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Sample records for carp opsariichthys bidens

  1. Adaptive evolution of cone opsin genes in two colorful cyprinids, Opsariichthys pachycephalus and Candidia barbatus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng Yu; Chung, Wen Sung; Yan, Hong Young; Tzeng, Chyng Shyan

    2008-07-01

    Opsariichthys pachycephalus and Candidia barbatus are two phylogenetically related freshwater cyprinids that both exhibit colorful, yet quite different nuptial coloration. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that differences in nuptial coloration between two species could reflect differences in color perception ability and the opsin genes that coded for it. Genes encoding the visual pigments of these two species were cloned and sequenced, lambda(max) of cone photoreceptors and the reflectance spectra of their body coloration were measured to test the hypothesis. The 14-nm spectral shift between green-light-sensitive photoreceptors of these two cyprinids is found to correlate well with differences in their reflective spectra. The spectral shift could result from differential expression of opsin genes and the interactive effects of the amino acid replacements in various minor sites. These results support our hypothesis that nuptial coloration is tied to color perception ability and opsin genes. PMID:18571688

  2. Biden Calls for Realigning Research Incentives.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Vice President Joe Biden and his wife, Dr. Jill Biden, visited the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2016 in New Orleans, LA, to talk about the National Cancer Moonshot. Biden focused on the need to realign incentives in cancer research, so more grants are awarded for groundbreaking research; scientific studies are readily accessible; and the important work of verifying published findings is better rewarded. PMID:27107039

  3. Revision of endemic Marquesas Islands Bidens (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Warren L.; Clark, John R.; Lorence, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands four new species of Bidens (Coreopsideae, Asteraceae) have come to light and are described herein: Bidens woodii W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov. from Ua Pou, and Bidens microcephala W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence sp. nov., Bidens evapelliana W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov., and Bidens wichmanii W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov. from the undercollected island of Fatu Hiva. In addition to these new species, we recognize the following six species of Bidens previously described from the Marquesas Islands: Bidens beckiana (F. Br.) Sherff (Eiao and Hatutaa), Bidens bipontina Sherff and Bidens cordifolia Sch. Bip. (both in Nuku Hiva), Bidens henryi Sherff (Hiva Oa, Tahuata), Bidens uapensis (F. Br.) Sherff (Ua Pou), and Bidens polycephala Sch. Bip. (Nuku Hiva, Ua Huku, Hiva Oa, Tahuata, and Mohotani). Two names are reduced to synonymy under Bidens polycephala: Bidens collina Degener & Sherff, syn. nov. and Bidens jardinii Sch. Bip., syn. nov. Bidens polycephala has the widest distribution of the Marquesan species on five of the islands and exhibits considerable variation. PMID:25009437

  4. Revision of endemic Marquesas Islands Bidens (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Warren L; Clark, John R; Lorence, David H

    2014-01-01

    During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands four new species of Bidens (Coreopsideae, Asteraceae) have come to light and are described herein: Bidens woodii W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov. from Ua Pou, and Bidens microcephala W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence sp. nov., Bidens evapelliana W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov., and Bidens wichmanii W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov. from the undercollected island of Fatu Hiva. In addition to these new species, we recognize the following six species of Bidens previously described from the Marquesas Islands: Bidens beckiana (F. Br.) Sherff (Eiao and Hatutaa), Bidens bipontina Sherff and Bidens cordifolia Sch. Bip. (both in Nuku Hiva), Bidens henryi Sherff (Hiva Oa, Tahuata), Bidens uapensis (F. Br.) Sherff (Ua Pou), and Bidens polycephala Sch. Bip. (Nuku Hiva, Ua Huku, Hiva Oa, Tahuata, and Mohotani). Two names are reduced to synonymy under Bidens polycephala: Bidens collina Degener & Sherff, syn. nov. and Bidens jardinii Sch. Bip., syn. nov. Bidens polycephala has the widest distribution of the Marquesan species on five of the islands and exhibits considerable variation. PMID:25009437

  5. [Chemical constituents from Bidens bipinnata].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Guan-Ru; Deng, Zi-Yun; Zhao, Jie; Ge, Jin-Fang; Li, Ning; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of the whole plants of Bidens bipinnata, the separation and purification of constituents were performed by chromatography on macroporous resin, silica gel, MCI and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data as quercetin (1), quercetin-3-0-alpha-L-rhamnoside (2), keampferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), keampferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4), 3', 5-dyhydroxy-3, 6, 4'-trimethoxyl -7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside flavonoid (5), 7, 8, 3', 4'-tetraflavanone(6), (2S)- and (2R)-isookanin-7-O-beta-D- glucopyranoside (7a/7b), (2S)- and (2R)-3'-methoxy-isookanin-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8a/8b), 6, 7, 3', 4'-tetrahydroxyaurone(9), maritimetin (10), esculetin (11), 3-O-caffeoyl-2-methyl-d-erythrono-1, 4-lactone (12), (7S, 8R) balanophonin-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), eugenyl-O-beta-apiofuranosyl-( 1"-6') -O-beta-glucopyranoside (14), and (+)-syringaresinol-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15). Compounds 8, 13, 14, and 15 were isolated from this genus for the first time. Compounds 1 and 6 were potent inhibitors against HSC-T6 cells in vitro and compounds 1, 2, 6, and 7 were capable of decreasing the inflammatory cytokine production of macrophage cells in vitro. PMID:25282892

  6. Flavanone glycosides from Bidens gardneri Bak. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Denise Brentan; Okano, Laura Tiemi; Lopes, Norberto P; de Oliveira, Dionéia C R

    2013-12-01

    LC-DAD-MS/MS analysis of the Brazilian medicinal plant Bidens gardneri Bak. (Asteraceae) results in identification of eleven phenolic compounds. HRESIMS, MS/MS and UV data analyses, with phytochemicals isolation guided by MS data, results in flavanones-(-)-4'-methoxy-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8,3'-dihydroxyflavanone; (-)-7-O-(6″-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8,3',4'-trihydroxyflavanone; and (-)-4'-methoxy-7-O-(6″-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8,3'-dihydroxyflavanone being identified-together with four known compounds. The absolute configurations of two of the flavanones were determined as 2S via circular dichroism. PMID:24210092

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Constituents from Bidens frondosa.

    PubMed

    Le, Jiamei; Lu, Wenquan; Xiong, Xiaojuan; Wu, Zhijun; Chen, Wansheng

    2015-01-01

    A new polyacetylene glucoside (3E,5E,11E)-tridecatriene-7,9-diyne-1,2,13-triol-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), a new phenylpropanoid glucoside 2'-butoxyethylconiferin (2), and a new flavonoid glycoside 8,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone-7-O-(6''-O-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), have been isolated from Bidens frondosa together with fifty-three known compounds 4-56. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic methods. mainly ESIMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1-34, 36, 39, 43, 47, 51, and 52 were tested for inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in 293-NF-κB-luciferase report cell line induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and compounds 1, 2, 3, 9, 15, 21, 24 and 51 were tested for the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 in RAW 264.7 macrophages induced by LPS. In conclusion, the isolated compounds 1, 2, 3, 9, 15, 21, 24 and 51 exhibited significant activity in anti-inflammatory activity assays. PMID:26473814

  8. Bidens meyeri (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae): a new critically endangered species from Rapa, Austral Islands

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Vicki A.; Wood, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bidens meyeri (Asteraceae/Compositae) is described and illustrated from Rapa, Austral Islands, (French Polynesia). This new species is presumed to be most closely related to Bidens saint-johniana from nearby Marotiri Island. Bidens meyeri may be distinguished from Bidens saint-johniana based on the length of the peduncle (3 cm versus 10 cm), apex of the inner involucral bracts (glabrous vs. puberulent), smaller leaves (2.0–2.3 cm vs. 5–6 cm), and the general smaller size of the new species. Known from less than 50 individuals and restricted to one remote location, Bidens meyeri falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) category. The new species is named in honor of Dr. Jean-Yves Meyer, Délégation à la Recherche, Polynésie Française, PMID:25383010

  9. Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

  10. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  11. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  12. Diet of mid-Atlantic Sowerby's beaked whales Mesoplondon bidens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, J. N.; Neves, V. C.; Prieto, R.; Silva, M. A.; Cascão, I.; Oliveira, C.; Cruz, M. J.; Medeiros, J. V.; Barreiros, J. P.; Porteiro, F. M.; Clarke, D.

