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Sample records for carp cyprinus carpio

  1. Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Klobucar, Göran I V; Stambuk, Anamaria; Pavlica, Mirjana; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Kutuzović Hackenberger, Branimir; Hylland, Ketil

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with genotoxicity assessment of freshwaters using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were transplanted from a fish-farm to three differently polluted sites in eastern Croatia. Two polluted sites were situated in the river Drava, downstream from the cities of Belisće and Osijek, while the reference site was in the Nature Park Kopacki rit, a preserved wetland area with limited anthropogenic influence. Exposure lasted for 3 weeks and was repeated for 3 years (2002-2004). DNA damage was assessed in erythrocytes of the exposed animals by the Comet assay and micronucleus test (MNT). In order to evaluate possible differences in stress responses to polluted water in situ and in aquaria a laboratory exposure was performed with water from the studied location in the second year of the study. Carp from the sites with high anthropogenic influence (Belisće and Osijek) had higher average DNA damage as expressed in both the MNT and Comet assay. Of the two, the Comet assay appeared to be more sensitive following both caging and aquaria exposures. The results from this study suggest that 3 weeks caging exposure of C. carpio may be a useful strategy to monitor for genotoxic agents in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:19626438

  2. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  3. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for body weight in Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) compared with mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ying; Lu, Cuiyun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Yu, Juhua; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-05-01

    We report the genetic linkage map of Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). An F1 population comprising 94 Jian carp individuals was mapped using 254 microsatellite markers. The genetic map spanned 1 381.592 cM and comprised 44 linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 6.58 cM. We identified eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body weight (BW) in seven linkage groups, explaining 12.6% to 17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Comparative mapping was performed between Jian carp and mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), which both have 50 chromosomes. One hundred and ninety-eight Jian carp marker loci were found in common with the mirror carp map, with 186 (93.94%) showing synteny. All 44 Jian carp linkage groups could be one-to-one aligned to the 44 mirror carp linkage groups, mostly sharing two or more common loci. Three QTLs for BW in Jian carp were conserved in mirror carp. QTL comparison suggested that the QTL confidence interval in mirror carp was more precise than the homologous interval in Jian carp, which was contained within the QTL interval in Jian carp. The syntenic relationship and consensus QTLs between the two varieties provide a foundation for genomic research and genetic breeding in common carp.

  4. Effects of phorbol esters in carp (Cyprinus carpio L).

    PubMed

    Becker, K; Makkar, H P

    1998-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio L) were fed diets containing phorbol esters at concentrations of 0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, 31, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 micrograms/g feed. Phorbol esters were from Jatropha curcas nuts. Jatropha curcas toxicity has been reported in humans, rodents and livestock, and phorbol esters have been identified as the main toxic agent. The adverse effects observed in carp at phorbol esters concentrations of 31 micrograms/g or higher were lower average metabolic growth rate, fecal mucus production and rejection of feed. Average metabolic growth rates (g/kg 0.8/d) in a 7-d experimental period during which diets containing phorbol esters were fed to carp (values with different letters being significantly different) were 15.4a, 14.4a, 12.5ab, 12.4ab, 10.9b, 3.4c, 0.2c, -3.8d, -4.9d and -5.6d, respectively, at the above mentioned concentrations. The values for the recovery phase of 9-d during which phorbol esters were not included in the diet were 16.0a, 15.6a, 14.9a, 15.6a, 5.3b, 1.6b, 4.6bc, 6.3bc, 7.8c and 8.2c, respectively. The adverse effects of phorbol esters were reversible since withdrawal of the esters from the diets led to gain in body mass. None of the fish died at any of the concentrations studied. Incorporation of vitamin C, an antioxidant, at levels of 0.4 and 2% in the feed did not prevent occurrence of the adverse effects of the phorbol esters. The threshold level at which phorbol esters appeared to cause adverse effects in carp was 15 micrograms/g feed or 15 ppm in the diet. Carp were highly sensitive to phorbol esters, thus making them a useful species for bioassay of these compounds. This bioassay together with other analytic procedures could be of immense use in the development of detoxification processes for agro-industrial products containing phorbol esters, such as jatropha meal or jatropha oil, and as a quality control method to monitor successive stages in industrial detoxification processes. PMID:9554059

  5. Antioxidant activity and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg).

    PubMed

    Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-09-01

    Previously, we have reported the composition, molecular mass distribution and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of common carp roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antioxidative activity and functional properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg) protein hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase, were evaluated. The three hydrolysates showed excellent antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner in various in vitro models such as 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6)-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating ability. Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased protein solubility of the hydrolysates to above 62 % over a wide pH range (2-12). Carp roe hydrolysates exhibited good foaming and emulsification properties. The results suggest that bioactive carp roe protein hydrolysates (CRPHs) with good functional properties could be useful in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. PMID:26344996

  6. Molecular characterisation of a disseminated Cryptosporidium infection in a Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Dorrestein, Gerry M; Ryan, Una

    2016-08-15

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of hosts, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in fish. Here we report a disseminated Cryptosporidium infection in a male Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio), with parasite stages identified deep within the epithelium of the intestine, kidneys, spleen, liver and gills causing severe granulomatous inflammatory lesions. Molecular characterization at two loci; 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and actin, revealed this to be a novel Cryptosporidium genotype, most closely related to Cryptosporidium molnari. PMID:27514884

  7. CORRELATIONS OF NONYLPHENOL-ETHOXYLATES AND NONYLPHENOL WITH BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) FROM THE CUYAHOGA RIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various chemical and biological measures were determined in carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled from seven sites along the Cuyahoga River, Ohio; from the relatively pristine headwaters to the lower portion heavily polluted from various industrial, urban and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Levels of n...

  8. RESPONSES OF MOLECULAR INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE IN MESOCOSMS: COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDES ALACHLOR AND ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...

  9. SNP discovery and development of genetic markers for mapping immune response genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers for susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). With the aim to de...

  10. Characterization of two thymosins as immune-related genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhangang; Shen, Jing; Feng, Hong; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yaping; Huang, Rong; Guo, Qionglin

    2015-05-01

    Prothymosin alpha (ProTα) and thymosin beta (Tβ) belong to thymosin family, which consists of a series of highly conserved peptides involved in stimulating immune responses. ProTα b and Tβ are still poorly studied in teleost. Here, the full-length cDNAs of ProTα b and Tβ-like (Tβ-l) were cloned and identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The expressions of carp ProTα b and Tβ-l exhibited rise-fall pattern and then trended to be stable during early development. After spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection, the carp ProTα b and Tβ-l transcripts were significantly up-regulated in some immune-related organs. When transiently over-expressed carp ProTα b and Tβ-l in zebrafish, these two proteins up-regulated the expressions of T lymphocytes-related genes (Rag 1, TCR-γ, CD4 and CD8α). These results suggest that carp ProTα b and Tβ may ultimately enhance the immune response during viral infection and modulate the development of T lymphocytes in teleost. PMID:25596145

  11. Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 ..mu..g/L) > embryos (240 ..mu..g/L) > adults (540 ..mu..g/L). Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 ..mu..g/L) > adult (120 ..mu..g/L) > embryo (230 ..mu..g/L). The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by ketorolac on the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Galar-Martínez, M; García-Medina, S; Gómez-Olivan, L M; Pérez-Coyotl, I; Mendoza-Monroy, D J; Arrazola-Morgain, R E

    2016-09-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketorolac is extensively used in the treatment of acute postoperative pain. This pharmaceutical has been found at concentrations of 0.2-60 µg/L in diverse water bodies around the world; however, its effects on aquatic organisms remain unknown. The present study, evaluated the oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by sublethal concentrations of ketorolac (1 and 60 µg/L) on liver, brain, and blood of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. This toxicant induced oxidative damage (increased lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxide content, and protein carbonyl content) as well as changes in antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activity) in liver and brain of carp. In blood, ketorolac increased the frequency of micronuclei and is therefore genotoxic for the test species. The effects observed were time and concentration dependent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1035-1043, 2016. PMID:25899151

  13. Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Harwanto, Dicky; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of 0.5 mg/10 μL/g body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [105±18 s (P<0.05); 52% longer than day 0] and forelimb grip strength [1.18±0.05 Newton (P<0.01); 17% greater than day 0]. The extract increased muscle mass, but had little effect on body weight. Following the swimming exercise, blood glucose, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase levels in extract-fed mice were significantly higher (145%, 131%, and 106%, respectively) than in the saline control group. Blood levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly increased (128%) in mice given the extract compared to the controls. These results suggest that leather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts. PMID:26770911

  14. NSAID-manufacturing plant effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Islas-Flores, Hariz; González-González, Edgar David; Cardoso-Vera, Jesús Daniel; Jiménez-Vargas, Juan Manuel

    2015-10-15

    The pharmaceutical industry generates wastewater discharges of varying characteristics and contaminant concentrations depending on the nature of the production process. The main chemicals present in these effluents are solvents, detergents, disinfectants - such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) - and pharmaceutical products, all of which are potentially ecotoxic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the geno- and cytotoxicity induced in the common carp Cyprinus carpio by the effluent emanating from a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-manufacturing plant. Carp were exposed to the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 0.1173%) for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and biomarkers of genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test) and cytotoxicity (caspase-3 activity and TUNEL assay) were evaluated. A significant increase with respect to the control group (p<0.05) occurred with all biomarkers from 24h on. Significant positive correlations were found between NSAID concentrations and biomarkers of geno- and cytotoxicity, as well as among geno- and cytotoxicity biomarkers. In conclusion, exposure to this industrial effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in blood of C. carpio. PMID:26026403

  15. Uptake and biological effects of synthetic glucocorticoids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kei; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Naomi; Hashizume, Naoki; Murakami, Hidekazu; Ishibashi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Hirofumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Go

    2014-08-30

    Uptake and biological effects of synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) were analyzed using common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were exposed to clobetasol propionate (CP) or clobetasone butyrate (CB) individually or in mixture at 1 μg L(-1) for 21 days. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of CB was calculated as 100, and BCF of CP was less than 16. No effects were found in fish erythrocyte and leukocyte numbers and serum glucose levels after exposure to the selected GCs. On the other hand, serum concentrations of free amino acids significantly increased in GC-exposed groups. Thus, exposures to synthetic GCs at relatively low concentrations seemed to cause enhancement of protein degradation and subsequent increase of serum free amino acids without a corresponding increase in serum glucose levels, an effect which might be related to partial induction of gluconeogenesis by GC. PMID:24492153

  16. Immunomodulation by Zearalenone in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Constanze; Junge, Ranka; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a frequent contaminant of animal feeds, but its effects on fish have not yet been investigated extensively. In order to fill this gap a feeding trial with juvenile carp was conducted. Three groups of fish were fed feeds contaminated with ZEN at three concentrations (low: 332 μg kg−1, medium: 621 μg kg−1, and high: 797 μg kg−1 feed) for four weeks. Possible reversible effects of ZEN were evaluated by feeding additional groups with the ZEN-contaminated feeds for four weeks, followed by the uncontaminated diet for two weeks. Immune function of isolated leukocytes from head kidney and trunk kidney was assessed using the assessment of NO production, the respiratory burst assay, the chemiluminescence assay, and the measurement of arginase activities. These investigations frequently revealed increased immune responses after exposure of fish to low ZEN concentrations and reduced immune responses after exposure to high mycotoxin concentrations. Moreover, the feeding of the uncontaminated diet for further two weeks did not improve the immune responses in most cases. These results indicate that cellular immune functions in ZEN-contaminated carp are influenced which may be relevant for fish health in aquaculture. PMID:26491670

  17. Immunomodulation by Zearalenone in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Constanze; Junge, Ranka; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a frequent contaminant of animal feeds, but its effects on fish have not yet been investigated extensively. In order to fill this gap a feeding trial with juvenile carp was conducted. Three groups of fish were fed feeds contaminated with ZEN at three concentrations (low: 332 μg kg(-1), medium: 621 μg kg(-1), and high: 797 μg kg(-1) feed) for four weeks. Possible reversible effects of ZEN were evaluated by feeding additional groups with the ZEN-contaminated feeds for four weeks, followed by the uncontaminated diet for two weeks. Immune function of isolated leukocytes from head kidney and trunk kidney was assessed using the assessment of NO production, the respiratory burst assay, the chemiluminescence assay, and the measurement of arginase activities. These investigations frequently revealed increased immune responses after exposure of fish to low ZEN concentrations and reduced immune responses after exposure to high mycotoxin concentrations. Moreover, the feeding of the uncontaminated diet for further two weeks did not improve the immune responses in most cases. These results indicate that cellular immune functions in ZEN-contaminated carp are influenced which may be relevant for fish health in aquaculture. PMID:26491670

  18. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) inhibits final oocyte maturation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Suravi; Das, Sumana; Moulik, Sujata Roy; Mallick, Buddhadev; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2015-01-15

    GPR-30, now named as GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) was first identified as an orphan receptor and subsequently shown to be required for estrogen-mediated signaling in certain cancer cells. Later studies demonstrated that GPER has the characteristics of a high affinity estrogen membrane receptor on Atlantic croaker and zebra fish oocytes and mediates estrogen inhibition of oocyte maturation in these two distantly related teleost. To determine the broad application of these findings to other teleost, expression of GPER mRNA and its involvement in 17β-estradiol mediated inhibition of oocyte maturation in other cyprinid, Cyprinus carpio was investigated. Carp oocytes at pre-vitellogenic, late-vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages of development contained GPER mRNA and its transcribed protein with a maximum at late-vitellogenic oocytes. Ovarian follicular cells did not express GPER mRNA. Carp oocytes GPER mRNA was essentially identical to that found in other perciformes and cyprinid fish oocytes. Both spontaneous and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P)-induced oocyte maturation in carp was significantly decreased when they were incubated with either E2, or GPER agonist G-1. On the other hand spontaneous oocyte maturation was significantly increased when carp ovarian follicles were incubated with an aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, GPER antagonist, G-15 and enzymatic removal of the ovarian follicle cell layers. This increase in oocyte maturation was partially reversed by co-treatment with E2. Consistent with previous findings with human and fish GPR30, E2 treatment in carp oocytes caused increase in cAMP production and simultaneously decrease in oocyte maturation, which was inhibited by the addition of 17,20β-P. The results suggest that E2 and GPER play a critical role in regulating re-entry in to meiotic cell cycle in carp oocytes. PMID:25485460

  19. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: a lakewide survey.

    PubMed

    Stong, Todd; Alvarado Osuna, Claudia; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; Díaz Torres, José de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River. PMID:24007438

  20. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Constanze; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Junge, Ranka

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp. PMID:26343724

  1. Effect of different river flow rates on biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Lončarić, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5-120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured - activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that different flow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels - the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary

  2. Risk-taking behaviour may explain high predation mortality of GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Duan, M; Zhang, T; Hu, W; Xie, S; Sundström, L F; Li, Z; Zhu, Z

    2013-11-01

    The competitive ability and habitat selection of juvenile all-fish GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics, in the absence and presence of predation risk, under different food distributions, were compared. Unequal-competitor ideal-free-distribution analysis showed that a larger proportion of transgenic C. carpio fed within the system, although they were not overrepresented at a higher-quantity food source. Moreover, the analysis showed that transgenic C. carpio maintained a faster growth rate, and were more willing to risk exposure to a predator when foraging, thereby supporting the hypothesis that predation selects against maximal growth rates by removing individuals that display increased foraging effort. Without compensatory behaviours that could mitigate the effects of predation risk, the escaped or released transgenic C. carpio with high-gain and high-risk performance would grow well but probably suffer high predation mortality in nature. PMID:24580661

  3. Effects of cylindrospermopsin on the phagocytic cells of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Sieroslawska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna; Adaszek, Łukasz

    2015-11-01

    Cylindrospermopsin is a cyanotoxin with cytotoxic activity. It is released into water during and after cyanobacterial water blooms and thus poses a threat to the health of fish. There is very little information available concerning the effects of the toxin on fish immune cells. In this study, we assessed the potential impact of cylindrospermopsin on the basic functions of phagocytic cells from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), including phagocytosis, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production, and the structure of microfilaments and selected cytokine expression. Phagocytic cells, isolated from fish head kidneys, were exposed to the toxin at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 or 1 µg ml(-1), for up to 24 h. Cytotoxicity, detected by lactate dehydrogenase release, was observed at the highest studied concentration. A decrease in phagocytic activity and changes in actin cytoskeletal structures were observed after the cell exposure to the toxin at 0.5 and 1 µg ml(-1). Moreover, at all tested concentrations, cylindrospermopsin increased the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. It also evidently influenced the expression of genes of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α and, to a minor extent, anti-inflammatory transforming growth factor-β, but had no effects on interleukin-10. The results indicated that the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin is able to modify basic features of carp phagocytic cells, which might result in adverse consequences for fish health. PMID:25639895

  4. Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Cold-Responsive Genes in Amur Carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus)

    PubMed Central

    He, XuLing

    2015-01-01

    The adaptation of fish to low temperatures is the result of long-term evolution. Amur carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) survives low temperatures (0-4°C) for six months per year. Therefore, we chose this fish as a model organism to study the mechanisms of cold-adaptive responses using high-throughput sequencing technology. This system provided an excellent model for exploring the relationship between evolutionary genomic changes and environmental adaptations. The Amur carp transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina platform and was assembled into 163,121 cDNA contigs, with an average read length of 594 bp and an N50 length of 913 bp. A total of 162,339 coding sequences (CDSs) were identified and of 32,730 unique CDSs were annotated. Gene Ontology (GO), EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to classify all CDSs into different functional categories. A large number of cold-responsive genes were detected in different tissues at different temperatures. A total of 9,427 microsatellites were identified and classified, with 1952 identifying in cold-responsive genes. Based on GO enrichment analysis of the cold-induced genes, “protein localization” and “protein transport” were the most highly represented biological processes. “Circadian rhythm,” “protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum,” “endocytosis,” “insulin signaling pathway,” and “lysosome” were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes induced by cold stress. Our data greatly contribute to the common carp (C. carpio) transcriptome resource, and the identification of cold-responsive genes in different tissues at different temperatures will aid in deciphering the genetic basis of ecological and environmental adaptations in this species. Based on our results, the Amur carp has evolved special strategies to survive low temperatures, and these strategies include the system-wide or tissue-specific induction

  5. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu

    2009-11-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) increases in MDA levels were found in liver, muscle, brain and spleen tissues when comparing the 0- and 24-h groups. But there was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in MDA levels in muscle, spleen and heart tissues when comparing the 24- and 48-h groups. In the group examined at 24 h, it was observed that there were statistically significant differences from the 0 h group values (P < 0.05) for catalase (CAT) activity in muscle, brain, spleen and heart tissues. The decreases in CAT activity in liver and spleen tissues were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) between the group examined at 24 h compared with the group examined at 48 h. Carp maintained good quality during the selling conditions up to 24 h. This experiment deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of

  6. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2016-06-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of diff erent dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no diff erences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with diff erent protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly aff ected by the diff erent diets (P<0.05). Weight gain, specific growth rate, and the feed conversion ratio were not diff erent in fish fed the diff erent dietary treatments. Protein efficiency ratio increased significantly as corn starch level increased (P<0.05). Whole-body crude lipid composition increased with increasing dietary corn starch level (P<0.05). Glucokinase (GK), hexokinase, and pyruvate kinase (PK) activities increased significantly with increasing dietary corn starch level (P<0.05), whereas glucose-6-phosphate (G6Pase) activity decreased with increasing dietary corn starch level (P<0.05). GK gene expression was significantly higher in fish fed the high-corn starch diet than those fed the low-corn starch diet (P<0.05). G6pase gene expression tended to decrease with increasing starch level (P>0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  7. Common carp Cyprinus carpio responses to sub-chronic exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Giari, Luisa; Vincenzi, Fabio; Badini, Simone; Guerranti, Cristiana; Dezfuli, Bahram S; Fano, Elisa A; Castaldelli, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an important and diffuse perfluorinated alkylated substance, but knowledge of the toxicological effects of this endocrine disrupter in fish is limited. Adult common carp Cyprinus carpio, L. were exposed to 200 ng/l (a concentration reported in impacted aquatic ecosystems) and 2 mg/l PFOA solutions in a flow-through system for 56 days to determine tissue accumulation and histological alterations of the primary target organs. PFOA was extracted from blood, gill, liver, muscle, kidney, gonad, and brain by an ion-pairing liquid extraction procedure and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.4 ng/g wet weight (ww). PFOA was not detectable in unexposed fish or in fish exposed to 200 ng/l, but was >LOD in most samples of carp exposed to 2 mg/l. Mean PFOA concentration ranged from 0.5 to 65 ng/g ww, depending on the tissue, with highest levels in the blood and liver. There were no significant differences in condition factor, hepato-somatic index, or gonado-somatic index among the fish of the three groups. Histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical staining was performed on sections of liver and gonad. Occurrence of atretic oocytes and a paucity of spermatozoa were documented in carp treated with 2 mg/l PFOA. Exposed fish did not show gross hepatic anomalies, but there was enhancement of hepatocytes in proliferation (positive to anti-PCNA antibody) compared to controls. PMID:27107988

  8. Dispersion of the invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio in southern South America: changes and expectations, westward and southward.

    PubMed

    Crichigno, S; Cordero, P; Blasetti, G; Cussac, V

    2016-07-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio possess multiple traits that contribute to their success as an invasive species. They have been introduced across the globe, and abundant populations can have numerous negative effects. Although ecological niche-based modelling techniques have been used to predict the potential range of C. carpio invasion in U.S.A., occurrence and abundance patterns have not yet been considered on a regional scale. In the present review new locations are documented, the status of the southernmost population has been studied and the probability of new lakes and reservoirs being colonized by C. carpio has been obtained and related to environmental conditions. The new localities for C. carpio have expanded its distribution westward, into the Andean Region, and present results from the South American southernmost population have shown a well-established population. Analysis of presence data provided two principal results: (1) the probability of a site being with C. carpio can be inferred using environmental variables and (2) the probability of a site being with C. carpio is a useful tool for the prediction of future invasions. Selective fishing on the Negro basin could constitute a potential mitigation measure, decreasing the abundance of the species and thus reducing the species' potential for southward expansion. These results reinforce the idea that artisanal fisheries, food production and conservation interests should be taken into account by local government management agencies in any discussion regarding the southern distribution of C. carpio in the near future. PMID:27095064

  9. In vivo effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) on innate immune responses of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Constanze; Michel, Christian; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most important members of Fusarium toxins since it often can be found in relevant concentrations in animal feeds. The effects of this group of toxins on fish are mostly unknown. The present study shows results from a feeding trial with carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using three different concentrations of DON (352μgkg(-1), 619μgkg(-1), and 953μgkg(-1) final feed, respectively) which are comparable to levels found in commercial fish feeds. Effects on growth and mass of fish were not observed during this 6weeks lasting experiment. Only marginal DON concentrations were found in muscle and plasma samples. Blood parameters were not influenced although smaller erythrocytes occurred in fish treated with 352μgkg(-1) DON. Analysis of antioxidative enzymes in erythrocytes showed increased superoxid dismutase and catalase activities in fish fed the low-dose feed. Immunosuppressive effects of DON were confirmed whereby cytotoxic effects on immune cells only partly explained the impairment of innate immune responses. Exact polarization of the immune system into pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses due to DON exposure should be clarified in further experiments, especially since the current results raise concern about impaired immune function in fish raised in aquaculture. PMID:24650758

  10. Physiological and molecular responses in brain of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following exposure to tributyltin.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2016-03-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), as antifouling paints, is widely present in aquatic environment, but little is known regarding the toxicity of TBT on fish brain. In this study, the effects of exposure to TBT on the antioxidant defense system, Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase activity, neurological enzymes activity and Hsp 70 protein level in brain of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (5, 10 and 20 μg/L) for 7 days. Based on the results, with increasing concentrations of TBT, oxidative stress was apparent as reflected by the significant higher levels of oxidative indices, as well as the significant inhibition of all antioxidant enzymes activities. Besides, the activities of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Monoamine oxidases (MAO) and Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase were significantly inhibited after exposure to TBT with higher concentrations. In addition, the levels of Hsp 70 protein were evaluated under TBT stress with dose-depended manner. These results suggest that selected physiological responses in fish brain could be used as potential biomarkers for monitoring residual organotin compounds present in aquatic environment. PMID:25761124

  11. Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoungcheun; Duong, Cuong Ngoc; Cho, Jaegu; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Kyungtae; Seo, Youngrok; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Yoon, Junheon

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT). Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain) were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100 nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200 μg/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200 μg/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50 μg/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms. PMID:23093839

  12. Molecular characterization of Shewanella and Aeromonas isolates associated with spoilage of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Agüeria, Daniela; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Yeannes, Maria I; Figueras, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Storage in ice is a common way of preserving commercial fish species but some microorganisms can still contaminate and participate in the spoilage of the product; therefore, identification of potential harmful microbes is important. Thirteen colonies were isolated from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that had been stored in ice, whose phenotypic identification revealed that they belonged to the genera Aeromonas (n = 5) and Shewanella (n = 8). Molecular genotyping with ERIC-PCR showed clonality only among two of the five Aeromonas isolates and for two groups (n = 3; n = 2) of the eight Shewanella isolates. Sequencing the rpoD gene showed that four Aeromonas isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas salmonicida and one to A. sobria. Of the eight Shewanella, seven isolates cluster with Shewanella putrefaciens and one with Shewanella profunda in the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree. However, analysis of the gyrB gene showed that these eight isolates could constitute a new species closely related to S. baltica. The Shewanella and A. salmonicida isolates produce off-odours and reduce trimethylamine oxide, indicating that they might contribute to the spoilage of the fish. PMID:25790506

  13. Dexamethasone action on caudal fin regeneration of carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Ochandio, B S; Bechara, I J; Parise-Maltempi, P P

    2015-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the prolonged use of corticoids can delay the healing process, affecting re-epithelialization, neovascularization and collagen synthesis. As the fins of teleost fish contain a large amount of collagen, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dexamethasone (anti-inflammatory and glucocorticoid steroid widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases) during the regeneration process in the caudal fin of specimens of carp (Cyprinus carpio). For such, two glass aquaria were used - one for a group of fish treated with dexamethasone (Henrifarma) in a 20 mg/L concentration and the other for the control group. The caudal fins were amputated transversally and fish remained in their respective aquaria until regeneration occurred. Samples of regenerating fins were collected on days 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 after amputation. The fins in the control group regenerated normally and grew within the expected in time course. The fins in the group treated with dexamethasone were significantly smaller in comparison to the control group at every evaluation time. Thus, it was possible to verify that, at this concentration of dexamethasone, the regeneration of the caudal fins was delayed, but not completely inhibited. The results show that the caudal fin is a good model for histological studies on regeneration and the action of drug toxicity, but it's also of great importance the interaction with further studies for a better knowledge and understanding of all the changes in all the phases. PMID:26132030

  14. Light microscopic characterization of glycoconjugates in secretory cells of the carp (Cyprinus carpio) gill epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, J; Velasco, A; Sánchez Aguayo, I; Amores, P

    1987-01-01

    Secretory products of granular and mucous cells in the gill epithelium of the carp, Cyprinus carpio, were distinguished by their cytochemical reactions with peroxidase-labelled lectins and with the galactose oxidase (GO)-Schiff reagents. Secretory products of granular cells reacted with lectins from Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Glycine max (SAB), and Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA). They also reacted with GO-Schiff reagents. After sialic acid cleavage with HCl, new binding sites for DBA and SBA appeared, suggesting the terminal sequence sialic acid-N-acetylgalactosamine (SA-GalNAc) for the secretion of this cell type. In mucous cells, binding sites for WGA, DBA, and SBA and, after acid hydrolysis, binding sites for PNA and a positive GO-Schiff reaction were detected. The terminal trisaccharide sialic acid-galactose (beta 1-3)-N-acetylgalactosamine (SA-Gal-GalNAc) is proposed for the secretion of mucous cells. These cytochemical differences are discussed in light of the involvement of both cell types in fish mucus elaboration. PMID:2449406

  15. Microsatellite DNA marker analysis of genetic diversity in wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Dayu; Kang, Dahai; Yin, Qianqian; Sun, Xiaowen; Liang, Liqun

    2007-11-01

    Thirty microsatellite loci were used for analyzing six wild populations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Observed (H(o)) and expected (H(e)) heterozygosity values, polymorphic information content (PIC), and number of effective alleles (A(e)) were all detected. Genetic similarity index and genetic distance were computed based on the allele frequency. The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was checked according to the test of chi2. Genetic differentiation and hierarchical partition of genetic diversity were evaluated by F(ST) and N(m). A clustering dendrogram was made based on the results of UPGMA methods using the PHYLIP software package (version 3.63). There were totally 8,136 fragments ranging from 125 bp to 414 bp in length. Three to thirteen alleles were amplified in 30 loci and 210 alleles in all six populations. The average number of alleles in each locus was seven. The result showed that 1) the level of genetic variability was moderate in the six populations. Polymorphic information contents of the six wild common carp populations were 0.44, 0.52, 0.53, 0.57, 0.63, and 0.64 respectively. Effective alleles were from 1.04 to 4.72, the average numbers in each population were 2.19, 2.60, 2.42, 2.43, 2.45, and 2.33. The average expected heterozygosity values were 0.50, 0.59, 0.56, 0.56, 0.57, and 0.54 respectively; 2) the highest genetic similarity index that came from the populations of BR and ZL was 0.8511 and the lowest index was 0.6688, and it came from the populations of BR and HN. There was a correlation between the clustering result and the geographical distribution. PMID:18037135

  16. The effect of extenders, cryoprotectants and cryopreservation methods on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm.

    PubMed

    Irawan, Henky; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong; Nimrat, Subuntith

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various extenders, cryoprotectants and cryopreservation methods on post-thaw sperm motility and duration of sperm motility in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We focused on freezing of common carp sperm utilizing a practical and inexpensive protocol for aquaculture. Sperm were diluted 1:1 in one of six extenders (common carp sperm extenders; CCSE 1-CCSE 6) containing three types of cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO, methanol; MET and propylene glycol; PG) at a final concentration of 10%, and frozen at a rate of 10°C/min from an initial temperature 25 to -40°C before storage in liquid nitrogen. The results demonstrated that sperm diluted with CCSE 2 and DMSO had the best post-thaw motility (94.5 ± 3.3%), similar to that of the control (98.6 ± 0.7%; P>0.05). Duration of sperm motility from a treatment with CCSE 2 and DMSO (97 ± 20.8s) was not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of the control (73.3 ± 12.9s). A second experiment studied the effects of various cryopreservation methods on post-thaw sperm motility and duration of sperm motility, based on using CCSE 2 and DMSO in all treatments. Sperm were frozen using different cryopreservation methods: direct immersion into liquid nitrogen, controlled-rate programmable freezer, or exposure to liquid nitrogen vapor at different heights and time. Sperm frozen at a height of 2 cm above liquid nirogen surface for 10 min gave the highest post-thaw sperm motility (91.7 ± 7.8%) and longest duration of post-thaw sperm motility (105.7 ± 23.1s). Sperm frozen 2 cm above liquid nitrogen surface for 10 min produced the highest fertilization and hatching rate of about 73.6 ± 6.5% and 62.8 ± 5.9%, respectively, not significant different (P>0.05) from those of fresh sperm (75.6 ± 7.5% and 66.5 ± 4.8%, respectively). This study reports superior performance of the combination of CCSE 2 and DMSO for freezing common carp sperm that resulted in high

  17. Alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kate M; Minter, Larry J; Lewbart, Gregory A; Harms, Craig A; Griffith, Emily H; Posner, Lysa P

    2014-12-01

    Fish are commonly anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate), a sodium-channel-blocker used as an immersion anesthetic, but its mechanism of action as a general anesthetic is uncertain. Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid that acts at the GABA(A) receptors. Alfaxalone has been evaluated and was deemed successful as an immersion agent in koi carp. Alfaxalone is an effective intramuscular anesthetic in multiple species. A reliable intramuscular anesthetic in fish would be useful in multiple settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic agent in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). Eight koi carp were utilized in a crossover design. In each trial, six fish received 1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, or 10mg/kg of alfaxalone intramuscularly. They were assessed every 15 min for opercular rate and sedation score. The sedation score was based on a visual scale from 0 to 5, 0 indicating no response and 5 indicating absent righting reflex and anesthesia. Anesthetized koi were placed on a fish anesthesia delivery system (FADS). Time to anesthesia/recovery was recorded and heart rate was recorded every 15 min. Anesthesia was achieved in 0/6, 1/6, and 5/6 fish at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Duration of anesthesia for one fish at 5 mg/kg was 2 hr. At 10 mg/kg, median anesthesia duration was 6.5 (3-10) hr. At 10 mg/kg, prolonged apnea (2-3 hr) was observed in 3/6 fish, 2/3 died under anesthesia, and 1/3 recovered 10 hr post-injection. Median peak sedation scores were 1.5, 2.5, and 5, at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. A dosage of 10 mg/kg alfaxalone resulted in 33% mortality. The duration of anesthesia and opercular rate were unpredictable. Due to variation in response despite consistent conditions, as well as risk of mortality, intramuscular alfaxalone cannot be recommended for anesthesia in koi carp. PMID:25632673

  18. Short and long-term exposure to diclofenac alter oxidative stress status in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Vence, Karinne; Dublán-García, Octavio; López-Martínez, Leticia Xochitl; Morachis-Valdes, Gabriela; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) has been detected in significant amounts in municipal treated wastewater effluent. Diverse studies report that trace concentrations of DCF may induce toxic effects on different aquatic organisms as well as developmental, reproductive and renal damage. This study aimed to determine whether short and long-term exposure to DCF alter the oxidative stress (OS) status in blood, muscle, gills, brain and liver of common carp Cyprinus carpio. The median lethal concentration of DCF at 96 h (96-h LC50) and subsequently the lowest observed adverse effect level were determined. Carp were exposed (short and long-term) to the latter value for different exposure times (4 and 24 days) and the following biomarkers were evaluated in gill, brain, liver and blood: hydroperoxides content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Also, the DCF was determined by LC-MS/MS. Significant increases in HPC, LPX and PCC were observed respect to control (P < 0.05) particularly in blood, muscle, gill, brain and liver. SOD, CAT and GPx activity also increased in these organs, with respect to controls (P < 0.05). DCF concentrations decreased and increased in water system and carp, respectively. Cyprinus carpio exposed to DCF was affected in OS status during the initial days of the study (at 4 days), exhibiting an increased response at 24 days in blood and liver. In contrast, a decrease was observed in muscle, gills and brain at 24 days with respect to 4 days. In conclusion, DCF induces OS on blood, muscle, gills, brain and liver in the carp C. carpio in short and long-term exposure. The biomarkers employed in this study are useful in the assessment of the environmental impact of this agent on aquatic species. PMID:25512029

  19. Acute exposure to the biopesticide azadirachtin affects parameters in the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara D; Leitemperger, Jossiele W; Flores-Lopes, Fábio; Menezes, Charlene C; Loebens, Luisa; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Rizzetti, Tiele M; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania L

    2016-02-01

    The biopesticide, azadirachtin (Aza) is less hazardous to the environment, but may cause several toxic effects in aquatic organisms. The Cyprinus carpio (n=12, for all concentrations) after 10days of acclimation under controlled conditions, were exposed at 20, 40, and 60μL/L of Aza during 96h. After this period, fish were anesthetized and euthanized then mucus layer and gills collected. In this study, the effects of exposure to different Aza concentrations were analysed through a set of biomarkers: Na(+)/K(+-)ATPase, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) and histological parameters and, yet, protein and glucose concentration in the surface area of mucous layer. Na(+)K(+-)ATPase was inhibited at 40 and 60μL/L compared to control. TBARS decreased at 40μL/L compared to control. PC, SOD and GST increased at 60μL/L in comparison to control. CAT increased at 20 and 60μL/L, and GPx increased in all Aza concentrations compared to control. NPSH decreased and AsA increased in all concentrations in comparison to control. Histological analyses demonstrated an increase in the intensity of the damage with increasing Aza concentration. Alterations in histological examination were elevation and hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the secondary filament, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous and chlorate cells and lamellar aneurism. Glucose and protein concentrations in mucus layer increased at 60μL/L compared to control. In general, we suggest that 60μL/L Aza concentration affected several parameters causing disruptions carp metabolism. PMID:26689640

  20. Acclimation temperature alters the relationship between growth and swimming performance among juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Pang, Xu; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-09-01

    Individual variation in growth, metabolism and swimming performance, their possible interrelationships, and the effects of temperature were investigated in 30 juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two acclimation temperatures (15 and 25°C). We measured body mass, critical swimming speed (Ucrit), resting metabolic rate (RMR), active metabolic rate (AMR) and metabolic scope (MS) twice (28days apart) in both temperature groups. Fish acclimated to 25°C showed a 204% higher specific growth rate (SGR) than those acclimated to 15°C due to a 97% higher feeding rate (FR) and a 46% higher feed efficiency (FE). Among individuals, SGR was positively correlated with the FR and FE at both low and high temperatures. All measured variables (Ucrit, RMR and AMR) related to swimming except MS showed a high repeatability after adjusting for body mass (mass-independent). Fish acclimated to 25°C had a 40% higher Ucrit compared with 15°C acclimated fish, which was at least partially due to an improved metabolic capacity. AMR showed a 97% increase, and MS showed a 104% parallel increase with the higher acclimation temperature. Residual (mass-independent) Ucrit was positively correlated with residual RMR, AMR and MS, except for the residual RMR at high temperature. When acclimated to the lower temperature, both the residual and absolute Ucrit were negatively correlated with FR and FE and, hence, with SGR, suggesting a functional trade-off between growth and locomotion in fish acclimated to low temperatures. However, when acclimated to the higher temperature, this trade-off no longer existed; absolute Ucrit was positively correlated with SGR because individuals with rapid growth exhibited greatly increased body mass. The higher metabolic capacity at 25°C showed a positive effect on both swimming performance and growth rate (because of improved digestive efficiency) under the high-temperature condition, which we did not anticipate. Overall, these results indicate that temperature

  1. Comparison of methods to improve induction of spermiation in wild-caught carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), a threatened species from the Caspian Sea basin.

    PubMed

    Vazirzadeh, Arya; Farhadi, Ahmad; Naseri, Mahmood; Jeffs, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Wild carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) forms the basis of an important fishery in the Southern Caspian Sea Basin which is increasingly underpinned by the release of cultured juveniles. A significant bottleneck to hatchery-rearing of juveniles is the spermiation of male broodstock. Therefore, four approaches to improving spermiation were investigated. The effectiveness of two delivery methods for the sustained release of salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (sGnRHa; i.e., via intramuscular cholesterol pellet vs emulsion injection) on the spermiation success and duration, sperm quality and quantity over 14days in wild-caught carp were compared to single injection of sGnRHa with Pimozide(®) (Linpe method) or carp pituitary extract (CPE). The consequence of the spermiation treatments on resulting embryonic quality was evaluated for subsequent fertilization and hatching success from wild male carp (mean weight±S.D. 1021±112g). All hormonal treatments, except for Linpe method, led to 100% spermiation of treated fish compared to only 25% in the control with no hormone intervention. The duration of spermiation, as well as the various quantitative variables of the sperm and the mean total sperm production were all generally improved with the sustained hormone delivery compared with the acute treatments. The GnRHa-FIA was the most effective method for improving spermiation. PMID:27133180

  2. Development and characterization of new single nucleotide polymorphism markers from expressed sequence tags in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuankun; Cheng, Lei; Tong, Jingou; Yu, Xiaomu

    2012-01-01

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an important aquaculture fish worldwide but only limited single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are characterized from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in this species. In this study, 1487 putative SNPs were bioinformatically mined from 14,066 online ESTs mainly from the European common carp, with the occurrence rate of about one SNP every 173 bp. One hundred and twenty-one of these SNPs were selected for validation using PCR fragment sequencing, and 48 out of 81 primers could amplify the expected fragments in the Chinese common carp genome. Only 26 (21.5%) putative SNPs were validated, however, 508 new SNPs and 68 indels were identified. The ratios of transitions to transversions were 1.77 for exon SNPs and 1.05 for intron SNPs. All the 23 SNPs selected for population tests were polymorphic, with the observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranging from 0.053 to 0.526 (mean 0.262), polymorphism information content (PIC) from 0.095 to 0.357 (mean 0.246), and 21 SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These results suggest that different common carp populations with geographic isolation have significant genetic variation at the SNP level, and these new EST-SNP markers are readily available for genetics and breeding studies in common carp. PMID:22837697

  3. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 μmol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 μmol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE-inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

  4. Establishment and characterization of fin-derived cell line from ornamental carp, Cyprinus carpio koi, for virus isolation in India.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, T Raja; Basheer, V S; Kumar, Raj; Kathirvelpandian, A; Sood, Neeraj; Jena, J K

    2015-08-01

    Cyprinus carpio koi fin (CCKF) cell line was established and characterized from the caudal fin tissue of ornamental common carp, C. carpio koi. This cell line has been maintained in L-15 medium supplemented with 15% foetal bovine serum (FBS) and subcultured more than 52 times over a period of 24 mo. The CCKF cell line consisted of epithelial cells and was able to grow at temperatures between 22 and 35°C with an optimum temperature of 28°C. The growth rate of these cells increased as the proportion of FBS increased from 2 to 20% with optimum growth at the concentrations of 15% FBS. Karyotype analysis revealed that the modal chromosome number of CCKF cells was 2n = 100. Partial amplification and sequencing of fragments of two mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA and COI confirmed that CCKF cell line originated from ornamental common carp. The CCKF cells showed strong reaction to the cytokeratin marker, indicating that it was epithelial in nature. The extracellular products of Vibrio cholerae MTCC 3904 and Aeromonas hydrophila were toxic to the CCKF cells and not susceptible to viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV). These CCKF cells were confirmed for the absence of Mycoplasma sp. by polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, 90% of viable cells could be effectively revived 4 mo after cryopreservation from CCKF cell population suggesting the possibility of long-term storage of the cells. PMID:25990269

  5. Characterization and immune response expression of the Rig-I-like receptor mda5 in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y Y; Xing, W X; Shan, S J; Zhang, S Q; Li, Y Q; Li, T; An, L; Yang, G W

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the full-length complementary (c)DNA of common carp Cyprinus carpio melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (mda5) was cloned. The complete open reading frame of C. carpio mda5 contained 2982 bp and encodes 993 amino acids. The deduced amino acids contained six functional domains: two caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARD), a conserved restriction domain of bacterial type III restriction enzyme (ResIII), a DExD/H box-containing domain (DEXDc), a helicase super family C-terminal domain (HELICc) and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). The mda5 gene was expressed in all tested tissues, with high levels in the gills and spleen, while lower expressed in gonad and blood. The copy numbers of mda5 were increased in the liver, spleen, head kidney and the mucosal-associated immune tissues such as the foregut, hindgut, gills and skin after stimulation with polyinosinic polycytidylic [poly(I:C)] and Aeromonas hydrophila. The myxovirus resistance gene (mx) messenger (m)RNA levels in the spleen, head kidney, foregut and gills were significantly up-regulated after poly(I:C) injection. When injected with poly(I:C), mda5 and mx transcripts were also significantly induced in vitro. These results implied that mda5 might be involved in both antiviral and antibacterial innate immune processes in C. carpio. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. PMID:27108774

  6. Tissue-specific bioconcentration of the synthetic steroid hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Steele, W Baylor; Garcia, Santos N; Huggett, Duane B; Venables, Barney J; Barnes, Sid Edwin; La Point, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    The steroid hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), commonly used in oral and injectable contraceptives, has been detected in surface and wastewaters near urban and agricultural areas in several rivers of the world. The objectives of this study were to examine the accumulative potential and tissue distribution of MPA in fish. A freshwater species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), was exposed to 100 μg/L of MPA for a 7-day period followed by a depuration phase in which fish were maintained in dechlorinated tap water for an additional 7 days. Tissues (muscle, brain, plasma, and liver) were sampled during the uptake (days 1, 3, and 7) and depuration (day 14) phases of the experiment. Tissue-specific bioconcentration factors (BCF) ranged from 4.3 to 37.8 and uptake was greatest in the liver>brain>plasma and lowest in the muscle. From a regulatory standpoint, MPA shows little tendency to bioaccumulate in fish. PMID:24161818

  7. Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) from United States Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    A nationwide reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 to develop and evaluate a suite of reproductive and endocrine biomarkers for their potential to assess reproductive health and status in teleost (bony) fish. Fish collections were made at 119 sites, representing many regions of the country and land- and water-use settings. Collectively, this report will provide a national and regional benchmark and a basis for evaluating biomarkers of endocrine and reproductive function. Approximately 2,200 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and 650 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were collected from 1994 through 1997. The suite of biomarkers used for these studies included: the plasma sex-steroid hormones, 17?-estradiol (E2) and 11 ketotestosterone (11KT); the ratio of E2 to 11KT (E2:11KT); plasma vitellogenin (VTG); and stage of gonadal development. This data report provides fish size, stage and reproductive biomarker data for individual fish and for site and regional summaries of these variables.

  8. The in vitro effect of temperature on motility and antioxidant response of common carp Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Dadras, Hadiseh; Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Cosson, Jacky; Golpour, Amin; Dzyuba, Borys

    2016-07-01

    The effect of temperature on Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa in vitro was investigated with spermatozoa activated at 4, 14, and 24°C. At 30s post-activation, motility rate was significantly higher at 4°C compared to 14 and 24°C, whereas highest swimming velocity was observed at 14°C. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) content was significantly higher at 14°C and 24°C than at 4°C in motile spermatozoa. No significant differences in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity relative to temperature were observed. This study provides new information regarding effect of temperature on lipid peroxidation intensity and spermatozoon motility parameters in carp. The elevation of TBARS seen at higher temperatures could be due to inadequate capacity of antioxidant enzymes to protect the cell against the detrimental effects of oxidative stress induced by higher temperatures. PMID:27264890

  9. Substrate specificity of proteolytic activity in the testes fluid and seminal plasma of the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cejko, B I; Słowińska, M; Judycka, S; Kowalski, R K

    2016-05-01

    Substrate specificity in the seminal plasma and testes fluids of the common carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using gelatin, casein, albumin and haemoglobin. Proteolytic profiles of the testes and seminal plasma were compared. Different ranges of pH (5·5-9·5) and temperature (4-37° C) were used during incubations of seminal plasma proteinases. Differences in proteolytic activity between testes and seminal plasma may reflect specific functions of the testes and sperm ducts in semen production. Seminal plasma metalloproteinases were characterized by higher substrate specificity than were serine proteinases. Zymography optimization for seminal plasma indicated that pH 7·5 and 22° C were the optimal conditions for gel incubations. PMID:27001550

  10. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/) and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection. PMID:27092486

  11. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Infected with Flavobacterium columnare.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/) and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection. PMID:27092486

  12. Involvement of the mitfa gene in the development of pigment cell in Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, J H; Wen, S; Luo, C; Zhang, Y Q; Tao, M; Wang, D W; Deng, S M; Xiao, Y M

    2015-01-01

    A colored phenotype is an important feature of ornamental fish. In mammals, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) was found to regulate the development of melanocytes. In this study, the mitfa cDNA was first cloned from the Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), an important ornamental freshwater fish. The full-length cDNA of the mitfa gene contains 1634 bp, coding for 412 amino acids in Koi. The identity degree of mitfa amino acid sequences between the Koi carp and zebrafish is 92.9%. We tested the expression of the mitfa gene in several varieties of Koi using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and found that the mitfa gene is highly expressed in the skin tissues of the Taisho sanke and the Procypris merus. Interestingly, the mitfa gene was also expressed in the Kohaku and Yamabaki ogon, although melanocytes were not observed in the skin. Koi carp embryos were transparent and colorless, while after hatching, different types of pigment cells successively emerged in a fixed order. In Taisho sanke, melanocytes first appeared in the trunk at approximately 12 days of age. Subsequently, there was a large area of melanocytes by 30 days of age. The expression level of the mitfa mRNA was low in early embryos and newly hatched larvae, and increased to high levels in 30-day-old fry. The results show that the mitfa gene is involved in regulating fish body color in the development of both melanocytes and pigment cells. PMID:25867426

  13. Differential responses to environmental challenge by common carp Cyprinus carpio highlight the importance of coping style in integrative physiology.

    PubMed

    Rey, S; Ribas, L; Morera Capdevila, D; Callol, A; Huntingford, F A; Pilarczyk, M; Kadri, S; MacKenzie, S

    2016-03-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio displaying proactive or reactive stress coping styles were acclimated to two environmental regimes (low oxygen and low temperature), and selected groups were tested for response to an inflammatory challenge (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Plasma glucose and lactate levels were measured, as were selected C. carpio-specific messenger (m)RNA transcript abundance, including cortisol receptor (CR), enolase (ENO), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and interleukin-1-beta (IL1β) was measured in individual whole brain samples. Basal levels (in sham injected fish held in normoxic conditions at 25° C) of plasma lactate and glucose differed between coping styles, being significantly lower in proactive individuals. Both variables increased in response to LPS challenge, with the exception of plasma glucose in reactive fish held in hypoxia. Baseline levels of gene expression under control conditions were significantly different for GAPDH between behavioural phenotypes. The responses to experimental challenge were sometimes diametrically opposed between stress-coping styles in a transcript-specific manner. For CR and GAPDH, for example, the response to LPS injection in hypoxia were opposite between proactive and reactive animals. Proactive fish showed decreased CR and increased GAPDH, whereas reactive showed the opposite response. These results further highlight that screening for stress-coping styles prior to experiments in adaptive physiology can significantly affect the interpretation of data obtained. Further, this leads to a more finely tuned analytical output providing an improved understanding of variation in individual responses to both environmental and inflammatory challenge. PMID:26762295

  14. Identification and expression of the laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 gene in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cao, X L; Chen, J J; Cao, Y; Nie, G X; Wan, Q Y; Wang, L F; Su, J G

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 gene (lgp2) from common carp Cyprinus carpio was isolated and characterized. The full-length complementary (c)DNA of lgp2 was 3061 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 680 amino acids, with an estimated molecular mass of 77 341·2 Da and a predicted isoelectric point of 6·53. The predicted protein included four main overlapping structural domains: a conserved restriction domain of bacterial type III restriction enzyme, a DEAD-DEAH box helicase domain, a helicase super family C-terminal domain and a regulatory domain. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed widespread expression of lgp2, mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (mavs) and interferon transcription factor 3 (irf3) in tissues of nine organs. lgp2, mavs and irf3 expression levels were significantly induced in all examined organs by infection with koi herpesvirus (KHV). lgp2, mavs and irf3 messenger (m)RNA levels were significantly up-regulated in vivo after KHV infection, and lgp2 transcripts were also significantly enhanced in vitro after stimulation with synthetic, double-stranded RNA polyinosinic polycytidylic [poly(I:C)]. These findings suggest that lgp2 is an inducible protein involved in the innate immune defence against KHV in C. carpio. These results provide the basis for further research into the role and mechanisms of lgp2 in fishes. PMID:25359511

  15. [Population genetic variation and structure analysis on five populations of mirror carp Cyprinus carpio L. using microsatellites].

    PubMed

    Quan, Ying-Chun; Li, Da-Yu; Cao, Ding-Chen; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Liang, Li-Qun

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, population genetic variability and genetic structure of five populations of an important cultivation species, mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were analyzed using 30 microsatellite loci. The observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity values, polymorphic information content (PIC) and number of effective alleles (Ae) were all determined. The genetic similarity coefficient and Nei's standard genetic distance were computed based on the allele frequencies. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was checked by chi2 test. Genetic differentiation and hierarchical partition of genetic diversity were evaluated by FST and Nm. A dendrogram was constructed based on UPGMA methods using PHYLIP software package supported by a bootstrap value of 91.0%. Totally 7,083 fragments were procured. Their lengths were from 102 bp to 446 bp. For each locus, 1-16 alleles were amplified, adding up to 356 alleles in all the 5 populations. We found the genetic variability level was relatively high in all five populations, as shown by Ae = 1.07-2.30, He= 0.70-0.78 and PIC=0.69-0.75, respectively. The genetic similarity coefficients were all above 0.52, indicating their close genetic relationships. The UPGMA phylogenetic tree showed mirror carps sampled from Donggang, Fengcheng and Liaozhong were clustered into one group and the other two populations, both collected from Songpu, were grouped together. There were obvious relations between genetic distances and geographical distributions of the five populations. No fragments were amplified from some loci of EST-SSRs, which may suggest the loss of these loci in mirror carp genome or sequence divergence at the primer binding sites. These null alleles may result from selection because functional genes are under more selection pressure than non-encoding loci. Overall, population genetic variation is high for each of the five mirror carp, and the differentiations are also significant among populations. PMID:17138540

  16. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissues, sediment and water from fish farm along the Karoun River in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Maktabi, Payvand; Javaheri Baboli, Mehran; Jafarnejadi, Ali Reza; Askary Sary, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    The Karoun River is major source of water for warm‌water fish culture industry in southwest of Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of mercury in tissues of marketable common carp and in bottom sediments of fish farms in Khouzestan province. This study was carried out on 45 fish farms that are located on the bank of the Karoun River in Khouzestan province, south-west Iran. Concentration of mercury (Hg) was determined using spectrophotometery in three tissues (muscles, liver and gills) of farmed common carp (Cyprinus carpio), water and bottom sediments of fish farms collected from three regions (North, center and south) of the Karoun River, in Khouzestan province, Iran. The concentrations of Hg in muscle tissue (2.71 mg kg-1 dry matter) of fish from the south were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than from the other two sites. In the center and south sampling zones, Hg concentration in muscle was found to be above the maximum tolerable values provided by Food and Drug Administration standards. The Hg concentration of fish farm sediment and water samples were ranged as 0.46 to 0.48 mg kg-1 dry matter and 3.10 to 4.11 μg Hg L-1, respectively. Finally, Hg concentrations at downstream site were higher than upstream site. PMID:26893811

  17. The dietary wood betony, Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl extract as a growth promoter and immune enhancer in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami Babaheydari, S; Paykan Heyrati, F; Akhlaghi, M; Dorafshan, S

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of wood betony (WB), Stachys lavandulifolia extract on growth performance and some immune responses in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Different concentrations of the WB extract 0, 2, 4 and 8% (g per 100 g of diet) were added to commercial diet. Each treatment was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish having average initial weight of 44 ± 0.62 g for 10 weeks. The results showed that final weight, food conversion ratio, specific growth rate and condition factor were significantly improved by WB in a dose dependent manner, where the best growth parameters were achieved in the group of fish receiving the highest concentration of WB (P<0.05). Feeding fish at 2 and 4% W/W by WB in the diet improved lysozyme activity, ACH50 and IgM levels significantly in comparison to the control (P<0.05). Group of fish fed on 4% WB in the diet had the best levels of the immune characteristics (P<0.05). Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to feed common carp with WB to improve growth and non-specific immunity. PMID:27175131

  18. The response of thyroid hormones, biochemical and enzymological biomarkers to pyrene exposure in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Shirdel, Iman; Kalbassi, Mohammad Reza; Shokri, Milad; Olyaei, Roya; Sharifpour, Issa

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are discharged into aquatic environments through anthropogenic activities mainly industrial and municipal effluents. There is little information on the adverse effects of pyrene, a member of the PAH family which is classified as a priority pollutant by the USEPA, on fish biochemical and physiological endpoints, particularly thyroid hormones. The present study investigated the effects of subacute semi-static pyrene exposure on biochemical, enzymological and ionoregulatory responses as well as thyroid hormones in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish (140±10g, 1(+) year) were exposed to 10, 50 and 100µg/l nominal concentrations of pyrene for 35 days. The results revealed that pyrene at these concentrations significantly altered plasma levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Moreover, plasma thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were significantly decreased in fish exposed to pyrene. In contrast, plasma electrolytes (sodium, potassium and calcium) levels remained statistically unchanged after exposure to the various pyrene concentrations. In conclusion, the studied biomarkers may be used as monitoring tools to evaluate pyrene toxicity. Pyrene induced diverse effects on the physiological endpoints of common carp, thus this chemical should be considered in toxicity studies concerning PAHs. Furthermore, this study confirmed that there was an interaction between pyrene and the thyroid system in fish. Therefore, the thyroid system may be used to assess the impact of pyrene on fish. PMID:27123973

  19. Biochemical responses over time in common carp Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) during fed supplementation with α-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Enamorado, Alain D; Martins, Atila C; Flores, Juliana A; Tesser, Marcelo Borges; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G; Monserrat, José Maria

    2015-10-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of lipoic acid (LA) supplementation (439.84±6.71 mg LA/kg feed) on antioxidants responses throughout the time in intestine, liver and muscle of juvenile common carp Cyprinus carpio. Two experimental groups were fed during four weeks with a diet with or without LA. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, glutathione (GSH) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were evaluated in these organs. Also, a technique to measure protein disulfide bonds and sulfhydryl groups was optimized for intestine samples. GST activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in intestine after two weeks of supplementation. GSH content was also significantly higher (p<0.05) in intestine, liver and muscle of fish fed with LA after two and three weeks, respectively. Total capacity antioxidant against peroxyl radicals was significantly increased (p<0.05) in the muscle of animals fed with LA after the fourth week. Concentration of disulfide bonds was higher in the intestine of fish fed with LA but this group also showed higher concentration of sulfhydryl groups (p<0.05). It is concluded that supplementation with LA is a safe strategy to induce antioxidant responses and improves the antioxidant status in different organs of common carp. Two week of supplementation are required to induce antioxidant responses in intestine and liver and three week for muscle. PMID:26037328

  20. Antimicrobial resistance and its genetic determinants in aeromonads isolated in ornamental (koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Cízek, Alois; Dolejská, Monika; Sochorová, Radana; Strachotová, Katerina; Piacková, Veronika; Veselý, Tomás

    2010-05-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. isolates from common carp and koi carp coming from randomly chosen farms. The isolates were tested for susceptibility to 8 antimicrobial agents using the standard agar dilution susceptibility test. In all isolates, PCR was used to detect the presence of tet(A-E) genes, integrase genes, and gene cassettes. From the total 72 isolates of motile aeromonads sampled from koi carp, 36 isolates (50%) were resistant to oxytetracycline, 18 (25%) to ciprofloxacin, 5 (7%) to chloramphenicol, 5 (7%) to florfenicol, and 11 (15%) to trimethoprim. Among 49 isolates of motile aeromonads collected from common carp, 20 (41%) were resistant to oxytetracycline, 3 (6%) to chloramphenicol, and 3 (6%) to florfenicol. The resistance of aeromonads isolated from koi carp was significantly higher to ciprofloxacin (P=0.00024). The presence of class 1 integrons was detected in these isolates only (P=0.00024). Tet genes were detected in 40% (48/121) of isolates, with tet(E) being the most dominant. Our results demonstrated a significant difference in the incidence of resistant isolates collected from koi carp and common carp (P=0.00042). This difference can be ascribed to a distinct antibiotic policy established on consumer fish farms versus ornamental fish farms. The potential risk for resistant bacteria to spread and transmit infection to humans should be considered in cases of technological crossover between the two types of fish farms. PMID:19900770

  1. Threonine Affects Intestinal Function, Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression of TOR in Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Peng, Yan; Wu, Pei; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of threonine (Thr) on the digestive and absorptive ability, proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes, and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). First, seven isonitrogenous diets containing graded levels of Thr (7.4–25.2 g/kg diet) were fed to the fishes for 60 days. Second, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation were assayed by culturing enterocytes with graded levels of Thr (0–275 mg/l) in vitro. Finally, enterocytes were cultured with 0 and 205 mg/l Thr to determine protein synthesis. The percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency, protein retention value, activities of trypsin, lipase and amylase, weights and protein contents of hepatopancreas and intestine, folds heights, activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP), γ- glutamyl transpeptidase and Na+/K+-ATPase in all intestinal segments, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities in hepatopancreas, and 4E-BP2 gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestinal segments were significantly enhanced by Thr (p<0.05). However, the plasma ammonia concentration and TOR gene expression decreased (p<0.05). In vitro, Thr supplement significantly increased cell numbers, protein content, the activities of GOT, GPT, AKP and Na+/K+-ATPase, and protein synthesis rate of enterocytes, and decreased LDH activity and ammonia content in cell medium (p<0.05). In conclusion, Thr improved growth, digestive and absorptive capacity, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation, and protein synthesis and regulated TOR and 4E-BP2 gene expression in juvenile Jian carp. The dietary Thr requirement of juvenile Jian carp was 16.25 g/kg diet (51.3 g/kg protein) based on quadratic regression analysis of PWG. PMID:23922879

  2. Antibacterial efficacy and pharmacokinetic evaluation of sanguinarine in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following a single intraperitoneal administration.

