltiorrhiza and characterized its roles through overexpression and RNAi-mediated silencing. As the results showed, the content of 4-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid A and total phenolics was dramatically decreased in SmMYB39-overexpressing S. miltiorrhiza lines while being enhanced by folds in SmMYB39-RNAi lines. Quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme activities analyses showed that SmMYB39 negatively regulated transcripts and enzyme activities of 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT). These data suggest that SmMYB39 is involved in regulation of rosmarinic acid pathway and acts as a repressor through suppressing transcripts of key enzyme genes. PMID:24039895

  12. Structure and Excitation Transfer Pathways in the Chlorophyll-Carotenoid Aggregate of the Photosynthetic Unit of Purple Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulten, Klaus

    1998-03-01

    The absorption of light by light harvesting complexes and transfer of electronic excitation to the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) has been investigated on the basis of an atomic level model of the so-called photosynthetic unit of the photosynthetic bacterium Rb. sphaeroides. The photosynthetic unit combines in the intracytoplasmic membrane a nanometric (20-100 nm) assembly of three protein complexes: (i) the photosynthetic reaction center, (ii) a ring-shaped light harvesting complex LH-I, and (iii) multiple copies of a similar complex, LH-II. The unit has been modeled using the known structure of LH-II of Rs. molischianum. The lecture describes in detail the organization of chromophores involved in primary light absorption and excitation transfer: a hierarchy of ring-shaped chlorophyl aggregates with attached carotenoids. A quantum-mechanical description of the entire light harvesting process is developed employing electron structure calculations of individual and aggregated chlorophylls and carotenoids and associated effective Hamiltonian descriptions. The transfer times calculated, ranging between 100 fs and 100 ps for various processes, are found in close agreement with measured transfer rates. The results suggest that excitons are the key carriers of the excitation transfered. The photoprotection of chlorophylls by chlorophylls through triplet excitation transfer is also described.

  13. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  14. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of an Aerial Microalga Trentepohlia jolithus: Pathway Description and Gene Discovery for Carbon Fixation and Carotenoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qianqian; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Litao; Liu, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Background Algae in the order Trentepohliales have a broad geographic distribution and are generally characterized by the presence of abundant β-carotene. The many monographs published to date have mainly focused on their morphology, taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution and reproduction; molecular studies of this order are still rare. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology provides a powerful and efficient method for transcript analysis and gene discovery in Trentepohlia jolithus. Methods/Principal Findings Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing generated 55,007,830 Illumina PE raw reads, which were assembled into 41,328 assembled unigenes. Based on NR annotation, 53.28% of the unigenes (22,018) could be assigned to gene ontology classes with 54 subcategories and 161,451 functional terms. A total of 26,217 (63.44%) assembled unigenes were mapped to 128 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, a set of 5,798 SSRs in 5,206 unigenes and 131,478 putative SNPs were identified. Moreover, the fact that all of the C4 photosynthesis genes exist in T. jolithus suggests a complex carbon acquisition and fixation system. Similarities and differences between T. jolithus and other algae in carotenoid biosynthesis are also described in depth. Conclusions/Significance This is the first broad transcriptome survey for T. jolithus, increasing the amount of molecular data available for the class Ulvophyceae. As well as providing resources for functional genomics studies, the functional genes and putative pathways identified here will contribute to a better understanding of carbon fixation and fatty acid and carotenoid biosynthesis in T. jolithus. PMID:25254555

  15. Betaxanthins as substrates for tyrosinase. An approach to the role of tyrosinase in the biosynthetic pathway of betalains.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Escribano, Josefa; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2005-05-01

    Tyrosinase or polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.14.18.1) is the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis and in the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. The role of tyrosinase in the secondary metabolism of plants still remains unclear, but its implication in betalain biosynthesis has been proposed. Betalains are an important class of water-soluble pigments, characteristic of plants belonging to the order Caryophyllales. In this article, the betaxanthins, tyrosine-betaxanthin (portulacaxanthin II) and dopaxanthin, are reported to be physiological substrates for tyrosinase. The direct activity of tyrosinase on selected betaxanthins is characterized in depth, and conversion of tyrosine-betaxanthin to dopaxanthin and its further oxidation to a series of compounds are described. Identity of the reaction products was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Masses determined for the reaction products were the same in all cases, 389 m/z ([M + H]+) and equal to that determined for betanidin. Data indicate that dopaxanthin-quinone is obtained and evolves to more stable species by intramolecular cyclization. Kinetic parameters for tyrosinase acting on dopaxanthin were evaluated, showing a high affinity for this substrate (K(m) = 84.3 microM). The biosynthetic scheme of betalains is reviewed and a branch is proposed based on the description of physiological substrates for tyrosinase. Lampranthus productus, Glottiphylum oligocarpum, and Glottiphylum pigmaeum are described as sources of stereopure (2S/S)-dopaxanthin. PMID:15805475

  16. Pathway for isoleucine formation form pyruvate by leucine biosynthetic enzymes in leucine-accumulating isoleucine revertants of Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Kisumi, M; Komatsubara, S; Chibata, I

    1977-07-01

    Leaky revertants isolated from isoleucine auxotrophs of Serratia marcescens mutant resistant to alpha-aminobutyric acid were previously reported to accumulate leucine in the medium, due to the absence of both feedback inhibition and repression of leucine biosynthesis. Growth of the revertant was accelerated by pyruvate, D(-)-citramalate, citraconate, and alpha-ketobutyrate, but not by threonine. Extracts of the revertant exhibited high activities of pyruvate-dependent coenzyme A liberation from acetyl-coenzyme A, hydration of citraconate, and conversion of citraconate to alpha-ketobutyrate, but showed no threonine-deaminating activity. In the leucine-accumulating revertants the above three activities were not affected by leucine, but in the wild strain and other revertants accumulating no leucine all or one of these activities was controlled by leucine. A leucine auxotroph isolated from the leucine-accumulating revertant showed isoleucine auxotrophy as well. From these data, it is concluded that, in leucine-accumulating revertants, of S. marcescent, isoleucine, is synthesized from alpha-ketobutyrate via citramalate formed from pyruvate annd acetyl-coenzyme A by leucine biosynthetic enzymes, as a result of desensitization of alpha-isopropylmalate synthetase to feedback inhibition. PMID:142769

  17. Betaxanthins as Substrates for Tyrosinase. An Approach to the Role of Tyrosinase in the Biosynthetic Pathway of Betalains1

    PubMed Central

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Escribano, Josefa; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Tyrosinase or polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.14.18.1) is the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis and in the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. The role of tyrosinase in the secondary metabolism of plants still remains unclear, but its implication in betalain biosynthesis has been proposed. Betalains are an important class of water-soluble pigments, characteristic of plants belonging to the order Caryophyllales. In this article, the betaxanthins, tyrosine-betaxanthin (portulacaxanthin II) and dopaxanthin, are reported to be physiological substrates for tyrosinase. The direct activity of tyrosinase on selected betaxanthins is characterized in depth, and conversion of tyrosine-betaxanthin to dopaxanthin and its further oxidation to a series of compounds are described. Identity of the reaction products was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Masses determined for the reaction products were the same in all cases, 389 m/z ([M + H]+) and equal to that determined for betanidin. Data indicate that dopaxanthin-quinone is obtained and evolves to more stable species by intramolecular cyclization. Kinetic parameters for tyrosinase acting on dopaxanthin were evaluated, showing a high affinity for this substrate (Km = 84.3 μm). The biosynthetic scheme of betalains is reviewed and a branch is proposed based on the description of physiological substrates for tyrosinase. Lampranthus productus, Glottiphylum oligocarpum, and Glottiphylum pigmaeum are described as sources of stereopure (2S/S)-dopaxanthin. PMID:15805475

  18. Key to xenobiotic carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Sliwka, Hans-Richard; Partali, Vassilia

    2012-01-01

    A listing of carotenoids with heteroatoms (X = F, Cl, Br, I, Si, N, S, Se, Fe) directly attached to the carotenoid carbon skeleton has been compiled. The 178 listed carotenoids with C, H, X atoms demonstrate that the classical division of carotenoids into hydrocarbon carotenoids (C, H) and xanthophylls (C, H, O) has become obsolete. PMID:22399140

  19. OsWOX3A is involved in negative feedback regulation of the gibberellic acid biosynthetic pathway in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kang, Kiyoon; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Lee, In-Jung; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2016-03-01

    The plant-specific WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) nuclear proteins have important roles in the transcriptional regulation of many developmental processes. Among the rice (Oryza sativa) WOX proteins, a loss of OsWOX3A function in narrow leaf2 (nal2) nal3 double mutants (termed nal2/3) causes pleiotropic effects, such as narrow and curly leaves, opened spikelets, narrow grains, more tillers, and fewer lateral roots, but almost normal plant height. To examine OsWOX3A function in more detail, transgenic rice overexpressing OsWOX3A (OsWOX3A-OX) were generated; unexpectedly, all of them consistently exhibited severe dwarfism with very short and wide leaves, a phenotype that resembles that of gibberellic acid (GA)-deficient or GA-insensitive mutants. Exogenous GA3 treatment fully rescued the developmental defects of OsWOX3A-OX plants, suggesting that constitutive overexpression of OsWOX3A downregulates GA biosynthesis. Quantitative analysis of GA intermediates revealed significantly reduced levels of GA20 and bioactive GA1 in OsWOX3A-OX, possibly due to downregulation of the expression of KAO, which encodes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase, a GA biosynthetic enzyme. Yeast one-hybrid and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that OsWOX3A directly interacts with the KAO promoter. OsWOX3A expression is drastically and temporarily upregulated by GA3 and downregulated by paclobutrazol, a blocker of GA biosynthesis. These data indicate that OsWOX3A is a GA-responsive gene and functions in the negative feedback regulation of the GA biosynthetic pathway for GA homeostasis to maintain the threshold levels of endogenous GA intermediates throughout development. PMID:26767749

  20. OsWOX3A is involved in negative feedback regulation of the gibberellic acid biosynthetic pathway in rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kang, Kiyoon; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Lee, In-Jung; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2016-01-01

    The plant-specific WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) nuclear proteins have important roles in the transcriptional regulation of many developmental processes. Among the rice (Oryza sativa) WOX proteins, a loss of OsWOX3A function in narrow leaf2 (nal2) nal3 double mutants (termed nal2/3) causes pleiotropic effects, such as narrow and curly leaves, opened spikelets, narrow grains, more tillers, and fewer lateral roots, but almost normal plant height. To examine OsWOX3A function in more detail, transgenic rice overexpressing OsWOX3A (OsWOX3A-OX) were generated; unexpectedly, all of them consistently exhibited severe dwarfism with very short and wide leaves, a phenotype that resembles that of gibberellic acid (GA)-deficient or GA-insensitive mutants. Exogenous GA3 treatment fully rescued the developmental defects of OsWOX3A-OX plants, suggesting that constitutive overexpression of OsWOX3A downregulates GA biosynthesis. Quantitative analysis of GA intermediates revealed significantly reduced levels of GA20 and bioactive GA1 in OsWOX3A-OX, possibly due to downregulation of the expression of KAO, which encodes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase, a GA biosynthetic enzyme. Yeast one-hybrid and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that OsWOX3A directly interacts with the KAO promoter. OsWOX3A expression is drastically and temporarily upregulated by GA3 and downregulated by paclobutrazol, a blocker of GA biosynthesis. These data indicate that OsWOX3A is a GA-responsive gene and functions in the negative feedback regulation of the GA biosynthetic pathway for GA homeostasis to maintain the threshold levels of endogenous GA intermediates throughout development. PMID:26767749

  1. Expression analysis of flavonoid biosynthesis genes during Arabidopsis thaliana silique and seed development with a primary focus on the proanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The coordinated activity of different flavonoid biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis thaliana results in tissue-specific accumulation of flavonols, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs). These compounds possess diverse functions in plants including light-attenuation and oxidative stress protection. Flavonoids accumulate in a stimulus- and/or development-dependent manner in specific parts of the plant. PAs accumulate in the seed coat (testa). Findings We describe the biological material and the preparation of total RNA for the AtGenExpress developmental silique and seed series. AtGenExpress ATH1 GeneChip expression data from the different stages were reanalyzed and verified using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). We observed organ-specific transcript accumulation of specific flavonoid biosynthetic genes consistent with previously published data and our PA compound accumulation data. In addition, we investigated the regulation of PA accumulation in developing A. thaliana seeds by correlating gene expression patterns of specific flavonoid biosynthesis genes with different seed embryonic developmental stages and organs and present two useful marker genes for isolated valve and replum organs, as well as one seed-specific marker. Conclusions Potential caveats of array-based expression data are discussed based on comparisons with qPCR data. Results from ATH1 microarray and qPCR experiments revealed a shift in gene activity from general flavonoid biosynthesis at early stages of seed development to PA synthesis at late (mature) stages of embryogenesis. The examined PA accumulation-associated genes, including biosynthetic and regulatory genes, were found to be exclusively expressed in immature seeds. Accumulation of PAs initiates at the early heart stage of silique and seed development. Our findings provide new insights for further studies targeting the PA pathway in seeds. PMID:20929528

  2. Novel NAD+-Farnesal Dehydrogenase from Polygonum minus Leaves. Purification and Characterization of Enzyme in Juvenile Hormone III Biosynthetic Pathway in Plant

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed-Hussein, Zeti-Azura; Ng, Chyan Leong

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile Hormone III is of great concern due to negative effects on major developmental and reproductive maturation in insect pests. Thus, the elucidation of enzymes involved JH III biosynthetic pathway has become increasing important in recent years. One of the enzymes in the JH III biosynthetic pathway that remains to be isolated and characterized is farnesal dehydrogenase, an enzyme responsible to catalyze the oxidation of farnesal into farnesoic acid. A novel NAD+-farnesal dehydrogenase of Polygonum minus was purified (315-fold) to apparent homogeneity in five chromatographic steps. The purification procedures included Gigacap S-Toyopearl 650M, Gigacap Q-Toyopearl 650M, and AF-Blue Toyopearl 650ML, followed by TSK Gel G3000SW chromatographies. The enzyme, with isoelectric point of 6.6 is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 70 kDa. The enzyme was relatively active at 40°C, but was rapidly inactivated above 45°C. The optimal temperature and pH of the enzyme were found to be 35°C and 9.5, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl agent, chelating agent, and metal ion. The enzyme was highly specific for farnesal and NAD+. Other terpene aldehydes such as trans- cinnamaldehyde, citral and α- methyl cinnamaldehyde were also oxidized but in lower activity. The Km values for farnesal, citral, trans- cinnamaldehyde, α- methyl cinnamaldehyde and NAD+ were 0.13, 0.69, 0.86, 1.28 and 0.31 mM, respectively. The putative P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase that’s highly specific towards farnesal but not to aliphatic aldehydes substrates suggested that the enzyme is significantly different from other aldehyde dehydrogenases that have been reported. The MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS spectrometry further identified two peptides that share similarity to those of previously reported aldehyde dehydrogenases. In conclusion, the P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase may represent a novel plant farnesal dehydrogenase that exhibits distinctive substrate specificity

  3. Novel NAD+-Farnesal Dehydrogenase from Polygonum minus Leaves. Purification and Characterization of Enzyme in Juvenile Hormone III Biosynthetic Pathway in Plant.

    PubMed

    Seman-Kamarulzaman, Ahmad-Faris; Mohamed-Hussein, Zeti-Azura; Ng, Chyan Leong; Hassan, Maizom

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile Hormone III is of great concern due to negative effects on major developmental and reproductive maturation in insect pests. Thus, the elucidation of enzymes involved JH III biosynthetic pathway has become increasing important in recent years. One of the enzymes in the JH III biosynthetic pathway that remains to be isolated and characterized is farnesal dehydrogenase, an enzyme responsible to catalyze the oxidation of farnesal into farnesoic acid. A novel NAD+-farnesal dehydrogenase of Polygonum minus was purified (315-fold) to apparent homogeneity in five chromatographic steps. The purification procedures included Gigacap S-Toyopearl 650M, Gigacap Q-Toyopearl 650M, and AF-Blue Toyopearl 650ML, followed by TSK Gel G3000SW chromatographies. The enzyme, with isoelectric point of 6.6 is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 70 kDa. The enzyme was relatively active at 40°C, but was rapidly inactivated above 45°C. The optimal temperature and pH of the enzyme were found to be 35°C and 9.5, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl agent, chelating agent, and metal ion. The enzyme was highly specific for farnesal and NAD+. Other terpene aldehydes such as trans- cinnamaldehyde, citral and α- methyl cinnamaldehyde were also oxidized but in lower activity. The Km values for farnesal, citral, trans- cinnamaldehyde, α- methyl cinnamaldehyde and NAD+ were 0.13, 0.69, 0.86, 1.28 and 0.31 mM, respectively. The putative P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase that's highly specific towards farnesal but not to aliphatic aldehydes substrates suggested that the enzyme is significantly different from other aldehyde dehydrogenases that have been reported. The MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS spectrometry further identified two peptides that share similarity to those of previously reported aldehyde dehydrogenases. In conclusion, the P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase may represent a novel plant farnesal dehydrogenase that exhibits distinctive substrate specificity towards

  4. Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Sefc, Kristina M.; Brown, Alexandria C.; Clotfelter, Ethan D.

    2014-01-01

    Animal colors play important roles in communication, ecological interactions and speciation. Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many yellow, orange and red hues in animals. Whereas extensive knowledge on the proximate mechanisms underlying carotenoid coloration in birds has led to testable hypotheses on avian color evolution and signaling, much less is known about the expression of carotenoid coloration in fishes. Here, we promote cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Cichlidae) as a system in which to study the physiological and evolutionary significance of carotenoids. Cichlids include some of the best examples of adaptive radiation and color pattern diversification in vertebrates. In this paper, we examine fitness correlates of carotenoid pigmentation in cichlids and review hypotheses regarding the signal content of carotenoid-based ornaments. Carotenoid-based coloration is influenced by diet and body condition and is positively related to mating success and social dominance. Gaps in our knowledge are discussed in the last part of this review, particularly in the understanding of carotenoid metabolism pathways and the genetics of carotenoid coloration. We suggest that carotenoid metabolism and transport are important proximate mechanisms responsible for individual and population-differences in cichlid coloration that may ultimately contribute to diversification and speciation. PMID:24667558

  5. A new member of the 4-methylideneimidazole-5-one–containing aminomutase family from the enediyne kedarcidin biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Lohman, Jeremy R.; Huang, Tingting; Shen, Ben

    2013-01-01

    4-Methylideneimidazole-5-one (MIO)-containing aminomutases catalyze the conversion of l-α-amino acids to β-amino acids with either an (R) or an (S) configuration. l-Phenylalanine and l-tyrosine are the only two natural substrates identified to date. The enediyne chromophore of the chromoprotein antitumor antibiotic kedarcidin (KED) harbors an (R)-2-aza-3-chloro-β-tyrosine moiety reminiscent of the (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-β-tyrosine moiety of the C-1027 enediyne chromophore, the biosynthesis of which uncovered the first known MIO-containing aminomutase, SgcC4. Comparative analysis of the KED and C-1027 biosynthetic gene clusters inspired the proposal for (R)-2-aza-3-chloro-β-tyrosine biosynthesis starting from 2-aza-l-tyrosine, featuring KedY4 as a putative MIO-containing aminomutase. Here we report the biochemical characterization of KedY4, confirming its proposed role in KED biosynthesis. KedY4 is an MIO-containing aminomutase that stereospecifically catalyzes the conversion of 2-aza-l-tyrosine to (R)-2-aza-β-tyrosine, exhibiting no detectable activity toward 2-aza-l-phenylalanine or l-tyrosine as an alternative substrate. In contrast, SgcC4, which stereospecifically catalyzes the conversion of l-tyrosine to (S)-β-tyrosine in C-1027 biosynthesis, exhibits minimal activity with 2-aza-l-tyrosine as an alternative substrate but generating (S)-2-aza-β-tyrosine, a product with the opposite stereochemistry of KedY4. This report of KedY4 broadens the scope of known substrates for the MIO-containing aminomutase family, and comparative studies of KedY4 and SgcC4 provide an outstanding opportunity to examine how MIO-containing aminomutases control substrate specificity and product enantioselectivity. PMID:23633564

  6. The characterization of transgenic tomato overexpressing gibberellin 20-oxidase reveals induction of parthenocarpic fruit growth, higher yield, and alteration of the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    García-Hurtado, Noemí; Carrera, Esther; Ruiz-Rivero, Omar; López-Gresa, Maria Pilar; Hedden, Peter; Gong, Fan; García-Martínez, José Luis

    2012-10-01

    Fruit-set and growth in tomato depend on the action of gibberellins (GAs). To evaluate the role of the GA biosynthetic enzyme GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox) in that process, the citrus gene CcGA20ox1 was overexpressed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv Micro-Tom. The transformed plants were taller, had non-serrated leaves, and some flowers displayed a protruding stigma due to a longer style, thus preventing self-pollination, similar to GA(3)-treated plants. Flowering was delayed compared with wild-type (WT) plants. Both yield and number of fruits per plant, some of them seedless, were higher in the transgenic plants. The Brix index value of fruit juice was also higher due to elevated citric acid content, but not glucose or fructose content. When emasculated, 14-30% of ovaries from transgenic flowers developed parthenocarpically, whereas no parthenocarpy was found in emasculated WT flowers. The presence of early-13-hydroxylation and non-13-hydroxylation GA pathways was demonstrated in the shoot and fruit of Micro-Tom, as well as in two tall tomato cultivars (Ailsa Craig and UC-82). The transgenic plants had altered GA profiles containing higher concentrations of GA(4), from the non-13-hydroxylation pathway, which is generally a minor active GA in tomato. The effect of GA(4) application in enhancing stem growth and parthenocarpic fruit development was proportional to dose, with the same activity as GA(1). The results support the contention that GA20ox overexpression diverts GA metabolism from the early-13-hydroxylation pathway to the non-13-hydroxylation pathway. This led to enhanced GA(4) synthesis and higher yield, although the increase in GA(4) content in the ovary was not sufficient to induce full parthenocarpy. PMID:22945942

  7. Genetic engineering of the complete carotenoid pathway towards enhanced astaxanthin formation in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous starting from a high-yield mutant.