    2011-11-01

    The first mid-Atlantic diet of Mesoplodon beaked whales is presented, from ten Sowerby's Mesoplodon bidens stranded in the Azores region between 2002 and 2009. This doubles the worldwide number of stomachs sampled, and reveals new feeding habits for this species. The mean number of prey items per stomach was 85±89 (range: 12-238), with fish accounting for 99.3% and cephalopods contributing less than 1% of total prey. Fish otoliths from 15 families and cephalopod lower mandibles from three families were identified, representing 22 taxa. The diet consisted mainly of small mid-water fish, the most numerous being Diaphus sp., Lampanyctus sp. and Melamphaidae species. Myctophids were present in all stranded individuals, followed by Diretmidae, Melamphaidae and Opisthoproctus soleatus, while the remaining fish species were scarce or single occurrences. Consistency of diet in four different years reveals a divergence from all previous records in continental areas, where mainly neritic and shelf-break benthopelagic fish species have been reported. Mid-Atlantic Sowerby's beaked whales' showed dietary plasticity, feeding on the most abundant mid-water groups occurring between 0 and750 m. Trophic level from prey numerical frequency was estimated at 4.4±0.46.

  13. Antioxidant activity of extracts and flavonoids from Bidens tripartita.

    PubMed

    Wolniak, Michał; Tomczykowa, Monika; Tomczyk, Michał; Gudej, Jan; Wawer, Iwona

    2007-01-01

    Extracts from herb and flowers of Bidens tripartita L. (Asteraceae), obtained using solvents of different polarity, were studied for their radical scavenging effects. Antioxidant activities of pure flavonoids: flavanomarein (isookanin 7-O-glucoside), cynaroside (luteolin 7-O-glucoside) and luteolin, which had been isolated from this plant, were also evaluated. Radical-scavenging activity was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The content of flavonoids in flower heads is half of that found in the herb; however, the extract from flowers showed that the antioxidant activity was almost two times higher there. Some extracts (n-BuOH fraction) showed long lasting radical scavenging activity and the EPR spectra were recorded in time to follow the reaction kinetics. Scavenging of DPPH showed second-order kinetics at the beginning of the assay period and later the first-order one. Different kinetics suggested the presence of polymerized and/or less active antioxidants with different scavenging mechanisms for particular polyphenolic compounds. Bur-marigold extracts are a potential source of natural antioxidants that may be used in pharmaceutical or food industry. PMID:18540165

  14. Composition and Antidiarrheal Activity of Bidens odorata Cav.

    PubMed Central

    Zavala-Mendoza, Daniel; Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Pérez-Gutierrez, Salud; Escobar-Villanueva, M. Carmen; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The antidiarrheal effects of chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Bidens odorata Cav. were investigated at doses of 200 mg/kg on castor-oil-induced diarrhea. The chloroform extract of B. odorata (CBO) reduced diarrhea by 72.72%. The effect of CBO was evaluated on mice with diarrhea induced by castor oil, MgSO4, arachidonic acid, or prostaglandin E2. CBO inhibited the contraction induced by carbachol chloride on ileum (100 µg/mL) and intestinal transit (200 mg/kg) in Wistar rats. The active fraction of CBO (F4) at doses of 100 mg/kg inhibited the diarrhea induced by castor oil (90.1%) or arachidonic acid (72.9%) but did not inhibit the diarrhea induced by PGE2. The active fraction of F4 (FR5) only was tested on diarrhea induced with castor oil and inhibited this diarrhea by 92.1%. The compositions of F4 and FR5 were determined by GC-MS, and oleic, palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids were found. F4 and a mixture of the four fatty acids inhibited diarrhea at doses of 100 mg/kg (90.1% and 70.6%, resp.). The results of this study show that B. odorata has antidiarrheal effects, as is claimed by folk medicine, and could possibly be used for the production of a phytomedicine. PMID:24282432

  15. Rhabdomyosarcoma in a Silver Carp.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Annahita; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Ansari, Mahshid Bagherzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a primitive neoplasm that originates from skeletal muscle progenitor cells. In a routine inspection of a cyprinid farm in southwestern Iran, an approximately 2-year-old female Silver Carp was observed to have a raised mass located on the dorsolateral surface just caudal to the head. Macroscopic examination revealed a firm irregular fleshy pink mass (5 × 4 cm, depth = 3 cm) that appeared to arise from the subcutaneous musculature. Histologic sections were prepared using routine methods and separate sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Massons' trichrome. Microscopically, the tumor mass was composed of spindle cells that were densely packed and arranged in long interwoven bundles. The nuclei were vesicular and oval to elongated or cigar-shaped. Nuclear pleomorphism and multinucleate tumor giant cells were clearly evident. The neoplastic cell cytoplasm was eosinophilic with indistinct cell margins, and clear cross striations were observed in fibrils. The striated fibrils stained diffusely red with Masson's trichrome. This account represents the first reported occurrence of rhabdomyosarcoma in Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. Received July 10, 2015; accepted February 4, 2016. PMID:27229885

  16. Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  17. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  18. Acoustical deterrence of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooke J. Vetter; Cupp, Aaron R.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Allen F. Mensinger

    2015-01-01

    The invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) dominate large regions of the Mississippi River drainage and continue to expand their range northward threatening the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study found that complex broadband sound (0–10 kHz) is effective in altering the behavior of Silver Carp with implications for deterrent barriers or potential control measures (e.g., herding fish into nets). The phonotaxic response of Silver Carp was investigated using controlled experiments in outdoor concrete ponds (10 × 4.9 × 1.2 m). Pure tones (500–2000 Hz) and complex sound (underwater field recordings of outboard motors) were broadcast using underwater speakers. Silver Carp always reacted to the complex sounds by exhibiting negative phonotaxis to the sound source and by alternating speaker location, Silver Carp could be directed consistently, up to 37 consecutive times, to opposite ends of the large outdoor pond. However, fish habituated quickly to pure tones, reacting to only approximately 5 % of these presentations and never showed more than two consecutive responses. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of sound barriers in preventing Silver Carp movement using pure tones and this research suggests that a complex sound stimulus would be an even more effective deterrent.

  19. Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

  20. 4-Deoxyaurone formation in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq.) DC.