    PubMed

    Ling, F; Wu, Z-Q; Jiang, C; Liu, L; Wang, G-X

    2016-08-01

    Sanguinarine (SA), with antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities against fish pathogens, exhibits great potential commercial use in aquaculture. However, little information on pharmacokinetics of SA restricts further application in aquaculture. In this study, pharmacokinetics of SA in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following a single intraperitoneal administration [10 mg kg(-1) BW (body weight)] was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peak concentration (Cmax ) of SA in kidney was 11.8 μg g(-1) , which was higher than in other tissues and plasma. The terminal half-life in fish tissue and plasma was as follows: 42.3 h (kidney) > 37.2 h (liver) > 20.1 h (gill) > 18.8 h (muscle) > 10.9 h (spleen) > 10.0 h (plasma). Additionally, we determined the bacterial loads in tissues of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila after i.p. administration of SA at 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) BW. The results showed that i.p. administration of SA at 10 mg kg(-1) BW significantly enhanced antibacterial efficacy against A. hydrophila, where the antibacterial ratio in the gill, kidney, spleen and liver on day 5 was 95.13%, 93.33%, 90.09% and 92.82%, respectively. Overall, these results suggested the potential of SA to treat A. hydrophila infection in common carp farming industry. PMID:26763075

  3. GnIH plays a negative role in regulating GtH expression in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Li, Yongming; Wang, Yaping; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    In birds and mammals, the gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) effectively inhibits the expression of gonadotrophin (GtH). In teleosts, the effects of GnIH are still unclear and under much debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the functions of GnIH/receptors of gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIHRs) system during reproduction in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. We cloned the full cDNA sequences of GnIH /GnIHRs. Real-time PCR results showed that GnIH/GnIHRs were distributed extensively across the whole hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis. We also examined the changes of GnIH/GnIHRs in the HPG axis during reproduction. GnIH mRNA expression was decreased to the minimum value in Apr, the spawning month, and increased immediately after the completion of reproduction. Expression pattern of GnIH during reproduction was the opposite to those of Gonadotrophin release hormone 3 (GnRH3) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Expression patterns of GnIHRs were similar to that of GnIH in the hypothalamus. In the pituitary, GnIHR2/3 peaked in March before spawning. In the ovaries, the GnIHR1 decreased to the minimum value in April, but GnIHR2/3 increased. By injection and incubation with synthesized GnIH-III peptide, we confirmed the negative influence of GnIH on mRNAs of the follicle-stimulating hormone-β and LH-β subunits in the common carp. These results show that the GnIH/GnIHRs system is involved in the negative regulation of reproduction in HPG axis of the common carp. PMID:27263051

  4. Effect of dietary astaxanthin against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Jagruthi, Chandrasekar; Yogeshwari, Govintharaj; Anbazahan, Sannasi Muthu; Mari, Lourthu Samy Shanthi; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Mariappan, Pitchaimuthu; Sudhakar, Gunamoni Rajam Learnal; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2014-12-01

    The effect of astaxanthin at 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) incorporated in basal feed on immune response and disease resistance in Cyprinus carpio against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. When fed with 25 mg kg(-1) diet, the cumulative mortality was 35% whereas it was 10% and 20% with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets. With all enriched diets the growth rate increased significantly from week 1 to 4 when compared with control. However, the specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not vary significantly from that of the control except with 50 mg kg(-1) diet. When fed with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets the red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values significantly increased. However, the serum total protein, albumin, and globulin contents significantly increased only when fed with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets. The phagocytic ratio also significantly raised with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets on week 2 and 4 whereas the phagocytic index significantly increased with all groups only on fourth week. The respiratory burst activity significantly increased in 25 mg kg(-1) diet group on first week whereas in 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diet groups the activity increased on weeks 2 and 4; a similar trend was observed in the anti-protease activity only on weeks 2 and 4. The serum lysozyme activity and bactericidal activity registered a significant increase with all enriched diets. This study suggests that supplementation of astaxanthin at 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet significantly promotes the growth restores hematology and modulates the immune system in C. carpio against A. hydrophila. PMID:25462460

  5. Toll-like receptors and interferon associated immune factors responses to spring viraemia of carp virus infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinxian; Li, Xiao Zheng; Zheng, Xiaocong; Jia, Peng; Wang, Jinjin; Yang, Xianle; Yu, Li; Shi, Xiujie; Tong, Guixiang; Liu, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) toll-like receptors (TLRs), antiviral agent interferon (IFN) and the effector IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) play a fundamental role in the innate immune response against viruses among all vertebrate classes. Common carp is a host for spring viraemia of carp virus (Rhabdovirus carpio, SVCV), which belong to Rhabdoviridae family. The present in-vivo experiment was conducted to investigate the expression of these innate immune factors in early phase as well as during recovery of SVCV infection by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A less lethal SVCV infection was generated in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and was sampled at 3, 6, 12 h post infection (hpi), 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post infection (dpi). At 3 hpi, the SVCV N gene was detected in all three fish and all three fish showed a relative fold increase of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR7, IFNa1, ISG15 and Vig1. Viral copies rapidly increased at 12 hpi then remained high until 5 dpi. When viral copy numbers were high, a higher expression of immune genes TLR2, TLR3, TLR7, IFNa1, IFNa2, IFNa1S, IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), IRF7, interleukin 1β (IL1β), IL6, IL10, ADAR, ISG15, Mx1, PKR and Vig1 were observed. Viral copies were gradually reduced in 5 to 10 dpi fish, and also the immune response was considerably reduced but remained elevated. A high degree of correlation was observed between immune genes and viral copy number in each of the sampled fish at 12 hpi. The quick and prolonged elevated expression of the immune genes indicates their crucial role in survival of host against SVCV. PMID:27263115

  6. Immune effects of the vaccine of live attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila screened by rifampicin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yanjing; Kong, Xianghui; Pei, Chao; Li, Li; Nie, Guoxing; Li, Xuejun

    2016-06-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila, as a strong Gram-negative bacterium, can infect a wide range of freshwater fish, including common carp Cyprinus carpio, and cause the huge economic loss. To create the effective vaccine is the best way to control the outbreak of the disease caused by A. hydrophila. In this study, a live attenuated A. hydrophila strain, XX1LA, was screened from the pathogenic A. hydrophila strain XX1 cultured on medium containing the antibiotic rifampicin, which was used as a live attenuated vaccine candidate. The immune protection of XX1LA against the pathogen A. hydrophila in common carp was evaluated by the relative percent survival (RPS), the specific IgM antibody titers, serum lysozyme activity and the expression profiles of multiple immune-related genes at the different time points following immunization. The results showed that the variable up-regulations of the immune-related genes, such as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, the chemokine IL-10 and IgM, were observed in spleen and liver of common carp injected in the vaccines with the formalin-killed A. hydrophila (FKA) and the live attenuated XX1LA. Specific antibody to A. hydrophila was found to gradually increase during 28 days post-vaccination (dpv), and the RPS (83.7%) in fish vaccinated with XX1LA, was significant higher than that (37.2%) in fish vaccinated with FKA (P<0.05) on Day 28 after challenged by pathogen. It was demonstrated that the remarkable immune protection presented in the group vaccinated with XX1LA. During the late stage of 4-week immunization phase, compared with FKA and the control, specific IgM antibody titers significantly increased (P<0.05) in the XX1LA group. The activity of the lysozyme in serum indicated no significant change among three groups. In summary, the live attenuated bacterial vaccine XX1LA, screened in this study, indicates the better protect effect on common carp against A. hydrophila, which can be applied in aquaculture of common carp to prevent from the

  7. Identification and expression analysis of the sting gene, a sensor of viral DNA, in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cao, X L; Chen, J J; Cao, Y; Nie, G X; Su, J G

    2016-05-01

    Stimulator of interferon gene (sting) was identified and characterized from common carp Cyprinus carpio. The sting messenger (m)RNA encoded a polypeptide of 402 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46·184 kDa and an isoelectronic point of 6·08. The deduced protein of sting contained a signal peptide, three transmembrane motifs in the N-terminal region and four putative motifs (RXR) found in resident endoplasmic reticulum proteins. mRNA expression of sting was present in twelve investigated tissues, and was up-regulated by koi herpesvirus (KHV) in vivo and in vitro. The transcription of sting was altered by poly(I:C) and poly(dT:dA) stimulation in vitro. The findings suggested that sting is an inducible gene involved in innate immunity against DNA- and RNA-derived pathogens. To investigate defence mechanisms in C. carpio development, sting level in embryos, larvae and juvenile fish was monitored following KHV challenge. The sting message was negligible in embryos prior to hatching, but observed at higher transcriptional levels throughout larval and juvenile stages. Investigation showed the mRNA expression profiles of genes encoding for proteins promoting various functions in the interferon pathway, from pattern recognition receptors to antiviral genes, to be significantly induced in all examined organs by in vivo infection with KHV. Following KHV infection, the ifn message was significantly downregulated in spleen, head kidney, brain and hepatopancreas but notably up-regulated in gill, intestine and skin, suggesting that ifn induction might be related to the mucosal immune system and virus anti-ifn mechanisms. These results provided the basis for further research into the role and mechanisms of sting in fishes. PMID:27001661

  8. Reduced inflammatory response to Aeromonas salmonicida infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fed with β-glucan supplements.

    PubMed

    Falco, Alberto; Frost, Patrick; Miest, Joanna; Pionnier, Nicolas; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Hoole, David

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the action of β-glucans as feed additives on the gene expression profile of some inflammatory-related cytokines from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during the early stages of a non-lethal bacterial infection with Aeromonas salmonicida. β-glucan (MacroGard(®)), was administered daily to carp (6 mg per kg body weight) in the form of supplemented commercial food pellets for 14 days prior to infection. Control and treated fish were then intraperitoneally injected with PBS or 4×10(8) bacteria per fish and were sampled at time 0 and 6h, 12h, 1 day, 3 days and 5 days post-injection. Head kidney and gut were collected and the gene expression patterns for tnfα1, tnfα2, il1β, il6 and il10 were analyzed by quantitative PCR. Results obtained showed that treatment with β-glucans generally down-regulated the expression of all measured genes when compared to their corresponding controls. After injection, highest changes in the gene expression levels were obtained at 6h; particularly, in head kidney there was higher up-regulation of tnfa1 and tnfa2 in infected fish fed β-glucans in comparison to control feed; however, in gut there was a significant down-regulation of tnfα1, tnfα2, il1β and il6 in infected fish fed β-glucans. Analysis of carp specific antibodies against A. salmonicida 30 days after injection revealed their levels were reduced in the infected β-glucan group. In conclusion, a diet supplemented with β-glucan (MacroGard(®)) reduced the gene expression levels of some inflammation-related cytokines in common carp. Such a response appears to be dependent of organ studied and therefore the immunostimulant may be preventing an acute and potential dangerous response in gut, whilst enhancing the inflammatory response in head kidney when exposed to A. salmonicida. PMID:22406448

  9. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The microbes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are of high importance for the health of the host. In this study, Roche 454 pyrosequencing was applied to a pooled set of different 16S rRNA gene amplicons obtained from GI content of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to make an inventory of the diversity of the microbiota in the GI tract. Compared to other studies, our culture-independent investigation reveals an impressive diversity of the microbial flora of the carp GI tract. The major group of obtained sequences belonged to the phylum Fusobacteria. Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Gammaproteobacteria were other well represented groups of micro-organisms. Verrucomicrobiae, Clostridia and Bacilli (the latter two belonging to the phylum Firmicutes) had fewer representatives among the analyzed sequences. Many of these bacteria might be of high physiological relevance for carp as these groups have been implicated in vitamin production, nitrogen cycling and (cellulose) fermentation. PMID:22093413

  10. Soyabean glycinin depresses intestinal growth and function in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var Jian): protective effects of glutamine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Hu, Kai; Zhang, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2015-11-28

    This study investigated the effects of glycinin on the growth, intestinal oxidative status, tight junction components, cytokines and apoptosis signalling factors of fish. The results showed that an 80 g/kg diet of glycinin exposure for 42 d caused poor growth performance and depressed intestinal growth and function of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Meanwhile, dietary glycinin exposure induced increases in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation; it caused reductions in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities; and it increased MnSOD, CuZnSOD, GPx1b and GPx4a mRNA levels, suggesting an adaptive mechanism against stress in the intestines of fish. However, dietary glycinin exposure decreased both the activity and mRNA levels of nine isoforms of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (α, μ, π, ρ, θ, κ, mGST1, mGST2 and mGST3), indicating toxicity to this enzyme activity and corresponding isoform gene expressions. In addition, glycinin exposure caused partial disruption of intestinal cell-cell tight junction components, disturbances of cytokines and induced apoptosis signalling in the distal intestines>mid intestines>proximal intestines of fish. Glycinin exposure also disturbed the mRNA levels of intestinal-related signalling factors Nrf2, Keap1a, Keap1b, eleven isoforms of protein kinase C and target of rapamycin/4E-BP. Interestingly, glutamine was observed to partially block those negative influences. In conclusion, this study indicates that dietary glycinin exposure causes intestinal oxidative damage and disruption of intestinal physical barriers and functions and reduces fish growth, but glutamine can reverse those negative effects in fish. This study provides some information on the mechanism of glycinin-induced negative effects. PMID:26349522

  11. Vitellogenesis in Archigetes sieboldi Leuckart, 1878 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Caryophyllaeidae), an intestinal parasite of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Brunanská, M; Mackiewicz, J S; Nebesárová, J

    2012-12-01

    Vitellogenesis in the caryophyllidean tapeworm Archigetes sieboldi Leuckart, 1878, from carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Slovakia, has been examined using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate (PA-TSC-SP) for glycogen. Vitelline follicles extend in two lateral bands in the medullary parenchyma along both sides of the monozoic body. They are surrounded by an external basal lamina and contain vitellocytes and an interstitial tissue. The general pattern of vitellogenesis is essentially like that of other caryophyllideans. It involves four stages: immature, early maturing, advanced maturing cells and mature vitellocytes. During vitellogenesis, a continuous increase in cell volume is accompanied by an extensive development of cell components engaged in shell globule formation, e.g. granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Shell globule clusters are membrane-bound. Nuclear and nucleolar transformation are associated with formation and storage of large amounts of intranuclear glycogen, a very specific feature of the Caryophyllidea. For the first time, (a) additional vitelline material in Archigetes is represented by lamellar bodies and (b) lipid droplets are described in the mature vitellocytes from vitelline follicles and vitelloduct of the Caryophyllidea. Our results indicate that there may be a double origin of lamellar bodies: either from the endoplasmic reticulum or through transformation of shell globule/shell globule clusters. Lamellar body clusters and some single lamellar bodies appear to have a membrane. Other ultrastructural features of vitellogenesis and/or vitellocyte in A. sieboldi from its vertebrate (fish) and invertebrate (oligochaete) hosts are briefly compared and contrasted with those in other caryophyllideans and/or Neodermata. PMID:23059891

  12. Oxidative stress and immune disturbance after long-term exposure to bisphenol A in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenhui; Chen, Jingsi; Li, Yijie; Chen, Zhong; Jiang, Lihui; Yang, Ming; Wu, Minghong

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, which poses an ecotoxicological risk to the health of aquatic organisms. However, the immunotoxic effects of its long-term exposure on fish have received limited attention. We examined a number of typical immune-related parameters and oxidative stress indices in the liver and blood serum of the red common carp (Cyprinus carpio), following a 30-day exposure to five different concentrations of BPA (0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000μg/L). A significant increase in the hepato somatic index was observed in fish upon exposure to 1000µg/L BPA, which correlated strongly with the accumulated BPA concentrations in fish bile. Induced oxidative stress was also apparent in the exposed fish liver, based on the enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation and inhibited activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Serum lysozyme and C-reaction protein levels increased at low concentrations of exposure; however, they were significantly suppressed upon exposure to high concentrations. A significant increase was observed in the levels of immunoglobulin M, complement component 3, and alkaline phosphatase, in both fish liver and serum at low doses of 0.1 and 1μg/L. This suggests that long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA (even as low as 0.1μg/L) could significantly disturb the immune response of fish. Moreover, RXRα expression in the liver was significantly altered upon BPA exposure and the trend underlying this change correlated closely with those of the most immune-related parameters, implying the involvement of the PPARγ/RXRα signaling pathway in regulating the immune response of fish upon long-term BPA exposure. In short, our results demonstrate the susceptibility of fish immune system to long-term BPA exposure. Therefore, the immunotoxicity of EDCs in aquatic organisms should not have been underestimated. PMID:27088622

  13. Expression and characterization of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its activity against type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ci; Zhan, Chun-Lan; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Du, Cui-Hong; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2014-05-10

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play essential roles in the metabolism of animal collagen while few reports are available for MMPs in aquatic animals. In this study, we report the complete sequence of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) gene from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) skeletal muscle. The full-length cDNA of MMP-2 was 2792bp which contains an open reading frame of 1974bp, corresponding to a protein of 657 amino acid residues. Based on the structural feature of MMP-2, the gene of the catalytic domain containing 351 amino acid residues was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE showed that the truncated recombinant MMP-2 (trMMP-2) with molecular mass of approximately 38kDa was in the form of inclusion body. The trMMP-2 was further purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. After renaturation, similar to native MMP-2, the trMMP-2 exhibited high hydrolyzing activity toward gelatin as appeared on gelatin zymography and optimal activity was at pH 8.0 and 40°C. The activity of the trMMP-2 was completely suppressed by metalloproteinase inhibitors, including EDTA, EGTA and 1,10-phenanthroline while other proteinase inhibitors did not show any inhibitory effect. Divalent metal ion Ca(2+) was necessary for the gelatinolytic activity, suggesting it is a calcium-dependent metalloproteinase. Moreover, the trMMP-2 effectively hydrolyzed native type I collagen at 37°C and even at 4°C, implying its potential application value as a collagenase for preparation of biologically active oligopeptides. PMID:24613299

  14. The influence of dietary β-glucan, PAMP exposure and Aeromonas salmonicida on apoptosis modulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Miest, J J; Falco, A; Pionnier, N P M; Frost, P; Irnazarow, I; Williams, G T; Hoole, D

    2012-10-01

    The association between β-glucan (MacroGard®) supplemented feed and apoptosis in immune-related organs of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied using fluorescence microscopy and real-time PCR. In addition the effect of Aeromonas salmonicida, LPS and Poly(I:C) injections on this relationship was evaluated. Whilst acridine orange staining revealed that apoptosis levels were independent of MacroGard® and LPS/Poly(I:C) administration or their combination, it was shown that injection with A. salmonicida increased the percentage of apoptotic cells irrespective of the feeding regime. It was apparent that in all the treatments gene expression profiles displayed organ and time dependency. For example no effect was observed at 7 days of MacroGard® administration while 25 days of feeding led to increased iNOS expression and differential up-regulation of anti- or pro-apoptotic genes depending on organ. This may indicate differences in NO sensitivity. MacroGard® also led to an elevation of pro- as well as anti-apoptotic genes in LPS or Poly(I:C) injected fish, while LPS/Poly(I:C) alone had little effect. A. salmonicida caused enhanced iNOS expression and it is possible that the type of apoptosis pathway induced is organ dependent as Caspase 9 is induced in mid-gut but not in pronephros. These results indicate that MacroGard® feeding alone or in combination with other pathogenic factors did not induce significant apoptosis in immune organs. PMID:23198291

  15. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp. PMID:27058731

  16. Modulative influence of lysozyme dimer on defence mechanisms in the carp (Cyprinus carpio) and European sheatfish (Silurus glanis) after suppression induced by herbicide Roundup.

    PubMed

    Terech-Majewska, E; Siwicki, A K; Szweda, W

    2004-01-01

    Immunomodulation is a commonly used method of prophylaxis in humans and animals. Lysozyme dimer (KLP-602) was used at a dose of 50 ug/kg b.w. in order to correct the immunosuppression caused by the action of herbicide glyphosate (Roundup- Monsanto), which was used in a single bath for 10 minutes in a concentration of 100 mg/l of water. The investigations were carried out on 2 species of fish: the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and european catfish (Silurus glanis L.). Herbicide glyphosate caused a decrease in metabolic and phagocytic activity (RBA and PKA) and in proliferative response stimulated by Con A and LPS in carp and european catfish. The immunosuppression sustained for about 2 weeks. The results obtained indicate the possibility of correction of immunosuppression applying lysozyme dimmer (KLP-602) after use of which, the level of the studied indexes increased. PMID:15230544

  17. (Uncommon) Mechanisms of Branchial Ammonia Excretion in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Response to Environmentally Induced Metabolic Acidosis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M; Hiroi, Junya; Wilson, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes generally increase ammonia excretion in acidic waters. The new model of ammonia transport in freshwater fish involves an association between the Rhesus (Rh) protein Rhcg-b, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), and a suite of other membrane transporters. We tested the hypothesis that Rhcg-b and NHE3 together play a critical role in branchial ammonia excretion in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to a low-pH environment. Carp were exposed to three sequential environmental treatments-control pH 7.6 water (24 h), pH 4.0 water (72 h), and recovery pH 7.6 water (24 h)-or in a separate series were simply exposed to either control (72 h) or pH 4.0 (72 h) water. Branchial ammonia excretion was increased by ∼2.5-fold in the acid compared with the control period, despite the absence of an increase in the plasma-to-water partial pressure NH3 gradient. Alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in the gills of fish exposed to pH 4 versus control water, suggesting that ammonia may be generated in gill tissue. Gill Rhcg-b and NHE3b messenger RNA levels were significantly elevated in acid-treated relative to control fish, but at the protein level Rhcg-b decreased (30%) and NHE3b increased (2-fold) in response to water of pH 4.0. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, NHE3b and Rhcg-b were found to be colocalized to ionocytes along the interlamellar space of the filament of control fish. After 72 h of acid exposure, Rhcg-b staining almost disappeared from this region, and NHE3b was more prominent along the lamellae. We propose that ammoniagenesis within the gill tissue itself is responsible for the higher rates of branchial ammonia excretion during chronic metabolic acidosis. Unexpectedly, gill Rhcg-b does not appear to be important in gill ammonia transport in low-pH water, but the strong induction of NHE3b suggests that some NH4(+) may be eliminated directly in exchange for Na(+). These findings contrast with previous studies in larval zebrafish

  18. Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) disturbs osmotic balance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)--A potential cause of mortality.

    PubMed

    Negenborn, J; van der Marel, M C; Ganter, M; Steinhagen, D

    2015-06-12

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) causes a fatal disease in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi varieties which seriously affects production and trade of this fish species globally. Up to now, the pathophysiology of this disease remains unclear. Affected individuals develop most prominent lesions in gills, skin and kidney, in tissues which are involved in the osmotic regulation of freshwater teleosts. Therefore, here serum and urine electrolyte levels were examined during the course of an experimental infection of carp with CyHV-3. In infected carp an interstitial nephritis with a progressive deterioration of nephric tubules developed, which was paralleled by elevated electrolyte losses, mainly Na(+) in the urine. The urine/plasma ratio for Na(+) increased from 0.03 in uninfected carp to 0.43-0.83 in carp under CyHV-3 infection, while concentration of divalent ions were not significantly changed. These electrolyte losses could not be compensated since plasma osmolality and Na(+) concentration dropped significantly in CyHV-3 infected carp. This was most probably caused by the progressive deterioration of the branchial epithelium, which in teleosts plays a prominent role in osmoregulation, and which was seen concomitantly with decreasing electrolyte levels in the serum of carp under CyHV-3 infection. Immediately after infection with CyHV-3, by day 2 post exposure, affected carp showed severe anaemia and prominent leucocytosis indicating the development of an acute inflammation, which could intensify the observed hydro-mineral imbalances. The data presented here show that an infection with CyHV-3 induces an acute inflammation and a severe dysfunction of osmoregulation in affected carp or koi, which may lead to death in particular in the case of acute disease progression. PMID:25888311

  19. Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringø, Einar

    2014-10-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3%) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (SEM 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3% FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies. PMID:25313574

  20. Thermophile-fermented compost as a fish feed additive modulates lipid peroxidation and free amino acid contents in the muscle of the carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryusuke; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Shigeta, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Masakazu; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Matsushita, Teruo

    2016-05-01

    Recently, a compost fermented with marine animals with thermophilic Bacillaceae in a clean and exclusive process at high temperature was reported as a possible feed additive to improve the healthy balance in sea fish and mammals (i.e., pigs and rodents). Here, the effects of the oral administration of the compost on the muscle and internal organs of carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a freshwater fish model were investigated. The fatty acid composition was different in the muscle of the carp fed with or without the compost extract, but there was little difference in the hepatopancreas. The accumulation of triacylglycerols, cholesterol, lipid peroxide and hydroxyl lipids decreased in the muscle after the oral administration of the compost extract in the carps over 12 weeks, but the accumulation did not always decrease in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, free-radical-scavenging activities and the concentrations of free amino acids in the muscle did not always increase and was dependent on the dose of the compost at 12 weeks. The scavenging activities and part of free amino acid levels in the muscle of the carp were improved at 24 weeks after a high dose of compost exposure, and then the survival rates of the carp were maintained. Thus, the oral administration of thermophile-fermented compost can prevent peroxidation and increase the content of free amino acids in the muscle of the freshwater fish, depending on the dose and term of the administration, and may be associated with the viability of the fish. PMID:26702954

  1. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    PubMed

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2016-04-01

    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource. PMID:27007291

  2. SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...

  3. Temperature and species-specific effects on ß3-adrenergic receptor cardiac regulation in two freshwater teleosts: Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Petersen, L H; Burleson, M L; Huggett, D B

    2015-07-01

    β₃-adrenergic receptors (AR) are important in teleost cardiovascular regulation. To date, it is unknown whether temperature acclimation changes ß₃-AR functionality and consequently the involvement of this AR subtype in teleost cardiac regulation. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were acclimated at 12 °C or 23 °C (minimum 3 weeks) after which cardiovascular variables (cardiac output (Q), stroke volume (Sv) and heart rate (fH)) were measured upon injection of the ß₃-AR agonist, BRL(37344), and antagonist, SR(59230A). In both 12 °C and 23 °C acclimated carp, BRL(37344) induced significant increases in fH and Q whereas Sv was significantly decreased. While temperature did not affect the change (increase vs. decrease) in cardiac variables, the magnitude and on-set of responses differed. For instance, fH, Sv and Q responded significantly faster to ß₃-AR stimulation in 23 °C carp. In contrast, maximum responses of fH and Q were significantly higher in 23 °C carp whereas the maximum response of Sv was significantly greater in 12 °C carp. These findings suggest that temperature acclimation induced changes in β₃-AR receptor functionality (e.g. density and/or affinity). Stimulation of β₃-ARs in 23 °C acclimated channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) caused significant increases in fH, Sv and Q. The increase in Sv was opposite to the decrease observed in 23 °C acclimated common carp. SR(59230A) induced significant decreases in Sv and Q but had no effect in carp (23 °C). Results suggest species diversity in the density and affinity or structure of ß₃-ARs which may explain the different cardiac responses to ß₃-AR ligands. PMID:25882086

  4. Innate immune response against an oomycete pathogen Aphanomyces invadans in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a fish resistant to epizootic ulcerative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Manoj K; Pradhan, Pravata K; Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Verma, Dev K; Chauhan, U K; Punia, Peyush; Jena, Joy K

    2016-03-01

    Infection with Aphanomyces invadans, also known as epizootic ulcerative syndrome, is a destructive disease of freshwater and brackishwater fishes. Although more than 130 species of fish have been confirmed to be susceptible to this disease, some of the commercially important fish species like common carp, milk fish and tilapia are reported to be resistant. Species that are naturally resistant to a particular disease, provide a potential model to study the mechanisms of resistance against that disease. In the present study, following experimental infection with A. invadans in common carp Cyprinus carpio, sequential changes in various innate immune parameters and histopathological alterations were monitored. Some of the studied innate immunity parameters viz. respiratory burst, alternative complement and total antiproteases activities of the infected common carp were higher compared to control fish, particularly at early stages of infection. On the other hand, some parameters such as myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and alpha-2 macroglobulin activities were not altered. Histopathological examination of the muscle at the site of injection revealed well developed granulomas at 12 days post infection, with subsequent regeneration of muscle fibers. From the results, it could be inferred that innate defense mechanisms of common carp are able to neutralize the virulence factors secreted by A. invadans, thereby, preventing its invasive spread and containing the infection. The results obtained here will help to better understand the mechanisms underlying resistance against A. invadans infection. PMID:26739655

  5. Characterization, expression and antibacterial properties of apolipoproteins A from carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Mariola A; Adamek, Mikołaj; Bilińska, Barbara; Hejmej, Anna; Steinhagen, Dieter; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Apolipoproteins A are multifunctional proteins that, in addition to contributing to lipid metabolism and transport, are associated with the innate immune system in fish. Using a three step isolation procedure consisting of affinity chromatography on Blue-Sepharose, delipidation and reverse phase HPLC we isolated apolipoproteins from carp seminal plasma and identified them as ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa. Moreover, we provided the full-length cDNA sequence of ApoA-I encoding 257 amino acids including a 18 amino acid signal peptide and a 4 amino acid propeptide. Apolipoproteins corresponded to the most abundant proteins in carp seminal plasma. Both ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa were represented by several proteoforms that differ both in molecular mass and isoelectric point. The proteoforms of ApoA-I characteristic for seminal plasma were distinguished from those of blood. Carp seminal plasma ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa showed a high immunologic similarity to their counterparts in carp blood and seminal plasma of other Cyprinid species. The mRNA expression analysis and immunohistochemical study suggest synthesis and secretion of ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa in the fish reproductive tract and suggest a role in spermatogenesis and the stabilization of sperm membrane. Moreover, ApoA-I displayed bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriostatic activity against Aeromonas hydrophila which suggests that ApoA-I is associated with innate immune system of the fish reproductive tract. PMID:25251775

  6. Antioxidant properties of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Justyna; Darewicz, Małgorzata; Vegarud, Gerd E; Minkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The presence of specific peptides with antioxidant properties released during carp protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysis by human/porcine digestive enzymes, respectively, was examined. Based on the results of the in silico data analysis, antioxidant peptides were selected for subsequent identification in the digests/hydrolysates. Carp proteins were more resistant to hydrolysis by porcine enzymes than by human digestive juices. The sarcoplasmic proteins were hydrolyzed faster than the myofibrillar ones by both human/porcine enzymes. The in vitro myofibrillar protein hydrolysate showed the highest ABTS(+) scavenging activity (∼232.3 TEAC, μM Trolox/g), whereas the ex vivo hydrolysate of sarcoplasmic proteins showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity (∼88μM/g) and reducing power. Five antioxidant peptides were identified in carp protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysates: FIKK, HL, IY, PW, VY. The peptide HL from myofibrillar proteins was identified only in the ex vivo hydrolysate, whereas the peptide PW from sarcoplasmic proteins was identified only in the in vitro hydrolysate. PMID:26471617

  7. Reproductive responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed in cages to influent of the Las Vegas Wash in Lake Mead, Nevada, from late winter to early spring.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Erin M; Snyder, Shane A; Kelly, Kevin L; Gross, Timothy S; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Villalobos, Sergio A; Giesy, John P

    2004-12-01

    The Las Vegas Wash (LW) delivers tertiary-treated municipal wastewater effluent, nonpotable shallow groundwater seepage, and runoff from the urbanized Las Vegas Valley to Las Vegas Bay (LX) of Lake Mead. To investigate the potential for contaminants in LW influent to produce effects indicative of endocrine disruption in vivo, adult male and female common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed in cages for 42-48 d at four sites in Lake Mead: LW, LX, and two reference locations in the lake. End points examined included gonadosomatic index; gonad histology; concentrations of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) and plasma sex steroids (17beta-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT)); plasma estrogen:androgen ratios (E2:T, E2:11-KT), in vitro production of T by gonad tissue, and hepatopancreas ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity. Few differences among fish caged at different sites were potentially attributable to exposure to contaminants PMID:15597896

  8. Effect of certain toxicants on gonadotropin-induced ovarian non-esterified cholesterol depletion and steroidogenic enzyme stimulation of the common carp Cyprinus carpio in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, D.; Guha, D.; Kumar, V. )

    1992-06-01

    Isolated ovarian tissues from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio were incubated in vitro to obtain a discrete effect of four common toxicants of industrial origin, namely phenol, sulfide, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride, on gonadotropin-induced alteration of nonesterified and esterified cholesterol and steroidogenic enzymes, delta 5-3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activity. Stage II ovarian tissue containing 30-40% mature oocytes were shown to be most responsive to gonadotropins in depleting only nonesterified cholesterol moiety and stimulating the activity of both. Safe doses of above mentioned toxicants when added separately to stage II ovarian tissue with oLH (1 microgram/incubation) gonadotropin-induced depletion of nonesterified cholesterol and gonadotropin-induced stimulation of the activity of both enzymes was significantly inhibited. Esterified cholesterol remained almost unaltered. Findings clearly indicate the impairment of gonadotropin induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis by the four toxicants separately.

  9. Effect of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride and vitamin B complex on the haematological parameters of cadmium treated common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Kaviraj, A; Das, B K

    1995-01-01

    Effect of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride and vitamin B complex on the haematological parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio were markedly influenced by a treatment of 2.5 mg/l Cd in the laboratory for 96 hours. Hb% and ESR values were increased but the RBC and PCV values were reduced. Treatment of KMnO4 (1 mg/l) or CoCl2 (2 mg/l) induced a further reduction of RBC of the Cd treated fish. But parameters like PCV, MCV and MCH of Cd treated fish were not affected by the treatment of KMnO4 and CoCl2. Intramuscular injection of vitamin B complex did not produce any impact on ESR and MCV values of the Cd treated exposed fish but most of the other parameters of such fish were found comparable to control indicating that vitamin B complex could counteract Cd to reduce its ill effect. PMID:8580524

  10. Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of

  11. Relations between and among contaminant concentrations and biomarkers in black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from large U.S. rivers, 1995-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental contaminant and biomarker monitoring data from major U.S. river basins were summarized for black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled over a nine year period. Cumulative frequency distributions revealed taxon differences for many organochlorine residue concentrations, elemental contaminant concentrations, and biomarkers, but few gender differences were evident for chemical concentrations. Concentrations of dacthal, pentachloroanisole, p,p???-DDE, endosulfan sulfate, barium, cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, selenium, vanadium, and zinc were greater in carp than bass, but concentrations of mercury and magnesium were greater in bass. Gender differences were evident in bass for mercury and in carp for zinc, but the differences were small compared to taxon differences. Greater vitellogenin concentrations, 17??-estradiol concentrations, 17??-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, and percent oocyte atresia in female carp compared to female bass may be related to the sequential spawning of carp. Regression analyses indicated that as much as 78% of biomarker variation was explained by chemical contaminant concentrations. Sites grouped consistently by river basin in the chemical contaminant principal components analysis (PCA) models and were driven by mercury, magnesium, barium, mirex, and oxychlordane. PCA models for the biomarkers did not group the sites by basin for either bass or carp. Statistical analyses and data interpretation were limited by the study design. The implications of these limitations are discussed. Recommendations to be considered during the planning of future monitoring studies include the exclusion of gender- and species-specific sampling for certain chemical contaminants considering analytical methods with appropriate sensitivities; and allowing for the addition of new chemical and biological variables as methods and information needs evolve. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Metabolic capacities of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following combined exposures to copper and environmental hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Malekpouri, Pedram; Peyghan, Rahim; Mahboobi-Soofiani, Nasrollah; Mohammadian, Babak

    2016-05-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, a decline in water O2 level is the main factor that can release heavy metal ions from top sediment layer. Therefore, hypoxia in turn, and in association with heavy metals might provide undesirable environment and impairs physiological functions of aquatic animals. To address this, metabolic capacities, including standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and factorial aerobic scope (FAS) of common carp were determined following exposures to different levels of water-borne Cu(2+) as well as hypoxia. Treatments for Cu(2+) were included: 100% (acute), 50% (sub-lethal) and 10% (chronic) of LC50-96h for immediately, 24h and 7 days exposures respectively. Hypoxia treatments were assigned as acute for immediately, sub-lethal for 24h and chronic for 7 days. Combined effects of treatments were also considered as acute Cu(2+)+hypoxia, sub-lethal Cu(2+)+hypoxia and chronic Cu(2+)+hypoxia. While SMR of carp was reduced by chronic hypoxia, significant (P<0.05) increase was observed during acute hypoxia, as compared with control. The MMR and AS were significantly reduced (P<0.05) following all hypoxia treatments. The acute and chronic Cu(2+) treatments showed significant (P<0.05) increases in SMR and MMR values. All acute and sub-lethal combined treatments showed significant (P<0.05) reductions in SMR, MMR and AS values, whilst chronic combined treatments showed generally increasing trends for MMR and AS. PCrit was relatively reduced following all treatments except for acute and sub-lethal Cu(2+)-treated fish that showed higher value (P<0.05) and no change respectively. Although all Cu(2+) treatments increased the number of mucus cell, hypoxia treatments did not show any remarkable differences when compared with control group. In general, the results of present study reveal that hypoxia acts as limiting stressor whilst Cu(2+) do act as loading stressors in the case of common carp metabolism. The interactive exposures

  13. QTL mapping for economically important traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Lashari, Punhal; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Xin, Baoping; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were analyzed for three economically important traits, i.e., body weight (BW), body length (BL), and body thickness (BT), in an F1 family of common carp holding the 190 progeny. A genetic linkage map spanning 3,301 cM in 50 linkage groups with 627 markers and an average distance of 5.6 cM was utilized for QTL mapping. Sixteen QTLs associated with all three growth-related traits were scattered across ten linkage groups, LG6, LG10, LG17, LG19, LG25, LG27, LG28, LG29, LG30, and LG39. Six QTLs for BW and five each for BL and BT explained phenotypic variance in the range 17.0-32.1%. All the nearest markers of QTLs were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) related with the trait. Among these QTLs, a total of four, two (qBW30 and qBW39) related with BW, one (qBL39) associated with BL, and one (qBT29) related to BT, were found to be the major QTLs with a phenotypic variance of >20%. qBW30 and qBW39 with the nearest markers HLJ1691 and HLJ1843, respectively, show significant values of 0.0038 and 0.0031, correspondingly. QTLs qBL39 and qBT29 were found to have significant values of 0.0047 and 0.0015, respectively. Three QTLs (qBW27, qBW30, qBW39) of BW, two for BL (qBL19, qBL39), and two for BT (qBT6, qBT25) found in this study were similar to populations with different genetic backgrounds. In this study, the genomic region controlling economically important traits were located. These genomic regions will be the major sources for the discovery of important genes and pathways associated with growth-related traits in common carp. PMID:25078056

  14. Does serotonin-modulating anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) influence the choice of turning direction in carps, Cyprinus carpio, in a T-maze?

    PubMed

    Garina, D V; Nepomnyashchikh, V A; Mekhtiev, A A

    2016-08-01

    Serotonin-modulating anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) can impair the formation of memory traces in mammals and fish. We have studied the influence of SMAP on behavioral lateralization of juvenile carps Cyprinus carpio in a T-maze without food reinforcement in three experimental groups (n = 8 each): (1) negative control (intact animals); (2) experimental group (fish injected ICV with SMAP; 2 μl, 1.2 mg ml(-1)) and (3) active control group (fish injected ICV with inactivated SMAP). The behavioral lateralization of carps was observed on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th days after the injections. In each observation session, a fish was placed five times in a start chamber of the T-maze. The direction of the turn upon leaving the start chamber, as well as the latency from the opening of start chamber flap to the fish's turn was registered. The number of right turns (of all five turns observed during the session) was a criterion of lateralization. It was found that carps have no inherent preference for turning left or right. The SMAP injection did not influence the choice of turning direction, but increases latency values insignificantly. The results are important for the correct interpretation and clarification of data reporting the role of SMAP in training and formation of spatial memory of fish in a maze. PMID:26874505

  15. Quality changes and predictive models of radial basis function neural networks for brined common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Kong, Chunli; Wang, Huiyi; Li, Dapeng; Zhang, Yuemei; Pan, Jinfeng; Zhu, Beiwei; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-06-15

    To investigate and predict quality of 2% brined common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets during frozen storage, free fatty acids (FFA), salt extractable protein (SEP), total sulfhydryl (SH) content, and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were determined at 261 K, 253 K, and 245 K, respectively. There was a dramatic increase (P<0.05) in FFA and a sharp decrease (P<0.05) in SH at 261 K during the first 3 weeks. SEP decreased to 67.31% after 17 weeks at 245 K, whereas it took about 7 weeks and 13 weeks to decrease to the same extent at 261 K and 253 K, respectively. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity kept decreasing to 18.28% after 7 weeks at 261 K. Furthermore, radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs) were developed to predict quality (FFA, SEP, SH, and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity) of brined carp fillets during frozen storage with relative errors all within ±5%. Thus, RBFNN is a promising method to predict quality of carp fillets during storage at 245-261 K. PMID:26868584

  16. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leiker, T.J.; Abney, S.R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596????g kg- 1 wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (< 51????g kg- 1 ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

  17. Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Mitchell, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

  18. Hepatoprotective effects of a Chinese herbal formulation, Yingchen decoction, on olaquindox-induced hepatopancreas injury in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jishu; Li, Chao; Wang, Lihong; Ji, Hong; Zhu, Tianhe

    2015-02-01

    In order to identify effective hepatoprotective herbs for clinical application in fish farming, 200 mg/kg olaquindox (OLA) was added to a basal diet (group 1, control) to form OLA diet (group 2), then 1.35, 2.7 and 5.4 % (w/w) of a Chinese herbal formulation, Yingchen decoction (YCD), were added to the OLA diet to form three additional diets for groups 3, 4 and 5, respectively. A total of 375 juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) (52.12 ± 2.95 g/tail) were divided into five groups (triplicates per group) and fed the five diets mentioned above, respectively, for 6 weeks. At the termination of feeding experiment, serum biochemical indexes, viability of hepatocytes and the hepatopancreas microstructure for each group were detected and observed. The results showed that serum ALT and AST in group 2 were significantly higher than the control (P < 0.05). Plasma membranes hepatocyte nuclei in group 2 were found to be mostly indistinct, compared to group 1, and gradually recovered with the increasing supplementation of YCD in group 3, 4 and 5. The viability of isolated hepatocytes in group 2 was the lowest and gradually recovered with the increasing supplementation of YCD in group 3, 4 and 5. The results suggest that YCD protected the Jian carp hepatopancreas against injury from OLA, and that 5.4 % YCD would be the optimum dosage in a Jian carp diet. PMID:25477196

  19. Chronic Exposure to Tributyltin Induces Brain Functional Damage in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase), Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide) in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L and 7.5 μg/L) for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days) to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters). The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity. PMID:25879203

  20. Long-term cortisol treatment inhibits pubertal development in male common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Consten, D; Bogerd, J; Komen, J; Lambert, J G; Goos, H J

    2001-04-01

    The onset and regulation of puberty is determined by functional development of the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis. Stress has been shown to interfere with reproduction and the functioning of the BPG axis. The response to chronic and severe stress may require much energy and force the organism to make adaptive choices. Energy that is normally available for processes like growth, immune response, or reproduction will be channeled into restoration of the disturbed homeostasis. Cortisol plays a key role in the homeostatic adaptation during or after stress. In the present study, immature common carp were fed with cortisol-containing food pellets covering the pubertal period. We showed that cortisol caused an inhibition of pubertal development, by affecting directly or indirectly all components of the BPG axis. The salmon GnRH content of the brain was decreased. Luteinizing hormone- and FSH-encoding mRNA levels in the pituitary and LH plasma levels were diminished by long-term cortisol treatment, as was the testicular androgen secretion. Testicular development, reflected by gonadosomatic index and the first wave of spermatogenesis, was retarded. PMID:11259251

  1. Gene Expression Variations of Red—White Skin Coloration in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Min; Song, Ying-Nan; Xiao, Gui-Bao; Zhu, Bai-Han; Xu, Gui-Cai; Sun, Ming-Yuan; Xiao, Jun; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Li, Jiong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Teleosts have more types of chromatophores than other vertebrates and the genetic basis for pigmentation is highly conserved among vertebrates. Therefore, teleosts are important models to study the mechanism of pigmentation. Although functional genes and genetic variations of pigmentation have been studied, the mechanisms of different skin coloration remains poorly understood. The koi strain of common carp has various colors and patterns, making it a good model for studying the genetic basis of pigmentation. We performed RNA-sequencing for red skin and white skin and identified 62 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Most of them were validated with RT-qPCR. The up-regulated DEGs in red skin were enriched in Kupffer’s vesicle development while the up-regulated DEGs in white skin were involved in cytoskeletal protein binding, sarcomere organization and glycogen phosphorylase activity. The distinct enriched activity might be associated with different structures and functions in erythrophores and iridophores. The DNA methylation levels of two selected DEGs inversely correlated with gene expression, indicating the participation of DNA methylation in the coloration. This expression characterization of red—white skin along with the accompanying transcriptome-wide expression data will be a useful resource for further studies of pigment cell biology. PMID:26370964

  2. DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p < 0.05) as compared to fish receiving a mock vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

  3. Dietary microbial levan enhances cellular non-specific immunity and survival of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Rairakhwada, Dina; Pal, A K; Bhathena, Z P; Sahu, N P; Jha, A; Mukherjee, S C

    2007-05-01

    A preliminary study with a 75days feeding trial was conducted to study the immunomodulatory effect of microbial levan on Cyprinus carpio juveniles. Five purified isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets with graded levels of levan, namely (T(1)) 0.1% levan, (T(2)) 0.2% levan, (T(3)) 0.5% levan, (T(4)) 1.0% levan, and a control group without levan were fed to five groups of fishes in triplicate. The total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content was significantly (p<0.05) enhanced in the T(3) group, though the total leucocyte counts, total protein and A/G ratio did not show any significant difference (p>0.05) when compared with the control group. The respiratory burst activity (NBT) of blood phagocytes and lysozyme activity was also highest in T(3) group. The relative survival percentage after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila was highest (100%) in the T(3) group followed by 83.33% and 66.67% in the T(2) and T(4) groups, respectively. This suggests that microbial levan at 0.5% can be used as a dietary immunostimulant for C. carpio juveniles. This is the first report on microbial levan having an immunomodulatory effect on C. carpio. PMID:17158064

  4. Chronic effects of tributyltin on multiple biomarkers responses in juvenile common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the chronic toxic effects of tributyltin (TBT), an antifouling paints commonly present in surface and ground water, on morphological indices, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and ATPase activity and heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 protein in tissues (liver, gill, and white muscle) of common carp were investigated. Fish were exposed at sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L, and 7.5 μg/L) for 60 days. When compared with the control, there was significant lower condition factor in fish exposed at the higher concentration of TBT. ROS levels in three tissues increased significantly at higher TBT concentrations (0.75 and 7.5 μg/L). The hepatic antioxidant enzymes (total antioxidative capacity and superoxide dismutase) activities were induced at higher concentrations (0.75 μg/L) of TBT. When compared with the hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities in fish exposed to 0.75 μg/L of TBT, there was a decreasing trend in those exposed to TBT with a concentration of 7.5 μg/L. However, all the antioxidant enzymes activities were significantly inhibited in gill and muscle of fish exposed to higher TBT concentrations (0.75 and 7.5 μg/L). Moreover, there was significant lower Na-K-ATPase in three tissues after long-term exposure to higher concentration of TBT, but a significant higher Hsp70 protein levels was observed. In short, environmental concentrations of TBT could not induce obvious impacts on fish, but long-term exposure to higher concentrations of TBT could affect seriously the health status of fish. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 937-944, 2016. PMID:25573135

  5. The effects of ciprofloxacin on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zivna, Dana; Plhalova, Lucie; Chromcova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Skoric, Misa; Marsalek, Petr; Praskova, Eva; Stepanova, Stanislava; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-07-01

    The authors performed a toxicity test with ciprofloxacin in fertilized eggs of common carp according to guideline 210 of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The tested concentrations were 1 μg L(-1) , 100 μg L(-1) , 500 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) . Accelerated hatching was found in all groups exposed to ciprofloxacin, but significant growth reduction was found only in the group exposed to the highest concentration (3000 μg L(-1) ). Increased numbers of macroscopic morphological anomalies were observed on day 6 of the test (after hatching). The highest numbers of macroscopic morphological anomalies were observed in the groups of free embryos and larvae exposed to ciprofloxacin concentrations of 100 μg L(-1) , 500 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) (20-23% of tested samples). A gradual decrease in glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in all experimental groups exposed to ciprofloxacin, but significant differences (p < 0.01) were found only in groups treated with 500 μg L(-1) and 3000 μg L(-1) . Glutathione peroxidase and catalase exhibited increased activity in most of the tested concentrations (p < 0.01 and <0.05, respectively), whereas decreased glutathione reductase activity was found in the groups exposed to ciprofloxacin concentrations of 500 μg L(-1) and 3000 μg L(-1) (p < 0.05). The concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in all experimental groups exposed to ciprofloxacin. The lowest-observed-effect concentration of ciprofloxacin was 1 μg L(-1) . These results suggest that hatching, early ontogeny, occurrence of morphological anomalies, antioxidant and biotransformation enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation in fish can be affected by ciprofloxacin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1733-1740. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26632160

  6. Effect of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on the growth and proximate composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Kour, Sandeep; Masud, Sahar; Khan, Asma

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of chicken manure and inorganic fertilizer (single super phosphate and urea) on growth performance viz. increase in wet body weight, length, specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF), survival rate and proximate composition of Cyprinus carpio. Experimental water in tubs was treated in duplicates with low (PT) @8000 kgha , medium (PT2) @10,000 kgha(-1) and high (PT) @12,000 kg/ha doses of chicken manure and also with low, medium and high dose of inorganic fertilizer(urea + SSP) @ 104 kgha(-1) + 155 kgha(-1) (IT(1)), @218 kgha(-1) + 310 kg/ha (IT2) and 322 kgha(-1) +470 kgha(-1)(IT3) respectively, along with control. At the end of the experiment, C. carpio showed maximum growth in PT, with significant higher SGR and CF. Survival rate ranged beween 93.3 to 100 % in all the treatments. Level of crude protein and total fat were a2so highest in PT, Moisture and carbohydrate showed no significant changes while ash content changed significantly in all the treatments and control. These observations indicate that chicken manure alone was effective to stimulate productivity and growth of fish without affecting proximate composition of fish meat. PMID:26930873

  7. Genotoxicological response of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to spring water in Tlaxcala, México.

    PubMed

    García-Nieto, Edelmira; Juárez-Santacruz, Libertad; García-Gallegos, Elizabeth; Tlalmis-Zempoalteca, Joselin; Romo-Gómez, Claudia; Torres-Dosal, Arturo

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the genotoxic impact of anthropic activities in Huactzinco Spring, using Cyprinus carpio as a biomonitor. In situ and in vivo experimental designs were compared by means of simultaneous 2-week exposures. The water from the spring generated mean micronuclei frequency values (108.6 ± 32 MN/1,000) and DNA fragmentation values (143.4 ± 35 au) which were statistically higher than those for the negative control (10.9 ± 6 MN/1,000 and 67.6 ± 23 au). The in situ and in vivo experiments supported one another. The comet assay proved to be the most sensitive test, with an EC50 value (11.4 % ± 3.4 %) being less than that determined for the micronuclei test (54.8 % ± 3.2 %). The results of this study confirm the usefulness of C. carpio as an environmental contamination biomonitor, and suggest that Huactzinco Spring water constitutes a latent risk to human health and the environment. PMID:24950945

  8. Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON)

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Constanze; Schulz, Carsten; Rovira, Pere; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg DON kg−1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism. PMID:24566729

  9. Investigation of Van Gogh-like 2 mRNA regulation and localisation in response to nociception in the brain of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Reilly, Siobhan C; Kipar, Anja; Hughes, David J; Quinn, John P; Cossins, Andrew R; Sneddon, Lynne U

    2009-11-20

    The Van Gogh-like 2 (vangl2) gene is typically associated with planar cell polarity pathways, which is essential for correct orientation of epithelial cells during development. The encoded protein of this gene is a transmembrane protein and is highly conserved through evolution. Van Gogh-like 2 was selected for further study on the basis of consistent regulation after a nociceptive stimulus in adult common carp and rainbow trout in a microarray study. An in situ hybridisation was conducted in the brain of mature common carp (Cyprinus carpio), 1.5 and 3 h after a nociceptive stimulus comprising of an acetic acid injection to the lips of the fish and compared with a saline-injected control. The vangl2 gene was expressed in all brain regions, and particularly intensely in neurons of the telencephalon and in ependymal cells. In the cerebellum, a greater number (P=0.018) of Purkinje cells expressed vangl2 after nociception (n=7) compared with controls (n=5). This regulation opens the possibility that vangl2 is involved in nociceptive processing in the adult fish brain and may be a novel target for central nociception in vertebrates. PMID:19781599

  10. The first appearance of Rodlet cells in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) ontogeny and their possible roles during stress and parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Mazon, A F; Huising, M O; Taverne-Thiele, A J; Bastiaans, J; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L

    2007-01-01

    The origin and function of rodlet cells (RCs) are still a matter of discussion. Whereas the exogenous hypothesis considers them parasites, the endogenous hypothesis regards them as a genuine fish cell population with a secretory and/or leukocyte function. In order to shed more light on these questions we focused on the location and appearance of RCs during carp (Cyprinus carpio) ontogeny. Typical RCs were seen at 5days post fertilisation (dpf) between kidney and intestine, at 6dpf in the intestine and at 8dpf in both anterior and posterior kidney and in the abdominal cavity among the mesothelial cells. The RC number increased with age and after 14dpf they were also present in gills. The early appearance of the RCs during carp ontogeny support the endogenous hypothesis stating that RCs are genuine constituents of fish tissue and suggest that they are 'immune cells'. The fact that the RCs of the gills secrete their content into the surrounding water, combined with the strategic location around blood vessels in kidney and within intestinal epithelium, would also support an important role in host defense. To investigate whether RC numbers in gills and kidney are related to typical fluctuations in the physiology during stress and infection we counted their number in gills and kidney after parasite infection and stress. In the gills the number of RCs increased after infection but did not change after stress while in the kidney their number increased after stress and no significant changes were observed after infection. PMID:16843681

  11. Feeding common carp Cyprinus carpio with β-glucan supplemented diet stimulates C-reactive protein and complement immune acute phase responses following PAMPs injection.