    PubMed

    Gassel, Sören; Breitenbach, Jürgen; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is one of the rare organisms which can synthesize the commercially interesting carotenoid astaxanthin. However, astaxanthin yield in wild-type and also in classical mutants is still too low for an attractive bioprocess. Therefore, we combined classical mutagenesis with genetic engineering of the complete pathway covering improved precursor supply for carotenogenesis, enhanced metabolite flow into the pathway, and efficient conversion of intermediates into the desired end product astaxanthin. We also constructed new transformation plasmids for the stepwise expression of the genes of 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase, and astaxanthin synthase. Starting from two mutants with a 15-fold higher astaxanthin, we obtained transformants with an additional 6-fold increase in the final step of pathway engineering. Thus, a maximum astaxanthin content of almost 9 mg per g dry weight was reached in shaking cultures. Under optimized fermenter conditions, astaxanthin production with these engineered transformants should be comparable to Haematococcus pluvialis, the leading commercial producer of natural astaxanthin. PMID:24241897

  8. Phytoene desaturase is localized exclusively in the chloroplast and up-regulated at the mRNA level during accumulation of secondary carotenoids in Haematococcus pluvialis (Volvocales, chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Grünewald, K; Eckert, M; Hirschberg, J; Hagen, C

    2000-04-01

    The unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow is known for its massive accumulation of ketocarotenoids under various stress conditions. Therefore, this microalga is one of the favored organisms for biotechnological production of these antioxidative compounds. Astaxanthin makes up the main part of the secondary carotenoids and is accumulated mostly in an esterified form in extraplastidic lipid vesicles. We have studied phytoene desaturase, an early enzyme of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. The increase in the phytoene desaturase protein levels that occurs following induction is accompanied by a corresponding increase of its mRNA during the accumulation period, indicating that phytoene desaturase is regulated at the mRNA level. We also investigated the localization of the enzyme by western-blot analysis of cell fractions and by immunogold labeling of ultrathin sections for electron microscopy. In spite of the fact that secondary carotenoids accumulate outside the chloroplast, no extra pathway specific for secondary carotenoid biosynthesis in H. pluvialis was found, at least at this early stage in the biosynthesis. A transport process of carotenoids from the site of biosynthesis (chloroplast) to the site of accumulation (cytoplasmatic located lipid vesicles) is implicated. PMID:10759523

  9. Control of carotenoid biosynthesis through a heme-based cis-trans isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Jesús; Kloss, Brian; Hosler, Jonathan P.; Geng, Jiafeng; Liu, Aimin; Modi, Anuja; Dawson, John H.; Sono, Masanori; Shumskaya, Maria; Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Love, James D.; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize carotenoids essential for plant development and survival. These metabolites also serve as essential nutrients for human health. The biosynthetic pathway leading to all plant carotenoids occurs in chloroplasts and other plastids and requires 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO). It was not certain whether isomerization was achieved by Z-ISO alone or in combination with other enzymes. Here we show that Z-ISO is a bona fide enzyme and integral membrane protein. Z-ISO independently catalyzes the cis-to-trans isomerization of the 15–15′ C=C bond in 9,15,9′-cis-ζ-carotene to produce the substrate required by the following biosynthetic pathway enzyme. We discovered that isomerization depends upon a ferrous heme b cofactor that undergoes redox-regulated ligand-switching between the heme iron and alternate Z-ISO amino acid residues. Heme b-dependent isomerization of a large, hydrophobic compound in a membrane is unprecedented. As an isomerase, Z-ISO represents a new prototype for heme b proteins and potentially utilizes a novel chemical mechanism. PMID:26075523

  10. Control of carotenoid biosynthesis through a heme-based cis-trans isomerase.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Jesús; Kloss, Brian; Hosler, Jonathan P; Geng, Jiafeng; Liu, Aimin; Modi, Anuja; Dawson, John H; Sono, Masanori; Shumskaya, Maria; Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Love, James D; Wurtzel, Eleanore T

    2015-08-01

    Plants synthesize carotenoids, which are essential for plant development and survival. These metabolites also serve as essential nutrients for human health. The biosynthetic pathway for all plant carotenoids occurs in chloroplasts and other plastids and requires 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO). It was not known whether Z-ISO catalyzes isomerization alone or in combination with other enzymes. Here we show that Z-ISO is a bona fide enzyme and integral membrane protein. Z-ISO independently catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of the 15-15' carbon-carbon double bond in 9,15,9'-cis-ζ-carotene to produce the substrate required by the subsequent biosynthetic-pathway enzyme. We discovered that isomerization depends upon a ferrous heme b cofactor that undergoes redox-regulated ligand switching between the heme iron and alternate Z-ISO amino acid residues. Heme b-dependent isomerization of a large hydrophobic compound in a membrane was previously undescribed. As an isomerase, Z-ISO represents a new prototype for heme b proteins and potentially uses a new chemical mechanism. PMID:26075523

  11. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis in varroa mites: identification of halloween genes from the biosynthetic pathway and their regulation during reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosynthesis of ecdysteroids involves sequential enzymatic hydroxylations by microsomal enzymes and mitochondrial cytochrome P450’s. Enzymes of the pathway are collectively known as Halloween genes. Complete sequences for three Halloween genes, spook (Vdspo), disembodied (Vddib) and shade (Vdshd), w...

  12. Characterization of TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose-3,4-ketoisomerase from the D-mycaminose biosynthetic pathway of Streptomyces fradiae: in vitro activity and substrate specificity studies.

    PubMed

    Melançon, Charles E; Hong, Lin; White, Jess A; Liu, Yung-nan; Liu, Hung-wen

    2007-01-16

    Deoxysugars are critical structural elements for the bioactivity of many natural products. Ongoing work on elucidating a variety of deoxysugar biosynthetic pathways has paved the way for manipulation of these pathways for the generation of structurally diverse glycosylated natural products. In the course of this work, the biosynthesis of d-mycaminose in the tylosin pathway of Streptomyces fradiae was investigated. Attempts to reconstitute the entire mycaminose biosynthetic machinery in a heterologous host led to the discovery of a previously overlooked gene, tyl1a, encoding an enzyme thought to convert TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-glucose to TDP-3-keto-6-deoxy-d-glucose, a 3,4-ketoisomerization reaction in the pathway. Tyl1a has now been overexpressed, purified, and assayed, and its activity has been verified by product analysis. Incubation of Tyl1a and the C-3 aminotransferase TylB, the next enzyme in the pathway, produced TDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose, confirming that these two enzymes act sequentially. Steady state kinetic parameters of the Tyl1a-catalyzed reaction were determined, and the ability of Tyl1a and TylB to process a C-2 deoxygenated substrate and a CDP-linked substrate was also demonstrated. Enzymes catalyzing 3,4-ketoisomerization of hexoses represent a new class of enzymes involved in unusual sugar biosynthesis. The fact that Tyl1a exhibits a relaxed substrate specificity holds potential for future deoxysugar biosynthetic engineering endeavors. PMID:17209568

  13. Pederin-type pathways of uncultivated bacterial symbionts: analysis of o-methyltransferases and generation of a biosynthetic hybrid.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Katrin; Engeser, Marianne; Blunt, John W; Munro, Murray H G; Piel, Jörn

    2009-03-01

    The complex polyketide pederin is a potent antitumor agent isolated from Paederus spp. rove beetles. We have previously isolated a set of genes from a bacterial endosymbiont that are good candidates for pederin biosynthesis. To biochemically study this pathway, we expressed three methyltransferases from the putative pederin pathway and used the partially unmethylated analogue mycalamide A from the marine sponge Mycale hentscheli as test substrate. Analysis by high-resolution MS/MS and NMR revealed that PedO regiospecifically methylates the marine compound to generate the nonnatural hybrid compound 18-O-methylmycalamide A with increased cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first biochemical evidence that invertebrates can obtain defensive complex polyketides from bacterial symbionts. PMID:19206228

  14. Carotenoids as signaling molecules in cardiovascular biology

    PubMed Central

    Barzegari, Abolfazl; Pavon-Djavid, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play important roles in the etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thus, natural antioxidant carotenoids existing in fruits and vegetables could have a significant role in the prevention of CVD. Nevertheless, clinical data are conflicting about the positive effect of some antioxidant carotenoids in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Many biological actions of carotenoids have been attributed to their antioxidant effect; however, the precise mechanism by which carotenoids produce their beneficial effects is still under discussion. They might modulate molecular pathways involved in cell proliferation, acting at Akt, tyrosine kinases, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) and growth factor signaling cascades. Screening for a promising cardiovascular protective carotenoids therefore might be performed in vitro and in vivo with caution in cross-interaction with other molecules involved in signaling pathways especially those affecting microRNAs, performing a role in molecular modulation of cardiovascular cells. PMID:25337462

  15. A cautionary tale of structure-guided inhibitor development against an essential enzyme in the aspartate-biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, Alexander G; Thangavelu, Bharani; Bhansali, Pravin; Viola, Ronald E

    2014-12-01

    The aspartate pathway is essential for the production of the amino acids required for protein synthesis and of the metabolites needed in bacterial development. This pathway also leads to the production of several classes of quorum-sensing molecules that can trigger virulence in certain microorganisms. The second enzyme in this pathway, aspartate β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH), is absolutely required for bacterial survival and has been targeted for the design of selective inhibitors. Fragment-library screening has identified a new set of inhibitors that, while they do not resemble the substrates for this reaction, have been shown to bind at the active site of ASADH. Structure-guided development of these lead compounds has produced moderate inhibitors of the target enzyme, with some selectivity observed between the Gram-negative and Gram-positive orthologs of ASADH. However, many of these inhibitor analogs and derivatives have not yet achieved the expected enhanced affinity. Structural characterization of these enzyme-inhibitor complexes has provided detailed explanations for the barriers that interfere with optimal binding. Despite binding in the same active-site region, significant changes are observed in the orientation of these bound inhibitors that are caused by relatively modest structural alterations. Taken together, these studies present a cautionary tale for issues that can arise in the systematic approach to the modification of lead compounds that are being used to develop potent inhibitors. PMID:25478842

  16. Reconstruction of the Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway of Exiguobacterium antarcticum B7 Based on Genomic and Bibliomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Regiane; Carepo, Marta S. P.; Oliveira, Rui; Marques, Rodolfo; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Schneider, Maria P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Exiguobacterium antarcticum B7 is extremophile Gram-positive bacteria able to survive in cold environments. A key factor to understanding cold adaptation processes is related to the modification of fatty acids composing the cell membranes of psychrotrophic bacteria. In our study we show the in silico reconstruction of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway of E. antarcticum B7. To build the stoichiometric model, a semiautomatic procedure was applied, which integrates genome information using KEGG and RAST/SEED. Constraint-based methods, namely, Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and elementary modes (EM), were applied. FBA was implemented in the sense of hexadecenoic acid production maximization. To evaluate the influence of the gene expression in the fluxome analysis, FBA was also calculated using the log2⁡FC values obtained in the transcriptome analysis at 0°C and 37°C. The fatty acid biosynthesis pathway showed a total of 13 elementary flux modes, four of which showed routes for the production of hexadecenoic acid. The reconstructed pathway demonstrated the capacity of E. antarcticum B7 to de novo produce fatty acid molecules. Under the influence of the transcriptome, the fluxome was altered, promoting the production of short-chain fatty acids. The calculated models contribute to better understanding of the bacterial adaptation at cold environments. PMID:27595107

  17. Reconstruction of the Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway of Exiguobacterium antarcticum B7 Based on Genomic and Bibliomic Data.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Regiane; Baraúna, Rafael A; Silva, Artur; Carepo, Marta S P; Oliveira, Rui; Marques, Rodolfo; Ramos, Rommel T J; Schneider, Maria P C

    2016-01-01

    Exiguobacterium antarcticum B7 is extremophile Gram-positive bacteria able to survive in cold environments. A key factor to understanding cold adaptation processes is related to the modification of fatty acids composing the cell membranes of psychrotrophic bacteria. In our study we show the in silico reconstruction of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway of E. antarcticum B7. To build the stoichiometric model, a semiautomatic procedure was applied, which integrates genome information using KEGG and RAST/SEED. Constraint-based methods, namely, Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and elementary modes (EM), were applied. FBA was implemented in the sense of hexadecenoic acid production maximization. To evaluate the influence of the gene expression in the fluxome analysis, FBA was also calculated using the log2⁡FC values obtained in the transcriptome analysis at 0°C and 37°C. The fatty acid biosynthesis pathway showed a total of 13 elementary flux modes, four of which showed routes for the production of hexadecenoic acid. The reconstructed pathway demonstrated the capacity of E. antarcticum B7 to de novo produce fatty acid molecules. Under the influence of the transcriptome, the fluxome was altered, promoting the production of short-chain fatty acids. The calculated models contribute to better understanding of the bacterial adaptation at cold environments. PMID:27595107

  18. In silico analysis and expression profiling of miRNAs targeting genes of steviol glycosides biosynthetic pathway and their relationship with steviol glycosides content in different tissues of Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Saifi, Monica; Nasrullah, Nazima; Ahmad, Malik Mobeen; Ali, Athar; Khan, Jawaid A; Abdin, M Z

    2015-09-01

    miRNAs are emerging as potential regulators of the gene expression. Their proven promising role in regulating biosynthetic pathways related gene networks may hold the key to understand the genetic regulation of these pathways which may assist in selection and manipulation to get high performing plant genotypes with better secondary metabolites yields and increased biomass. miRNAs associated with genes of steviol glycosides biosynthetic pathway, however, have not been identified so far. In this study miRNAs targeting genes of steviol glycosides biosynthetic pathway were identified for the first time whose precursors were potentially generated from ESTs and nucleotide sequences of Stevia rebaudiana. Thereafter, stem-loop coupled real time PCR based expressions of these miRNAs in different tissues of Stevia rebaudiana were investigated and their relationship pattern was analysed with the expression levels of their target mRNAs as well as steviol glycoside contents. All the miRNAs investigated showed differential expressions in all the three tissues studied, viz. leaves, flowers and stems. Out of the eleven miRNAs validated, the expression levels of nine miRNAs (miR319a, miR319b, miR319c, miR319d, miR319e, miR319f, miR319h, miRstv_7, miRstv_9) were found to be inversely related, while expression levels of the two, i.e. miR319g and miRstv_11 on the contrary, showed direct relation with the expression levels of their target mRNAs and steviol glycoside contents in the leaves, flowers and stems. This study provides a platform for better understanding of the steviol glycosides biosynthetic pathway and these miRNAs can further be employed to manipulate the biosynthesis of these metabolites to enhance their contents and yield in S. rebaudiana. PMID:26042546

  19. Variability of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Orange Colored Capsicum spp.

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Ivette; Hamby, Shane; Romero, Joslynn; Bosland, Paul W.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Pepper, Capsicum spp., is a worldwide crop valued for heat, nutrition, and rich pigment content. Carotenoids, the largest group of plant pigments, function as antioxidants and as vitamin A precursors. The most abundant carotenoids in ripe pepper fruits are β-carotene, capsanthin, and capsorubin. In this study, the carotenoid composition of orange fruited Capsicum lines was defined along with the allelic variability of the biosynthetic enzymes. The carotenoid chemical profiles present in seven orange pepper varieties were determined using a novel UPLC method. The orange appearance of the fruit was due either to the accumulation of β-carotene, or in two cases, due to only the accumulation of red and yellow carotenoids. Four carotenoid biosynthetic genes, Psy, Lcyb, CrtZ-2, and Ccs were cloned and sequenced from these cultivars. This data tested the hypothesis that different alleles for specific carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes are associated with specific carotenoid profiles in orange peppers. While the coding regions within Psy and CrtZ-2 did not change in any of the lines, the genomic sequence contained introns not previously reported. Lcyb and Ccs contained no introns but did exhibit polymorphisms resulting in amino acid changes; a new Ccs variant was found. When selectively breeding for high provitamin A levels, phenotypic recurrent selection based on fruit color is not sufficient, carotenoid chemical composition should also be conducted. Based on these results, specific alleles are candidate molecular markers for selection of orange pepper lines with high β-carotene and therefore high pro-vitamin A levels. PMID:20582146

  20. Induction of DREB2A pathway with repression of E2F, jasmonic acid biosynthetic and photosynthesis pathways in cold acclimation-specific freeze-resistant wheat crown.

    PubMed

    Karki, Amrit; Horvath, David P; Sutton, Fedora

    2013-03-01

    Winter wheat lines can achieve cold acclimation (development of tolerance to freezing temperatures) and vernalization (delay in transition from vegetative to reproductive phase) in response to low non-freezing temperatures. To describe cold-acclimation-specific processes and pathways, we utilized cold acclimation transcriptomic data from two lines varying in freeze survival but not vernalization. These lines, designated freeze-resistant (FR) and freeze-susceptible (FS), were the source of crown tissue RNA. Well-annotated differentially expressed genes (p ≤ 0.005 and fold change ≥ 2 in response to 4 weeks cold acclimation) were used for gene ontology and pathway analysis. "Abiotic stimuli" was identified as the most enriched and unique for FR. Unique to FS was "cytoplasmic components." Pathway analysis revealed the "triacylglycerol degradation" pathway as significantly downregulated and common to both FR and FS. The most enriched of FR pathways was "neighbors of DREB2A," with the highest positive median fold change. The "13-LOX and 13-HPL" and the "E2F" pathways were enriched in FR only with a negative median fold change. The "jasmonic acid biosynthesis" pathway and four "photosynthetic-associated" pathways were enriched in both FR and FS but with a more negative median fold change in FR than in FS. A pathway unique to FS was "binding partners of LHCA1," which was enriched only in FS with a significant negative median fold change. We propose that the DREB2A, E2F, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, and photosynthetic pathways are critical for discrimination between cold-acclimated lines varying in freeze survival. PMID:23262780

  1. Gene transcript profiles of the TIA biosynthetic pathway in response to ethylene and copper reveal their interactive role in modulating TIA biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ya-Jie; Liu, Jia; Guo, Xiao-Rui; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Research on transcriptional regulation of terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) biosynthesis of the medicinal plant, Catharanthus roseus, has largely been focused on gene function and not clustering analysis of multiple genes at the transcript level. Here, more than ten key genes encoding key enzyme of alkaloid synthesis in TIA biosynthetic pathways were chosen to investigate the integrative responses to exogenous elicitor ethylene and copper (Cu) at both transcriptional and metabolic levels. The ethylene-induced gene transcripts in leaves and roots, respectively, were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and the results showed the overall expression of TIA pathway genes indicated as the Q value followed a standard normal distribution after ethylene treatments. Peak gene expression was at 15-30 μM of ethephon, and the pre-mature leaf had a higher Q value than the immature or mature leaf and root. Treatment with elicitor Cu found that Cu up-regulated overall TIA gene expression more in roots than in leaves. The combined effects of Cu and ethephon on TIA gene expression were stronger than their separate effects. It has been documented that TIA gene expression is tightly regulated by the transcriptional factor (TF) ethylene responsive factor (ERF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. The loading plot combination with correlation analysis for the genes of C. roseus showed that expression of the MPK gene correlated with strictosidine synthase (STR) and strictosidine b-D-glucosidase(SGD). In addition, ERF expression correlated with expression of secologanin synthase (SLS) and tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), specifically in roots, whereas MPK and myelocytomatosis oncogene (MYC) correlated with STR and SGD genes. In conclusion, the ERF regulates the upstream pathway genes in response to heavy metal Cu mainly in C. roseus roots, while the MPK mainly participates in regulating the STR gene in response to ethylene in pre-mature leaf. Interestingly, the

  2. Production of the Streptomyces scabies coronafacoyl phytotoxins involves a novel biosynthetic pathway with an F420 -dependent oxidoreductase and a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase.

    PubMed

    Bown, Luke; Altowairish, Mead S; Fyans, Joanna K; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2016-07-01

    Coronafacoyl phytotoxins are secondary metabolites that are produced by various phytopathogenic bacteria, including several pathovars of the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas syringae as well as the Gram-positive potato scab pathogen Streptomyces scabies. The phytotoxins are composed of the polyketide coronafacic acid (CFA) linked via an amide bond to amino acids or amino acid derivatives, and their biosynthesis involves the cfa and cfa-like gene clusters that are found in P. syringae and S. scabies, respectively. The S. scabies cfa-like gene cluster was previously reported to contain several genes that are absent from the P. syringae cfa gene cluster, including one (oxr) encoding a putative F420 -dependent oxidoreductase, and another (sdr) encoding a predicted short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase. Using gene deletion analysis, we demonstrated that both oxr and sdr are required for normal production of the S. scabies coronafacoyl phytotoxins, and structural analysis of metabolites that accumulated in the Δsdr mutant cultures revealed that Sdr is directly involved in the biosynthesis of the CFA moiety. Our results suggest that S. scabies and P. syringae use distinct biosynthetic pathways for producing coronafacoyl phytotoxins, which are important mediators of host-pathogen interactions in various plant pathosystems. PMID:26991928

  3. Inhibition of green tea and the catechins against 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase, the key enzyme of the MEP terpenoid biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Hui, Xian; Liu, Hui; Tian, Fang-Lin; Li, Fei-Fei; Li, Heng; Gao, Wen-Yun

    2016-09-01

    1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) is the first committed enzyme in the MEP terpenoid biosynthetic pathway and also a validated antimicrobial target. Green tea which is rich in polyphenolic components such as the catechins, possesses a plenty of pharmacological activities, in particular an antibacterial effect. To uncover the antibacterial mechanism of green tea and to seek new DXR inhibitors from natural sources, the DXR inhibitory activity of green tea and its main antimicrobial catechins were investigated in this study. The results show that the raw extract of green tea and its ethyl acetate fraction are able to suppress DXR activity explicitly. Further determination of the DXR inhibitory capacity of eight catechin compounds demonstrates that the most active compound is gallocatechin gallate that is able to inhibit around 50% activity of DXR at 25μM. Based on these data, the primary structure-activity relationship of the catechins against DXR is discussed. This study would be very helpful to elucidate the antimicrobial mechanism of green tea and the catechins and also would be very useful to direct the rational utilization of them as food additives. PMID:27439219

  4. Method development and analysis of free HS and HS in proteoglycans from pre- and postmenopausal women: Evidence for biosynthetic pathway changes in sulfotransferase and sulfatase enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Miller, Rebecca L.; Leary, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is one of the most complex and informative biopolymers found on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix as either free HS fragments or constituents of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs). Analysis of free HS and HSPG sugar chains in human serum at the disaccharide level has great potential for early disease diagnosis and prognosis, however, the low concentration of HS in human serum, together with the complexity of the serum matrix, limits the information on HS. In this study, we present and validate the development of a new sensitive method for in-depth compositional analysis of free HS and HSPG sugar chains. This protocol involved several steps including weak anion exchange chromatography, ultrafiltration and solid phase extraction for enhanced detection prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Using this protocol, a total of 51 serum samples from 26 premenopausal and 25 postmenopausal women were analyzed. Statistically significant differences in heparin/HS disaccharide profiles were observed. The proportion of N-acetylation and N-sulfation in both free HS and HSPG sugar chains were significantly different between pre- and postmenopausal women, indicating changes in N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferases (NDSTs), the enzymes involved in the initial step of the biosynthetic pathway. Differences in the proportion of 6-O-sulfation suggest that 6-O-sulfotransferase and/or 6-O-sulfatase enzymes may also be implicated. PMID:23659730

  5. Isoprenoid generating systems in plants - A handy toolbox how to assess contribution of the mevalonate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways to the biosynthetic process.

    PubMed

    Lipko, Agata; Swiezewska, Ewa

    2016-07-01

    Isoprenoids comprise an astonishingly diverse group of metabolites with numerous potential and actual applications in medicine, agriculture and the chemical industry. Generation of efficient platforms producing isoprenoids is a target of numerous laboratories. Such efforts are generally enhanced if the native biosynthetic routes can be identified, and if the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the biosynthesis of the compound(s) of interest can be determined. In this review a critical summary of the techniques applied to establish the contribution of the two alternative routes of isoprenoid production operating in plant cells, the mevalonate and methylerythritol pathways, with a focus on their co-operation (cross-talk) is presented. Special attention has been paid to methodological aspects of the referred studies, in order to give the reader a deeper understanding for the nuances of these powerful techniques. This review has been designed as an organized toolbox, which might offer the researchers comments useful both for project design and for interpretation of results obtained. PMID:27133788

  6. Modulation of carotenoid accumulation in transgenic potato by inducing chromoplast formation with enhanced sink strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An increasing interest in carotenoids as nutritional sources of provitamin A and health-promoting compounds has prompted a significant effort in metabolic engineering of carotenoid content and composition in food crops. The strategy commonly used in plants is to increase the biosynthetic capacity by...