    PubMed

    Miosic, Silvija; Knop, Katrin; Hölscher, Dirk; Greiner, Jürgen; Gosch, Christian; Thill, Jana; Kai, Marco; Shrestha, Binita Kumari; Schneider, Bernd; Crecelius, Anna C; Schubert, Ulrich S; Svatoš, Aleš; Stich, Karl; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    The formation of 4-deoxyaurones, which serve as UV nectar guides in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq.) DC., was established by combination of UV photography, mass spectrometry, and biochemical assays and the key step in aurone formation was studied. The yellow flowering ornamental plant accumulates deoxy type anthochlor pigments (6'-deoxychalcones and the corresponding 4-deoxyaurones) in the basal part of the flower surface whilst the apex contains only yellow carotenoids. For UV sensitive pollinating insects, this appears as a bicoloured floral pattern which can be visualized in situ by specific ammonia staining of the anthochlor pigments. The petal back side, in contrast, shows a faintly UV absorbing centre and UV absorbing rays along the otherwise UV reflecting petal apex. Matrix-free UV laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-MSI) indicated the presence of 9 anthochlors in the UV absorbing areas. The prevalent pigments were derivatives of okanin and maritimetin. Enzyme preparations from flowers, leaves, stems and roots of B. ferulifolia and from plants, which do not accumulate aurones e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana, were able to convert chalcones to aurones. Thus, aurone formation could be catalyzed by a widespread enzyme and seems to depend mainly on a specific biochemical background, which favours the formation of aurones at the expense of flavonoids. In contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation, hydroxylation and oxidative cyclization to the 4-deoxyaurones does not occur in one single step but is catalyzed by two separate enzymes, chalcone 3-hydroxylase and aurone synthase (catechol oxidase reaction). Aurone formation shows an optimum at pH 7.5 or above, which is another striking contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation in Antirrhinum majus L. This is the first example of a plant catechol oxidase type enzyme being involved in the flavonoid pathway and in an anabolic reaction in general. PMID:23667445

  1. Spiranthes Mosaic Virus 3 and Bidens Mottle Virus,Two Potyviruses Detected in Phlox divaricata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Spiranthes mosaic virus in Florida and the first report of Bidens mottle virus in Phlox divaricata. This report provides an overview of this virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  2. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Fotso, Aurélien Fotso; Longo, Frida; Djomeni, Paul Désiré Dzeufiet; Kouam, Siméon Fogue; Spiteller, Michael; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Savineau, J P

    2014-04-01

    Bidens pilosa is an Asteraceae widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments including pain and inflammation. The present work was undertaken to assess the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) extract of leaves of Bidens pilosa at the gradual doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively. The analgesic properties of Bidens pilosa were investigated using the acetic acid writhing, hot plate, capsaicin and formalin-induced pain models. This was followed by a study of the antiinflammatory properties using carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin to induce acute inflammation in rat hind paw. The extract provided a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in pain induced by all four models of nociception. It also presented significant (p < 0.05) antiinflammatory activity in all four models of acute inflammation. These results show that the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) of Bidens pilosa has both analgesic and antiinflammatory properties. The qualitative analysis of the fraction by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint revealed the presence of two flavonoids, namely quercetin and iso-okanin, known to have antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties, which could be responsible for the analgesic and antiinflammatory effects observed. PMID:24242914

  3. An agent-based mathematical model about carp aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu; Wu, Chao

    2005-05-01

    This work presents an agent-based mathematical model to simulate the aggregation of carp, a harmful fish in North America. The referred mathematical model is derived from the following assumptions: (1) instead of the consensus among every carps involved in the aggregation, the aggregation of carp is completely a random and spontaneous physical behavior of numerous of independent carp; (2) carp aggregation is a collective effect of inter-carp and carp-environment interaction; (3) the inter-carp interaction can be derived from the statistical analytics about large-scale observed data. The proposed mathematical model is mainly based on empirical inter-carp force field, whose effect is featured with repulsion, parallel orientation, attraction, out-of-perception zone, and blind. Based on above mathematical model, the aggregation behavior of carp is formulated and preliminary simulation results about the aggregation of small number of carps within simple environment are provided. Further experiment-based validation about the mathematical model will be made in our future work.

  4. Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.

    1983-04-01

    Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

  5. [Biomorphological Features and Microevolution of the Invasive Species Bidens L. in European Russia].

    PubMed

    Galkina, M A; Vinogradova, Yu K; Shanzer, I A

    2015-01-01

    Species of the genus Bidens that have invaded natural communities in Europe were observed. Fourteen species have been introduced in European botanical gardens since the 18th century, but only two of them have become invasive in Russia-Bidensfrondosa and B. connata. B.frondosa demonstrates microevolutional ability in the second distribution range. Nevertheless, it has a low ability of hybridization. B. frondosa has higher competitiveness compared with that of B. connata. PMID:26415279

  6. Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

  7. Comparative genomics of carp herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew J; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2013-03-01

    Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

  8. Lactococcosis in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adult silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was submitted to the Aquatic Research & Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL) in Stoneville, MS, as part of an investigation of a fish kill event in September 2011, at the Tunica Cutoff, Tunica county, Mississippi. Gross lesions included a focally extensive...

  9. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV. PMID:26905065

  10. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation. Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp. PMID:26666689

  11. Competitive Interactions between Age-0 Bighead Carp and Paddlefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout the experiment and only exhibited a temporal effect. Zooplankton density declined in mesocosms after fish were introduced. In general, zooplankton densities did not differ among treatments but did differ from the control. The relative growth of paddlefish was negative in the paddlefish and paddlefish-bighead carp treatments. The relative growth of bighead carp was negative in the bighead carp treatment but positive in the paddlefish-bighead carp treatment. Age-0 paddlefish exhibited the greatest decrease in relative growth in mesocosms with bighead carp. Bighead carp exhibited the greatest increase in relative growth in mesocosms with paddlefish. These data suggest that bighead carp have the potential to negatively affect the growth of paddlefish when food resources are limited.

  12. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  13. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  14. Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp.

    PubMed Central

    Kito, H; Ose, Y; Sato, T

    1986-01-01

    When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with the duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl2), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. In the nontreated group, metallothionein was present in the acinar cells of hepatopancreas and renal convoluted tubules. In the Cd-treated group (2 mg/kg IP daily for 3 days), metallothionein was present in the nuclei, sinusoids, and extracellular space of hepatopancreas, in addition to the acinar cells. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups. The metallothionein contents increased in hepatopancreas and kidney in the order: Zn greater than Cd greater than control group. Images FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. PMID:3519201

  15. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for body weight in Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) compared with mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ying; Lu, Cuiyun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Yu, Juhua; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-05-01

    We report the genetic linkage map of Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). An F1 population comprising 94 Jian carp individuals was mapped using 254 microsatellite markers. The genetic map spanned 1 381.592 cM and comprised 44 linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 6.58 cM. We identified eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body weight (BW) in seven linkage groups, explaining 12.6% to 17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Comparative mapping was performed between Jian carp and mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), which both have 50 chromosomes. One hundred and ninety-eight Jian carp marker loci were found in common with the mirror carp map, with 186 (93.94%) showing synteny. All 44 Jian carp linkage groups could be one-to-one aligned to the 44 mirror carp linkage groups, mostly sharing two or more common loci. Three QTLs for BW in Jian carp were conserved in mirror carp. QTL comparison suggested that the QTL confidence interval in mirror carp was more precise than the homologous interval in Jian carp, which was contained within the QTL interval in Jian carp. The syntenic relationship and consensus QTLs between the two varieties provide a foundation for genomic research and genetic breeding in common carp.

  16. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish's utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  17. GRASS CARP AS A POTENTIAL CONTROL AGENT FOR CATTAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in total length. In August 19...

  18. Root-to-Shoot transfer and distribution of endosulfan in the wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis L.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Débora J; Menone, Mirta L; Doucette, William J

    2013-11-01

    Endosulfan is genotoxic in somatic cells of Bidens laevis, and reproduction could be affected if translocated from roots to flower buds. Hydroponic experiments were conducted to quantify this transfer. While the root uptake of [(14) C] endosulfan and its transfer to aboveground tissues was relatively low, the resulting average flower bud concentration (1.01 ± 0.76 ng/g) after 30 d of exposure to an aqueous concentration of 5 μg/L could still represent a genotoxic risk for germ cells. PMID:23929711

  19. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  20. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  1. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Reovirus (GCRV) in Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease. PMID:25759845

  2. Histopathological changes induced by environmental stress in common carp, Japanese coloured carp, European eel, and African catfish.