    PubMed

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J; Shrive, Annette K; Hoole, Dave

    2014-08-01

    The effect of β-glucan as a feed additive on the serum and gene profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was ascertained in common carp Cyprinus carpio. In addition effects of subsequent intraperitoneal injections of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), i.e. LPS or poly(I:C), to mimic bacterial or viral infection respectively, were studied. Carp were first orally fed with β-glucan (MacroGard®) with a daily β-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight or with control food for 25 days and then injected with PBS containing either LPS (4 mg/kg) or poly(I:C) (5 mg/kg) or PBS alone. Fish were sampled during the 25 days of the feeding period and up to 7 days post-PAMPs injections for serum and liver, head kidney and mid-gut tissues. Oral administration of β-glucan for 25 days significantly increased serum CRP levels and alternative complement activity (ACP). In addition, the subsequent LPS and poly(I:C) challenges significantly affected CRP and complement related gene expression profiles (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2), with the greatest effects observed in the β-glucan fed fish. However, in fish fed β-glucan the PAMPs injections had less effects on CRP levels and complement activity in the serum than in control fed fish, suggesting that the 25 days of β-glucan immunostimulation was sufficient enough to reduce the effects of LPS and poly(I:C) injections. Results suggest that MacroGard® stimulated CRP and complement responses to PAMPs immunological challenges in common carp thus highlighting the beneficial β-glucan immunostimulant properties. PMID:24830773

  12. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  13. In vivo and in silico analyses of estrogenic potential of bisphenol analogs in medaka (Oryzias latipes) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Arizono, Koji; Tominaga, Nobuaki

    2015-10-01

    Various studies have demonstrated the estrogenic effect of bisphenol A (BPA), a member of bisphenol analogs (BPs), in in vitro and in vivo assays. However, limited data are available on the estrogenic potentials and risks of other BPs in aquatic organisms. In addition, the estrogenic effect of chemicals is known to have species-specific responses in teleost fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential estrogenic effects of BPs on the medaka (Oryzias latipes) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using in vivo and in silico assays. Our quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that the expression levels of several hepatic estrogen-responsive biomarker genes in male medaka responded to various types and concentrations of BPs in a dose-response manner. The order of in vivo estrogenic potencies of BPs was as follows: BPC≈BPAF>BPB>BPA⋙BPP. To further investigate the interaction potential of BPs with medaka estrogen receptor α (ERα) in silico, a three-dimensional model of the ERα ligand-binding domain (LBD) was built and docking simulations were performed. The docking simulation analysis revealed that BPC interaction potential for medaka ERα LBD was the most potent, followed by BPAF and BPA. Comparing this with carp ERα LBD revealed that the interaction potentials of these BPs to medaka ERα LBD were more stable than to carp ERα LBD. Furthermore, we identified key amino acid residues in medaka ERα LBD that interacted with BPC (Glu356, Arg397, and Cys533), BPAF (Thr350 and Glu356), and BPA (Glu356 and Met424), and found some differences in these key amino acid residues between medaka and carp ERα LBDs. These results of in vivo and in silico analyses showed potential estrogenic effects of BPs in teleost fish, and they also indicated that the differences in interaction potentials and key amino acid residues between medaka and carp ERα LBDs may be due to the differences between the species and estrogenic potencies of the selected BPs. PMID

  14. Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae) versus Wels Catfish Silurus glanis (Family Siluridae)

    PubMed Central

    Maiditsch, Isabelle Pia; Ladich, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Background In ectothermal animals such as fish, -temperature affects physiological and metabolic processes. This includes sensory organs such as the auditory system. The reported effects of temperature on hearing in eurythermal otophysines are contradictory. We therefore investigated the effect on the auditory system in species representing two different orders. Methodology/Principal Findings Hearing sensitivity was determined using the auditory evoked potentials (AEP) recording technique. Auditory sensitivity and latency in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes) and the Wels catfish Silurus glanis (order Siluriformes) after acclimating fish for at least three weeks to two different water temperatures (15°C, 25°C and again 15°C). Hearing sensitivity increased with temperature in both species. Best hearing was detected between 0.3 and 1 kHz at both temperatures. The maximum increase occurred at 0.8 kHz (7.8 dB) in C. carpio and at 0.5 kHz (10.3 dB) in S. glanis. The improvement differed between species and was in particular more pronounced in the catfish at 4 kHz. The latency in response to single clicks was measured from the onset of the sound stimulus to the most constant positive peak of the AEP. The latency decreased at the higher temperature in both species by 0.37 ms on average. Conclusions/Significance The current study shows that higher temperature improves hearing (lower thresholds, shorter latencies) in eurythermal species from different orders of otophysines. Differences in threshold shifts between eurythermal species seem to reflect differences in absolute sensitivity at higher frequencies and they furthermore indicate differences to stenothermal (tropical) species. PMID:25255456

  15. Use of the Integrated Biomarker Response to Measure the Effect of Short-term Exposure to Dibenz[a,h]anthracene in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Kim, Ja-Hyun; Kim, Woo-Keun

    2016-04-01

    Dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DbA) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is released into the environment through incomplete combustion of gasoline, cigarettes, and coal tar. The effects of short-term (10 days) exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to DbA (0-50 µg L(-1)) were evaluated using the following four biomarkers: DNA damage, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and vitellogenin (VTG) levels. An integrated biomarker response (IBR) was calculated for exposure to DbA, and the results were compared with those in our previous study of two other PAHs, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). DbA exposure resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in DNA damage, EROD activity, and VTG levels relative to the control. By contrast, DbA did not affect AChE activity. The IBR increased as the concentration of DbA increased. Based on the IBR values, the order of toxicity for the PAHs was BkF > BaP > DbA. Our results suggest that the IBR can be used as a quantitative tool for evaluating the responses of multiple biomarkers to PAH exposure. PMID:26744022

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization of Thelohanellus macrovacuolaris n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting the palate in the mouth of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao

    2016-08-01

    Thelohanellus macrovacuolaris n. sp. is described during a survey on myxozoan diversity of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in China. It is characterized by the presence of round or ellipsoidal plasmodium in the palate in the mouth of host. Mature spores were pyriform in frontal view, lemon shaped in lateral view, measuring 21.6±0.9 (19.3-23.8) long, 12.5±0.7 (10.3-13.6) wide, and 10.2±0.4 (9.8-11.8) thick. Most spores were surrounded by the membrane sheath. Single polar capsule was round with an apophysis at its top end presented close to apex of spore, measuring 9.1±0.6 (8.0-10.0) in length, 8.6±0.5 (7.8-9.6) in width. Polar filaments coiled, with 7 to 8 turns. A large, round iodinophilous vacuole was present, with 5.8-7.5 in diameter. The present species is morphologically distinct from all other Thelohanellus species. The BLAST search indicated that the newly obtained small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) gene sequence of T. macrovacuolaris n. sp. did not match any available sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetically, T. macrovacuolaris n. sp. was placed sister to Thelohanellus wangi in the Thelohanellus clade. Both morphology and ssrRNA gene sequence data revealed that the present parasite is a new species of genus Thelohanellus. PMID:26939982

  17. Toxicity and molecular effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on CYP1A, SOD, and GPx in Cyprinus carpio (common carp).

    PubMed

    Agus, Hizlan H; Sümer, Sibel; Erkoç, Figen

    2015-07-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a widely used plasticizer in the plastic industry, affects regulation of the endocrine system and causes toxicity in animals. In the present study, we evaluated a series of ecotoxicological stress biomarkers in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as an experimental model to test for alterations in gene expression at a sublethal concentration of 1 mg/L DBP for 4, 24, and 96 h. In gills, an immediate increase in CYP1A messenger RNA (mRNA) levels was observed within the first 4 h and persisted for 96 h. Protein levels were nearly consistent with mRNA levels. However, a time-dependent inhibition was observed in CYP1A levels in the liver within 96 h. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels increased gradually in liver with exposure time to a maximum level of 11-fold. Varied responses of different tissues were likely due to xenobiotic metabolism of DBP. In conclusion, evaluating the tissue-specific alterations of CYP1A, SOD, and GPx levels can be used as specific and effective biomarkers for ecotoxicological monitoring of DBP pollution. We strongly recommend using molecular tools to ecotoxicologists for aquatic monitoring of newly emerging pollutants. PMID:26065888

  18. The effect of gamma radiation on the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio): In vivo genotoxicity assessment with the micronucleus and comet assays.

    PubMed

    M K, Praveen Kumar; Soorambail K, Shyama; Bhagatsingh Harisingh, Sonaye; D'costa, Avelyno; Ramesh Chandra, Chaubey

    2015-10-01

    Radioactive wastes may be leached into freshwater, either accidentally or in industrial effluents. We have studied gamma radiation-induced DNA damage in the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio. Fish were irradiated with 2-10Gy gamma radiation and genotoxic effects in blood cells were studied with the micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. Micronuclei and a dose-dependent increase in comet-tail DNA were seen in dose- and time-dependent studies. The highest % tail DNA was observed at 24h, declining until 72h, which may indicate the repair of radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks after gamma radiation. However, double-stranded DNA damage may not have been repaired, as indicated by increased micronuclei at later periods. A positive correlation was observed between the comet and micronucleus assay results. This study confirms the mutagenic/genotoxic potential of gamma radiation in the Common carp, as well as the possible combined use of the micronucleus and comet assays for in vivo laboratory studies with fresh-water fish for screening the genotoxic potential of radioactive pollution. PMID:26433258

  19. Defining Global Gene Expression Changes of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Female sGnRH-Antisense Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Huang, Wei; Zhong, Chengrong; Luo, Daji; Li, Shuangfei; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish reproductive system. Methodology/Principal Findings In a previous study we injected 342 fertilized eggs from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with a gene construct that expressed antisense sGnRH. Four years later, we found a total of 38 transgenic fish with abnormal or missing gonads. From this group we selected the 12 sterile females with abnormal ovaries in which we combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray analysis to define changes in gene expression of the HPG axis in the present study. As a result, nine, 28, and 212 genes were separately identified as being differentially expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary, of which 87 genes were novel. The number of down- and up-regulated genes was five and four (hypothalamus), 16 and 12 (pituitary), 119 and 93 (ovary), respectively. Functional analyses showed that these genes involved in several biological processes, such as biosynthesis, organogenesis, metabolism pathways, immune systems, transport links, and apoptosis. Within these categories, significant genes for neuropeptides, gonadotropins, metabolic, oogenesis and inflammatory factors were identified. Conclusions/Significance This study indicated the progressive scaling-up effect of hypothalamic sGnRH antisense on the pituitary and ovary receptors of female carp and provided comprehensive data with respect to global changes in gene expression throughout the HPG signaling pathway, contributing towards improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and regulative pathways in the reproductive system of

  20. Effects of Pro-Tex on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and adult yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    PubMed

    Boerrigter, Jeroen G J; van de Vis, Hans W; van den Bos, Ruud; Abbink, Wout; Spanings, Tom; Zethof, Jan; Martinez, Laura Louzao; van Andel, Wouter F M; Lopez-Luna, Javier; Flik, Gert

    2014-08-01

    Aquaculture practices bring several stressful events to fish. Stressors not only activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal-axis, but also evoke cellular stress responses. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is among the best studied mechanisms of the cellular stress response. An extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica), Pro-Tex, a soluble variant of TEX-OE(®), may induce expression of HSPs and reduce negative effects of cellular stress. Pro-Tex therefore is used to ameliorate conditions during stressful aquaculture-related practices. We tested Pro-Tex in zebrafish (Danio rerio), common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) exposed to aquaculture-relevant stressors (thermal stress, net confinement, transport) and assessed its effects on stress physiology. Heat shock produced a mild increase in hsp70 mRNA expression in 5-day-old zebrafish larvae. Pro-Tex increased basal hsp70 mRNA expression, but decreased heat-shock-induced expression of hsp70 mRNA. In carp, Pro-Tex increased plasma cortisol and glucose levels, while it did not affect the mild stress response (increased plasma cortisol and glucose) to net confinement. In gills, and proximal and distal intestine, stress increased hsp70 mRNA expression; in the distal intestine, an additive enhancement of hsp70 mRNA expression by Pro-Tex was seen under stress. In yellowtail kingfish, Pro-Tex reduced the negative physiological effects of transport more efficiently than when fish were sedated with AQUI-S(®). Overall, our data indicate that Pro-Tex has protective effects under high levels of stress only. As Pro-Tex has potential for use in aquaculture, its functioning and impact on health and welfare of fish should be further studied. PMID:24493298

  1. Effects of biofloc on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and liver histology of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings in zero-water exchange system.

    PubMed

    Najdegerami, Ebrahim H; Bakhshi, Farideh; Lakani, Forouzan Bagherzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Biofloc technology is considered as a method that degrades organic waste by microorganisms and produces microbial flocs. A 30-day experiment was performed to investigate the effects of partial replacement of daily feeding intake with biofloc on the growth performances, digestive enzymes activity and liver histology of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings. Two hundred and eight healthy fingerlings (58.6 ± 0.2 g) were randomly distributed in 12 tanks (30 L) at a density of 25.4 kg m(-3) and fed experimental treatments (100 % daily feeding rate as a control, biofloc + 75% daily feeding rate, biofloc + 50% daily feeding rate, biofloc + 25% daily feeding rate). At the end of experiment, the results indicated that the highest weight gain was observed in the fish fed BFT 75% and control which differed significantly from those fed BFT 25 % (P < 0.05). Diet BFT 75% improved total protease and pepsin activity compared with BFT 25 and 50% (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed in case of lipase, amylase and alkaline phosphatase activity between the treatments. In the liver, histological alterations were found in the treatments, and feeding the fish with BFT 75% significantly improved hepatocellular quantification and qualification than the other groups. The results obtained in this experiment suggest that the biofloc improves growth performances, digestive enzyme activity and liver condition of the common carp fingerlings when 25% of daily feeding rate (BFT 75%) was replaced with one carbohydrate such as molasses in zero-water exchange system. PMID:26530301

  2. Protective properties of sesamin against fluoride-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in kidney of carp (Cyprinus carpio) via JNK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Xie, Lingtian; Wang, Jundong; Feng, Cuiping; Song, Jing

    2015-10-01

    Sesamin, a major lignan derived from sesame seeds, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. However, its protective effects against fluoride-induced injury in kidney of fish have not been clarified. Previously we found that fluoride exposure caused damage and apoptosis in the kidneys of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. In this study, the effects of sesamin on renal oxidative stress and apoptosis in fluoride-exposed fish were determined. The results showed that sesamin alleviated significantly fluoride-induced renal damage and apoptosis of carp in a dose-dependent manner, indicated by the histopathological examination and ultrastructural observation. Moreover, treatment with sesamin also inhibited significantly fluoride-induced remarkable enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress, such as the increase of lipid peroxidation level and the depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level in kidney. To explore the underlying mechanisms of sesamin action, we found that activities of caspase-3 were notably inhibited by treatment with sesamin in the kidney of fluoride-exposed fish. Sesamin decreased the levels of p-JNK protein in kidney, which in turn inactivated pro-apoptotic signaling events by restoring the balance between mitochondrial pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bax proteins and by decreasing the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in kidney of fluoride-exposed fish. JNK was also involved in the mitochondrial extrinsic apoptotic pathways of sesamin effects against fluoride-induced renal injury by regulating the levels of p-c-Jun, necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Bak proteins. These findings indicated that sesamin could protect kidney against fluoride-induced apoptosis by the oxidative stress downstream-mediated change in the inactivation of JNK signaling pathway. Taken together, sesamin plays an important role in maintaining renal health and preventing kidney from toxic damage induced by

  3. Effect of choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Gang-Fu; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-06-01

    The present work evaluates the effects of various levels of dietary choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed with six different experimental diets containing graded levels of choline at 165 (choline-deficient control), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg kg(-1) diet for 65 days. At the end of the feeding trail, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded over 17 days. Dietary choline significantly decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in spleen and head kidney. However, anti-superoxide anion and anti-hydroxyl radical activities in spleen and head kidney also decreased. Interestingly, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in spleen, GPx activity in head kidney, and glutathione contents in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increase of dietary choline levels up to a certain point, whereas, activities of SOD, GST and GR in head kidney showed no significantly differences among groups. Similarly, expression levels of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, GPx1a, GPx1b and GR gene in spleen and head kidney were significantly lower in group with choline level of 607 mg kg(-1) diet than those in the choline-deficient group. The relative gene expressions of Nrf2 in head kidney and Keap1a in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increasing of dietary choline up to a certain point. However, the relative gene expression of Nrf2 in spleen were not significantly affected by dietary choline. In conclusion, dietary choline decreased the oxidant damage and regulated the antioxidant system in immune organs of juvenile Jian carp. PMID:24751923

  4. Dietary β-glucan stimulate complement and C-reactive protein acute phase responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during an Aeromonas salmonicida infection.

    PubMed

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna; Frost, Patrick; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Shrive, Annette; Hoole, Dave

    2013-03-01

    The effect of β-glucans as feed additive on the profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was studied in common carp Cyprinus carpio after exposition to a bacterial infection with Aeromonas salmonicida. Carp were orally administered with β-glucan (MacroGard®) for 14 days with a daily β-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight. Fish were then intraperitoneally injected with either PBS or 1 × 10⁸ bacteria per fish and sampled at time 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-injection (p.i.) for serum and head kidney, liver and mid-gut tissues. CRP levels and complement activity were determined in the serum samples whilst the gene expression profiles of CRP and complement related genes (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2) were analysed in the tissues by quantitative PCR. Results obtained showed that oral administration of β-glucan for 14 days significantly increased serum CRP levels up to 2 fold and serum alternative complement activity (ACP) up to 35 fold. The bacterial infection on its own (i.e. not combined with a β-glucan feeding) did have significant effects on complement response whilst CRP was not detectably induced during the carp acute phase reaction. However, the combination of the infection and the β-glucan feeding did show significant effects on both CRP and complement profiles with higher serum CRP levels and serum ACP activity in the β-glucan fed fish than in the control fed fish. In addition, a distinct organ and time dependent expression profile pattern was detected for all the selected genes: a peak of gene expression first occurred in the head kidney tissue (6 h p.i. or 12 h p.i.), then an up-regulation in the liver several hours later (24 h p.i.) and finally up- or down-regulations in the mid-gut at 24 h p.i. and 72 h p.i. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that MacroGard® stimulated CRP and complement responses to A. salmonicida infection in common carp. PMID:23291104

  5. β-Glucan-supplemented diets increase poly(I:C)-induced gene expression of Mx, possibly via Tlr3-mediated recognition mechanism in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J; Pionnier, Nicolas; Pietretti, Danilo; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Hoole, David

    2014-02-01

    We have previously observed that in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), administration of β-glucan (MacroGard®) as feed additive leads to a lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting that this immunostimulant may be preventing an acute and potentially dangerous response to infection, particularly in the gut. However, in general, mechanisms to detect and eliminate pathogens must also be induced in order to achieve an efficient clearance of the infection. Protection against viral diseases acquired through β-glucan-supplemented feed has been extensively reported for several experimental models in fish but the underlining mechanisms are still unknown. Thus, in order to better characterize the antiviral action induced by β-glucans in fish, MacroGard® was administered daily to common carp in the form of supplemented commercial food pellets. Carp were fed for a period of 25 days prior to intra-peritoneal injection with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a well-known double-stranded RNA mimic that triggers a type-I interferon (IFN) response. Subsequently, a set of immune related genes, including mx, were analysed by real-time PCR on liver, spleen, head kidney and mid gut tissues. Results obtained confirmed that treatment with β-glucan alone generally down-regulated the mRNA expression of selected cytokines when compared to untreated fish, while mx gene expression remained stable or was slightly up-regulated. Injection with poly(I:C) induced a similar down-regulated gene expression pattern for cytokines in samples from β-glucan fed fish. In contrast, poly(I:C) injection markedly increased mx gene expression in samples from β-glucan fed fish but hardly in samples from fish fed control feed. In an attempt to explain the high induction of mx, we studied Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) gene expression in these carp. TLR3 is a prototypical pattern recognition receptor considered important for the binding of viral double-stranded RNA and triggering of a

  6. Assessment of silver nanoparticle toxicity for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish embryos using a novel method controlling the agglomeration in the aquatic media.

    PubMed

    Oprsal, Jakub; Blaha, Ludek; Pouzar, Miloslav; Knotek, Petr; Vlcek, Milan; Hrda, Katerina

    2015-12-01

    Formation of agglomerates and their rapid sedimentation during aquatic ecotoxicity testing of nanoparticles is a major issue with a crucial influence on the risk assessment of nanomaterials. The present work is aimed at developing and testing a new approach based on the periodic replacement of liquid media during an ecotoxicological experiment which enabled the efficient monitoring of exposure conditions. A verified mathematical model predicted the frequencies of media exchanges which checked for formation of agglomerates from silver nanoparticles AgNP with 50 nm average size of the original colloid. In the model experiments, embryos of common carp Cyprinus carpio were exposed repeatedly for 6 h to AgNPs (5-50 μm Ag L(-1)) either under semistatic conditions (exchange of media after 6 h) or in variants with frequent media exchanges (varying from 20 to 300 min depending on the AgNP colloid concentration and the desired maximum agglomerate size of 200 or 400 nm). In contrast to other studies, where dissolved free metals are usually responsible for toxic effects, our 144-h experiments demonstrated the importance of AgNP agglomerates in the adverse effects of nanosilver. Direct adsorption of agglomerates on fish embryos locally increased Ag concentrations which resulted in pronounced toxicity particularly in variants with larger 400 nm agglomerates. The present study demonstrates the suitability of the novel methodology in controlling the conditions during aquatic nanomaterial toxicity testing. It further provided insights into the mechanisms underlying the effects of AgNP, which rank on a global scale among the most widely used nanomaterials. PMID:26233755

  7. Anatoxin-a induces apoptosis of leukocytes and decreases the proliferative ability of lymphocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bownik, A; Rymuszka, A; Sierosławska, A; Skowroński, T

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta, Cyanoprocaryota, Cyanobacteria) (blue-green algae) are procaryotic phototrophic microorganisms playing an important ecological role in the freshwater and marine environment as primary producers. However, as a consequence of water eutrophication observed in many reservoirs in different parts of the world, these microorganisms form massive scums, known as water blooms, releasing cyanotoxins hazardous to fish and other aquatic organisms. Cyanotoxins are cyanobacterial secondary metabolites of various chemical structures harmful to humans, terrestial and aquatic animals such as fish. The most abundant cyanotoxins are microcystins and hepatotoxins inducing toxic changes in fish liver, kidney, gills, digestive tract and immune system. Very little is known on the effects of alkaloid neurotoxic anatoxin-a on fish and their immunity. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro influence of anatoxin-a on immune cells isolated from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The leukocyte intracellular level of ATP was reduced only at the highest concentration of anatoxin-a. Apoptotic and necrotic leukocytes were observed at the lower and the highest concentrations of anatoxin-a, respectively. Elevated activity of caspases 3/7 after 2 hours and a concentration-dependent decrease in the proliferative ability of T and B lymphocytes was also observed. The results suggest that anatoxin-a could be a possible immunotoxic agent in the aquatic environment and may increase the susceptibility of fish to infectious and neoplastic diseases. Therefore, constant monitoring of anatoxin-a and its producers in lakes and fish ponds should be performed. PMID:23214375

  8. Intestinal disease of scattered mirror carp Cyprinus carpio caused by Thelohanellus kitauei and notes on the morphology and phylogeny of the myxosporean from Sichuan Province, southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lingtong; Lu, Mingmiao; Quan, Keyan; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong; Wu, Shangong; Wang, Jiangyong; Wang, Guitang

    2016-05-01

    The mass mortality of pond-reared scattered mirror carp, Cyprinus carpio, caused by Thelohanellus kitauei, occurred at fish farms in Sichuan Province, southwest China. Morphological and molecular analyses were supplemented with histological evaluation of infected tissues to better understand the route of infection and the pathological effects of T. kitauei on the fish host. The intestine of the diseased host was full of large cysts of the myxosporean. The cysts range from 2 cm to 3.6 cm in diameter. Histopathology indicated that T. kitaue i first invaded the submucosa of the host intestine and then moved into the mucosa layers with the development of their spores, finally entering into the enteric cavity of the hosts after the disruption of mucosa layers. The pyriform spores of T. kitauei were surrounded by the transparent spore sheath, measuring 25.98 μm±0.95 μm in body length, 8.72 μm±0.51 μm in body width, and 7.86 μm±0.26 μm in body thickness. The single polar capsule was pyriform, measuring 14.73 μm±0.92 μm in length and 6.82 μm±0.45 μm in width, with eight to 10 turns of filament coils winding inside. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences indicated that minimal genetic differences were present between T. kitauei samples from South Korea and from China. Close affinity was found between the genus Thelohanellus and Myxobolus. Additionally, two polar capsule nuclei were found at the anterior end of the single polar capsule in spores of T. kitauei stained with hematoxylin and eosin, which suggested the separation of the genus Thelohanellus from Myxobolus.

  9. Acute and subchronic toxic effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Immunotoxicity assessments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ziwei; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-08-01

    Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are widely used pesticides in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. The spleen and head kidney in the bony fish are the major hematopoietic organs, and play a crucial part in immune responses. This study evaluated the subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 in the immune organs of common carp and compared the acute and subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the swimming speed (SS) of common carp. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h-LC50 of ATR and CPF for common carp was determined to be 2.142 and 0.582 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, acute and subacute toxicity of ATR and CPF in common carp resulted in hypoactivity. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 genes were induced in the spleen and head kidney of common carp exposed to ATR and CPF in the subchronic toxicity test. Our results indicate that ATR and CPF are highly toxic to common carp, and hypoactivity in common carp by acute and subchronic toxicity of ATR and CPF may provide a useful tool for assessing the toxicity of triazine herbicide and organophosphorous pesticides to aquatic organisms. In addition, the results from the subchronic toxicity test exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that ATR and CPF exposure cause immunotoxicity to common carp. PMID:25917970

  10. Association between IL-10a SNPs and resistance to cyprinid herpesvirus-3 infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of gene polymorphisms and disease association is essential for assessing putative candidate genes affecting susceptibility or resistance to disease. In this paper, we report the results of an association analysis between SNPs in common carp innate immune response genes and resistance to Cy...

  11. Identification and analysis of the jnk1 gene in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y M; Jiang, M G; Luo, Z W; Zhou, Y H; Wen, S; Wang, M; Zhang, C; Liu, S J

    2014-01-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase superfamily. The allotetraploid crucian carp is a product of distant hybridization of female red crucian carp with male common carp. It is the first natural case of an allotetraploid with stable genetic characters, including fertility of both female and male animals. In this study, 2 jnk1 cDNAs (including jnk1a and jnk1b) have been cloned from the polyploid crucian carp system, consisting of the allotetraploid crucian carp, the triploid crucian carp, and their original parents (red crucian and common carp). We show that jnk1a and jnk1b represent 2 splice forms arising from the jnk1 gene. On the basis of the genetic structure of jnk1a gene in the polyploid crucian carp system, we demonstrated that the allotetraploid crucian carp is phylogenetically closer to its paternal parent (common carp) than to its maternal parent. We further show a similarity between the triploid crucian carp and its original female parent (red crucian carp). Comparisons of genetic structures indicated that the jnk1b genes of allotetraploid and triploid crucian carp are more similar to those of the original paternal parent rather than the original female parent (red crucian carp). RT-PCR analysis indicated that both the jnk1a and jnk1b genes are widely expressed in fish embryos and in the adult organs, displaying distinct features of embryonic-stage and organ specificity in the polyploid crucian carp system. PMID:24634111

  12. The immune system of cyprinid fish. Kinetics and temperature dependence of antibody-producing cells in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed Central

    Rijkers, G T; Frederix-Wolters, E M; van Muiswinkel, W B

    1980-01-01

    After immunization of carp with sheep red blood cells, the spleen accounts for only 5% of the total number of plaque-forming cells (PFC). In addition, thymus, peripheral blood and heart contained low numbers of PFC (< 0.5, 1 and 0.5%, respectively). Pronephros and mesonephros were the major antibody-forming organs (53 and 40% of total PFC, respectively). The temperature dependence of the antibody-forming cell response in spleen, pronephros and mesonephros as studied in animals kept at 12-24 degrees. Lowering temperatures induced a delay in the peak of the primary response but had no effect on the magnitude of the response. The temperature-peak day relationship indicated that there are steps in the primary immune response of carp differing in temperature sensitivity. The anamnestic character of the secondary response was clearly demonstrated at 24 and 20 degrees but lost at 18 degrees. PMID:7000695

  13. Genome wide identification of scavenger receptors class A in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and their expression following Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuaisheng; Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Dong, Chuanju; Jiang, Likun; Peng, Wenzhu; Mu, Xidong; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2016-07-01

    Scavenger receptors class A (SCARAs) is a subgroup of diverse families of pattern recognition receptors that bind a range of ligands, and play important roles in innate immune processes through pathogens detection, adhesion, endocytosis, and phagocytosis. However, most studies of SCARAs have focused on mammals, and much less is known of SCARAs in fish species. In this study, we identified 7 SCARAs across the common carp genome, which were classified into four subclasses according to comparative genomic analysis including sequence similarities analysis, gene structure and functional domain prediction. Further phylogenetic and syntenic analysis supported their annotation and orthologies. Through examining gene copy number of SCARA genes across several vertebrates, SCARA2, SCARA3 and SCARA4 were found have undergone gene duplication. The expression patterns of SCARAs in common carp were examined during early developmental stages, in healthy tissues, and after Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Most SCARA genes were ubiquitously expressed during common carp early developmental stages, and presented diverse patterns in various healthy tissues, with relatively high expression levels in spleen, liver, intestine, gill and brain, indicating their critical roles likely in maintaining homeostasis and host immune response activities. After A. hydrophila infection, most SCARA genes were up-regulated at 4 h post infection in mucosal tissue intestine, while generally up-regulated at 12 h post infection in spleen, suggesting a tissue-specific pattern of regulation. Taken together, all these results suggested that SCARA genes played important roles in host immune response to A. hydrophila infection in common carp, and provided important genomic resources for future studies on fish disease management. PMID:27041666

  14. Diversification of the duplicated Rab1a genes in a hypoxia-tolerant fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zi-Xia; Cao, Ding-Chen; Xu, Jian; Xu, Ru; Li, Jiong-Tang; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2015-10-01

    Common carp is a widely cultivated fish with longer than 2,000 years domestication history, due to its strong environmental adaptabilities, especially hypoxia tolerance. The common carp genome has experienced a very recent whole genome duplication (WGD) event. Among a large number of highly similar duplicated genes, a pair of Ras-associated binding-GTPase 1a (Rab1a) genes were found fast diverging. Four analogous Rab1a genes were identified in the common carp genome. Comparisons of gene structures and sequences indicated Rab1a-1 and Rab1a-2 was a pair of fast diverging duplicates, while Rab1a-3 and Rab1a-4 was a pair of less diverged duplicates. All putative Rab1a proteins shared conserved GTPase domain, which enabled the proteins serve as molecular switches for vesicular trafficking. Rab1a-1 and Rab1a-2 proteins varied in their C-terminal sequences, which were generally considered to encode the membrane localization signals. Differential expression patterns were observed between Rab1a-1 and Rab1a-2 genes. In blood, muscle, spleen, and heart, the mRNA level of Rab1a-1 was higher than that of Rab1a-2. In liver and intestine, the mRNA level of Rab1a-2 was higher. Expression of Rab1a-1 and Rab1a-2 showed distinct hypoxia responses. Under severe hypoxia, Rab1a-1 expression was down-regulated in blood, while Rab1a-2 expression was up-regulated in liver. Compared with the less diverged Rab1a-3/4 gene pair, common carp Rab1a-1/2 gene pair exhibited strong characteristics of sub-functionalization, which might contribute to a sophisticated and efficient Ras-dependent regulating network for the hypoxia-tolerant fish. PMID:26129846

  15. Effects of Single and Joint Subacute Exposure of Copper and Cadmium on Heat Shock Proteins in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuyang; Guan, Xueting; Yao, Linlin; Zhang, Hong; Jin, Xian; Han, Ying

    2016-02-01

    Copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) are the most common heavy metals that are easily detected in aquatic environments on a global scale. In this paper, we investigated the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of HSPs (HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) in the liver of the common carp exposed to Cu, Cd, and a combination of both metals by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results indicated that in each exposure group, the mRNA levels of HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 were increased significantly compared to the corresponding controls after 96 h of exposure (P < 0.05). A significant increase was observed in the HSP70 protein level in the high-dose Cu group and all of the Cd groups. Significant increases were also observed in the protein levels of HSP60 and HSP90 in the high combination group and the low combination group, respectively. These results indicated that the dynamics of HSP expression observed in the common carp support the role of HSPs as biochemical markers in response to environmental pollution and provided valuable insights into the adaptive mechanisms used by the common carp to adapt to the challenges of stressful environments. PMID:26105544

  16. Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Vinodhini, Rajamanickam

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

  17. PCR-cloning and gene expression studies in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) insulin-like growth factor-II.

    PubMed

    Tse, Margaret C L; Vong, Queenie P; Cheng, Christopher H K; Chan, King Ming

    2002-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is a member of a growth factor family related to fetal growth in mammals but its physiological role has not been clearly identified in fish. In teleosts, the basic mechanism of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF axis is known to be operative but in a different manner. For instance, IGF-I exhibits GH dependence whereas for IGF-II, its GH dependence varies in different fish species. In this study, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to obtain a common carp IGF-II (ccIGF-II) cDNA fragment and methods of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs) to obtain a full-length ccIGF-II sequence. The ccIGF-II encodes for a predicted amino acid sequence showing identities of 70.6%, 68.7%, 63.4% and 35% in comparison with salmon, barramundi, tilapia and human IGF-II, respectively. The nucleotide identity between the open reading frame (ORF) of the ccIGF-II and ccIGF-I cDNA sequence is only 36.2%. Distribution of ccIGF-II mRNA levels in common carp tissues was also studied; ccIGF-II expressed in hepatopancreas, heart, and many other tissues in adult carps are similar to the levels of ccIGF-I except in gills and testis. ccIGF-II levels were significantly higher than that of ccIGF-I in most juvenile tissues except in hepatopancreas, where ccIGF-I was higher (threefold) than that of ccIGF-II. The levels of ccIGF-I were also higher than ccIGF-II in carp larvae, from pre-hatched stage to day 30 post-hatching. Injection of porcine GH (pGH) increased the IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA levels in the hepatopancreas and brain of juvenile carps. However, hepatic IGF-I mRNA levels were induced more than IGF-II by pGH, whereas ccIGF-II levels gave a higher response than IGF-I in the brain in response to GH induction. PMID:12020820

  18. Modulatory effect of visible light on chemiluminescence of stimulated and nonstimulated blood leukocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotsky, Sandro; Avtalion, Ramy R.; Friedmann, Harry; Lubart, Rachel

    1998-12-01

    Irradiation of carp blood leukocytes with a non-laser visible light resulted in a significant inhibition of the spontaneous luminol-dependent chemiluminescence in the cells of a part of the fish. Those leukocytes that were sensitive to the visible light, showed a shorter time-to-peak than the non sensitive, following their stimulation with Ca ionophore. Because a shorter time-to-peak correlates with inflammation, it could be suggested that the visible light susceptible leukocyte reflect a pre-inflammatory state of their donors.

  19. Investigations into the effects of concentration and duration of exposure to formalin and malachite green on the survival of the larvae and juveniles of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell).

    PubMed

    Theron, J; Prinsloo, J F; Schoonbee, H J

    1991-12-01

    Prophylactic dip treatments using formalin and malachite green were applied to 4-day old larvae and 12- and 20-day old juveniles of the European common carp, Cyprinus carpio and the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Treatments consisted of 100 mg/l malachite green for exposure periods of 10, 30 or 90 s and 200 mg/l formalin, administered for 30, 60 or 90 min. Larvae and juveniles of C. gariepinus could be treated with 100 mg/l malachite green for 10 s, or with 200 mg/l formalin for 30 min, with minimum mortalities. Both chemicals affected the survival of the C. gariepinus juveniles, especially the 90 min exposure to formalin. Juveniles of both species were extremely sensitive to 100 mg/l malachite green concentrations. PMID:1780124

  20. Occurrence of glucocorticoids discharged from a sewage treatment plant in Japan and the effects of clobetasol propionate exposure on the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kei; Sato, Kentaro; Shibano, Takazumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Go; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi

    2016-04-01

    The present study evaluated the environmental risks to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) posed by glucocorticoids present in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. To gather information on the seasonal variations in glucocorticoid concentration, the authors sampled the effluent of a Japanese STP every other week for 12 mo. Six of 9 selected glucocorticoids were detected in the effluent, with clobetasol propionate and betamethasone 17-valerate detected at the highest concentrations and frequencies. The present study's results indicated that effluent glucocorticoid concentration may depend on water temperature, which is closely related to the removal efficiency of the STP or to seasonal variations in the public's use of glucocorticoids. In a separate experiment, to clarify whether glucocorticoids in environmental water increase susceptibility to bacterial infection in fish, the authors examined the responses to bacterial infection (Aeromonas veronii) of common carp exposed to clobetasol propionate. Clobetasol propionate exposure did not affect bacterial infection-associated mortality. In fish infected with A. veronii but not exposed to clobetasol propionate, head kidney weight and number of leukocytes in the head kidney were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas these effects were not observed in infected fish exposed to clobetasol. This suggests that clobetasol propionate alleviated bacterial infection-associated inflammation. Together, these results indicate that susceptibility to bacterial infection in common carp is not affected by exposure to glucocorticoids at environmentally relevant concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:946-952. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26126539

  1. In Vivo and in Vitro Isomer-Specific Biotransformation of Perfluorooctane Sulfonamide in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; Qiang, Liwen; Pan, Xiaoyu; Fang, Shuhong; Han, Yuwei; Zhu, Lingyan

    2015-12-01

    Biotransformation of PFOS-precursors (PreFOS) may contribute significantly to the level of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in the environment. Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) is one of the major intermediates of higher molecular weight PreFOS. Its further degradation to PFOS could be isomer specific and thereby explain unexpected high percentages of branched (Br-) PFOS isomers observed in wildlife. In this study, isomeric degradation of PFOSA was concomitantly investigated by in vivo and in vitro tests using common carp as an animal model. In the in vivo tests branched isomers of PFOSA and PFOS were eliminated faster than the corresponding linear (n-) isomers, leading to enrichment of n-PFOSA in the fish. In contrast, Br-PFOS was enriched in the fish, suggesting that Br-PFOSA isomers were preferentially metabolized to Br-PFOS over n-PFOSA. This was confirmed by the in vitro test. The exception was 1m-PFOSA, which could be the most difficult to be metabolized due to its α-branched structure, resulting in the deficiency of 1m-PFOS in the fish. The in vitro tests indicated that the metabolism mainly took place in the fish liver instead of its kidney, and it was mainly a Phase I reaction. The results may help to explain the special PFOS isomer profile observed in wildlife. PMID:26053759

  2. Cortisol affects metabolic and ionoregulatory responses to a different extent depending on feeding ration in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Liew, Hon Jung; Fazio, Angela; Faggio, Caterina; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-11-01

    Interacting effects of feeding and stress on corticoid responses in fish were investigated in common carp fed 3.0% or 0.5% body mass (BM) which received no implant, a sham or a cortisol implant (250 mg/kg BM) throughout a 168 hour post-implant period (168 h-PI). At 12h-PI, cortisol implants elevated plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate. Plasma osmolality and ions remained stable, but cortisol increased gill and kidney Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) and H(+) ATPase activities. Gill NKA activities were higher at 3%-BM, whereas kidney H(+) ATPase activity was greater at 0.5%-BM. Cortisol induced liver protein mobilization and repartitioned liver and muscle glycogen. At 3%-BM, this did not increase plasma ammonia, reflecting improved excretion efficiency concomitant with upregulation of Rhesus glycoprotein Rhcg-1 in gill. Responses in glucocorticoid receptors (GR1/GR2) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to cortisol elevation were most prominent in kidney with increased expression of all receptors at 24 h-PI at 0.5%-BM, but only GR2 and MR at 0.5%-BM. In the liver, upregulation of all receptors occurred at 24 h-PI at 3%-BM, whilst only GR2 and MR were upregulated at 0.5%-BM. In the gill, there was a limited upregulation: GR2 and MR at 72 h-PI and GR1 at 168 h-PI at 3%-BM but only GR2 at 72 h-PI at 0.5%-BM. Thus cortisol elevation led to similar expression patterns of cortisol receptors in both feeding regimes, while feeding affected the type of receptor that was induced. Induction of corticoid receptors occurred simultaneously with increases in Rhcg-1 mRNA expression (gill) but well after NKA and H(+) ATPase activities increased (gill/kidney). PMID:26219478

  3. Distribution and age-related bioaccumulation of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and European catfish (Sylurus glanis) from the Buško Blato reservoir (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    PubMed

    Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Bogut, Ivan; Vuković, Rosemary; Galović, Dalida; Bogut, Ante; Horvatić, Janja

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the bioaccumulation of Pb, Hg, Cd, and As in tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Silurus glanis) from Buško Blato in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Arsenic concentrations were below the Maximal Admissible Concentration (MAC) for Croatia and other countries. Mercury concentrations were below 1 mg kg(-1), but in most muscle samples of both species and all catfish liver samples, the values were higher than 0.5 mg kg(-1) (higher than the MAC for many countries including Croatia). Lead concentrations were higher than 1 mg kg(-1) (the MAC for Croatia) in most muscle samples; all kidney and most catfish liver samples also exceeded 1 mg kg(-1). Cadmium concentrations in all tissues, other than the gonads, were higher than 0.1 mg kg(-1) (MAC for Croatia), with the highest concentrations found in the kidneys. The only gender difference was found in carp, where a 68.4% higher concentration of As was found in the fry compared to the milt (P<0.05). Concentrations of all of the elements were higher in catfish compared to carp for most tissues. Significant correlations were found between all of the elements in the muscles and the liver of carp. In catfish, the muscles were the only tissue in which multiple correlations were found. Linear positive correlations with age and body mass were demonstrated for the concentrations of all heavy metals for all tissues except the gonads in both fish species. We concluded that significant heavy metal accumulation in carp and a catfish tissues correlates with age and body mass; bioaccumulation is species- and tissue-specific and is different for each element. PMID:25966047

  4. Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) intestinal immune responses, antioxidant status and tight junction protein mRNA expression are modulated via Nrf2 and PKC in response to dietary arginine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biao; Feng, Lin; Chen, Gang-Fu; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhao, Juan; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary arginine on the immune response, antioxidant status and tight junction mRNA expression in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). A total of 1200 juvenile Jian carp with an average initial weight of 6.33 ± 0.03 g were fed graded levels of arginine (9.8-24.5 g kg(-1) diet) for nine weeks. The study showed that arginine deficiency up-regulated interleukin 1, interleukin 8 and transforming growth factor-β and down-regulated tumour necrosis factor α gene expression (P < 0.05). Additionally, arginine deficiency increased malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and glutathione contents and decreased the activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, arginine deficiency significantly increased claudin 7, occludin, protein kinase C, NF-E2-related factor 2 and Kelch-like-ECH- associated protein 1 mRNA expression and decreased SOD1, CAT and GR mRNA expression (P < 0.05). All of these results indicated that arginine deficiency impaired intestinal immune function via the regulation of mRNA expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes, Nrf2/Keap1 and PKC in fish intestine. PMID:26518504

  5. Chemotaxis towards, adhesion to, and growth in carp gut mucus of two Aeromonas hydrophila strains with different pathogenicity for common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    van der Marel, M; Schroers, V; Neuhaus, H; Steinhagen, D

    2008-05-01

    Characteristics that promote bacterial colonization of the intestinal mucosal surface were examined in two strains of the common fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila, with different pathogenicity. The characteristics examined were chemotactic activity towards mucus, bacterial adherence to mucus and growth in mucus. Intestinal gut mucus of healthy common carp was used. The results indicate that chemotaxis is not necessary for a bacterium to become pathogenic, but it may be a necessary parameter for a bacterium to be an obligate pathogen. Adhesion also seems to be a factor influencing pathogenicity. The results suggest that higher adhesion to mucus and subsequent growth is associated with differences in pathogenicity. PMID:18355183

  6. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivappa, R.B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  7. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) response to two pieces of music ("Eine Kleine Nachtmusik" and "Romanza") combined with light intensity, using recirculating water system.

    PubMed

    Papoutsoglou, Sofronios E; Karakatsouli, Nafsika; Papoutsoglou, Eustratios S; Vasilikos, Georgios

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate the effects of music on fish physiology, bearing in mind available information regarding the involvement of endogenous and exogenous factors in fish farming. Therefore, Cyprinus carpio (50.5 +/- 0.36 g) were reared in a recirculating water system under 80 and 200 lux and subjected to no music at all (control, ambient noise only), 4 h of Mozart's "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik", or 4 h of anonymous "Romanza-Jeux Interdits" for 106 days. Both music treatments resulted in increased growth performance at both light intensities, with Romanza treatment at 200 lux resulting in better growth performance than Mozart treatment. Furthermore, feed efficiency for the Romanza groups was significantly better than for the control. Although no significant music effect was apparent for brain neurotransmitters, lower anterior intestine alkaline protease levels were detected for both music treatments. Taking into consideration the numerous advantages of recirculating water systems, it should be emphasised that fish response to music expresses the results of various physiological and biochemical processes, especially when fish notably respond differently when subjected to two different pieces of music. PMID:19408132

  8. A protocol for the evaluation of genotoxicity in bile of carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to lake water treated with different disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo; Dominici, Luca; Fatigoni, Cristina; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Elia, Antonia Concetta; Monarca, Silvano

    2011-09-01

    A sensitive and rapid method to evaluate toxic and genotoxic properties of drinking water supplied from Lake Trasimeno (Umbria, Central Italy) was worked out analysing bile in Cyprinus carpio exposed for 20 d to lake water treated with 3 different disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) and peracetic acid (PAA). Fish were sacrificed at 0, 10 and 20 d in order to investigate the time course of these endpoints. An aliquot of bile samples was fractionated by adsorption on C(18) silica cartridges and the genotoxic potential of whole bile and of bile fractions was evaluated by the single-cell microgel-electrophoresis (comet) assay on human colonic adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2). Bile (both whole and fractionated) from specimens exposed to the three disinfectants always showed a genotoxic activity as compared to the control group. The results of this study provide evidence that all three disinfectants cause an increase in bile genotoxicity of chronically exposed fish. PMID:21546055

  9. Administration of yeast glucan enhances survival and some non-specific and specific immune parameters in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, V; Sampath, K; Sekar, V

    2005-10-01

    Effects of beta-glucan administration on survival and immune modulations were studied in Cyprinus carpio against the bacterial pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila. Beta-glucan was extracted from Saccharomyces cervisiae and purified. A virulent strain of the pathogen A. hydrophila was collected from infected fish. Different concentrations of beta-glucan were administered to test animals on day 1, 3 and 5 through different routes (intraperitoneal injection (ip), bathing and oral administration). Control and test animals were challenged by ip injection of LD50 concentration of A. hydrophila on day 7 and mortality was observed and Relative Percent Survival (RPS) was calculated. Intraperitoneal injection of 500 microg of glucan significantly enhanced the RPS; bathing and oral administration of glucan did not influence the RPS. On day 7, test animals injected with 100, 500 and 1000 microg of glucan had a significant increase in total blood leucocyte counts and an increase in the proportion of neutrophils and monocytes. Superoxide anion production by kidney macrophages was also elevated. RT-PCR and northern blot analysis of interleukin-1 mRNA showed elevated expression in kidney on day 7 in fish injected with glucan. Glucan had an adjuvant effect on antibody production as pretreatment by injection of 100-1000 microg glucan/fish resulted in the highest antibody titer against A. hydrophila following vaccination. Classical and alternative complement pathways were not affected by glucan administration by any of the three routes. PMID:15863011

  10. Bioaccumulation and metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in a water/sediment microcosm: important role of particulate matter exposure.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shengyan; Zhu, Lingyan; Bian, Jingna; Fang, Shuhong

    2012-03-01

    Microcosms were built up to simulate a pond system with polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contaminated sediment and bioorganisms. The microcosms were divided into groups A and B. In group A, both benthic invertebrates (tubificid worms) and carp (Cyprinu carpio) were added, while in group B, only fish were added. After exposure for 20 d, the fish were sampled (exposure I). A net was fixed in the microcosms, and new fish were added (exposure II). These fish were prohibited from contacting the sediment by the net, and the accumulation and depuration of PBDEs in the fish were investigated. Among 11 monitored PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183, BDE-206, BDE-207, BDE-208, and BDE-209), only 5 congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154) were detected in the carp fillets and liver. BDE-99 and BDE-183 were not detected in the fish because of the efficient metabolic debromination in carp tissues. The uptake of PBDEs in exposure I was significantly higher/faster than that in exposure II, since the fish in exposure I had an opportunity to take in more of the highly contaminated particles. The uptake kinetics (k(s)) and elimination (k(e)) rate coefficients showed a general trend of decreasing with increasing log K(ow). No significant difference was observed in uptake/depuration kinetics between groups A and B, indicating that the tubificids' reworking does not affect the bioaccumulation of sediment-associated PBDEs in fish significantly. All the PBDE congeners, including nona- and deca-BDEs, were bioaccumulated in the tubificid worms. The PBDE concentrations in the worms were significantly higher than those in the fish, and the congener profile of the sevem major congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, and BDE-183) was distinctly different from that of fish tissues. The biota-sediment accumulation factors in the worms ranged from 0.01 to 5.89 and declined with increasing bromination and log K

  11. Effect of dietary glutamine on growth performance, non-specific immunity, expression of cytokine genes, phosphorylation of target of rapamycin (TOR), and anti-oxidative system in spleen and head kidney of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai; Zhang, Jing-Xiu; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary glutamine on the growth performance, cytokines, target of rapamycin (TOR), and antioxidant-related parameters in the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed the basal (control) and glutamine-supplemented (12.0 g glutamine kg(-1) diet) diets for 6 weeks. Results indicated that the dietary glutamine supplementation improved the growth performance, spleen protein content, serum complement 3 content, and lysozyme activity in fish. In the spleen, glutamine down-regulated the expression of the interleukin 1 and interleukin 10 genes, and increased the level of phosphorylation of TOR protein. In the head kidney, glutamine down-regulated the tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 10 gene expressions, phosphorylated and total TOR protein levels, while up-regulated the transforming growth factor β2 gene expression. Furthermore, the protein carbonyl content was decreased in the spleen of fish fed glutamine-supplemented diet; conversely, the anti-hydroxyl radical capacity and glutathione content in the spleen were increased by glutamine. However, diet supplemented with glutamine did not affect the lipid peroxidation, anti-superoxide anion capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activities in the spleen. Moreover, all of these antioxidant parameters in the head kidney were not affected by glutamine. Results from the present experiment showed the importance of dietary supplementation of glutamine in benefaction of the growth performance and several components of the innate immune system, and the deferential role in cytokine gene expression, TOR kinase activity, and antioxidant status between the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp. PMID:25675866

  12. Effects of dietary β-(1,3)(1,6)-D-glucan supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphology and haemato-immunological profile of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Kühlwein, H; Merrifield, D L; Rawling, M D; Foey, A D; Davies, S J

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, aquaculture research has focused on probiotics, prebiotics, and β-glucans, in order to improve health status and growth performance. Information regarding the effects of β-glucan on growth performance and intestinal immunity of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is scarce. An experiment was therefore conducted to investigate the effects of a yeast β-glucan preparation (MacroGard(®) ) on growth performance, intestinal morphology and haemato-immunological indices of mirror carp. Carp (initial weight 11.1 ± 0.0 g) were fed highly purified diets supplemented with 0% (control), 0.1%, 1% or 2% MacroGard(®) for 8 weeks. Fish fed diets containing 1% and 2% MacroGard(®) showed significant improvements in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio compared to fish fed both the control and the 0.1% MacroGard(®) containing diet. Histological appraisal of the intestine showed a significantly higher infiltration of leucocytes into the epithelial layer of fish fed diets supplemented with 1% and 2% MacroGard(®) in the anterior intestine compared to fish fed the control and 0.1% MacroGard(®) diet. This effect was not observed in the posterior intestine. There were no significant differences in the intestinal absorptive surface area and number of goblet cells in either intestinal region. At the end of the experiment, the haematological status of the fish was examined. Compared to control fed fish, the haematocrit value was significantly elevated in fish fed the 2% MacroGard(®) diet. Furthermore, the blood monocyte fraction was significantly higher in fish fed the 1% and 2% MacroGard(®) diets. No significant changes were observed in the other blood parameters assessed. The present study shows that high dietary β-glucan inclusion increases growth performance without detrimental effects on the health indicators assessed. Increased intraepithelial leucocytes in the anterior intestine may indicate a localized immune response; no detrimental

  13. Isolation of innate immune response genes, expression analysis, polymorphism identification and development of genetic marker for linkage analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common carp are economically important foodfish worldwide. Over the past few years, carp aquaculture has suffered from enormous losses to a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). A recent study reported that common carp strains/crossbreds have differential resistance to CyHV-3, suggest...

  14. The effect of oyster mushroom β-1.3/1.6-D-glucan and oxytetracycline antibiotic on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Dobšíková, Radka; Blahová, Jana; Mikulíková, Ivana; Modrá, Helena; Prášková, Eva; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Skorič, Mišo; Jarkovský, Jiří; Siwicki, Andrzej-Krzysztof

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of micronized β-1.3/1.6-D-glucan (BG) derived from the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus Hiratake and tetracycline antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in tissues of one- to two-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish tested were divided into five experimental groups and one control. Carp in the control group were fed commercial carp feed pellets. Fish in the five experimental groups were fed the same pellets supplemented with either OTC, a combination of OTC and BG, or BG as follows: 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw (OTC group), 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw and 0.5% β-glucan (OTC + 0.5% BG group), 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw and 2.0% β-glucan (OTC + 2.0% BG group), 0.5% β-glucan (0.5% BG group), and 2.0% β-glucan (2.0% BG group). OTC- and BG-supplemented diets and the control diet were administered to experimental and control carp for 50 days (i.e. samplings 1-3, the exposure period); for the following 14 days, fish were fed only control feed pellets with no OTC or BG supplementation (i.e. sampling 4, the recovery period). Blood and tissue samples were collected both during, and at the end of the study. No significant changes in biometrical indices (i.e. total length, standard length, total weight, hepatosomatic and spleen somatic index, and Fulton's condition factor) were found in experimental carp compared to control in any sampling. In haematological indices, significant changes were found only in sampling 2, in which shifts in PCV (P < 0.01), Hb (P < 0.01), and WBC (P < 0.01), and in the counts of lymphocytes (P < 0.01), monocytes (P < 0.01), and neutrophil granulocytes-segments (P < 0.05) were revealed. As for biochemical profiling, plasma concentrations of glucose, albumins, cholesterol, natrium, and chlorides (all P < 0.01), and total proteins, lactate, phosphorus, and potassium (all P < 0

  15. Cloning and characterization of two duplicated interleukin-17A/F2 genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Transcripts expression and bioactivity of recombinant IL-17A/F2.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Yu, Juhua; Li, Jianlin; Tang, Yongkai; Yu, Fan; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Wenjuan

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) plays an important role in inflammation and host defense in mammals. In this study, we identified two duplicated IL-17A/F2 genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (ccIL-17A/F2a and ccIL-17A/F2b), putative encoded proteins contain 140 amino acids (aa) with conserved IL-17 family motifs. Expression analysis revealed high constitutive expression of ccIL-17A/F2s in mucosal tissues, including gill, skin and intestine, their expression could be induced by Aeromonas hydrophila, suggesting a potential role in mucosal immunity. Recombinant ccIL-17A/F2a protein (rccIL-17A/F2a) produced in Escherichia coli could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β) and the antimicrobial peptides S100A1, S100A10a and S100A10b in the primary kidney in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Above findings suggest that ccIL-17A/F2 plays an important role in both proinflammatory and innate immunity. Two duplicated ccIL-17A/F2s showed different expression level with ccIL-17A/F2a higher than b, comparison of two 5' regulatory regions indicated the length from anticipated promoter to transcriptional start site (TSS) and putative transcription factor binding site (TFBS) were different. Promoter activity of ccIL-17A/F2a was 2.5 times of ccIL-17A/F2b which consistent with expression results of two genes. These suggest mutations in 5'regulatory region contributed to the differentiation of duplicated genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report to analyze 5'regulatory region of piscine IL-17 family genes. PMID:26921542

  16. An ultra-high density linkage map and QTL mapping for sex and growth-related traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wenzhu; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Dong, Chuanju; Jiang, Likun; Feng, Jingyan; Chen, Baohua; Gong, Yiwen; Chen, Lin; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    High density genetic linkage maps are essential for QTL fine mapping, comparative genomics and high quality genome sequence assembly. In this study, we constructed a high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map with 28,194 SNP markers on 14,146 distinct loci for common carp based on high-throughput genotyping with the carp 250 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in a mapping family. The genetic length of the consensus map was 10,595.94 cM with an average locus interval of 0.75 cM and an average marker interval of 0.38 cM. Comparative genomic analysis revealed high level of conserved syntenies between common carp and the closely related model species zebrafish and medaka. The genome scaffolds were anchored to the high-density linkage map, spanning 1,357 Mb of common carp reference genome. QTL mapping and association analysis identified 22 QTLs for growth-related traits and 7 QTLs for sex dimorphism. Candidate genes underlying growth-related traits were identified, including important regulators such as KISS2, IGF1, SMTLB, NPFFR1 and CPE. Candidate genes associated with sex dimorphism were also identified including 3KSR and DMRT2b. The high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map provides an important tool for QTL fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits, and improving common carp genome assembly. PMID:27225429

  17. Increased food intake in growth hormone-transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) may be mediated by upregulating Agouti-related protein (AgRP).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chengrong; Song, Yanlong; Wang, Yaping; Zhang, Tanglin; Duan, Ming; Li, Yongming; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    In fish, food intake and feeding behavior are crucial for survival, competition, growth and reproduction. Growth hormone (GH)-transgenic common carp exhibit an enhanced growth rate, increased food intake and higher feed conversion rate. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of feeding regulation in GH-transgenic (TG) fish are not clear. In this study, we observed feeding behavior of TG and non-transgenic (NT) common carp, and analyzed the mRNA expression levels of NPY, AgRP I, orexin, POMC, CCK, and CART I in the hypothalamus and telencephalon after behavioral observation. We detected similar gene expression levels in the hypothalamus of TG and NT common carp, which had been cultured in the field at the same age. Furthermore, we tested the effects of GH on hypothalamus fragments in vitro to confirm our findings. We demonstrated that TG common carp displayed increased food intake and reduced food consumption time, which were associated with a marked increase in hypothalamic AgRP I mRNA expression. Our results suggest that elevated GH levels may influence food intake and feeding behavior by upregulating the hypothalamic orexigenic factor AgRP I in GH-transgenic common carp. PMID:23583469

  18. An ultra-high density linkage map and QTL mapping for sex and growth-related traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Peng, Wenzhu; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Dong, Chuanju; Jiang, Likun; Feng, Jingyan; Chen, Baohua; Gong, Yiwen; Chen, Lin; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    High density genetic linkage maps are essential for QTL fine mapping, comparative genomics and high quality genome sequence assembly. In this study, we constructed a high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map with 28,194 SNP markers on 14,146 distinct loci for common carp based on high-throughput genotyping with the carp 250 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in a mapping family. The genetic length of the consensus map was 10,595.94 cM with an average locus interval of 0.75 cM and an average marker interval of 0.38 cM. Comparative genomic analysis revealed high level of conserved syntenies between common carp and the closely related model species zebrafish and medaka. The genome scaffolds were anchored to the high-density linkage map, spanning 1,357 Mb of common carp reference genome. QTL mapping and association analysis identified 22 QTLs for growth-related traits and 7 QTLs for sex dimorphism. Candidate genes underlying growth-related traits were identified, including important regulators such as KISS2, IGF1, SMTLB, NPFFR1 and CPE. Candidate genes associated with sex dimorphism were also identified including 3KSR and DMRT2b. The high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map provides an important tool for QTL fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits, and improving common carp genome assembly. PMID:27225429

  19. Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295r adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, Robert J. . E-mail: robert.letcher@ec.gc.ca; Sanderson, J. Thomas; Bokkers, Abraham; Giesy, John P.; Berg, Martin van den

    2005-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4'-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a maximum of 3% to 4% (at 100 {mu}M) compared with 8% for BPA relative to the maximum induction by 17{beta}-estradiol (E2, 1 {mu}M). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was a potent antagonist of vtg production with an IC50 of 5.5 {mu}M, virtually 100% inhibition of vtg at 20 {mu}M, and an inhibitive (IC50) potency about one-tenth that of the known ER antagonist tamoxifen (IC50, 0.6 {mu}M). 2,2'-Diallyl bisphenol A, 4,4'-(1,4-phenylene-diisopropylidene)bisphenol, BPRO, and BHF were much less inhibitory with IC50 concentrations of 20-70 {mu}M, and relative potencies of 0.03 and 0.009 with tamoxifen. Bisphenol ethoxylate showed no anti-estrogenicity (up to 100 {mu}M), and 4,4'-isopropylidene-diphenol diacetate was only antagonistic at 100 {mu}M. When comparing the (anti)estrogenic potencies of these bisphenol A analogues/diphenylalkanes, anti-estrogenicity occurred at lower concentrations than estrogenicity. 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dimethylphenol) (IC50, 2.0 {mu}M) reduced E2-induced (EC50, 100 nM) vtg production due to concentration-dependent cytotoxicity as indicated by a parallel decrease in MTT activity and vtg, whereas the remaining diphenylalkanes did not cause any cytotoxicity relative to controls. None of the diphenylalkanes (up to 100 {mu}M) induced EROD activity indicating that concentration-dependent, CYP1A enzyme-mediated metabolism of E2, or any Ah-receptor-mediated interaction with the ER, was not a likely explanation for the observed anti-estrogenic effects. At

  20. Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Robert J; Sanderson, J Thomas; Bokkers, Abraham; Giesy, John P; van den Berg, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4'-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a maximum of 3% to 4% (at 100 microM) compared with 8% for BPA relative to the maximum induction by 17beta-estradiol (E2, 1 microM). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was a potent antagonist of vtg production with an IC50 of 5.5 microM, virtually 100% inhibition of vtg at 20 microM, and an inhibitive (IC50) potency about one-tenth that of the known ER antagonist tamoxifen (IC50, 0.6 microM). 2,2'-Diallyl bisphenol A, 4,4'-(1,4-phenylene-diisopropylidene)bisphenol, BPRO, and BHF were much less inhibitory with IC50 concentrations of 20-70 microM, and relative potencies of 0.03 and 0.009 with tamoxifen. Bisphenol ethoxylate showed no anti-estrogenicity (up to 100 microM), and 4,4'-isopropylidene-diphenol diacetate was only antagonistic at 100 microM. When comparing the (anti)estrogenic potencies of these bisphenol A analogues/diphenylalkanes, anti-estrogenicity occurred at lower concentrations than estrogenicity. 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dimethylphenol) (IC50, 2.0 microM) reduced E2-induced (EC50, 100 nM) vtg production due to concentration-dependent cytotoxicity as indicated by a parallel decrease in MTT activity and vtg, whereas the remaining diphenylalkanes did not cause any cytotoxicity relative to controls. None of the diphenylalkanes (up to 100 microM) induced EROD activity indicating that concentration-dependent, CYP1A enzyme-mediated metabolism of E2, or any Ah-receptor-mediated interaction with the ER, was not a likely explanation for the observed anti-estrogenic effects. At

  1. Reproductive Responses of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in Cages to Influent of the Las Vegas Wash in Lake Mead, Nevada, from late Winter to early Spring

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate the potential for contaminants in Las Vegas Wash (LW) influent to produce effects indicative of endocrine disruption in vivo, adult male and female common carp were exposed in cages for 42-48 d at four sites and two reference locations in Lake Mead.