  7. Digalactosyldiacylglycerol is essential in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, but its function does not depend on its biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Maida, Eri; Awai, Koichiro

    2016-09-01

    Digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) is a major component of thylakoid membranes, occupying approximately 20% of the membrane system. This lipid composition is conserved from cyanobacteria to the chloroplasts of terrestrial plants, suggesting that DGDG is important for the function of photosynthetic membranes. Here we isolated the gene for DGDG synthase in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (7942dgdA) and found that this gene is essential for this species. 7942dgdA could be knocked out only when genes for cyanobacterial or plant DGDG synthases were expressed, indicating that the important factor was not the specific synthetic pathway but the lipid product. Lack of DGDG could not be compensated by the other membrane lipids in S. elongatus PCC 7942 or by glucosylgalactosyldiacylglycerol synthesized by the β-GlcT gene of Chloroflexus aurantiacus. These results reveal that DGDG has an indispensable role in S. elongatus PCC 7942 and that the second galactose molecule is key. Conservation and distribution of the galactolipid synthetic pathway among oxygenic phototrophs is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:26979760

  8. Mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-M) and serine biosynthetic pathway genes are co-ordinately increased during anabolic agent-induced skeletal muscle growth

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D. M.; Williams, H.; Ryan, K. J. P.; Wilson, T. L.; Daniel, Z. C. T. R.; Mareko, M. H. D.; Emes, R. D.; Harris, D. W.; Jones, S.; Wattis, J. A. D.; Dryden, I. L.; Hodgman, T. C.; Brameld, J. M.; Parr, T.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify novel molecular mechanisms for muscle growth during administration of anabolic agents. Growing pigs (Duroc/(Landrace/Large-White)) were administered Ractopamine (a beta-adrenergic agonist; BA; 20 ppm in feed) or Reporcin (recombinant growth hormone; GH; 10 mg/48 hours injected) and compared to a control cohort (feed only; no injections) over a 27-day time course (1, 3, 7, 13 or 27-days). Longissimus Dorsi muscle gene expression was analyzed using Agilent porcine transcriptome microarrays and clusters of genes displaying similar expression profiles were identified using a modified maSigPro clustering algorithm. Anabolic agents increased carcass (p = 0.002) and muscle weights (Vastus Lateralis: p < 0.001; Semitendinosus: p = 0.075). Skeletal muscle mRNA expression of serine/one-carbon/glycine biosynthesis pathway genes (Phgdh, Psat1 and Psph) and the gluconeogenic enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-M (Pck2/PEPCK-M), increased during treatment with BA, and to a lesser extent GH (p < 0.001, treatment x time interaction). Treatment with BA, but not GH, caused a 2-fold increase in phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) protein expression at days 3 (p < 0.05) and 7 (p < 0.01), and a 2-fold increase in PEPCK-M protein expression at day 7 (p < 0.01). BA treated pigs exhibit a profound increase in expression of PHGDH and PEPCK-M in skeletal muscle, implicating a role for biosynthetic metabolic pathways in muscle growth. PMID:27350173

  9. Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathway and aromatic amino acid aminotransferase activities in Pantoea dispersa strain GPK.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, G B; Nayak, A S; Sajjan, S S; Oblesha, A; Karegoudar, T B

    2013-05-01

    This investigation deals with the production of IAA by a bacterial isolate Pantoea dispersa strain GPK (PDG) identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. HPLC and Mass spectral analysis of metabolites from bacterial spent medium revealed that, IAA production by PDG is Trp-dependent and follows indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway. Substrate specificity study of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (AAT) showed high activities, only when tryptophan (Trp) and α-ketoglutarate (α-kg) were used as substrates. AAT is highly specific for Trp and α-kg as amino group donor and acceptor, respectively. The effect of exogenous IAA on bacterial growth was established. Low concentration of exogenous IAA induced the growth, whereas high concentration decreased the growth of bacterium. PDG treatment significantly increased the root length, shoot length and dry mass of the chickpea and pigeon pea plants. PMID:23448265

  10. Sequence diversity in coding regions of candidate genes in the glycoalkaloid biosynthetic pathway of wild potato species.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Tokuhisa, James G; Ginzberg, Idit; Holliday, Jason A; Veilleux, Richard E

    2013-09-01

    Natural variation in five candidate genes of the steroidal glycoalkaloid (SGA) metabolic pathway and whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping were studied in six wild [Solanum chacoense (chc 80-1), S. commersonii, S. demissum, S. sparsipilum, S. spegazzinii, S. stoloniferum] and cultivated S. tuberosum Group Phureja (phu DH) potato species with contrasting levels of SGAs. Amplicons were sequenced for five candidate genes: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase 1 and 2 (HMG1, HMG2) and 2.3-squalene epoxidase (SQE) of primary metabolism, and solanidine galactosyltransferase (SGT1), and glucosyltransferase (SGT2) of secondary metabolism. SNPs (n = 337) producing 354 variations were detected within 3.7 kb of sequenced DNA. More polymorphisms were found in introns than exons and in genes of secondary compared to primary metabolism. Although no significant deviation from neutrality was found, dN/dS ratios < 1 and negative values of Tajima's D test suggested purifying selection and genetic hitchhiking in the gene fragments. In addition, patterns of dN/dS ratios across the SGA pathway suggested constraint by natural selection. Comparison of nucleotide diversity estimates and dN/dS ratios showed stronger selective constraints for genes of primary rather than secondary metabolism. SNPs (n = 24) with an exclusive genotype for either phu DH (low SGA) or chc 80-1 (high SGA) were identified for HMG2, SQE, SGT1 and SGT2. The SolCAP 8303 Illumina Potato SNP chip genotyping revealed eight informative SNPs on six pseudochromosomes, with homozygous and heterozygous genotypes that discriminated high, intermediate and low levels of SGA accumulation. These results can be used to evaluate SGA accumulation in segregating or association mapping populations. PMID:23853090

  11. Sequence Diversity in Coding Regions of Candidate Genes in the Glycoalkaloid Biosynthetic Pathway of Wild Potato Species

    PubMed Central

    Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C.; Tokuhisa, James G.; Ginzberg, Idit; Holliday, Jason A.; Veilleux, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Natural variation in five candidate genes of the steroidal glycoalkaloid (SGA) metabolic pathway and whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping were studied in six wild [Solanum chacoense (chc 80-1), S. commersonii, S. demissum, S. sparsipilum, S. spegazzinii, S. stoloniferum] and cultivated S. tuberosum Group Phureja (phu DH) potato species with contrasting levels of SGAs. Amplicons were sequenced for five candidate genes: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase 1 and 2 (HMG1, HMG2) and 2.3-squalene epoxidase (SQE) of primary metabolism, and solanidine galactosyltransferase (SGT1), and glucosyltransferase (SGT2) of secondary metabolism. SNPs (n = 337) producing 354 variations were detected within 3.7 kb of sequenced DNA. More polymorphisms were found in introns than exons and in genes of secondary compared to primary metabolism. Although no significant deviation from neutrality was found, dN/dS ratios < 1 and negative values of Tajima’s D test suggested purifying selection and genetic hitchhiking in the gene fragments. In addition, patterns of dN/dS ratios across the SGA pathway suggested constraint by natural selection. Comparison of nucleotide diversity estimates and dN/dS ratios showed stronger selective constraints for genes of primary rather than secondary metabolism. SNPs (n = 24) with an exclusive genotype for either phu DH (low SGA) or chc 80-1 (high SGA) were identified for HMG2, SQE, SGT1 and SGT2. The SolCAP 8303 Illumina Potato SNP chip genotyping revealed eight informative SNPs on six pseudochromosomes, with homozygous and heterozygous genotypes that discriminated high, intermediate and low levels of SGA accumulation. These results can be used to evaluate SGA accumulation in segregating or association mapping populations. PMID:23853090

  12. Chemistry of carotenoid neutral radicals.

    PubMed

    Ligia Focsan, A; Magyar, Adam; Kispert, Lowell D

    2015-04-15

    Proton loss from the carotenoid radical cations (Car(+)) to form neutral radicals (#Car) was investigated by numerous electrochemical, EPR, ENDOR and DFT studies described herein. The radical cation and neutral radicals were formed in solution electrochemically and stabilized on solid silica-alumina and MCM-41 matrices. Carotenoid neutral radicals were recently identified in Arabidopsis thaliana plant and photosystem II samples. Deprotonation at the terminal ends of a zeaxanthin radical cation could provide a secondary photoprotection pathway which involves quenching excited state chlorophyll by the long-lived zeaxanthin neutral radicals formed. PMID:25687648

  13. Characterization of cyanobacterial carotenoid ketolase CrtW and hydroxylase CrtR by complementation analysis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Makino, Takuya; Harada, Hisashi; Ikenaga, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Satoru; Takaichi, Shinichi; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Sandmann, Gerhard; Ogata, Takehiko; Misawa, Norihiko

    2008-12-01

    The pathway from beta-carotene to astaxanthin is a crucial step in the synthesis of astaxanthin, a red antioxidative ketocarotenoid that confers beneficial effects on human health. Two enzymes, a beta-carotene ketolase (carotenoid 4,4'-oxygenase) and a beta-carotene hydroxylase (carotenoid 3,3'-hydroxylase), are involved in this pathway. Cyanobacteria are known to utilize the carotenoid ketolase CrtW and/or CrtO, and the carotenoid hydroxylase CrtR. Here, we compared the catalytic functions of CrtW ketolases, which originated from Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421, Anabaena (also known as Nostoc) sp. PCC 7120 and Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102, and CrtR from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 by complementation analysis using recombinant Escherichia coli cells that synthesized various carotenoid substrates. The results demonstrated that the CrtW proteins derived from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 as well as N. punctiforme PCC 73102 (CrtW148) can convert not only beta-carotene but also zeaxanthin into their 4,4'-ketolated products, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, respectively. In contrast, the Anabaena CrtR enzymes were very poor in accepting either beta-carotene or canthaxanthin as substrates. By comparison, the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 CrtR converted beta-carotene into zeaxanthin efficiently. We could assign the catalytic functions of the gene products involved in ketocarotenoid biosynthetic pathways in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and N. punctiforme PCC 73102, based on the present and previous findings. This explains why these cyanobacteria cannot produce astaxanthin and why only Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can produce zeaxanthin. PMID:18987067

  14. Crystal Structure of Vancosaminyltransferase GtfD from the Vancomycin Biosynthetic Pathway: Interactions with Acceptor and Nucleotide Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Mulichak, A.M.; Lu, W.; Losey, H.C.; Walsh, C.T.; Garavito, R.M.

    2010-03-08

    The TDP-vancosaminyltransferase GtfD catalyzes the attachment of L-vancosamine to a monoglucosylated heptapeptide intermediate during the final stage of vancomycin biosynthesis. Glycosyltransferases from this and similar antibiotic pathways are potential tools for the design of new compounds that are effective against vancomycin resistant bacterial strains. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of GtfD as a complex with TDP and the natural glycopeptide substrate at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution. GtfD, a member of the bidomain GT-B glycosyltransferase superfamily, binds TDP in the interdomain cleft, while the aglycone acceptor binds in a deep crevice in the N-terminal domain. However, the two domains are more interdependent in terms of substrate binding and overall structure than was evident in the structures of closely related glycosyltransferases GtfA and GtfB. Structural and kinetic analyses support the identification of Asp13 as a catalytic general base, with a possible secondary role for Thr10. Several residues have also been identified as being involved in donor sugar binding and recognition.

  15. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of DXS and DXR Genes in the Terpenoid Biosynthetic Pathway of Tripterygium wilfordii

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yuru; Su, Ping; Zhao, Yujun; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xiujuan; Liu, Yujia; Zhang, Xianan; Gao, Wei; Huang, Luqi

    2015-01-01

    1-Deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) genes are the key enzyme genes of terpenoid biosynthesis but still unknown in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. Here, three full-length cDNA encoding DXS1, DXS2 and DXR were cloned from suspension cells of T. wilfordii with ORF sizes of 2154 bp (TwDXS1, GenBank accession no.KM879187), 2148 bp (TwDXS2, GenBank accession no.KM879186), 1410 bp (TwDXR, GenBank accession no.KM879185). And, the TwDXS1, TwDXS2 and TwDXR were characterized by color complementation in lycopene accumulating strains of Escherichia coli, which indicated that they encoded functional proteins and promoted lycopene pathway flux. TwDXS1 and TwDXS2 are constitutively expressed in the roots, stems and leaves and the expression level showed an order of roots > stems > leaves. After the suspension cells were induced by methyl jasmonate, the mRNA expression level of TwDXS1, TwDXS2, and TwDXR increased, and triptophenolide was rapidly accumulated to 149.52 µg·g−1, a 5.88-fold increase compared with the control. So the TwDXS1, TwDXS2, and TwDXR could be important genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. PMID:26512659

  16. Metformin inhibits hepatocellular glucose, lipid and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways by transcriptionally suppressing steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC-2)

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Andre; Bozickovic, Olivera; Bjune, Jan-Inge; Mellgren, Gunnar; Sagen, Jørn V.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the anti-diabetic drug metformin to inhibit anabolic processes including gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis is partly attributable to activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. The p160 steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC-2) is a key regulator of cellular metabolism and drives expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pc). Here, we uncovered a role for SRC-2 in the metabolic reprogramming imposed by metformin. In FaO cells, metformin dose-dependently reduced mRNA expression of SRC-2. Microarray analysis of metformin-treated cells revealed an overrepresentation of downregulated genes involved in biosynthesis of lipids and cholesterol. Several metformin-regulated genes including fatty acid synthase (FASN) were validated as transcriptional targets of SRC-2 with promoters characterized by sterol regulatory element (SRE) binding protein (SREBP) recognition sequences. Transactivation assays of the FASN promoter confirmed that SRC-2 is a coactivator of SREBP-1. By suppressing SRC-2 at the transcriptional level, metformin impeded recruitment of SRC-2 and RNA polymerase II to the G6Pc promoter and to SREs of mutual SRC-2/SREBP-1 target gene promoters. Hepatocellular fat accretion was reduced by metformin or knock-down of both SRC-2 and SREBP-1. Accordingly we propose that metformin inhibits glucose and lipid biosynthesis partly by downregulating SRC-2 gene expression. PMID:26548416

  17. Improvement of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027 production by manipulating its biosynthetic pathway regulation in Streptomyces globisporus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yihua; Yin, Min; Horsman, Geoff P; Shen, Ben

    2011-03-25

    The production of C-1027 in Streptomyces globisporus was previously increased 2- to 3-fold by manipulating three pathway-specific activators, SgcR1, SgcR2, and SgcR3. In this study, we have further characterized two putative C-1027 regulatory genes, sgcE1 and sgcR, by in vivo inactivation. The HxlR family DNA-binding protein SgcE1 was not essential for C-1027 biosynthesis, since inactivation of sgcE1 showed no effect on C-1027 production. In contrast, the proposed repressive role of the sgcR gene was confirmed by a 3-fold increase in C-1027 production in the ΔsgcR mutant S. globisporus SB1022 strain relative to the wild-type strain. Considering SgcR shows no significant similarity to any protein of known function, it may be representative of a new family of regulatory proteins. Finally, overexpression of the previously characterized activator sgcR1 in S. globisporus SB1022 increased the C-1027 yield to 37.5 ± 7.7 mg/L, which is about 7-fold higher than the wild-type strain. PMID:21250756

  18. Analysis of biochemical compounds and differentially expressed genes of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in variegated peach flowers.

    PubMed

    Hassani, D; Liu, H L; Chen, Y N; Wan, Z B; Zhuge, Q; Li, S X

    2015-01-01

    Variegated plants are highly valuable in the floricultural market, yet the genetic mechanism underlying this attractive phenomenon has not been completely elucidated. In this study, we identified and measured different compounds in pink and white flower petals of peach (Prunus persica) by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. No cyanidin-based or pelargonidin-based compounds were detected in white petals, but high levels of these compounds were found in pink petals. Additionally, we sequenced and analyzed the expression of six key structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway (CHI, CHS, DFR, F3'H, ANS, and UFGT) in both white and pink petals. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed all six genes to be expressed at greatly reduced levels in white flower petals, relative to pink. No allelic variations were found in the transcribed sequences. However, alignment of transcribed and genomic sequences of the ANS gene detected alternative splicing, resulting in transcripts of 1.071 and 942 bp. Only the longer transcript was observed in white flower petals. Since ANS is the key intermediate enzyme catalyzing the colorless leucopelargonidin and leucocyanidin to substrates required for completion of anthocyanin biosynthesis, the ANS gene is implicated in flower color variegation and should be explored in future studies. This article, together with a previous transcriptome study, elucidates the mechanism underlying peach flower color variegation in terms of the key structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:26535657

  19. Improvement of hairy root cultures and plants by changing biosynthetic pathways leading to pharmaceutical metabolites: strategies and applications.

    PubMed

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Jahn, Linda; Lippert, Annemarie; Püschel, Joachim; Walter, Antje

    2014-11-01

    A plethora of bioactive plant metabolites has been explored for pharmaceutical, food chemistry and agricultural applications. The chemical synthesis of these structures is often difficult, so plants are favorably used as producers. While whole plants can serve as a source for secondary metabolites and can be also improved by metabolic engineering, more often cell or organ cultures of relevant plant species are of interest. It should be noted that only in few cases the production for commercial application in such cultures has been achieved. Their genetic manipulation is sometimes faster and the production of a specific metabolite is more reliable, because of less environmental influences. In addition, upscaling in bioreactors is nowadays possible for many of these cultures, so some are already used in industry. There are approaches to alter the profile of metabolites not only by using plant genes, but also by using bacterial genes encoding modifying enzymes. Also, strategies to cope with unwanted or even toxic compounds are available. The need for metabolic engineering of plant secondary metabolite pathways is increasing with the rising demand for (novel) compounds with new bioactive properties. Here, we give some examples of recent developments for the metabolic engineering of plants and organ cultures, which can be used in the production of metabolites with interesting properties. PMID:24699436

  20. Omega-3 phospholipids from fish suppress hepatic steatosis by integrated inhibition of biosynthetic pathways in dietary obese mice.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, Martin; Medrikova, Dasa; van Schothorst, Evert M; Pavlisova, Jana; Kuda, Ondrej; Hensler, Michal; Bardova, Kristina; Flachs, Pavel; Stankova, Barbora; Vecka, Marek; Tvrzicka, Eva; Zak, Ales; Keijer, Jaap; Kopecky, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) accompanies obesity and insulin resistance. Recent meta-analysis suggested omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids DHA and EPA to decrease liver fat in NAFLD patients. Antiinflammatory, hypolipidemic, and insulin-sensitizing effects ofDHA/EPA depend on their lipid form, with marine phospholipids showing better efficacy than fish oils. We characterized the mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of DHA/EPA phospholipids, alone or combined with an antidiabetic drug, on hepatosteatosis. C57BL/6N mice were fed for 7 weeks an obesogenic high-fat diet (cHF) or cHF-based interventions: (i) cHF supplemented with phosphatidylcholine-rich concentrate from herring (replacing 10% of dietary lipids; PC), (ii) cHF containing rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg diet; R), or (iii) PC + R. Metabolic analyses, hepatic gene expression and lipidome profiling were performed. Results showed that PC and PC + R prevented cHlF-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance, while all interventions reduced abdominal fat and plasma triacylglycerols. PC and PC + R also lowered hepatic and plasma cholesterol and reduced hepatosteatosis. Microarray analysis revealed integrated downregulation of hepatic lipogenic and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways by PC, while R-induced lipogenesis was fully counteracted in PC + R Gene expression changes in PC and PC + R were associated with preferential enrichment of hepatic phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine fractions by DHA/EPA. The complex downregulation of hepatic lipogenic and cholesterol biosynthesis genes and the antisteatotic effects were unique to DHA/EPA-containing phospholipids, since they were absent in mice fed soy-derived phosphatidylcholine. Thus, inhibition of lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis associated with potent antisteatotic effects in the liver in response to DHA/EPA-containing phospholipids support their use in NAFLD prevention and treatment. PMID:24295779

  1. Violet/blue chrysanthemums--metabolic engineering of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway results in novel petal colors.

    PubMed

    Brugliera, Filippa; Tao, Guo-Qing; Tems, Ursula; Kalc, Gianna; Mouradova, Ekaterina; Price, Kym; Stevenson, Kim; Nakamura, Noriko; Stacey, Iolanda; Katsumoto, Yukihisa; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Mason, John G

    2013-10-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum×morifolium Ramat.) are an important cut-flower and potted plant crop in the horticultural industry world wide. Chrysanthemums express the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) gene and thus accumulate anthocyanins derived from cyanidin in their inflorescences which appear pink/red. Delphinidin-based anthocyanins are lacking due to the deficiency of a flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), and so violet/blue chrysanthemum flower colors are not found. In this study, together with optimization of transgene expression and selection of the host cultivars and gene source, F3'5'H genes have been successfully utilized to produce transgenic bluish chrysanthemums that accumulate delphinidin-based anthocyanins. HPLC analysis and feeding experiments with a delphinidin precursor identified 16 cultivars of chrysanthemums out of 75 that were predicted to turn bluish upon delphinidin accumulation. A selection of eight cultivars were successfully transformed with F3'5'H genes under the control of different promoters. A pansy F3'5'H gene under the control of a chalcone synthase promoter fragment from rose resulted in the effective diversion of the anthocyanin pathway to produce delphinidin in transgenic chrysanthemum flower petals. The resultant petal color was bluish, with 40% of total anthocyanidins attributed to delphinidin. Increased delphinidin levels (up to 80%) were further achieved by hairpin RNA interference-mediated silencing of the endogenous F3'H gene. The resulting petal colors were novel bluish hues, not possible by hybridization breeding. This is the first report of the production of anthocyanins derived from delphinidin in chrysanthemum petals leading to novel flower color. PMID:23926066

  2. Structural and Functional Analysis of Campylobacter jejuni PseG: a Udp-sugarhydrolase from the Pseudaminic Acid Biosynthetic Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    E Rangarajan; A Proteau; Q Cui; S Logan; Z Potetinova; D Whitfield; E Purisima; M Cygler; A Matte; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Flagella of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni are important virulence determinants, whose proper assembly and function are dependent upon glycosylation at multiple positions by sialic acid-like sugars, such as 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-l-glycero-l-manno-nonulosonic acid (pseudaminic acid (Pse)). The fourth enzymatic step in the pseudaminic acid pathway, the hydrolysis of UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-{beta}-l-altropyranose to generate 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-l-altropyranose, is performed by the nucleotide sugar hydrolase PseG. To better understand the molecular basis of the PseG catalytic reaction, we have determined the crystal structures of C. jejuni PseG in apo-form and as a complex with its UDP product at 1.8 and 1.85 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. In addition, molecular modeling was utilized to provide insight into the structure of the PseG-substrate complex. This modeling identifies a His{sup 17}-coordinated water molecule as the putative nucleophile and suggests the UDP-sugar substrate adopts a twist-boat conformation upon binding to PseG, enhancing the exposure of the anomeric bond cleaved and favoring inversion at C-1. Furthermore, based on these structures a series of amino acid substitution derivatives were constructed, altering residues within the active site, and each was kinetically characterized to examine its contribution to PseG catalysis. In conjunction with structural comparisons, the almost complete inactivation of the PseG H17F and H17L derivatives suggests that His{sup 17} functions as an active site base, thereby activating the nucleophilic water molecule for attack of the anomeric C-O bond of the UDP-sugar. As the PseG structure reveals similarity to those of glycosyltransferase family-28 members, in particular that of Escherichia coli MurG, these findings may also be of relevance for the mechanistic understanding of this important enzyme family.