    PubMed

    Szakolczai, J

    1997-01-01

    Histopathological changes caused by stress during catching and transport were examined in four fish species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the Japanese coloured carp (koi, the coloured variant of the Asian carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus), the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In all species, the goblet cells of the gills and skin were decreased in number and slight detachment of the epithelium of the secondary gill lamellae was seen. Loss of goblet cells and detachment of the columnar epithelial cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of common carp and coloured carp. It is supposed that these lesions may affect ion transport and respiration in the gills and disturb normal intestinal function, thus serving as a starting point for different diseases. PMID:9270124

  3. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

  4. Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae): Botanical Properties, Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Bartolome, Arlene P.; Villaseñor, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    There are 230 to 240 known Bidens species. Among them, Bidens pilosa is a representative perennial herb, globally distributed across temperate and tropical regions. B. pilosa has been traditionally used in foods and medicines without obvious adverse effects. Despite significant progress in phytochemical and biological analyses of B. pilosa over the past few years, comprehensive and critical reviews of this plant are anachronistic or relatively limited in scope. The present review aims to summarize up-to-date information on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of B. pilosa from the literature. In addition to botanical studies and records of the traditional use of B. pilosa in over 40 diseases, scientific studies investigating the potential medicinal uses of this species and its constituent phytochemicals for a variety of disorders are presented and discussed. The structure, bioactivity, and likely mechanisms of action of B. pilosa and its phytochemicals are emphasized. Although some progress has been made, further rigorous efforts are required to investigate the individual compounds isolated from B. pilosa to understand and validate its traditional uses and develop clinical applications. The present review provides preliminary information and gives guidance for further basic and clinical research into this plant. PMID:23935661

  5. Allelopathy of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa on the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense.

    PubMed

    Wang, X F; Hassani, D; Cheng, Z W; Wang, C Y; Wu, J

    2014-01-01

    Five gradient concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/mL) of leaching liquors from the roots, stems, and leaves of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa were used as conditioning fluid to examine its influence on seed germination conditions of the native plant Geum japonicum var. chinense in Huangshan. All leaching liquors of organs suppressed the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense and reduced the final germination percentage and rate, and increased the germination inhibition rate, with a bimodal dependence on concentration. The leaching liquor inhibited the seed germination significantly at the concentration of 0.02 g/mL respectively. The seed germination was also inhibited as the concentration reached to 0.04 g/mL and beyond. Hence the allelopathic effects of the organs were significantly enhanced respectively. This phenomenon represented the presence of allelopathy substances in the root, stem and leaf of Bidens frondosa. PMID:25511044

  6. Body color development and genetic analysis of hybrid transparent crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Tong, G X; Geng, L W; Jiang, H F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanism of the transparent trait in transparent crucian carp. We observed body color development in transparent crucian carp larvae and analyzed heredity of color in hybrids produced with red crucian carp, ornamental carp, and red purse carp. The results showed that the body color of the newly hatched larvae matured into the adult pattern at approximately 54 days post-hatching. Two inter-species reciprocal crosses between transparent crucian carp and red crucian carp, and self-cross F1 of transparent crucian carp and self-cross F1 of red marking transparent crucian carp were conducted, and results indicated that the transparent-scaled trait is dominant over the normal-scaled trait. Furthermore, the transparent trait is a quantitative trait. All offspring in the four inter-genera reciprocal crosses of transparent crucian carp with ornamental carp and red purse carp were hybrids of common carp and crucian carp, and had a relatively low survival rate of 10-20%. Moreover, the transparent-scaled trait was observed to be dominant over the normal-scaled trait in the hybrid fish. In conclusion, our results suggest that the genetic mechanism underlying the color of goldfish is complex and requires further investigation. PMID:25966213

  7. [Investigation of membrane permeability of carp spermatozoa for water molecules].

    PubMed

    Pugovkin, A Iu; Kopeĭka, E F; Nardid, O A; Cherkashina, Ia O

    2014-01-01

    The fundamentals of a photometry method for determination of membrane permeability of some fish spermatozoa for water molecules are presented. Osmotic tolerance of carp spermatozoa membranes was studied using EPR-spectroscopy and photometric analysis methods. It was shown that carp spermatozoa look like the ideal osmometers in their reaction on media of different osmolarity. The value of membrane permeability of carp spermatozoa for water molecules was determined. Data obtained can be used in cryobiology for creating cryoprotective media and regimes of fish sperm cryopreservation. PMID:25715589

  8. Identification and analysis of the jnk1 gene in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y M; Jiang, M G; Luo, Z W; Zhou, Y H; Wen, S; Wang, M; Zhang, C; Liu, S J

    2014-01-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase superfamily. The allotetraploid crucian carp is a product of distant hybridization of female red crucian carp with male common carp. It is the first natural case of an allotetraploid with stable genetic characters, including fertility of both female and male animals. In this study, 2 jnk1 cDNAs (including jnk1a and jnk1b) have been cloned from the polyploid crucian carp system, consisting of the allotetraploid crucian carp, the triploid crucian carp, and their original parents (red crucian and common carp). We show that jnk1a and jnk1b represent 2 splice forms arising from the jnk1 gene. On the basis of the genetic structure of jnk1a gene in the polyploid crucian carp system, we demonstrated that the allotetraploid crucian carp is phylogenetically closer to its paternal parent (common carp) than to its maternal parent. We further show a similarity between the triploid crucian carp and its original female parent (red crucian carp). Comparisons of genetic structures indicated that the jnk1b genes of allotetraploid and triploid crucian carp are more similar to those of the original paternal parent rather than the original female parent (red crucian carp). RT-PCR analysis indicated that both the jnk1a and jnk1b genes are widely expressed in fish embryos and in the adult organs, displaying distinct features of embryonic-stage and organ specificity in the polyploid crucian carp system. PMID:24634111

  9. Induction of gynogenesis in Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan-Dong; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Shao-Jun; Tao, Min; Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yun

    2006-05-01

    Diploid gynogenesis was induced in Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) eggs using UV-irradiated genetically inactive spermatozoa from mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) or blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), with or without cold shock. The optimal radiation dosage was 4,200 mJ/cm2 and 3,600 mJ/cm2 for mirror carp and blunt snout bream sperm, respectively. At this dosage and without cold shock, the yields were (32.4 +/- 3.3)% vs. (33.8 +/- 1.4)% gynogenetic haploids and (0.7 +/- 0.3)% vs. (0.5 +/- 0.3)% hybrid diploids, respectively. At the optimal UV dosage but with cold shock (2 min after fertilization, 0-4 degrees C for 40 min), the hatching rates were (27.8 +/- 2.1)% and (29.4 +/- 3.3)%, respectively. From hatching to feeding, (15.7 +/- 3.4)% and (23.6 +/- 4.1)% normal gynogenetic diploids were recorded, respectively. Survival of normal gynogenetic diploids was 56% out of the hatched fry when using irradiated spermatozoa of mirror carp, which was lower than that (up to 80%) when using irradiated spermatozoa of blunt snout bream. This indicated that the sperm of blunt snout bream, with distant genetic relation to the maternal Japanese crucian carp, was more effective than that of mirror carp to induce diploid gynogenesis. The nature of the gynogenetic progeny was identified with external appearance, chromosome number and gonad structure. The presence of only females in gynogenetic progeny probably suggested XX genotype in the female Japanese crucian carp. The gynogenetic diploids have potential values such as faster growth and stronger disease resistance than the normal Japanese crucian carp. All gynogenetic progeny possessed 100 chromosomes whereas all J x B crosses were triploid with 124 chromosomes. The formation of the new triploid hybrids in J x B crosses may be useful in aquaculture. PMID:16722335

  10. Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.