  2. Description of an as yet unclassified DNA virus from diseased Cyprinus carpio species.

    PubMed

    Hutoran, Marina; Ronen, Ariel; Perelberg, Ayana; Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Bejerano, Izhak; Chen, Nissim; Kotler, Moshe

    2005-02-01

    Numerous deaths of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were observed on many farms throughout Israel, resulting in severe financial losses. The lethal viral disease observed is highly contagious and extremely virulent, but morbidity and mortality are restricted to koi and common carp populations. Diseased fish exhibit fatigue and gasping movements in shallow water. Infected fish had interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis as well as petechial hemorrhages in the liver and other symptoms that were not consistent with viral disease, suggesting a secondary infection. Here we report the isolation of carp nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV), which is the etiologic agent of this disease. The virus propagates and induces severe cytopathic effects by 5 days postinfection in fresh koi or carp fin cell cultures (KFC and CFC, respectively), but not in epithelioma papillosum cyprini cells. The virus harvested from KFC cultures induced the same clinical signs, with a mortality of 75 to 95%, upon inoculation into naive koi and common carp. Using PCR, we provide final proof that the isolated virus is indeed the etiologic agent of food and ornamental carp mortalities in fish husbandry. Electron microscopy revealed viral cores with icosahedral morphology of 100 to 110 nm that resembled herpesviruses. Electron micrographs of purified pelleted CNGV sections, together with viral sensitivities to ether and Triton X-100, suggested that it is an enveloped virus. However, the genome of the isolated virus is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule of 270 to 290 kbp, which is larger than known herpesviruses. The viral DNA seems highly divergent and bears only small fragments (16 to 45 bp) that are similar to the genomes of several DNA viruses. Nevertheless, amino acid sequences encoded by CNGV DNA fragments bear similarities primarily to members of the Poxviridae and Herpesviridae and to other large dsDNA viruses. We suggest, therefore, that the etiologic agent of this disease may

  3. Association study between single nucleotide polymorphisms in leptin and growth traits in Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Li, H; Li, J; Yu, F; Yu, J

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone that affects the regulation of body weight, energy expenditure, fat metabolism, food intake, and appetite. In this study, we cloned the jlLEP-A1 and jlLEP-A2 genes in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) and performed an association analysis between identified polymorphisms and growth traits. Three polymorphisms in exons of jlLEP-A1 (A1-T113C) and jlLEP-A2 (A2-G415A and A2-G427A) were identified, and genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 263 female and 294 male Jian carp. All three SNPs were missense mutations. Association analysis revealed that the three SNPs were significantly associated with growth traits in male Jian carp. Only SNP A1-T113C was significantly associated with growth traits in female Jian carp. Analysis of diplotypes derived from jlLEP-A2 SNPs revealed an association with growth traits in male but not female Jian carp. These results demonstrate that polymorphisms in the leptin gene are associated with growth traits and may be used for marker-assisted selection programs in Jian carp breeding and production. PMID:27525905

  4. The Activity of Neutral α-Glucosidase and Selected Biochemical Parameters in the Annual Cycle of Breeding Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kotońska-Feiga, Julia; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław; Nowacki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate seasonal changes in the hydrolytic and transferase activity of neutral α-glucosidase, the level of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and total protein in the annual breeding cycle of the carp. The study was conducted on fish from a fish farm in Lower Silesia (Poland). Blood serum was collected from the heart in: June, September and December of two consecutive years. The results of the study show that the hydrolytic and transferase activity of neutral α-glucosidase, as well as the results of basic biochemical parameters are highest in summer, when the fish seek and intake food intensively. The lowest values were observed in spring, when carp have the lowest metabolism after the wintering period. PMID:26559406

  5. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Jenna; Winter, Matthew J.; Lange, Anke; Cumming, Rob; Owen, Stewart F.; Tyler, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA is pharmacologically active in carp and has the potential to invoke PPARα-related responses in fish exposed in the environment, particularly considering that CFA may represent just one of a number of PPAR-active compounds present to which wild fish may be exposed. PMID:25749508

  6. Enzyme activity in energy supply of spermatozoon motility in two taxonomically distant fish species (sterlet Acipenser ruthenus, Acipenseriformes and common carp Cyprinus carpio, Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Rodina, Marek

    2016-03-01

    As spermatozoon motility duration differs significantly among fish species, the mechanism of ATP generation-regeneration and its distribution along the flagellum may be species-dependent. The present study compared the role of creatine kinase (CK) with that of adenylate kinase (AK) in ATP regeneration during motility of demembranated spermatozoa of taxonomically distant fish species, sterlet, and common carp, allowing investigation for the presence of the creatine-phosphocreatine (PCr) shuttle in sterlet spermatozoa. The flagellar beat frequency of demembranated spermatozoa was measured in reactivating media in the presence or absence of ATP, ADP, PCr, and CK and AK inhibitors. After demembranation, AK, CK, and total ATPase activity was measured in spermatozoon extracts. Beat frequency of demembranated spermatozoa was found to be positively correlated with ATP levels in reactivating medium and to reach a plateau at 0.8 mM and 0.6 mM ATP for carp and sterlet, respectively. It was shown for the first time that sterlet axonemal dynein ATPases have a higher affinity for ATP than do those of carp. Supplementation of reactivating medium with ADP and PCr without ATP resulted in beat frequencies comparable to that measured with 0.3 to 0.5-mM ATP for both studied species. The presence of the PCr-CK phosphagen system and its essential role in ATP regeneration were first confirmed for sturgeon spermatozoa. The inhibition of CK exerted a high impact on spermatozoon energy supply in both species, whereas the inhibition of AK was more pronounced in sterlet than in carp. This was confirmed by the quantification of enzyme activity in spermatozoon extracts. We concluded that spermatozoa of these taxonomically distant species use similar systems to supply energy for flagella motility, but with different efficacy. PMID:26483312

  7. Environmental Degradation in a Eutrophic Shallow Lake is not Simply Due to Abundance of Non-native Cyprinus carpio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Herrejón, Juan P.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Balart, Eduardo F.; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo; Mar-Silva, Valentín; Caraveo-Patiño, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Non-native species are often major drivers of the deterioration of natural ecosystems. The common carp Cyprinus carpio are known to cause major changes in lentic systems, but may not be solely responsible for large scale changes in these ecosystems. We used data from extensive collection efforts to gain insight into the importance of carp as drivers of ecosystem change in Lake Patzcuaro, Mexico. We compared the structure (fish density, biomass, diversity, and evenness) of fish assemblages from six Lake Patzcuaro sites with different habitat characteristics. Intersite comparisons were carried out for both wet and dry seasons. We explored the relationships between non-carp species and carp; and studied multivariate interactions between fish abundance and habitat characteristics. From a biomass perspective, carp was dominant in only four of six sites. In terms of density, carp was not a dominant species in all sites. Further, carp density and biomass were not negatively related to native species density and biomass, even when carp density and biomass were positively correlated to water turbidity levels. Carp dominated fish assemblages in the shallowest sites with the highest water turbidity, plant detritus at the bottom, and floating macrophytes covering the lake surface. These results suggest that the effect of carp on fish assemblages may be highly dependent on habitat characteristics in Lake Patzcuaro. Watershed degradation, pollution, water level loss, and other sources of anthropogenic influence may be more important drivers of Lake Patzcuaro degradation than the abundance of carp.

  8. A Study of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Induced Liver Injury in Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) Using Precision-Cut Liver Slices.

    PubMed

    Du, Jin-Liang; Cao, Li-Ping; Liu, Ying-Juan; Jia, Rui; Yin, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a model for the study of liver injury induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Jian carp using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS). PCLS were treated with TCDD at concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 μg/L for 6 h, followed by collection of the culture supernatant and PCLS for analysis. Several biochemical indices were analyzed, including glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Expression of mRNA was also estimated for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), aryl hydrocarbon receptor2 (AhR2), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator2 (ARNT2). Results showed that some significant effects (p < 0.05) in MDA, GSH-Px and PCLS viability were observed at a TCDD concentration as low as 0.05 µg/L, and the observed effects increased with exposure concentration. Following exposure to TCDD for 6 h at a concentration of 0.3 μg/L, significant increases (p < 0.01) in the content of GPT, GOT, MDA, and LDH were observed, while SOD activity, GSH-Px activity, and PCLS viability were decreased (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). Exposure to 0.3 μg/L TCDD also resulted in increased expression of mRNA for CYP1A, AhR2, and ARNT2. Overall, these results provide evidence of TCDD-induced liver injury and oxidative stress in Jian carp. These results also support the use of PCLS as an in vitro model for the evaluation of hepatotoxicity in Jian carp. PMID:26508429

  9. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on growth, some immune responses and gut lactic acid bacteria of common carp (Cyprinus Carpio) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Momeni-Moghaddam, Parvin; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Ziaei-Nejad, Saeed; Parviz Salati, Amir; Pasha-Zanoosi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on growth, some immune responses and gut lactic acid bacteria of common carp. Four experimental diets containing 0%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.20% MOS were prepared. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish with initial average weight of approximately 14 g. After eight weeks, survival rate was high in all treatments with no significant difference (p > 0.05). Growth performance including final weight, weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) did not differ among the treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was better when the fish were fed 0.05 to 0.20% MOS diets. The alternative complement activity, lysozyme activity and serum total Ig were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) greater in fish fed 0.20% MOS diets. Although the total intestinal bacterial counts were not affected by dietary treatment (p > 0.05), the lactic acid bacteria levels were significantly elevated in fish fed MOS diets (p < 0.05). These results indicated that oral administration of MOS at 0.20% elevated the immune response, improved FCR and modulated intestinal microbiota of common carp. PMID:26893815

  10. Evaluation of Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Responses and Recovery Ability of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Acute Exposure to Atrazine Herbicide

    PubMed Central

    Blahova, Jana; Modra, Helena; Sevcikova, Marie; Marsalek, Petr; Zelnickova, Lenka; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of atrazine exposure (5, 15, 20, and 30 mg·L−1) on common carp and the ability of regeneration. During 96 h exposure we observed abnormal behavior in fish exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Mortality and histological alterations were noticed only in the group exposed to 30 mg·L−1. Most experimental groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower values of haemoglobin, haematocrit, leukocyte, and lymphocyte and significantly higher values of monocytes, segmented and band neutrophile granulocytes, and also metamyelocytes and myelocytes. A significantly lower (P < 0.05) leukocyte count was also recorded in experimental groups (5 and 15 mg·L−1) after recovery period. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) alterations in glucose, total protein, lactate, phosphorus, calcium, and biopterin as well as in activities of ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH were found in most experimental groups. These changes were most apparent in the groups exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Most of the indices were found to be restored after the 7-day recovery period with the exception of LDH, ALT, and lactate in the group exposed to 15 mg·L−1. Our results showed that atrazine exposure had a profound negative influence on selected indices and also on histological changes of common carp. PMID:24791011

  11. Effects of different concentrations of metal ions on degradation of adenosine triphosphate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets stored at 4°C: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Qin, Na; Zhang, Longteng; Lv, Jian; Li, Qingzheng; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-11-15

    The impact of different concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+), and Zn(2+) on the degradation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the influence of these ions on the activity of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMP-deaminase) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in common carp fillets (in vivo) during 4°C storage was examined. The content of ATP, inosine monophosphate (IMP), and hypoxanthine (Hx), and the activity of AMP-deaminase and ACP were determined. Results indicated that the effects of different concentrations of six kinds of metal ions on AMP-deaminase and ACP were not the same. Na(+), K(+), Fe(2+), and Zn(2+) enhanced AMP-deaminase activity, which led to the rapid degradation of ATP and to the generation of a large quantity of IMP within a short time. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) delayed the change in AMP-deaminase and ACP activity in carp and caused a further delay in the degradation of ATP. Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) inhibited ACP activity, which reduced the decomposition of IMP and the formation of Hx. PMID:27283700

  12. Characterization and expression analysis of an interferon-γ2 induced chemokine receptor CXCR3 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Chadzinska, M; Golbach, L; Pijanowski, L; Scheer, M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L

    2014-11-01

    Chemokine and chemokine receptor signalling pairs play a crucial role in regulation of cell migration, morphogenesis, and cell activation. Expressed in mammals on activated T and NK cells, chemokine receptor CXCR3 binds interferon-γ inducible chemokines CXCL9-11 and CCL21. Here we sequenced the carp CXCR3 chemokine receptor and showed its relationship to CXCR3a receptors found in other teleosts. We found high expression of the CXCR3 gene in most of the organs and tissues of the immune system and in immune-related tissues such as gills and gut, corroborating a predominantly immune-related function. The very high expression in gill and gut moreover indicates a role for CXCR3 in cell recruitment during infection. High in vivo expression of CXCR3 at later stages of inflammation, as well as its in vitro sensitivity to IFN-γ2 stimulation indicate that in carp, CXCR3 is involved in macrophage-mediated responses. Moreover, as expression of the CXCR3 and CXCb genes coincides in the focus of inflammation and as both the CXCb chemokines and the CXCR3 receptor are significantly up-regulated upon IFN-γ stimulation it is hypothesized that CXCb chemokines may be putative ligands for CXCR3. PMID:25036761

  13. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on growth, some immune responses and gut lactic acid bacteria of common carp (Cyprinus Carpio) fingerlings

    PubMed Central

    Momeni-Moghaddam, Parvin; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Ziaei-Nejad, Saeed; Parviz Salati, Amir; Pasha-Zanoosi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on growth, some immune responses and gut lactic acid bacteria of common carp. Four experimental diets containing 0%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.20% MOS were prepared. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish with initial average weight of approximately 14 g. After eight weeks, survival rate was high in all treatments with no significant difference (p > 0.05). Growth performance including final weight, weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) did not differ among the treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was better when the fish were fed 0.05 to 0.20% MOS diets. The alternative complement activity, lysozyme activity and serum total Ig were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) greater in fish fed 0.20% MOS diets. Although the total intestinal bacterial counts were not affected by dietary treatment (p > 0.05), the lactic acid bacteria levels were significantly elevated in fish fed MOS diets (p < 0.05). These results indicated that oral administration of MOS at 0.20% elevated the immune response, improved FCR and modulated intestinal microbiota of common carp. PMID:26893815

  14. Characterization and expression analysis of Toll-interacting protein in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., responding to bacterial and viral challenge.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shijuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fumiao; Zhu, Yaoyao; An, Liguo; Yang, Guiwen

    2016-01-01

    Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) is a mediator involved in the TLRs signaling pathway which is critical for innate immune response. In the present study, a full-length Tollip cDNA was first cloned from common carp (CcTollip), which was 1284 bp in length, containing an open reading frame of 831 bp encoding a peptide of 276 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment showed that the CcTollip shared the highest similarity with that of grass carp and zebrafish. Phylogenetically, the CcTollip clustered together well with their piscine family members. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CcTollip was widely expressed in all tissues tested and showed up-regulation with challenges of Vibrio anguillarum and poly(I:C), suggesting that CcTollip was activated by V. anguillarum and poly(I:C). These data indicated that CcTollip might play an important role in immune response to bacterial and viral invasion. PMID:27330905

  15. Existence of microsatellites in expressed sequence tags of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) available in GenBank dbEST database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingjie, Hu; Xiaolong, Wang; Xiaoli, Hu; Zhenmin, Bao

    2006-01-01

    Common carp expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed for the existence of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). In the NCBI dbEST database, a total of 10612 sequences were registered before December 31, 2004. A complete search of 2-6 nucleotide microsatellites resulted in the identification of 513 SSR-containing ESTs, accounting for 4.8% of the total. Cluster analysis indicated that 73 sequences of SSR-containing ESTs fell into 27 groups and the remaining 440 ESTs were indenpendent. A total of 467 unique SSR-containing ESTs were identified. These EST-SSRs contained a variety of simple sequence types, and di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant, accounting for 42.1% and 27.9% of the whole, respectively. Of the dinucleotide repeats, CA/TG was the most abundant, followed by GA/TC. BLASTx search showed that 38.1% of the SSR loci could be associated with genes or proteins of known or unknown function. BLASTx searches of SSR-containing ESTs also showed high frequencies (98/179) of hits on zebrafish sequences.

  16. Existence of microsatellites in expressed sequence tags of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) available in GenBank dbEST database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jingjie; Wang, Xiaolong; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2006-01-01

    Common carp expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed for the existence of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). In the NCBI dbEST database, a total of 10612 sequences were registered before December 31, 2004. A complete search of 2 6 nucleotide microsatellites resulted in the identification of 513 SSR-containing ESTs, accounting for 4.8% of the total. Cluster analysis indicated that 73 sequences of SSR-containing ESTs fell into 27 groups and the remaining 440 ESTs were indenpendent. A total of 467 unique SSR-containing ESTs were identified. These EST-SSRs contained a variety of simple sequence types, and di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant, accounting for 42.1% and 27.9% of the whole, respectively. Of the dinucleotide repeats, CA/TG was the most abundant, followed by GA/TC. BLASTx search showed that 38.1% of the SSR loci could be associated with genes or proteins of known or unknown function. BLASTx searches of SSR-containing ESTs also showed high frequencies (98/179) of hits on zebrafish sequences.

  17. Comparison of physiological changes in carp, Cyprinus carpio, induced by several pollutants at sublethal concentrations. I. The dependency on exposure time

    SciTech Connect

    Gluth, G.; Hanke, W.

    1985-04-01

    Carp were exposed to 10 different pollutants at sublethal concentrations for 6, 24, or 72 hr. Blood, liver, and white muscle samples were taken after the exposure time together with samples of control handled fish. Serum concentrations of glucose, cortisol protein, and cholesterol were determined. Similarly, the liver and muscle glycogen contents were measured. The effects of the following pollutants were examined: aldrin (100 micrograms/liter), atrazine (100 micrograms/liter), DDT (50 micrograms/liter), dieldrin (20 micrograms/liter), endrin (2 micrograms/liter), hexachlorbenzene (100 micrograms/liter), lindane (100 micrograms/liter), methanol (1 ml/liter), 4-N-phenol (100 micrograms/liter), toluene (100 microliters/liter). The rises in serum glucose and cortisol were the most frequent changes occurring after exposure to the pollutants. A decline in plasma protein and cholesterol content was also often observed. Liver glycogen concentration increased first in most cases and was reduced after longer exposure. Muscle glycogen was affected differently, sometimes reduced by exposure to the pollutants. The experimental design allows for the gradual increase in toxicity of the pollutants used regarding the applied concentrations. Furthermore, the aim of the paper is to evaluate the tests for proof of toxicity of those chemicals. The determination of serum glucose and cortisol levels can be proposed as mostly useful. The clearest changes in all parameters were found after treatment with 100 micrograms/liter atrazine and 50 micrograms/liter DDT. When serum glucose and cortisol concentrations were quickly elevated, signs for exhaustion could be seen after 72 hr of exposure.

  18. Identification and characterization of a LTR retrotransposon from the genome of Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liping; Yin, Guojun; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Ding, Weidong

    2016-06-01

    A Ty3/gypsy-retrotransposon-type transposon was found in the genome of the Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in a previous study (unpublished), and was designated a JRE retrotransposon (Jian retrotransposon). The full-length JRE retrotransposon is 5126 bp, which includes two long terminal repeats of 470 bp at the 5' end and 453 bp at the 3' end, and two open reading frames between them: 4203 bp encoding the group-specific antigen (GAG) and polyprotein (POL). The pol gene has a typical Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon structure, and the gene order is protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase (PR-RT-RH-IN). A phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene showed that it has similarities of 40.7, 40, and 32.8 %, to retrotransposons of Azumapecten farreri, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, and Xiphophorus maculatus, respectively. Therefore, JRE might belong to the JULE retrotransposon family. The copy number of the JRE transposon in the genome of the Jian carp is 124, determined with real-time quantitative PCR. The mRNA of the JRE retrotransposon is expressed in five Jian carp tissues, the liver, kidney, blood, muscle, and gonad, and slightly higher in the kidney and liver than in the other tissues. PMID:27178280

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Hepatic Tissue of Cyprinus carpio L. Exposed to Cyanobacterial Blooms in Lake Taihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jinlin; Wang, Xiaorong; Shan, Zhengjun; Yang, Liuyan; Zhou, Junying; Bu, Yuanqin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of industry and agriculture and associated pollution, the cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu have become a major threat to aquatic wildlife and human health. In this study, the ecotoxicological effects of cyanobacterial blooms on cage-cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were investigated. Microcystins (MCs), major cyanobacterial toxins, have been detected in carp cultured at different experimental sites of Meiliang Bay. We observed that the accumulation of MCs in carp was closely associated with several environmental factors, including temperature, pH value, and density of cyanobacterial blooms. The proteomic profile of carp liver exposed to cyanobacterial blooms was analyzed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry. The toxic effects of cyanobacterial blooms on carp liver were similar to changes caused by MCs. MCs were transported into liver cells and induced the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MCs and ROS inhibited protein phosphatase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), directly or indirectly resulting in oxidative stress and disruption of the cytoskeleton. These effects further interfered with metabolic pathways in the liver through the regulation of series of related proteins. The results of this study indicated that cyanobacterial blooms pose a major threat to aquatic wildlife in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. These results provided evidence of the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage in carp exposed to cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:24558380

  20. Mass mortality in ornamental fish, Cyprinus carpio koi caused by a bacterial pathogen, Proteus hauseri.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Swaminathan, T Raja; Kumar, Rahul G; Dharmaratnam, Arathi; Basheer, V S; Jena, J K

    2015-09-01

    Moribund koi carp, Cyprinus carpio koi, from a farm with 50% cumulative mortality were sampled with the aim of isolating and detecting the causative agent. Three bacterial species viz., Citrobacter freundii (NSCF-1), Klebsiella pneumoniae (NSKP-1) and Proteus hauseri [genomospecies 3 of Proteus vulgaris Bio group 3] (NSPH-1) were isolated, identified and characterized on the basis of biochemical tests and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene using universal bacterial primers. Challenge experiments with these isolates using healthy koi carp showed that P. hauseri induced identical clinical and pathological states within 3 d of intramuscular injection. The results suggest P. hauseri (NSPH-1) was the causative agent. In phylogenetic analysis, strain NSPH-1 formed a distinct cluster with other P. hauseri reference strains with ≥99% sequence similarity. P. hauseri isolates were found sensitive to Ampicillin, Cefalexin, Ciprofloxacin and Cefixime and resistant to Gentamycin, Oxytetracycline, Chloramphenicol, and Kanamycin. The affected fish recovered from the infection after ciprofloxacin treatment. PMID:26028178

  1. Fat-associated lymphoid cluster in Cyprinus carpio: Characterisation and its relation with peritoneal haemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Madera-Sandoval, Ruth L; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba; Dzul-Caamal, Ricardo; Gallegos-Rangel, Esperanza; Domínguez-López, María Lilia; García-Latorre, Ethel; Vega-López, Armando

    2015-06-01

    FALC cells are natural helper cells producing Th2-type cytokines, which express c-kit, Sca-1, IL7R and CD45 in mouse and human. These cells are involved in allergic responses and contribute to the inflammatory reactions of adipose tissue; however, a lack of information prevails about the presence of these cells in other species. The aim of the study was to identify and characterise FALC cells in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using immunohistochemistry and molecular biology techniques as well as to explore their relationships with their microenvironment. Histological description of the FALC was performed using H&E and polyclonal antibodies were used against cell-surface markers such as c-kit, Sca-1 and CD45. Furthermore, gene expression of c-kit, Sca-1 and IL7R was assessed. C. carpio FALC cells express the same surface markers reported in FALC of the mouse at both the pre- and post-transcriptional level. By exposure to the soluble fraction of helminths, FALC cells produce abundant Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-6 and IL-13) but do not synthesise IL-1α. Additionally, FALC cells probably participate in vascular remodelling of the intestine vessels, inducing tumours because a malignant haemangiosarcoma in the peritoneal cavity was found. In this tumour, abundant FALC with their characteristic cell-surface markers were detected. The findings of this study suggest the involvement of some proto-oncogenes such as c-kit and Sca-1, and the deregulation of Src kinases modulated by CD45 present in C. carpio FALC with the ontogeny of peritoneal haemangiosarcoma in this fish species. PMID:25804491

  2. Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Elia, Antonia Concetta; Fanetti, Alessia; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Taticchi, Maria I

    2008-06-01

    Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The concentration of water samples was 3 l/equiv. In order to assess the effects of the water samples on carp liver, total glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glyoxalase I, were measured following this treatment for 6 days at two experimental times (3 and 6 days). Both water plant-treated carp showed a general increase of the enzymatic activities of glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase which might be employed as potential biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by disinfected river water. Plant 1-treated carp showed higher glyoxalase I and glutathione levels and lower glutathione peroxidase activity. A depleted level of total glutathione and of glyoxalase I for specimens of water plant 2 (for both experimental times), without correlation with the distances in the pipeline, suggests that river plant water can also lead to potentially adverse effects on selected biochemical parameters in C. carpio. PMID:18457861

  3. Antioxidant effect of propolis against exposure to chromium in Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Yonar, M Enis; Yonar, Serpil Mişe; Çoban, M Zülfü; Eroğlu, Mücahit

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ameliorative properties of propolis against the toxic effects of chromium (VI) by examining oxidative damage markers such as lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defence system components in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of chromium. Propolis was simultaneously administered to chromium-exposed fish. Treatment was continued for 28 days, and at the end of this period, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, spleen, and gill) samples were collected. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in blood and tissues for measurement of oxidant-antioxidant status. The levels of MDA, as an index of lipid peroxidation, increased in blood and tissues. Antioxidant enzyme activities in blood and tissues were modified in chromium groups compared to controls. Simultaneous administration of propolis ameliorated these parameters. The present results suggest that administration of propolis might alleviate chromium-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22052654

  4. Detection of micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio exposed to metallic mercury.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno, J C; Ferrari, I; Spanó, M A; Centeno, A J

    1997-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio fish (carp), exposed to elemental or metallic mercury (Hg0) at concentrations of 2.0, 20.0, and 200.0 mg per liter of water, were kept in concrete tanks for 159 days. Ten fish were used for each concentration level. Thirteen samples of peripheral blood were collected from each animal through gill puncture, 12 during the first 90 days of the experiment, and the last one at the end of the experiment. The micronucleus test (MNT) was designed to study dose and time yield effects of mercury after indirect exposure in vivo. The results indicated that for a concentration of 2.0 mg Hg0/l, there was no significant increase in frequency of micronuclei (MN), but at higher concentrations (20.0 and 200.0 mg Hg0/l) there was a significant increase in MN frequencies. This effect was higher after 31 days of exposure, followed by slight stabilization and gradual decrease. PMID:9366907

  5. Assessment of the toxicity of waste water from a textile industry to Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Roopadevi, H; Somashekar, R K

    2012-03-01

    Static, short-term, acute toxicity tests were performed over a period of 96 hrs using different concentrations of influent and effluent of textile industry waste water with the objective of evaluating their acute toxicity on fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio (common carp). The LC50 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr of influent and effluent were 25.9, 21.10, 15.66, 11.11% (v/v) and 63.18, 54.89, 48.62, 36.04% (v/v), respectively. The acute toxic unit TUa values for 24, 48, 72, 96 hr for influent and effluent are 3.85, 4.73, 6.38, 8.99 and 1.58, 1.82, 2.05, 2.77, respectively. Correspondingly, the TF was found to be 1, 1.22, 1.65 and 2.33 for influent, and for effluent 1, 1.15, 1.29 and 1.75. Total efficiency of the treatment was 69.16% and the safe concentration of effluent is set to be 3.60%. These data are highly useful in establishing limits of acceptability by the aquatic animals. The need to introduce toxicity evaluation assay for confirming the quality of effluent from the point view of effective environmental safe limits and to ensure integrity of aquatic environment, is stressed. PMID:23033675

  6. Monoclonal antibodies against goldfish (Carassius auratus) immunoglobulin: application to the quantification of immunoglobulin and antibody-secreting cells by ELISPOT and seric immunoglobulin and antibody levels by ELISA in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Siwicki, A K; Vergnet, C; Charlemagne, J; Dunier, M

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against heavy and light chains of goldfish immunoglobulin (Ig) were characterized by a Western blot technique. A complete cross-reactivity was observed between carp and goldfish Ig. These mAbs were used for the quantification of carp Ig and anti-Yersinia ruckeri antibodies by ELISA. An ELISPOT assay was also developed in carp to quantify Ig-secreting cells (ISC) and antibody-secreting cells (ASC). The number of ASC was maximum on day 18 post-vaccination and decreased to the basal level on day 28. The antibody levels in sera were maximum on day 18 and slowly decreased until day 28. PMID:7951348

  7. Dimethoate Induced Behavioural Changes in Juveniles of Cyprinus carpio var. communis under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Qayoom, Imtiyaz; Shah, Feroz A; Mukhtar, Malik; Balkhi, Masood H; Bhat, Farooz A; Bhat, Bilal A

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate acute toxicity of dimethoate on juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. communis. Fishes weighing 10 ± 2 gms were selected and mortality data was statistically evaluated by Finney's Probit Method. The 96-hour LC50 value for Cyprinus carpio was found as 1.1 ppm in static bioassay system. Mean values of physicochemical parameters of aquarium waters determined during bioassay depicted slight variation indicating that the mortality in aquarium fishes occurred due to pesticide exposure and not suffocation. Lab. temperature ranged from 12 to 13°C; water temperature ranged from 11 to 12°C; dissolved oxygen ranged from 3.90 to 4.56 mg/L; pH ranged from 6.90 to 7.05; total dissolved solids ranged from 2.66 to 3.0 × 10(3) mg/L, while CO2 remained at a constant value of 2.0 mg/L. The fishes elicited various behavioural responses such as uncoordinated movements, convulsions, excessive mucus secretion, and imbalanced swimming which ended in a collapse to the bottom of the aquarium. Prior to death, the clinical signs like scale erosion, pale body colour, and hemorrhagic patches over the body were noticed which became more vivid up to the termination of experiments. Results of the study indicate potential toxicity of dimethoate in fingerlings of common carp for which the natural waterbodies must be continuously monitored to reduce its impact across food chains. PMID:27563689

  8. Dimethoate Induced Behavioural Changes in Juveniles of Cyprinus carpio var. communis under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Feroz A.; Mukhtar, Malik; Balkhi, Masood H.; Bhat, Farooz A.; Bhat, Bilal A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate acute toxicity of dimethoate on juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. communis. Fishes weighing 10 ± 2 gms were selected and mortality data was statistically evaluated by Finney's Probit Method. The 96-hour LC50 value for Cyprinus carpio was found as 1.1 ppm in static bioassay system. Mean values of physicochemical parameters of aquarium waters determined during bioassay depicted slight variation indicating that the mortality in aquarium fishes occurred due to pesticide exposure and not suffocation. Lab. temperature ranged from 12 to 13°C; water temperature ranged from 11 to 12°C; dissolved oxygen ranged from 3.90 to 4.56 mg/L; pH ranged from 6.90 to 7.05; total dissolved solids ranged from 2.66 to 3.0 × 103 mg/L, while CO2 remained at a constant value of 2.0 mg/L. The fishes elicited various behavioural responses such as uncoordinated movements, convulsions, excessive mucus secretion, and imbalanced swimming which ended in a collapse to the bottom of the aquarium. Prior to death, the clinical signs like scale erosion, pale body colour, and hemorrhagic patches over the body were noticed which became more vivid up to the termination of experiments. Results of the study indicate potential toxicity of dimethoate in fingerlings of common carp for which the natural waterbodies must be continuously monitored to reduce its impact across food chains. PMID:27563689

  9. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and Microelements in Silver Bream (Brama brama L.), Northern Pike (Esox lucius L.), Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) From Tisza River, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Štrbac, Snežana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in liver, gills, gonads, and brain of four ecologically different fish species in Serbia: piscivorous northern pike, benthivorous sterlet and silver bream, and omnivorous common carp. Fish were caught at four sites along the stretch of the River Tisza in the Pannonian part of Serbia during October 2010. Results revealed that heavy metals and microelements with the highest values in fish samples were Fe, Al, and Zn. The highest concentration of heavy metals and microelements was recorded in omnivorous common carp, and organs that most intensively accumulated the greatest number of metals were liver and gills, whereas the locality did not exert a marked impact on level of bioaccumulation. PMID:26039743

  10. In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assessment of selected pharmaceuticals in relation to Escherichia coli and Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Załęska-Radziwiłł, Monika; Affek, Katarzyna; Doskocz, Nina; Affek, Andrzej

    2016-10-14

    Genotoxicity studies (using SOS chromotest and comet assay) of Escherichia coli and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were performed for three pharmaceutically active compounds, ciprofloxacin, 17α-ethinylestradiol and 5-fluorouracil, used in the treatment of humans. The values of genotoxicity induction coefficient (I) in the SOS chromotest clearly showed genotoxicity for ciprofloxacin, both in the presence and in the absence of S9 fraction; 17α-ethinylestradiol demonstrated slight genotoxicity at the highest tested concentration; and 5-fluorouracil did not induce genotoxic effects in Escherichia coli mutants. Statistical analysis of the results of the comet assay revealed significant differences in cell populations derived from carp placed in a solution of 5-fluorouracil in comparison with the negative control. Statistical analysis also showed a significant increase of "% DNA in tail" of comets in cell populations incubated in solutions of 17α-ethinylestradiol at concentrations of 10000, 2000 and 400 µg/L and in solutions of 5-fluorouracil with S9 fraction at concentrations of 50,000 and 2,000 μg/L in comparison with the negative controls. PMID:27410723

  11. Viability of Male Gametes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) along the Lower Colorado River from the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Havasu NWR, and Lake Mohave of Lake Mead National Recreation Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    To contribute to an investigation on possible endocrine impacts in three sites along the lower Colorado River in Arizona, especially in male fishes, this study addressed the null hypothesis that aquatic species in southern sites did not exhibit evidence of endocrine disruption as compared with those in nonimpacted sites. The results presented are intended to provide managers with science-based information and interpretations about the reproductive condition of biota in their habitat along the lower Colorado River to minimize any potential adverse effects to trust fish and wildlife resources and to identify water resources of acceptable quality. In particular, these data can inform decision making about wastewater discharges into the Colorado River that directly supplies water to Arizona refuges located along the river. These data are integral to the USFWS proposal entitled 'AZ - Endocrine Disruption in Razorback Sucker and Common Carp on National Wildlife Refuges along the Lower Colorado River' that was proposed to assess evidence of endocrine disruption in carp and razorback suckers downstream of Hoover Dam.

  12. Impact of DBP on histology and expression of HSP 70 in gill and liver tissue of Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Agus, Hizlan H; Erkmen, Belda; Sümer, Sibel; Sepici-Dinçel, Aylin; Erkoç, Figen

    2015-09-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) widely used plasticizer in the plastic industry, affects regulation of the endocrine system and causes toxicity in animals. In the present study, the aim was to study the toxic effects/damages of DBP exposure using Hsp70 levels and histopathological changes in Carp liver and gill. Hsp70 expression levels were assessed as specific biomarker of in vivo ecotoxicological stress. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to sub-lethal concentration of DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate, 1 mg/L) for 4, 24 and 96 h. Gill and liver tissues were evaluated histopathologically and RNA quantifications for Hsp70 expression levels were carried out using a two-step real-time RT-PCR. In liver, a rapid but non-significant increase in mRNA levels in the first 4 h was observed. mRNA levels significantly increased up to 2-3 fold after 24 and 96 h (p < 0.05). However, irregular mRNA level changes were also recorded: Gill specific and time-dependent regulation of Hsp70 expression were 4-5 fold inhibition after 4 and 24 h (p < 0.05), then increased up to 4 fold after 96 h (p < 0.05). Histopathological findings support altered transcription results as: Epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, fusion of secondary lamellae, telangiectasis, passive hyperemia and hydropic degeneration. Significant alterations of Hsp70 levels were likely due to a tissue specific response against chemical stress, cellular damage and lesions due to DBP. Carp was found to be a suitable experimental model for toxicology, and Hsp70 mRNA levels are reliable, specific biomarkers. PMID:26311152

  13. Effect of 4-week feeding of deoxynivalenol- or T-2-toxin-contaminated diet on lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox system in the hepatopancreas of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Pelyhe, Csilla; Kövesi, Benjámin; Zándoki, Erika; Kovács, Balázs; Szabó-Fodor, Judit; Mézes, Miklós; Balogh, Krisztián

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of study was to investigate the effects of T-2 toxin (4.11 mg T-2 toxin and 0.45 mg HT-2 toxin kg(-1) feed) and deoxynivalenol (5.96 and 0.33 mg 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (DON) kg(-1) feed) in 1-year-old common carp juveniles in a 4-week feeding trial. The exposure of mycotoxins resulted in increased mortality in both groups consuming mycotoxin-contaminated diet. Parameters of lipid peroxidation were not affected during the trial, and antioxidant defence also did not show response to oxidative stress; however, glutatione peroxidase activity slightly, but significantly, decreased in the T-2 toxin group. Glutathione S-transferase activity showed moderate decrease as effect of T-2 toxin, which suggests its effect on xenobiotic transformation. Reduced glutathione concentration showed moderate changes as effect of DON exposure, but T-2 toxin has no effect. Expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) genes showed different response to mycotoxin exposure. T-2 toxin caused dual response in the expression of gpx4a (early and late downregulation and mid-term upregulation), but continuous upregulation was found as effect of deoxynivalenol. Expression of the other gene, gpx4b, was upregulated by both trichothecenes during the whole period. The results suggested that trichothecenes have some effect on free radical formation and antioxidant defence, but the changes depend on the duration of exposure and the dose applied, and in case of glutathione peroxidase, there was no correlation between expression of genes and enzyme activity. PMID:26920403

  14. Trace elements in farmed fish (Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Beijing: implication from feed.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haifeng; Qin, Dongli; Mou, Zhenbo; Zhao, Jiwei; Tang, Shizhan; Wu, Song; Gao, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Concentrations of 30 trace elements, Li, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, Zn, Se, Sr, Co, Al, Ti, As, Cs, Sc, Te, Ba, Ga, Pb, Sn, Cd, Sb, Ag, Tm, TI, Be, Hg and U in major cultured freshwater fish species (common carp-Cyprinus carpio, grass carp-Ctenopharyngodon idella and rainbow trout-Oncorhynchus mykiss) with the corresponding feed from 23 fish farms in Beijing, China, were investigated. The results revealed that Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Sr, Se were the major accumulated essential elements and Al, Ti were the major accumulated non-essential elements, while Mo, Co, Ga, Sn, Cd, Sb, Ag, Tm, U, TI, Be, Te, Pb and Hg were hardly detectable. Contents of investigated trace elements were close to or much lower than those in fish from other areas in China. Correlation analysis suggested that the elemental concentrations in those fish species were relatively constant and did not vary much with the fish feed. In comparison with the limits for aquafeeds and fish established by Chinese legislation, Cd in 37.5% of rainbow trout feeds and As in 20% of rainbow trout samples exceeded the maximum limit, assuming that inorganic As accounts for 10% of total As. Further health risk assessment showed that fish consumption would not pose risks to consumers as far as non-essential element contaminants are concerned. However, the carcinogenic risk of As in rainbow trout for the inhabitants in Beijing exceeded the acceptable level of 10(-)(4), to which more attention should be paid. PMID:26892032

  15. Sensitivity and permissivity of Cyprinus carpio to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 during the early stages of its development: importance of the epidermal mucus as an innate immune barrier.

    PubMed

    Ronsmans, Maygane; Boutier, Maxime; Rakus, Krzysztof; Farnir, Frédéric; Desmecht, Daniel; Ectors, Fabien; Vandecan, Michaël; Lieffrig, François; Mélard, Charles; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) causes a lethal disease in common and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). The present study investigated the ability of CyHV-3 to infect common carp during the early stages of its development (from embryos to fingerlings) after inoculation by immersion in water containing the virus. Fish were inoculated at different times after hatching with a pathogenic recombinant CyHV-3 strain expressing luciferase. The sensitivity and permissivity of carp to CyHV-3 were investigated using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The susceptibility of carp to CyHV-3 disease was investigated by measuring the survival rate. Carp were sensitive and permissive to CyHV-3 infection and susceptible to CyHV-3 disease at all stages of development, but the sensitivity of the two early developmental stages (embryo and larval stages) was limited compared to later stages. The lower sensitivity observed for the early developmental stages was due to stronger inhibition of viral entry into the host by epidermal mucus. In addition, independent of the developmental stage at which inoculation was performed, the localization of light emission suggested that the skin is the portal of CyHV-3 entry. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that carp are sensitive and permissive to CyHV-3 at all stages of development and confirm that the skin is the major portal of entry after inoculation by immersion in infectious water. The results also stress the role of epidermal mucus as an innate immune barrier against pathogens even and especially at the early stages of development. PMID:25281322

  16. Roles of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) in Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Suanyuk, Naraid; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio (koi) is one of the most popular ornamental fish. A major problem for C. carpio farming is bacterial infections especially by Aeromonas hydrophila. Previously studies had shown that the Phagocytosis Activating Protein (PAP) gene was involved in the innate immune response of animals. Therefore, we attempted to identify a role for the PAP gene in the immunology of C. carpio. The expression of the PAP was found in C. carpio whole blood and increased when the fish were stimulated by inactivated A. hydrophila. In addition, PAP-phMGFP DNA was injected as an immunostimulant. The survival rate and the phagocytic index were significantly increased in the A. hydrophila infected fish that received the PAP-phMGFP DNA immunostimulant. A chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle was then developed and feeded into fish which infected with A. hydrophila. These fish had a significantly lower mortality rate than the control. Therefore, this research confirmed a key role for PAP in protection fish from bacterial infection and the chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle could be a good prototype for fish immunostimulant in the future. PMID:26748248

  17. Effects of Ala-Gln feeding strategies on growth, metabolism, and crowding stress resistance of juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Mei; Guo, Gui-Liang; Sun, Li; Yang, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Gui-Qin; Qin, Gui-Xin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different L-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln) feeding strategies on the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance related parameters in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) under crowded condition (80 g/L). Juvenile Jian carp (initial weight 26.1 ± 0.6 g) were distributed into five groups which fed with graded concentrations (0% or 1.0%) of Ala-Gln for eight weeks. Control group (I, 0/0) fed with control diet (0% Ala-Gln) throughout the feeding trial. The other four groups employed different control and experimental diet feeding strategies ranging from two weeks control diet fed and two weeks experimental diet (1% Ala-Gln) fed (II, 0/2) to eight weeks experimental diet fed (V, 4/4). Results revealed that Mean weight gain (MEG) under all different feeding strategies of Ala-Gln were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05), and MEG of group II (201.90%) was even higher than that of group IV (184.70%). Liver glycogen and blood total protein of groups II, III and V were significantly higher than that in groups I and IV (p < 0.05). The highest level of serum thyroxine (10.07 ng/ml), insulin-like growth factor-I (52.40 ng/ml) and insulin (9.73 μ IU/mL) were observed in group V. However, diet supplemented with Ala-Gln did not affect the levels of serum glucose, cortisol and catecholamine in fish. The mRNA expression of GR1a, GR1b and GR2 were also significantly changed in Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). After fish intraperitoneally injected with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila, the fish survival rates were significantly increased in all Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). Results from the present experiment showed the importance of dietary supplementation of Ala-Gln in benefaction of the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance in Jian carp breeding. The

  18. Glandular kallikreins in the teleost Cyprinus carpio: tissue distribution, possible involvement in prolactin processing, and effect of 17 beta-estradiol in vivo.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, J; Fernández, K; Haussmann, D; Richards, G; Barra, V; Kausel, G

    2002-09-01

    We examined glandular kallikrein (GK), a putative prolactin processing protease, in the teleost Cyprinus carpio. When employing an anti-Centropristis striata GK antibody proteins of 39 kDa in muscle, 52 kDa in gill, 52 kDa in kidney, and two proteins of 46 and 72 kDa in pituitary gland were detected. Immunoreactive kallikreins were recognized in intermuscle cell tissue, epithelial gill cells, apical region of tubular cells, and prolactin producing lactotrophs in pituitary gland, suggesting a osmoregulatory role for this enzyme. We found three prolactin (PRL) variants using anti-tilapia PRL antibodies, in pituitary gland 23 and 16 kDa, and in plasma 23 and 22 kDa forms. Clearly co-localization of GK and PRL in lactotrophs could be demonstrated. In winter-acclimatized male carp, where the pituitary PRL level is low, 17beta-estradiol treatment increased PRL but not GK immunoreactivity. In contrast to GK and PRL co-regulation by estrogen in mammalian pituitary gland, no similar effect on immunoreactive PRL and GK was observed in the ichtyc pituitary. No changes in GK immunostaining occurred in gill or muscle tissue in response to estrogen treatment. These results, taken with the observation of significantly increased GK immunoreactivity in the apical region of kidney tubular cells in estrogen treated male carp, indicate that the regulation of GK expression in pituitary and kidney could be different in fish with respect to mammals. PMID:12392686

  19. Toxicity profile of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for fungi and Cyprinus carpio fish.

    PubMed

    Juneidi, Ibrahim; Hayyan, Maan; Mohd Ali, Ozair

    2016-04-01

    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds. PMID:26743645

  20. Differential enrichment of TTF-I and Tip5 in the T-like promoter structures of the rDNA contribute to the epigenetic response of Cyprinus carpio during environmental adaptation.

    PubMed

    Nardocci, Gino; Simonet, Nicolas G; Navarro, Cristina; Längst, Gernot; Alvarez, Marco

    2016-08-01

    To ensure homeostasis, ectothermic organisms adapt to environmental variations through molecular mechanisms. We previously reported that during the seasonal acclimatization of the common carp Cyprinus carpio, molecular and cellular functions are reprogrammed, resulting in distinctive traits. Importantly, the carp undergoes a drastic rearrangement of nucleolar components during adaptation. This ultrastructural feature reflects a fine modulation of rRNA gene transcription. Specifically, we identified the involvement of the transcription termination factor I (TTF-I) and Tip-5 (member of nucleolar remodeling complex, NoRC) in the control of rRNA transcription. Our results suggest that differential Tip5 enrichment is essential for silencing carp ribosomal genes and that the T0 element is key for regulating the ribosomal gene during the acclimatization process. Interestingly, the expression and content of Tip5 were significantly higher in winter than in summer. Since carp ribosomal gene expression is lower in the winter than in summer, and considering that expression concomitantly occurs with nucleolar ultrastructural changes of the acclimatization process, these results indicate that Tip5 importantly contributes to silencing the ribosomal genes. In conclusion, the current study provides novel evidence on the contributions of TTF-I and NoRC in the environmental reprogramming of ribosomal genes during the seasonal adaptation process in carp. PMID:27458840

  1. Transcriptomic analysis of koi (Cyprinus carpio) spleen tissue upon cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) infection using next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xuezhu; Yi, Yang; Weng, Shaoping; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Hetong; He, Jianguo; Dong, Chuanfu

    2016-02-01

    Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can infect and specifically cause a huge economic loss in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi variety. The molecular mechanisms underlying CyHV-3 infection are not well understood. In this study, koi spleen tissues of both mock and CyHV-3 infection groups were collected, and high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the transcriptome level. A total of 105,356,188 clean reads from two libraries were obtained. After the de novo assembly of the transcripts, 129,314 unigenes were generated. Of these unigenes, 70,655 unigenes were matched to the known proteins in the database, while 2190 unigenes were predicted by ESTScan software. Comparing the infection group to the mock group, a total of 23,029 significantly differentially expressed unigenes were identified, including 10,493 up-regulated DEGs and 12,536 down-regulated DEGs. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation and functional enrichment analysis indicated that all of the DEGs were annotated into GO terms in three main GO categories: biological process, cellular component and molecular function. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis of the DEGs showed that a total of 12,002 DEG unigenes were annotated into 256 pathways classified into 6 main categories. Additionally, 20 differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. As the first report of a transcriptome analysis of koi carp with CyHV-3 infection, the data presented here provide knowledge of the innate immune response against CyHV-3 in koi carp and useful data for further research of the molecular mechanism of CyHV-3 infection. PMID:26690666

  2. Histopathological changes induced by environmental stress in common carp, Japanese coloured carp, European eel, and African catfish.

    PubMed

    Szakolczai, J

    1997-01-01

    Histopathological changes caused by stress during catching and transport were examined in four fish species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the Japanese coloured carp (koi, the coloured variant of the Asian carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus), the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In all species, the goblet cells of the gills and skin were decreased in number and slight detachment of the epithelium of the secondary gill lamellae was seen. Loss of goblet cells and detachment of the columnar epithelial cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of common carp and coloured carp. It is supposed that these lesions may affect ion transport and respiration in the gills and disturb normal intestinal function, thus serving as a starting point for different diseases. PMID:9270124

  3. In vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles on acetaminophen - induced hepatocyte damage in Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Kunjiappan, Selvaraj; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib; Chowdhury, Ranjana

    2015-06-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of gold nanoparticles (GNaP) biosynthesized through the mediation of Azolla microphylla and A. microphylla extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.). The gold nanoparticles (100, 150, 200 μg/ml) and A. microphylla extract powder (100, 200, 400 μg/ml) were added to the primary hepatocytes in different conditions: treatment I (before 12 mM acetaminophen), treatment II (after 12 mM acetaminophen), and treatment III (both before and after 12 mM acetaminophen), and incubated. Among these, control group treated with 12 mM acetaminophen produced significantly elevated levels (50-80%) of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), catalase (CAT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and significantly decreased the levels (60-75%) of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Treatment with methanol extract of A. microphylla phytochemically biosynthesized gold nanoparticles (100, 150, 200 μg/ml) and A. microphylla methanol extract powder (100, 200, 400 μg/ml) significantly improved the viability of cells in a culture medium. It also significantly reduced the levels of LDH, CAT, GOT, GPT, and MDA, and significantly increased the levels of SOD and GSH-Px. In conclusion, gold nanoparticles biosynthesized through A. microphylla demonstrated effective hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects than methanol extract of A. microphylla. PMID:25862331

  4. Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, NatarajaPillai

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations. PMID:25405077

  5. Temperature effects on the fracture resistance of scales from Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Sandra; McConville, Mikaela; Li, Guihua; Ossa, Alex; Arola, D

    2015-03-01

    In this investigation the fracture resistance of scales from Cyprinus carpio was evaluated as a function of environmental temperature. Tear specimens were prepared from scales obtained from three characteristic regions (i.e. head, mid-length and tail) of multiple fish. The fracture resistance was characterized in Mode III loading and over temperatures ranging from -150°C to 21°C. Results showed that there was a significant reduction in tear resistance with decreasing temperature and the lowest resistance to fracture was obtained at -150°C. There was a significant difference in the relative tear toughness between scales from the three locations at ambient conditions (21°C), but not below freezing. Scales obtained near the head exhibited the largest resistance to fracture (energy ≈ 150 ± 25 kJm(-2)) overall. The fracture resistance was found to be primarily dependent on the thickness of the external mineralized layer and the number of external elasmodine plies, indicating that both the anatomical position and the corresponding microstructure are important to the mechanical behavior of elasmoid fish scales. These variables may be exploited in the design of bioinspired armors and should be considered in future studies concerning the mechanical behavior of these interesting natural materials. PMID:25481741

  6. Monitoring the effects of water pollution on Cyprinus carpio in Karakaya Dam Lake, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Kucukbay, F Zehra; Güler, R Elif

    2006-03-01

    Karakaya Dam Lake (KDL) is one of the most important water sources, both for irrigation and fishery, located in eastern part of Turkey. This study is concerned with the pollution of the lake contributed by urban, industrial and agricultural activities. The parameters selected for this aim were the enzymes commonly used as biomarkers of environmental pollution. The activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase (CE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) has been determined in liver tissue samples of Cyprinus carpio, a representative species of KDL. Furthermore, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity which is mainly affected by pesticides such as organophosphates, has been assayed. Chemical analysis results showed that KDL was polluted by various heavy metals as it was apparent from water, sediment and gill tissue. The activity of brain AChE was significantly lower in all localities than Tecimli area (St-5) where there is no agricultural and industrial activities in the immediate periphery. Thus, this change of AChE activity may relate to agricultural pollution in KDL. On the other hand, no significant differences were found for selected enzyme biomarkers, but condition factor (CF) or hepatosomatic index were significantly different from the St-5 samples, a result that may be attributed to water pollution in KDL by various contaminants. PMID:16374666

  7. [Effects of nano-selenium on antioxidant capacity and histopathology of Cyprinus carpio liver under fluoride stress].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Jie; Cao, Jin-Ling; Luo, Yong-Ju; Li, Ju-Yin

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the protection effect of nano-selenium (NSe) on the antioxidant capacity and histopathology of Cyprinus carpio liver under fluoride stress, a total of 750 C. carpio individuals were randomly divided into five groups, i. e., no fluoride stress and NSe addition (CK), fluoride (100 mg F- x L(-1))-stressed (FS), and fluoride-stressed plus NSe added with a dosage of 0.1 mg Se x L(-1) (NSe L), 0.5 mg Se x L(-1) (NSe M), and 1.0 mg Se x kg(-1)(NSe H). The NSe was mixed with fish foods, and the fishes of FS and NSe groups were exposed to the fluoride stress for 30 days. As compared with CK, fluoride stress decreased the SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities and increased the MDA content of C. carpio liver, and induced a definite damage on the histopathology of the liver. Compared with FS, NSe increased the liver SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities, decreased the liver MDA content, and mitigated the damage of fluoride stress on the histopathology of the liver. The results demonstrated that in some extent, the addition of NSe into fish foods could alleviate the decline of the antioxidant capacity of C. carpio liver and the damage on the liver histopathology caused by fluoride stress. PMID:24483095

  8. Molecular Characterization and Histopathology of Myxobolus koi Infecting the Gills of A koi Cyprinus carpio, with an Amended Morphologic Description of the Agent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Myxobolus sp., morphologically resembling M. toyamai, M. longisporus, and M. koi, was isolated from the gills of a koi, Cyprinus carpio that died in an ornamental pond. Large plasmodia were localized within lamellae, causing severe disruption of the normal branchial architecture, sufficient to com...