  3. Next Generation Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis Predicts Biosynthetic Pathway of Sennosides from Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.), a Non-Model Plant with Potent Laxative Properties

    PubMed Central

    Rama Reddy, Nagaraja Reddy; Mehta, Rucha Harishbhai; Soni, Palak Harendrabhai; Makasana, Jayanti; Gajbhiye, Narendra Athamaram; Ponnuchamy, Manivel; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a world’s natural laxative medicinal plant. Laxative properties are due to sennosides (anthraquinone glycosides) natural products. However, little genetic information is available for this species, especially concerning the biosynthetic pathways of sennosides. We present here the transcriptome sequencing of young and mature leaf tissue of Cassia angustifolia using Illumina MiSeq platform that resulted in a total of 6.34 Gb of raw nucleotide sequence. The sequence assembly resulted in 42230 and 37174 transcripts with an average length of 1119 bp and 1467 bp for young and mature leaf, respectively. The transcripts were annotated using NCBI BLAST with ‘green plant database (txid 33090)’, Swiss Prot, Kyoto Encylcopedia of Genes & Genomes (KEGG), Cluster of Orthologous Gene (COG) and Gene Ontology (GO). Out of the total transcripts, 40138 (95.0%) and 36349 (97.7%) from young and mature leaf, respectively, were annotated by BLASTX against green plant database of NCBI. We used InterProscan to see protein similarity at domain level, a total of 34031 (young leaf) and 32077 (mature leaf) transcripts were annotated against the Pfam domains. All transcripts from young and mature leaf were assigned to 191 KEGG pathways. There were 166 and 159 CDS, respectively, from young and mature leaf involved in metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides. Many CDS encoding enzymes leading to biosynthesis of sennosides were identified. A total of 10,763 CDS differentially expressing in both young and mature leaf libraries of which 2,343 (21.7%) CDS were up-regulated in young compared to mature leaf. Several differentially expressed genes found functionally associated with sennoside biosynthesis. CDS encoding for many CYPs and TF families were identified having probable roles in metabolism of primary as well as secondary metabolites. We developed SSR markers for molecular breeding of senna. We have identified a set of putative genes involved in various

  4. Induction of DREB2A pathway with repression of E2F, Jasmonic acid biosynthetic and photosynthesis pathways in cold acclimation specific freeze resistant wheat crown

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat lines can achieve cold acclimation (development of tolerance to freezing temperatures) and vernalization (delay in transition from vegetative to reproductive phase) in response to low non-freezing temperatures. To describe cold acclimation specific processes and pathways, we utilized co...

  5. Using site-directed mutagenesis to probe the role of the D2 carotenoid in the secondary electron-transfer pathway of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Shinopoulos, Katherine E; Yu, Jianfeng; Nixon, Peter J; Brudvig, Gary W

    2014-05-01

    Secondary electron transfer in photosystem II (PSII), which occurs when water oxidation is inhibited, involves redox-active carotenoids (Car), as well as chlorophylls (Chl), and cytochrome b 559 (Cyt b 559), and is believed to play a role in photoprotection. CarD2 may be the initial point of secondary electron transfer because it is the closest cofactor to both P680, the initial oxidant, and to Cyt b 559, the terminal secondary electron donor within PSII. In order to characterize the role of CarD2 and to determine the effects of perturbing CarD2 on both the electron-transfer events and on the identity of the redox-active cofactors, it is necessary to vary the properties of CarD2 selectively without affecting the ten other Car per PSII. To this end, site-directed mutations around the binding pocket of CarD2 (D2-G47W, D2-G47F, and D2-T50F) have been generated in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Characterization by near-IR and EPR spectroscopy provides the first experimental evidence that CarD2 is one of the redox-active carotenoids in PSII. There is a specific perturbation of the Car(∙+) near-IR spectrum in all three mutated PSII samples, allowing the assignment of the spectral signature of Car D2 (∙+) ; Car D2 (∙+) exhibits a near-IR peak at 980 nm and is the predominant secondary donor oxidized in a charge separation at low temperature in ferricyanide-treated wild-type PSII. The yield of secondary donor radicals is substantially decreased in PSII complexes isolated from each mutant. In addition, the kinetics of radical formation are altered in the mutated PSII samples. These results are consistent with oxidation of CarD2 being the initial step in secondary electron transfer. Furthermore, normal light levels during mutant cell growth perturb the shape of the Chl(∙+) near-IR absorption peak and generate a dark-stable radical observable in the EPR spectra, indicating a higher susceptibility to photodamage further linking the secondary electron-transfer pathway to

  6. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Three Distinct N-Methyltransferases Involved in the Caffeine Biosynthetic Pathway in Coffee Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Uefuji, Hirotaka; Ogita, Shinjiro; Yamaguchi, Yube; Koizumi, Nozomu; Sano, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Caffeine is synthesized from xanthosine through N-methylation and ribose removal steps. In the present study, three types of cDNAs encoding N-methyltransferases were isolated from immature fruits of coffee (Coffea arabica) plants, and designated as CaXMT1, CaMXMT2, and CaDXMT1, respectively. The bacterially expressed encoded proteins were characterized for their catalytic properties. CaXMT1 catalyzed formation of 7-methylxanthosine from xanthosine with a Km value of 78 μm, CaMXMT2 catalyzed formation of 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) from 7-methylxanthine with a Km of 251 μm, and CaDXMT1 catalyzed formation of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) from 3,7-dimethylxanthine with a Km of 1,222 μm. The crude extract of Escherichia coli was found to catalyze removal of the ribose moiety from 7-methylxanthosine, leading to the production of 7-methylxanthine. As a consequence, when all three recombinant proteins and E. coli extract were combined, xanthosine was successfully converted into caffeine in vitro. Transcripts for CaDXMT1 were predominantly found to accumulate in immature fruits, whereas those for CaXMT1 and CaMXMT2 were more broadly detected in sites encompassing the leaves, floral buds, and immature fruits. These results suggest that the presently identified three N-methyltransferases participate in caffeine biosynthesis in coffee plants and substantiate the proposed caffeine biosynthetic pathway: xanthosine → 7-methylxanthosine → 7-methylxanthine → theobromine → caffeine. PMID:12746542

  7. Induction of potato steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthetic pathway by overexpression of cDNA encoding primary metabolism HMG-CoA reductase and squalene synthase.

    PubMed

    Ginzberg, Idit; Thippeswamy, Muddarangappa; Fogelman, Edna; Demirel, Ufuk; Mweetwa, Alice M; Tokuhisa, James; Veilleux, Richard E

    2012-06-01

    Potato steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are toxic secondary metabolites whose total content in tubers must be regulated. SGAs are biosynthesized by the sterol branch of the mevalonic acid/isoprenoid pathway. In a previous study, we showed a correlation between SGA levels and the abundance of transcript coding for HMG-CoA reductase 1 (HMG1) and squalene synthase 1 (SQS1) in potato tissues and potato genotypes varying in SGA content. Here, Solanum tuberosum cv. Desirée (low SGA producer) was transformed with a gene construct containing the coding region of either HMG1 or SQS1 of Solanum chacoense Bitt. clone 8380-1, a high SGA producer. SGA levels in transgenic HMG-plants were either greater than (in eight of 14 plants) or no different from untransformed controls, whereas only four of 12 SQS-transgenics had greater SGA levels than control, as determined by HPLC. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to estimate relative steady-state transcript levels of isoprenoid-, steroid-, and SGA-related genes in leaves of the transgenic plants compared to nontransgenic controls. HMG-transgenic plants exhibited increased transcript accumulation of SQS1, sterol C24-methyltransferase type1 (SMT1), and solanidine glycosyltransferase 2 (SGT2), whereas SQS-transgenic plants, had consistently lower transcript levels of HMG1 and variable SMT1 and SGT2 transcript abundance among different transgenics. HMG-transgenic plants exhibited changes in transcript accumulation for some sterol biosynthetic genes as well. Taken together, the data suggest coordinated regulation of isoprenoid metabolism and SGA secondary metabolism. PMID:22205426

  8. Primitive Extracellular Lipid Components on the Surface of the Charophytic Alga Klebsormidium flaccidum and Their Possible Biosynthetic Pathways as Deduced from the Genome Sequence.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Satoshi; Hori, Koichi; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Kobayashi, Atsuko; Kato, Tsubasa; Yuno-Ohta, Naoko; Nobusawa, Takashi; Ohtaka, Kinuka; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Klebsormidium flaccidum is a charophytic alga living in terrestrial and semiaquatic environments. K. flaccidum grows in various habitats, such as low-temperature areas and under desiccated conditions, because of its ability to tolerate harsh environments. Wax and cuticle polymers that contribute to the cuticle layer of plants are important for the survival of land plants, as they protect against those harsh environmental conditions and were probably critical for the transition from aquatic microorganism to land plants. Bryophytes, non-vascular land plants, have similar, but simpler, extracellular waxes and polyester backbones than those of vascular plants. The presence of waxes in terrestrial algae, especially in charophytes, which are the closest algae to land plants, could provide clues in elucidating the mechanism of land colonization by plants. Here, we compared genes involved in the lipid biosynthetic pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana to the K. flaccidum and the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genomes, and identified wax-related genes in both algae. A simple and easy extraction method was developed for the recovery of the surface lipids from K. flaccidum and C. reinhardtii. Although these algae have wax components, their surface lipids were largely different from those of land plants. We also investigated aliphatic substances in the cell wall fraction of K. flaccidum and C. reinhardtii. Many of the fatty acids were determined to be lipophilic monomers in K. flaccidum, and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed that their possible binding mode was distinct from that of A. thaliana. Thus, we propose that K. flaccidum has a cuticle-like hydrophobic layer composed of lipids and glycoproteins, with a different composition from the cutin polymer typically found in land plant cuticles. PMID:27446179

  9. Primitive Extracellular Lipid Components on the Surface of the Charophytic Alga Klebsormidium flaccidum and Their Possible Biosynthetic Pathways as Deduced from the Genome Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Satoshi; Hori, Koichi; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Kobayashi, Atsuko; Kato, Tsubasa; Yuno-Ohta, Naoko; Nobusawa, Takashi; Ohtaka, Kinuka; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Klebsormidium flaccidum is a charophytic alga living in terrestrial and semiaquatic environments. K. flaccidum grows in various habitats, such as low-temperature areas and under desiccated conditions, because of its ability to tolerate harsh environments. Wax and cuticle polymers that contribute to the cuticle layer of plants are important for the survival of land plants, as they protect against those harsh environmental conditions and were probably critical for the transition from aquatic microorganism to land plants. Bryophytes, non-vascular land plants, have similar, but simpler, extracellular waxes and polyester backbones than those of vascular plants. The presence of waxes in terrestrial algae, especially in charophytes, which are the closest algae to land plants, could provide clues in elucidating the mechanism of land colonization by plants. Here, we compared genes involved in the lipid biosynthetic pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana to the K. flaccidum and the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genomes, and identified wax-related genes in both algae. A simple and easy extraction method was developed for the recovery of the surface lipids from K. flaccidum and C. reinhardtii. Although these algae have wax components, their surface lipids were largely different from those of land plants. We also investigated aliphatic substances in the cell wall fraction of K. flaccidum and C. reinhardtii. Many of the fatty acids were determined to be lipophilic monomers in K. flaccidum, and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed that their possible binding mode was distinct from that of A. thaliana. Thus, we propose that K. flaccidum has a cuticle-like hydrophobic layer composed of lipids and glycoproteins, with a different composition from the cutin polymer typically found in land plant cuticles. PMID:27446179

  10. Application of two bicistronic systems involving 2A and IRES sequences to the biosynthesis of carotenoids in rice endosperm.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sun-Hwa; Liang, Ying Shi; Jung, Harin; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Suh, Seok-Cheol; Kweon, Soon-Jong; Kim, Dong-Hern; Kim, Young-Mi; Kim, Ju-Kon

    2010-10-01

    Coordination of multiple transgenes is essential for metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the utilization of two bicistronic systems involving the 2A sequence from the foot-and-mouth disease virus and the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) sequence from the crucifer-infecting tobamovirus to the biosynthesis of carotenoids in rice endosperm. Two carotenoid biosynthetic genes, phytoene synthase (Psy) from Capsicum and carotene desaturase (CrtI) from Pantoea, were linked via either the synthetic 2A sequence that was optimized for rice codons or the IRES sequence under control of the rice globulin promoter, generating PAC (Psy-2A-CrtI) and PIC (Psy-IRES-CrtI) constructs, respectively. The transgenic endosperm of PAC rice had a more intense golden color than did PIC rice, demonstrating that 2A was more efficient than IRES in coordinating gene expression. The 2A and IRES constructs were equally effective in driving transgene transcription. However, immunoblot analysis of CRTI, a protein encoded by the downstream open reading frame of the bicistronic constructs, revealed that 2A was ninefold more effective than IRES in driving translation. The PAC endosperms accumulated an average of 1.3 μg/g of total carotenoids, which was ninefold higher than was observed for PIC endosperms. In particular, accumulation of β-carotene was much higher in PAC endosperms than in PIC endosperms. Collectively, these results demonstrate that both 2A and IRES systems can coordinate the expression of two biosynthetic genes, with the 2A system exhibiting greater efficiency. Thus, the 2A expression system described herein is an effective new tool for multigene stacking in crop biotechnology. PMID:20649940

  11. Genetic and Metabolomic Dissection of the Ergothioneine and Selenoneine Biosynthetic Pathway in the Fission Yeast, S. pombe, and Construction of an Overproduction System

    PubMed Central

    Pluskal, Tomáš; Ueno, Masaru; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Ergothioneine is a small, sulfur-containing metabolite (229 Da) synthesized by various species of bacteria and fungi, which can accumulate to millimolar levels in tissues or cells (e.g. erythrocytes) of higher eukaryotes. It is commonly marketed as a dietary supplement due to its proposed protective and antioxidative functions. In this study we report the genes forming the two-step ergothioneine biosynthetic pathway in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We identified the first gene, egt1+ (SPBC1604.01), by sequence homology to previously published genes from Neurospora crassa and Mycobacterium smegmatis. We showed, using metabolomic analysis, that the Δegt1 deletion mutant completely lacked ergothioneine and its precursors (trimethyl histidine/hercynine and hercynylcysteine sulfoxide). Since the second step of ergothioneine biosynthesis has not been characterized in eukaryotes, we examined four putative homologs (Nfs1/SPBC21D10.11c, SPAC11D3.10, SPCC777.03c, and SPBC660.12c) of the corresponding mycobacterial enzyme EgtE. Among deletion mutants of these genes, only one (ΔSPBC660.12c, designated Δegt2) showed a substantial decrease in ergothioneine, accompanied by accumulation of its immediate precursor, hercynylcysteine sulfoxide. Ergothioneine-deficient strains exhibited no phenotypic defects during vegetative growth or quiescence. To effectively study the role of ergothioneine, we constructed an egt1+ overexpression system by replacing its native promoter with the nmt1+ promoter, which is inducible in the absence of thiamine. We employed three versions of the nmt1 promoter with increasing strength of expression and confirmed corresponding accumulations of ergothioneine. We quantified the intracellular concentration of ergothioneine in S. pombe (0.3, 157.4, 41.6, and up to 1606.3 µM in vegetative, nitrogen-starved, glucose-starved, and egt1+-overexpressing cells, respectively) and described its gradual accumulation under long-term quiescence

  12. Biosynthetic Anthracycline Variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Jarmo; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko; Schneider, Gunter; Mäntsälä, Pekka

    In addition to synthetic and semisynthetic methods, new anthracycline structures have been generated by biosynthetic methods: genetic engineering of Streptomyces production strains, bioconversion and chemoenzymatic synthesis. In this review, we discuss the set of molecules potentially producible by biosynthetic methods and which structures have so far been realized. Biosynthetic variation in the anthracycline molecule manifests itself either as structure changes in the tetracyclic aglycone, or as variation in glycosylation. Understanding the biosynthetic sequence and knowledge of the substrate specificities of the enzymes participating in it enable rational generation of new anthracycline diversity. Future possibilities include protein engineering of the biosynthetic enzymes to improve the production of new structural combinations.

  13. Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase, the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of juvenile hormone III, exhibits substrate control.

    PubMed

    Van Ekert, Evelien; Heylen, Kevin; Rougé, Pierre; Powell, Charles A; Shatters, Robert G; Smagghe, Guy; Borovsky, Dov

    2014-05-01

    enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of JH III. PMID:24657668

  14. Down-regulation of p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis leads to improved sugar release

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sykes, Robert W.; Gjersing, Erica L.; Foutz, Kirk; Rottmann, William H.; Kuhn, Sean A.; Foster, Cliff E.; Ziebell, Angela; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Decker, Stephen R.; Hinchee, Maud A. W.; et al

    2015-08-27

    In this study, lignocellulosic materials provide an attractive replacement for food-based crops used to produce ethanol. Understanding the interactions within the cell wall is vital to overcome the highly recalcitrant nature of biomass. One factor imparting plant cell wall recalcitrance is lignin, which can be manipulated by making changes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, eucalyptus down-regulated in expression of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) or p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H, EC 1.14.13.36) were evaluated for cell wall composition and reduced recalcitrance.

  15. CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE4 Is a Negative Regulator of β-Carotene Content in Arabidopsis Seeds[W

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Jorge, Sabrina; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Gilliland, Laura Ullrich; Zhou, Ailing; Lipka, Alexander E.; Nguyen, Yen-Nhu; Angelovici, Ruthie; Lin, Haining; Cepela, Jason; Little, Holly; Buell, C. Robin; Gore, Michael A.; DellaPenna, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Experimental approaches targeting carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes have successfully increased the seed β-carotene content of crops. However, linkage analysis of seed carotenoids in Arabidopsis thaliana recombinant inbred populations showed that only 21% of quantitative trait loci, including those for β-carotene, encode carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in their intervals. Thus, numerous loci remain uncharacterized and underutilized in biofortification approaches. Linkage mapping and genome-wide association studies of Arabidopsis seed carotenoids identified CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE4 (CCD4) as a major negative regulator of seed carotenoid content, especially β-carotene. Loss of CCD4 function did not affect carotenoid homeostasis during seed development but greatly reduced carotenoid degradation during seed desiccation, increasing β-carotene content 8.4-fold relative to the wild type. Allelic complementation of a ccd4 null mutant demonstrated that single-nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions and deletions at the locus affect dry seed carotenoid content, due at least partly to differences in CCD4 expression. CCD4 also plays a major role in carotenoid turnover during dark-induced leaf senescence, with β-carotene accumulation again most strongly affected in the ccd4 mutant. These results demonstrate that CCD4 plays a major role in β-carotene degradation in drying seeds and senescing leaves and suggest that CCD4 orthologs would be promising targets for stabilizing and increasing the level of provitamin A carotenoids in seeds of major food crops. PMID:24368792

  16. Carotenoid-Protein Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, George; Helliwell, John R.

    Chapter 5 shows that the aggregation of carotenoid molecules can have a profound effect on their properties and hence their functioning in biological systems. Another important influence is the interaction between carotenoids and other molecules. The way that interactions of carotenoids with lipid bilayers influence the structure and properties of membranes and membrane-asociated processes is discussed in Chapter 10, and the aggregation of carotenoid molecules within the bilayers in Chapter 5. Of particular importance, though, are interactions between carotenoids and proteins. These allow the hydrophobic carotenoids to be transported, to exist, and to function in an aqueous environment. In some cases they may modify strongly the light-absorption properties and hence the colour and photochemistry of the carotenoids.

  17. Untargeted metabolite profiling reveals that nitric oxide bioynthesis is an endogenous modulator of carotenoid biosynthesis in Deinococcus radiodurans and is required for extreme ionizing radiation resistance.

    PubMed

    Hansler, Alex; Chen, Qiuying; Ma, Yuliang; Gross, Steven S

    2016-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans (Drad) is the most radioresistant organism known. Although mechanisms that underlie the extreme radioresistance of Drad are incompletely defined, resistance to UV irradiation-induced killing was found to be greatly attenuated in an NO synthase (NOS) knockout strain of Drad (Δnos). We now show that endogenous NO production is also critical for protection of Drad against γ-irradiation (3000 Gy), a result of accelerated growth recovery, not protection against killing. NO-donor treatment rescued radiosensitization in Δnos Drad but did not influence radiosensitivity in wild type Drad. To discover molecular mechanisms by which endogenous NO confers radioresistance, metabolite profiling studies were performed. Untargeted LC-MS-based metabolite profiling in Drad quantified relative abundances of 1425 molecules and levels of 294 of these were altered by >5-fold (p < 0.01). Unexpectedly, these studies identified a dramatic perturbation in carotenoid biosynthetic intermediates in Δnos Drad, including a reciprocal switch in the pathway end-products from deoxydeinoxanthin to deinoxanthin. NO supplementation rescued these nos deletion-associated changes in carotenoid biosynthesis, and fully-restored radioresistance to wildtype levels. Because carotenoids were shown to be important contributors to radioprotection in Drad, our findings suggest that endogenously-produced NO serves to maintain a spectrum of carotenoids critical for Drad's ability to withstand radiation insult. PMID:26550929

  18. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering for Marine Carotenoids: New Opportunities and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations. PMID:25233369

  19. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering for marine carotenoids: new opportunities and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-09-01

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations. PMID:25233369

  20. Biotechnological production of value-added carotenoids from microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Wichuk, Kristine; Brynjólfsson, Sigurður; Fu, Weiqi

    2014-01-01

    We recently evaluated the relationship between abiotic environmental stresses and lutein biosynthesis in the green microalga Dunaliella salina and suggested a rational design of stress-driven adaptive evolution experiments for carotenoids production in microalgae. Here, we summarize our recent findings regarding the biotechnological production of carotenoids from microalgae and outline emerging technology in this field. Carotenoid metabolic pathways are characterized in several representative algal species as they pave the way for biotechnology development. The adaptive evolution strategy is highlighted in connection with enhanced growth rate and carotenoid metabolism. In addition, available genetic modification tools are described, with emphasis on model species. A brief discussion on the role of lights as limiting factors in carotenoid production in microalgae is also included. Overall, our analysis suggests that light-driven metabolism and the photosynthetic efficiency of microalgae in photobioreactors are the main bottlenecks in enhancing biotechnological potential of carotenoid production from microalgae. PMID:24691165

  1. Metabolic engineering for the microbial production of carotenoids and related products with a focus on the rare C50 carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Heider, Sabine A E; Peters-Wendisch, Petra; Wendisch, Volker F; Beekwilder, Jules; Brautaset, Trygve

    2014-05-01

    Carotenoids, a subfamily of terpenoids, are yellow- to red-colored pigments synthesized by plants, fungi, algae, and bacteria. They are ubiquitous in nature and take over crucial roles in many biological processes as for example photosynthesis, vision, and the quenching of free radicals and singlet oxygen. Due to their color and their potential beneficial effects on human health, carotenoids receive increasing attention. Carotenoids can be classified due to the length of their carbon backbone. Most carotenoids have a C40 backbone, but also C30 and C50 carotenoids are known. All carotenoids are derived from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) as a common precursor. Pathways leading to IPP as well as metabolic engineering of IPP synthesis and C40 carotenoid production have been reviewed expertly elsewhere. Since C50 carotenoids are synthesized from the C40 carotenoid lycopene, we will summarize common strategies for optimizing lycopene production and we will focus our review on the characteristics, biosynthesis, glycosylation, and overproduction of C50 carotenoids. PMID:24687754

  2. Biosynthesis of Carotenoids in Plants: Enzymes and Color.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Saavedra, Carolina; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most important biocolor isoprenoids responsible for yellow, orange and red colors found in nature. In plants, they are synthesized in plastids of photosynthetic and sink organs and are essential molecules for photosynthesis, photo-oxidative damage protection and phytohormone synthesis. Carotenoids also play important roles in human health and nutrition acting as vitamin A precursors and antioxidants. Biochemical and biophysical approaches in different plants models have provided significant advances in understanding the structural and functional roles of carotenoids in plants as well as the key points of regulation in their biosynthesis. To date, different plant models have been used to characterize the key genes and their regulation, which has increased the knowledge of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in plants. In this chapter a description of each step in the carotenoid synthesis pathway is presented and discussed. PMID:27485218

  3. The plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies 87-22 has a functional pyochelin biosynthetic pathway that is regulated by TetR- and AfsR-family proteins.