    1976-01-01

    Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

  11. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Phenolics from Bidens humilis.

    PubMed

    Vera Saltos, Mariela Beatriz; Naranjo Puente, Blanca Fabiola; Milella, Luigi; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Braca, Alessandra

    2015-08-01

    A bioassay-oriented approach led to the isolation of 11 compounds, including three new natural flavonoids, (2S)-isookanin 7-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (1), (2S)-isookanin 7-O-(2''-acetyl)-α-L-arabinopyranoside (2), and luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-galactopyranoside (6), from Bidens humilis aerial parts. Their structures were determined via spectroscopic analyses including two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was also tested by three different assays. The Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) is applied herein, from the perspective of statistics, by integrating the antioxidant capacity data determined by these chemical methods. PMID:25905594

  12. Differential expression of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and their response to grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Ju, C S; He, L B; Pei, Y Y; Jiang, Y; Huang, R; Li, Y M; Liao, L J; Jang, S H; Wang, Y P

    2016-02-01

    The cDNAs of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, galactose-binding lectin (galbl) and mannose-binding lectin (mbl), were cloned and analysed in this study. Both of them exhibited the highest expression level in liver, whereas their expression pattern differed in early phase of embryonic development. Following exposure to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the mRNA expression level of galbl and mbl was significantly up-regulated in liver and intestine. PMID:26643267

  13. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of Skin Color Variation in Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains. Conclusions In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values. PMID:25255374

  15. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    PubMed Central

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner’s statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed. PMID:27482364

  16. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner's statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed. PMID:27482364

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

  18. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of Bidens pilosa L. as a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuebing; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Lin; Liu, Weitao

    2009-01-30

    Recently, researchers are becoming interested in using hyperaccumulators for decontamination of heavy metal polluted soils, whereas few species that hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd) has been identified in the plant kingdom. In this study, the physiological mechanisms at the seedling stage and growth responses and Cd uptake and accumulation at flowering and mature stages of Bidens pilosa L. under Cd treatments were investigated. At the seedling stage, when soil Cd was lower than 16mgkg(-1), the plant did not show obvious symptom of phytoxicity, and the alterations of chlorophyll (CHL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and soluble protein (SP) did not have significant differences when compared with the control. At the flowering and mature stages, under low Cd treatments (

  19. Population genetic diversity of sesarmid crab (Perisesarma bidens) in China based on mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haolang; Xu, Jingming; Yang, Mingliu; Wu, Bin; Yan, Bing; Xiong, Yingze

    2016-09-01

    The population genetic diversity of Perisesarma bidens in China was investigated using 627 bp fragment of mtDNA COI gene sequence. A total of 186 individuals were collected from ten localities over most of the species' range and 31 different haplotypes were obtained. The most frequent haplotype was Hap2, which was shared in all ten localities (132 individuals), whereas most haplotypes were rare and existed in only one or two individuals. Haplotype diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (π) ranged from 0.338 to 0.731 and from 0.00058 to 0.00278, respectively, which represented a moderate level of haplotype diversity and a low level of nucleotide diversity. The genetic distance ranged from 0.0006 to 0.0028 within populations and from 0.0006 to 0.0023 between populations. An analysis of molecular variance and conventional population statistics (FST) revealed a low level of genetic differentiation among ten populations (FST = -0.00439, p > 0.05), indicating that no significant population genetic structure existed in populations from the East China Sea and South China Sea. Both mismatch distribution and neutrality tests implied a recent population expansion event for the sesarmid crab species in the late Pleistocene. PMID:25693695

  20. Botanical, Pharmacological, Phytochemical, and Toxicological Aspects of the Antidiabetic Plant Bidens pilosa L.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Bidens pilosa L. is an easy-to-grow, widespread, and palatable perennial on earth. Hence, it has traditionally been used as foods and medicines without noticeable adverse effects. Despite significant advancement in chemical and biological studies of B. pilosa over the past few years, comprehensive and critical reviews on its anti-diabetic properties are missing. The present review is to summarize up-to-date information on the pharmacology, phytochemistry, and toxicology of B. pilosa, in regard to type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes from the literature. In addition to botanical studies and records of the traditional use of B. pilosa in diabetes, scientific studies investigating antidiabetic action of this species and its active phytochemicals are presented and discussed. The structure and biosynthesis of B. pilosa and its polyynes in relation to their anti-diabetic action and mechanism are emphasized. Although some progress has been made, rigorous efforts are further required to unlock the molecular basis and structure-activity relationship of the polyynes isolated from B. pilosa before their clinical applications. The present review provides preliminary information and gives guidance for further anti-diabetic research and development of this plant. PMID:24616740

  1. Effect of Bidens pilosa on infection and drug resistance of Eimeria in chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, W C; Tien, Y J; Chung, C Y; Chen, Y C; Chiou, W H; Hsu, S Y; Liu, H Y; Liang, C L; Chang, C L T

    2015-02-01

    Extensive use of current anti-coccidial drugs together with drug resistance and residue has raised concerns about public health and poultry development. Here, we studied the anti-coccidial properties of Bidens pilosa. A phytochemical approach was developed for analysis of B. pilosa utilized as a feed additive. The protective effects of B. pilosa supplemented chicken diet were evaluated chickens infected with Eimeria tenella. B. pilosa, at doses of 0.5%, 1% and 5% of the chicken diet, significantly protected against E.tenella as measured by reduction in mortality, weight loss, fecal oocyst excretion and gut pathology in chickens. Finally, drug resistance of E. tenella to B. pilosa was assessed in chickens using the anti-coccidial index. This index showed that B. pilosa induced little, if any, drug resistance to Eimeria in chickens. Collectively, this work suggests that B. pilosa may serve as a novel, natural remedy for coccidiosis with low drug resistance in chickens. PMID:25440995

  2. Description of sounds associated with Sowerby's beaked whales (Mesoplodon bidens) in the western North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Cholewiak, Danielle; Baumann-Pickering, Simone; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2013-11-01

    Several groups of Sowerby's beaked whales (Mesoplodon bidens) were encountered on July 4, 2011, during a shipboard cetacean survey conducted off the eastern seaboard of the United States. Acoustic recordings were collected using a three-element towed hydrophone array. Many echolocation clicks were recorded during the encounter, but no tonal sounds were detected. A total of 2969 echolocation clicks were included in analyses of frequency and temporal characteristics. A Gaussian mixture model with four mixtures was fitted to the histogram of peak frequencies; four subsets of clicks were designated. The majority of clicks (n = 2048) contained a median peak frequency of 33 kHz, while the others contained a median peak frequency of 25 kHz (n = 324), 51 kHz (n = 304), or 67 kHz (n = 293). Most clicks did not contain a clear frequency-modulated upsweep, though some clicks exhibited a slight sweep from 30-36 kHz. Seven burst pulses were detected in the encounter, two of which were of high enough quality for detailed analysis. The acoustic characteristics of Sowerby's beaked whales have not previously been described; the current study will facilitate incorporation of these data into passive acoustic monitoring programs in the North Atlantic Ocean. PMID:24180799

  3. High-density grass carp stocking effects on a reservoir invasive plant and water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, A. Brad; Kwak, Thomas J.; Manuel, Kenneth L.; Barwick, D. Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Stocking grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes)] is a commonly applied technique to control nuisance aquatic vegetation in reservoirs. Factors that influence the degree of aquatic vegetation control are fish stocking density, regional climate, abundance and species composition of the aquatic plant community, and relative grass carp feeding preferences for plant species. We evaluated high-density grass carp stocking in a southeastern U.S. reservoir for control of parrot-feather [Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell) Verdc.], an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and the associated effects on water quality. Lookout Shoals Lake, a 528-ha piedmont North Carolina reservoir, was stocked with triploid grass carp at a density of 100 fish per vegetated hectare. Parrot-feather biomass in the lake was significantly reduced three months after grass carp stocking, compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures. During the second year after grass carp stocking, parrot-feather biomass in the lake compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures indicated continued control, but unexplained lack of growth within most experimental exclosures precluded biomass analyses. Increases in ambient water chlorophyll a, reactive phosphorus, and nitrate-nitrite concentrations were measured after grass carp stocking. The biological significance of observed changes in water chemistry and long-term effects on lake biota remain undetermined. Our results demonstrate that intensive grass carp stocking can control an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and reveal associated changes in water quality.