  9. Fullerene inhibits benzo(a)pyrene Efflux from Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes by affecting cell membrane fluidity and P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiqing; Hu, Xialin; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Jin; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-05-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) can protect cells by pumping out toxic compounds, and has been found widely expressed in fish tissues. Here, we illustrate the P-gp efflux ability for benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the hepatocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after exposing to fullerene aqueous suspension (nC60). The results revealed that nC60 increased the membrane fluidity by decreasing the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, and increased the cholesterol contents. These findings, combined with 10-38% and 70-75% down-regulation of P-gp mRNA and protein respectively, suggested that nC60 caused inhibition on P-gp efflux transport system. Therefore, we further investigated the cellular efflux ability for BaP. Results showed unequivocally that nC60 is a potent P-gp inhibitor. The retaining BaP amounts after efflux were elevated by 1.7-2.8 fold during the 10 day exposure. Meanwhile, 5mg/L humic acid (one of the important fractions of natural organic matter, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environment) alleviated the nC60 damage to hepatocytes in terms of oxidative damage, cholesterol increment, and P-gp content reduction; and finally attenuated the suppressed P-gp efflux ability. Collectively, this study provides the first evidence of nC60 toxicity to P-gp functionality in fish and illustrates the possible mechanism of the suppressed P-gp efflux ability for BaP. PMID:26918948

  10. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  11. COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

  12. Inheritance of the complete mitochondrial genomes Cyprinus capio furong(♀) × Cyprinus carpio var.singguonensis(♂).

    PubMed

    Peng, Huizhen; Liu, Qiaolin; Xiao, Tiaoyi

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 15 sets of primers were used to amplify contiguous, overlapping segments of the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of C. capio furong(♀) × C. carpio var.singguonensis(♂) in order to characterize and compare their mitochondrial genomes. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,581 bp and deposited in the GenBank with the accession number KP210473. The organization of the mitochondrial genomes contained 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNAs) and a major non-coding control region which was similar to those reported mitochondrial genomes. Most genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for the ND6 and 8 tRNA genes, encoding on the L-strand. The nucleotide skewness for the coding strands of C. capio furong(♀) × C. carpio var.singguonensis(♂) (AT-skew = 0.12, GC-skew = -0.27) were biased toward T and G. The complete mitogenome may provide important date for the study of genetic mechanism of C. capio furong(♀) × C. carpio var.singguonensis(♂). PMID:25648921

  13. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  14. Benzo(a)pyrene-induced cytochrome p4501A expression of four freshwater fishes (Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Yoon, Hong-Gil; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2015-05-01

    Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus are useful indicator species for CYP1A biomarker studies; however, comparative studies have not been performed. To compare susceptibility, dose- and time-dependent CYP1A induction at the mRNA and protein levels in response to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) exposure was analyzed. At the mRNA level, a statistically significant difference was found among the four species; however, such was not observed at the protein level. C. carpio showed the highest CYP1A induction level and the steepest slope in the dose-response curve. To assess susceptibility, the difference in CYP1A mRNA induction among species must be considered, and C. carpio was the most sensitive species of the four evaluated in terms of CYP1A expression. PMID:25863331

  15. Perturbation of cytochrome P450, generation of oxidative stress and induction of DNA damage in Cyprinus carpio exposed in situ to potable surface water.

    PubMed

    Sapone, Andrea; Gustavino, Bianca; Monfrinotti, Monica; Canistro, Donatella; Broccoli, Massimiliano; Pozzetti, Laura; Affatato, Alessandra; Valgimigli, Luca; Forti, Giorgio Cantelli; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Biagi, Gian Luigi; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z; Paolini, Moreno

    2007-01-10

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between consumption of chlorinated drinking water and various cancers. Chlorination of water rich in organic chemicals produces carcinogenic organochlorine by-products (OBPs) such as trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. Since the discovery of the first OBP in the 1970s, there have been several investigations designed to determine the biological effects of single chemicals or small artificial OBP combinations. However, there is still insufficient information regarding the general biological response to these compounds, and further studies are still needed to evaluate their potential genotoxic effects. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of three drinking water disinfectants on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-linked metabolizing enzymes and on the generation of oxidative stress in the livers of male and female Cyprinus carpio fish (carp). The fish were exposed in situ for up 20 days to surface water obtained from the Trasmene lake in Italy. The water was treated with 1-2 mg/L of either sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) or chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as traditional disinfectants or with a relatively new disinfectant product, peracetic acid (PAA). Micronucleus (MN) frequencies in circulating erythrocytes from the fish were also analysed as a biomarker of genotoxic effect. In the CYP-linked enzyme assays, a significant induction (up to a 57-fold increase in the deethylation of ethoxyresorufin with PAA treatment) and a notable inactivation (up to almost a 90% loss in hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol with all disinfectants, and of testosterone 2beta-hydroxylation with NaClO) was observed in subcellular liver preparations from exposed fish. Using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy radical-probe technique, we also observed that CYP-modulation was associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, we found a significant increase in MN frequency in circulating erythrocytes after 10

  16. Biomarkers of Cytotoxic, Genotoxic and Apoptotic Effects in Cyprinus carpio Exposed to Complex Mixture of Contaminants from Hospital Effluents.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Néstor, Corina G; Morales-Avila, Enrique; Gómez-Olivan, Leobardo M; Galár-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Neri-Cruz, Nadia

    2016-03-01

    Hospital wastewater is an important source of emerging contaminants. Recent studies emphasize the importance of assessing the effects of mixtures of contaminants rather than environmental risk of their individual components, as well as the determination of intrinsic toxicity of wastewater. Mixtures of pollutants has possible interactions that have notable environmental side effects. The aim of this study is an attempt to characterize biomarkers in Cyprinus carpio related to the exposure to a complex mixture of contaminants found in hospital wastewater. Results of a particular hospital effluent show the presence of traces of heavy metals, high chlorine concentration and emerging contaminants such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The LC50 was of 5.49 % at 96 h. The cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic biomarkers increase when fishes were exposed to wastewater (1/10 CL50) from hospital wastewater. This study emphasizes the importance of identifying and quantifying the effects of contaminants as pharmaceuticals, disinfectants and surfactants in order to design and implement an ecotoxicological plan. PMID:26754545

  17. The Major Portal of Entry of Koi Herpesvirus in Cyprinus carpio Is the Skin▿

    PubMed Central

    Costes, B.; Raj, V. Stalin; Michel, B.; Fournier, G.; Thirion, M.; Gillet, L.; Mast, J.; Lieffrig, F.; Bremont, M.; Vanderplasschen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV), recently designated Cyprinid herpesvirus 3, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in koi and common carp. In the present study, we investigated the portal of entry of KHV in carp by using bioluminescence imaging. Taking advantage of the recent cloning of the KHV genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), we produced a recombinant plasmid encoding a firefly luciferase (LUC) expression cassette inserted in the intergenic region between open reading frame (ORF) 136 and ORF 137. Two viral strains were then reconstituted from the modified plasmid, the FL BAC 136 LUC excised strain and the FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain, including a disrupted and a wild-type thymidine kinase (TK) locus, respectively. In vitro, the two recombinant strains replicated comparably to the parental FL strain. The FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain was shown in vitro to induce a bioluminescent signal allowing the detection of single positive cells as early as 24 h postinfection, while in vivo, it induced KHV infection in carp that was indistinguishable from that induced by the parental FL strain. To identify the KHV portal of entry, carp were analyzed by bioluminescence imaging at different times postinfection with the FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain. These analyses demonstrated that the skin of the fish covering the fins and also the body is the major portal of entry for KHV in carp. Finally, to further demonstrate the role of the skin as the KHV portal of entry, we constructed an original system, nicknamed “U-tube,” to perform percutaneous infection restricted to the posterior part of the fish. All the data obtained in the present study demonstrate that the skin, and not the gills, is the major portal of entry for KHV in carp. PMID:19153228

  18. [Investigations of ectoparasite fauna of some fish species (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758; Cobitis simplicispinna Hanko, 1924) from Lake Akşehir (Konya)].

    PubMed

    Kartal, Kürşat; Oztürk, Mehmet Oğuz

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the presence of metazoan ectoparasites on 7 Cyprinus carpio and 90 Cobitis simplicispinna from Lake Aksehir, Turkey were investigated between July 2004 and June 2005. Three parasite species were identified on the host fishes: Gyrodactylus elegans Nordmann, 1832 (42.9%, 293.6+/-482.0 parasite/fish) and Dactylogyrus extensus Mueller and Van Cleave, 1932 (85.7%, 9.8+/-6.8), were found on gills of C. carpio, and Gyrodactylus cobitis Bychowsky, 1933 (68.9%, 15.6+/-18.5) on gills and fins of C. simplicispinna. Of these species, G. cobitis is a new record for parasite fauna of Turkey. In addition, minimum-maximum and mean intensity of parasites and infection prevalence were determined using seasonal data and size distribution of the host fish. PMID:19367558

  19. [Effect of different concentrations of HCO3- and CO2 in aquarium water on metabolism in the Cyprinus carpio L. organism].

    PubMed

    Zakharenko, N A; Mel'nichuk, D A; Gulyĭ, M F

    1979-01-01

    The level of pCO2 and bicarbonates in blood and tissues of Cyprinus carpio L. increases with concentration of carbonic acid (HCO3- and pCO2), the other indices of the hydrochemical composition being constant. The value of blood pH is unchanged. In fish with a higher content of carbonic acid in blood the amount of lactate, pyruvate, oxaloacetate, malate, citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, ammonia, glutamin, free amino acids, total and residual nitrogen rises. Simultaneously the content of urea increases in kidneys, but decrease in gills, whereas in blood and live it does not differ from the corresponding indices of fishes from the control group. PMID:37623

  20. Skin mucus of Cyprinus carpio inhibits cyprinid herpesvirus 3 binding to epidermal cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a mortal and highly contagious disease in common and koi carp. The skin is the major portal of entry of CyHV-3 in carp after immersion in water containing the virus. In the present study, we used in vivo bioluminescence imaging to investigate the effect of skin mucus removal and skin epidermis lesion on CyHV-3 entry. Physical treatments inducing removal of the mucus up to complete erosion of the epidermis were applied on a defined area of carp skin just before inoculation by immersion in infectious water. CyHV-3 entry in carp was drastically enhanced on the area of the skin where the mucus was removed with or without associated epidermal lesion. To investigate whether skin mucus inhibits CyHV-3 binding to epidermal cells, tail fins with an intact mucus layer or without mucus were inoculated ex vivo. While electron microscopy examination revealed numerous viral particles bound on the fins inoculated after mucus removal, no particle could be detected after infection of mucus-covered fins. Finally, anti-CyHV-3 neutralising activity of mucus extract was tested in vitro. Incubation of CyHV-3 with mucus extract reduced its infectivity in a dose dependent manner. The present study demonstrates that skin mucus removal and epidermal lesions enhance CyHV-3 entry in carp. It highlights the role of fish skin mucus as an innate immune protection against viral epidermal entry. PMID:21816061

  1. Frequency and histologic characterization of coelomatic neoplasms in koi Cyprinus carpio koi.

    PubMed

    Ott Knüsel, F; Knüsel, R; Doherr, M G; Schmidt-Posthaus, H

    2016-05-26

    Koi carp presenting with coelomatic neoplastic lesions are of growing importance in Switzerland and elsewhere in Europe, as clinical diagnosis is usually difficult and prognosis is usually poor because of late recognition. To gain more information about this condition, between 2008 and 2012, 117 koi diagnosed with coelomatic tumours were included in this study. The nature and growth characteristics of these pathologic tissues were documented. Out of 117 koi, 48.9% (n = 57) were female; the ovary was the most often affected organ (35%, n = 41), and in 62.4% (n =73) of cases, the cells of origin were identified as stromal cells of the sex-cord and the tumours were identified as sex-cord stromal tumours. The characteristics of growth and histology showed that the majority of tumours were malignant. PMID:27225205

  2. Population dynamics and interrelationships of some Dactylogyrus and Gyrodactylus species on Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Lux, E

    1990-08-01

    During 1986/87, 922 carps have been examined for ectoparasitic helminths. Altogether 6 species of Gyrodactylus and 4 species of Dactylogyrus were found. The most frequent parasite on the gills was D. extensus; it shows a great tolerance to the water temperature with two peaks of infestation between 2 and 9 degrees C. Additionally, relationships between the seasonal dynamics of the invasion cycle of D. extensus and D. anchoratus were recognized. In addition to Dactylogyrus 2 species of Gyrodactylus, G. shumani and G. sprostonae occurred on the gills. G. shulmani tends to show rapid population growth in the warmest months in summer. The highest number of helminths were found in the beginning of September. It is conceivable that G. shulmani will be an agent of a new helminthosis in the GDR. The infestation by G. shulmani is often accompanied by the occurrence of D. vastator. Both species reach the maximum values approximately at the same time. G. sprostonae reached high intensities already in June and August. The common infestation increased by G. katharineri, G. stankovici and G. kherulensis on skin nd fins. G. katharineri seems to have the most favourable conditions in April. The indices dropped to a minimum in summer and autumn. G. stankovici has likely similar ecological claims as G. katharineri and shows a peak of incidence in April, too. PMID:2291498

  3. Use of oxidative stress biomarkers in Cyprinus carpio L. for the evaluation of water pollution in Ataturk Dam Lake (Adiyaman, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Karadag, Hasan; Fırat, Özgür; Fırat, Özge

    2014-03-01

    Adiyaman city, which is located in the north of the Ataturk Dam Lake, has no wastewater purification facilities which results in municipal, agricultural, and industrial wastewater discharges directly entering the reservoir. To assess the pollution in the dam lake, we used several oxidative stress biomarkers in blood tissue of Cyprinus carpio. Fish samples were taken from Sitilce, polluted area by untreated wastewaters, and Samsat, relatively clean area, in the reservoir in August 2012. The activity of catalase and level of malondialdehyde increased while activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione level decreased in fish from Sitilce site when compared to Samsat site. The findings of the present investigation suggest that the presence of certain prooxidative compounds that can lead to oxidative stress in the fish at the Sitilce site and oxidative stress biomarkers may be important in order to evaluate the effects of untreated wastewaters on living organisms in the dam lake. PMID:24381981

  4. Impact of low dose of organophosphate, monocrotophos on the epithelial cells of gills of Cyprinus carpio communis Linn.--SEM study.

    PubMed

    Johal, M S; Sharma, M L; Ravneet

    2007-07-01

    The paper deals with the deleterious changes at ultrastructural level of the epithelial cells of gills of Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. upon exposure to 1/10th of LC50 of monocrotophos which is considered to be insignificant concentration from toxicological point of view. The gills of the fish are the primary corridor formolecularexchange between the internal milieu of a fish and its environment. Gills perform numerous functions such as oxygen uptake and CO2 excretion, osmoregulation, acid-basic balance, excretion of nitrogenous compounds and taste. Hazardous chemicals present in water may alter the morphology of the epithelial cells of gills of the fish, which may affect the process of diffusion of gases and ultimately the overall health of the fish. To prove this fact Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. was kept in water for 30 days having low concentration of 0.038 ppm (1\\10th of LC50) of monocrotophos and an attempt was made to study the different types of degenerations produced in the epithelial cells of gills as compared to the normal epithelial cells of gills of this culturable fish using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) technique. The ultrastructural changes due to the toxic exposure at finer scale were thinning of microridges, upliftment of epithelial cells, development of hyperplasia, decrease in the density of mucous cells which are considered to be the first line of defence and total dystrophy of epithelial tissue. Thus, it is opined that a low concentration of monocrotophos has the potential to bring different type of degenerations at finer scale hence affecting the fish's health drastically and altering the fitness of the fish in water even having insignificant amount of this toxicant in the ambient water PMID:18380092

  5. Toxicological effects and recovery of the corneal epithelium in Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. exposed to monocrotophos: an scanning electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Ravneet Kaur; Johal, Mohinder Singh; Sharma, Madan Lal

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted based on the evidence of fish habitats in North India being affected by organophosphate pesticides draining from agricultural fields into bodies of water, especially during the rainy season. Various tissues of fish such as scales, gills ovaries, kidney, and liver have been studied from the toxicological point of view, but the toxicological effects of aquatic pollutants on fish cornea have not been investigated to date. We conducted comparative toxicological studies on the cornea of Cyprinus carpio communis using two sublethal (0.038 and 0.126 ppm) concentrations of monocrotophos pesticide for 30 days. Corneas from all the groups were evaluated by a scanning electron microscope. The fish exposed to the monocrotophos pesticide developed corneal necrosis due to the formation of crystalloid-like structures, thinning and shrinkage of microridges on the corneal epithelium. After 30 days, fish from the monocrotophos-treated tank were transferred to normal environmental conditions. After 60 days under natural condition, epithelial cells did not fully recover. In conclusion, exposure to monocrotophos induces irreversible changes in the cornea of C. carpio communis. As fish and mammalian visual systems share many similarities, the reported finding may offer useful insights for further toxicological and ophthalmological studies in humans. PMID:24373492

  6. How could fully scaled carps appear in natural waters in Madagascar?

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jean-Noël; Allal, François; Hervet, Caroline; Ravakarivelo, Monique; Jeney, Zsigmond; Vergnet, Alain; Guyomard, René; Vandeputte, Marc

    2016-08-31

    The capacity of organisms to rapidly evolve in response to environmental changes is a key feature of evolution, and studying mutation compensation is a way to evaluate whether alternative routes of evolution are possible or not. Common carps (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a homozygous loss-of-function mutation for the scale cover gene fgfr1a1, causing the 'mirror' reduced scale cover, were introduced in Madagascar a century ago. Here we show that carps in Malagasy natural waters are now predominantly covered with scales, though they still all carry the homozygous mutation. We also reveal that the number of scales in mutated carps is under strong polygenic genetic control, with a heritability of 0.49. As a whole, our results suggest that carps submitted to natural selection could evolve a wild-type-like scale cover in less than 40 generations from standing polygenic genetic variation, confirming similar findings mainly retrieved from model organisms. PMID:27559059

  7. Feeding Cyprinus carpio with infectious materials mediates cyprinid herpesvirus 3 entry through infection of pharyngeal periodontal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as Koi herpesvirus, is the etiological agent of a mortal disease in common and koi carp. Recently, we investigated the entry of CyHV-3 in carp using bioluminescence imaging and a CyHV-3 recombinant strain expressing luciferase (LUC). We demonstrated that the skin is the major portal of entry after inoculation of carp by immersion in water containing CyHV-3. While this model of infection mimics some natural conditions in which infection takes place, other epidemiological conditions could favour entry of virus through the digestive tract. Here, we investigated whether ingestion of infectious materials mediates CyHV-3 entry through the digestive tract. Carp were fed with materials contaminated with the CyHV-3 LUC recombinant (oral contamination) or immersed in water containing the virus (contamination by immersion). Bioluminescence imaging analyses performed at different times post-infection led to the following observations: (i) the pharyngeal periodontal mucosa is the major portal of entry after oral contamination, while the skin is the major portal of entry after contamination by immersion. (ii) Both modes of inoculation led to the spreading of the infection to the various organs tested. However, the timing and the sequence in which some of the organs turned positive were different between the two modes of inoculation. Finally, we compared the disease induced by the two inoculation modes. They led to comparable clinical signs and mortality rate. The results of the present study suggest that, based on epidemiological conditions, CyHV-3 can enter carp either by skin or periodontal pharyngeal mucosal infection. PMID:22276598

  8. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  9. Supplementation of microbial levan in the diet of Cyprinus carpio fry (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to sublethal toxicity of fipronil: effect on growth and metabolic responses.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Pal, A K; Sahu, N P; Jha, A K; Akhtar, M S; Mandal, S C; Das, P; Prusty, A K

    2013-12-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary microbial levan on growth performance and metabolic responses of Cyprinus carpio fry exposed to sublethal dose (1/10th LC₅₀) of fipronil [(±)-5-amino-1-(2,6-dichloro-α,α,α-trifluoro-p-tolyl)-4-trifluoromethylsulfinylpyrazole-3-carbonitrile]. Two hundred and twenty five fry were randomly distributed in five treatments in triplicates. Four purified diets were prepared with graded levels of microbial levan. Five different treatment groups were levan control L₀P₀ (basal feed + 0 % levan without exposure to pesticide); pesticide control L₀P₁ (basal feed + 0 % levan with exposure to pesticide); L₀.₂₅P₁ (basal feed + 0.25 % levan with exposure to pesticide); L₀.₅₀P₁ (basal feed + 0.50 % levan with exposure to pesticide); and L₀.₇₅P₁ (basal feed + 0.75 % levan with exposure to pesticide). Weight gain% and specific growth rate were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in levan fed groups compared to their non-levan fed counterpart. Highest (p < 0.05) content of ascorbic acid in muscle, liver and brain tissues was observed with higher level of dietary levan. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreased with the increasing level of dietary levan in the liver and muscle. Aspartate aminotransferase activity exhibited a second order polynomial relationship with the dietary levan, both in liver (Y = -1.001x² + 5.366x + 5.812, r² = 0.887) and muscle (Y = -0.566x² + 2.833x + 6.506, r² = 0.858) while alanine aminotransferase activity showed third order polynomial relationship both in liver (Y = 1.195x³ - 12.30x² + 35.23x + 9.874, r² = 0.879) and muscle (Y = 0.527x³ - 8.429x² + 31.80x + 8.718, r² = 0.990). Highest (p < 0.05) superoxide dismutase activity in gill was observed in the group fed with 0.75 % levan supplemented diet. Overall results indicated that dietary microbial levan at 0.75 % in C. carpio fry ameliorated the negative effects of fipronil and

  10. The primary culture of mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues and the isolation of Koi herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingxiang; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xia; Li, Xingwei; Lv, Wenliang; Zhang, Dongming

    2013-10-01

    The explosive Koi herpesvirus (KHV) epidemic has caused the deaths of a large number of carp and carp variants and has produced serious economic losses. The mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) exhibits strong environmental adaptability and its primary cells can be used to isolate KHV. This study utilized the tissue explant method to systematically investigate primary cell culture conditions for mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues. We demonstrated that cells from these two tissue types had strong adaptability, and when cultured in Medium 199 (M199) containing 20% serum at 26 to 30°C, the cells from the snout and caudal fin tissues exhibited the fastest egress and proliferation. Inoculation of these two cell types with KHV-infected fish kidney tissues produced typical cytopathic effects; additionally, identification by electron microscopy, and PCR indicated that KHV could be isolated from both cell types. PMID:23893087

  11. Fine structure of the skin cells of a stenohaline freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio exposed to diluted seawater.

    PubMed

    Abraham, M; Iger, Y; Zhang, L

    2001-02-01

    Seawater diluted to half (1.750% salinity) is lethal for adult carps after 3 h and 15 min. At lower salinities (0.350%-0.875%), the fish survived for longer periods, but only 0.175% salinity was innocuous. In carps, adapted to 0.175% salinity, the secretory activity of pavement cells was very high and their external ridges flattened or even disappeared. Mucus secretion was conspicuous, characterized by holocriny of old cells and apparition of young ones in large numbers. The intracellular mucus droplets often coalesced. Pavement cells and mucus cells were disconnected from their neighboring tissue fabric and were sloughing off. Mitotic figures of filament cells were frequent, suggesting high turnover. Club cells appeared near the epidermal surface. The number of pinocytotic vesicles of the basal cell layer markedly decreased, indicating a possible decrease in dermis-epidermis molecular transfers. Leucocytes, mainly lymphocytes penetrated into the epidermis, where also rodlet cells appeared. The low salinity tolerance of the carp might be related among other possible factors to the absence of chloride cells in the skin. PMID:11292170

  12. Protective effect of ellagic acid on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in Cyprinus carpio during malathion exposure.

    PubMed

    Ural, M Ş; Yonar, M E; Mişe Yonar, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine protective efficiency of ellagic acid (EA) on malathion toxicity in carp. The fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations of malathion (0.5 and 1 mg/L), and EA (100 mg per kg of fish weight) was simultaneously administered for 14 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH—Px), and glutathione—S—transferase (GST) activities were evaluated in liver, kidney and gills, which were collected at the end of the experiment. In conclusion, the findings of this study demonstrated that malathion caused oxidative stress and negative alterations on the antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish. However, this toxic effect was neutralised by the administration of EA. Thus, the present results suggest that simultaneous treatment with EA (100 mg per kg of fish weight) may alleviate malathion—induced oxidative stress. PMID:26516111

  13. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV. PMID:26905065

  14. Modulation of cytochrome P450 and induction of DNA damage in Cyprinus carpio exposed in situ to surface water treated with chlorine or alternative disinfectants in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Canistro, Donatella; Melega, Simone; Ranieri, Dario; Sapone, Andrea; Gustavino, Bianca; Monfrinotti, Monica; Rizzoni, Marco; Paolini, Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between consumption of disinfected drinking water and adverse health outcomes. The chemicals used to disinfect water react with occurring organic matter and anthropogenic contaminants in the source water, resulting in the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). The observations that some DBPs are carcinogenic in animal models have raised public concern over the possible adverse health effects for humans. Here, the modulation of liver cytochrome P450-linked monooxygenases (MFO) and the genotoxic effects in erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio fish exposed in situ to surface drinking water in the presence of disinfectants, such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) and peracetic acid (PAA), were investigated in winter and summer. A complex induction/suppression pattern of CYP-associated MFOs in winter was observed for all disinfectants. For example, a 3.4- to 15-fold increase was recorded of the CYP2B1/2-linked dealkylation of penthoxyresorufin with NaClO (10 days) and PAA (20 days). In contrast, ClO(2) generated the most notable inactivation, the CYP2E1-supported hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol being decreased up to 71% after 10 days' treatment. In summer, the degree of modulation was modest, with the exception of CYP3A1/2 and CYP1A1 supported MFOs (62% loss after 20 days PAA). The micronucleus (MN) induction in fish circulating erythrocytes was also analysed as an endpoint of genotoxic potential in the same fish population. Significant increases of MN induction were detected at the latest sampling time on fish exposed to surface water treated with chlorinate-disinfectants, both in winter (NaClO) and summer (NaClO and ClO(2)), while no effect was observed in fish exposed to PAA-treated water. These results show that water disinfection may be responsible for harmful outcomes in terms of MFO perturbation and DNA damage; if extrapolated to humans, they ultimately offer a possible rationale for the

  15. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  16. Validation of eDNA Surveillance Sensitivity for Detection of Asian Carps in Controlled and Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  17. Induction of gynogenesis in Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan-Dong; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Shao-Jun; Tao, Min; Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yun

    2006-05-01

    Diploid gynogenesis was induced in Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) eggs using UV-irradiated genetically inactive spermatozoa from mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) or blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), with or without cold shock. The optimal radiation dosage was 4,200 mJ/cm2 and 3,600 mJ/cm2 for mirror carp and blunt snout bream sperm, respectively. At this dosage and without cold shock, the yields were (32.4 +/- 3.3)% vs. (33.8 +/- 1.4)% gynogenetic haploids and (0.7 +/- 0.3)% vs. (0.5 +/- 0.3)% hybrid diploids, respectively. At the optimal UV dosage but with cold shock (2 min after fertilization, 0-4 degrees C for 40 min), the hatching rates were (27.8 +/- 2.1)% and (29.4 +/- 3.3)%, respectively. From hatching to feeding, (15.7 +/- 3.4)% and (23.6 +/- 4.1)% normal gynogenetic diploids were recorded, respectively. Survival of normal gynogenetic diploids was 56% out of the hatched fry when using irradiated spermatozoa of mirror carp, which was lower than that (up to 80%) when using irradiated spermatozoa of blunt snout bream. This indicated that the sperm of blunt snout bream, with distant genetic relation to the maternal Japanese crucian carp, was more effective than that of mirror carp to induce diploid gynogenesis. The nature of the gynogenetic progeny was identified with external appearance, chromosome number and gonad structure. The presence of only females in gynogenetic progeny probably suggested XX genotype in the female Japanese crucian carp. The gynogenetic diploids have potential values such as faster growth and stronger disease resistance than the normal Japanese crucian carp. All gynogenetic progeny possessed 100 chromosomes whereas all J x B crosses were triploid with 124 chromosomes. The formation of the new triploid hybrids in J x B crosses may be useful in aquaculture. PMID:16722335

  18. Responses of biomarkers of a standardized (Cyprinus carpio) and a native (Pimelodella laticeps) fish species after in situ exposure in a periurban zone of Luján river (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Scarcia, Paola; Calamante, Gabriela; de la Torre, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    The Luján River basin, which is located in the northwest area of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, receives different anthropogenic inputs before reaching the Río de la Plata estuary. The aim of this study was to assess the adverse impact of the river in the middle part of the basin. To this end, an in situ cage assay was conducted in two sites of the river (S1 and S2) near Luján city, and the responses of hepatic biomarkers of both a standardized (Cyprinus carpio) and a native (Pimelodella laticeps) species were evaluated. The biomarkers studied were the condition factor and liver somatic indices (LSI), the enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), lipid peroxidation levels (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) and the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and vitellogenin (Vtg) proteins. After 14 days, LSI and GST activity increased, and TBARS levels decreased in both species exposed at S1 and S2. In addition, exposure at both sites promoted an increase in SOD activity and CYP1A induction in C. carpio, while Vtg expression was observed only at S1. A shorter exposure period (7 days) caused an initial response only at S2 mediated only by CAT in P. laticeps. Finally, our results demonstrate that a 14-day period of in situ exposure in Luján River could lead to antioxidant and biotransformation processes in C. carpio and to phase II biotransformation responses in P. laticeps. PMID:22610875

  19. Tracing the biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in common carp (Cryprinus carpio): Enantiomeric fraction and compound-specific stable carbon isotope analyses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Sun, Run-Xia; Chen, Hua-Shan; Li, Zong-Rui; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-09-01

    Metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish are difficult to detect in vivo due to the complexity of biometabolism. In the present study, atropisomeric fraction analysis of chiral PCB congeners and compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) were applied to trace the biotransformation of PCBs in fish by exposure of common carp (Cryprinus carpio) to the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1242. Stereoselective elimination of the chiral PCB congeners 91, 95, and 136 was observed, indicating a stereoselective biotransformation process. The δ(13)C values of PCBs 5/8, 18, and 20/33 in fish were increased compared with those in the spiked food, while PCBs 47/48 and 49 showed significant heavy isotope depletion. These results suggested a significant biotransformation of the corresponding individual PCB congeners although the potential PCB metabolites, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and methylsulfone PCBs (MeSO2-PCBs), were not detected in the fish tissue samples throughout this experiment. The results of the present study demonstrated that a combination of chiral analysis and CSIA is a promising new approach for investigating the biotransformation of PCBs in biota. PMID:27341148

  20. Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.; Marking, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

  1. Magnetic Alignment in Carps: Evidence from the Czech Christmas Fish Market

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Vlastimil; Kušta, Tomáš; Němec, Pavel; Bláhová, Veronika; Ježek, Miloš; Nováková, Petra; Begall, Sabine; Červený, Jaroslav; Hanzal, Vladimír; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Štípek, Kamil; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek

    2012-01-01

    While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio) at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential. PMID:23227241

  2. Generation of oxyradicals (O2. and H2O2), mitochondrial activity and induction of apoptosis of PBMC of Cyprinus carpio carpio treated in vivo with halomethanes and with recombinant HSP60 kDa and with LPS of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Uraga-Tovar, D Italibi; Domínguez-López, M Lilia; Madera-Sandoval, Ruth L; Nájera-Martínez, Minerva; García-Latorre, Ethel; Vega-López, Armando

    2014-10-01

    Halomethanes (HM) can be immunotoxic in mammals; however, in the fish immune system HM effects are unknown. In the current study, we evaluated the mitochondrial activity (MA) by MTT, induction of apoptosis by SubG0 technique and quantified serum ROS concentration (O2. and H2O2) and ROS production in PBMC of Cyprinus carpio carpio treated i.p. with CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and BrCHCl2 (0.004-40.0 mg/kg) for 96 h. Positive controls were recombinant heat shock protein of 60 kDa (rHSP60 kDa) of Klebsiella pneumoniae and its LPS. In addition, for in vitro PBMC cultures, two culture media and two sources of sera were tested. Both positive controls increased the MA more than 4-fold as well as the production of O2. (26-fold) and H2O2 (5-fold) compared to their controls. HM induced different effects on MA, ROS production and an induction of apoptosis, depending on the chlorination patterns and the dose; however, a systemic damage prevails. To fish treated with CH2Cl2, the apoptosis was related with serum ROS concentration and with MA. In contrast, in fish dosed with CHCl3 relationships were not found, deducing a systemic damage. However, in fish treated with BrCHCl2, serum O2. concentration and in vitro ROS generation performed by PBMC were involved in the induction of apoptosis of these cells but not with MA suggesting also immunotoxic effects. The current study demonstrated that HMs are immunomodulators increasing an acute inflammatory response and that rHSP60kDA of K. pneumoniae and its LPS are appropriate antigens to assess the immune response of C. c. carpio. PMID:25093392

  3. Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp.

    PubMed Central

    Kito, H; Ose, Y; Sato, T

    1986-01-01

    When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with the duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl2), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. In the nontreated group, metallothionein was present in the acinar cells of hepatopancreas and renal convoluted tubules. In the Cd-treated group (2 mg/kg IP daily for 3 days), metallothionein was present in the nuclei, sinusoids, and extracellular space of hepatopancreas, in addition to the acinar cells. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups. The metallothionein contents increased in hepatopancreas and kidney in the order: Zn greater than Cd greater than control group. Images FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. PMID:3519201

  4. Draining and liming of ponds as an effective measure for containment of CyHV-3 in carp farms.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Agnes; Fabian, Marc; Runge, Martin; Böttcher, Kerstin; Bräuer, Grit; Füllner, Gert; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    Infections of common carp Cyprinus carpio and koi, its coloured morphotypes, with the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can induce severe clinical signs and increased mortality in affected stocks. This may significantly challenge the economic basis of carp farming in Central Europe. To limit virus spread in carp farms, effective disinfection measures for ponds stocked with infected populations are required. In the traditional European pond aquaculture of carp, draining and liming of ponds with quicklime (CaO) up to pH 12 is a well-established disinfection measure against various pathogens. The present field study investigated whether these measures are sufficient for the inactivation of CyHV-3 infectivity in carp ponds. After draining and liming, the ponds were stocked with carp fry from a CyHV-3-negative stock, and 2 ponds were examined for the presence of CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences during the growth period of the carp and in the harvested stock. Wild fish (from the ponds, and feeder and drainage canals) and water samples (from the ponds) were also examined for CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences; and naïve carp were cohabited with wild fish, or exposed to the pondwater samples, to test for the presence of infectious virus. All examined samples remained negative for CyHV-3 throughout the study. This indicates that draining and liming with quicklime can be a suitable disinfection measure for ponds after a CyHV-3 outbreak in carp aquaculture. PMID:27503923

  5. Targeted disruption of sp7 and myostatin with CRISPR-Cas9 results in severe bone defects and more muscular cells in common carp

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhaomin; Niu, Pengfei; Wang, Mingyong; Huang, Guodong; Xu, Shuhao; Sun, Yi; Xu, Xiaona; Hou, Yi; Sun, Xiaowen; Yan, Yilin; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as one of the most important aquaculture fishes produces over 3 million metric tones annually, approximately 10% the annual production of the all farmed freshwater fish worldwide. However, the tetraploidy genome and long generation-time of the common carp have made its breeding and genetic studies extremely difficult. Here, TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9, two versatile genome-editing tools, are employed to target common carp bone-related genes sp7, runx2, bmp2a, spp1, opg, and muscle suppressor gene mstn. TALEN were shown to induce mutations in the target coding sites of sp7, runx2, spp1 and mstn. With CRISPR-Cas9, the two common carp sp7 genes, sp7a and sp7b, were mutated individually, all resulting in severe bone defects; while mstnba mutated fish have grown significantly more muscle cells. We also employed CRISPR-Cas9 to generate double mutant fish of sp7a;mstnba with high efficiencies in a single step. These results demonstrate that both TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9 are highly efficient tools for modifying the common carp genome, and open avenues for facilitating common carp genetic studies and breeding. PMID:26976234

  6. 'Who's who' in renal sphaerosporids (Bivalvulida: Myxozoa) from common carp, Prussian carp and goldfish--molecular identification of cryptic species, blood stages and new members of Sphaerospora sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Astrid Sibylle; Bartošová, P; Pecková, H; Tyml, T; Atkinson, S; Bartholomew, J; Sipos, D; Eszterbauer, E; Dyková, I

    2013-01-01

    Myxozoans are a group of diverse, spore-forming metazoan microparasites bound to aquatic environments. Sphaerospora dykovae (previously S. renicola) causes renal sphaerosporosis and acute swim bladder inflammation (SBI) in juvenile Cyprinus carpio carpio, in central Europe. A morphologically similar species with comparably low pathogenicity, S. angulata has been described from C. c. carpio, Carassius auratus auratus and Carassius gibelio. To clarify uncertainties and ambiguities in taxon identification in these hosts we decided to re-investigate differences in spore morphology using a statistical approach, in combination with SSU and LSU rDNA sequence analyses. We found that developing spores of S. angulata and S. dykovae cannot be distinguished morphologically and designed a duplex PCR assay for the cryptic species that demonstrated S. dykovae is specific to C. c. carpio, whereas S. angulata infects C. a. auratus and C. gibelio. The molecular identification of myxozoan blood stages in common carp and goldfish, which had previously been ascribed to Sphaerospora spp. showed that approximately 75% of blood stages were from non-sphaerosporid coelozoic species infecting these cyprinids and more than 10% were from an alien species, Myxobilatus gasterostei, developing in sticklebacks. We hereby report non-selective myxozoan host invasion and multi-species infections, whose role in SBI still requires clarification. PMID:22917178

  7. Tissue expression of glandular kallikrein and its response to 17 beta-estradiol in the acclimatized carp.

    PubMed

    Haussmann, Denise; Vidal, Rene; Figueroa, Jaime

    2006-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio skeletal muscle kallikrein was isolated to apparent homogeneity, and a polyclonal antiserum against the purified protein was generated. Glandular kallikrein expression and tissue distribution were assessed using both Western blots and immunohistochemistry. A 39-kDa protein was detected in skeletal muscle, the gill, kidney, and pituitary gland, where an additional 72-kDa immunoreactive band was observed. Immunohistochemistry revealed immunoreactive kallikrein in the intermuscle tissue, epithelial gill cells, apical portion of distal and proximal tubular cells in the kidney, mucus and epithelial cells of the skin, intestinal tube, and prolactin-producing cells of the pituitary gland. In addition, the effect of 17beta-estradiol on kallikrein expression was analyzed in three different tissues of winter- and summer-acclimatized male carps. A 2.5-fold (p<0.05) increase in kallikrein immunoreactivity due to estrogen treatment was observed in winter-acclimatized carp muscle, but not in summer-acclimatized fish. In contrast, the gill responded differently, since a 2-fold (p<0.05) increase was found only in summer-acclimatized carps. Kallikrein immunoreactivity in the kidney increased both in summer- (2.5 fold) and in winter-acclimatized carps (1.5 fold). The signals obtained demonstrate the existence of tissue-specific variable responses to estrogen treatment in vivo, between winter and summer-acclimatized carp. PMID:16849838

  8. Sterile 'Judas' carp--Surgical sterilisation does not impair growth, endocrine and behavioural responses of male carp.

    PubMed

    Patil, Jawahar G; Purser, G J; Nicholson, A M

    2015-09-15

    Use of 'Judas' fish to betray the locations of conspecifics is a powerful tool in management of invasive pest fish but poses a risk of contributing to recruitment. Our aim therefore was to generate surgically sterilised male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and test whether they readily assimilate into wild populations, retain sexual behaviour and successfully betray the locations of feral carp. Male common carp were surgically sterilised (n=44) adopting a two-point nip technique, using either a haemoclip, suture or electro cautery to tie each of the testicular ducts about 2.5 cm cranial to urogenital sinus-retaining all of the glandular testis tissue. Observed survival (95%) and success (>70%) rates were relatively high. Plasma steroids (11-keto testosterone and 17β-estradiol) were quantified by immunoassay. A subset of sterile and control male fish (n=7 each) were implanted with radio-transmitters and released into Lake Sorell (50 km(2)) and their ability to betray the location of feral carp was assessed by radio tracking and targeted fishing. There was a statistically significant difference in 11-keto testosterone and 17β-estradiol levels over time (P<0.05), but not between the sterile and control groups within each sampling time (P>0.05), implying that surgery did not compromise the animals physiologically. The sterile Judas fish integrated well into the population-behaving similarly to control Judas males and assisted in the capture of feral carp. The study marks a significant breakthrough in the management of this pest fish with potential adoption to the management of other pest fish globally. PMID:25776462

  9. Influence of sectioning location on age estimates from common carp dorsal spines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Carson J.; Klein, Zachary B.; Terrazas, Marc M.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal spines have been shown to provide precise age estimates for Common CarpCyprinus carpio and are commonly used by management agencies to gain information on Common Carp populations. However, no previous studies have evaluated variation in the precision of age estimates obtained from different sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. We evaluated the precision, relative readability, and distribution of age estimates obtained from various sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. Dorsal spines from 192 Common Carp were sectioned at the base (section 1), immediately distal to the basal section (section 2), and at 25% (section 3), 50% (section 4), and 75% (section 5) of the total length of the dorsal spine. The exact agreement and within-1-year agreement among readers was highest and the coefficient of variation lowest for section 2. In general, age estimates derived from sections 2 and 3 had similar age distributions and displayed the highest concordance in age estimates with section 1. Our results indicate that sections taken at ≤ 25% of the total length of the dorsal spine can be easily interpreted and provide precise estimates of Common Carp age. The greater consistency in age estimates obtained from section 2 indicates that by using a standard sectioning location, fisheries scientists can expect age-based estimates of population metrics to be more comparable and thus more useful for understanding Common Carp population dynamics.

  10. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  11. Seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of common carp in Clear Lake, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penne, C.R.; Pierce, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and subadult common carp in Clear Lake during 2005-2006 in an effort to guide future control strategies. Over a 22-month period, we recorded 1,951 locations of 54 adults and 60 subadults implanted with radio transmitters. Adults demonstrated a clear tendency to aggregate in an offshore area during the late fall and winter and in shallow, vegetated areas before and during spring spawning. Late-fall and winter aggregations were estimated to include a larger percentage of the tracked adults than spring aggregations. Subadults aggregated in shallow, vegetated areas during the spring and early summer. Our study, when considered in combination with previous research, suggests repeatable patterns of distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection that should facilitate common carp reduction programs in Clear Lake and similar systems. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  12. Effect of relative volume on radio transmitter expulsion in subadult common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penne, C.R.; Ahrens, N.L.; Summerfelt, R.C.; Pierce, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    Expulsion of surgically implanted radio transmitters is a problem in some fish telemetry studies. We conducted a 109-d experiment to test the hypothesis that variation in relative volume of transmitters surgically implanted in subadult common carp Cyprinus carpio would affect transmitter expulsion. We also necropsied fish at the end of the experiment to evaluate histological evidence for the mechanism of expulsion. Survival rate was high during our experiment; all control fish and 88% of the fish subjected to the implantation surgery survived. Expulsion rate was low; of the 23 fish that received transmitters and survived the experiment, only two (9%) expelled the transmitters. One of these expulsions occurred through a rupture of the incision and the other occurred via the intestine. Retained transmitters were all encapsulated by tissue, and most exhibited multiple adhesions to the intestine, gonads, and body wall. Adhesions were more numerous in fish that received larger transmitters. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  13. Comparison of trace element concentrations in tissue of common carp and implications for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.; DeWeese, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from four sites in the Red River of the North in 1994 were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (So), and zinc (Zn). Concentrations differed among liver, muscle, and whole body. Generally, trace element concentrations were the greatest in livers while concentrations in whole bodies were greater than those in muscle for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and concentrations in muscle were similar to whole body for As and Se. Concentrations of Cr were lower in liver than either muscle or whole body. Correlations between liver and whole body concentrations were stronger than those between liver and muscle concentrations, but the strongest correlations were between muscle and whole body concentrations. Examination of tissue concentrations by collection sites suggested that, for a general survey, the whole body may be the most effective matrix to analyze.

  14. Biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinuscarpio) and native collected fish (Leporinus obtusidens) in the Río de la Plata Estuary, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scarcia, Paola; Calamante, Gabriela; de la Torre, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    Punta Lara is located in the Río de la Plata estuary near industrial areas contaminated mainly by organic pollutants. In this work, the responses and status of hepatic biomarkers were studied in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) by means of a 21-day field exposure in cages and collection of juvenile native fish (Leporinus obtusidens) at Punta Lara. The analyzed hepatic biomarkers were: enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation level using the thiobarbituric acid reaction (TBARS), and CYP1A protein expression, condition factor (CF) and liver somatic (LSI) index. Taking into account oxidative stress responses, SOD activity was increased in both species, while CAT was increased in C. carpio and decreased in L. obtusidens; TBARS levels indicated that oxidative damage was possibly exerted only in L. obtusidens. Biotransformation responses mediated by CYP1A were observed in both species, while GST activity was induced mainly in carps. Considering morphometric indices, CF and LSI were significantly increased in carps while CF decreased in native species. The anthropogenic pollution detected in this study in Punta Lara was associated with differences in biomarkers on both fish species, although a different pattern of response was observed. PMID:23125150

  15. Cloning of the Koi Herpesvirus Genome as an Infectious Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Demonstrates That Disruption of the Thymidine Kinase Locus Induces Partial Attenuation in Cyprinus carpio koi▿

    PubMed Central

    Costes, B.; Fournier, G.; Michel, B.; Delforge, C.; Raj, V. Stalin; Dewals, B.; Gillet, L.; Drion, P.; Body, A.; Schynts, F.; Lieffrig, F.; Vanderplasschen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) is the causative agent of a lethal disease in koi and common carp. In the present study, we describe the cloning of the KHV genome as a stable and infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone that can be used to produce KHV recombinant strains. This goal was achieved by the insertion of a loxP-flanked BAC cassette into the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. This insertion led to a BAC plasmid that was stably maintained in bacteria and was able to regenerate virions when permissive cells were transfected with the plasmid. Reconstituted virions free of the BAC cassette but carrying a disrupted TK locus (the FL BAC-excised strain) were produced by the transfection of Cre recombinase-expressing cells with the BAC. Similarly, virions with a wild-type revertant TK sequence (the FL BAC revertant strain) were produced by the cotransfection of cells with the BAC and a DNA fragment encoding the wild-type TK sequence. Reconstituted recombinant viruses were compared to the wild-type parental virus in vitro and in vivo. The FL BAC revertant strain and the FL BAC-excised strain replicated comparably to the parental FL strain. The FL BAC revertant strain induced KHV infection in koi carp that was indistinguishable from that induced by the parental strain, while the FL BAC-excised strain exhibited a partially attenuated phenotype. Finally, the usefulness of the KHV BAC for recombination studies was demonstrated by the production of an ORF16-deleted strain by using prokaryotic recombination technology. The availability of the KHV BAC is an important advance that will allow the study of viral genes involved in KHV pathogenesis, as well as the production of attenuated recombinant candidate vaccines. PMID:18337580

  16. Comparative study of seasonal variation in bacterial flora concomitant with farm raised fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio at tarai region of Uttarakhand.

    PubMed

    Bisht, A; Singh, U P; Pandey, N N

    2014-03-01

    The bacterial infection is an important economic and limiting factor in intensive fish production. The present study focuses on investigation of the bacterial population associated with farmed common carp fingerlings, its environment and limnological quality of pond, during winter and summer season. It was found that the bacterial count in the pond sediment (6.40 cfu x 10(4)) was about 10 times higher in comparison of pond water (6.93 cfu x 10(3)). Further, the intestinal bacterial count was about 100 times higher (6.67 cfu x 10(5)) during winter and 1000 times higher (2.33 cfu x 10(6)) during summer season in comparison to the surfacial skin of fish during winter and summer (3.39 and 8.87 cfu x 10(3)), respectively. The isolated bacteria were both Gram negative and Gram positive, mostly aerobic rods. Furthermore, the temperature showed a significant relation with the bacterial counts of pond water. In the summer season, higher bacterial counts (8.72 cfu x 10(3)) were recorded as compared to winter (5.13 cfu x 10(3)). The dominant bacteria isolated from the sample of pond water, pond sediment and fish were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas sp., Flavobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Corynebacterium sp. Moreover, the bacterial density was dependent on C:N values, and the optimum range of C: N ratio was found between 16-23, for the carp culture ponds. Among the isolated bacterial flora, the presence of strains which were well known for their probiotic properties suggested an autochthonous source for use in aquaculture. Further, analysis of various physico-chemical parameters of pond water revealed that they were within the suitable range for the freshwater fish culture throughout farming phase. PMID:24665763

  17. Effects of Atrazine and Chlorpyrifos on Autophagy-Related Genes in the Brain of Common Carp: Health-Risk Assessments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Hou-Juan; Wang, Liang-Liang; Yao, Hai-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Long; Xu, Shi-Wen

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the impacts of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and a combined ATR/CPF exposure on the brain of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-days exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-days recovery period to measure autophagy and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the anti-superoxide anion and anti-hydroxy radical activities decreased upon exposure to ATR, CPF, and the ATR/CPF combination but increased after a subsequent 40-days recovery period. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that the mRNA and protein levels of LC3B and dynein in common carp decreased significantly after exposure to ATR and CPF alone or in combination. Moreover, the mRNA and protein levels of beclin1 gene decreased significantly only in the 116 and 11.3 μg/L treatment groups. However, the mRNA and protein levels of all tested genes increased significantly after a 40-days recovery. Transmission electron microscope demonstrated the occurrence of autolysosomes in the recovery groups but not in the exposure groups. These results suggest that exposure to ATR, CPF, or their combination promotes oxidative stress and autophagic responses in the brain of common carp. PMID:26662364

  18. [Phosphorylation of Cl-, HCO3--stimulated Mg2+-ATPase of plasma membranes of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) brain sensitive to GABA(A)-ergic ligands].

    PubMed

    Menzikov, S A; Menzikova, O V

    2006-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the sensitive to GABA(A)-ergic ligands Cl-, HCO3--stimulated Mg2+-ATPase of the plasma membranes from fish brain by [gamma-32P]ATP was investigated in the presence of Mg2+. It was established, that formation of the phosphoprotein at 0-1 degrees C is dependent on time incubation and concentration of Mg2+ in the incubation medium. Hydroxylamine (50 mM) and pH (10) completely inhibited formation of phosphorylated intermediate. Ions of Cl- (10 mM)+HCO3- (2 mM) and also GABA (1-100 microM) dephosphorylated the enzyme. The dephosphorylating effect of GABA on the membrane samples did not appear in the presence of bicuculline. o-Vanadate (10 microM) eliminates the dephosphorylating effect of anions and GABA on the phosphoprotein. It was established by SDS-PAAG electrophoresis and autoradiographia that investigated phosphorylation and GABA(A)-induced dephosphorylation is performed by the protein with molecular weight aproximately 56 kDa. Such molecular weight has a subunit which forms oligomer composition of the sensitive to GABA(A)-ergic ligands Cl-, HCO3--ATPase from fish brain. The obtained data demonstrated that Cl, HCO3- ATPase from fish brain can be directly phosphorylated by [gamma-32P]ATP in the presence of Mg2+ and forms the phosphorylation intermediate. PMID:17147268

  19. Fish-friendly prophylaxis/disinfection in aquaculture: Low concentration of peracetic acid is stress-free to the carp (Cyprinus carpio) after repeated applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of peracetic acid (PAA) at low concentrations has been proved to be a broad functional and eco-friendly prophylaxis/disinfection method against various fish pathogens. Therefore, regular applications of low concentration PAA is sufficient to control (potential) pathogens in recirculatin...

  20. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of TLR9, MyD88 and TRAF6 genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induction of innate immune pathways is critical for early host defense but there is limited understanding of how teleost fish recognize pathogen molecules and activate these pathways. In mammals, cells of the innate immune system detect pathogenic molecular structures using pattern recognition rece...

  1. Strategies to control a common carp population by pulsed commercial harvest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvin, Michael E.; Pierce, Clay; Stewart, Timothy W.; Grummer, Scott E.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial fisheries are commonly used to manage nuisance fishes in freshwater systems, but such efforts are often unsuccessful. Strategies for successfully controlling a nuisance population of common carp Cyprinus carpio by pulsed commercial harvest were evaluated with a combination of (1) field sampling, (2) population estimation and CPUE indexing, and (3) simulation using an exponential semidiscrete biomass dynamics model (SDBDM). The range of annual fishing mortalities (F) that resulted in successful control (F = 0.244–0.265) was narrow. Common carp biomass dynamics were sensitive to unintentional underharvest due to high rates of surplus production and a biomass doubling time of 2.7 years. Simulations indicated that biomanipulation never achieved successful control unless supplemental fishing mortality was imposed. Harvest of a majority of annual production was required to achieve successful control, as indicated by the ecotrophic coefficient (EC). Readily available biomass data and tools such as SDBDMs and ECs can be used in an adaptive management framework to successfully control common carp and other nuisance fishes by pulsed commercial fishing.

  2. Identification and characterization of alpha-I-proteinase inhibitor from common carp sarcoplasmic proteins.

    PubMed

    Siriangkanakun, Siriphon; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Yongsawadigul, Jirawat

    2016-02-01

    Purification of proteinase inhibitor from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sarcoplasmic proteins resulted in 2.8% yield with purification fold of 111. Two inhibitors, namely inhibitor I and II, exhibited molecular mass of 47 and 52 kDa, respectively, based on non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both inhibitors I and II were identified to be alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) based on LC-MS/MS. They were glycoproteins and molecular mass after peptide-N-glycosidase F treatment was 38 and 45 kDa, respectively. The N-glycosylation sites of both inhibitors were determined to be at N214 and N226. The inhibitors specifically inhibited trypsin. The common carp α1-PI showed high thermal stability with denaturation temperatures of 65.43 and 73.31 °C, which were slightly less than those of ovomucoid. High stability toward NaCl was also evident up to 3M. The common carp α1-PI effectively reduced autolytic degradation of bigeye snapper surimi at the concentration as low as 0.025%. PMID:26304452

  3. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    PubMed

    Eichmiller, Jessica J; Bajer, Przemyslaw G; Sorensen, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp'), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart. PMID:25383965

  4. A new procedure for determining the genetic basis of a physiological process in a non-model species, illustrated by cold induced angiogenesis in the carp

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, John MJ; Buffa, Francesca M; Vorschmitt, Henrik; Egginton, Stuart; Bicknell, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Background Physiological processes occur in many species for which there is yet no sequenced genome and for which we would like to identify the genetic basis. For example, some species increase their vascular network to minimise the effects of reduced oxygen diffusion and increased blood viscosity associated with low temperatures. Since many angiogenic and endothelial genes have been discovered in man, functional homolog relationships between carp, zebrafish and human were used to predict the genetic basis of cold-induced angiogenesis in Cyprinus Carpio (carp). In this work, carp sequences were collected and built into contigs. Human-carp functional homolog relationships were derived via zebrafish using a new Conditional Stepped Reciprocal Best Hit (CSRBH) protocol. Data sources including publications, Gene Ontology and cDNA libraries were then used to predict the identity of known or potential angiogenic genes. Finally, re-analyses of cold carp microarray data identified carp genes up-regulated in response to low temperatures in heart and muscle. Results The CSRBH approach outperformed all other methods and attained 8,726 carp to human functional homolog relationships for 16,650 contiguous sequences. This represented 3,762 non-redundant genes and 908 of them were predicted to have a role in angiogenesis. The total number of up-regulated differentially expressed genes was 698 and 171 of them were putatively angiogenic. Of these, 5 genes representing the functional homologs NCL, RHOA, MMP9, GRN and MAPK1 are angiogenesis-related genes expressed in response to low temperature. Conclusion We show that CSRBH functional homologs relationships and re-analyses of gene expression data can be combined in a non-model species to predict genes of biological interest before a genome sequence is fully available. Programs to run these analyses locally are available from . PMID:19852815

  5. The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Terbuthylazine on Early Developmental Stages of Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Štěpánová, Stanislava; Plhalová, Lucie; Doleželová, Petra; Prokeš, Miroslav; Maršálek, Petr; Škorič, Miša; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of terbuthylazine in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test. The exposure to terbuthylazin showed no effect on mortality, but significant differences (P < 0.0001) were revealed on weight and growth parameters at concentrations of 520 and 820 μg/L. The inhibition of specific growth rate at concentrations of 520 and 820 μg/L was 14% compared to the control group. No significant negative effects on total body length and body weight were observed at lower concentrations (0.9 and 160 μg/L). The concentrations 520 and 820 μg/L were associated with a delay in development compared to other experimental groups and controls. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and determination of developmental stages, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) of terbuthylazine was estimated at 160 μg/L and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) was 520 μg/L. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of terbuthylazine in Czech rivers does not impact growth, development, morphology, or histology of carp embryos and larvae. PMID:22629165

  6. Analysis of the Skin Transcriptome in Two Oujiang Color Varieties of Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenghui; Wachholtz, Michael; Wang, Jun; Liao, Xiaolin; Lu, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    Background Body color and coloration patterns are important phenotypic traits to maintain survival and reproduction activities. The Oujiang color varieties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color), with a narrow distribution in Zhejiang Province of China and a history of aquaculture for over 1,200 years, consistently exhibit a variety of body color patterns. The molecular mechanism underlying diverse color patterns in these variants is unknown. To the practical end, it is essential to develop molecular markers that can distinguish different phenotypes and assist selective breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings In this exploratory study, we conducted Roche 454 transcriptome sequencing of two pooled skin tissue samples of Oujiang common carp, which correspond to distinct color patterns, red with big black spots (RB) and whole white (WW), and a total of 737,525 sequence reads were generated. The reads obtained in this study were co-assembled jointly with common carp Roche 454 sequencing reads downloaded from NCBI SRA database, resulting in 43,923 isotigs and 546,676 singletons. Over 31 thousand (31,445; 71.6%) isotigs were found with significant BLAST matches (E<1e-10) to the nr protein database, which corresponds to 12,597 annotated zebrafish genes. A total of 70,947 isotigs and singletons (transcripts) were annotated with Gene Ontology, and 60,221 transcripts were found with corresponding EC numbers. Out of 145 zebrafish pigmentation genes, orthologs for 117 were recovered in Oujiang color carp transcriptome, including 18 found only among singletons. Our transcriptome analysis revealed over 52,902 SNPs in Oujiang common carp, and identified 63 SNP markers that are putatively unique either for RB or WW. Conclusions The transcriptome of Oujiang color varieties of common carp obtained through this study, along with the pigmentation genes recovered and the color pattern-specific molecular markers developed, will facilitate future research on the molecular mechanism

  7. Responses of the hepatic glutathione antioxidant defense system and related gene expression in juvenile common carp after chronic treatment with tributyltin.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-04-01

    Recently, residual organotin compounds have generally been recognised as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants. However, the effects of these contaminants on the glutathione (GSH)-antioxidant system of fishes have not been adequately studied. In the current study, the chronic effects of tributyltin (TBT) found within antifouling paints for ships, on the GSH antioxidant system and related gene expression in the liver of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated. Fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 and 7.5 μg/L) for 15, 30 and 60 days. GSH levels and GSH-related enzymes activities, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were quantified in the fish liver. The levels of malondialdehyde were also measured as a marker of oxidative damage. In addition, the expression levels of gstp1, gr and gpx1 in common carp chronically exposed to TBT were determined. The results of the current study indicate that chronic exposure of TBT results in reactive oxygen species stress in the liver of common carp, and mRNA expression levels are more sensitive than related enzyme levels. In short, the measured GSH-related indices could potentially be used as molecular indicators for monitoring organotin compounds in the aquatic environment. PMID:25582114

  8. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) Plays a Critical Role in the Softening of Common Carp Muscle during Chilled Storage by Degradation of Type I and V Collagens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Zhang, Qian; Weng, Ling; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proposed to play important roles in the degradation of collagens, thus causing the post-mortem softening of fish muscle, although the specific mechanism remains largely unresolved. Previously, we reported the existence of gelatinase-like proteinases in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle. The primary structures of these proteinases, however, have never been investigated. In the present study, two MMPs with molecular masses of 66 and 65 kDa were purified to homogeneity from common carp muscle by ammonium sulfate fractionation and a series of column chromatographies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS) analysis indicated that they are completely identical to MMP-2 from common carp. During chilled storage of common carp at 4 °C, the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 increased to 212% in 12 h while the texture profile increased over the first 2 h and gradually decreased. On the other hand, type V collagen was purified to homogeneity and a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein was prepared. Both type I and V collagens were effectively hydrolyzed by MMP-2 at 30 °C and even at 4 °C. Furthermore, injection of metalloproteinase proteinase inhibitor EDTA into the blood vessel of live common carp suppressed post-mortem tenderization significantly. All of these results confirmed that MMP-2 is a major proteinase responsible for the degradation of collagens, resulting in the softening of fish muscle during chilled storage. PMID:26653826

  9. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult common carp from contaminated and reference sites in Lake Mead, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral common carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult common carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a reference site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the reference site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in

  10. Susceptibility, metacercarial burden, and mortality of juvenile silver barb, common carp, mrigal, and tilapia following exposure to Haplorchis taichui.