    PubMed

    Seipke, Ryan F; Song, Lijiang; Bicz, Joanna; Laskaris, Paris; Yaxley, Alice M; Challis, Gregory L; Loria, Rosemary

    2011-09-01

    Siderophores are high-affinity iron-chelating compounds produced by bacteria for iron uptake that can act as important virulence determinants for both plant and animal pathogens. Genome sequencing of the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies 87-22 revealed the presence of a putative pyochelin biosynthetic gene cluster (PBGC). Liquid chromatography (LC)-MS analyses of culture supernatants of S. scabies mutants, in which expression of the cluster is upregulated and which lack a key biosynthetic gene from the cluster, indicated that pyochelin is a product of the PBGC. LC-MS comparisons with authentic standards on a homochiral stationary phase confirmed that pyochelin and not enantio-pyochelin (ent-pyochelin) is produced by S. scabies. Transcription of the S. scabies PBGC occurs via ~19 kb and ~3 kb operons and transcription of the ~19 kb operon is regulated by TetR- and AfsR-family proteins encoded by the cluster. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of pyochelin production by a Gram-positive bacterium; interestingly regulation of pyochelin production is distinct from characterized PBGCs in Gram-negative bacteria. Though pyochelin-mediated iron acquisition by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is important for virulence, in planta bioassays failed to demonstrate that pyochelin production by S. scabies is required for development of disease symptoms on excised potato tuber tissue or radish seedlings. PMID:21757492

  4. Encapsulation of Carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Henelyta S.; Schuchmann, Heike P.; Engel, Robert; Walz, Elke; Briviba, Karlis

    Carotenoids are natural pigments, which are synthesized by microorganisms and plants. More than 600 naturally occurring carotenoids have been found in the nature. The main sources of carotenoids are fruits, vegetables, leaves, peppers, and certain types of fishes, sea foods, and birds. Carotenoids may protect cells against photosensitization and work as light-absorbing pigments during photosynthesis. Some carotenoids may inhibit the destructive effect of reactive oxygen species. Due to the antioxidative properties of carotenoids, many investigations regarding their protective effects against cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancers, as well as other degenerative illnesses, have been carried out in the last years (Briviba et al. 2004; Krinsky et al. 2004; Kirsh et al. 2006). A diet rich in carotenoids may also contribute to photoprotection against UV radiation (Stahl et al. 2006). In vitro studies have shown that carotenoids such as β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene stimulate bone formation and mineralization. The results may be related to prevention of osteoporosis (Kim et al. 2003; Yamaguchi and Uchiyama 2003; 2004; Yamaguchi et al. 2005).

  5. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  6. Analysis of carotenoid accumulation and expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in different organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jeongyeo; Park, Woo Tae; Kwon, Do Yeon; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Kim, Hye Ran; Park, Sang Un

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between carotenoid accumulation and expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes was investigated in the flowers, stems, young leaves, old leaves, and roots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of BrPSY, BrPDS, BrZDS, BrLCYB, BrLCYE, BrCHXB, and BrZEP leading to the production of carotenoids were highest in the flowers or the leaves and lowest in the roots of Chinese cabbage. In contrast, the mRNA expression of BrNCED, a gene involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, was highest in the roots. High-performance liquid chromatography revealed that carotenoids, namely, lutein and β-carotene, were distributed predominantly in the flowers and leaves, with very little in the underground organ, the roots. Specifically, old leaves contained 120.3 μg/g lutein and 103.93 μg/g β-carotene, which is the most potent dietary precursor of vitamin A. Moreover, we found a relatively large amount of cis isomers of β-carotene, namely, 9-cis β-carotene and 13-cis β-carotene, in Chinese cabbage. These results provide insight into carotenoid biosynthetic mechanisms in Chinese cabbage and may be helpful in the metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants.

  7. Manipulation of Carotenoid Content in Plants to Improve Human Health.

    PubMed

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, Maria Jesús; Zacarias, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are essential components for human nutrition and health, mainly due to their antioxidant and pro-vitamin A activity. Foods with enhanced carotenoid content and composition are essential to ensure carotenoid feasibility in malnourished population of many countries around the world, which is critical to alleviate vitamin A deficiency and other health-related disorders. The pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis is currently well understood, key steps of the pathways in different plant species have been characterized and the corresponding genes identified, as well as other regulatory elements. This enables the manipulation and improvement of carotenoid content and composition in order to control the nutritional value of a number of agronomical important staple crops. Biotechnological and genetic engineering-based strategies to manipulate carotenoid metabolism have been successfully implemented in many crops, with Golden rice as the most relevant example of β-carotene improvement in one of the more widely consumed foods. Conventional breeding strategies have been also adopted in the bio-fortification of carotenoid in staple foods that are highly consumed in developing countries, including maize, cassava and sweet potatoes, to alleviate nutrition-related problems. The objective of the chapter is to summarize major breakthroughs and advances in the enhancement of carotenoid content and composition in agronomical and nutritional important crops, with special emphasis to their potential impact and benefits in human nutrition and health. PMID:27485228

  8. Nutrition Updates "Carotenoids and Health"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This symposium covered current topics in carotenoids and health, with special emphasis on healthy aging. The carotenoids covered were beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and beta-cryptoxanthin. Topics included the best food sources of these carotenoids, the importance of carotenoids as antioxidants an...

  9. Carotenoids and Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Uragami, Chiasa; Cogdell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are ubiquitous and essential pigments in photosynthesis. They absorb in the blue-green region of the solar spectrum and transfer the absorbed energy to (bacterio-)chlorophylls, and so expand the wavelength range of light that is able to drive photosynthesis. This is an example of singlet-singlet energy transfer, and so carotenoids serve to enhance the overall efficiency of photosynthetic light reactions. Carotenoids also act to protect photosynthetic organisms from the harmful effects of excess exposure to light. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophylls to carotenoids plays a key role in this photoprotective reaction. In the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria and chlorophytes, carotenoids have an additional role of structural stabilization of those complexes. In this article we review what is currently known about how carotenoids discharge these functions. The molecular architecture of photosynthetic systems will be outlined first to provide a basis from which to describe carotenoid photochemistry, which underlies most of their important functions in photosynthesis. PMID:27485220

  10. Metabolic Flux Between Unsaturated and Saturated Fatty Acids is Controlled by the FabA:FabB Ratio in the Fully Reconstituted Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway of E. coli#

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xirui; Yu, Xingye; Khosla, Chaitan

    2013-01-01

    The entire fatty acid biosynthetic pathway from Escherichia coli, starting from the acetyl-CoA carboxylase, has been reconstituted in vitro from fourteen purified protein components. Radiotracer analysis verified stoichiometric conversion of acetyl-CoA and NAD(P)H into the free fatty acid product, allowing implementation of a facile spectrophotometric assay for kinetic analysis of this multi-enzyme system. At steady state, a maximum turnover rate of 0.5 s−1 was achieved. Under optimal turnover conditions, the predominant products were C16 and C18 saturated as well as monounsaturated fatty acids. The reconstituted system allowed us to quantitatively interrogate the factors that influence metabolic flux toward unsaturated versus saturated fatty acids. In particular, the concentrations of the dehydratase FabA and the β-ketoacyl synthase FabB were found to be crucial for controlling this property. By altering these variables, the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid produced could be adjusted between 10 and 50% without significantly affecting the maximum turnover rate of the pathway. Our reconstituted system provides a powerful tool to understand and engineer rate-limiting and regulatory steps in this complex and practically significant metabolic pathway. PMID:24147979

  11. Overexpression of a citrus basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (CubHLH1), which is homologous to Arabidopsis activation-tagged bri1 suppressor 1 interacting factor genes, modulates carotenoid metabolism in transgenic tomato.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Aiko; Nakano, Michiharu; Nakajima, Naoko; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-02-01

    To explore the transcription factors associated with carotenoid metabolism in citrus fruit, one transcription factor (CubHLH1) was selected through microarray screening in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit, which was treated with exogenous ethylene or gibberellin (GA), accelerating or retarding carotenoid accumulation in peel, respectively. The amino acid sequence of CubHLH1 has homology to Arabidopsis activation-tagged bri1 suppressor 1 (ATBS1) interacting factor (AIF), which is functionally characterized as a negative regulator of the brassinolide (BR) signalling pathway. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that protein for CubHLH1 could interact with Arabidopsis and tomato ATBS1. Overexpression of CubHLH1 caused a dwarf phenotype in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), suggesting that CubHLH1 has a similar function to Arabidopsis AIF. In the transgenic tomato fruit at ripening stage, the lycopene content was reduced along with the changes in carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression. The abscisic acid (ABA) content of all the transgenic tomato fruit was higher than that of the wild type. These results implied that CubHLH1 is considered to have a similar function to Arabidopsis AIFs and might be directly involved in carotenoid metabolism in mature citrus fruit. PMID:26795149

  12. Carotenoids in Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telfer, Alison; Pascal, Andrew; Gall, Andrew

    Carotenoids are the secret ingredient in photosynthesis; masked by the green of chlorophyll, they are only revealed in their true glory during senescence, when chlorophyll is degraded to display the glowing colours of autumn. Yet the presence of these orange and yellow pigments is absolutely essential for oxygenic photosynthesis. This Chapter will explain the importance of carotenoids to oxygenic organisms and also their roles in anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, where their presence is often more obvious but in other ways may be less crucial.

  13. A molecular genetic analysis of carotenoid biosynthesis and the effects of carotenoid mutations on other photosynthetic genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.

    1989-04-01

    The nine known R. capsulatus carotenoid genes are contained within the 46 kilobase (kb) photosynthesis gene cluster. An 11 kb subcluster containing eight of these genes has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. A new gene, crtK, has been located in the middle of the subcluster. The carotenoid gene cluster contains sequences homologous to Escherichia coli ..omega../sup 70/ promoters, rho-independent transcription terminators, and prokaryotic transcriptional factor binding sites. The phenotypes and genotypes of ten transposon Tn5.7 insertion mutations within the carotenoid gene cluster have been analyzed, by characterization of the carotenoids accumulated and high resolution mapping of the Tn5.7 insertions. The enzymatic blockages in previously uncharacterized early carotenoid mutants have been determined using a new in vitro synthesis system, suggesting specific roles for the CrtB and CrtE gene products. The expression of six of the eight carotenoid genes in the cluster is induced upon the shift from dark chemoheterotrophic to anaerobic photosynthetic growth. The magnitude of the induction is equivalent to that of genes encoding structural photosynthesis polypeptides, although the carotenoid genes are induced earlier after the growth shift. Different means of regulating photosynthesis genes in R. capsulatus are discussed, and a rationale for the temporal pattern of expression of the carotenoid genes during photosynthetic adaptation is presented. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the two dehydrogenases of the R. capsulatus carotenoid biosynthesis pathway reveals two regions of strong similarity. The effect of carotenoid mutations on the photosynthetic phenotype has been studied by examining growth rates, pigments, pigment-protein complexes and gene expression for a complete set of carotenoid mutants. 161 refs.

  14. Structure of the Bifunctional Acyltransferase/Decarboxylase LnmK from the Leinamycin Biosynthetic Pathway Revealing Novel Activity for a Double-Hot-Dog Fold

    SciTech Connect

    Lohman, Jeremy R.; Bingman, Craig A.; George N. Phillips Jr.; Shen, Ben

    2013-01-15

    The β-branched C3 unit in leinamycin biosynthesis is installed by a set of four proteins, LnmFKLM. In vitro biochemical investigation confirmed that LnmK is a bifunctional acyltransferase/decarboxylase (AT/DC) that catalyzes first self-acylation using methylmalonyl-CoA as a substrate and subsequently transacylation of the methylmalonyl group to the phosphopantetheinyl group of the LnmL acyl carrier protein [Liu, T., Huang, Y., and Shen, B. (2009) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 6900–6901]. LnmK shows no sequence homology to proteins of known function, representing a new family of AT/DC enzymes. Here we report the X-ray structure of LnmK. LnmK is homodimer with each of the monomers adopting a double-hot-dog fold. Cocrystallization of LnmK with methylmalonyl-CoA revealed an active site tunnel terminated by residues from the dimer interface. But, to canonical AT and ketosynthase enzymes that employ Ser or Cys as an active site residue, none of these residues are found in the vicinity of the LnmK active site. Instead, three tyrosines were identified, one of which, Tyr62, was established, by site-directed mutagenesis, to be the most likely active site residue for the AT activity of LnmK. Moreover, LnmK represents the first AT enzyme that employs a Tyr as an active site residue and the first member of the family of double-hot-dog fold enzymes that displays an AT activity known to date. The LnmK structure sets the stage for probing of the DC activity of LnmK through site-directed mutagenesis. These findings highlight natural product biosynthetic machinery as a rich source of novel enzyme activities, mechanisms, and structures.

  15. The Structure of the Bifunctional Acyltransferase/Decarboxylase LnmK from the Leinamycin Biosynthetic Pathway Revealing Novel Activity for a Double Hot Dog Fold

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Jeremy R.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, George N.; Shen, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The β-branched C3 unit in leinamycin biosynthesis is installed by a set of four proteins, LnmFKLM. In vitro biochemical investigation confirmed that LnmK is a bifunctional acyltransferase/decarboxylase (AT/DC) that catalyzes first self-acylation using methylmalonyl-CoA as a substrate and subsequently trans-acylation of the methylmalonyl group to the phosphopantetheinyl group of the LnmL acyl carrier protein [Liu, T., Huang, Y., and Shen, B. (2009), J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 6900-6901]. LnmK shows no sequence homology to proteins of known function, representing a new family of AT/DC enzymes. Here we report the X-ray structure of LnmK. LnmK is homodimer with each of the monomers adopting a double-hot-dog fold. Co-crystallization of LnmK with methylmalonyl-CoA revealed an active site tunnel terminated by residues from the dimer interface. In contrast to canonical AT and ketosynthase enzymes that employ Ser or Cys as an active site residue, none of these residues are found in the vicinity of the LnmK active site. Instead, three tyrosines were identified, one of which, Tyr62, was established, by site-directed mutagenesis, to be the most likely active site residue for the AT activity of LnmK. LnmK represents the first AT enzyme that employs a Tyr as an active site residue and the first member of double-hot-dog fold enzymes that displays an AT activity known to date. The LnmK structure sets the stage to probe the DC activity of LnmK through site-directed mutagenesis. These findings highlight natural product biosynthetic machinery as a rich source of novel enzyme activities, mechanisms, and structures. PMID:23320975

  16. Characterization of a SAM-dependent fluorinase from a latent biosynthetic pathway for fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine formation in Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Fluorination has been widely used in chemical synthesis, but is rare in nature. The only known biological fluorination scope is represented by the fl pathway from Streptomyces cattleya that produces fluoroacetate (FAc) and 4-fluorothreonine (4-FT). Here we report the identification of a novel pathway for FAc and 4-FT biosynthesis from the actinomycetoma-causing pathogen Nocardia brasiliensis ATCC 700358. The new pathway shares overall conservation with the fl pathway in S. cattleya. Biochemical characterization of the conserved domains revealed a novel fluorinase NobA that can biosynthesize 5’-fluoro-5’-deoxyadenosine (5’-FDA) from inorganic fluoride and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). The NobA shows similar halide specificity and characteristics to the fluorination enzyme FlA of the fl pathway. Kinetic parameters for fluoride ( K m 4153 μM, k cat 0.073 min -1) and SAM ( K m 416 μM, k cat 0.139 min -1) have been determined, revealing that NobA is slightly (2.3 fold) slower than FlA. Upon sequence comparison, we finally identified a distinct loop region in the fluorinases that probably accounts for the disparity of fluorination activity. PMID:24795808

  17. Radical SAM, A Novel Protein Superfamily Linking Unresolved Steps in Familiar Biosynthetic Pathways with Radical Mechanisms: Functional Characterization Using New Analysis and Information Visualization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sofia, Heidi J.; Chen, Guang; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Reyes Spindola, Jorge F.; Miller, Nancy E.

    2001-03-01

    A large protein superfamily with over 500 members has been discovered and analyzed using powerful new bioinformatics and information visualization methods. Evidence exists that these proteins generate a 5?-deoxyadenosyl radical by reductive cleavage of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) through an unusual Fe-S center. Radical SAM superfamily proteins function in DNA precursor, vitamin, cofactor, antibiotic, and herbicide biosynthesis in a collection of basic and familiar pathways. One of the members is interferon-inducible and is considered a candidate drug target for osteoporosis. The identification of this superfamily suggests that radical-based catalysis is important in a number of previously well-studied but unresolved biochemical pathways.

  18. Subcellular Localization of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Selstam, Eva; Norling, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    The biosynthesis pathway of carotenoids in cyanobacteria is partly described. However, the subcellular localization of individual steps is so far unknown. Carotenoid analysis of different membrane subfractions in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 shows that “light” plasma membranes have a high carotenoid/protein ratio, when compared to “heavier” plasma membranes or thylakoids. The localization of CrtQ and CrtO, two well-defined carotenoid synthesis pathway enzymes in Synechocystis, was studied by epitope tagging and western blots. Both enzymes are locally more abundant in plasma membranes than in thylakoids, implying that the plasma membrane has higher synthesis rates of β-carotene precursor molecules and echinenone. PMID:26083372

  19. Characterization of the enzyme CbiH60 involved in anaerobic ring contraction of the cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Moore, Simon J; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Lawrence, Andrew D; Deery, Evelyne; Howard, Mark J; Rigby, Stephen E J; Warren, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic pathway for the biosynthesis of cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) has remained poorly characterized because of the sensitivity of the pathway intermediates to oxygen and the low activity of enzymes. One of the major bottlenecks in the anaerobic pathway is the ring contraction step, which has not been observed previously with a purified enzyme system. The Gram-positive aerobic bacterium Bacillus megaterium has a complete anaerobic pathway that contains an unusual ring contraction enzyme, CbiH(60), that harbors a C-terminal extension with sequence similarity to the nitrite/sulfite reductase family. To improve solubility, the enzyme was homologously produced in the host B. megaterium DSM319. CbiH(60) was characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance and shown to contain a [4Fe-4S] center. Assays with purified recombinant CbiH(60) demonstrate that the enzyme converts both cobalt-precorrin-3 and cobalt factor III into the ring-contracted product cobalt-precorrin-4 in high yields, with the latter transformation dependent upon DTT and an intact Fe-S center. Furthermore, the ring contraction process was shown not to involve a change in the oxidation state of the central cobalt ion of the macrocycle. PMID:23155054

  20. Identification of intermediates involved in the biosynthetic pathway of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol conjugates in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa).

    PubMed

    Fedrizzi, Bruno; Guella, Graziano; Perenzoni, Daniele; Gasperotti, Mattia; Masuero, Domenico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2012-05-01

    Yellow passion fruit is one of the most well-known tropical fruits and much of its success comes from its typical aroma. Key compounds in explaining yellow passion fruit scent are volatile thiols. These molecules are reported to be present in several fruits and originate from non-volatile precursors. Such free thiols are particularly appreciated in white wines and considerable efforts have been made to try to maximise their production and understand their biosynthesis. Two main precursors have been identified so far: S-glutathionylated and S-cysteinylated precursors, the latter originating in the breaking down of the glycyl and glutamyl moieties of the former. Improving knowledge about this pathway is currently one of the main challenges in the field of aroma chemistry. Only S-cysteinylated precursors have been reported in the literature for yellow passion fruit, thus much of the biochemical pathway remains unknown. In this paper a combination of organic synthesis, MS and NMR experiments was developed in order to investigate this pathway in yellow passion fruit. The three missing stages leading to the S-cysteinylated precursor were clearly identified. Both intermediate species between S-glutathionyl and S-cysteinyl 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol were found, suggesting that the plant is capable of activating both metabolic routes. The information gained would appear to be crucial for study of this important pathway and for potentially extending this knowledge to other plants, in particular the grapevine. PMID:22317904

  1. New Biosynthetic Step in the Melanin Pathway of Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis: Evidence for 2-Acetyl-1,3,6,8-Tetrahydroxynaphthalene as a Novel Precursor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predominant cell wall melanin of Wangiella dermatitidis, a black fungal pathogen of humans, is synthesized from 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (D2HN). An early precursor, 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene (T4HN), in the pathway leading to D2HN is reportedly produced as a pentaketide directly by an iter...

  2. Characterization of the Enzyme CbiH60 Involved in Anaerobic Ring Contraction of the Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Biosynthetic Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Simon J.; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Lawrence, Andrew D.; Deery, Evelyne; Howard, Mark J.; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Warren, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic pathway for the biosynthesis of cobalamin (vitamin B12) has remained poorly characterized because of the sensitivity of the pathway intermediates to oxygen and the low activity of enzymes. One of the major bottlenecks in the anaerobic pathway is the ring contraction step, which has not been observed previously with a purified enzyme system. The Gram-positive aerobic bacterium Bacillus megaterium has a complete anaerobic pathway that contains an unusual ring contraction enzyme, CbiH60, that harbors a C-terminal extension with sequence similarity to the nitrite/sulfite reductase family. To improve solubility, the enzyme was homologously produced in the host B. megaterium DSM319. CbiH60 was characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance and shown to contain a [4Fe-4S] center. Assays with purified recombinant CbiH60 demonstrate that the enzyme converts both cobalt-precorrin-3 and cobalt factor III into the ring-contracted product cobalt-precorrin-4 in high yields, with the latter transformation dependent upon DTT and an intact Fe-S center. Furthermore, the ring contraction process was shown not to involve a change in the oxidation state of the central cobalt ion of the macrocycle. PMID:23155054

  3. Carotenoids, chemistry, sources and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter for the Enclyclopedia of Human Nutrition (3rd edition) summarizes the structure, chemical and physiological mechanisms, dietary sources, and metabolism of carotenoids. Carotenoids are a family of phytonutrients which have antioxidant properties under most physiological conditions. Num...

  4. Involvement of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway in biosynthesis of aphidicolin-like tetracyclic diterpene of Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Nkembo, Marguerite Kasidimoko; Lee, Jung-Bum; Nakagiri, Takeshi; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2006-05-01

    Specific inhibitors of the MVA pathway (pravastatin) and the MEP pathway (fosmidomycin) were used to interfere with the biosynthetic flux which leads to the production of aphidicolin-like diterpene in leaf organ cultures of Scoparia dulcis. Treatment of leaf organs with fosmidomycin resulted in dose dependent inhibition of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scopadulcic acid B (SDB) and phytol production, and no effect on sterol production was observed. In response to the pravastatin treatment, a significant decrease in sterol and perturbation of SDB production was observed. PMID:16651787

  5. Deciphering the late biosynthetic steps of antimalarial compound FR-900098.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Tyler W; DeSieno, Matthew A; Griffin, Benjamin M; Thomas, Paul M; Kelleher, Neil L; Metcalf, William W; Zhao, Huimin

    2010-01-29

    FR-900098 is a potent chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of malaria. Here we report the heterologous production of this compound in Escherichia coli by reconstructing the entire biosynthetic pathway using a three-plasmid system. Based on this system, whole-cell feeding assays in combination with in vitro enzymatic activity assays reveal an unusual functional role of nucleotide conjugation and lead to the complete elucidation of the previously unassigned late biosynthetic steps. These studies also suggest a biosynthetic route to a second phosphonate antibiotic, FR-33289. A thorough understanding of the FR-900098 biosynthetic pathway now opens possibilities for metabolic engineering in E. coli to increase production of the antimalarial antibiotic and combinatorial biosynthesis to generate novel derivatives of FR-900098. PMID:20142041

  6. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of chy genes and explored their distribution, structure, evolution, origins, and expression. Results Overall 60 putative chy genes were identified and classified into two major subfamilies (bch and cyp97) according to their domain structures. Genes in the bch subfamily were found in 10 green algae and 1 red alga, but absent in other algae. In the phylogenetic tree, bch genes of green algae and higher plants share a common ancestor and are of non-cyanobacterial origin, whereas that of red algae is of cyanobacteria. The homologs of cyp97a/c genes were widespread only in green algae, while cyp97b paralogs were seen in most of algae. Phylogenetic analysis on cyp97 genes supported the hypothesis that cyp97b is an ancient gene originated before the formation of extant algal groups. The cyp97a gene is more closely related to cyp97c in evolution than to cyp97b. The two cyp97 genes were isolated from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and transcriptional expression profiles of chy genes were observed under high light stress of different wavelength. Conclusions Green algae received a β-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway from host organisms. Although red algae inherited the pathway from cyanobacteria during primary endosymbiosis, it remains unclear in Chromalveolates. The α-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway is a common feature in green algae and higher plants. The origination of cyp97a/c is most likely due to gene duplication before divergence of

  7. Candidate genes for carotenoid coloration in vertebrates and their expression profiles in the carotenoid-containing plumage and bill of a wild bird

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, N.; Dale, J.; McGraw, K. J.; Pointer, M. A.; Mundy, N. I.