  4. Isolation of Brucella ceti from a Long-finned Pilot Whale (Globicephala melas) and a Sowerby's Beaked Whale (Mesoploden bidens).

    PubMed

    Foster, Geoffrey; Whatmore, Adrian M; Dagleish, Mark P; Baily, Johanna L; Deaville, Rob; Davison, Nicholas J; Koylass, Mark S; Perrett, Lorraine L; Stubberfield, Emma J; Reid, Robert J; Brownlow, Andrew C

    2015-10-01

    Brucella ceti is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that has been recovered from several species of cetaceans in the world's oceans over the past 20 yr. We report the recovery of B. ceti from a Sowerby's beaked whale (Mesoploden bidens) and a long-finned pilot whale (Globicehala melas). Recovery from the testis of a long-finned pilot whale provides further evidence of potential for B. ceti infection to impact the reproductive success of cetaceans, many of which are threatened species. The addition of another two cetacean species to the growing number from which B. ceti has been recovered also further emphasizes the concern for human infections with this organism. PMID:26285099

  5. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  6. Functional morphology of durophagy in black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Gidmark, Nicholas J; Taylor, Chantel; LoPresti, Eric; Brainerd, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae), crushes its snail and other molluscan prey with robust pharyngeal jaws and strong bite forces. Using gross morphology, histological sectioning, and X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we investigated structural, behavioral, and mechanical aspects of pharyngeal jaw function in black carp. Strut-like trabeculae in their pharyngeal jaws support large, molariform teeth. The teeth occlude with a hypertrophied basioccipital process that is also reinforced with stout trabeculae. A keratinous chewing pad is firmly connected to the basioccipital process by a series of small bony projections from the base of the pedestal. The pharyngeal jaws have no bony articulations with the skull, and their position is controlled by five paired muscles and one unpaired median muscle. Black carp can crush large molluscs, so we used XROMM to compare pharyngeal jaw postures as fish crushed ceramic tubes of increasing sizes. We found that black carp increase pharyngeal jaw gape primarily by ventral translation of the jaws, with ventral rotation and lateral flaring of the jaws also increasing the space available to accommodate large prey items. A stout, robust ligament connects left and right jaws together firmly, but allows some rotation of the jaws relative to each other. Contrasting with the pharyngeal jaw mechanism of durophagous perciforms with fused left and right lower pharyngeal jaws, we hypothesize that this ligamentous connection may serve to decouple tensile and compressive forces, with the tensile forces borne by the ligament and the compressive forces transferred to the prey. PMID:26289832

  7. [The population level and distribution of ectoparasites in carp].

    PubMed

    Balakhnin, I A; Gun'kovskiĭ, S A; Kosolap, M M

    1993-01-01

    The abundance and the distribution of Dactylogyrus extensus and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis on gills of two-years old carps have been investigated. It has been established that at least there are five groups, which differs from each other on the asymmetry of infection. PMID:8488057

  8. Two Cases of Rhabdomyolysis (Haff Disease) After Eating Carp Fish

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Joey V.; Sein, Saw; Lyon, Claudia; Apergis, George

    2016-01-01

    Unexplained rhabdomyolysis after eating fish is a rare condition caused by an unidentified toxin. Most of the incidences in the United States have been linked to consuming buffalo fish or crawfish. We present 2 cases of Haff disease in which the patients consumed grass carp as opposed to the usual suspects of buffalo fish or crawfish.

  9. [The seasonal dynamics of Sphaerospora renicola (Myxosporidia) in carp (Osteichthyes)].

    PubMed

    Odening, K; Walter, G; Bockhardt, I

    1988-06-01

    We observed 2 different types of the course of incidence of sporogonic phase and blood phase. Type I shows in both phases a maximum in the first summer, a minimum in winter or autumn and a second maximum between late autumn and second summer. In this case the sporulation was especially distinct with the first maximum. Type II starts in the first summer with the blood phase without occurrence of the sporogonic phase (and the swim-bladder phase), which appears only from autumn until the second summer in a form of three peaks. Here the sporulation was successful only in the third peak. Hitherto there has been no other example of that type. The course of incidence, characterized by peaks and valleys, is regarded as an expression of an internal rhythm of different phases of the parasite and not as caused by the declining of infection and by reinfection. Premunition (if a hitherto unknown reservoir phase is surviving) or age resistance and/or less chance of coincidence of infective stages and older carps are supposed to be the cause of the rare occurrence of the 3 known phases in carps more than 14-15 months old. There are some indications of the infection of carps by carps. Carassius au. auratus was ascertained as a new host for S. renicola in a field experiment. PMID:3177937

  10. [Effect of substrates of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle on the level of oxidative processes in spermatozoa of grass carp and carp].

    PubMed

    Gosh, R I

    1983-01-01

    Endogenic respiration of grass carp and carp spermatozoids is rather low. Oxidation rate of metabolites is different--malate is oxidized more intensively, it is followed by lactate, pyruvate, succinate. Sperm storage lowers the respiration level and oxidation rate of metabolites. PMID:6845449

  11. In vitro study of mutagenic potential of Bidens pilosa Linné and Mikania glomerata Sprengel using the comet and micronucleus assays.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ronaldo de Jesus; Diniz, Andréa; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Jordão, Berenice Quinzani

    2008-06-19

    Teas of Bidens pilosa and Mikania glomerata are popularly consumed to medicinal ends. The capacity to induce DNA damages and mutagenic effects of these teas were evaluated, in vitro, on HTC cells, with comet assay and micronucleus test. The teas tested at various doses were prepared differently: infusion of Mikania glomerata (IM) and Bidens pilosa (IB), macerate of Mikania glomerata in 80% ethanol (MM80) and decoction of Bidens pilosa (DB). In IM and MM80, the quantity of coumarin was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. Methylmethanesulfonate was utilized as positive control, phosphate-buffered saline as negative control, 80% ethanol as solvent control and 2-aminoanthracene as drug metabolism control. The comet assay demonstrated genotoxic effects for both plants. The genotoxic potential of IB was upper than DB, showing dose-response. In the MN test, excepting IM 40 microL/mL, all treatments was not mutagenic. The effects did not show direct relation with cumarin quantity present in IM and MM80. The results demonstrated DNA damages at the highest concentrations of alcoholic macerate (10 and 20 microL/mL) and infusion of Mikania glomerata (20 and 40 microL/mL) and of Bidens pilosa infusion (40 microL/mL). Thus, both dose and preparation-form suggest caution in the phytotherapeutic use of these plants. PMID:18485638

  12. Sterile 'Judas' carp--Surgical sterilisation does not impair growth, endocrine and behavioural responses of male carp.