    PubMed

    Kopolrat, Kulthida; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Tesana, Smarn; Andrews, Ross H; Petney, Trevor N

    2015-04-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) including heterophyids and opisthorchiids are prevalent in native and aquaculture fish in Southeast Asia. FZT are reported highly prevalent in juvenile aquaculture fish that belonged to the family Heterophyidae, particularly Haplorchis taichui. Aquaculture fish are reported to have varying levels of natural infection with H. taichui, but data for their susceptibility as well as resistance to infection are not available. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of five aquaculture fish to H. taichui. Experimental infections were performed by exposing fish individually to 0 (control), 50, 100, or 200 H. taichui cercariae for 12 h. Metacercarial burden was measured at 45 days postinfection. Three out of five fish species, silver barb (Barbonymus gonionotus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), were highly susceptible to H. taichui infection with percentage ranging from 93.33 to 100%. The Nile and red tilapia were not susceptible to infection. Among the susceptible fish species, silver barb had higher intensity of H. taichui metacercariae than common carp and mrigal (P < 0.001). Metacercarial burden significantly correlated with the dose of cercarial infection (P < 0.001). Our findings that common aquaculture fish species have varying degrees of susceptibility to H. taichui infection provide important information to reduce parasite transmission in aquaculture fish. PMID:25636245

  11. Concentration of carp edema virus (CEV) DNA in koi tissues affected by koi sleepy disease (KSD).

    PubMed

    Adamek, Mikolaj; Jung-Schroers, Verena; Hellmann, John; Teitge, Felix; Bergmann, Sven Michael; Runge, Martin; Kleingeld, Dirk Willem; Way, Keith; Stone, David Michael; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2016-05-26

    Carp edema virus (CEV), the causative agent of 'koi sleepy disease' (KSD), appears to be spreading worldwide and to be responsible for losses in koi, ornamental varieties of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Clinical signs of KSD include lethargic behaviour, swollen gills, sunken eyes and skin alterations and can easily be mistaken for other diseases, such as infection with cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). To improve the future diagnosis of CEV infection and to provide a tool to better explore the relationship between viral load and clinical disease, we developed a specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) for strains of the virus known to infect koi carp. In samples from several clinically affected koi, CEV-specific DNA was present in a range from 1 to 2,046,000 copies, with a mean of 129,982 copies and a median of 45 copies per 250 ng of isolated DNA, but virus DNA could not be detected in all clinically affected koi. A comparison of the newly developed qPCR, which is based on a dual-labelled probe, to an existing end-point PCR procedure revealed higher specificity and sensitivity of the qPCR and demonstrated that the new protocol could improve CEV detection in koi. In addition to improved diagnosis, the newly developed qPCR test would be a useful research tool. For example, studies on the pathobiology of CEV could employ controlled infection experiments in which the development of clinical signs could be examined in parallel with a quantitative determination of virus load. PMID:27225208

  12. Genetic evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio bloch) as revealed by RAPD assays.

    PubMed

    Zhou, L; Wang, Y; Gui, J F

    2000-11-01

    Sex evolution has been a debating focus in evolutionary genetics. In lower vertebrates of reptiles, amphibians, and fish, a species or a bioform reproduces either sexually or asexually but never both. A few species were found to consist of all females in fish. These all-female species can propagate by asexual reproduction modes, such as gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. However, the coexistence of sexuality and asexuality in a single species was recently noted only in a cyprinid fish silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio. This fish had been demonstrated to be capable of gynogenesis stimulated by sperm from other related species. Surprisingly, natural populations of this fish consist of a minor but significant portion (approx. 20%) of males. As different clones with specific phenotypic and genetic characteristics have been found, and RAPD markers specific to each clone have recently been identified, this fish offers many advantages for analyzing whether or not genetic recombination occurs between different clones. In this study, artificial propagation was performed in clone F and clone D. Ovulated eggs from clone F were divided into two parts and respectively inseminated with sperm from a clone D male and from a red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) male. The control clone D individuals were selected from gynogenetic offspring of clone D activated by sperm of red common carp. The phenotype and sex ratio in the experimental groups were also observed. Using RAPD molecular markers, which allow for reliable discrimination and genetic analysis of different clones, we have revealed direct molecular evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in the gynogenetic silver crucian carp and confirmed a previous hypothesis that the silver crucian carp might reproduce both gynogenetically and gonochoristically. Therefore, we conclude that the silver crucian carp possesses two reproductive modes, i.e., gynogenetic and gonochoristic reproduction. The response mechanism of two

  13. Molecular Identification and Real-time Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Rapid Detection of Thelohanellus kitauei, a Myxozoan Parasite Causing Intestinal Giant Cystic Disease in the Israel Carp

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jung Soo; Jeon, Eun Ji; Kim, Moo Sang; Woo, Sung Ho; Kim, Jin Do; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Myoung Ae; Jee, Bo Young; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Yi-Cheong

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal giant-cystic disease (IGCD) of the Israel carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been recognized as one of the most serious diseases afflicting inland farmed fish in the Republic of Korea, and Thelohanellus kitauei has been identified as the causative agent of the disease. Until now, studies concerning IGCD caused by T. kitauei in the Israel carp have been limited to morphological and histopathological examinations. However, these types of diagnostic examinations are relatively time-consuming, and the infection frequently cannot be detected in its early stages. In this study, we cloned the full-length 18S rRNA gene of T. kitauei isolated from diseased Israel carps, and carried out molecular identification by comparing the sequence with those of other myxosporeans. Moreover, conventional PCR and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) using oligonucleotide primers for the amplification of 18S rRNA gene fragment were established for further use as methods for rapid diagnosis of IGCD. Our results demonstrated that both the conventional PCR and real-time quantitative PCR systems applied herein are effective for rapid detection of T. kitauei spores in fish tissues and environmental water. PMID:22711920

  14. Pathogenesis of spring viremia of carp virus in emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque and white sucker Catostomus commersonii (Lacepede).

    PubMed

    Misk, E; Garver, K; Nagy, E; Isaac, S; Tubbs, L; Huber, P; Al-Hussinee, L; Lumsden, J S

    2016-06-01

    Spring viremia of carp (SVC) is a reportable disease to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) as it is known to cause significant international economic impact. In Canada, the first and only isolation of SVC virus (SVCV) was in 2006, from common carp Cyprinus carpio L., at Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario. The susceptibility of fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque and white sucker Catostomus commersonii (Lacepede) to intraperitoneal injection of the Canadian isolate (HHOcarp06) was evaluated using experimental infection, virus isolation, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Emerald shiner and fathead minnow were most susceptible with 43 and 53% cumulative mortality, respectively, compared with koi at 33%. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that koi had high viral loads throughout the experiment. At 34 days post-infection, SVCV was detected from sampled emerald shiner and white sucker in very low titre and was not detected from fathead minnow. Koi, fathead minnow and emerald shiner had gross lesions typical of SVC disease. The histopathological picture was mostly dominated by necrotic changes in kidney, spleen, liver, pancreas and intestine. IHC further confirmed SVCV infection, and staining was largely correlated with histological lesions. PMID:26411333

  15. Metal bioaccumulation in common carp and rudd from the Topolnitsa reservoir, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Yancheva, Vesela; Stoyanova, Stela; Velcheva, Iliana; Petrova, Slaveya; Georgieva, Elenka

    2014-03-01

    Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were determined in water samples and five fish organs (gills, liver, kidney, spleen, and muscle) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and common rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) from the Topolnitsa reservoir (Bulgaria) in three seasons (spring, summer, and autumn). This water ecosystem is located in a copper mining and metallurgical region. Water metal concentrations were significantly higher in the summer than in the spring (p<0.05). Moreover, As, Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations were higher than the national limits. Qualitative factors "element" and "fish organ" had a stronger influence on metal bioaccumulation than the factors "season" and "fish species". In fish, the highest metal levels were detected in the liver, spleen, kidney and gills, and the lowest in the dorsal muscle. Tissue levels were higher in the summer, but in general they were similar between the two Cyprinid fish. Fish muscles had the lowest metal levels at all times, but As and Pb exceeded the national and international standards. Therefore, we would not recommend fish consumption from Topolnitsa, as continuous metal contamination of the reservoir may seem to present human health risk. PMID:24620011

  16. Experimental Infection of Koi Carp with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVb.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Emily R; Labuda, Sandra L; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Getchell, Rodman G; Bowser, Paul R

    2013-03-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) type IVb has a wide host range that includes at least three cyprinid species: Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Emerald Shiner Notropis atherinoides, and Bluntnose Minnow P. notatus. To date, VHSV IVb has only been found in wild fish. However, the possibility of infection in culture facilities remains. Koi Carp Cyprinus carpio are a major ornamental aquaculture species in the United States; however, their potential to become infected with VHSV IVb has not yet been examined. In this study, we exposed Koi to 3 × 10(6) PFU VHSV Great Lakes isolate MI03 by intraperitoneal injection. While we observed low mortality (0-5%), VHSV was isolated in cell culture from the majority of fish up to 28 d postexposure (DPE) and was detected by a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay up to 90 DPE, when the trial was terminated. The results of this study strongly suggest that Koi are at risk for VHSV infection, although their susceptibility by intraperitoneal injection appears to be low. This study also provides more evidence of the sensitivity of qRT-PCR for detection of VHSV IVb. PMID:23289973

  17. Prioritization of contaminated watercourses using an integrated biomarker approach in caged carp.

    PubMed

    Schoenaers, Sébastjen; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Vanhaecke, Lynn; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Asard, Han; Covaci, Adrian; Bervoets, Lieven; Knapen, Dries

    2016-08-01

    Because of the ever increasing complexity of environmental contamination profiles, there are limitations to the use of analytical pollutant measurements for monitoring and prioritization of watercourses. The potential of biomarkers has been debated for many years, especially in laboratory settings, but there is a need for studies evaluating these approaches in the field. We evaluated the usefulness of a selection of biomarkers, mostly indicators of general physiological status and common stress responses such as oxidative stress, to discriminate among environmental pollution profiles, with the aim of prioritizing contaminated watercourses for targeted remediation efforts. To this end, juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio Lin.) were exposed in cages in the field to Flemish watercourses with varying pollution profiles. After six weeks of exposure, the bioaccumulation of key pollutants was measured, and a set of organismal, biochemical and transcriptional endpoints was determined in several tissue types. After data integration a discrete set of 14 parameters was identified, that could successfully distinguish all watercourses from each other. We show that an integrated biomarker approach, mainly targeting common stress responses, can offer the resolving power to discriminate among environmentally relevant exposure scenarios, and a means to prioritize watercourses for targeted remediation. PMID:27153115

  18. Characterizing the in vitro hepatic biotransformation of the flame retardant BDE 99 by common carp.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Pamela D; Kelly, Shannon M; Mitchelmore, Carys L; Stapleton, Heather M

    2010-04-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardant chemicals known to biomagnify in aquatic foodwebs. However, significant biotransformation of some congeners via reductive dehalogenation has been observed during in vivo and in vitro laboratory exposures, particularly in fish models. Little information is available on the enzyme systems responsible for catalyzing this metabolic pathway in fish. This study was undertaken to characterize the biotransformation of one primary BDE congener, 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), using in vitro techniques. Hepatic sub-cellular fractions were first prepared from individual adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to examine metabolism in both microsomal and cytosolic sub-cellular fractions. Debromination rates (i.e. BDE-99 biotransformation to BDE-47) were generally higher in the microsomal fraction than in the cytosolic fraction, and some intra-species variability was observed. Further experiments were conducted to determine the biotransformation kinetics and the influence of specific co-factors, inhibitors and competitive substrates on metabolism using pooled carp liver microsomes. The apparent K(m) and V(max) values were 19.4microM and 1120pmolesh(-1)mgprotein(-1), respectively. Iodoacetate (IaC) and the two thyroid hormones, reverse triodothyronine (rT3) and thyroxine (T4), significantly inhibited the debromination of BDE-99 in microsomal sub-cellular fractions with IC(50) values of 2.2microM, 0.83microM, and >1.0microM, respectively. These results support our hypothesis that deiodinase enzymes may be catalyzing the metabolism of PBDEs in fish liver tissues. Further studies are needed to evaluate metabolic activity in other species and tissues that contain these enzymes. PMID:20080306

  19. The Relationship between the Distribution of Common Carp and Their Environmental DNA in a Small Lake

    PubMed Central

    Eichmiller, Jessica J.; Bajer, Przemyslaw G.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or ‘carp’), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart. PMID:25383965

  20. Expression profile of carp IFN correlate with the up-regulation of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) in vivo and in vitro: the pivotal molecules in antiviral defense.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shijuan; Qi, Chenchen; Zhu, Yaoyao; Li, Hua; An, Liguo; Yang, Guiwen

    2016-05-01

    Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are a family of transcription factors that mediate the transcriptional regulation of interferon (IFN) genes and IFN-inducible genes. In this study, IRF-1 gene is cloned from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., named CcIRF-1. The full-length cDNA of CcIRF-1 is 1427 bp, including an open reading frame of 861 bp encoding a protein of 286 amino acids. The putative CcIRF-1 is characterized by a conserved DNA-binding domain and includes a signature of six conserved tryptophan residues. The genomic sequence of CcIRF-1 is described, which consists of 9 exons and 8 introns. The sequence analysis shows that CcIRF-1 is clustered into IRF-1 subfamily, and has the closest relationship with the zebrafish IRF-1. CcIRF-1 is found constitutively expressed in different organs of healthy common carp. The main findings are that CcIRF-1 is up-regulated following stimulation with poly(I:C) in all tested tissues. Moreover, the downstream gene of IRF-1 - IFN is found to be correlated with the up-regulation of IRF-1 after injection with poly(I:C). Furthermore, we also isolate the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and find that there is a relevance between the expression profile of CcIRF-1 and IFN in poly(I:C) stimulated PBLs. PMID:26993613

  1. Endocrine disruptors in sewage treatment plants, receiving river waters, and sediments: integration of chemical analysis and biological effects on feral carp.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Mira; Solé, Montserrat; López de Alda, María J; Barceló, Damià

    2002-10-01

    Occurrence of alkylphenol ethoxylates or their metabolites (alkylphenols and carboxylated derivatives), as well as natural and synthetic steroids in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents and in their receiving waters, has been related to biological effects, measured as alterations of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) concentration in natural fish populations. Water composites of STP influents, effluents, sludge, river water, sediment, and feral carps (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed over a seven-month period in two tributaries of the Llobregat River (NE Spain). Solid-phase extraction/liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS) analysis revealed concentrations of up to 31 microg/L for nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), 15 microg/L for nonylphenol (NP), and 35 microg/L for nonylphenoxy carboxylate (NPE1C) in river water downstream of STPs. These compounds were also found to accumulate in river sediment with concentrations ranging from 10 to 820 microg/kg of NPEOs and from 22 to 645 microg/kg for NP. Natural and synthetic estrogens and progestogens also occurred in the water and sediments analyzed but in the ng/L and microg/kg range, respectively. Vitellogenin fluctuated among sites and sampling periods, but it was found to be increased in male carp collected downstream of the main STP. A correlation between endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water and sediment and plasma VTG concentration in male carp was observed, especially for alkylphenolic compounds in water and sediment samples (r = 0.83-0.84 for n = 24) and for estriol and estrone in water (r = 0.78 and 0.94 for n = 9 and 8, respectively). PMID:12371491

  2. Effects of chronic exposure to tributyltin on tissue-specific cytochrome P450 1 regulation in juvenile common carp.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Li-Qiao; Mu, Wei-Na; Wu, Yan-Hua

    2016-06-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to compare tributyltin (TBT)-induced cytochrome P450 1 (CYP450 1) regulation in liver, gills and muscle of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). 2. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75, 0.75 and 7.5 μg/L) for 60 days. CYP450 1A was measured at the enzyme activity level as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, as well as the mRNA expression of CYP450 1 family genes (CYP1A, CYP1B, CYP1C1 and CYP1C2) in fish tissues. 3. Based on the results, the liver displayed the highest absolute levels of EROD activity, both under nonexposed and exposed conditions. Additional, EROD activities and CYP1A gene levels showed a good correlation in all three organs. According to the mRNA expression of CYP450 1 family genes, it suggested that CYP1A was to accommodate most EROD activity in fish, but other CYP450 forms also involved in this proceeding. 4. Overall, the study revealed both similarities and differences in the concentration-dependent CYP450 1 responses of the three target organs, which could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity. PMID:26446983

  3. Reference gene validation for quantification of gene expression during final oocyte maturation induced by diethylstilbestrol and di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate in common carp.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanyan; Lu, Jie; Wang, Yilei; Wang, Shuhong

    2016-08-01

    Final oocyte maturation is the key step to successful spawning and fertilization. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the technique of election to quantify the abundance of functional genes in such study. Reference gene is essential for correct interpretation of qPCR data. However, an ideal universal reference gene that is stable under all experimental circumstances has not been described. Researchers should validate their reference genes while performing qPCR analysis. The expression of 6 candidate reference genes: 18s rRNA, 28s rRNA, Cathepsin Z, Elongation factor 1-α, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and β-actin were investigated during final oocyte maturation induced by different compounds (DES and DEHP) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Four softwares (Bestkeeper, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder) were used to screen the most stable gene in order to evaluate their expression stability. The results revealed that EF1α was highly stable expressed when final oocyte maturation was induced by DES, while gapdh was the most stable gene when final oocyte maturation was induced by DEHP. Stable expressed reference gene selection is critical for all qPCR analysis to get accurate target gene mRNA expression information. PMID:27521935

  4. Adjuvant and immunostimulatory effects of beta-glucan administration in combination with lipopolysaccharide enhances survival and some immune parameters in carp challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, V; Sampath, K; Sekar, Vaithilingam

    2006-11-15

    Combined effects of beta-glucan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on survival and immune response were studied in Cyprinus carpio that were challenged with the pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. beta-Glucan from Saccharomyces cervisiae and LPS from a virulent strain of A. hydrophila were used in this study. Different concentrations of beta-glucan+LPS mixture were administered on days 1, 7, and 14 through different routes (intraperitoneal injection, bathing, and oral administration). Control and test fish were challenged by intraperitoneal injection of LD50 concentration of A. hydrophila on day 16 and subsequently, mortality and relative percent survival (RPS) were recorded. Intraperitoneal injection elicited 100% RPS even at the lowest concentration (100 microg beta-glucan+10 microg LPS); whereas, oral administration improved RPS rate of carps at higher concentration (1% beta-glucan+0.25% LPS). Bathing did not improve the RPS. Test animals injected with even the minimum dose of the immunomodulators (100 microg beta-glucan+10 microg LPS/fish) had a significant increase in total blood leukocyte counts and an increase in the proportion of neutrophils and monocytes. Superoxide anion production by macrophages was also elevated, which presumably aided the efficient killing of bacterial pathogen. Lower concentration of beta-glucan+LPS had an adjuvant effect on antibody production as pretreatment by injection of 100 microg beta-glucan+10 microg LPS/fish resulted in higher antibody titer against A. hydrophila following vaccination. RT-PCR analyses showed that the expression of interleukin-1beta mRNA did not increase in test fish when compared with the control. Classical and alternative complement pathways were not affected by either the dose or the route of administration of the compounds. It may be concluded that intraperitoneal injection and oral administration, and not the bathing, of beta-glucan+LPS mixture in carp could enhance resistance to challenge by A. hydrophila through

  5. Effects of chloro-s-triazine herbicides and metabolites on aromatase activity in various human cell lines and on vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, J T; Letcher, R J; Heneweer, M; Giesy, J P; van den Berg, M

    2001-01-01

    We investigated a potential mechanism for the estrogenic properties of three chloro-s-triazine herbicides and six metabolites in vitro in several cell systems. We determined effects on human aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, in H295R (adrenocortical carcinoma), JEG-3 (placental choriocarcinoma), and MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells; we determined effects on estrogen receptor-mediated induction of vitellogenin in primary hepatocyte cultures of adult male carp (Cyprinus carpio). In addition to atrazine, simazine, and propazine, two metabolites--atrazine-desethyl and atrazine-desisopropyl--induced aromatase activity in H295R cells concentration-dependently (0.3-30 microM) and with potencies similar to those of the parent triazines. After a 24-hr exposure to 30 microM of the triazines, an apparent maximum induction of about 2- to 2.5-fold was achieved. The induction responses were confirmed by similar increases in CYP19 mRNA levels, determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In JEG-3 cells, where basal aromatase expression is about 15-fold greater than in H295R cells, the induction responses were similar but less pronounced; aromatase expression in MCF-7 cells was neither detectable nor inducible under our culture conditions. The fully dealkylated metabolite atrazine-desethyl-desisopropyl and the three hydroxylated metabolites (2-OH-atrazine-desethyl, -desisopropyl, and -desethyl-desisopropyl) did not induce aromatase activity. None of the triazine herbicides nor their metabolites induced vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes; nor did they antagonize the induction of vitellogenin by 100 nM (EC(50) 17beta-estradiol. These findings together with other reports indicate that the estrogenic effects associated with the triazine herbicides in vivo are not estrogen receptor-mediated, but may be explained partly by their ability to induce aromatase in vitro. PMID:11675267

  6. Patterns of metal composition and biological condition and their association in male common carp across an environmental contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Reynaldo; Rosen, Michael R; Orsak, Erik L; Goodbred, Steven L; May, Thomas W; Alvarez, David; Echols, Kathy R; Wieser, Carla M; Ruessler, Shane; Torres, Leticia

    2012-02-01

    There is a contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) that is partly driven by municipal and industrial runoff and wastewater inputs via Las Vegas Wash (LVW). Adult male common carp (Cyprinus carpio; 10 fish/site) were collected from LVW, Las Vegas Bay (receiving LVW flow), Overton Arm (OA, upstream reference), and Willow Beach (WB, downstream) in March 2008. Discriminant function analysis was used to describe differences in metal concentrations and biological condition of fish collected from the four study sites, and canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between metal and biological traits. Metal concentrations were determined in whole-body extracts. Of 63 metals screened, those initially used in the statistical analysis were Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn. Biological variables analyzed included total length (TL), Fulton's condition factor, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hematocrit (Hct), and plasma estradiol-17β and 11-ketotestosterone (11kt) concentrations. Analysis of metal composition and biological condition both yielded strong discrimination of fish by site (respective canonical model, p<0.0001). Compared to OA, pairwise Mahalanobis distances between group means were WBcarp collected along a contaminant gradient in LMNRA have distinct, collection site-dependent metal and morpho-physiological profiles that are significantly associated with each other. These associations suggest that fish health and reproductive condition (as measured by the biological variables evaluated in this study) are

  7. Patterns of metal composition and biological condition and their association in male common carp across an environmental contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Rosen, Michael R.; Orsak, E.L.; Goodbred, S.L.; May, T.W.; Alvarez, David; Echols, K.R.; Wieser, C.M.; Ruessler, S.; Torres, L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) that is partly driven by municipal and industrial runoff and wastewater inputs via Las Vegas Wash (LVW). Adult male common carp (Cyprinus carpio; 10 fish/site) were collected from LVW, Las Vegas Bay (receiving LVW flow), Overton Arm (OA, upstream reference), and Willow Beach (WB, downstream) in March 2008. Discriminant function analysis was used to describe differences in metal concentrations and biological condition of fish collected from the four study sites, and canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between metal and biological traits. Metal concentrations were determined in whole-body extracts. Of 63 metals screened, those initially used in the statistical analysis were Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn. Biological variables analyzed included total length (TL), Fulton's condition factor, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hematocrit (Hct), and plasma estradiol-17?? and 11-ketotestosterone (11kt) concentrations. Analysis of metal composition and biological condition both yielded strong discrimination of fish by site (respective canonical model, p< 0.0001). Compared to OA, pairwise Mahalanobis distances between group means were WB < LVB < LVW for metal concentrations and LVB < WB < LVW for biological traits. Respective primary drivers for these separations were Ag, As, Ba, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn; and TL, GSI, 11kt, and Hct. Canonical correlation analysis using the latter variable sets showed they are significantly associated (p<0.0003); with As, Ba, Hg, and Zn, and TL, 11kt, and Hct being the primary contributors to the association. In conclusion, male carp collected along a contaminant gradient in LMNRA have distinct, collection site-dependent metal and morpho-physiological profiles that are significantly associated with each other. These associations suggest that fish health and reproductive condition (as measured by the biological variables evaluated in this

  8. Comparison of the protective effects of antioxidant compounds in the liver and kidney of Cd- and Cr-exposed common carp.

    PubMed

    Karaytug, Sahire; Sevgiler, Yusuf; Karayakar, Fahri

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to see whether the taurine (TAU), alpha-lipoic acid (LA), curcumin (CUR), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) protection against oxidative stress caused by heavy metals is owed to the metal-decreasing or antioxidative effect. In this context, liver and kidney tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio L.) were exposed in vivo to model toxicants cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr). The tissues were dissected 96 h after intraperitoneal injection of the metals and antioxidant substances. Cd and Cr levels were determined in the liver using the ICP-OES, but we could not obtain enough kidney tissue to make the same measurements in the kidney. The enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx, and the GSH redox status and lipid peroxidation levels were analyzed using spectrophotometric methods. Of all investigated antioxidants, only NAC decreased metal levels in the liver. Cd had little effect on oxidative stress parameters, while Cr showed a weak prooxidative effect. Cotreatment with TAU/LA/CUR/NAC and Cr significantly increased liver SOD activity. Chromium induced kidney SOD and CAT, but all antioxidants lowered CAT activity. Cadmium reduced liver and increased kidney GSSG. NAC increased liver GSH, but the increase did not correlate with decrease in Cd. Curcumin given with Cd increased kidney and decreased liver lipid peroxidation, whereas TAU with Cr increased lipid peroxidation in both tissues. N-Acetylcysteine was the most effective antioxidative agent, owing to its metal-decreasing function as well as to its effects on the GSH redox status. We believe that the investigated antioxidant substances which may have been involved in the reduction of Cr caused an increase in SOD activity and a decrease in CAT activity. Changes in the GSSG levels in both tissues might be an adaptive response to the prooxidative potential of Cd. Because of their respective tissue- and metal-dependent prooxidative effects, CUR and TAU deserve particular attention in regard to

  9. Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.

    Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared

  10. Effects induced by feeding organochlorine-contaminated carp from Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, to laying White Leghorn hens. I. Effects on health of adult hens, egg production, and fertility.

    PubMed

    Summer, C L; Giesy, J P; Bursian, S J; Render, J A; Kubiak, T J; Jones, P D; Verbrugge, D A; Aulerich, R J

    1996-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of consumption of halogenated hydrocarbon compounds, primarily polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), contained in Great Lakes fish by the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). In this article we report the results of feeding White Leghorn hens for a period of 8 wk diets that contained 31-35% ocean fish and/or carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, MI, which provided 0.3 (control), 0.8 (low-dose group), or 6.6 (high-dose group) mg PCB/kg, wet weight (ww). These concentrations were analogous to 3.3, 26, or 59 pg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TEQs)/g diet, ww, respectively. There were no significant effects on feed consumption among the groups. An unexpectedly high incidence of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) was observed in hens from the control (78% FLHS) and low-dose (75% FLHS) groups when compared to the high-dose group (15% FLHS). Birds in the control and low-dose groups had a significant increase in liver and body weights. Significant decreases in egg production, weight, and fertility were immediate in all dose groups, with the effect being permanent in the control and low-dose groups. Although the incidence of FLHS was an unexpected complication, the fact that there were no significant effects on egg production, egg weights, or fertility in the high-dose group suggests that the no-observable-adverse-effect concentration (NOAEC) for these parameters is in excess of 26 mg total weathered PCBs/kg egg, ww. This value was the average concentration of PCBs in the high-dose group eggs during the last week of the study. PMID:8931740

  11. Evaluation of a carp primary hepatocyte culture system for screening chemicals for oestrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Bickley, L K; Lange, A; Winter, M J; Tyler, C R

    2009-09-14

    The presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment has driven the development of screening and testing assays to both identify chemicals with hormonal activity and evaluate their potential to cause adverse effects. As the number of animals used for research and regulatory purposes rises, and set against a desire to reduce animal testing, there is increased emphasis on the development and application of in vitro techniques to evaluate chemical risks to the environment. Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) in isolated fish liver cells has been used successfully to identify a wide range of EDCs, including both natural and synthetic oestrogens and a variety of other xenoestrogens. However, the vitellogenic response reported for hepatocytes in culture has been shown to vary widely, making comparisons between studies difficult. The work presented in this paper explored the variability of the vitellogenic response in primary cultures of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes following exposure to the model oestrogenic compound, 17beta-oestradiol (E2). As expected, variability in the vitellogenic response was observed, both in terms of the sensitivity and magnitude of VTG induction, for hepatocytes isolated from different fish. An apparent difference was observed in the response of isolated hepatocytes based on the sex of the donor fish; maximum levels of E2-stimulated VTG synthesis in hepatocytes derived from females appeared higher (1962 ng mL(-1)+/-487 [n=9] compared with 1194 ng mL(-1)+/-223 for hepatocytes from males [n=9]) and EC(50) values lower (1.61+/-0.4 microM E2 for females and 2.12+/-0.2 microM E2 for males). However, these differences were not statistically significant, likely in part due to the variation observed in the vitellogenic response. In particular, hepatocytes derived from female fish showed more variation than their male counterparts (the co-efficient of variation for females was 77% compared to 28% for males). Despite the

  12. Biomarker Benchmarks: Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass and Common Carp from United States Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a national database and report on endocrine and reproductive condition in two species of fish collected in U.S. streams and rivers. This information provides scientists with a national basis for comparing results of endocrine measurements in fish from individual sites throughout the country, so that scientists can better ascertain normal levels of biomarkers. The database includes information on several measures of reproductive and endocrine condition for common carp and largemouth bass. Data summaries are provided by reproductive season and geographic region. A national-scale reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 by the USGS that utilized a suite of biological assays (biomarkers) as indicators of reproductive health, and potentially, endocrine disruption in two widely distributed species of teleost (bony) fish, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyrinus carpio). The suite of assays included plasma sex-steroid hormones, stage of gonadal development, and plasma vitellogenin, an egg protein that indicates exposure to estrogenic compounds when found in male fish. More than 2,200 common carp and 650 largemouth bass were collected at 119 rivers and streams (fig. 1).

  13. Comparative hepatic cytochrome P450 activities and contaminant concentrations in caged carp and juvenile ducks

    SciTech Connect

    O`Keefe, P.; Gierthy, J.; Connor, S.; Bush, B.; Hong, C.S.; Wood, L.; Clayton, W.; Storm, R.

    1995-12-31

    Juvenile carp (Cyprinius carpio) weighing approx. 60 g were placed in cages located on the surface of sediments near an aluminum plant and an automobile parts plant in the Massena area of the St. Lawrence River. Fish were removed at weekly intervals over a 35 day exposure period and composited samples of liver tissue, cranial lipid, and fillet tissue were prepared for analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Liver tissue was also stored at {minus}80 C for determination of microsomal Cytochrome P450 activity using the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) assay. A control exposure was carried out upstream at an uncontaminated site. Juvenile pre-flight ducks (mallards, gadwalls, wood ducks and common mergansers) were collected in the contaminated areas on the St. Lawrence and on the Hudson River two to three months after hatching. Control pre-flight mallards, wood ducks and common mergansers were collected from remote lakes in the Addirondack State Park. Samples of subcutaneous fat and liver tissue were removed for analysis as described above for the carp. There was a three fold increase in AHH activity in the carp liver tissue at the end of the 35 day exposure period and there was a similar increase it activity for the mallards, common mergansers and wood ducks compared to controls. For each species the enzyme activity increases will be compared to the contaminant concentrations.

  14. Current lineages of the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line are contaminated with fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, J.; Batts, W.; deKinkelin, P.; LeBerre, M.; Bremont, M.; Fijan, N.

    2010-01-01

    Initially established from proliferative skin lesions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line (Fijan, Sulimanovic, Bearzotti, Muzinic, Zwillenberg, Chilmonczyk, Vautherot & de Kinkelin 1983) has become one of the most widely used tools for research on fish viruses and the diagnosis of fish viral diseases.

  15. Raft River aquaculture project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beleau, M.H.; Woiwode, J.G.

    1980-07-01

    The commercial potential for geothermal aquaculture was evaluated for 2 years at the Department of Energy's Raft River geothermal site in southcentral Idaho. Common carp '(Cyprinus carpio) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were selected as culture species. Objectives of the study included investigation of: (1) growth rates; (2) nutrition trials; (3) histological and physiological parameters; (4) bioaccumulation of heavy metals; and (5) reproductive capacity. The second year project efforts were primarily studying the effects of geothermal water on the reproductive capacity of common carp by: (1) determining the effects of geothermal water on gonadal development of common carp; and (2) determining the effects of geothermal water on common carp embryogenesis.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Cytoskeleton Proteins in Fish.

    PubMed

    Gotesman, Michael; Menanteau-Ledouble, Simon; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe laboratory protocols for rearing fish and a simple and efficient method of extracting and identifying pathogen and host proteins that may be involved in entry and replication of commercially important fish viruses. We have used the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and goldfish (Cyprinus auratus) as a model system for studies of proteins involved in viral entry and replication. The chapter describes detailed protocols for maintenance of carp, cell culture, antibody purification of proteins, and use of electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry analysis to screen and identify cytoskeleton and other proteins that may be involved in viral infection and propagation in fish. PMID:26498797

  17. Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

  18. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  19. Identification of antibiotic resistance cassettes in class 1 integrons in Aeromonas spp. strains isolated from fresh fish (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Sarria-Guzmán, Yohanna; López-Ramírez, María Patricia; Chávez-Romero, Yosef; Ruiz-Romero, Erick; Dendooven, Luc; Bello-López, Juan Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Forty-six Aeromonas spp. strains were isolated from fresh fish and investigated for their antimicrobial susceptibility, detection of Class 1 integrons by PCR, and arrangement of gene cassettes. Selected isolates were further characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR. Twenty isolates were found to carry Class 1 integrons. Amplification of the variable regions of the integrons revealed diverse bands ranging in size from 150 to 1,958 pb. Sequence analysis of the variable regions revealed the presence of several gene cassettes, such as adenylyl transferases (aadA2 and aadA5), dihydrofolate reductases (dfrA17 and dfrA1), chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (catB3), β-lactamase (oxa2), lincosamide nucleotidil transferase (linF), aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (apha15), and oxacillinase (bla OXA-10). Two open reading frames with an unknown function were identified as orfC and orfD. The aadA2 cassette was the most common integron found in this study. Interestingly, five integrons were detected in the plasmids that might be involved in the transfer of resistance genes to other bacteria. This is a first report of cassette encoding for lincosamides (linF) resistance in Aeromonas spp. Implications on the incidence of integrons in isolates of Aeromonas spp. from fresh fish for human consumption, and its possible consequences to human health are discussed. PMID:24370627

  20. Relationship between serum GOT of Cyprinus carpio and biotic index of diatom in the diagnosis of water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Renqing )

    1990-06-01

    Many studies have been conducted in which fish were experimentally stressed and the ensuing changes in serum enzyme activities were recorded. Serum enzymes in rainbow trout were proposed as tools in the diagnosis of water quality. The examination of diatom flora was also proposed as an indicator of water quality. Diatom flora bioassay is time-consuming and uneconomical, but serum enzyme determination is easy and time-saving. It there is some relationship between the two aspects in water quality determination, the idea that serum enzyme in fish is an indicator in the diagnosis of water quality will be further supported.

  1. Evaluation of an extended-release formulation of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in koi (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Grosset, C; Weber, E S; Gehring, R; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, D; Campbell, L A; Enz, C; Groff, J M; Tell, L A

    2015-12-01

    The use of an extended release ceftiofur crystalline-free acid formulation (CCFA, Excede For Swine(®) , Pfizer Animal Health) in koi was evaluated after administration of single intramuscular (i.m.) or intracoelomic (i.c.) doses. Twenty koi were divided randomly into a control group and four treatment groups (20 mg/kg i.m., 60 mg/kg i.m., 30 mg/kg i.c., and 60 mg/kg i.c.). Serum ceftiofur-free acid equivalents (CFAE) concentrations were quantified. The pharmacokinetic data were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effects approach. Following a CCFA injection of 60 mg/kg i.m., time durations that serum CFAE concentrations were above the target concentration of 4 μg/mL ranged from 0.4 to 2.5 weeks in 3 of 4 fish, while serum CFAE concentrations remained below 4 μg/mL for lower doses evaluated. Substantial inter-individual variations and intra-individual fluctuations of CFAE concentrations were observed for all treatment groups. Histological findings following euthanasia included aseptic granulomatous reactions, but no systemic adverse effects were detected. Given the unpredictable time vs. CFAE concentration profiles for treated koi, the authors would not recommend this product for therapeutic use in koi at this time. Further research would be necessary to correlate serum and tissue concentrations and to better establish MIC data for Aeromonas spp. isolated from naturally infected koi. PMID:25876672

  2. Prevalence of Argulus foliaceus in ornamental fishes [goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Koi (Cyprinus carpio)] in Kerman, southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, M; Khovand, H

    2015-12-01

    The genus Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura), or fish louse, are common parasites of freshwater fish. This parasite have a direct life cycles and mature females leave the host and lay several hundred eggs on vegetation and various objects in the water. It caused pathological changes due to direct tissue damage and secondary infections. Besides the damage and stress caused by Argulus itself, one of the main worries for fish producers are the associated secondary infestations and infections that can result from infestation with this ecto-parasite. From 300 samples, only 20 (6.67 %) samples were infested with this parasite and 280 (93.33 %) not infested. In the present study, Argulus foliaceus was reported on goldfish and Koi which this was first recorded in Kerman, southeast of Iran. According to the presented study, it is clear that A. foliaceus can act as a potential risk factor for natural ecosystems and native fish population of Iran and other countries, that should be mentioned to prevent the burst of new parasitic fauna to Iran and different countries as well as stop direct economic losses caused by mortality derived from infestation with this ecto-parasite. PMID:26688652

  3. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  4. Rhabdomyosarcoma in a Silver Carp.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Annahita; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Ansari, Mahshid Bagherzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a primitive neoplasm that originates from skeletal muscle progenitor cells. In a routine inspection of a cyprinid farm in southwestern Iran, an approximately 2-year-old female Silver Carp was observed to have a raised mass located on the dorsolateral surface just caudal to the head. Macroscopic examination revealed a firm irregular fleshy pink mass (5 × 4 cm, depth = 3 cm) that appeared to arise from the subcutaneous musculature. Histologic sections were prepared using routine methods and separate sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Massons' trichrome. Microscopically, the tumor mass was composed of spindle cells that were densely packed and arranged in long interwoven bundles. The nuclei were vesicular and oval to elongated or cigar-shaped. Nuclear pleomorphism and multinucleate tumor giant cells were clearly evident. The neoplastic cell cytoplasm was eosinophilic with indistinct cell margins, and clear cross striations were observed in fibrils. The striated fibrils stained diffusely red with Masson's trichrome. This account represents the first reported occurrence of rhabdomyosarcoma in Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. Received July 10, 2015; accepted February 4, 2016. PMID:27229885

  5. [Prophylactic and therapeutic studies on intestinal giant-cystic disease of the Israel carp caused by Thelohanellus kitauei. II. Effects of physical and chemical factors on T. kitauei spores in vitro].

    PubMed

    Rhee, J K; Kim, J O; Park, B K

    1990-12-01

    In a basic attempt to develop the prophylactic and therapeutic measures on intestinal giant-cystic disease of the Israel carp, Cyprinus carpio nudus, the effects of physical and chemical factors on viability or survival of the spores of Thelohanellus kitauei were checked in vitro by means of extrusion test on the polar filament. When the fresh spores suspended with 0.45% and 0.9% sodium chloride solution and distilled water were laid at 5 degrees C and 28 degrees C for short terms, the extrusion rates increased until the 3rd day, meanwhile when some of them were suspended with Tyrode's solution at -70 degrees C the rates increased gradually until the 8th day. Viabilities of the spores suspended with 0.9% saline and added antibiotics to the suspension at 5 degrees C for long terms lasted for 997 days and 1,256 days (presumed values) at maximum, respectively. The spores suspended with distilled water at 28 degrees C for long terms survived 152.4 days, but the spores suspended with Tyrode's solution at -70 degrees C for long terms showed almost the same viable pattern as early freezing stages up to 780 days. The spores suspended with Tyrode's solution, frozen at -70 degrees C and thawed at 5 degrees C, showed the highest rate of extrusion of the polar filament. In the case of frozen spores, the extrusion rates during heating tend to become higher in accordance with the increase of frozen period, and the critical points of 180 day-frozen spores to be killed were generally 78.5 hr. at 60 degrees C, 23.4 hr. at 70 degrees C, 189.1 min. at 80 degrees C or 10.5 min. at 90 degrees C. The longer the spores were frozen, the more time was needed for the death of spores after thawing; 20 days-17.4 days, 100 days-33.2 days, and 400 days-37.8 days. The longer the spores were frozen, the more time was needed for the death of spores at a conventional when they were dried air drying condition, 540 days-23.5 days, 160 days-21.0 days, and 20 days-14.4 days. On the other hand, the

  6. Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  7. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  8. Acoustical deterrence of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooke J. Vetter; Cupp, Aaron R.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Allen F. Mensinger

    2015-01-01

    The invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) dominate large regions of the Mississippi River drainage and continue to expand their range northward threatening the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study found that complex broadband sound (0–10 kHz) is effective in altering the behavior of Silver Carp with implications for deterrent barriers or potential control measures (e.g., herding fish into nets). The phonotaxic response of Silver Carp was investigated using controlled experiments in outdoor concrete ponds (10 × 4.9 × 1.2 m). Pure tones (500–2000 Hz) and complex sound (underwater field recordings of outboard motors) were broadcast using underwater speakers. Silver Carp always reacted to the complex sounds by exhibiting negative phonotaxis to the sound source and by alternating speaker location, Silver Carp could be directed consistently, up to 37 consecutive times, to opposite ends of the large outdoor pond. However, fish habituated quickly to pure tones, reacting to only approximately 5 % of these presentations and never showed more than two consecutive responses. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of sound barriers in preventing Silver Carp movement using pure tones and this research suggests that a complex sound stimulus would be an even more effective deterrent.

  9. Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

  10. Empowering Women through Photovoice: Women of La Carpio, Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Mary Y.; Vardell, Rosemarie; Lower, Joanna K.; Kinter-Duffy, Ibarra, Laura C.; Victoria L.; Cecil-Dyrkacz, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to allow participants to document, critique, and change their family and community conditions through photographs and stories of their everyday lives. This study used photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, with 7 women from La Carpio, Costa Rica. The women were given cameras and asked to photograph…

  11. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Mhaisen, Furhan T; Al-Rubaie, Abdul-Razzak L

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided. PMID:27559480

  12. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubaie, Abdul-Razzak L.

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided. PMID:27559480

  13. An agent-based mathematical model about carp aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu; Wu, Chao

    2005-05-01

    This work presents an agent-based mathematical model to simulate the aggregation of carp, a harmful fish in North America. The referred mathematical model is derived from the following assumptions: (1) instead of the consensus among every carps involved in the aggregation, the aggregation of carp is completely a random and spontaneous physical behavior of numerous of independent carp; (2) carp aggregation is a collective effect of inter-carp and carp-environment interaction; (3) the inter-carp interaction can be derived from the statistical analytics about large-scale observed data. The proposed mathematical model is mainly based on empirical inter-carp force field, whose effect is featured with repulsion, parallel orientation, attraction, out-of-perception zone, and blind. Based on above mathematical model, the aggregation behavior of carp is formulated and preliminary simulation results about the aggregation of small number of carps within simple environment are provided. Further experiment-based validation about the mathematical model will be made in our future work.

  14. Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.

    1983-04-01

    Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

  15. Expressed sequences and polymorphisms in rohu carp (Labeo rohita, Hamilton) revealed by mRNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nicholas; Sahoo, Pramoda K; Baranski, Matthew; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Saha, Jatindra N; Das, Sweta; Mishra, Yashowant; Das, Paramanandra; Barman, Hirak K; Eknath, Ambekar E

    2012-10-01

    Expressed genes and polymorphisms were identified in lines of rohu Labeo rohita selected for resistance or susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila, an important bacterial pathogen causing aeromoniasis. All animals were grown in a common environment and RNA from ten individuals from each line pooled for Illumina mRNA-seq. De novo transcriptome assembly produced 137,629 contigs with 40× average coverage.Forty-four percent of the assembled sequences were annotated with gene names and ontology terms. Of these, 3,419 were assigned biological process terms related to "stress response" and 1,939 "immune system". Twenty-six contigs containing 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to map to the Cyprinus carpio mitochondrial genome and over 26,000 putative SNPs and 1,700 microsatellite loci were detected. Seventeen percent of the 100 transcripts with coverage data most indicative of higher-fold expression(>5.6 fold) in the resistant line pool showed homology to major histocompatibility (MH), heat shock proteins (HSP)30, 70 and 90, glycoproteins or serum lectin genes with putative functions affecting immune response. Forty-one percent of these 100 transcripts showed no or low homology to known genes. Of the SNPs identified, 96 showing the highest allele frequency differences between susceptible and resistant line fish included transcripts with homology to MH class I and galactoside-binding soluble lectin, also with putative functions affecting innate and acquired immune response. A comprehensive sequence resource for L. rohita, including annotated microsatellites and SNPs from a mixture of A. hydrophila-susceptible and -resistant individuals, was created for subsequent experiments aiming to identify genes associated with A. hydrophila resistance. PMID:22298294

  16. Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

  17. Comparative genomics of carp herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew J; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2013-03-01

    Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

  18. Lactococcosis in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adult silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was submitted to the Aquatic Research & Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL) in Stoneville, MS, as part of an investigation of a fish kill event in September 2011, at the Tunica Cutoff, Tunica county, Mississippi. Gross lesions included a focally extensive...

  19. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation. Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp. PMID:26666689

  20. Competitive Interactions between Age-0 Bighead Carp and Paddlefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout the experiment and only exhibited a temporal effect. Zooplankton density declined in mesocosms after fish were introduced. In general, zooplankton densities did not differ among treatments but did differ from the control. The relative growth of paddlefish was negative in the paddlefish and paddlefish-bighead carp treatments. The relative growth of bighead carp was negative in the bighead carp treatment but positive in the paddlefish-bighead carp treatment. Age-0 paddlefish exhibited the greatest decrease in relative growth in mesocosms with bighead carp. Bighead carp exhibited the greatest increase in relative growth in mesocosms with paddlefish. These data suggest that bighead carp have the potential to negatively affect the growth of paddlefish when food resources are limited.

  1. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  2. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish's utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  3. GRASS CARP AS A POTENTIAL CONTROL AGENT FOR CATTAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in total length. In August 19...

  4. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  5. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  6. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Reovirus (GCRV) in Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease. PMID:25759845

  7. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

  8. Body color development and genetic analysis of hybrid transparent crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Tong, G X; Geng, L W; Jiang, H F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanism of the transparent trait in transparent crucian carp. We observed body color development in transparent crucian carp larvae and analyzed heredity of color in hybrids produced with red crucian carp, ornamental carp, and red purse carp. The results showed that the body color of the newly hatched larvae matured into the adult pattern at approximately 54 days post-hatching. Two inter-species reciprocal crosses between transparent crucian carp and red crucian carp, and self-cross F1 of transparent crucian carp and self-cross F1 of red marking transparent crucian carp were conducted, and results indicated that the transparent-scaled trait is dominant over the normal-scaled trait. Furthermore, the transparent trait is a quantitative trait. All offspring in the four inter-genera reciprocal crosses of transparent crucian carp with ornamental carp and red purse carp were hybrids of common carp and crucian carp, and had a relatively low survival rate of 10-20%. Moreover, the transparent-scaled trait was observed to be dominant over the normal-scaled trait in the hybrid fish. In conclusion, our results suggest that the genetic mechanism underlying the color of goldfish is complex and requires further investigation. PMID:25966213

  9. [Investigation of membrane permeability of carp spermatozoa for water molecules].

    PubMed

    Pugovkin, A Iu; Kopeĭka, E F; Nardid, O A; Cherkashina, Ia O

    2014-01-01

    The fundamentals of a photometry method for determination of membrane permeability of some fish spermatozoa for water molecules are presented. Osmotic tolerance of carp spermatozoa membranes was studied using EPR-spectroscopy and photometric analysis methods. It was shown that carp spermatozoa look like the ideal osmometers in their reaction on media of different osmolarity. The value of membrane permeability of carp spermatozoa for water molecules was determined. Data obtained can be used in cryobiology for creating cryoprotective media and regimes of fish sperm cryopreservation. PMID:25715589

  10. Meiobenthos provides a food resource for young cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Spieth, H R; Möller, T; Ptatscheck, Ch; Kazemi-Dinan, A; Traunspurger, W

    2011-01-01

    Young individuals of the bottom-biting (i.e. sediment-ingesting) common carp Cyprinus carpio and gudgeon Gobio gobio consumed significant amounts of nematodes in laboratory experiments, whereas the selective-feeding roach Rutilus rutilus did not. In mesocosm enclosure experiments in the field, C. carpio strongly decreased the nematode abundance within 4 days, whereas the bottom-biting bream Abramis brama did not affect the abundance until after 14 days. In controlled experiments with a known number of prey, C. carpio but not A. brama significantly reduced the number of nematodes, and G. gobio reduced the nematode abundance dependent on the size of the fish, with smaller fish causing a greater reduction. Cyprinus carpio consumed the nematodes and did not just mechanically kill them in the sediment, as shown by dissection of the fish intestine. Morphometric analysis of the branchial baskets indicated that the mesh width of C. carpio, but not of A. brama, is suitable for consuming meiobenthos. The results indicate that the meiobenthos is a food resource for certain bottom-feeding freshwater fishes. PMID:21235551

  11. Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.

    1976-01-01

    Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

  12. Differential expression of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and their response to grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Ju, C S; He, L B; Pei, Y Y; Jiang, Y; Huang, R; Li, Y M; Liao, L J; Jang, S H; Wang, Y P

    2016-02-01

    The cDNAs of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, galactose-binding lectin (galbl) and mannose-binding lectin (mbl), were cloned and analysed in this study. Both of them exhibited the highest expression level in liver, whereas their expression pattern differed in early phase of embryonic development. Following exposure to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the mRNA expression level of galbl and mbl was significantly up-regulated in liver and intestine. PMID:26643267

  13. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of Skin Color Variation in Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains. Conclusions In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values. PMID:25255374

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Catfish and Carp Collected from the Rio Grande Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert J. Gonzales Philip R. Fresquez

    2008-05-12

    Concern has existed for years that the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a complex of nuclear weapons research and support facilities, has released polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the environment that may have reached adjacent bodies of water through canyons that connect them. In 1997, LANL's Ecology Group began measuring PCBs in fish in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of ephemeral streams that cross LANL and later began sampling fish in Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs, which are situated on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL, respectively. In 2002, we electroshocked channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and common carp (Carpiodes carpio) in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL and analyzed fillets for PCB congeners. We also sampled soils along the Rio Chama and Rio Grande drainages to discern whether a background atmospheric source of PCBs that could impact surface water adjacent to LANL might exist. Trace concentrations of PCBs measured in soil (mean = 4.7E-05 {micro}g/g-ww) appear to be from background global atmospheric sources, at least in part, because the bimodal distribution of low-chlorinated PCB congeners and mid-chlorinated PCB congeners in the soil samples is interpreted to be typical of volatilized PCB congeners that are found in the atmosphere and dust from global fallout. Upstream catfish (n = 5) contained statistically (P = 0.047) higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 2.80E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream catfish (n = 10) (mean = 1.50E-02 {micro}g/g-ww). Similarly, upstream carp (n = 4) contained higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 7.98E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream carp (n = 4) (3.07E-02 {micro}g/g-ww); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.42). The dominant PCB homologue in all fish samples was hexachlorobiphenyls. Total PCB concentrations in fish in 2002 are lower than 1997; however, differences in analytical methods and other uncertainties exist. A

  16. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner's statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed. PMID:27482364

  17. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    PubMed Central

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner’s statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed. PMID:27482364

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

  19. Comparative cytotoxicity of chlorophenols to cultured fish cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Hotaka; Shigeoka, Tadayoshi )

    1994-10-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity of chlorophenols to Cyprinus carpio brain (CCB) cells derived from carp and Oryzias latipes fin (OLF-136) cells derived from medaka was examined with the neutral red (3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine hydrochloride) incorporation assay. Results were compared with previous cytotoxicity data of chlorophenols to goldfish (Carassius auratus) scale (GFS) cells derived from the goldfish. There were excellent correlations between the 24-h NR50 values of chlorophenols toward the three kinds of cells (r[sup 2] > 0.94).

  20. Influence of the geothermal waters on fishes and aquatic invertebrates, in the Plain of Banat

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu-Marinescu, V.; Elain-Talau, L.; Papadopol, M.; Nicolescu, D.; Teodorescu, L.

    1982-01-01

    Research on the effects of geothermal waters (both used and unused) on vertebrates and invertebrates made the water's toxico-lethal character obvious in waters with a normal concentration or diluted up to over 17%. Among the organisms used in the experiment, Daphnia magna (a cladoceran) and young carp (Cyprinus carpio) have proved to be more sensitive. Tubifex tubifex (an oligochaete) have proved to be more resistant. Taking in account the toxicity of geothermal waters with addition of a specific smell and taste contracted by the meat fish, their overflow into natural receivers is not recommended. 7 references, 12 figures.

  1. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants and their effects on fish in the Columbia River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Bartish, Timothy M.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Blazer, Vicki; Anderson, Patrick J.; Coyle, James J.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black basses (Micropterus sp.), and largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) together accounted for 80% of the fish sampled during the study. Fish were weighed and measured then field-examined for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for persistent organic and inorganic contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

  2. High-density grass carp stocking effects on a reservoir invasive plant and water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, A. Brad; Kwak, Thomas J.; Manuel, Kenneth L.; Barwick, D. Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Stocking grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes)] is a commonly applied technique to control nuisance aquatic vegetation in reservoirs. Factors that influence the degree of aquatic vegetation control are fish stocking density, regional climate, abundance and species composition of the aquatic plant community, and relative grass carp feeding preferences for plant species. We evaluated high-density grass carp stocking in a southeastern U.S. reservoir for control of parrot-feather [Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell) Verdc.], an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and the associated effects on water quality. Lookout Shoals Lake, a 528-ha piedmont North Carolina reservoir, was stocked with triploid grass carp at a density of 100 fish per vegetated hectare. Parrot-feather biomass in the lake was significantly reduced three months after grass carp stocking, compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures. During the second year after grass carp stocking, parrot-feather biomass in the lake compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures indicated continued control, but unexplained lack of growth within most experimental exclosures precluded biomass analyses. Increases in ambient water chlorophyll a, reactive phosphorus, and nitrate-nitrite concentrations were measured after grass carp stocking. The biological significance of observed changes in water chemistry and long-term effects on lake biota remain undetermined. Our results demonstrate that intensive grass carp stocking can control an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and reveal associated changes in water quality.

  3. Functional morphology of durophagy in black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Gidmark, Nicholas J; Taylor, Chantel; LoPresti, Eric; Brainerd, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae), crushes its snail and other molluscan prey with robust pharyngeal jaws and strong bite forces. Using gross morphology, histological sectioning, and X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we investigated structural, behavioral, and mechanical aspects of pharyngeal jaw function in black carp. Strut-like trabeculae in their pharyngeal jaws support large, molariform teeth. The teeth occlude with a hypertrophied basioccipital process that is also reinforced with stout trabeculae. A keratinous chewing pad is firmly connected to the basioccipital process by a series of small bony projections from the base of the pedestal. The pharyngeal jaws have no bony articulations with the skull, and their position is controlled by five paired muscles and one unpaired median muscle. Black carp can crush large molluscs, so we used XROMM to compare pharyngeal jaw postures as fish crushed ceramic tubes of increasing sizes. We found that black carp increase pharyngeal jaw gape primarily by ventral translation of the jaws, with ventral rotation and lateral flaring of the jaws also increasing the space available to accommodate large prey items. A stout, robust ligament connects left and right jaws together firmly, but allows some rotation of the jaws relative to each other. Contrasting with the pharyngeal jaw mechanism of durophagous perciforms with fused left and right lower pharyngeal jaws, we hypothesize that this ligamentous connection may serve to decouple tensile and compressive forces, with the tensile forces borne by the ligament and the compressive forces transferred to the prey. PMID:26289832

  4. [The seasonal dynamics of Sphaerospora renicola (Myxosporidia) in carp (Osteichthyes)].