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid-based coloration has attracted much attention in evolutionary biology owing to its role in honest, condition-dependent signalling. Knowledge of the genetic pathways that regulate carotenoid coloration is crucial for an understanding of any trade-offs involved. We identified genes with potential roles in carotenoid coloration in vertebrates via (i) carotenoid uptake (SR-BI, CD36), (ii) binding and deposition (StAR1, MLN64, StAR4, StAR5, APOD, PLIN, GSTA2), and (iii) breakdown (BCO2, BCMO1). We examined the expression of these candidate loci in carotenoid-coloured tissues and several control tissues of the red-billed quelea (Quelea quelea), a species that exhibits a male breeding plumage colour polymorphism and sexually dimorphic variation in bill colour. All of the candidate genes except StAR1 were expressed in both the plumage and bill of queleas, indicating a potential role in carotenoid coloration in the quelea. However, no differences in the relative expression of any of the genes were found among the quelea carotenoid phenotypes, suggesting that other genes control the polymorphic and sexually dimorphic variation in carotenoid coloration observed in this species. Our identification of a number of potential carotenoid genes in different functional categories provides a critical starting point for future work on carotenoid colour regulation in vertebrate taxa. PMID:21593031

  8. Candidate genes for carotenoid coloration in vertebrates and their expression profiles in the carotenoid-containing plumage and bill of a wild bird.

    PubMed

    Walsh, N; Dale, J; McGraw, K J; Pointer, M A; Mundy, N I

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid-based coloration has attracted much attention in evolutionary biology owing to its role in honest, condition-dependent signalling. Knowledge of the genetic pathways that regulate carotenoid coloration is crucial for an understanding of any trade-offs involved. We identified genes with potential roles in carotenoid coloration in vertebrates via (i) carotenoid uptake (SR-BI, CD36), (ii) binding and deposition (StAR1, MLN64, StAR4, StAR5, APOD, PLIN, GSTA2), and (iii) breakdown (BCO2, BCMO1). We examined the expression of these candidate loci in carotenoid-coloured tissues and several control tissues of the red-billed quelea (Quelea quelea), a species that exhibits a male breeding plumage colour polymorphism and sexually dimorphic variation in bill colour. All of the candidate genes except StAR1 were expressed in both the plumage and bill of queleas, indicating a potential role in carotenoid coloration in the quelea. However, no differences in the relative expression of any of the genes were found among the quelea carotenoid phenotypes, suggesting that other genes control the polymorphic and sexually dimorphic variation in carotenoid coloration observed in this species. Our identification of a number of potential carotenoid genes in different functional categories provides a critical starting point for future work on carotenoid colour regulation in vertebrate taxa. PMID:21593031

  9. ATP citrate lyase activity is post-translationally regulated by sink strength and impacts the wax, cutin and rubber biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shufan; van Deenen, Nicole; Magliano, Pasqualina; Frahm, Lea; Forestier, Edith; Nawrath, Christiane; Schaller, Hubert; Gronover, Christian S; Prüfer, Dirk; Poirier, Yves

    2014-07-01

    Cytosolic acetyl-CoA is involved in the synthesis of a variety of compounds, including waxes, sterols and rubber, and is generated by the ATP citrate lyase (ACL). Plants over-expressing ACL were generated in an effort to understand the contribution of ACL activity to the carbon flux of acetyl-CoA to metabolic pathways occurring in the cytosol. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants synthesizing the polyester polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from cytosolic acetyl-CoA have reduced growth and wax content, consistent with a reduction in the availability of cytosolic acetyl-CoA to endogenous pathways. Increasing the ACL activity via the over-expression of the ACLA and ACLB subunits reversed the phenotypes associated with PHB synthesis while maintaining polymer synthesis. PHB production by itself was associated with an increase in ACL activity that occurred in the absence of changes in steady-state mRNA or protein level, indicating a post-translational regulation of ACL activity in response to sink strength. Over-expression of ACL in Arabidopsis was associated with a 30% increase in wax on stems, while over-expression of a chimeric homomeric ACL in the laticifer of roots of dandelion led to a four- and two-fold increase in rubber and triterpene content, respectively. Synthesis of PHB and over-expression of ACL also changed the amount of the cutin monomer octadecadien-1,18-dioic acid, revealing an unsuspected link between cytosolic acetyl-CoA and cutin biosynthesis. Together, these results reveal the complexity of ACL regulation and its central role in influencing the carbon flux to metabolic pathways using cytosolic acetyl-CoA, including wax and polyisoprenoids. PMID:24844815

  10. Mutations in genes for the F420 biosynthetic pathway and a nitroreductase enzyme are the primary resistance determinants in spontaneous in vitro-selected PA-824-resistant mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Haver, Hana L; Chua, Adeline; Ghode, Pramila; Lakshminarayana, Suresh B; Singhal, Amit; Mathema, Barun; Wintjens, René; Bifani, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    Alleviating the burden of tuberculosis (TB) requires an understanding of the genetic basis that determines the emergence of drug-resistant mutants. PA-824 (pretomanid) is a bicyclic nitroimidazole class compound presently undergoing the phase III STAND clinical trial, despite lacking identifiable genetic markers for drug-specific resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the genetic polymorphisms of spontaneously generated PA-824-resistant mutant strains by surveying drug metabolism genes for potential mutations. Of the 183 independently selected PA-824-resistant M. tuberculosis mutants, 83% harbored a single mutation in one of five nonessential genes associated with either PA-824 prodrug activation (ddn, 29%; fgd1, 7%) or the tangential F420 biosynthetic pathway (fbiA, 19%; fbiB, 2%; fbiC, 26%). Crystal structure analysis indicated that identified mutations were specifically located within the protein catalytic domain that would hinder the activity of the enzymes required for prodrug activation. This systematic analysis conducted of genotypes resistant to PA-824 may contribute to future efforts in monitoring clinical strain susceptibility with this new drug therapy. PMID:26100695

  11. The c4h, tat, hppr and hppd Genes Prompted Engineering of Rosmarinic Acid Biosynthetic Pathway in Salvia miltiorrhiza Hairy Root Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shouhong; Saechao, Saengking; Di, Peng; Chen, Junfeng; Chen, Wansheng

    2011-01-01

    Rational engineering to produce biologically active plant compounds has been greatly impeded by our poor understanding of the regulatory and metabolic pathways underlying the biosynthesis of these compounds. Here we capitalized on our previously described gene-to-metabolite network in order to engineer rosmarinic acid (RA) biosynthesis pathway for the production of beneficial RA and lithospermic acid B (LAB) in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures. Results showed their production was greatly elevated by (1) overexpression of single gene, including cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (c4h), tyrosine aminotransferase (tat), and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate reductase (hppr), (2) overexpression of both tat and hppr, and (3) suppression of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (hppd). Co-expression of tat/hppr produced the most abundant RA (906 mg/liter) and LAB (992 mg/liter), which were 4.3 and 3.2-fold more than in their wild-type (wt) counterparts respectively. And the value of RA concentration was also higher than that reported before, that produced by means of nutrient medium optimization or elicitor treatment. It is the first report of boosting RA and LAB biosynthesis through genetic manipulation, providing an effective approach for their large-scale commercial production by using hairy root culture systems as bioreactors. PMID:22242141

  12. Identification of early fumonisin biosynthetic intermediates by inactivation of the FUM6 gene in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are polyketide mycotoxins produced by the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and are associated with multiple human and animal diseases. A fumonisin biosynthetic pathway has been proposed, but structures of early pathway intermediates have not been demonstrated. The F. verticillioide...

  13. Plastids and carotenoid accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plastids are ubiquitously in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids except proplastids can synth...

  14. Nitrogen-bisphosphonates block retinoblastoma phosphorylation and cell growth by inhibiting the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in a keratinocyte model for esophageal irritation.

    PubMed

    Reszka, A A; Halasy-Nagy, J; Rodan, G A

    2001-02-01

    The surprising discovery that nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) act via inhibition of the mevalonate-to-cholesterol pathway raised the possibility that esophageal irritation by N-BPs is mechanism-based. We used normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) to model N-BP effects on stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus. The N-BPs alendronate and risedronate inhibited NHEK growth in a dose-dependent manner without inducing apoptosis. N-BPs (30 microM) caused accumulation of cells in S phase and increased binucleation (inhibited cytokinesis). Consistent with N-BP inhibition of isoprenylation, geranylgeraniol or farnesol prevented accumulation in S phase. Binucleation was also induced by the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor lovastatin and by the squalene synthase inhibitor zaragozic acid A and was prevented by adding low-density lipoprotein. At 300 microM, N-BPs reduced expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 2 and cdk4 and enhanced expression of p21(waf1) and p27(kip1) and their binding to cdks with corollary hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma. Lovastatin and zaragozic acid A produced similar effects, except that p21(waf1) expression and binding to cdks was not induced. Growth inhibition, but not binucleation, was also caused by the geranylgeranyl transferase I inhibitor, GGTI-298, which also enhanced cdk2 and cdk4 association with p27(kip1). These findings are consistent with suppression of epithelial cell growth by N-BPs via inhibition of the mevalonate pathway and the consequent reduction in cholesterol synthesis, which blocks cytokinesis, and in geranylgeranylation, which interferes with progression through the cell cycle. PMID:11160853

  15. Carotenoid-induced non-photochemical quenching in the cyanobacterial chlorophyll synthase-HliC/D complex.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Tronina, Tomasz; Liu, Haijun; Staleva, Hristina; Komenda, Josef; Sobotka, Roman; Blankenship, Robert E; Polívka, Tomáš

    2016-09-01

    Chl synthase (ChlG) is an important enzyme of the Chl biosynthetic pathway catalyzing attachment of phytol/geranylgeraniol tail to the chlorophyllide molecule. Here we have investigated the Flag-tagged ChlG (f.ChlG) in a complex with two different high-light inducible proteins (Hlips) HliD and HliC. The f.ChlG-Hlips complex binds a Chl a and three different carotenoids, β-carotene, zeaxanthin and myxoxanthophyll. Application of ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy performed at room and cryogenic temperatures revealed excited-state dynamics of complex-bound pigments. After excitation of Chl a in the complex, excited Chl a is efficiently quenched by a nearby carotenoid molecule via energy transfer from the Chl a Qy state to the carotenoid S1 state. The kinetic analysis of the spectroscopic data revealed that quenching occurs with a time constant of ~2ps and its efficiency is temperature independent. Even though due to its long conjugation myxoxanthophyll appears to be energetically best suited for role of Chl a quencher, based on comparative analysis and spectroscopic data we propose that β-carotene bound to Hlips acts as the quencher rather than myxoxanthophyll and zeaxanthin, which are bound at the f.ChlG and Hlips interface. The S1 state lifetime of the quencher has been determined to be 13ps at room temperature and 21ps at 77K. These results demonstrate that Hlips act as a conserved functional module that prevents photodamage of protein complexes during photosystem assembly or Chl biosynthesis. PMID:27133505

  16. Conservation of Male Sterility 2 function during spore and pollen wall development supports an evolutionarily early recruitment of a core component in the sporopollenin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Simon; Chater, Caspar C; Kamisugi, Yasuko; Cuming, Andrew C; Wellman, Charles H; Beerling, David J; Fleming, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The early evolution of plants required the acquisition of a number of key adaptations to overcome physiological difficulties associated with survival on land. One of these was a tough sporopollenin wall that enclosed reproductive propagules and provided protection from desiccation and UV-B radiation. All land plants possess such walled spores (or their derived homologue, pollen). We took a reverse genetics approach, consisting of knock-out and complementation experiments to test the functional conservation of the sporopollenin-associated gene MALE STERILTY 2 (which is essential for pollen wall development in Arabidopsis thaliana) in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Knock-outs of a putative moss homologue of the A. thaliana MS2 gene, which is highly expressed in the moss sporophyte, led to spores with highly defective walls comparable to that observed in the A. thaliana ms2 mutant, and extremely compromised germination. Conversely, the moss MS2 gene could not rescue the A. thaliana ms2 phenotype. The results presented here suggest that a core component of the biochemical and developmental pathway required for angiosperm pollen wall development was recruited early in land plant evolution but the continued increase in pollen wall complexity observed in angiosperms has been accompanied by divergence in MS2 gene function. PMID:25195943

  17. Characterization of SpnQ from the spinosyn biosynthetic pathway of Saccharopolyspora spinosa: mechanistic and evolutionary implications for C-3 deoxygenation in deoxysugar biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lin; Zhao, Zongbao; Liu, Hung-wen

    2006-11-01

    The C-3 deoxygenation step in the biosynthesis of d-forosamine (4-N,N-dimethylamino-2,3,4,6-tetradeoxy-d-threo-hexopyranose), a constituent of spinosyn produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa, was investigated. The spnQ gene, proposed to encode a TDP-4-keto-2,6-dideoxy-d-glucose 3-dehydratase was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli. Characterization of the purified enzyme established that it is a PMP and iron-sulfur containing enzyme which catalyzes the C-3 deoxygenation in a reductase-dependent manner similar to that of the previously well characterized hexose 3-dehydrase E1 from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. However, unlike E1, which has evolved to work with a specific reductase partner present in its gene cluster, SpnQ lacks a specific reductase, and works efficiently with general cellular reductases ferredoxin/ferredoxin reductase or flavodoxin/flavodoxin reductase. SpnQ also catalyzes C-4 transamination in the absence of an electron transfer intermediary and in the presence of PLP and l-glutamate. Under the same conditions, both E1 and the related hexose 3-dehydrase, ColD, catalyze C-3 deoxygenation. Thus, SpnQ possesses important features which distinguish it from other well studied homologues, suggesting unique evolutionary pathways for each of the three hexose 3-dehydrases studied thus far. PMID:17076492

  18. Genetic variants in the MicroRNA biosynthetic pathway Gemin3 and Gemin4 are associated with a risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenbo; Zhao, Jun; He, Jieyu; Qi, Daxun; Wang, Lina; Ma, Xu; Liu, Pei

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the microRNA (miRNA) processing genes Gemin3 and Gemin4 on cellular signaling pathways could have a major impact on the risk of cancer. Several studies concerning the association between the Gemin3 rs197412, Gemin4 rs7813 and Gemin4 rs2740348 polymorphisms with cancer susceptibility have been published. The present meta-analysis summarized this evidence and evaluated the precision of these relationships. Relevant studies (published prior to December 16th, 2015) without language restriction were identified using the PubMed, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) on-line databases. The data were extracted from the eligible studies and were processed using Stata 12.0 software. Seven studies (2,588 cases and 2,549 controls) indicated that the rs7813 polymorphism was significantly associated with increased cancer risk (TT vs TC + CC, OR = 1.18 95% CI [1.05-1.32]). Six studies (1,314 cases and 1,244 controls) indicated that rs2740348 was associated with an increased cancer risk (GG vs. GC + CC, OR = 1.41 95% CI [1.00-1.83]). However the rs197412 polymorphism was not associated with an increased cancer risk (OR = 0.97 95% CI [0.80-1.19]). Our results suggest that the Gemin4 rs7813 T > C and rs2740348 G > C polymorphisms are associated with cancer susceptibility. PMID:27019773

  19. Genetic variants in the MicroRNA biosynthetic pathway Gemin3 and Gemin4 are associated with a risk of cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenbo; Zhao, Jun; He, Jieyu; Qi, Daxun; Wang, Lina; Ma, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the microRNA (miRNA) processing genes Gemin3 and Gemin4 on cellular signaling pathways could have a major impact on the risk of cancer. Several studies concerning the association between the Gemin3 rs197412, Gemin4 rs7813 and Gemin4 rs2740348 polymorphisms with cancer susceptibility have been published. The present meta-analysis summarized this evidence and evaluated the precision of these relationships. Relevant studies (published prior to December 16th, 2015) without language restriction were identified using the PubMed, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) on-line databases. The data were extracted from the eligible studies and were processed using Stata 12.0 software. Seven studies (2,588 cases and 2,549 controls) indicated that the rs7813 polymorphism was significantly associated with increased cancer risk (TT vs TC + CC, OR = 1.18 95% CI [1.05–1.32]). Six studies (1,314 cases and 1,244 controls) indicated that rs2740348 was associated with an increased cancer risk (GG vs. GC + CC, OR = 1.41 95% CI [1.00–1.83]). However the rs197412 polymorphism was not associated with an increased cancer risk (OR = 0.97 95% CI [0.80–1.19]). Our results suggest that the Gemin4 rs7813 T > C and rs2740348 G > C polymorphisms are associated with cancer susceptibility. PMID:27019773

  20. The Structure of NtdA, a Sugar Aminotransferase Involved in the Kanosamine Biosynthetic Pathway in Bacillus subtilis, Reveals a New Subclass of Aminotransferases*

    PubMed Central

    van Straaten, Karin E.; Ko, Jong Bum; Jagdhane, Rajendra; Anjum, Shazia; Palmer, David R. J.; Sanders, David A. R.

    2013-01-01

    NtdA from Bacillus subtilis is a sugar aminotransferase that catalyzes the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent equatorial transamination of 3-oxo-α-d-glucose 6-phosphate to form α-d-kanosamine 6-phosphate. The crystal structure of NtdA shows that NtdA shares the common aspartate aminotransferase fold (Type 1) with residues from both monomers forming the active site. The crystal structures of NtdA alone, co-crystallized with the product α-d-kanosamine 6-phosphate, and incubated with the amine donor glutamate reveal three key structures in the mechanistic pathway of NtdA. The structure of NtdA alone reveals the internal aldimine form of NtdA with the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate covalently attached to Lys-247. The addition of glutamate results in formation of pyridoxamine phosphate. Co-crystallization with kanosamine 6-phosphate results in the formation of the external aldimine. Only α-d-kanosamine 6-phosphate is observed in the active site of NtdA, not the β-anomer. A comparison of the structure and sequence of NtdA with other sugar aminotransferases enables us to propose that the VIβ family of aminotransferases should be divided into subfamilies based on the catalytic lysine motif. PMID:24097983

  1. Testing the carotenoid trade-off hypothesis in the polychromatic Midas cichlid, Amphilophus citrinellus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Susan M; Nieves-Puigdoller, Katherine; Brown, Alexandria C; McGraw, Kevin J; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2010-01-01

    Many animals use carotenoid pigments derived from their diet for coloration and immunity. The carotenoid trade-off hypothesis predicts that, under conditions of carotenoid scarcity, individuals may be forced to allocate limited carotenoids to either coloration or immunity. In polychromatic species, the pattern of allocation may differ among individuals. We tested the carotenoid trade-off hypothesis in the Midas cichlid, Amphilophus citrinellus, a species with two ontogenetic color morphs, barred and gold, the latter of which is the result of carotenoid expression. We performed a diet-supplementation experiment in which cichlids of both color morphs were assigned to one of two diet treatments that differed only in carotenoid content (beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin). We measured integument color using spectrometry, quantified carotenoid concentrations in tissue and plasma, and assessed innate immunity using lysozyme activity and alternative complement pathway assays. In both color morphs, dietary carotenoid supplementation elevated plasma carotenoid circulation but failed to affect skin coloration. Consistent with observable differences in integument coloration, we found that gold fish sequestered more carotenoids in skin tissue than barred fish, but barred fish had higher concentrations of carotenoids in plasma than gold fish. Neither measure of innate immunity differed between gold and barred fish, or as a function of dietary carotenoid supplementation. Lysozyme activity, but not complement activity, was strongly affected by body condition. Our data show that a diet low in carotenoids is sufficient to maintain both coloration and innate immunity in Midas cichlids. Our data also suggest that the developmental transition from the barred to gold morph is not accompanied by a decrease in innate immunity in this species. PMID:20151818

  2. Arabidopsis cpSRP54 regulates carotenoid accumulation in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Margaret Y.; Hannoufa, Abdelali

    2012-01-01

    An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, cbd (carotenoid biosynthesis deficient), was recovered from a mutant population based on its yellow cotyledons, yellow-first true leaves, and stunted growth. Seven-day-old seedlings and mature seeds of this mutant had lower chlorophyll and total carotenoids than the wild type (WT). Genetic and molecular characterization revealed that cbd was a recessive mutant caused by a T-DNA insertion in the gene cpSRP54 encoding the 54kDa subunit of the chloroplast signal recognition particle. Transcript levels of most of the main carotenoid biosynthetic genes in cbd were unchanged relative to WT, but expression increased in carotenoid and abscisic acid catabolic genes. The chloroplasts of cbd also had developmental defects that contributed to decreased carotenoid and chlorophyll contents. Transcription of AtGLK1 (Golden 2-like 1), AtGLK2, and GUN4 appeared to be disrupted in the cbd mutant suggesting that the plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signal may be affected, regulating the changes in chloroplast functional and developmental states and carotenoid content flux. Transformation of A. thaliana and Brassica napus with a gDNA encoding the Arabidopsis cpSRP54 showed the utility of this gene in enhancing levels of seed carotenoids without affecting growth or seed yield. PMID:22791829

  3. Effects of overexpressing individual lignin biosynthetic enzymes on feeding and growth of corn earworms and fall armyworms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is an important insect resistance component of plants. Enhancing or disrupting the lignin biosynthetic pathway for different bioenergy uses may alter pest resistance. The lignin biosynthetic pathway is complex, and a number of pathway compounds are also involved in the biosynthesis of simpler...