    PubMed

    Patil, Jawahar G; Purser, G J; Nicholson, A M

    2015-09-15

    Use of 'Judas' fish to betray the locations of conspecifics is a powerful tool in management of invasive pest fish but poses a risk of contributing to recruitment. Our aim therefore was to generate surgically sterilised male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and test whether they readily assimilate into wild populations, retain sexual behaviour and successfully betray the locations of feral carp. Male common carp were surgically sterilised (n=44) adopting a two-point nip technique, using either a haemoclip, suture or electro cautery to tie each of the testicular ducts about 2.5 cm cranial to urogenital sinus-retaining all of the glandular testis tissue. Observed survival (95%) and success (>70%) rates were relatively high. Plasma steroids (11-keto testosterone and 17β-estradiol) were quantified by immunoassay. A subset of sterile and control male fish (n=7 each) were implanted with radio-transmitters and released into Lake Sorell (50 km(2)) and their ability to betray the location of feral carp was assessed by radio tracking and targeted fishing. There was a statistically significant difference in 11-keto testosterone and 17β-estradiol levels over time (P<0.05), but not between the sterile and control groups within each sampling time (P>0.05), implying that surgery did not compromise the animals physiologically. The sterile Judas fish integrated well into the population-behaving similarly to control Judas males and assisted in the capture of feral carp. The study marks a significant breakthrough in the management of this pest fish with potential adoption to the management of other pest fish globally. PMID:25776462

  13. Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Fibulin-4 as a potential interacting partner for grass carp reovirus outer capsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Hao; Liu, Weisha; Lu, Liqun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 2 (Fibulin-4/EFEMP2), an extracellular matrix(ECM) protein and a member of the fibulin family, is involved in elastic fiber formation, connective tissue development and some human diseases. In a yeast-two hybrid screening of host proteins interacting with outer capsid protein of grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a grass carp homologue of Fibulin-4 (designated as GcFibulin-4) is suggested to hold the potential to bind VP7, VP56 and VP55, the outer capsid protein encoded by type I, II, III GCRV, respectively. GcFibulin-4 gene of grass carp was cloned and sequenced from the cDNA library constructed for the yeast two-hybrid screening. Full-length cDNA of GcFibulin-4 contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1323 bp encoding a putative protein of 440 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of GcFibulin-4 indicated that it shared a high homology with zebra fish Fibulin-4 protein. Transcriptional distribution analysis of GcFibulin-4 in various tissues of healthy grass carp showed that GcFibulin-4 was highly expressed in muscle, moderately expressed in the intestine and brain, and slightly expressed in other examined tissues; the expression pattern is consistent with tissue tropism of GCRV resulting in hemorrhage symptom in the corresponding tissues. Our results suggested that Fibulin-4 might enable free GCRV particles, the pathogen for grass carp hemorrhagic disease, to target fish tissues more efficiently by interacting with viral outer capsid proteins. PMID:26626583

  14. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L., Jr.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  15. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  16. Antimicrobial resistance and its genetic determinants in aeromonads isolated in ornamental (koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Cízek, Alois; Dolejská, Monika; Sochorová, Radana; Strachotová, Katerina; Piacková, Veronika; Veselý, Tomás

    2010-05-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. isolates from common carp and koi carp coming from randomly chosen farms. The isolates were tested for susceptibility to 8 antimicrobial agents using the standard agar dilution susceptibility test. In all isolates, PCR was used to detect the presence of tet(A-E) genes, integrase genes, and gene cassettes. From the total 72 isolates of motile aeromonads sampled from koi carp, 36 isolates (50%) were resistant to oxytetracycline, 18 (25%) to ciprofloxacin, 5 (7%) to chloramphenicol, 5 (7%) to florfenicol, and 11 (15%) to trimethoprim. Among 49 isolates of motile aeromonads collected from common carp, 20 (41%) were resistant to oxytetracycline, 3 (6%) to chloramphenicol, and 3 (6%) to florfenicol. The resistance of aeromonads isolated from koi carp was significantly higher to ciprofloxacin (P=0.00024). The presence of class 1 integrons was detected in these isolates only (P=0.00024). Tet genes were detected in 40% (48/121) of isolates, with tet(E) being the most dominant. Our results demonstrated a significant difference in the incidence of resistant isolates collected from koi carp and common carp (P=0.00042). This difference can be ascribed to a distinct antibiotic policy established on consumer fish farms versus ornamental fish farms. The potential risk for resistant bacteria to spread and transmit infection to humans should be considered in cases of technological crossover between the two types of fish farms. PMID:19900770

  17. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P<0.05) but to different extents, and that fish density had no effect (P>0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2–3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed. PMID:27276024

  18. Gut melatonin response to microbial infection in carp Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Pal, Palash Kumar; Hasan, Kazi Nurul; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of present study was to demonstrate the response of gut melatoninergic system to Aeromonas hydrophila infection for 3 or 6 days and search for its correlation with the activity of different antioxidative and digestive enzymes to focus their interplay under pathophysiological conditions in carp (Catla catla). Microscopic study of gut in infected fish revealed degenerative changes in the tunica mucosa and lamina propria layers with sloughed off epithelial cells in the lumen. The activity of each digestive enzyme was reduced, but the levels of melatonin, arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase protein, the key regulator of melatonin biosynthesis, and different enzymatic antioxidants in gut were gradually and significantly increased with the progress of infection. Gut melatonin concentrations in A. hydrophila challenged carp by showing a positive correlation with the activity of each antioxidative enzyme, and a negative correlation with different digestive enzymes argued in favor of their functional relation, at least, during pathological stress. Moreover, parallel changes in the gut and serum melatonin titers indicated possible contribution of gut to circulating melatonin. Collectively, present carp study provided the first data to suggest that endogenous gut melatonin may be implicated to the mechanism of response to microbial infections in any fish species. PMID:26563281

  19. Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

  20. Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

  1. Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Klobucar, Göran I V; Stambuk, Anamaria; Pavlica, Mirjana; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Kutuzović Hackenberger, Branimir; Hylland, Ketil

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with genotoxicity assessment of freshwaters using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were transplanted from a fish-farm to three differently polluted sites in eastern Croatia. Two polluted sites were situated in the river Drava, downstream from the cities of Belisće and Osijek, while the reference site was in the Nature Park Kopacki rit, a preserved wetland area with limited anthropogenic influence. Exposure lasted for 3 weeks and was repeated for 3 years (2002-2004). DNA damage was assessed in erythrocytes of the exposed animals by the Comet assay and micronucleus test (MNT). In order to evaluate possible differences in stress responses to polluted water in situ and in aquaria a laboratory exposure was performed with water from the studied location in the second year of the study. Carp from the sites with high anthropogenic influence (Belisće and Osijek) had higher average DNA damage as expressed in both the MNT and Comet assay. Of the two, the Comet assay appeared to be more sensitive following both caging and aquaria exposures. The results from this study suggest that 3 weeks caging exposure of C. carpio may be a useful strategy to monitor for genotoxic agents in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:19626438

  2. An analysis of inputs cost for carp farming sector in 2001 in Iran.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    Carp is widely sold and used in its fresh in Iran, however, recently a range of value additions may also be observed. It is essential to the sustainable development of a carp farm to know the production costs and their contribution. Warm-water fish farming is mainly based on common, silver, grass and bighead carp and the common carp and the three Chinese species are often reared in poly culture in Iran. Since, the 1970s carp farming has spread around the Caspian coast and farmed production reached a peak in 2006 with production of more than 73,400 tons. A study of production, costs and profitability of carp farming sector was carried out to help clarify carp production costs and their difference with location in 2001. A total of 101 farms from the three main carp farming provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Khuzestan were randomly selected, classified and studied. The results of the survey showed that the various producer provinces have different cost structures. Overall, feed and fertilizer with the highest level of variation accounted for 23% of total costs, followed by seed and labor and salary with 23 and 17%, respectively. On average, benefit-cost ratio and the rate of farm income were closely related to location. This result suggests that farmers practice more efficiently and have better conditions in Mazandaran, followed by Guilan province. PMID:19090234

  3. Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

    2013-01-01

    1. Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2. We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3. Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4. Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

  4. History of introductions and governmental invovlement in promoting the use of Asian carps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This chapter traces the chronology associated with introductions of Asian carps and discusses the likeliest pathways of their introduction to th...