    PubMed

    Odening, K; Walter, G; Bockhardt, I

    1988-06-01

    We observed 2 different types of the course of incidence of sporogonic phase and blood phase. Type I shows in both phases a maximum in the first summer, a minimum in winter or autumn and a second maximum between late autumn and second summer. In this case the sporulation was especially distinct with the first maximum. Type II starts in the first summer with the blood phase without occurrence of the sporogonic phase (and the swim-bladder phase), which appears only from autumn until the second summer in a form of three peaks. Here the sporulation was successful only in the third peak. Hitherto there has been no other example of that type. The course of incidence, characterized by peaks and valleys, is regarded as an expression of an internal rhythm of different phases of the parasite and not as caused by the declining of infection and by reinfection. Premunition (if a hitherto unknown reservoir phase is surviving) or age resistance and/or less chance of coincidence of infective stages and older carps are supposed to be the cause of the rare occurrence of the 3 known phases in carps more than 14-15 months old. There are some indications of the infection of carps by carps. Carassius au. auratus was ascertained as a new host for S. renicola in a field experiment. PMID:3177937

  5. Two Cases of Rhabdomyolysis (Haff Disease) After Eating Carp Fish

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Joey V.; Sein, Saw; Lyon, Claudia; Apergis, George

    2016-01-01

    Unexplained rhabdomyolysis after eating fish is a rare condition caused by an unidentified toxin. Most of the incidences in the United States have been linked to consuming buffalo fish or crawfish. We present 2 cases of Haff disease in which the patients consumed grass carp as opposed to the usual suspects of buffalo fish or crawfish.

  6. [The population level and distribution of ectoparasites in carp].

    PubMed

    Balakhnin, I A; Gun'kovskiĭ, S A; Kosolap, M M

    1993-01-01

    The abundance and the distribution of Dactylogyrus extensus and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis on gills of two-years old carps have been investigated. It has been established that at least there are five groups, which differs from each other on the asymmetry of infection. PMID:8488057

  7. [Effect of substrates of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle on the level of oxidative processes in spermatozoa of grass carp and carp].

    PubMed

    Gosh, R I

    1983-01-01

    Endogenic respiration of grass carp and carp spermatozoids is rather low. Oxidation rate of metabolites is different--malate is oxidized more intensively, it is followed by lactate, pyruvate, succinate. Sperm storage lowers the respiration level and oxidation rate of metabolites. PMID:6845449

  8. Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Fibulin-4 as a potential interacting partner for grass carp reovirus outer capsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Hao; Liu, Weisha; Lu, Liqun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 2 (Fibulin-4/EFEMP2), an extracellular matrix(ECM) protein and a member of the fibulin family, is involved in elastic fiber formation, connective tissue development and some human diseases. In a yeast-two hybrid screening of host proteins interacting with outer capsid protein of grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a grass carp homologue of Fibulin-4 (designated as GcFibulin-4) is suggested to hold the potential to bind VP7, VP56 and VP55, the outer capsid protein encoded by type I, II, III GCRV, respectively. GcFibulin-4 gene of grass carp was cloned and sequenced from the cDNA library constructed for the yeast two-hybrid screening. Full-length cDNA of GcFibulin-4 contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1323 bp encoding a putative protein of 440 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of GcFibulin-4 indicated that it shared a high homology with zebra fish Fibulin-4 protein. Transcriptional distribution analysis of GcFibulin-4 in various tissues of healthy grass carp showed that GcFibulin-4 was highly expressed in muscle, moderately expressed in the intestine and brain, and slightly expressed in other examined tissues; the expression pattern is consistent with tissue tropism of GCRV resulting in hemorrhage symptom in the corresponding tissues. Our results suggested that Fibulin-4 might enable free GCRV particles, the pathogen for grass carp hemorrhagic disease, to target fish tissues more efficiently by interacting with viral outer capsid proteins. PMID:26626583

  9. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L., Jr.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  10. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  11. An experimental trap net fishery, Lake Oahe, South Dakota, 1965

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabel, James A.

    1974-01-01

    Large trap nets were evaluated as a commercial gear for capturing buffalo fish during July-September 1965. During the 72-day fishing period, 13,171 fish weighing 21,669 kg were taken. Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus) and smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) dominated the catch (78.2% by weight). Eight sport species accounted for 3.6% of the total catch. Both 7.0-cm and 12.7-cm mesh (extended measure) were used in the back of the bailing crib of the nets to determine the effect of the 12.7-cm mesh in reducing the catch of sport species and nonmarketable size groups of commercial species. The 12.7-cm mesh reduced the catch of nonmarketable bigmouth buffalo 29%, smallmouth buffalo 11%, river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) 18%, carp (Cyprinus carpio) 8%, freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) 35%, and sport species 68%.

  12. The effect of tramadol hydrochloride on early life stages of fish.

    PubMed

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Berankova, Petra; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the early-life stage toxicity test on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with tramadol hydrochloride. The FET was performed using the method inspired by the OECD guideline 236. Newly fertilized zebrafish eggs were exposed to tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 144h. An embryo-larval toxicity test on C. carpio was performed according to OECD guideline 210 also with tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 32 days. Hatching was significantly influenced in both acute and subchronic toxicity assays. Subchronic exposure also influenced early ontogeny, both morphometric and condition characteristics and caused changes in antioxidant enzyme activity. The LOEC value was found to be 10μg/l tramadol hydrochloride. PMID:27208654

  13. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P<0.05) but to different extents, and that fish density had no effect (P>0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2–3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed. PMID:27276024

  14. Gut melatonin response to microbial infection in carp Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Pal, Palash Kumar; Hasan, Kazi Nurul; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of present study was to demonstrate the response of gut melatoninergic system to Aeromonas hydrophila infection for 3 or 6 days and search for its correlation with the activity of different antioxidative and digestive enzymes to focus their interplay under pathophysiological conditions in carp (Catla catla). Microscopic study of gut in infected fish revealed degenerative changes in the tunica mucosa and lamina propria layers with sloughed off epithelial cells in the lumen. The activity of each digestive enzyme was reduced, but the levels of melatonin, arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase protein, the key regulator of melatonin biosynthesis, and different enzymatic antioxidants in gut were gradually and significantly increased with the progress of infection. Gut melatonin concentrations in A. hydrophila challenged carp by showing a positive correlation with the activity of each antioxidative enzyme, and a negative correlation with different digestive enzymes argued in favor of their functional relation, at least, during pathological stress. Moreover, parallel changes in the gut and serum melatonin titers indicated possible contribution of gut to circulating melatonin. Collectively, present carp study provided the first data to suggest that endogenous gut melatonin may be implicated to the mechanism of response to microbial infections in any fish species. PMID:26563281

  15. Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

  16. Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

  17. Insulin binding and receptor tyrosine kinase activity in skeletal muscle of carnivorous and omnivorous fish.

    PubMed

    Párrizas, M; Planas, J; Plisetskaya, E M; Gutiérrez, J

    1994-06-01

    We characterized the insulin receptors in skeletal muscle from several fish species with different nutritional preferences: brown trout (Salmo trutta fario), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), tilapia (Tilapia mossambica), and carp (Cyprinus carpio), semipurified by affinity chromatography (wheat germ agglutinin-agarose). Total specific binding and number of receptors per unit weight of piscine white skeletal muscle were lower than those values found in mammalian skeletal muscle. The same parameters in carp muscle receptor preparations were severalfold higher than in trout muscle (binding capacity 440 +/- 47 fmol/mg glycoprotein in carp and 82 +/- 23 fmol/mg glycoprotein in trout). Piscine insulin receptors phosphorylated exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr) but less so than mammalian receptors. Tyrosine kinase activity of receptors, calculated as percent of 32P incorporated into substrate in the presence of insulin compared with basal incorporation, was also highest in carp (210 +/- 4%) and lowest in trout (150 +/- 2%). In both trout and carp deprived of food for 15 days, specific binding of insulin decreased. Nevertheless, differences between the two species were retained. Our results demonstrate that particular properties of insulin receptors in fish skeletal muscle may be related to nutritional preferences. This finding coincides with the phenomenon of differential glucose tolerance in fish: carnivorous fish, such as trout, are less tolerant, whereas omnivorous fish, such as carp, readily utilize a carbohydrate-rich diet. PMID:8024051

  18. Biotransformation and detoxication of molinate (Ordram) in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Tjeerdema, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Bioconcentration, deputation, and biotransformation of molinate were compared in common carp (cyprinus carpio), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and white sturgeon (acipenser transmontanus) using a flow-through metabolism system. When compared to static conditions, flowing water improved oxygenation, decreased chemical volatilization and remetabolism, and run through a macroreticular resin, improved waste-product collection. Metabolite analysis employed gradient high-pressure liquid chromatography. Exposure to 100 ..mu..g L/sup -1/ (ring-/sup 14/C)molinate for 24 h resulted in bioconcentration factors of 30.5 (carp), 25.3 (bass), and 19.7 (sturgeon); differences were not significant (all, P > 0.05). /sup 14/C depuration by common carp was significantly slower than that by either striped bass or white sturgeon (both, P < 0.01). All three species oxidized molinate to a number of products and hydrolyzed, or conjugated with glutathione (GSH), the sulfoxide or sulfone, ultimately producing the mercapturic acid; carp and sturgeon also formed a D-glucuronic acid conjugate. Common carp were significantly less capable of sulfoxidation and GSH conjugation than either striped bass (P < 0.05) or white sturgeon (P < 0.01). Therefore, the selective toxicity of molinate in carp may be due to less efficient depuration and metabolic deactivation.

  19. History of introductions and governmental invovlement in promoting the use of Asian carps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This chapter traces the chronology associated with introductions of Asian carps and discusses the likeliest pathways of their introduction to th...

  20. 76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Lacey Act (18 U.S.C. 42). In a final rule of July 10, 2007 (72 FR 37459), the Service added silver and..., 2007 (72 FR 59019), the Service added black carp to this list. The Service published a Federal Register notice of inquiry on bighead carp (68 FR 54409; September 17, 2003) and provided a 60-day public...

  1. An analysis of inputs cost for carp farming sector in 2001 in Iran.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    Carp is widely sold and used in its fresh in Iran, however, recently a range of value additions may also be observed. It is essential to the sustainable development of a carp farm to know the production costs and their contribution. Warm-water fish farming is mainly based on common, silver, grass and bighead carp and the common carp and the three Chinese species are often reared in poly culture in Iran. Since, the 1970s carp farming has spread around the Caspian coast and farmed production reached a peak in 2006 with production of more than 73,400 tons. A study of production, costs and profitability of carp farming sector was carried out to help clarify carp production costs and their difference with location in 2001. A total of 101 farms from the three main carp farming provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Khuzestan were randomly selected, classified and studied. The results of the survey showed that the various producer provinces have different cost structures. Overall, feed and fertilizer with the highest level of variation accounted for 23% of total costs, followed by seed and labor and salary with 23 and 17%, respectively. On average, benefit-cost ratio and the rate of farm income were closely related to location. This result suggests that farmers practice more efficiently and have better conditions in Mazandaran, followed by Guilan province. PMID:19090234

  2. Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

    2013-01-01

    1. Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2. We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3. Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4. Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

  3. Black Carp: Biological synopsis and risk assessment of an introduced fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, L.G.; Williams, J.D.; Jelks, H.L.

    2005-01-01

    Major subjects addressed are (1) taxonomy, description, and distinguishing characteristics of the species; (2) native distribution; (3) biology and natural history, with emphasis on diet and reproduction; (4) history of the species in world aquaculture; (5) history of introduction within and outside the United States; (6) use as a biological control control agent, including a review of digenetic trematodes and snail-borne parasites of special concern and methods used for control; (7) alternatives to the use of black carp; (8) environmental tolerance and potential geographic range; and (9) risks associated with its introduction. The book also includes substantial information on the other Chinese carp species, including bighead carp, silver carp, and grass carp.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed with animal and plant diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Sun, Jian; Wen, Zheng-Yong; He, Yu-Hui; Cai, Wen-Jing; Wang, Ya-Ping; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-12-15

    Numerous studies have been focused on the replacement of fish meal by other alternative protein sources. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanism of utilization of diets with different protein sources in fish. Grass carp is a typical herbivorous fish. To elucidate the relationship between gene expression and utilization of animal and plant diets, transcriptome sequencing was performed in grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed. Grass carp fed with duckweed had significantly higher relative length of gut than those fed with chironomid larvae. 4435 differentially expressed genes were identified between grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed in brain, liver and gut, involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, appetite control, circadian rhythm, digestion and metabolism pathways. These pathways might play important roles in utilization of diets with different protein sources in grass carp. And the findings could provide a new insight into the replacement of fish meal in artificial diets. PMID:26283148

  5. Suitability of Lake Erie for bigheaded carps based on bioenergetic models and remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Karl R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Wynne, Timothy; Masagounder, Karthik; Paukert, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Algal blooms in the Great Lakes are a potential food source for silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis; together bigheaded carps). Understanding these blooms thus plays an important role in understanding the invasion potential of bigheaded carps. We used remote sensing imagery, temperatures, and improved species specific bioenergetics models to determine algal concentrations sufficient for adult bigheaded carps. Depending on water temperature we found that bigheaded carp require between 2 and 7 μg/L chlorophyll or between 0.3 and 1.26 × 105cells/mL Microcystis to maintain body weight. Algal concentrations in the western basin and shoreline were found to be commonly several times greater than the concentrations required for weight maintenance. The remote sensing images show that area of sufficient algal foods commonly encompassed several hundred square kilometers to several thousands of square kilometers when blooms form. From 2002 to 2011, mean algal concentrations increased 273%–411%. This indicates Lake Erie provides increasingly adequate planktonic algal food for bigheaded carps. The water temperatures and algal concentrations detected in Lake Erie from 2008 to 2012 support positive growth rates such that a 4 kg silver carp could gain between 19 and 57% of its body weight in a year. A 5 kg bighead carp modeled at the same water temperatures could gain 20–81% of their body weight in the same period. The remote sensing imagery and bioenergetic models suggest that bigheaded carps would not be food limited if they invaded Lake Erie.

  6. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  7. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  8. Residues of isobornyl thiocyanoacetate (Thanite) and a metabolite in fish and treated ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Sills, J.B.; Dawson, V.K.; Amel, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    Isobornyl thiocyanoacetate (Thanite) is an insecticide that induces a surfacing response in fish and therefore has been considered to have potential as a fish collection agent. Analyses for residues of Thanite in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to chemical yielded only a trace of the parent compound. A metabolite, isobornyl a-(methylthio)acetate, was isolated and indentified by GC-MS,and a reference standard for the metabolite was synthesized. Residues of the metabolite were present in largemouth bass muscle tissue within 1 h after exposure to Thanite. The metabolite was also observed in the muscle, blood plasma, and bile of carp. Residues of the metaboliteare rapidly elimanated after the fish are transferred to Thanite-free water. Residues of Thanite in water, algae, and from soil from ponds treated with Thanite declined to undetectable levels within 28 days after treatment.

  9. Impact of moderate silver carp biomass gradient on zooplankton communities in a eutrophic reservoir. Consequences for the use of silver carp in biomanipulation.

    PubMed

    Domaizon, I; Dévaux, J

    1999-07-01

    We examined the impacts of moderate gradient silver carp biomass (five levels from 0 to 36 g.m-3, i.e. about 0-792 kg.ha-1) on zooplankton communities of the eutrophic Villerest reservoir (France). During our mesocosm experiment changes in zooplankton assemblages were dependent on silver carp biomass. In the fishless and low fish biomass treatments, zooplankton abundance increased through time, owing to a peak in cladoceran density, but decreased (mainly cladocerans) at highest fish biomass. Copepods and rotifers were less affected at the highest fish biomass and dominated zooplankton communities. We highlighted that the presence of high silver carp biomass could lead to changes in phytoplankton assemblage via the impact on herbivorous zooplankton. Since silver carp efficiently graze on particles > 20 microns, the suppression of herbivorous cladocerans could result in an increase in small size algae (< 20 microns) abundance since these species would be released from grazers as well as competitors (large algae grazed by silver carp) and nutrients levels would be enhanced by fish internal loading. Our results showed that the use of low silver carp biomass (< 200 kg.ha-1) would allow us to minimize these negative effects. PMID:10488436

  10. Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

  11. Predictive Management of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vondracek, Bruce C.; Carlson, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Prolific non-native organisms pose serious threats to ecosystems and economies worldwide. Nonnative bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), collectively referred to as Asian carps, continue to colonize aquatic ecosystems throughout the central United States. These species are r-selected, exhibiting iteroparous spawning, rapid growth, broad environmental tolerance, high density, and long-distance movement. Hydrological, thermal, and physicochemical conditions are favorable for establishment beyond the current range, rendering containment and control imperative. Ecological approaches to confine Asian carp populations and prevent colonization characterize contemporary management in the United States. Foraging and reproduction of Asian carps govern habitat selection and movement, providing valuable insight for predictive control. Current management approaches are progressive and often anticipatory but deficient in human dimensions. We define predictive management of Asian carps as synthesis of ecology and human dimensions at regional and local scales to develop strategies for containment and control. We illustrate predictive management in the Upper Mississippi River System and suggest resource managers integrate predictive models, containment paradigms, and human dimensions to design effective, socially acceptable management strategies. Through continued research, university-agency collaboration, and public engagement, predictive management of Asian carps is an auspicious paradigm for preventing and alleviating consequences of colonization in the United States.

  12. Carbon dioxide as a tool to deter the movement of invasive bigheaded carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael R. Donaldson; Amberg, Jon; Shivani Adhikari; Cupp, Aaron R.; Jensen, Nathan; Romine, Jason G.; Adam Wright; Gaikowski, Mark; Cory D. Suski

    2016-01-01

    Nonnative bigheaded carps are established in the Mississippi River and there is substantial concern about their potential entry into the interconnected Laurentian Great Lakes. While electrical barriers currently exist as a preventative measure, there is need for additional control mechanisms to promote barrier security through redundancy. We tested the effectiveness of infused carbon dioxide gas (CO2) as a tool to influence the movement and behavior invasive bigheaded carps, namely Bighead CarpHypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix, as well as native Bigmouth BuffaloIctiobus cyprinellus, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Paddlefish Polyodon spathula, and Yellow Perch Perca flavescens in an experimental pond. Individuals were monitored with acoustic telemetry before, during, and after CO2 addition to the pond. We noted distinct changes in fish behavior following CO2 addition. Each species except Paddlefish maintained farther distances from the CO2 infusion manifold relative to controls. Both bigheaded carp species had slower persistence velocities (persistence of a movement in a given direction) following CO2 infusion and Bighead Carp used a smaller area of the pond immediately after CO2 addition. Pond pH progressively decreased up to 1.5 units following CO2 infusion. This work provides evidence that could inform future research to enhance existing control measures used to deter high-risk invasive fishes, such as bigheaded carps.

  13. Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Mark B.

    1993-03-01

    Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

  14. Genetic variations of body weight and GCRV resistance in a random mating population of grass carp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rong; Sun, Jiaxian; Luo, Qing; He, Libo; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Guo, Fuhua; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an important species in freshwater aquaculture both in China and on a global scale. Variety degeneration and frequent diseases have limited the further development of grass carp aquaculture. Thus, new and improved varieties are required. Here, we identified and assessed the body weight and disease resistance in a random mating population of 19 ♀ × 22 ♂ grass carp, which were derived from different water systems. In both the growth experimental group of 10,245 fish and grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-infected group with 10,000 fish, 78 full-sib families were statistically analyzed for body weight and GCRV resistance. The findings showed that body weight traits had low heritability (0.11 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.03 and 0.12 ± 0.05), GCRV resistance traits had high heritability (0.63 ± 0.11); body weight was higher in 3 families, whereas GCRV resistance was significantly greater in 11 families. Our results confirmed that the natural germplasm resources of wild grass carp were genetically diverse. Breeding of GCRV resistant varieties of grass carp have better genetic basis. This study provides the basis for constructing basal populations for grass carp selective breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. PMID:26439690

  15. Elements of concern in fillets of bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Sass, Gregory G; Dickinson, Amy; Epifanio, John M

    2014-06-01

    Efforts to control invasive bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) may include harvest for human consumption. We measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in fillets from silver and bighead carp collected from the lower Illinois River, Illinois, USA, to determine whether concentrations were of health concern and differed by species, size, and location. Concentrations of total As were below detection limits in most bighead (92%) and silver (77%) carp fillets, whereas inorganic As was below detection limits in all samples. Mean Hg concentrations were greater in bighead (0.068 mg kg(-1)) than in silver carp (0.035 mg kg(-1)), and were smallest in carp from the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Mercury concentrations in fillets were positively correlated with body mass in both species. Concentrations of Hg were below the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) action level (1 ppm as methyl-Hg); however, concentrations in some bighead (70%) and silver (12%) carp fell within the range that would invoke a recommendation to limit meals in sensitive cohorts. Mean Se concentrations were greater in silver (0.332 mg kg(-1)) than in bighead (0.281 mg kg(-1)) carp fillets, and were below the 1.5 mg kg(-1) limit for an unrestricted number of meals/month. The mean molar ratio of Se:Hg in fillets was lower in bighead (14.0) than in silver (29.1) carp and was negatively correlated with mass in both species Concentrations of Hg in bighead and silver carp fillets should be considered when assessing the risks associated with the use of these species as a protein source. PMID:24300421

  16. A specific CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induces protective antiviral responses against grass carp reovirus in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Yuan, Gailing; Su, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) show strong immune stimulatory activity in vertebrate, however, they possess specific sequence feature among species. In this study, we screened out an optimal CpG ODN sequence for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), 1670A 5'-TCGAACGTTTTAACGTTTTAACGTT-3', from six published sequences and three sequences designed by authors based on grass carp head kidney mononuclear cells and CIK (C. idella kidney) cells proliferation. VP4 mRNA expression was strongly inhibited by CpG ODN 1670A in CIK cells with GCRV infection, showing its strong antiviral activity. The mechanism via toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated signaling pathway was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and TLR21 did not play a role in the immune response to CpG ODN. The late up-regulation of CiRIG-I mRNA expression indicated that RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signaling pathway participated in the immune response to CpG ODN which is the first report on the interaction between CpG and RLRs. We also found that the efficient CpG ODN can activates interferon system. Infected with GCRV, type I interferon expression was reduced and type II interferon was induced by the efficient CpG ODN in CIK cells, especially IFNγ2, suggesting that IFNγ2 played an important role in response to the efficient CpG ODN. These results provide a theoretical basis and new development trend for further research on CpG and the application of CpG vaccine adjuvant in grass carp disease control. PMID:26972738

  17. Age estimation of a large bighead carp from Grand Lake, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Nealis, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    On April 23, 2011, a 1356-mm total length (TL), 39.8 kg bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) was brought to the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation. This specimen is the largest bighead carp recorded from Oklahoma, and it is near the maximum size reported from the United States. This specimen was estimated to be nine years old based on estimates from three different structures (pectoral fin ray, branchiostegal ray, and otolith). The age, together with past Oklahoma records of the species, indicates that there has been multiple introductions or undocumented reproduction of bighead carp in the Grand Lake basin.

  18. Prevalence, site and tissue preference of myxozoan parasites infecting gills of cultured fish in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Katoch, Anu

    2016-02-25

    Native carp species cultured in Indian farms in Punjab (catla Catla catla, rohu Labeo rohita, mrigal Cirrhinus mrigala, exotic carps such as silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, common carp Cyprinus carpio and a catfish Sperata seenghala) were examined for the presence of myxozoan parasites infecting gills. Firstly, the gills were examined under a zoom-stereomicroscope for the presence of plasmodia. The number of plasmodia per gill was counted to determine the index for the intensity of infection. Infected tissues were processed for histology, and 3-4 µm sections of infected gills were stained with haematoxylin & eosin and Luna's method. A total of 19 species of myxosporean were found infecting various cell types in the gills. Of these, 14 species belonged to the genus Myxobolus, 3 species to the genus Thelohanellus and 2 species to the genus Henneguya. Species belonging to the genus Myxobolus formed the interlamellar and intralamellar vascular (LV) type plasmodia, and species belonging to the genus Thelohanellus and Henneguya formed intrafilamental vascular (FV) type plasmodia. Mixed infections comprising 2, 3 or 4 different myxozoan species were noted in individual fish. The most common type of parasitism was polyparasitism due to 4 myxobolids co-occuring in fish with an infection rate of 23.16%. All species caused mild to severe haemorrhagic gill disease with little clinical symptomatology. PMID:26912043

  19. Effects of Temperature and Trophic State on Degradation of Environmental DNA in Lake Water.

    PubMed

    Eichmiller, Jessica J; Best, Sendréa E; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-02-16

    Degradation of environmental DNA (eDNA) in aquatic habitats can affect the interpretation of eDNA data and the ability to detect aquatic organisms. The effect of temperature and trophic state on the decay of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) eDNA was evaluated using lake water microcosms and quantitative PCR for a Common Carp-specific genetic marker in two experiments. The first experiment tested the effect of temperature on Common Carp eDNA decay. Common Carp eDNA exhibited exponential decay that increased with temperature. The slowest decay rate was observed at 5 °C, with a T90 value (time to 90% reduction from initial concentration) of 6.6 days, as opposed to ∼1 day at higher temperatures. In a second experiment, decay was compared across waters from lakes of different trophic states. In this experiment, Common Carp eDNA exhibited biphasic exponential decay, characterized by rapid decay for 3-8 days followed by slow decay. Decay rate was slowest in dystrophic water and fastest in oligotrophic water, and decay rate was negatively correlated to dissolved organic carbon concentration. The overall rapid decay of eDNA and the effects of temperature and water quality should be considered in protocols for water sample storage and field sampling design. PMID:26771292

  20. Comparison of mercury concentrations in liver, muscle, whole bodies, and composites of fish from the Red River of the North

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Robert M.; Brigham, Mark E.; Stauffer, Joseph C.

    1996-01-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) from four sites and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) from one site in the Red River of the North in 1994 were analyzed for total mercury content. In carp, mercury concentrations differed among liver, muscle, and whole bodies (0.11, 0.31, and 0.18 µg/g wet weight, respectively), between large and small size groups, but not location. Mercury distribution in channel catfish tissues differed from that in carp. Liver and muscle tissue had similar mean concentrations; each was higher than whole-body concentrations (0.16, 0.18, and 0.11 µg/g, respectively). Mercury concentrations were not significantly different between the two size groups of channel catfish. Weighted-mean mercury concentrations from seven individual fish agreed closely (usually within 10%) with concentrations determined on physical composites of the same fish. The ratio of mercury in whole bodies to mercury in muscle was similar for both carp and channel catfish. Historical data indicate that this ratio may be applicable to other species and locations. The ratio of mercury in livers to whole bodies and muscle differed between carp and channel catfish, which may reflect physiological differences between different trophic groups.

  1. Transcriptome profiling of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Yu, Hui; Li, Hua; Wang, Anli

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the causative pathogen of intestinal hemorrhage which has caused great economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In order to understand the immunological response of grass carp to infection by A. hydrophila, the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens from infected and non-infected grass carp groups were obtained using HiSeq™ 2500 (Illumina). An average of 63 million clean reads per library was obtained, and approximately 80% of these genes were successfully mapped to the reference genome. A total of 1591 up-regulated and 530 down-regulated genes were identified. Eight immune-related categories involving 105 differently expressed genes were scrutinized. 16 of the differently expressed genes involving immune response were further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide valuable information for further analysis of the mechanisms of grass carp defense against A. hydrophila invasion. PMID:26945937

  2. [Effectiveness and characteristics of treating algae-laden raw water by stocking silver carp].

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen-Qiang; Cui, Fu-Yi; Ma, Hua; He, Wen-Jie; Yin, Pei-Jun

    2008-03-01

    To reduce the negative effect of algae on conventional water treatment, a full-scale research of removing algae from algae-laden raw water by stocking filter-feeding silver carp was processed. After the pretreatment in a presedimentation tank with silver carp, the concentration of phytoplankton, the biomass of cyanobacteria and Microsystis flos-aquae in algae-laden raw water with Microsystis flos-aquae its dominant species decreased 61.8%, 76.1% and 78.2% respectively. This effective decrease of algae load on conventional process created favorable conditions for water treatment. Analysis indicates that food habit of silver carp and algae size are two causes of different removal efficiency between cyanobacteria and green algae. The results show that biomanipulation of silver carp is applicable for treating algae-laden raw water in which colonial cyanobacteria is dominant. PMID:18649519

  3. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) based on microsatellites and SNPs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs). The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project. PMID:20181260

  4. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha; Levi, Edi; Rishi, Arun K.; Datta, Nabanita S.

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1

  5. Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

  6. Effects of gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog and the carp.

    PubMed

    Takagi, S F; Iino, M; Yarita, H

    1978-01-01

    Effects of various gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory spithelia were examined in the olfactory bulb of the bullfrog and the carp. 1. The olfactory epithelia of the two animals responded to the salty, bitter- and acid-tasting substances, but not to the sweet ones. 2. The olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog responded immediately to sodium solutions of high concentrations (the "initial response"), but the response to those of low concentrations showed long latency (the "delayed response"). In the carp, the "initial response" was found, while the "delayed response" was not in most cases. A "negative" delayed response was found only infrequently. 3. Responses only to high alkali or acid solutions were found in the two animals. 4. When 0.05 M NaCl was added to HCl solutions, an enhancing effect was found in the bullfrog, while a reducing effect occurred in the carp. On the contrary, when 0.05 M NaCl was added to NaOH solutions, an enhancing effect occurred in the carp, while no consistent result was founding the bullfrog. 5. Many amino acids were effective stimuli in the bullfrog, but only betaine and 1-aspartic acid were found effective in the carp. 6. Changes in temperatures beyond 35 degrees C or under 10 degrees C elicited responses. Mechanical stimuli were effective in the carp, but not in the bullfrog. 7. The "water response" was found in the bullfrog, but not in the carp. 8. Sensitivities of the olfactory epithelia of the two animals were compared and discussed. PMID:308564

  7. An experimental investigation into electromyography, constitutive relationship and morphology of crucian carp for biomechanical "digital fish"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng; Yin, Xiezhen; Tong, Binggang

    2011-05-01

    Currently, the integrated biomechanical studies on fish locomotion come into focus, so it is urgent to provide reliable and systematic experimental results, and to establish a biomechanical "digital fish" database for some typical fish species. Accordingly, based on the control framework of "Neural Control — Active Contraction of Muscle — Passive Deformation", the electromyography (EMG) signals, the mechanical properties and the constitutive relationship of skin, muscle, and body trunk, as well as morphological parameters of crucian carp, are investigated with experiments, from which a simplified database of biomechanical "digital fish" is established. First, the EMG signals from three lateral superficial red muscles of crucian carp, which was evolving in the C-start movement, were acquired with a self-designing amplifier. The modes of muscle activity were also investigated. Secondly, the Young's modulus and the reduced relaxation function of crucian carp's skin and muscle were determined by failure tests and relaxation tests in uniaxial tensile ways, respectively. Viscoelastic models were adopted to deduce the constitutive relationship. The mechanical properties and the angular stiffness of different sites on the crucian carp's body trunk were obtained with dynamic bending experiments, where a self-designing dynamic bending test machine was employed. The conclusion was drawn regarding the body trunk of crucian carp under dynamic bending deformation as an approximate elastomer. According to the above experimental results, a possible benefit of body effective stiffness increasing with a little energy dissipation was discussed. Thirdly, the distribution of geometric parameters and weight parameters for a single experimental individual and multiple individuals of crucian carp was studied with experiments. Finally, considering all the above results, generic experimental data were obtained by normalization, and a preliminary biomechanical "digital fish" database for

  8. Molecular and functional characterization of an IL-1β receptor antagonist in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Yao, Fuli; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Xinyan; Wei, He; Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Hong

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we discovered a novel IL-1 family member (nIL-1F) from grass carp that possessed the ability to bind with grass carp IL-1β receptor type 1 (gcIL-1R1) and attenuate grass carp IL-1β activity in head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), suggesting that it may function as an IL-1β receptor antagonist. Grass carp nIL-1F transcript was constitutively expressed with the highest levels in some lymphoid organs, including head kidney, spleen and intestine, implying its potential in grass carp immunity. In agreement with this notion, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that nIL-1F mRNA was inductively expressed in grass carp with a rapid kinetics, indicating that it may be an early response gene during immune challenges. In addition, recombinant grass carp IL-1β (rgcIL-1β) induced nIL-1F mRNA expression via NF-κB and MAPK (JNK, p38 and p42/44) signaling pathways in HKLs. Particularly, the orthologs of nIL-1F found in other fish species, including zebrafish, pufferfish and rainbow trout are not homologous to mammalian IL-1β receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), indicating that fish nIL-1F and mammalian IL-1Ra may not share a common evolutionary ancestor. Taken together, our data suggest the existence of a naturally occurring fish nIL-1F, which may function like mammalian IL-1Ra, being beneficial to understand the auto-regulatory mechanism of IL-1β activity in fish immunity. PMID:25475961

  9. Transcriptome analysis of head kidney in grass carp and discovery of immune-related genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish, but its production is often affected by diseases that cause serious economic losses. To date, no good breeding varieties have been obtained using the oriented cultivation technique. The ability to identify disease resistance genes in grass carp is important to cultivate disease-resistant varieties of grass carp. Results In this study, we constructed a non-normalized cDNA library of head kidney in grass carp, and, after clustering and assembly, we obtained 3,027 high-quality unigenes. Solexa sequencing was used to generate sequence tags from the transcriptomes of the head kidney in grass carp before and after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection. After processing, we obtained 22,144 tags that were differentially expressed by more than 2-fold between the uninfected and infected groups. 679 of the differentially expressed tags (3.1%) mapped to 483 of the unigenes (16.0%). The up-regulated and down-regulated unigenes were annotated using gene ontology terms; 16 were annotated as immune-related and 42 were of unknown function having no matches to any of the sequences in the databases that were used in the similarity searches. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed four unknown unigenes that showed significant responses to the viral infection. Based on domain structure predictions, one of these sequences was found to encode a protein that contained two transmembrane domains and, therefore, may be a transmembrane protein. Here, we proposed that this novel unigene may encode a virus receptor or a protein that mediates the immune signalling pathway at the cell surface. Conclusion This study enriches the molecular basis data of grass carp and further confirms that, based on fish tissue-specific EST databases, transcriptome analysis is an effective route to discover novel functional genes. PMID:22776770

  10. CARP-1 / CCAR1: A biphasic regulator of cancer cell growth and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Rishi, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapy using small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) has been useful in targeting the tumor cells while sparing the normal cells. Despite clinical success of many targeted therapies, their off-target effects and development of resistance are emerging as significant and challenging problems. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify targets to devise new means to treat cancers and their drug-resistant phenotypes. CARP-1/CCAR1 (Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1), a peri-nuclear phospho-protein, plays a dynamic role in regulating cell growth and apoptosis by serving as a co-activator of steroid/thyroid nuclear receptors, β-catenin, Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase, and tumor suppressor p53. CARP-1/CCAR1 also regulates chemotherapy-dependent apoptosis. CARP-1/CCAR1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel SMIs of CARP-1/CCAR1 interaction with APC/C. CFMs promote apoptosis in a manner independent of p53. CFMs are potent inhibitors of a variety of cancer cells including the drug (Adriamycin or Tamoxifen)-resistant breast cancer cells but not the immortalized breast epithelial cells, while a nano-lipid formulation of the lead compound CFM-4 improves its bioavailability and efficacy in vivo when administered orally. This review focuses on the background and pleiotropic roles of CARP-1/CCAR1 as well as its apoptosis signaling mechanisms in response to chemotherapy in cancer cells. PMID:25894788

  11. Feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting lifespan of grass carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, R.M.; Miranda, L.E.; Kirk, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an herbivorous cyprinid stocked to control undesirable aquatic vegetation. However, stocking grass carp presents several problems including complete eradication of submersed aquatic vegetation, dispersal out of the target area, adverse effects on fish communities, and damage to waterfowl habitat and native vegetation. The purpose of this research was to consider the feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting the lifespan of grass carp. Stainless steel dowel pins were inserted into 49 fish to identify the most appropriate site to implant the capsule. The throat region along the body's longitudinal axis was identified as the most suitable location because it resulted in minimal loss over an 8-month holding period. Rotenone solutions were injected into the ventral surface between the pelvic fins to determine the lethal dosage to 95% of the population (LD 95). The LD95 for grass carp increased curvilin-early with fish weight. Four polymers that merit further evaluation in constructing the capsule are poly[bis(p-carboxyphenoxy) propane anhydride], poly[bis(p- carboxyphenoxy) hexane anhydride], poly-1-lactide, and poly(??-caprolactone) . Implants are commonly used to deliver pharmaceutical products in medical and veterinarian applications, and have been used in fish. Developing a bioerodible capsule could increase the safety and flexibility of stocking grass carp for control of aquatic plants, and may also be applicable for management of other exotic species.

  12. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  13. The effect of encapsulated fennel extracts on the quality of silver carp fillets during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Mazandrani, Hoda Alipour; Javadian, SeyedRoholla; Bahram, Somayeh

    2016-03-01

    The effect of fennel extract on the quality of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) fillets, and the possible efficacy of liposomal encapsulation in the improvement of its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity during chilled storage (4 + 1°C) of the fillets were examined over a period of 15 days. Silver carp fillets were treated with pure fennel extract (0.3% and 0.5% w/v) and liposomal encapsulated fennel extract (0.3% and 0.5% w/v), and their quality changes in terms of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), microbial counts, and sensory properties were investigated. Fennel extract could retard the deterioration of silver carp fillets, as reflected in lower TVB-N, PV and TBA value. Moreover, the efficacy of fennel extract was improved when it was encapsulated into liposome. Silver carp fillets treated with the encapsulated fennel extract showed the lowest amount of lipid oxidation and microbial deterioration during the storage period compared with the control and pure extract treatments. Sensory evaluation revealed that shelf life of silver carp fillet was longest for samples treated with encapsulated fennel extract at 0.5% (15 days), as compared to the control (6 days) (P < 0.05). PMID:27004119

  14. Renal accumulation and effects of intraperitoneal injection of extracted microcystins in omnivorous crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Xie, Ping; Lei, Hehua; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2013-08-01

    An acute toxicological experiment was designed to characterize the sequence of renal ultrastructural changes with accumulated MCs in crucian carp injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracted microcystins (mainly MC-RR and -LR) at two doses, 50 and 200 μg MC-LReq. kg⁻¹ body weight. Quantitative and qualitative determinations of MCs in the kidney were conducted by HPLC and LC-MS, respectively. MC-RR content in kidney of crucian carp showed a time dose-dependent increase within 48 h post-injection, followed by a sharp decline afterward, while no MC-LR in kidney was detectable throughout the experiment. Ultrastructural changes in the kidney of crucian carp progressed with increasing accumulated MCs and exposure times within 48 h post-injection, whereas renal ultrastructural recovery of crucian carp in the 50 μg MC-LReq. kg⁻¹ dose group was evident at 168 h post-injection. Our ultrastructural observation suggests that the membranous structure is the main action site of MCs in the kidney, among which mitochondria damage in the tubules is clearly an early, and presumably a critically important effect of MCs. The increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CR) in both dose groups further revealed severe impairment occurred in the kidney of crucian carp. PMID:23608020

  15. Action spectra and adaptation properties of carp photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Witkovsky, P; Nelson, J; Ripps, H

    1973-04-01

    The mass photoreceptor response of the isolated carp retina was studied after immersing the tissue in aspartate-Ringer solution. Two electro-retinogram components were isolated by differential depth recording: a fast cornea-negative wave, arising in the receptor layer, and a slow, cornea-negative wave arising at some level proximal to the photoreceptors. Only the fast component was investigated further. In complete dark adaptation, its action spectrum peaked near 540 nm and indicated input from both porphyropsin-containing rods (lambda(max) approximately 525 nm) and cones with longer wavelength sensitivity. Under photopic conditions a broad action spectrum, lambda(max) approximately 580 nm was seen. In the presence of chromatic backgrounds, the photopic curve could be fractionated into three components whose action spectra agreed reasonably well with the spectral characteristics of blue, green, and red cone pigments of the goldfish. In parallel studies, the carp rod pigment was studied in situ by transmission densitometry. The reduction in optical density after a full bleach averaged 0.28 at its lambda(max) 525 nm. In the isolated retina no regeneration of rod pigment occurred within 2 h after bleaching. The bleaching power of background fields used in adaptation experiments was determined directly. Both rods and cones generated increment threshold functions with slopes of +1 on log-log coordinates over a 3-4 log range of background intensities. Background fields which bleached less than 0.5% rod pigment nevertheless diminished photoreceptor sensitivity. The degree and rate of recovery of receptor sensitivity after exposure to a background field was a function of the total flux (I x t) of the field. Rod saturation, i.e. the abolition of rod voltages, occurred after approximately 12% of rod pigment was bleached. In light-adapted retinas bathed in normal Ringer solution, a small test flash elicited a larger response in the presence of an annular background field than

  16. Immunogenicity of a cell culture-derived inactivated vaccine against a common virulent isolate of grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weiwei; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yingying; Zhao, Changchen; Li, Yingying; Shi, Chunbin; Wu, Shuqin; Song, Xinjian; Huang, Qiwen; Li, Shoujun

    2016-07-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV), is emerging as a serious problem in grass carp aquaculture. There is no available antiviral therapy and vaccination is the primary method of disease control. In the present study, the immunological effects and protective efficacy of an inactivated HuNan1307 vaccine in grass carp were evaluated. The GCRV isolate HuNan1307 was produced by replication onto the grass carp PSF cell line, and inactivated with 1% β-propiolactone for 60 h at 4 °C. Grass carp were injected with inactivated GCRV vaccine, followed by challenge with the isolate HuNan1307. The results showed that the minimum dosage of the inactivated vaccine was 10(5.5) TCID50/0.2 mL to induce immune protection. All grass carp immunized with the inactivated vaccine produced a high titer of serum antibodies and GCRV-specific neutralizing antibody. Moreover, the inactivated vaccine injection increased the expression of 6 immune-related genes in the spleen and head kidney, which indicated that a immune response was induced by the HuNan1307 vaccine. In addition, grass carp immunized with the inactivated vaccine showed a survival rate above 80% after the viral challenge, equal to that of grass carp immunized with a commercial attenuated vaccine, and the protection lasted at least for one year. The data in this study suggested that the inactivated HuNan1307 vaccine may represent an efficient method to induce immunity against GCRV infection and the induced disease in grass carp. PMID:27142935

  17. Distribution and accumulation of elements (As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, and Zn) in tissues of fish species from different trophic levels in the Danube River at the confluence with the Sava River (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Subotić, S; Višnjić Jeftić, Ž; Spasić, S; Hegediš, A; Krpo-Ćetković, J; Lenhardt, M

    2013-08-01

    Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca), European catfish (Silurus glanis), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and gobies (Neogobius gymnotrachelus, Neogobius melanostomus) were collected from the Danube River (Belgrade section), and samples of liver, muscle, or whole-body composites (in the case of gobies) were analyzed for As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, and Zn with inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry to find out if there was a correlation between accumulation of these elements in predatory and prey species, as well as in pairs of species with overlapping diets. Concentrations of all analyzed elements were either higher (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) in liver than in muscle, or equal (As, Hg), except for Hg in carp, which was higher in muscle. Mercury concentration in liver and muscle of predators (catfish, pikeperch) was significantly (<10(-4)) higher than in prey fishes (carp and gobies). The results indicate that Hg concentration was biomagnified through the food chain. Concentrations of As, Fe, and Hg in carp liver and gobies whole-body composite were similar, but carp had significantly (<10(-4)) higher values of Zn and Cu in liver. The regression analysis and trendline equations indicate that the concentrations of all tested elements, except for As in liver, and Mn and Fe in muscle, were similar in predatory fish (pikeperch and catfish), on one hand, and in prey fish (carp and gobies), on the other hand. Distinctly high Zn concentration in carp is very common in this species due to its physiology. Concentrations of Hg and Zn were higher than the maximum acceptable concentration due to the high pollution level in this section of the Danube River, accordingly posing a risk for the human consumption of these fish species. PMID:23389858

  18. Concentrations of microcystins in tissues of several fish species from freshwater reservoirs and ponds.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Radovan; Palíková, Miroslava; Adamovský, Ondřej; Ziková, Andrea; Navrátil, Stanislav; Kohoutek, Jiří; Mareš, Jan; Bláha, Luděk

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to summarise the determination of concentrations of microcystins (MCs) in muscle and liver of freshwater fish species caught in stagnant waters of the Czech Republic. Within the years 2007-2009, 351 muscle samples and 291 liver samples of 16 freshwater fish species derived from four fishponds, and four water reservoirs were analysed. MCs were detected in 53 liver samples. The highest concentrations of microcystins were determined in liver samples of carnivorous fish species; 50.3 ng/g of fresh weight (FW) in perch (Perca fluviatilis) and 22.7 ng/g FW in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca). MCs in liver were detected in other five fish species; asp (Aspius aspius), pike (Esox lucius), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Concentrations of MCs in liver of nine fish species (European bream, whitefish, tench, silver carp, European catfish, roach, chub, crucian carp and rudd) were below the detection limit of 1.2-5.4 ng/g FW for different MC congeners. However, the concentrations of MCs in all muscle samples were below the detection limit. The assessment of MCs concentrations might be influenced by the detection method used. Due to the concentrations of MCs being below the detection limit in muscle samples of all fish species analysed, it seems that there might be a low potential threat for human health in case of fish muscle consumption. PMID:23756815

  19. Identification and expression analysis of cellular and viral microRNAs in CyHV3-infected KCF-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xuezhu; Weng, Shaoping; Dong, Gang; Zhang, Hetong; Zeng, Jie; He, Jianguo; Dong, Chuanfu

    2016-10-30

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with approximately 22 nucleotides (nt) that are encoded by a diverse range of metazoan eukaryotes, plants and viruses. CyHV-3 (cyprinid herpesvirus-3) is a member of the Alloherpesviridae virus family and has caused severe economic losses for the common carp and koi carp fishery industries. In this study, a total of 15,987,652 clean reads were generated from a cDNA library of CyHV-3-infected KCF-1 (koi caudal fin) cells using high-throughput sequencing technology. Following annotation and secondary structure prediction, 28 miRNAs were identified as novel candidate miRNAs encoded by common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and seven miRNAs were shown to be encoded by CyHV-3. Next, 19 host miRNAs and seven viral miRNAs were validated by stem-loop real-time PCR. Northern blot analysis confirmed the presence of 14 host miRNAs and five CyHV-3-encoded novel miRNAs. The results of this study expand the knowledge of common carp and CyHV-3 microRNAs and provide a useful theoretical foundation for further study of CyHV-3. PMID:27476971

  20. Selective control of common crap: ineffectiveness of 2-(digeranylamino)-ethanol (GD-174) in pond trials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilderhus, P.A.; Burress, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The candidate piscicide, 2-(digeranylamino)-ethanol, (commonly known as GD-174) was subjected to efficacy trials in ponds under a wide variety of conditions. Results of the trials were disappointing considering that laboratory tests had shown the compound to be selectively toxic to common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Results of pretreatment, on-site toxicity tests were misleading and indicated concentrations that failed to kill all of the carp in 19 of 23 ponds. In a few instances, the chemical killed the carp with little or no effect on nontarget fishes. No fish were killed in some trials and large numbers of nontarget fishes were killed in others. Twenty of 25 pond trials were judged to be unsuccessful. Success or failure of pond treatments could not be correlated with any particular combination of physical, chemical, and biological factors. Because the activity of GD-174 against mixed populations of fish cannot be predicted, further development of this compound as a selective toxicant for carp has been discontinued at the National Fishery Research Laboratory.

  1. Excess propagation and biological control of zooplanktonic Cyclops in drinking water sources.

    PubMed

    Cui, F Y; Lin, T; Liu, D M; Zhang, L Q

    2005-01-01

    Starting with the occurrence of Cyclops in drinking water sources and its danger to drinking water safety, we extensively investigated the nature of its excess propagation by analyzing the effect of living space and predator pressure in the food chain on its survival. Then we developed an ecological project using fish biomanipulation, different to the conventional fishery culture technique, to control excess propagation of Cyclops. The control effects on Cyclops of four species of fish were investigated experimentally at a stocking density of 30 g/m3 of water. Results showed that the food habit of the fish had a significant influence on the biological control of Cyclops. The propagation of Cyclops could be controlled effectively and also the water quality improved simultaneously by stocking filter-feeding fish, such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis). However, herbivorous Ctenopharyngodon idellus and omnivorous Cyprinus carpio had no obvious biological effects on controlling the growth of Cyclops and restoring water quality. The results further proved that under conditions of proper poly-culture densities of silver carp and bighead carp, the number of Cyclops might be controlled at very low levels and eutrophication might be abated by removing nutrients from the water body. PMID:16312962

  2. Estimating whole-body fish PCB concentrations from fillet data

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, D.; Hohreiter, D.; Strause, K.; Brown, M.; Barnes, C.

    1995-12-31

    A study was designed to assess a potentially cost-effective method for generating both types of data from single fish specimens. The method is based on the testable hypothesis that whole-body PCE concentrations are predictable from fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and whole-body lipid concentrations. The study involved the collection of small-mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from several locations in the Kalamazoo River (Michigan) watershed to represent a range in PCB exposure. PCB and lipid concentrations were determined in aliquots of homogenized fillets and remaining carcasses. Wet-weight total PCB concentrations in carp ranged from 0.06 to 17 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.11 to 14 mg/kg for remaining carcass; small-mouth bass ranged from 0.08 to 5.8 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.21 to 13.2 mg/kg for remaining carcass. Whole-body PCB concentrations predicted using fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and carcass lipid concentrations accounted for 94% and 88% of the variability in measured whole-body small-mouth and whole-body carp concentrations, respectively. Predicted and measured whole-body PCB concentrations had a correlation of 91% for small-mouth bass, and 84% for carp. These results demonstrate that value of the lipid-based model in predicting whole-body PCB concentrations from measured fillet PCB concentrations and lipid concentrations in fillet and remaining carcass.

  3. Influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on speciation and bioavailability of arsenite.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongwen; Zhang, Xuezhi; Zhang, Zhiyan; Chen, Yongsheng; Crittenden, John C

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the influence of the co-existence of TiO(2) nanoparticles on the speciation of arsenite [As(III)] was studied by observing its adsorption and valence changing. Moreover, the influence of TiO(2) nanoparticles on the bioavailability of As(III) was examined by bioaccumulation test using carp (Cyprinus carpio). The results showed that TiO(2) nanoparticles have a significant adsorption capacity for As (III). Equilibrium was established within 30 min, with about 30% of the initial As (III) being adsorbed onto TiO(2) nanoparticles. Most of aqueous As (III) was oxidized to As(V) in the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles under sunlight. The carp accumulated considerably more As in the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles than in the absence of TiO(2) nanoparticles, and after 25-day exposure, As concentration in carp increased by 44%. Accumulation of As in viscera, gills and muscle of the carp was significantly enhanced by the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles. PMID:18976844

  4. Seasonal reactivation enables Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 to persist in a wild host population.

    PubMed

    Uchii, Kimiko; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are of growing concern in wildlife conservation and animal health. To better understand the consequences of these diseases, a key question lies in how they persist in host populations after they emerge. Using a gene expression approach, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the persistence of an emerging virus, Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), which has been spreading to wild populations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Japan since 2003. Seasonal expression patterns of CyHV-3 genes in wild seropositive carp indicated that replication-related genes were transcribed only during the spring when water temperatures were permissive to CyHV-3 replication. In contrast, possible latency-related genes, which are expressed when CyHV-3 do not multiply, were also transcribed under nonpermissive conditions. These observations suggest that CyHV-3 may persist in carriers by establishing latent infection and then reactivating periodically coincident with the spring temperature increase when carp aggregate for mating, allowing successive virus transmissions between hosts during mating every year. Our results revealed that the life cycle of CyHV-3 may fit perfectly into the ecology of its host, resulting in the long-term persistence of this emerging virus in wild common carp populations. PMID:24256414

  5. Une forme exceptionnelle de la luxation perilunaire du carpe

    PubMed Central

    Elouakili, Issam; Ouchrif, Younes; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Ouakrim, Redouane; Lamrani, Omar; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Ismael, Farid; Lahlou, Abdo; Elouadghiri, Mohammed; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaccoubi, Mouradh

    2014-01-01

    Les luxations périlunaires (LPL) du carpe sont des lésions extrêmement rares, qui peuvent passer inaperçue en raison d'un tableau clinique souvent trompeur, des radiographies en profil non strict ou d'interprétation difficile. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une luxation périlunaire stade III selon la classification de Witvoët et Allieu chez un patient de 32 ans, il s'agit d'une forme encore plus rare voire exceptionnelle et qui peut induire de sérieux problèmes en raison de la sévérité des dommages ligamentaires et du risque de nécrose du semilunaire plus important dans ce type de lésions. Le traitement est toujours chirurgical et doit être réalisé dans les plus brefs délais afin d’éviter les complications. PMID:25404968

  6. Intrachain diffusion in a protein loop fragment from carp parvalbumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Florian; Fierz, Beat; Axthelm, Fabian; Joder, Karin; Meyer, Dominique; Kiefhaber, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    During protein folding a polypeptide chain has to form specific intrachain interactions starting from an ensemble of unfolded conformation. Thus, intrachain diffusion in unfolded polypeptide chains can be regarded as an elementary step in protein folding, which should determine the dynamics of the early stages in the folding process. We have previously applied exothermic triplet-triplet energy transfer from xanthone to naphthalene to determine rate constants for intrachain end-to-end contact formation in unstructured homo-polypeptide chains. Here we show that the method can be applied to determine absolute rate constants for intrachain diffusion in natural loop sequences, if they are free of methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine. We measured the rate of loop formation in an 18 amino acid polypeptide chain corresponding to a natural loop sequence from carp muscle β-parvalbumin (residues 85-102). Contact formation shows single exponential kinetics with a time constant ( τ=1/ k) of 53 ± 3 ns at 22.5 °C in water. Comparison with the results on homo-polypeptide chains shows that this value agrees well with rates obtained earlier for a polyserine chain of the same length.

  7. Extra Microchromosomes Play Male Determination Role in Polyploid Gibel Carp.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Yin; Zhang, Qi-Ya; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Li; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Da; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2016-07-01

    Sex is generally determined by sex chromosomes in vertebrates, and sex chromosomes exhibit the most rapidly-evolving traits. Sex chromosome evolution has been revealed previously in numerous cases, but the association between sex chromosome origin and the reproduction mode transition from unisexual to sexual reproduction remains unclear. Here, we have isolated a male-specific sequence via analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism from polyploid gibel carp (Carassius gibelio), a species that not only has the ability to reproduce unisexually but also contains males in wild populations. Subsequently, we have found through FISH analysis that males have several extra microchromosomes with repetitive sequences and transposable elements when compared to females. Moreover, we produced sex-reversed physiological females with a male-specific marker by using estradiol hormone treatment, and two gynogenetic families were established from them. In addition, the male incidence rates of two gynogenetic families were revealed to be closely associated with the extra microchromosome number of the sex-reversed physiological females. These results suggest that the extra microchromosomes in males might resemble a common feature of sex chromosomes and might play a significant role in male determination during the evolutionary trajectory of the reproduction mode transition from unisexual to sexual reproduction in the polyploid fish. PMID:27017622

  8. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  9. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression of fibroblast growth genes in common carp.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Likun; Zhang, Songhao; Dong, Chuanju; Chen, Baohua; Feng, Jingyan; Peng, Wenzhu; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng

    2016-03-10

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a large family of polypeptide growth factors, which are found in organisms ranging from nematodes to humans. In vertebrates, a number of FGFs have been shown to play important roles in developing embryos and adult organisms. Among the vertebrate species, FGFs are highly conserved in both gene structure and amino-acid sequence. However, studies on teleost FGFs are mainly limited to model species, hence we investigated FGFs in the common carp genome. We identified 35 FGFs in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the FGFs are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. By examining the copy number of FGFs in several vertebrate genomes, we found that eight FGFs in common carp have undergone gene duplications, including FGF6a, FGF6b, FGF7, FGF8b, FGF10a, FGF11b, FGF13a, and FGF18b. The expression patterns of all FGFs were examined in various tissues, including the blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, showing that most of the FGFs were ubiquitously expressed, indicating their critical role in common carp. To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis verified the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. Gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp FGF gene family provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, physiological, and phylogenetic studies on FGFs in teleosts. PMID:26691502

  10. First evidence of grass carp recruitment in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Davis, J. Jeremiah; Jenkins, Jill A.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Miner, Jeffrey G.; Farver, John; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    We use aging techniques, ploidy analysis, and otolith microchemistry to assess whether four grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella captured from the Sandusky River, Ohio were the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin. All four fish were of age 1 +. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that these fish were not aquaculture-reared and that they were most likely the result of successful reproduction in the Sandusky River. First, at least two of the fish were diploid; diploid grass carp cannot legally be released in the Great Lakes Basin. Second, strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios were elevated in all four grass carp from the Sandusky River, with elevated Sr:Ca ratios throughout the otolith transect, compared to grass carp from Missouri and Arkansas ponds. This reflects the high Sr:Ca ratio of the Sandusky River, and indicates that these fish lived in a high-strontium environment throughout their entire lives. Third, Sandusky River fish were higher in Sr:Ca ratio variability than fish from ponds, reflecting the high but spatially and temporally variable strontium concentrations of southwestern Lake Erie tributaries, and not the stable environment of pond aquaculture. Fourth, Sr:Ca ratios in the grass carp from the Sandusky River were lower in their 2011 growth increment (a high water year) than the 2012 growth increment (a low water year), reflecting the observed inverse relationship between discharge and strontium concentration in these rivers. We conclude that these four grass carp captured from the Sandusky River are most likely the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin.