  4. The floral transcriptome of ylang ylang (Cananga odorata var. fruticosa) uncovers biosynthetic pathways for volatile organic compounds and a multifunctional and novel sesquiterpene synthase

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jingjing; Kim, Mi Jung; Dhandapani, Savitha; Tjhang, Jessica Gambino; Yin, Jun-Lin; Wong, Limsoon; Sarojam, Rajani; Chua, Nam-Hai; Jang, In-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The pleasant fragrance of ylang ylang varieties (Cananga odorata) is mainly due to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the flowers. Floral scents are a key factor in plant–insect interactions and are vital for successful pollination. C. odorata var. fruticosa, or dwarf ylang ylang, is a variety of ylang ylang that is popularly grown in Southeast Asia as a small shrub with aromatic flowers. Here, we describe the combined use of bioinformatics and chemical analysis to discover genes for the VOC biosynthesis pathways and related genes. The scented flowers of C. odorata var. fruticosa were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and a total of 49 VOCs were identified at four different stages of flower development. The bulk of these VOCs were terpenes, mainly sesquiterpenes. To identify the various terpene synthases (TPSs) involved in the production of these essential oils, we performed RNA sequencing on mature flowers. From the RNA sequencing data, four full-length TPSs were functionally characterized. In vitro assays showed that two of these TPSs were mono-TPSs. CoTPS1 synthesized four products corresponding to β-thujene, sabinene, β-pinene, and α-terpinene from geranyl pyrophosphate and CoTPS4 produced geraniol from geranyl pyrophosphate. The other two TPSs were identified as sesqui-TPSs. CoTPS3 catalysed the conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to α-bergamotene, whereas CoTPS2 was found to be a multifunctional and novel TPS that could catalyse the synthesis of three sesquiterpenes, β-ylangene, β-copaene, and β-cubebene. Additionally, the activities of the two sesqui-TPSs were confirmed in planta by transient expression of these TPS genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves by Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration. PMID:25956881

  5. The floral transcriptome of ylang ylang (Cananga odorata var. fruticosa) uncovers biosynthetic pathways for volatile organic compounds and a multifunctional and novel sesquiterpene synthase.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jingjing; Kim, Mi Jung; Dhandapani, Savitha; Tjhang, Jessica Gambino; Yin, Jun-Lin; Wong, Limsoon; Sarojam, Rajani; Chua, Nam-Hai; Jang, In-Cheol

    2015-07-01

    The pleasant fragrance of ylang ylang varieties (Cananga odorata) is mainly due to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the flowers. Floral scents are a key factor in plant-insect interactions and are vital for successful pollination. C. odorata var. fruticosa, or dwarf ylang ylang, is a variety of ylang ylang that is popularly grown in Southeast Asia as a small shrub with aromatic flowers. Here, we describe the combined use of bioinformatics and chemical analysis to discover genes for the VOC biosynthesis pathways and related genes. The scented flowers of C. odorata var. fruticosa were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and a total of 49 VOCs were identified at four different stages of flower development. The bulk of these VOCs were terpenes, mainly sesquiterpenes. To identify the various terpene synthases (TPSs) involved in the production of these essential oils, we performed RNA sequencing on mature flowers. From the RNA sequencing data, four full-length TPSs were functionally characterized. In vitro assays showed that two of these TPSs were mono-TPSs. CoTPS1 synthesized four products corresponding to β-thujene, sabinene, β-pinene, and α-terpinene from geranyl pyrophosphate and CoTPS4 produced geraniol from geranyl pyrophosphate. The other two TPSs were identified as sesqui-TPSs. CoTPS3 catalysed the conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to α-bergamotene, whereas CoTPS2 was found to be a multifunctional and novel TPS that could catalyse the synthesis of three sesquiterpenes, β-ylangene, β-copaene, and β-cubebene. Additionally, the activities of the two sesqui-TPSs were confirmed in planta by transient expression of these TPS genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves by Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration. PMID:25956881

  6. The astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthesis pathway in Sphingomonas sp. PB304.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Bun Yeol; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2014-12-01

    A major carotenoid in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, originally isolated from a river in Daejon City, South Korea, was identified as astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside. Gene clusters encoding the astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthetic enzymes were identified by screening Sphingomonas sp. PB304 fosmid libraries using degenerate probes that harbor highly conserved sequences from the Sphigomonas elodea-derived crtI and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120-dervied crtW genes. Selected positive gene clusters were fully sequenced and annotated, revealing genes encoding six putative carotenogenic enzymes: phytoene synthase (CrtB), phytoene desaturase (CrtI), lycopene cyclase (CrtY), carotene hydroxylase (CrtZ), carotene ketolase (CrtW), and glycosyltransferase (CrtX). All of the carotenogenic enzymes, except for CrtX, were functional in the recombinant host Escherichia coli expressing synthetic carotenogenic modules from Pantoea agglomerans. CrtX did not take up UDP-glucose or GDP-fucose as sugar substrates during the in vitro reaction. Although no direct experimental evidence was obtained for the function of Sphingomonas sp. PB304 CrtX, it can be categorized as a putative deoxyglycosyltransferase based on the presence of astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, a putative corresponding gene in the carotenoid biosynthetic gene cluster, and high amino acid sequence homology to the existing glycosyltransferases. Therefore, we propose that astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside can be synthesized in Sphingomonas sp. PB304 via sequential reactions of six pathway enzymes, including CrtX on the phytoene intermediate. PMID:25193422

  7. Carotenoid accumulation in orange-pigmented Capsicum annuum fruit, regulated at multiple levels

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Uribe, Laura; Guzman, Ivette; Rajapakse, Wathsala; Richins, Richard D.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    The pericarp of Capsicum fruit is a rich dietary source of carotenoids. Accumulation of these compounds may be controlled, in part, by gene transcription of biosynthetic enzymes. The carotenoid composition in a number of orange-coloured C. annuum cultivars was determined using HPLC and compared with transcript abundances for four carotenogenic enzymes, Psy, LcyB, CrtZ-2, and Ccs determined by qRT-PCR. There were unique carotenoid profiles as well as distinct patterns of transcription of carotenogenic enzymes within the seven orange-coloured cultivars. In one cultivar, ‘Fogo’, carrying the mutant ccs-3 allele, transcripts were detected for this gene, but no CCS protein accumulated. The premature stop termination in ccs-3 prevented expression of the biosynthetic activity to synthesize the capsanthin and capsorubin forms of carotenoids. In two other orange-coloured cultivars, ‘Orange Grande’ and ‘Oriole’, both with wild-type versions of all four carotenogenic enzymes, no transcripts for Ccs were detected and no red pigments accumulated. Finally, in a third case, the orange-coloured cultivar, Canary, transcripts for all four of the wild-type carotenogenic enzymes were readily detected yet no CCS protein appeared to accumulate and no red carotenoids were synthesized. In the past, mutations in Psy and Ccs have been identified as the loci controlling colour in the fruit. Now there is evidence that a non-structural gene may control colour development in Capsicum. PMID:21948863

  8. Changes in carotenoid profiles and in the expression pattern of the genes in carotenoid metabolisms during fruit development and ripening in four watermelon cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lv, Pin; Li, Na; Liu, Hui; Gu, Huihui; Zhao, Wen-En

    2015-05-01

    Changes in carotenoid profiles during fruit ripening were investigated in four watermelon cultivars: red-fleshed "CN66", pink-fleshed "CN62", yellow-fleshed "ZXG381" and white-fleshed "ZXG507". The expression pattern of twelve genes (GGPS, PSY, PSY-A, PDS, ZDS, CRTISO, LCYB, CHYB, ZEP, NCED1, NCED2 and NCED3) was analysed. In "CN66" and "CN62", lycopene appeared at 12 DAP and became a main carotenoid increased at the later stages. The transcript levels of carotenogenic genes in "CN66" sharply increased during 18-30 DAP, and concomitantly, fruit accumulated the massive amounts of carotenoids. In "ZXG381", violaxanthin and lutein contents were positively correlated, respectively, with CHYB and ZEP transcript levels during fruit ripening. The trace amounts of carotenoids in "ZXG507" were accompanied with the low transcript levels of most biosynthetic genes. The results suggest that differential transcriptional regulation of carotenoid metabolic genes is very important in determining the amount and type of specific carotenoids accumulated during fruit development and ripening. PMID:25529651

  9. HPLC-MS/MS Analyses Show That the Near-Starchless aps1 and pgm Leaves Accumulate Wild Type Levels of ADPglucose: Further Evidence for the Occurrence of Important ADPglucose Biosynthetic Pathway(s) Alternative to the pPGI-pPGM-AGP Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Francisco José; Li, Jun; Almagro, Goizeder; Montero, Manuel; Pujol, Pablo; Galarza, Regina; Kaneko, Kentaro; Oikawa, Kazusato; Wada, Kaede; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In leaves, it is widely assumed that starch is the end-product of a metabolic pathway exclusively taking place in the chloroplast that (a) involves plastidic phosphoglucomutase (pPGM), ADPglucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase (AGP) and starch synthase (SS), and (b) is linked to the Calvin-Benson cycle by means of the plastidic phosphoglucose isomerase (pPGI). This view also implies that AGP is the sole enzyme producing the starch precursor molecule, ADPG. However, mounting evidence has been compiled pointing to the occurrence of important sources, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, of ADPG. To further explore this possibility, in this work two independent laboratories have carried out HPLC-MS/MS analyses of ADPG content in leaves of the near-starchless pgm and aps1 mutants impaired in pPGM and AGP, respectively, and in leaves of double aps1/pgm mutants grown under two different culture conditions. We also measured the ADPG content in wild type (WT) and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid two different ADPG cleaving enzymes, and in aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC, a bacterial AGP. Furthermore, we measured the ADPG content in ss3/ss4/aps1 mutants impaired in starch granule initiation and chloroplastic ADPG synthesis. We found that, irrespective of their starch contents, pgm and aps1 leaves, WT and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid ADPG cleaving enzymes, and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC accumulate WT ADPG content. In clear contrast, ss3/ss4/aps1 leaves accumulated ca. 300 fold-more ADPG than WT leaves. The overall data showed that, in Arabidopsis leaves, (a) there are important ADPG biosynthetic pathways, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, (b) pPGM and AGP are not major determinants of intracellular ADPG content, and (c) the contribution of the chloroplastic ADPG pool to the total ADPG pool is low. PMID:25133777

  10. Enzymatic formation of apo-carotenoids from the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin and b-cryptoxanthin by ferret carotene-9, 10-monooxygenase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthophyll carotenoids, such as lutein, zeaxanthin and b-cryptoxanthin, may provide potential health benefits against chronic and degenerative diseases. Investigating pathways of xanthophyll metabolism are important to understanding their biological functions. Carotene-15,150-monooxygenase (CMO1) h...

  11. Biotechnological production of value-added carotenoids from microalgae: Emerging technology and prospects.

    PubMed

    Wichuk, Kristine; Brynjólfsson, Sigurður; Fu, Weiqi

    2014-01-01

    We recently evaluated the relationship between abiotic environmental stresses and lutein biosynthesis in the green microalga Dunaliella salina and suggested a rational design of stress-driven adaptive evolution experiments for carotenoids production in microalgae. Here, we summarize our recent findings regarding the biotechnological production of carotenoids from microalgae and outline emerging technology in this field. Carotenoid metabolic pathways are characterized in several representative algal species as they pave the way for biotechnology development. The adaptive evolution strategy is highlighted in connection with enhanced growth rate and carotenoid metabolism. In addition, available genetic modification tools are described, with emphasis on model species. A brief discussion on the role of lights as limiting factors in carotenoid production in microalgae is also included. Overall, our analysis suggests that light-driven metabolism and the photosynthetic efficiency of microalgae in photobioreactors are the main bottlenecks in enhancing biotechnological potential of carotenoid production from microalgae. PMID:24691165

  12. Tissue-Specific Apocarotenoid Glycosylation Contributes to Carotenoid Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Leaves1

    PubMed Central

    Lätari, Kira; Wüst, Florian; Hübner, Michaela; Schaub, Patrick; Beisel, Kim Gabriele; Matsubara, Shizue; Beyer, Peter; Welsch, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Attaining defined steady-state carotenoid levels requires balancing of the rates governing their synthesis and metabolism. Phytoene formation mediated by phytoene synthase (PSY) is rate limiting in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, whereas carotenoid catabolism involves a multitude of nonenzymatic and enzymatic processes. We investigated carotenoid and apocarotenoid formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in response to enhanced pathway flux upon PSY overexpression. This resulted in a dramatic accumulation of mainly β-carotene in roots and nongreen calli, whereas carotenoids remained unchanged in leaves. We show that, in chloroplasts, surplus PSY was partially soluble, localized in the stroma and, therefore, inactive, whereas the membrane-bound portion mediated a doubling of phytoene synthesis rates. Increased pathway flux was not compensated by enhanced generation of long-chain apocarotenals but resulted in higher levels of C13 apocarotenoid glycosides (AGs). Using mutant lines deficient in carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), we identified CCD4 as being mainly responsible for the majority of AGs formed. Moreover, changed AG patterns in the carotene hydroxylase mutants lutein deficient1 (lut1) and lut5 exhibiting altered leaf carotenoids allowed us to define specific xanthophyll species as precursors for the apocarotenoid aglycons detected. In contrast to leaves, carotenoid hyperaccumulating roots contained higher levels of β-carotene-derived apocarotenals, whereas AGs were absent. These contrasting responses are associated with tissue-specific capacities to synthesize xanthophylls, which thus determine the modes of carotenoid accumulation and apocarotenoid formation. PMID:26134165

  13. Biosynthetic engineering of nonribosomal peptide synthetases.

    PubMed

    Kries, Hajo

    2016-09-01

    From the evolutionary melting pot of natural product synthetase genes, microorganisms elicit antibiotics, communication tools, and iron scavengers. Chemical biologists manipulate these genes to recreate similarly diverse and potent biological activities not on evolutionary time scales but within months. Enzyme engineering has progressed considerably in recent years and offers new screening, modelling, and design tools for natural product designers. Here, recent advances in enzyme engineering and their application to nonribosomal peptide synthetases are reviewed. Among the nonribosomal peptides that have been subjected to biosynthetic engineering are the antibiotics daptomycin, calcium-dependent antibiotic, and gramicidin S. With these peptides, incorporation of unnatural building blocks and modulation of bioactivities via various structural modifications have been successfully demonstrated. Natural product engineering on the biosynthetic level is not a reliable method yet. However, progress in the understanding and manipulation of biosynthetic pathways may enable the routine production of optimized peptide drugs in the near future. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27465074

  14. Tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Proctor, A R; Kloos, W E

    1973-04-01

    Tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes were assayed in various tryptophan mutants of Staphylococcus aureus strain 655 and the wild-type parent. All mutants, except trpB mutants, lacked only the activity corresponding to the particular biosynthetic block, as suggested previously by analysis of accumulated intermediates and auxonography. Tryptophan synthetase A was not detected in extracts of either trpA or trpB mutants but appeared normal in other mutants. Mutants in certain other classes exhibited partial loss of another particular tryptophan enzyme activity. Tryptophan synthetase B activity was not detected in cell extract preparations but was detected in whole cells. The original map order proposed for the S. aureus tryptophan gene cluster was clarified by the definition of trpD (phosphoribosyl transferase(-)) and trpF (phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase(-)) mutants. These mutants were previously unresolved and designated as trp(DF) mutants (anthranilate accumulators). Phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase and indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthetase enzymes were separable by molecular sieve chromatography, suggesting that these functions are coded by separate loci. Molecular sieve chromatography failed to reveal aggregates involving anthranilate synthetase, phosphoribosyl transferase, phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase, and indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthetase, and this procedure provided an estimate of the molecular weights of these enzymes. Tryptophan was shown to repress synthesis of all six tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes, and derepression of all six activities was incident upon tryptophan starvation. Tryptophan inhibited the activity of anthranilate synthetase, the first enzyme of the pathway. PMID:4698207

  15. Evolution of carotenoid pigmentation in caciques and meadowlarks (Icteridae): repeated gains of red plumage coloration by carotenoid C4-oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Nicholas R; McGraw, Kevin J; Omland, Kevin E

    2014-03-01

    Many animals use carotenoid pigments to produce yellow, orange, and red coloration. In birds, at least 10 carotenoid compounds have been documented in red feathers; most of these are produced through metabolic modification of dietary precursor compounds. However, it is poorly understood how lineages have evolved the biochemical mechanisms for producing red coloration. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to identify the carotenoid compounds present in feathers from 15 species across two clades of blackbirds (the meadowlarks and allies, and the caciques and oropendolas; Icteridae), and mapped their presence or absence on a phylogeny. We found that the red plumage found in meadowlarks includes different carotenoid compounds than the red plumage found in caciques, indicating that these gains of red color are convergent. In contrast, we found that red coloration in two closely related lineages of caciques evolved twice by what appear to be similar biochemical mechanisms. The C4-oxygenation of dietary carotenoids was responsible for each observed transition from yellow to red plumage coloration, and has been commonly reported by other researchers. This suggests that the C4-oxygenation pathway may be a readily evolvable means to gain red coloration using carotenoids. PMID:24164419

  16. Identification and functional analysis of brassicicene C biosynthetic gene cluster in Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Minami, Atsushi; Tajima, Naoto; Higuchi, Yusuke; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Sassa, Takeshi; Kato, Nobuo; Dairi, Tohru

    2009-02-01

    The biosynthetic gene cluster of brassicicene C was identified in Alternaria brassicicola strain ATCC 96836 from genome database search. In vivo and in vitro study clearly revealed the function of Orf8 and Orf6 as a fusicoccadiene synthase and methyltransferase, respectively. The understanding toward the biosynthetic pathway promises construction of this type of diterpene compounds with genetic engineering. PMID:19097780

  17. Biological activities of carotenoid metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable research effort has been expended in an attempt to substantiate and understand the potential roles of carotenoids in human health and disease. Early studies dealt with beta-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids, but more recent research efforts have focused on the potential roles ...

  18. Carotenoids and lung cancer prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung cancer and cancers at other tissue sites. While the original hypothesis prompting the beta-carotene intervention trials was that beta-carotene exerts beneficial effects thro...

  19. Carotenoids in watermelon and mango

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids, which impart yellow, orange, and/or red colors to many fruits, have antioxidant health properties. A series of experiments were undertaken to establish how storage affected carotenoids in cultivars of watermelon and mango in cooperation with U.S. commodity boards. Watermelon was assay...

  20. Combined transcript, proteome, and metabolite analysis of transgenic maize seeds engineered for enhanced carotenoid synthesis reveals pleotropic effects in core metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Decourcelle, Mathilde; Perez-Fons, Laura; Baulande, Sylvain; Steiger, Sabine; Couvelard, Linhdavanh; Hem, Sonia; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Fraser, Paul; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether endosperm-specific carotenoid biosynthesis influenced core metabolic processes in maize embryo and endosperm and how global seed metabolism adapted to this expanded biosynthetic capacity. Although enhancement of carotenoid biosynthesis was targeted to the endosperm of maize kernels, a concurrent up-regulation of sterol and fatty acid biosynthesis in the embryo was measured. Targeted terpenoid analysis, and non-targeted metabolomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic profiling revealed changes especially in carbohydrate metabolism in the transgenic line. In-depth analysis of the data, including changes of metabolite pools and increased enzyme and transcript concentrations, gave a first insight into the metabolic variation precipitated by the higher up-stream metabolite demand by the extended biosynthesis capacities for terpenoids and fatty acids. An integrative model is put forward to explain the metabolic regulation for the increased provision of terpenoid and fatty acid precursors, particularly glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate or acetyl-CoA from imported fructose and glucose. The model was supported by higher activities of fructokinase, glucose 6-phosphate isomerase, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase indicating a higher flux through the glycolytic pathway. Although pyruvate and acetyl-CoA utilization was higher in the engineered line, pyruvate kinase activity was lower. A sufficient provision of both metabolites may be supported by a by-pass in a reaction sequence involving phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme. PMID:25796085

  1. Efficient light-harvesting using non-carbonyl carotenoids: Energy transfer dynamics in the VCP complex from Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    PubMed

    Keşan, Gürkan; Litvín, Radek; Bína, David; Durchan, Milan; Šlouf, Václav; Polívka, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Violaxanthin-chlorophyll a protein (VCP) from Nannochloropsis oceanica is a Chl a-only member of the LHC family of light-harvesting proteins. VCP binds carotenoids violaxanthin (Vio), vaucheriaxanthin (Vau), and vaucheriaxanthin-ester (Vau-ester). Here we report on energy transfer pathways in the VCP complex. The overall carotenoid-to-Chla energy transfer has efficiency over 90%. Based on their energy transfer properties, the carotenoids in VCP can be divided into two groups; blue carotenoids with the lowest energy absorption band around 480nm and red carotenoids with absorption extended up to 530nm. Both carotenoid groups transfer energy efficiently from their S2 states, reaching efficiencies of ~70% (blue) and ~60% (red). The S1 pathway, however, is efficient only for the red carotenoid pool for which two S1 routes characterized by 0.33 and 2.4ps time constants were identified. For the blue carotenoids the S1-mediated pathway is represented only by a minor route likely involving a hot S1 state. The relaxed S1 state of blue carotenoids decays to the ground state within 21ps. Presence of a fraction of non-transferring red carotenoids with the S1 lifetime of 13ps indicates some specific carotenoid-protein interaction that must shorten the intrinsic S1 lifetime of Vio and/or Vau whose S1 lifetimes in methanol are 26 and 29ps, respectively. The VCP complex from N. oceanica is the first example of a light-harvesting complex binding only non-carbonyl carotenoids with carotenoid-to-chlorophyll energy transfer efficiency over 90%. PMID:26744091

  2. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of β-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, β-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products. PMID:25284291

  3. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kevin; Cerda, Ariel; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is one of the most important vegetable cultivated worldwide and the main source of dietary provitamin A. Contrary to other plants, almost all carrot varieties accumulate massive amounts of carotenoids in the root, resulting in a wide variety of colors, including those with purple, yellow, white, red and orange roots. During the first weeks of development the root, grown in darkness, is thin and pale and devoid of carotenoids. At the second month, the thickening of the root and the accumulation of carotenoids begins, and it reaches its highest level at 3 months of development. This normal root thickening and carotenoid accumulation can be completely altered when roots are grown in light, in which chromoplasts differentiation is redirected to chloroplasts development in accordance with an altered carotenoid profile. Here we discuss the current evidence on the biosynthesis of carotenoid in carrot roots in response to environmental cues that has contributed to our understanding of the mechanism that regulates the accumulation of carotenoids, as well as the carotenogenic gene expression and root development in D. carota. PMID:27485223

  4. Cyanobacterial toxins: biosynthetic routes and evolutionary roots.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Elke; Fewer, David P; Neilan, Brett A

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce an unparalleled variety of toxins that can cause severe health problems or even death in humans, and wild or domestic animals. In the last decade, biosynthetic pathways have been assigned to the majority of the known toxin families. This review summarizes current knowledge about the enzymatic basis for the production of the hepatotoxins microcystin and nodularin, the cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin, the neurotoxins anatoxin and saxitoxin, and the dermatotoxin lyngbyatoxin. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways of the toxins has paved the way for the development of molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of the producing cyanobacteria in different environments. Phylogenetic analyses of related clusters from a large number of strains has also allowed for the reconstruction of the evolutionary scenarios that have led to the emergence, diversification, and loss of such gene clusters in different strains and genera of cyanobacteria. Advances in the understanding of toxin biosynthesis and evolution have provided new methods for drinking-water quality control and may inspire the development of techniques for the management of bloom formation in the future. PMID:23051004

  5. Down-regulation of p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis leads to improved sugar release

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, Robert W.; Gjersing, Erica L.; Foutz, Kirk; Rottmann, William H.; Kuhn, Sean A.; Foster, Cliff E.; Ziebell, Angela; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Decker, Stephen R.; Hinchee, Maud A. W.; Davis, Mark F.

    2015-08-27

    In this study, lignocellulosic materials provide an attractive replacement for food-based crops used to produce ethanol. Understanding the interactions within the cell wall is vital to overcome the highly recalcitrant nature of biomass. One factor imparting plant cell wall recalcitrance is lignin, which can be manipulated by making changes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, eucalyptus down-regulated in expression of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) or p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H, EC 1.14.13.36) were evaluated for cell wall composition and reduced recalcitrance.

  6. Identification and characterization of a welwitindolinone alkaloid biosynthetic gene cluster in the stigonematalean Cyanobacterium Hapalosiphon welwitschii.

    PubMed

    Hillwig, Matthew L; Fuhrman, Heather A; Ittiamornkul, Kuljira; Sevco, Tyler J; Kwak, Daniel H; Liu, Xinyu

    2014-03-21

    The identification of a 36 kb welwitindolinone (wel) biosynthetic gene cluster in Hapalosiphon welwitschii UTEX B1830 is reported. Characterization of the enzymes responsible for assembling the early biosynthetic intermediates geranyl pyrophosphate and 3-((Z)-2′-isocyanoethenyl)indole as well as a dedicated N-methyltransferase in the maturation of N-methylwelwitindolinone C isothiocyanate solidified the link between the wel pathway and welwitindolinone biosynthesis. Comparative analysis of the ambiguine and welwitindolinone biosynthetic pathways in two different organisms provided insights into the origins of diverse structures within hapalindole-type molecules. PMID:24677572

  7. Production and glucosylation of C50 and C 40 carotenoids by metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Heider, Sabine A E; Peters-Wendisch, Petra; Netzer, Roman; Stafnes, Marit; Brautaset, Trygve; Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-02-01

    The yellow-pigmented soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 is accumulating the cyclic C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin and its glucosides. Carotenoid pathway engineering was previously shown to allow for efficient lycopene production. Here, engineering of C. glutamicum for production of endogenous decaprenoxanthin as well as of the heterologous C50 carotenoids C.p.450 and sarcinaxanthin is described. Plasmid-borne overexpression of genes for lycopene cyclization and hydroxylation from C. glutamicum, Dietzia sp., and Micrococcus luteus, in a lycopene-producing platform strain constructed here, resulted in accumulation of these three C50 carotenoids to concentrations of about 3-4 mg/g CDW. Chromosomal deletion of a putative carotenoid glycosyltransferase gene cg0730/crtX in these strains entailed production of non-glucosylated derivatives of decaprenoxanthin, C.p.450, and sarcinaxanthin, respectively. Upon introduction of glucosyltransferase genes from M. luteus, C. glutamicum, and Pantoea ananatis, these hydroxylated C50 carotenoids were glucosylated. We here also demonstrate production of the C40 carotenoids β-carotene and zeaxanthin in recombinant C. glutamicum strains and co-expression of the P. ananatis crtX gene was used to obtain glucosylated zeaxanthin. Together, our results show that C. glutamicum is a potentially valuable host for production of a wide range of glucosylated C40 and C50 carotenoids. PMID:24270893

  8. The kiwifruit lycopene beta-cyclase plays a significant role in carotenoid accumulation in fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; McGhie, Tony; Wibisono, Reginald; Montefiori, Mirco; Hellens, Roger P.; Allan, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    The composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the Actinidia (kiwifruit) species. Lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening. In addition, the accumulation of beta-carotene and lutein is influenced by the temperature at which harvested fruit are stored. Expression analysis of carotenoid biosynthetic genes among different genotypes and fruit developmental stages identified Actinidia lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-β) as the gene whose expression pattern appeared to be associated with both total carotenoid and beta-carotene accumulation. Phytoene desaturase (PDS) expression was the least variable among the different genotypes, while zeta carotene desaturase (ZDS), beta-carotene hydroxylase (CRH-β), and epsilon carotene hydroxylase (CRH-ϵ) showed some variation in gene expression. The LCY-β gene was functionally tested in bacteria and shown to convert lycopene and delta-carotene to beta-carotene and alpha-carotene respectively. This indicates that the accumulation of beta-carotene, the major carotenoid in these kiwifruit species, appears to be controlled by the level of expression of LCY-β gene. PMID:19574250

  9. The kiwifruit lycopene beta-cyclase plays a significant role in carotenoid accumulation in fruit.

    PubMed

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; McGhie, Tony; Wibisono, Reginald; Montefiori, Mirco; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C

    2009-01-01

    The composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the Actinidia (kiwifruit) species. Lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening. In addition, the accumulation of beta-carotene and lutein is influenced by the temperature at which harvested fruit are stored. Expression analysis of carotenoid biosynthetic genes among different genotypes and fruit developmental stages identified Actinidia lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-beta) as the gene whose expression pattern appeared to be associated with both total carotenoid and beta-carotene accumulation. Phytoene desaturase (PDS) expression was the least variable among the different genotypes, while zeta carotene desaturase (ZDS), beta-carotene hydroxylase (CRH-beta), and epsilon carotene hydroxylase (CRH-epsilon) showed some variation in gene expression. The LCY-beta gene was functionally tested in bacteria and shown to convert lycopene and delta-carotene to beta-carotene and alpha-carotene respectively. This indicates that the accumulation of beta-carotene, the major carotenoid in these kiwifruit species, appears to be controlled by the level of expression of LCY-beta gene. PMID:19574250

  10. Metabolic engineering of potato tuber carotenoids through tuber-specific silencing of lycopene epsilon cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Diretto, Gianfranco; Tavazza, Raffaela; Welsch, Ralf; Pizzichini, Daniele; Mourgues, Fabienne; Papacchioli, Velia; Beyer, Peter; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Background Potato is a major staple food, and modification of its provitamin content is a possible means for alleviating nutritional deficiencies. beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and of xanthophyll esters. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. Results We silenced the first dedicated step in the beta-epsilon- branch of carotenoid biosynthesis, lycopene epsilon cyclase (LCY-e), by introducing, via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an antisense fragment of this gene under the control of the patatin promoter. Real Time measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of Lcy-e. Antisense tubers showed significant increases in beta-beta-carotenoid levels, with beta-carotene showing the maximum increase (up to 14-fold). Total carotenoids increased up to 2.5-fold. These changes were not accompanied by a decrease in lutein, suggesting that LCY-e is not rate-limiting for lutein accumulation. Tuber-specific changes in expression of several genes in the pathway were observed. Conclusion The data suggest that epsilon-cyclization of lycopene is a key regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. Upon tuber-specific silencing of the corresponding gene, beta-beta-carotenoid and total carotenoid levels are increased, and expression of several other genes in the pathway is modified. PMID:16800876

  11. A high-quality carrot genome assembly provides new insights into carotenoid accumulation and asterid genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Massimo; Ellison, Shelby; Senalik, Douglas; Zeng, Peng; Satapoomin, Pimchanok; Huang, Jiaying; Bowman, Megan; Iovene, Marina; Sanseverino, Walter; Cavagnaro, Pablo; Yildiz, Mehtap; Macko-Podgórni, Alicja; Moranska, Emilia; Grzebelus, Ewa; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Ashrafi, Hamid; Zheng, Zhijun; Cheng, Shifeng; Spooner, David; Van Deynze, Allen; Simon, Philipp

    2016-06-01

    We report a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly and analysis of the carrot (Daucus carota) genome, the first sequenced genome to include a comparative evolutionary analysis among members of the euasterid II clade. We characterized two new polyploidization events, both occurring after the divergence of carrot from members of the Asterales order, clarifying the evolutionary scenario before and after radiation of the two main asterid clades. Large- and small-scale lineage-specific duplications have contributed to the expansion of gene families, including those with roles in flowering time, defense response, flavor, and pigment accumulation. We identified a candidate gene, DCAR_032551, that conditions carotenoid accumulation (Y) in carrot taproot and is coexpressed with several isoprenoid biosynthetic genes. The primary mechanism regulating carotenoid accumulation in carrot taproot is not at the biosynthetic level. We hypothesize that DCAR_032551 regulates upstream photosystem development and functional processes, including photomorphogenesis and root de-etiolation. PMID:27158781

  12. Regulatory mechanisms underlying oil palm fruit mesocarp maturation, ripening, and functional specialization in lipid and carotenoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tranbarger, Timothy J; Dussert, Stéphane; Joët, Thierry; Argout, Xavier; Summo, Marilyne; Champion, Antony; Cros, David; Omore, Alphonse; Nouy, Bruno; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2011-06-01

    Fruit provide essential nutrients and vitamins for the human diet. Not only is the lipid-rich fleshy mesocarp tissue of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit the main source of edible oil for the world, but it is also the richest dietary source of provitamin A. This study examines the transcriptional basis of these two outstanding metabolic characters in the oil palm mesocarp. Morphological, cellular, biochemical, and hormonal features defined key phases of mesocarp development. A 454 pyrosequencing-derived transcriptome was then assembled for the developmental phases preceding and during maturation and ripening, when high rates of lipid and carotenoid biosynthesis occur. A total of 2,629 contigs with differential representation revealed coordination of metabolic and regulatory components. Further analysis focused on the fatty acid and triacylglycerol assembly pathways and during carotenogenesis. Notably, a contig similar to the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed oil transcription factor WRINKLED1 was identified with a transcript profile coordinated with those of several fatty acid biosynthetic genes and the high rates of lipid accumulation, suggesting some common regulatory features between seeds and fruits. We also focused on transcriptional regulatory networks of the fruit, in particular those related to ethylene transcriptional and GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like proteins in the mesocarp and a central role for ethylene-coordinated transcriptional regulation of type VII ethylene response factors during ripening. Our results suggest that divergence has occurred in the regulatory components in this monocot fruit compared with those identified in the dicot tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fleshy fruit model. PMID:21487046

  13. Marine carotenoids and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Riccioni, Graziano

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the etiology of many diseases. Dietary phytochemical products, such as bioactive food components and marine carotenoids (asthaxantin, lutein, β-carotene, fucoxanthin), have shown an antioxidant effect in reducing oxidative markers stress. Scientific evidence supports the beneficial role of phytochemicals in the prevention of some chronic diseases. Many carotenoids with high antioxidant properties have shown a reduction in disease risk both in epidemiological studies and supplementation human trials. However, controlled clinical trials and dietary intervention studies using well-defined subjects population have not provided clear evidence of these substances in the prevention of diseases. The most important aspects of this special issue will cover the synthesis, biological activities, and clinical applications of marine carotenoids, with particular attention to recent evidence regarding anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22363224

  14. Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Riccioni, Graziano

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the etiology of many diseases. Dietary phytochemical products, such as bioactive food components and marine carotenoids (asthaxantin, lutein, β-carotene, fucoxanthin), have shown an antioxidant effect in reducing oxidative markers stress. Scientific evidence supports the beneficial role of phytochemicals in the prevention of some chronic diseases. Many carotenoids with high antioxidant properties have shown a reduction in disease risk both in epidemiological studies and supplementation human trials. However, controlled clinical trials and dietary intervention studies using well-defined subjects population have not provided clear evidence of these substances in the prevention of diseases. The most important aspects of this special issue will cover the synthesis, biological activities, and clinical applications of marine carotenoids, with particular attention to recent evidence regarding anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22363224

  15. Regulatory Network of Secondary Metabolism in Brassica rapa: Insight into the Glucosinolate Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pino Del Carpio, Dunia; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Arends, Danny; Lin, Ke; De Vos, Ric C. H.; Muth, Dorota; Kodde, Jan; Boutilier, Kim; Bucher, Johan; Wang, Xiaowu; Jansen, Ritsert; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa studies towards metabolic variation have largely been focused on the profiling of the diversity of metabolic compounds in specific crop types or regional varieties, but none aimed to identify genes with regulatory function in metabolite composition. Here we followed a genetical genomics approach to identify regulatory genes for six biosynthetic pathways of health-related phytochemicals, i.e carotenoids, tocopherols, folates, glucosinolates, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Leaves from six weeks-old plants of a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population, consisting of 92 genotypes, were profiled for their secondary metabolite composition, using both targeted and LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics approaches. Furthermore, the same population was profiled for transcript variation using a microarray containing EST sequences mainly derived from three Brassica species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The biochemical pathway analysis was based on the network analyses of both metabolite QTLs (mQTLs) and transcript QTLs (eQTLs). Co-localization of mQTLs and eQTLs lead to the identification of candidate regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols and glucosinolates. We subsequently focused on the well-characterized glucosinolate pathway and revealed two hotspots of co-localization of eQTLs with mQTLs in linkage groups A03 and A09. Our results indicate that such a large-scale genetical genomics approach combining transcriptomics and metabolomics data can provide new insights into the genetic regulation of metabolite composition of Brassica vegetables. PMID:25222144

  16. Structural Confirmation of a Unique Carotenoid Lactoside, P457, in Symbiodinium sp. Strain nbrc 104787 Isolated from a Sea Anemone and its Distribution in Dinoflagellates and Various Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Wakahama, Takahiro; Laza-Martínez, Aitor; Bin Haji Mohd Taha, Ahmad Iskandar; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Kiyohito; Kogame, Kazuhiro; Awai, Koichiro; Kawachi, Masanobu; Maoka, Takashi; Takaichi, Shinichi

    2012-12-01

    The molecular structure of the carotenoid lactoside P457, (3S,5R,6R,3'S,5'R,6'S)-13'-cis-5,6-epoxy-3',5'-dihydroxy-3-(β-d-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucosyl)oxy-6',7'-didehydro-5,6,7,8,5',6'-hexahydro-β,β-caroten-20-al, was confirmed by spectroscopic methods using Symbiodinium sp. strain NBRC 104787 cells isolated from a sea anemone. Among various algae, cyanobacteria, land plants, and marine invertebrates, the distribution of this unique diglycosyl carotenoid was restricted to free-living peridinin-containing dinoflagellates and marine invertebrates that harbor peridinin-containing zooxanthellae. Neoxanthin appeared to be a common precursor for biosynthesis of peridinin and P457, although neoxanthin was not found in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. Fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates did not possess peridinin or P457; green dinoflagellates, which contain chlorophyll a and b, did not contain peridinin, fucoxanthin, or P457; and no unicellular algae containing both peridinin and P457, other than peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, have been observed. Therefore, the biosynthetic pathways for peridinin and P457 may have been coestablished during the evolution of dinoflagellates after the host heterotrophic eukaryotic microorganism formed a symbiotic association with red alga that does not contain peridinin or P457. PMID:27009990

  17. Carotenoid-dependent signals and the evolution of plasma carotenoid levels in birds.

    PubMed

    Simons, Mirre J P; Maia, Rafael; Leenknegt, Bas; Verhulst, Simon

    2014-12-01

    Sexual selection has resulted in a wide array of ornaments used in mate choice, and such indicator traits signal quality honestly when they bear costs, precluding cheating. Carotenoid-dependent coloration has attracted considerable attention in this context, because investing carotenoids in coloration has to be traded off against its physiological functions; carotenoids are antioxidants and increase immunocompetence. This trade-off is hypothesized to underlie the honesty of carotenoid-dependent coloration, signaling the "handicap" of allocating carotenoids away from somatic maintenance toward sexual display. Utilizing recent advances in modeling adaptive evolution, we used a comparative approach to investigate the evolution of plasma carotenoid levels using a species-level phylogeny of 178 bird species. We find that the evolutionary optimum for carotenoid levels is higher in lineages that evolved carotenoid-dependent coloration, with strong attraction toward this optimum. Hence, carotenoids do not appear to be limiting, given that higher carotenoid levels readily evolve in response to the evolution of carotenoid-dependent coloration. These findings challenge the assumption that carotenoids are a scarce resource and thus also challenge the hypothesis that physiological resource value of carotenoids underlies honesty of carotenoid-dependent traits. Therefore, the comparative evidence suggests that other factors, such as the acquisition and incorporation of carotenoids, are involved in maintaining signal honesty. PMID:25438174

  18. Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthetic Genes in Germinating Arabidopsis Seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Kubasek, WL; Shirley, BW; McKillop, A; Goodman, HM; Briggs, W; Ausubel, FM

    1992-01-01

    Many higher plants, including Arabidopsis, transiently display purple anthocyanin pigments just after seed germination. We observed that steady state levels of mRNAs encoded by four flavonoid biosynthetic genes, PAL1 (encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1), CHS (encoding chalcone synthase), CHI (encoding chalcone isomerase), and DFR (encoding dihydroflavonol reductase), were temporally regulated, peaking in 3-day-old seedlings grown in continuous white light. Except for the case of PAL1 mRNA, mRNA levels for these flavonoid genes were very low in seedlings grown in darkness. Light induction studies using seedlings grown in darkness showed that PAL1 mRNA began to accumulate before CHS and CHI mRNAs, which, in turn, began to accumulate before DFR mRNA. This order of induction is the same as the order of the biosynthetic steps in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results suggest that the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is coordinately regulated by a developmental timing mechanism during germination. Blue light and UVB light induction experiments using red light- and dark-grown seedlings showed that the flavonoid biosynthetic genes are induced most effectively by UVB light and that blue light induction is mediated by a specific blue light receptor. PMID:12297632

  19. Spectroscopic Studies of Carotenoid-to-Bacteriochlorophyll Energy Transfer in LHRC Photosynthetic Complex from Roseiflexus castenholzii

    SciTech Connect

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz; Collins, Aaron M.; LaFountain, Amy M.; Enriquez, Miriam M.; Frank, Harry A.; Blankenship, R. E.

    2010-06-14

    Carotenoids present in the photosynthetic light-harvesting reaction center (LHRC) complex from chlorosome lacking filamentous anoxygenic phototroph, Roseiflexus castenholzii were purified and characterized for their photochemical properties. The LHRC from anaerobically grown cells contains five different carotenoids, methoxy-keto-myxocoxanthin, γ-carotene, and its three derivatives, whereas the LHRC from aerobically grown cells contains only three carotenoid pigments with methoxy-keto-myxocoxanthin being the dominant one. The spectroscopic properties and dynamics of excited singlet states of the carotenoids were studied by steady-state absorption, fluorescence and ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopy in organic solvent and in the intact LHRC complex. Time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy performed in the near-infrared (NIR) on purified carotenoids combined with steady-state absorption spectroscopy led to the precise determination of values of the energies of the S1(21Ag-) excited state. Global and single wavelength fitting of the ultrafast spectral and temporal data sets of the carotenoids in solvents and in the LHRC revealed the pathways of de-excitation of the carotenoid excited states.

  20. Carotenoid β-ring hydroxylase and ketolase from marine bacteria-promiscuous enzymes for synthesizing functional xanthophylls.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Norihiko

    2011-01-01

    Marine bacteria belonging to genera Paracoccus and Brevundimonas of the α-Proteobacteria class can produce C₄₀-type dicyclic carotenoids containing two β-end groups (β rings) that are modified with keto and hydroxyl groups. These bacteria produce astaxanthin, adonixanthin, and their derivatives, which are ketolated by carotenoid β-ring 4(4')-ketolase (4(4')-oxygenase; CrtW) and hydroxylated by carotenoid β-ring 3(3')-hydroxylase (CrtZ). In addition, the genus Brevundimonas possesses a gene for carotenoid β-ring 2(2')-hydroxylase (CrtG). This review focuses on these carotenoid β-ring-modifying enzymes that are promiscuous for carotenoid substrates, and pathway engineering for the production of xanthophylls (oxygen-containing carotenoids) in Escherichia coli, using these enzyme genes. Such pathway engineering researches are performed towards efficient production not only of commercially important xanthophylls such as astaxanthin, but also of xanthophylls minor in nature (e.g., β-ring(s)-2(2')-hydroxylated carotenoids). PMID:21673887

  1. Two distinct pathways for essential metabolic precursors for isoprenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Seto, Haruo

    2012-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a diverse group of molecules found in all organisms, where they perform such important biological functions as hormone signaling (e.g., steroids) in mammals, antioxidation (e.g., carotenoids) in plants, electron transport (e.g., ubiquinone), and cell wall biosynthesis intermediates in bacteria. All isoprenoids are synthesized by the consecutive condensation of the five-carbon monomer isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to its isomer, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The biosynthetic pathway for the formation of IPP from acetyl-CoA (i.e., the mevalonate pathway) had been established mainly in mice and the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curiously, most prokaryotic microorganisms lack homologs of the genes in the mevalonate pathway, even though IPP and DMAPP are essential for isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria. This observation provided an impetus to search for an alternative pathway to synthesize IPP and DMAPP, ultimately leading to the discovery of the mevalonate-independent 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. This review article focuses on our significant contributions to a comprehensive understanding of the biosynthesis of IPP and DMAPP. PMID:22450534

  2. Two distinct pathways for essential metabolic precursors for isoprenoid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    KUZUYAMA, Tomohisa; SETO, Haruo

    2012-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a diverse group of molecules found in all organisms, where they perform such important biological functions as hormone signaling (e.g., steroids) in mammals, antioxidation (e.g., carotenoids) in plants, electron transport (e.g., ubiquinone), and cell wall biosynthesis intermediates in bacteria. All isoprenoids are synthesized by the consecutive condensation of the five-carbon monomer isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to its isomer, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The biosynthetic pathway for the formation of IPP from acetyl-CoA (i.e., the mevalonate pathway) had been established mainly in mice and the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curiously, most prokaryotic microorganisms lack homologs of the genes in the mevalonate pathway, even though IPP and DMAPP are essential for isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria. This observation provided an impetus to search for an alternative pathway to synthesize IPP and DMAPP, ultimately leading to the discovery of the mevalonate-independent 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. This review article focuses on our significant contributions to a comprehensive understanding of the biosynthesis of IPP and DMAPP. PMID:22450534

  3. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplas...

  4. Carotenoid metabolism and regulation in horticultural crops.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Junxiang; Nageswaran, Divyashree; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors of many horticultural crops are attributed to the overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegetables. Not only do carotenoids give horticultural crops their visual appeal, they also enhance nutritional value and health benefits for humans. As a result, carotenoid research in horticultural crops has grown exponentially over the last decade. These investigations have advanced our fundamental understanding of carotenoid metabolism and regulation in plants. In this review, we provide an overview of carotenoid biosynthesis, degradation, and accumulation in horticultural crops and highlight recent achievements in our understanding of carotenoid metabolic regulation in vegetables, fruits, and flowers. PMID:26504578

  5. Carotenoid metabolism and regulation in horticultural crops

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Junxiang; Nageswaran, Divyashree; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors of many horticultural crops are attributed to the overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegetables. Not only do carotenoids give horticultural crops their visual appeal, they also enhance nutritional value and health benefits for humans. As a result, carotenoid research in horticultural crops has grown exponentially over the last decade. These investigations have advanced our fundamental understanding of carotenoid metabolism and regulation in plants. In this review, we provide an overview of carotenoid biosynthesis, degradation, and accumulation in horticultural crops and highlight recent achievements in our understanding of carotenoid metabolic regulation in vegetables, fruits, and flowers. PMID:26504578

  6. Accumulation of Rutin and Betulinic Acid and Expression of Phenylpropanoid and Triterpenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shicheng; Park, Chang Ha; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Yang, Jingli; Sung, Gyoo Byung; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Soonok; Park, Sang Un

    2015-09-30

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is used in traditional Chinese medicine and is the sole food source of the silkworm. Here, 21 cDNAs encoding phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and 21 cDNAs encoding triterpene biosynthetic genes were isolated from mulberry. The expression levels of genes involved in these biosynthetic pathways and the accumulation of rutin, betulin, and betulinic acid, important secondary metabolites, were investigated in different plant organs. Most phenylpropanoid and triterpene biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or fruit, and most genes were downregulated during fruit ripening. The accumulation of rutin was more than fivefold higher in leaves than in other organs, and higher levels of betulin and betulinic acid were found in roots and leaves than in fruit. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression levels, we speculate that MaUGT78D1 and MaLUS play important regulatory roles in the rutin and betulin biosynthetic pathways. PMID:26343778

  7. Biosynthetic Studies of Aziridine Formation in Azicemicins

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Liu, Hung-wen

    2009-01-01

    The azicemicins, which are angucycline-type antibiotics produced by the actinomycete, Kibdelosporangium sp. MJ126-NF4, contain an aziridine ring attached to the polyketide core. Feeding experiments using [1-13C]acetate or [1,2-13C2] acetate indicated that the angucycline skeleton is biosynthesized by a type II polyketide synthase. Isotope-tracer experiments using deuterium-labeled amino acids revealed that aspartic acid is the precursor of the aziridine moiety. Subsequent cloning and sequencing efforts led to the identification of the azicemicin (azic) gene cluster spanning ~50 kbp. The cluster harbors genes typical for type II polyketide synthesis. Also contained in the cluster are genes for two adenylyl transferases, a decarboxylase, an additional acyl carrier protein (ACP), and several oxygenases. On the basis of the assigned functions of these genes, a possible pathway for aziridine ring formation in the azecimicins can now be proposed. To obtain support for the proposed biosynthetic pathway, two genes encoding adenylyltransferases were overexpressed and the resulting proteins were purified. Enzyme assays showed that one of the adenylyltransferases specifically recognizes aspartic acid, providing strong evidence, in addition to the feeding experiments, that aspartate is the precursor of the aziridine moiety. The results reported herein set the stage for future biochemical studies of aziridine biosynthesis and assembly. PMID:19928906

  8. Plastid Localization of the Key Carotenoid Enzyme Phytoene Synthase Is Altered by Isozyme, Allelic Variation, and Activity[W

    PubMed Central

    Shumskaya, Maria; Bradbury, Louis M.T.; Monaco, Regina R.; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

    2012-01-01

    Plant carotenoids have unique physiological roles related to specific plastid suborganellar locations. Carotenoid metabolic engineering could enhance plant adaptation to climate change and improve food security and nutritional value. However, lack of fundamental knowledge on carotenoid pathway localization limits targeted engineering. Phytoene synthase (PSY), a major rate-controlling carotenoid enzyme, is represented by multiple isozymes residing at unknown plastid sites. In maize (Zea mays), the three isozymes were transiently expressed and found either in plastoglobuli or in stroma and thylakoid membranes. PSY1, with one to two residue modifications of naturally occurring functional variants, exhibited altered localization, associated with distorted plastid shape and formation of a fibril phenotype. Mutating the active site of the enzyme reversed this phenotype. Discovery of differential PSY locations, linked with activity and isozyme type, advances the engineering potential for modifying carotenoid biosynthesis. PMID:23023170

  9. Metabolic Profiling in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) Cultivars Reveals that Glucosinolate Content Is Correlated with Carotenoid