  11. Improving efficiency and reliability of environmental DNA analysis for silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Monroe, Emy; Lance, Richard; Baerwaldt, Kelly; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource agencies have established surveillance programs which use environmental DNA (eDNA) for the early detection of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix before they establish populations within the Great Lakes. This molecular monitoring technique must be highly accurate and precise for confident interpretation and also efficient, both in detection threshold and cost. Therefore, we compared two DNA extraction techniques and compared a new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay with the conventional PCR (cPCR) assay used by monitoring programs. Both the qPCR and cPCR assays were able to amplify the DNA of silver carp present in environmental samples taken from locations where mixed populations of bigheaded carps existed. However, the qPCR assay had substantially fewer PCR positive samples which were subsequently determined not to contain DNA of bigheaded carps than the cPCR assay. Additionally, the qPCR assay was able to amplify the DNA of bigheaded carps even in the presence of inhibitors that blocked amplification with cPCR. Also, the selection of an appropriate DNA extraction method can significantly alter the efficiency of eDNA surveillance programs by lowering detection limits and by decreasing costs associated with sample processing. The results reported herein are presently being incorporated into eDNA surveillance programs to decrease the costs, increase DNA yield and increase the confidence that assays are amplifying the target DNA. These results are critical to enhancing our ability to accurately and confidently interpret the results reported from monitoring programs using eDNA for early detection of invasive species.

  12. High-pressure treatment with silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) protein and its allergic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Xue, Wentong

    2010-09-01

    The allergenicity and structural changes of silver carp allergens influenced by high-pressure treatment were studied. We treated the allergens at 100, 200 and 300 MPa for 10, 30 and 60 min at 20° C, used SDS-PAGE to separate the proteins and recognized the allergens by western blotting. Circular dichroism analysis was performed to characterize the structural change. From our study, we can determine that high-pressure treatment did not change the subunit composition, molecular weight or the allergenicity of silver carp allergens, but it did change the structure of the allergens.

  13. Occurrence of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda, Bothriocephallidea) in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the Changjiang River drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Bingwen; Wang, Guitang; Xie, Jun

    2011-05-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is a potentially serious pathogen in wild or cultured fish in worldwide distribution. We examined 58-farmed grass carp from Nanchang in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage, from which 20.7% were found to harbor the parasite with an infection intensity of 36.9±54.7. The parasites were identified based on morphology and rDNA ITS sequence analysis. The present report represents the first record of the parasite in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the river drainage.

  14. Sequestration of RNA by grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella TIA1 is associated with its positive role in facilitating grass carp reovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Song, Lang; Wang, Hao; Wang, Tu; Lu, Liqun

    2015-10-01

    Previous report demonstrated that grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection resulted in unlinking cellular stress granule formation from aggregation of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella TIA1 (CiTIA1). Here, we provided evidence to show that CiTIA1 bound to synthesized ssRNA and dsRNA in vitro. Both GST-pull down assay and RNA immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the association between GCRV-specific RNA and GST-tagged CiTIA1 in C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. Furthermore, CiTIA1 was shown to protect dsRNA of virus-origin from degradation in CIK cells through Northern blot analysis. Finally, transient overexpression of CiTIA1 enhanced the replication efficiency of GCRV in CIK cells. Taken together, our results suggested that cellular CiTIA1 might facilitate GCRV replication through sequestrating and protecting viral RNA from degradation. PMID:26208752

  15. Effects of cytochrome P450 1A substrate (difloxacin) on enzyme gene expression and pharmacokinetics in crucian carp (hybridized Prussian carp).

    PubMed

    Fu, Gui Hong; Yang, Xian Le; Zhang, Hai Xin; Yu, Wen Juan; Hu, Kun

    2011-03-01

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play a prominent role in drug metabolism and biotransformation which are distributed in liver of aquatic animals. However, limited information is available about CYP genes involved in drug metabolism in fish. In the present study, we explore CYP1A characterization for DIF metabolism. Firstly, we cloned and characterized the full-length cDNA sequence of a CYP1A gene from crucian carp (hybridized Prussian carp), the predicted protein sequence for CYP1A comprise 496 amino acids. The heme-binding region of the CYP1A, encompassing the amino acid sequence GLGKRRCIG, which is identical to the same region of other homologues. Secondly, we studied the difloxacin (DIF) kinetics and the effects of DIF on their corresponding CYP1A mRNA levels in liver of crucian carp. CYP1A1 mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR, and DIF concentration was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Results showed that the concentration of DIF in liver reached its peak (67.70 mg kg(-1)) at 0.5h, while the CYP1A1 gene expression was at the lowest point. CYP1A mRNA was down-regulated by 6.5 mg ml(-1) DIF in the liver of crucian carp. Thus, our work confirmed that DIF is both the substrate and inhibitor of CYP1A. The information provided a model for the potential utility of gene expression analysis and drug metabolization in fish. PMID:21787699

  16. Cyclic nucleotide-activated channels in carp olfactory receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikov, S S; Kosolapov, A V

    1993-07-25

    When applied from the cytoplasmic side, cyclic 3',5'-adenosine and guanosine monophosphates reversibly increased the ion permeability of inside-out patches of carp olfactory neuron plasma membrane. The cAMP (cGMP)-induced permeability via cAMP (cGMP) concentration was fitted by Hill's equation with the exponents of 1.07 +/- 0.15 (1.12 +/- 0.05) and EC50 = 1.3 +/- 0.6 microM (0.9 +/- 0.3 microM). Substitution of NaCl in the bathing solution by chlorides of other alkali metals resulted in a slight shift of reversal potential of the cyclic nucleotide-dependent (CN) current, which indicates a weak selectivity of the channels. Permeability coefficients calculated by Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz's equation corresponded to the following relation: PNa/PK/PLi/PRb/PCs = 1:0.98:0.94:0.70:0.61. Ca2+ and Mg2+ in physiological concentrations blocked the channels activated by cyclic nucleotides (CN-channels). In the absence of divalent cations the conductance of single CN-channels was equal to 51 +/- 9 pS in 100 mM NaCl solution. Channel density did not exceed 1 micron-2. The maximal open state probability of the channel (Po) tended towards 1.0 at a high concentration of cAMP or cGMP. Dichlorobenzamil decreased Po without changing the single CN-channel' conductance. CN-channels exhibited burst activity. Mean open and closed times as well as the burst duration depended on agonist concentration. A kinetic model with four states (an inactivated, a closed and two open ones) is suggested to explain the regularities of CN-channel gating and dose-response relations. PMID:8334139

  17. Effects of gas supersaturation on lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang)*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiang; Li, Ke-feng; Du, Jun; Li, Ran

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation on acute lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang). The juvenile rock carp were exposed to water with different levels of supersaturation (105%, 115%, 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145%) and depth of 0.20 m at 25 °C for 60 h. Median lethal time (LT50) was used to assess the lethal responses corresponding to different levels of gas supersaturation. The results show that half of the juvenile rock carp died at the 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145% levels of supersaturation, and the LT50 corresponding to different levels of supersaturation was 18.7, 15.4, 8.2, 6.6, 3.5, and 1.7 h. When the level of supersaturated water is below 115%, the mortality is negligible. Avoidance responses were observed 5 min after the fish were put into equilibrated water (99%, 0.08 m deep) and water with different supersaturated levels (105%, 115%, 125%, 135%, and 145%, 0.08 m deep) at 25 °C. The fish exhibited strong avoidance responses in supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was above 135%. However, they exhibited an obvious preference to supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was below 115%. Thus, the juvenile rock carp can likely survive in water with a supersaturated level of 115%. PMID:20872989

  18. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  19. Experiential Online Development for Educators: The Example of the Carpe Diem MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Gilly; Gregory, Janet; Lokuge Dona, Kulari; Ross, Bella

    2015-01-01

    We report on educators' experiences of a massive open online course (MOOC) focused on the Carpe Diem learning design process. The MOOC was developed in-house using Blackboard CourseSites by a university innovation and development unit, Learning Transformations, at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. We report on a study of…

  20. Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

  1. The relationship between trace elements in fish otoliths of wild carp and hydrochemical conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yonghua; Feng, Qingling; Ren, Dongni; Qiao, Li; Li, Shengrong

    2010-03-01

    The trace element composition of the fish otolith is an indicator of biomineralization. In contrast to other skeletal tissue, the otolith retains its entire original structure and does not absorb any elements after the fish dies. Because otoliths in carp degrade very slowly in the dead body, the information it provides on the environment is retained, even in fossil form. Here, we report our analysis of the trace elements in otoliths of carp and of the water in Donghu Lake and Longhupao Lake, Heilongjiang province, China, where the fish lived. The results revealed that the trace elements found in the carp otoliths were clearly correlated with those found in these water bodies. There were high concentrations of Au, Ba, K, Sr and Zn in both the water and otoliths; in contrast there were high levels of As, Na and Se in water, but low concentrations in otoliths. These results indicate that an analysis of the otoliths of carps provides an accurate procedure for studying the surrounding hydrochemistry conditions. The interaction of the elements during deposition was also studied. The correlation coefficients of 13 trace elements identified in the otoliths in both lakes were calculated. PMID:19093220

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by Paired-End RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Beide; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is among the most intensively pond-cultured fish species and is used in the wild to counteract water bloom in China. However, little genomic information is available for this species, especially regarding its ability to grow rapidly in water, even water contaminated with high concentrations of poisonous microcystin. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of the 17.10 million short-read sequences produced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Using an improved multiple k-mer contig assembly method coupled with further scaffolding, 85 759 sequences were obtained. There were 23 044 sequences annotated with 3423 gene ontology terms for 104 196 term occurrences and the three corresponding organizing principles. A total of 38 200 assembled sequences were involved in 218 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathways. We also recovered 41 of 44 genes involved in the biosynthesis of glutathione. Of these, five genes were identified as experienced positive selection between silver carp and zebrafish, as determined by the likelihood ratio test. This report is the first annotated review of the silver carp transcriptome. These data will be of interest to researchers investigating the evolution and biological processes of the silver carp. This work also provides an archive for future studies of recent speciation and evolution of Cyprinidae fishes and can be used in comparative studies of other fishes. PMID:22279088

  3. Toxicity of crude oil to the metabolism of freshwater minor carp, Puntius sophore

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, M.S.

    1987-08-01

    The effects of crude oil on the rate of metabolism in freshwater fishes have been little investigated. In the present investigation, the respiration rate in vitro and overall QO/sub 2/ in vivo of a freshwater minor carp Puntius sophore has been measured after exposing the fish to the lethal and sublethal doses of crude oil extracts for varying periods.

  4. Candidate gene markers for selective breeding of CyHV-3-resistant common carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common carp and koi producers around the world have suffered financial losses for a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) also known as koi herpes virus (KHV). This disease is highly contagious and causes massive mortality to infected fish. Efforts to identify genetic resistance to the ...

  5. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  6. A laboratory investigation of the suspension, transport, and settling of silver carp eggs using synthetic surrogates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  7. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Garcia, Marcelo H

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  8. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  9. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide-like immunoreactivity in the taste organs of teleost fish and frog.

    PubMed

    Witt, M

    1995-02-01

    Using immunohistochemistry, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was visualized in taste bud cells of the carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the European catfish, Silurus glanis, by means of light and electron microscopy. Intracellular membrane systems, presumably smooth endoplasmic reticulum, of light (sensory) cells, but not of dark (supporting) cells and basal cells, were densely labelled with antibody. In the frog (four species: Rana temporaria, R. ridibunda, R. arvalis, R. pipiens), taste bud cells did not label. However, the dense basal nerve fibre plexus, some subepithelial ganglionic cells, but no ascending intragemmal fibres, were immunoreactive. In fish, the results support evidence that VIP is involved in the modulation of taste transduction at the level of receptor cells. In the frog, an indirect, possibly vasodilatatory effect on taste perception may be considered. PMID:7775201

  10. Novel seadornavirus (family Reoviridae) related to Banna virus in Europe.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Gábor; Boros, Akos; Delwart, Eric; Pankovics, Péter

    2013-10-01

    Banna virus, whose genome is composed of 12 segments of double-stranded RNA, is a member of the genus Seadornavirus in the family Reoviridae and is thought to be an emerging mosquito-transmitted human pathogen in Southeast Asia. A novel phylogenetic relative of Banna virus (Balaton virus, BALV, JX947843-JX947850 and KC522611-KC522612) was identified using viral metagenomics in the intestinal contents of freshwater carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Hungary. The amino acid sequence identity of Balaton virus to homologous proteins of Banna viruses was 25-26 % for segment 12 (VP12) and 61-62 % for segment 1 (VP1), indicating that Balaton virus potentially represents a novel seadornavirus species. This study demonstrates that seadornaviruses are genetically diverse, not restricted geographically to Southeast Asia and present in an aquatic environment. PMID:23624680

  11. Power plant entrainment simulation utilizing a condenser tube simulator. Final report 1 Dec 77-29 May 81

    SciTech Connect

    Poje, G.V.; Riordan, S.A.; O'Connor, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    The impact of entrainment within a power plant condenser tube was examined with a multipurpose simulation device. The lethal and sublethal effects of the three most important stressors were examined. Thermal stress was applied along the length of the condenser tube as is the case in power plants and exposures typical of power plants were recreated. Chlorine biocide was applied to the system prior to condenser transit. Fluid/mechanical stresses such as velocity shear, mechanical buffeting and hydrostatic pressure change were simulated to approximate entrainment events. The lethal and sublethal responses to condenser tube passage of six representative important species are presented in detail; these include the early life history stages of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) and various macrozooplankton.

  12. Organochlorine and metal pollution in aquatic organisms sampled in the Donana National Park during the period 1983-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Rico, M.C.; Hernandez, L.M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Fernandez, M.A.; Montero, M.C.

    1987-12-01

    The study area, Donana National Park, is located in the South South-West of Spain, and this is one of the most important reservation of Europe. Samples of aquatic organism were obtained from the principal waterway of Donana National Park to determine the degree of organochlorine and metal contamination of this environment. The sampling was carried out during the period 1983-1986 in order to collect six aquatic species in four sites along the Brazo de la Torre. An agricultural area in the North-West side of the Park and a working mine at about 40 km from its northern boundary were considered as the likely main polluting sources of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and heavy metals respectively. The aquatic organism species chosen for analysis were: American crayfish (Procambarus clarckii), carp (Cyprinus carpio), barbel (Barbus barbus), grey mullet (Mugil capito), eel (Anguilla anguilla), and frog (Rana perezi).

  13. [Use of properties and regulation peculiarities of enzymes of glycogenolysis in fish skeletal muscle depending on peculiarities of motor activity of species].

    PubMed

    Serebrenikova, T P; Nesterov, V P

    2008-01-01

    Levels of activity, properties, and peculiarities of activation of glycogen phosphorylase (GP; EC 2.4.1.1) and glycogen phosphorylase kinase (GPK; EC 2.7.1.38) were studied in the white skeletal muscle of fish differing in motor behavior. No differences in the GP and GPK activity levels were revealed in laskir Diplodus annularis (L.), horse mackerel Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus, salmon Salmo trutta morphario, scorpena Scorpaena porcus, Scophtalnus maeoticus, and carp Cyprinus carpio; however, properties of the isolated enzymes and peculiarities of formation of their activated forms during swimming in a hydrodynamic tube are determined by functional peculiarities of the muscle tissue and are associated with the motor activity character of the species. In fish capable for the spurt type of swimming (scorpena, salmon) the more rapid ion regulation plays the predominant role. In other species, the glycogenolysis hormonal regulation leading to a change of the GPK activity index has been found. PMID:18411509

  14. Environmental fate of mercury discharged into the upper Wisconsin River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rada, R.G.; Findley, J.E.; Wiener, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied the distribution of Hg in sediments, fish, and crayfish in a 60 km reach of the Upper Wisconsin River that formerly received Hg in discharges from pulp and paper mills. The most heavily contaminated strata of sediments were deposited during the 1950s and early 1960s and buried under subsequent deposits; however, surficial sediments remained substantially enriched at certain sites in 1981. Median concentrations of Hg in surficial sediments, adjusted for grain size, were at least 10-fold greater at the main study area than at an upstream reference site. Total concentrations exceeded 1.0 mu g g super(-1) wet weight in axial muscle tissue in only 2 of 173 fish analyzed from the study area; however, historical comparisons revealed that Hg contamination of fish (common carp Cyprinus carpio and walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum ) and crayfish (Orconectes ) in the river had not decreased since the early 1970s.

  15. Concentrations of Elements in Fish Fillets, Fish Muscle Plugs, and Crayfish from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu, Morone chrysops), walleye (Sander vitreus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected from 21 sites as part of the Department's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Long-pincered crayfish (Orconectes longidigitus) were collected from one site to assess trophic transfer of metals to fish. Fish muscle plugs were collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at two different locations from one site.

  16. Dietary lipid requirement on non-specific immune responses in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Tian, Li-xia; Zeng, Shuai-lin; Xie, Shi-wei; Yang, Hui-jun; Liang, Gui-ying; Liu, Yong-jian

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the dietary lipid requirement and its effects on liver oxidative status and non-specific immune responses of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Purified diets with five dietary lipid levels (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, fish oil/corn oil = 1:1) were each fed to triplicate groups of grass carp (mean initial weight: 6.57 ± 0.01 g) in a recirculating rearing system maintained at 27.5 ± 0.5 °C for 10 weeks. Percent weight gain was highest (P < 0.05) with 5% lipid and lowest in fish fed the lipid free control diet. Feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in fish followed the same pattern of percent weight gain. Fish fed with lipid containing diets had better non-specific immune response indexes (e.g. phagocytic activity, plasma peroxidase and lysozyme activity) and low-level of liver oxidation status than fish fed with the control diet. But excess dietary lipid supplement would bring over metabolic burden to liver. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish fed control diet obtained significantly (P < 0.05) lower survival rate. The survival rate was highest with 7.5% lipid. The results of this study indicated that proper dietary lipid supplementation enhanced the immune response of grass carp and improved the survival rate in the bacterial challenge, but excess dietary lipid may elevate liver oxidation rates of grass carp. Analysis by second-order regression of percent weight gain indicated that the optimal dietary lipid level in juvenile grass carp (6.6-35.5 g) is about 6.5%. PMID:23416225

  17. Genome Wide Identification, Phylogeny and Expression of Zinc Transporter Genes in Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shuaisheng; Sun, Jinsheng; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc is an essential trace element in organisms, which serves as a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes that are involved in many pivotal biological processes including growth, development, reproduction and immunity. Therefore, the homeostasis of zinc in the cell is fundamental. The zinc transporter gene family is a large gene family that encodes proteins which regulate the movement of zinc across cellular and intracellular membranes. However, studies on teleost zinc transporters are mainly limited to model species. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified a set of 37 zinc transporters in common carp genome, including 17 from SLC30 family (ZnT), and 20 from SLC39 family (ZIP). Phylogenetic and syntenic analysis revealed that most of the zinc transporters are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. Through examining the copy number of zinc transporter genes across several vertebrate genomes, thirteen zinc transporters in common carp are found to have undergone the gene duplications, including SLC30A1, SLC30A2, SLC30A5, SLC30A7, SLC30A9, SLC30A10, SLC39A1, SLC39A3, SLC39A4, SLC39A5, SLC39A6, SLC39A7 and SLC39A9. The expression patterns of all zinc transporters were established in various tissues, including blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, and showed that most of the zinc transporters were ubiquitously expressed, indicating the critical role of zinc transporters in common carp. Conclusions To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis could verify the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. The gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp zinc transporters provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of zinc in teleost. PMID

  18. Intraspecific Scaling of the Resting and Maximum Metabolic Rates of the Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qingda; Zhang, Yurong; Liu, Shuting; Wang, Wen; Luo, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    The question of how the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass (M) is achieved in animals is unresolved. Here, we tested the cell metabolism hypothesis and the organ size hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), erythrocyte size, and the masses of metabolically active organs in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The M of the crucian carp ranged from 4.5 to 323.9 g, representing an approximately 72-fold difference. The RMR and MMR increased with M according to the allometric equations RMR = 0.212M0.776 and MMR = 0.753M0.785. The scaling exponents for RMR (br) and MMR (bm) obtained in crucian carp were close to each other. Thus, the factorial aerobic scope remained almost constant with increasing M. Although erythrocyte size was negatively correlated with both mass-specific RMR and absolute RMR adjusted to M, it and all other hematological parameters showed no significant relationship with M. These data demonstrate that the cell metabolism hypothesis does not describe metabolic scaling in the crucian carp, suggesting that erythrocyte size may not represent the general size of other cell types in this fish and the metabolic activity of cells may decrease as fish grows. The mass scaling exponents of active organs was lower than 1 while that of inactive organs was greater than 1, which suggests that the mass scaling of the RMR can be partly due to variance in the proportion of active/inactive organs in crucian carp. Furthermore, our results provide additional evidence supporting the correlation between locomotor capacity and metabolic scaling. PMID:24376588

  19. Spatial and temporal influences on the physiological condition of invasive silver carp

    PubMed Central

    Liss, Stephanie A.; Sass, Greg G.; Suski, Cory D.

    2013-01-01

    We quantified nutritional and stress parameters (alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, protein, triglycerides, cortisol, and glucose) in invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) inhabiting four large rivers throughout three distinct time periods in the Midwestern USA. Examining the basic biology and ecology of an invasive species is crucial to gain an understanding of the interaction between an organism and its environment. Analysis of the physiological condition of wild-caught silver carp across broad spatial and temporal scales is essential because stress and nutritional parameters can link individuals to their habitats and vary among populations across environments. During each time period, we collected blood samples from individual silver carp in the Illinois River and portions of the Mississippi, Ohio, and Wabash rivers in Illinois. We tested for relationships between silver carp nutrition and stress across rivers, reaches within rivers, and time periods. Principal component analyses separated physiological parameters into a stress component (cortisol and glucose) and two nutritional components representative of short-term feeding (alkaline phosphatase, protein, and triglycerides) and body energy reserves (cholesterol and protein). Akaike's information criterion suggested that time period had the greatest influence on stress. Stress levels were consistent in all four rivers, and declined across time periods. Akaike's information criterion also suggested that interactions of time period and river had the greatest influence on short-term feeding and body energy reserves. There was no specific pattern across time periods within each river, nor was there a pattern across rivers. Our results provide a better understanding of nutritional and stress conditions in invasive silver carp across a broad landscape and temporal scale, with implications for managing and predicting the spread of this species. PMID:27293601

  20. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  1. Bioaccumulation of metals in sediments, fish and plant from Tisza river (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Vasić, Nebojša; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2014-05-01

    In the aquatic environments metals originate from various natural and anthropogenic sources. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation level of metals in sediments fish and common reed at four different localities of the Tisza River stretch in Serbia. For purpose of this study concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were determined in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. 1841) and four ecologically different fish species (piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius L.), benthivorous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) silver bream (Brama brama L.), omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)). Analysis of metals was carried out for liver, gills, brain, testicles and ovaries in fish and in the rhizome, stem and leaves of the common reed and sediment fraction <0,0063mm. The concentrations of metals have been assessed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma - optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results revealed that Al and Fe had the highest concentrations in sediment, fish and common reed samples. The research proved a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of all metals in the sediment, fish and common reed. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in omnivorous common carp Cyprinus carpio, and organs that the most intensively accumulated the greatest number of them were liver and gills. Accumulated metals in the common reed were not distributed evenly, but there are target organs for bioaccumulation. Concentrations in below-ground organs were usually higher than above-ground organs, and the general decreasing trend of element content was rhizome>leaves>stems. Obtained results indicate that the location does not have impact to the level of bioaccumulation. On the basis of this research the under-ground organ (rhizome) of common reed, liver and gills and omnivorous fish species could be recommended as environmental indicators for the presence of metals during

  2. A Novel Lipase as Aquafeed Additive for Warm-Water Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yalin; Huang, Lu; Zhou, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    A novel Acinetobacter lipase gene lipG1was cloned from DNA extracted from intestinal sample of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and expressed in E. coli BL21. The encoded protein was 406 amino acids in length. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that LipG1 and its relatives comprised a novel group of true lipases produced by Gram-negative bacteria. LipG1 showed maximal activity at 40℃ and pH 8.0 when pNP decanoate (C10) was used as the substrate, and remained high activity between 20℃ and 35℃. Activity of the lipase was promoted by Ca2+ and Mg2+, and inhibited by Zn2+ and Cu2+. Moreover, LipG1 is stable with proteases, most commercial detergents and organic solvents. Substrate specificity test indicated that LipG1can hydrolyse pNP esters with acyl chain length from C2 to C16, with preference for medium-chain pNP esters (C8, C10). Lastly, LipG1was evaluated as an aquafeed additive for juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Results showed that supplementation of LipG1significantly improved the gut and heptaopancreas lipase activity of fish fed with palm oil diet. Consistently, improved feed conversion ratio and growth performance were recorded in the LipG1 feeding group, to levels comparable to the group of fish fed with soybean oil diet. Collectively, LipG1 exhibited good potential as an aquafeed additive enzyme, and deserves further characterization as the representative of a novel group of lipases. PMID:26147311

  3. The draft genome of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) provides insights into its evolution and vegetarian adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaping; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Yong; Ning, Zemin; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qiang; Lu, Hengyun; Huang, Rong; Xia, Xiaoqin; Feng, Qi; Liang, Xufang; Liu, Kunyan; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Tingting; Huang, Tao; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Lu, Yiqi; Li, Wenjun; Wen, Ziruo; Zhou, Congcong; Tian, Qilin; Kang, Xiaojun; Shi, Mijuan; Zhang, Wanting; Jang, Songhun; Du, Fukuan; He, Shan; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Gui, Bin; He, Huihui; Ning, Zhen; Yang, Cheng; He, Libo; Luo, Lifei; Yang, Rui; Luo, Qiong; Liu, Xiaochun; Li, Shuisheng; Huang, Wen; Xiao, Ling; Lin, Haoran; Han, Bin; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2015-06-01

    The grass carp is an important farmed fish, accounting for ∼16% of global freshwater aquaculture, and has a vegetarian diet. Here we report a 0.9-Gb draft genome of a gynogenetic female adult and a 1.07-Gb genome of a wild male adult. Genome annotation identified 27,263 protein-coding gene models in the female genome. A total of 114 scaffolds consisting of 573 Mb are anchored on 24 linkage groups. Divergence between grass carp and zebrafish is estimated to have occurred 49-54 million years ago. We identify a chromosome fusion in grass carp relative to zebrafish and report frequent crossovers between the grass carp X and Y chromosomes. We find that transcriptional activation of the mevalonate pathway and steroid biosynthesis in liver is associated with the grass carp's adaptation from a carnivorous to an herbivorous diet. We believe that the grass carp genome could serve as an initial platform for breeding better-quality fish using a genomic approach. PMID:25938946

  4. Ontogeny and kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in hepatopancreas and skeletal muscle of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Luo, Zhi; Mai, Kang-Sen; Liu, Cai-Xia; Zheng, Jia-Lang

    2015-12-01

    The ontogeny and kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) were investigated in hepatopancreas and muscle throughout four developmental stages (newly hatched larvae, 1-month-old juvenile, 3-month-old, and 6-month-old, respectively) of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. In hepatopancreas, the maximal velocity (Vmax) significantly increased from hatching to 1-month-old grass carp and then gradually declined at 6-month-old grass carp. In muscle, CPT I activity was the highest at 1-month-old grass carp, nearly twofold higher than that at hatching (P < 0.05). The Michaelis constant (Km) value was also the highest for 1-month-old in both tested tissues. Carnitine concentrations (FC, AC and TC) were the lowest for 3-month-old grass carp and remained relatively constant in both tissues from fish under the other developmental stages. The FC concentration in hepatopancreas and muscle at four developmental stages were less than the respective Km, indicating that grass carp required supplemental carnitine in their food to ensure that CPT I activity was not constrained by carnitine availability. PMID:26170093

  5. Effects of sediment burial on grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes,1844), eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Hayer, Cari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) eggs must remain suspended in the water column in order to hatch successfully. Using sand, the effects of varying sediment levels on grass carp eggs were tested at different developmental states and temperatures. Survival was high (15–35%, depending on temperature and trial) in the unburied treatment where eggs rested on a sand bed but were not covered by sediment. Survival was lower in the partial burial (5–10%) and very low (0–4%) in the full burial treatment. In all treatments, delayed hatching (organisms remaining in membranes past the stage of hatching competence) was noted. Deformities such as missing heads and pericardial edema occurred at high rates in the partial and full burials. Eggs that come in contact with the benthos and are resuspended in the water column should be considered in embryonic drift models.

  6. MLP and CARP are linked to chronic PKCα signalling in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Lange, Stephan; Gehmlich, Katja; Lun, Alexander S; Blondelle, Jordan; Hooper, Charlotte; Dalton, Nancy D; Alvarez, Erika A; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Bang, Marie-Louise; Abassi, Yama A; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G; Peterson, Kirk L; Chen, Ju; Ehler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    MLP (muscle LIM protein)-deficient mice count among the first mouse models for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet the exact role of MLP in cardiac signalling processes is still enigmatic. Elevated PKCα signalling activity is known to be an important contributor to heart failure. Here we show that MLP directly inhibits the activity of PKCα. In end-stage DCM, PKCα is concentrated at the intercalated disc of cardiomyocytes, where it is sequestered by the adaptor protein CARP in a multiprotein complex together with PLCβ1. In mice deficient for both MLP and CARP the chronic PKCα signalling chain at the intercalated disc is broken and they remain healthy. Our results suggest that the main role of MLP in heart lies in the direct inhibition of PKCα and that chronic uninhibited PKCα activity at the intercalated disc in the absence of functional MLP leads to heart failure. PMID:27353086

  7. MLP and CARP are linked to chronic PKCα signalling in dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Stephan; Gehmlich, Katja; Lun, Alexander S.; Blondelle, Jordan; Hooper, Charlotte; Dalton, Nancy D.; Alvarez, Erika A.; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Bang, Marie-Louise; Abassi, Yama A.; dos Remedios, Cristobal G.; Peterson, Kirk L.; Chen, Ju; Ehler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    MLP (muscle LIM protein)-deficient mice count among the first mouse models for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet the exact role of MLP in cardiac signalling processes is still enigmatic. Elevated PKCα signalling activity is known to be an important contributor to heart failure. Here we show that MLP directly inhibits the activity of PKCα. In end-stage DCM, PKCα is concentrated at the intercalated disc of cardiomyocytes, where it is sequestered by the adaptor protein CARP in a multiprotein complex together with PLCβ1. In mice deficient for both MLP and CARP the chronic PKCα signalling chain at the intercalated disc is broken and they remain healthy. Our results suggest that the main role of MLP in heart lies in the direct inhibition of PKCα and that chronic uninhibited PKCα activity at the intercalated disc in the absence of functional MLP leads to heart failure. PMID:27353086

  8. Nutritional lipid liver disease of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idullus (C. et V.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ding; Mao, Yongqing; Cai, Fasheng

    1990-12-01

    The inadequate nutrient content of pellet feeds widely used in recent years in China for grass carp farming led to lipid liver degeneration in the fish. The present studies show that the pathological features of lipid liver disease are anaemia and hepatic ceroidosis. Other clinical features are; the ratio of liver to body weight exceeds 3% and lipid content exceeds 5%. Extreme infiltration of hepaiocytes by lipid results in the following deteriorative effects: swelling of the liver cells, increase of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and dislocation of the nucleus, loss of cytoplasm staining affinity, and increased activities of GOT and GPT in serum. Lipid liver degeneration of grass carp can be divided into three stages: 1) deposition of liver lipid; 2) lipid infiltration of hepatic parenchyma; 3) atrophy of liver nucleus. The causes of lipid liver degeneration are complicated, but the main cause is assumed to be an imbalance of nutrients in daily feed and the lock of some lipotropic substances.

  9. Detecting the movement and spawning activity of bigheaded carps with environmental DNA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Richard A.; Rees, Christopher B.; Coulter, Alison A.; Merkes, Christopher; McCalla, Sunnie; Touzinsky, Katherine F; Walleser, Liza R.; Goforth, Reuben R.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Bigheaded carps are invasive fishes threatening to invade the Great Lakes basin and establish spawning populations, and have been monitored using environmental DNA (eDNA). Not only does eDNA hold potential for detecting the presence of species, but may also allow for quantitative comparisons like relative abundance of species across time or space. We examined the relationships among bigheaded carp movement, hydrography, spawning and eDNA on the Wabash River, IN, USA. We found positive relationships between eDNA and movement and eDNA and hydrography. We did not find a relationship between eDNA and spawning activity in the form of drifting eggs. Our first finding demonstrates how eDNA may be used to monitor species abundance, whereas our second finding illustrates the need for additional research into eDNA methodologies. Current applications of eDNA are widespread, but the relatively new technology requires further refinement.

  10. Detecting the movement and spawning activity of bigheaded carps with environmental DNA.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Richard A; Rees, Christopher B; Coulter, Alison A; Merkes, Christopher M; McCalla, Sunnie G; Touzinsky, Katherine F; Walleser, Liza; Goforth, Reuben R; Amberg, Jon J

    2016-07-01

    Bigheaded carps are invasive fishes threatening to invade the Great Lakes basin and establish spawning populations, and have been monitored using environmental DNA (eDNA). Not only does eDNA hold potential for detecting the presence of species, but may also allow for quantitative comparisons like relative abundance of species across time or space. We examined the relationships among bigheaded carp movement, hydrography, spawning and eDNA on the Wabash River, IN, USA. We found positive relationships between eDNA and movement and eDNA and hydrography. We did not find a relationship between eDNA and spawning activity in the form of drifting eggs. Our first finding demonstrates how eDNA may be used to monitor species abundance, whereas our second finding illustrates the need for additional research into eDNA methodologies. Current applications of eDNA are widespread, but the relatively new technology requires further refinement. PMID:27087387

  11. Heavy metal and trace element bioaccumulation in target tissues of four edible fish species from the Danube River (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Subotić, Srđan; Spasić, Slađana; Višnjić-Jeftić, Zeljka; Hegediš, Aleksandar; Krpo-Ćetković, Jasmina; Mićković, Branislav; Skorić, Stefan; Lenhardt, Mirjana

    2013-12-01

    Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca), European catfish (Silurus glanis), burbot (Lota lota), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from the Danube River (Belgrade section, Serbia), and samples of liver, muscle, and gills were analyzed for Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to highlight the importance of species and tissue selection in monitoring research, contaminant studies, and human health research. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between fish species in regard to metal levels in liver, muscle, and gills. The principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the studied fish species could be grouped on the basis of the level of analyzed elements in liver and gills. The Mann-Whitney test showed two subsets (one comprising two piscivorous species, pikeperch and catfish, and the other, two polyphagous species, burbot and carp) in regard to Cr and Hg levels in liver (higher levels in piscivorous species), as well as B, Fe, and Hg in gills (B and Fe with higher levels in polyphagous and Hg in piscivorous species), and As in muscle (higher levels in polyphagous species). Carp had distinctly higher levels of Cd, Cu, and Zn in liver in comparison to other three species. None of the elements exceeded the maximum acceptable concentrations (MAC). However, since Hg levels are close to the prescribed MAC levels, the consumption of these fishes can be potentially hazardous for humans. PMID:24054751

  12. The influence of benthic fish bioturbation on cadmium bioavailability to Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, S.B.; Isely, J.J.; La Point, T.W.

    1994-12-31

    The authors are interested in how benthic fish bioturbation of contaminated sediments influences bioaccumulation into planktonic and, ultimately, nektonic organisms. They performed a series of exposures with cadmium-spiked sediment, 1 {mu}g/g nominal concentration, and koi carp Cyprinus carpio. Daphnia magna were placed in exposure aquaria with and without carp for six days and bioaccumulation after 48 h was measured. Preliminary results indicate that carp increased total suspended solids from 0.0 mg/L to 44.4 mg/L and mean total cadmium water concentrations, 1.4 {mu}g/L and 2.8 {mu}g/L, without and with fish, respectively. However, body burdens of Daphnia magna did not reflect the water concentration trend. Mean Cd residues of daphnids exposed without fish, 9.377 {mu}g/g, were not statistically different from those in the with-fish exposure, 8.348 {mu}g/g. Similarity in daphnid body burdens was probably due to cadmium binding with suspended sediment particles and dissolved organic carbon in the exposure chambers, therefore minimizing Cd bioavailability to D. magna. The present focus is on determining the bioavailable cadmium concentration.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, and potential endocrine disruption in fish from the Hudson River, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Sloan, R.J.; Smith, S.B.; Denslow, N.D.; Blazer, V.S.; Gross, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Tissue residues of total mercury (Hg), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and lipid-based PCBs; plasma concentrations of endocrine biomarkers; and reproductive and histologic biomarkers were assessed in 460 carp (Cyprinus carpio), bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus dolomieui), and bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from eight sites across the Hudson River Basin in the spring of 1998 to determine if endocrine disruption was evident in resident fish species and to evaluate contaminant-biomarker interrelations. Total PCBs in bed sediments (maximum 2,500 ??g kg-1) could explain 64 to 90% of the variability in lipid-based PCB residues in tissues (maximum 1,250 ??g PCB g-lipid-1) of the four species. The 17??-estradiol to 11-ketotestosterone ratio, typically less than 1.0 in male fish and greater than 1.0 in females, exceeded 1.4 in all male largemouth bass and 35% of male carp and bullhead at one site 21 km downstream from a major PCB source. Endocrine biomarkers were significantly correlated with total Hg in female smallmouth bass and carp, and with lipid-based PCBs in males of all four species. Empirical evidence of endocrine modulation in blood plasma of male and female fish from sites with and without high PCB residues in bed sediments and fish tissues suggest that PCBs, Hg, or other contaminants may disrupt normal endocrine function in fish of the Hudson River. ?? Eawag, 2006.

  14. Characteristics of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in different phases of infection: implications for disease transmission and control.

    PubMed

    Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J; Schat, Karel A; Slobedman, Barry; Barnes, Andrew C; Walker, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) is an emerging and highly contagious viral disease of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), causing mass mortalities and huge economic losses to the carp aquaculture industry. The disease has spread rapidly to 28 countries worldwide. However, mechanisms of koi herpesvirus (species Cyprinid herpesvirus 3; CyHV-3) transmission remain unclear. A potential experimental model of CyHV-3 infection in carp was used to characterise CyHV-3 in different phases of infection and to demonstrate that CyHV-3 persists in survivor fish and has the capacity to reactivate and transmit the disease to healthy fish. During acute infection, which occurred when fish were maintained at 22°C, viral genes were abundantly expressed and infectious virus was produced in association with tissue damage, clinical disease and mortality. In fish maintained at a lower temperature (11°C), viral DNA was present but viral gene expression was absent or greatly restricted, infectious virus was not recovered and there was no evidence of disease. Productive replication was re-initiated following an increase in water temperature to 22°C, resulting in 45% mortality. Shedding of reactivated virus killed 75% of cohabitating naïve fish, suggesting a potential risk for disease transmission. PMID:24704574

  15. [Adaptive increase of serotonergic system activity in tissues of half-migratory and migratory fish at increased water salinity].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with studies of the serotoninergic system activity in different tissues of half-migratory fish--the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) and carpbream (Abramis brama orientalis)--and migratory fish--shemaya (Chalcalburnus chalcoides) caught in fresh and brackish waters, as well as in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues under effect of brackish water in model experiments. Using indirect solid-phase ELISA-test, the serotoninergic system activity was evaluated by measuring in the tissues of the studied fish the serotonin-modulated anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) which is in linear relationship with serotonin level. There was found a significant elevation of the SMAP levels in the brain of the Caspian roach, carpbream, shemaya, and the common carp under effect of increased water sainity. The revealed increase of the SMAP content in brains of the Caspian roach, carpbream, shemaya, and the common carp under action of increased water salinity reflects the corresponding elevated activity of the serotoninergic system and indicates involvement of adaptive readjustments in the animals' body. PMID:25509051

  16. [Adaptive increase of serotonergic system activity in tissues of half-migratory and migratory fish at increased water salinity].

    PubMed

    Mustafaev, N J; Mekhtiev, A A

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with studies of the serotoninergic system activity in different tissues of half-migratory fish--the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) and carpbream (Abramis brama orientalis)--and migratory fish--shemaya (Chalcalburnus chalcoides) caught in fresh and brackish waters, as well as in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues under effect of brackish water in model experiments. Using indirect solid-phase ELISA-test, the serotoninergic system activity was evaluated by measuring in the tissues of the studied fish the serotonin-modulated anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) which is in linear relationship with serotonin level. There was found a significant elevation of the SMAP levels in the brain of the Caspian roach, carpbream, shemaya, and the common carp under effect of increased water sainity. The revealed increase of the SMAP content in brains of the Caspian roach, carpbream, shemaya, and the common carp under action of increased water salinity reflects the corresponding elevated activity of the serotoninergic system and indicates involvement of adaptive readjustments in the animals' body. PMID:25490850

  17. Determination of selenium in fish from designated critical habitat in the Gunnison River, Colorado, March through October, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results for the summer 2012 sam-pling of muscle plugs from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado pikeminnow (Ptycho-cheilus lucius), and razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) inhabiting critical habitat in the Gunnison River in western Colorado. Total selenium in fish muscle plugs was determinedby instrumental neutron activation analysis. Total selenium concentrations (range and mean ± standard deviation) in micrograms per gram dry weight were 6.0 to 10.7, 8.8 ± 1.3 for common carp; 2.9 to 8.7, 5.6 ± 2.4 for Colorado pikemin-now; and 1.4 to 7.3, 3.4 ± 2.7 for razorback sucker. The selenium concentration for one bonytail chub sample was 0.8 micrograms per gram dry weight. Selenium concentrations in muscle plugs from 1 Colorado pikeminnow and 12 common carp exceeded the 8 micrograms per gram dry weight toxicity guideline for selenium in fish muscle tissue.

  18. Variation in cyanobacterial hepatotoxin (microcystin) content of water samples and two species of fishes collected from a shallow lake in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Amrani, Amina; Nasri, Hichem; Azzouz, Amina; Kadi, Yacine; Bouaïcha, Noureddine

    2014-04-01

    Microcystins (MCs) produced from cyanobacteria can accumulate in freshwater fish tissues. In this study, variations in these toxins content were examined monthly in water samples and two species of fish in Lake Oubeira, Algeria, from April 2010 to March 2011. During the study period, MCs were analyzed using protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) inhibition assay. In lake water, total (dissolved and intracellular toxins) MC concentrations by PP2A ranged from 0.028 to 13.4 μg equivalent MC-LR/l, with a peak in September 2010. MC-LR was the dominant variant (90 % of the total) in water samples, followed by MC-YR and MC-(H4)YR. The highest MC concentration in the omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was found in the order intestine > hepatopancreas > muscle; however, in the carnivorous European eel (Anguilla anguilla) the order was liver > intestine > muscle. Highest MC concentrations in the intestine tissue of the common carp were found between August and November 2010 where high MC concentrations were detected in water samples, whereas high levels of MCs in the liver of the European eel were found later between January and February 2011. During the entire period of study, the World Health Organization (WHO) lifetime limit for tolerable daily intake was exceeded only in common carp muscle. PMID:24445842

  19. Stimulation of Spermiation by Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Carp Pituitary Extract in Grass Puffer, Takifugu niphobles

    PubMed Central

    Goo, In Bon; Park, In-Seok; Gil, Hyun Woo; Im, Jae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Spermiation was stimulated in the mature grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, with an injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or carp pituitary extract (CPE). Spermatocrit and sperm density were reduced, but milt production was increased in both the HCG and CPE treatment groups relative to those in the control group (P <0.05). These results should be useful for increasing the fertilization efficiency in grass puffer breeding programs. PMID:26973977

  20. Baculovirus-mediated GCRV vp7 and vp6 genes expression in silkworm and grass carp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Gong, Yongchang; Li, Zhen; Hu, Xiaolong; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang

    2016-06-01

    Grass carp hemorrhagic disease is a common fish disease and often results in significant economic losses in grass carp aquaculture in China. This study was aimed to develop a novel oral vaccine against grass carp reovirus (GCRV). GCRV vp6 and vp7 genes with β-actin promoter of Megalobrama amblycephala and polyhedrin promoter (Ph10) of baculovirus, respectively, were cloned into plasmid pFast™-Dual to construct a vector pFast-PHVP7-AVP6, which was used to generate a recombinant baculovirus BacFish-vp6/vp7 via Bac-to-Bac system. The VP7 expression was analyzed from freeze-dried powder of the BacFish-vp6/vp7-infected silkworm pupae by western blotting, and VP6 expression was analyzed from orally vaccinated fish with the freeze-dried powder by RT-PCR. The VP6 expression was also analyzed from both CIK cells transduced with BacFish-vp6/vp7 and tissues of vaccinated fish by immunofluorescence analysis. Recombinant VP7 could be detected from the BacFish-vp6/vp7-infected silkworm pupae. Pathological changes were not observed in CIK cells transduced with BacFish-vp6/vp7, and VP6 expression was found in CIK cells. When the grass carps were orally administrated with the freeze-dried powder, vp6 gene transcription was found in blood of the vaccinated fishes and VP6 protein was observed in liver and kidney of the vaccinated fish by immunofluorescence analysis. These results indicated that vp7 gene was expressed in the BacFish-vp6/vp7-infected silkworm and vp6 gene was expressed in orally vaccinated fish with freeze-dried powder of the BacFish-vp6/vp7-infected silkworm pupae, suggesting the possibility to use the powder as an orally administrated vaccine. PMID:27085857

  1. Quality Changes and Biogenic Amines Accumulation of Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) Fillets Stored at Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hongbing; Liu, Xiaochang; Hong, Hui; Shen, Song; Xu, Qian; Feng, Ligeng; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-04-01

    Postmortem quality changes of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) fillets stored at 20, 4, and 0°C (in ice) were determined in terms of pH value, K value, total volatile basic nitrogen, free amino acids, biogenic amines, drip loss, electrical conductivity (EC), sensory score, and microbial growth. The results showed that black carp fillets could maintain a good quality for 2, 9, and 12 days when stored at 20, 4, and 0°C, respectively. Pseudomonads, Aeromonas, and Enterobacteriaceae were the main spoilage bacteria in black carp. Tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine increased significantly (P < 0.05) during storage at the three temperatures, but not spermidine and spermine, among which tyramine and putrescine were the main biogenic amines in black carp fillets. A significantly higher concentration of histamine (132.05 mg/kg on the third day) was detected in the samples stored at 20°C (P < 0.01) than at 4 and 0°C (0.62 to 3.28 mg/kg) throughout storage, indicating storage of samples at 20°C favored the formation of histamine. The accumulations of tyramine, cadaverine, and histamine were highly correlated with the productions of tyrosine, lysine, and histidine, respectively. Correlations between EC and sensory, physical, chemical, and microbial parameters at the three storage temperatures showed that EC could be used as a better quality indicator to assess the overall quality of fish stored at 4 and 0°C (low temperature) than at 20°C. PMID:27052869

  2. Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

  3. Aluminum-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in grass carp (Cyprinidae--Ctenopharingodon idella).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Dávila, María Lourdes; Razo-Estrada, Amparo Celene; García-Medina, Sandra; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Piñón-López, Manuel Jesús; Ibarra, Rocio Guzmán; Galar-Martínez, Marcela

    2012-02-01

    Aluminum is used in a large number of anthropogenic processes, leading to aquatic ecosystems pollution. Diverse studies show that in mammals this metal may produce oxidative stress, is neurotoxic, and is involved in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzhaimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Nevertheless, there are only few studies with respect to Al-induced neurotoxicity on aquatic fauna, particularly on fishes of economical interest, such as the grass carp (Ctenopharingodon idella). This study evaluates Al-induced toxicity on the grass carp C. idella. Specimens were exposed to the maximum concentration allowed in order to protect aquatic life (0.1 mg L⁻¹), for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. After the exposure time, lipid peroxidation degree, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, as well as dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were evaluated. Al concentration in organisms and water was also measured, in order to determine the bioconcentration factor. Results show that Al bioconcentrates in grass carp inducing oxidative stress (increment of 300 and 455 percent on lipid peroxidation degree and SOD activity, and decrement of 49 percent on CAT activity) and neurotoxicity (increment of 55 and 155 percent on dopamine and adrenaline levels and decrement of 93 percent on noradrenaline level). PMID:21993346

  4. Metatranscriptomic discovery of plant biomass-degrading capacity from grass carp intestinal microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangong; Ren, Yi; Peng, Chun; Hao, Yaotong; Xiong, Fan; Wang, Guitang; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong; Angert, Esther R

    2015-10-01

    Despite the economic importance of fish, the ecology and metabolic capacity of fish microbiomes are largely unknown. Here, we sequenced the metatranscriptome of the intestinal microbiota of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, a freshwater herbivorous fish species. Our results confirmed previous work describing the bacterial composition of the microbiota at the phylum level as being dominated by Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. Comparative transcriptomes of the microbiomes of fish fed with different experimental diets indicated that the bacterial transcriptomes are influenced by host diet. Although hydrolases and cellulosome-based systems predicted to be involved in degradation of the main chain of cellulose, xylan, mannan and pectin were identified, transcripts with glycoside hydrolase modules targeting the side chains of noncellulosic polysaccharides were more abundant. Predominant 'COG' (Clusters of Orthologous Group) categories in the intestinal microbiome included those for energy production and conversion, as well as carbohydrate and amino acid transport and metabolism. These results suggest that the grass carp intestinal microbiome functions in carbohydrate turnover and fermentation, which likely provides energy for both host and microbiota. Grass carp intestinal microbiome thus reflects its evolutionary adaption for harvesting nutrients for an herbivore with a high-throughput nutritional strategy that is not dominated by cellulose digestion but rather the degradation of intracellular polysaccharides. PMID:26362922

  5. Quality and biochemical properties of artificially hibernated crucian carp for waterless preservation.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hongbo; Qian, Chunlu; Mao, Linchun

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the artificial hibernation of crucian carp for waterless preservation and to characterize the quality and biochemical properties during and after the hibernation. Anesthetized crucian carp using eugenol were stored at 8 °C with 90 % oxygen and 95-100 % relative humidity for 38 h and then transferred to fresh water to recover. Liquid loss and cooking loss had no significant changes (p > 0.05). The total volatile basic nitrogen content and 2-thiobarbituric acid value in hibernated fish were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than fresh and recovered groups. Serum cortisol, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities significantly increased (p < 0.05) during hibernation, while glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) had no significant change (p > 0.05). Both ACP and AKP activities decreased upon the fish recovered, but only the ACP activity returned to normal. However, there were increased serum glucose concentration, GOT and GPT activities in recovered fish. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that the artificially hibernated life of crucian carp was 38 h by the combination of anaesthetizing and low temperature. The muscle quality would not be influenced, and most of the stress responses would disappear after hibernated fish recovered. PMID:22688451

  6. Responses of invasive silver and bighead carp to a carbon dioxide barrier in outdoor ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cupp, Aaron R.; Erickson, Richard A.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Swyers, Nicholas M.; Hatton, Tyson; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Resource managers need for effective methods to prevent the movement of silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) from the Mississippi River basin into the Laurentian Great Lakes. In this study, we evaluated dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) as a barrier and deterrent to silver (278 ± 30.5 mm) and bighead (212 ± 7.7 mm) carp movement in continuous-flow outdoor ponds. As a barrier, CO2 significantly reduced upstream movement but was not 100% effective at blocking fish passage. As a deterrent, we observed a significant shift away from areas of high CO2 relative to normal movement before and after injection. Carbon dioxide concentrations varied across the pond during injection and reached maximum concentrations of 74.5±1.9 mg/L CO2; 29 532 – 41 393 µatm at the site of injection during three independent trials. We conclude that CO2 altered silver and bighead carp movement in outdoor ponds and recommend further research to determine barrier effectiveness during field applications.

  7. Production, characterization and applications of mouse anti-grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yiu-Kwong Leung, Michael; Kwok-Keung Ho, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Mouse anti-grass carp growth hormone (gcGH) monoclonal antibody (MAb) secretors were produced by PEG-mediated fusion of NS-1 myeloma cells and splenic B-lymphocytes of gcGH hyper-immunized mice. Positive secretors were screened by direct ELISA and cloned by limiting dilution. Three positive secretors, 21D3, 22G5 and 23B3, were obtained in a single fusion trial. Anti-gcGH MAbs were produced by growing hybridomas in the peritoneal cavity of pristane-primed mouse. The three MAbs were isotyped to be IgG2a, IgG2b and IgM, respectively. IgG MAbs were purified from ascitic fluid by Hitrap protein G column and IgM MAb was purified by gel filtration chromatography. The purified MAbs were highly specific and had moderate binding affinity. The MAbs were successfully used for the purification of native gcGH from mature grass carp pituitary extract by one-step immunoaffinity chromatography, for the quantification of gcGH by competitive sandwich ELISA, and for the probing of somatotropes in grass carp pituitary by immunohistochemistry. PMID:16352451

  8. Genomic organization and expression of insulin receptors in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenjing; Liang, Xu-Fang; Yuan, Xiaochen; Li, Aixuan; He, Yuhui; He, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Insulin receptors have been demonstrated to be involved in embryogenesis, food intake regulation and glucose metabolism in several fish, while more researchis needed for further understanding. In this study, the complete coding sequence (CDS) of insulin receptor a (insra) gene and insulin receptor b (insrb) gene in grass carp were obtained, the CDS were 4068 bp and 4514 bp in length, encoding 1355 aa protein and 1351 aa protein. Both of insra and insrb in grass carp showed high amino acid identities with other fish. Insra and insrb genes were widely expressed in all tested tissues with an overlapping but distinct expressions. The high levels of insra mRNA were distributed in hindgut and heart tissues. The insrb gene showed the highest expression levels in liver and hindgut. We also proved that two forms of grass carp insulin receptors participate in the regulation of blood glucose and might act differently. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that different isoforms of fish insulin receptors are derived from two distinct genes, which was inconsistent with the generation of mammalian insulin receptors. Synteny analyses of insulin receptor genes showed that genes surrounding the insulin receptor genes were conserved in fish. Arhgef18, PEX11G, humanC19orf45 genes were highly conserved among mammal species. However, no conserved synteny was observed among fish, mammals, avians and amphibians. PMID:26772721

  9. Effect of Ultrastructure on Changes of Textural Characteristics between Crisp Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus C.Et V) and Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus) Inducing Heating Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Ling; Yang, Xian-Qing; Li, Lai-Hao; Hao, Shu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Xu; Huang, Hui; Wei, Ya; Wu, Yan-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The research studies the ultrastructure effect on texture of crisp grass carp (CGC) and grass carp (GC) fillets inducing heating for 15, 25, and 40 min with boiling water. After heating, the hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC were higher than that of raw CGC, whereas the all textural characteristics of heating GC were lower obviously than that of raw GC. The hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC for heating 15 min were higher by 6.3%, 9.0%, 27.0%, 71.8%, 9.4%, and 23.9%, respectively, than that of raw CGC (RCGC). The hardness increasing of CGC flesh with the extension of heating time related closely to more coagulating connective tissue in interstitial spaces, especially relating to smaller muscle fiber diameter and denser muscle fiber density. The more and larger spaces between fiber and fiber with the extension of heating time results in the decrease of cohesiveness and resilience of CGC flesh. For chewiness, the stronger chewiness of cooked CGC associated with more detachment of myofiber-myocommata and fiber-fiber. Overall, the results show that the changes of texture characteristics of CGC fillet with extension of heating time correlates positively with the ultrastructure. PMID:26757426

  10. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Upgrading food wastes by means of bromelain and papain to enhance growth and immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    The fast growing of global aquaculture industry accompanied with increasing pressure on the supply and price of traditional feed materials (e.g., fish meal and soy bean meal). This circumstance has urged the need to search alternative sources of feed stuff. Food waste was used as feed stuff in rearing fish which possess substantial protein and lipid. Grass carp are major species reared in Hong Kong with lower nutritional requirements; it is also an ideal species for investigating the feasibility of using food waste as fish feeds for local aquaculture industry. The growth and immunity, reflected by total protein, total immunologlobulin (IgI), and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity of grass carp blood, were depressed when feeding with food waste feeds without enzymes. However, the supplementation of bromelain and papain in fish feed enhanced the efficient use of food waste by grass carp, which in turn improved the fish immunity. The present results indicated that the addition of those enzymes could enhance the feed utilization by fish and hematological parameters of grass carp, and the improvement on growth and immunity superior to the control (commercial feed) was observed with the addition of bromelain and papain supplement. Addition of 1 and 2 % mixture of bromelain and papain could significantly enhance the lipid utilization in grass carp. PMID:26092357

  12. Significant genetic differentiation between native and introduced silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) inferred from mtDNA analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Cyprinidae) is native to China and has been introduced to over 80 countries. The extent of genetic diversity in introduced silver carp and the genetic divergence between introduced and native populations remain largely unknown. In this study, 241 silver carp sampled from three major native rivers and two non-native rivers (Mississippi River and Danube River) were analyzed using nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial COI gene and D-loop region. A total of 73 haplotypes were observed, with no haplotype found common to all the five populations and eight haplotypes shared by two to four populations. As compared with introduced populations, all native populations possess both higher haplotype diversity and higher nucleotide diversity, presumably a result of the founder effect. Significant genetic differentiation was revealed between native and introduced populations as well as among five sampled populations, suggesting strong selection pressures might have occurred in introduced populations. Collectively, this study not only provides baseline information for sustainable use of silver carp in their native country (i.e., China), but also offers first-hand genetic data for the control of silver carp in countries (e.g., the United States) where they are considered invasive.

  13. Molecular characterization and expression pattern of a germ cell marker gene dnd in gibel carp (Carassius gibelio).

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Zhu; Liu, Wei; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Li; Yi, Mei-Sheng; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2016-10-10

    As a germ cell marker gene, Dead end (dnd) has been identified and characterized in many vertebrates. Recently, we created a complete germ cell-depleted gonad model by the dnd-specific morpholino-mediated knockdown approach, and revealed sex-biased gene expression alteration through utilizing unisexual gynogenetic superiority in polyploid gibel carp. However, dnd and its expression pattern are still unclear in the gibel carp. In this study, we further analyzed molecular characterization of gibel carp dnd and its dynamic expression pattern during gametogenesis and embryogenesis. Similar to other homologs in vertebrates, gibel carp dnd contains a conserved RRM motif and five other motifs, and is highly evolutionary conserved in genomic organization and neighborhood gene synteny. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed its gonad-specific expression intensively in testis and ovary. Section in situ hybridization (SISH) and immunofluorescence localization revealed its dynamic expression pattern specific to oogenic cells and spermatogenetic cells during oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Moreover, its temporal and spatial distribution specific to PGCs were also demonstrated by RT-PCR and whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) during embryogenesis. Therefore, gibel carp Dnd is a conserved germ cell marker during gametogenesis, and its maternal transcript is also a useful marker for tracing PGC specification and migration. PMID:27418526