  5. 76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Lacey Act (18 U.S.C. 42). In a final rule of July 10, 2007 (72 FR 37459), the Service added silver and..., 2007 (72 FR 59019), the Service added black carp to this list. The Service published a Federal Register notice of inquiry on bighead carp (68 FR 54409; September 17, 2003) and provided a 60-day public...

  6. Effects of phorbol esters in carp (Cyprinus carpio L).

    PubMed

    Becker, K; Makkar, H P

    1998-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio L) were fed diets containing phorbol esters at concentrations of 0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, 31, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 micrograms/g feed. Phorbol esters were from Jatropha curcas nuts. Jatropha curcas toxicity has been reported in humans, rodents and livestock, and phorbol esters have been identified as the main toxic agent. The adverse effects observed in carp at phorbol esters concentrations of 31 micrograms/g or higher were lower average metabolic growth rate, fecal mucus production and rejection of feed. Average metabolic growth rates (g/kg 0.8/d) in a 7-d experimental period during which diets containing phorbol esters were fed to carp (values with different letters being significantly different) were 15.4a, 14.4a, 12.5ab, 12.4ab, 10.9b, 3.4c, 0.2c, -3.8d, -4.9d and -5.6d, respectively, at the above mentioned concentrations. The values for the recovery phase of 9-d during which phorbol esters were not included in the diet were 16.0a, 15.6a, 14.9a, 15.6a, 5.3b, 1.6b, 4.6bc, 6.3bc, 7.8c and 8.2c, respectively. The adverse effects of phorbol esters were reversible since withdrawal of the esters from the diets led to gain in body mass. None of the fish died at any of the concentrations studied. Incorporation of vitamin C, an antioxidant, at levels of 0.4 and 2% in the feed did not prevent occurrence of the adverse effects of the phorbol esters. The threshold level at which phorbol esters appeared to cause adverse effects in carp was 15 micrograms/g feed or 15 ppm in the diet. Carp were highly sensitive to phorbol esters, thus making them a useful species for bioassay of these compounds. This bioassay together with other analytic procedures could be of immense use in the development of detoxification processes for agro-industrial products containing phorbol esters, such as jatropha meal or jatropha oil, and as a quality control method to monitor successive stages in industrial detoxification processes. PMID:9554059

  7. Effects of the aqueous and methylene chloride extracts of Bidens pilosa leaf on fructose-hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Dimo, T; Azay, J; Tan, P V; Pellecuer, J; Cros, G; Bopelet, M; Serrano, J J

    2001-08-01

    We investigated the effects of the aqueous (150-350 mg/kg) and methylene chloride (150-300 mg/kg) extracts of Bidens pilosa on fructose-induced hypertension in rats. Food and liquid intake were measured as well as systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine. Fructose feeding for 6 weeks induced hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and increased plasma triglyceride levels in male Wistar rats. The aqueous and methylene chloride extracts of B. pilosa reversed the high blood pressure and hypertriglyceridemia developed due to fructose feeding but did not have any effects on plasma levels of insulin and glucose. High doses of the extracts reduced plasma creatinine levels and tended to increase plasma cholesterol. These results suggest that the extracts of B. pilosa possess hypotensive effects whose mechanism of action is not related to insulin sensitivity. PMID:11448541

  8. Investigation of recovery of volatiles of Bidens tripartita L. using solid-phase extraction trap in supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Kaškonienė, Vilma; Maruška, Audrius

    2015-01-01

    Recovery of Bidens tripartita L. volatiles using supercritical CO2 extraction with solid-phase trap was performed in this study. Three points were analyzed: the impact of rinse solvent (heptane, methanol or acetonitrile) for analytes desorption from the trap; the impact of the amount of plant material used for extraction; the release of volatiles from plant matrix using multiple extraction. α-Pinene, p-cymene, β-ocimene, and β-elemene were predominant in all extracts prepared in different ways. β-Ocimene was the main compound (40-46%) in all extracts despite of the solvent used. No significant difference between the amount of α-pinene observed using different trap desorption solvent, while heptane desorbed significantly higher amounts (12-31%) of other compounds. The composition of volatiles using different amount of sample showed both qualitative and quantitative differences. The study showed different extraction extent of the main compounds during the first and repeated extractions. PMID:25830954

  9. Black Carp: Biological synopsis and risk assessment of an introduced fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, L.G.; Williams, J.D.; Jelks, H.L.

    2005-01-01

    Major subjects addressed are (1) taxonomy, description, and distinguishing characteristics of the species; (2) native distribution; (3) biology and natural history, with emphasis on diet and reproduction; (4) history of the species in world aquaculture; (5) history of introduction within and outside the United States; (6) use as a biological control control agent, including a review of digenetic trematodes and snail-borne parasites of special concern and methods used for control; (7) alternatives to the use of black carp; (8) environmental tolerance and potential geographic range; and (9) risks associated with its introduction. The book also includes substantial information on the other Chinese carp species, including bighead carp, silver carp, and grass carp.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed with animal and plant diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Sun, Jian; Wen, Zheng-Yong; He, Yu-Hui; Cai, Wen-Jing; Wang, Ya-Ping; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-12-15

    Numerous studies have been focused on the replacement of fish meal by other alternative protein sources. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanism of utilization of diets with different protein sources in fish. Grass carp is a typical herbivorous fish. To elucidate the relationship between gene expression and utilization of animal and plant diets, transcriptome sequencing was performed in grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed. Grass carp fed with duckweed had significantly higher relative length of gut than those fed with chironomid larvae. 4435 differentially expressed genes were identified between grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed in brain, liver and gut, involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, appetite control, circadian rhythm, digestion and metabolism pathways. These pathways might play important roles in utilization of diets with different protein sources in grass carp. And the findings could provide a new insight into the replacement of fish meal in artificial diets. PMID:26283148

  11. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  12. Suitability of Lake Erie for bigheaded carps based on bioenergetic models and remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Karl R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Wynne, Timothy; Masagounder, Karthik; Paukert, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Algal blooms in the Great Lakes are a potential food source for silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis; together bigheaded carps). Understanding these blooms thus plays an important role in understanding the invasion potential of bigheaded carps. We used remote sensing imagery, temperatures, and improved species specific bioenergetics models to determine algal concentrations sufficient for adult bigheaded carps. Depending on water temperature we found that bigheaded carp require between 2 and 7 μg/L chlorophyll or between 0.3 and 1.26 × 105cells/mL Microcystis to maintain body weight. Algal concentrations in the western basin and shoreline were found to be commonly several times greater than the concentrations required for weight maintenance. The remote sensing images show that area of sufficient algal foods commonly encompassed several hundred square kilometers to several thousands of square kilometers when blooms form. From 2002 to 2011, mean algal concentrations increased 273%–411%. This indicates Lake Erie provides increasingly adequate planktonic algal food for bigheaded carps. The water temperatures and algal concentrations detected in Lake Erie from 2008 to 2012 support positive growth rates such that a 4 kg silver carp could gain between 19 and 57% of its body weight in a year. A 5 kg bighead carp modeled at the same water temperatures could gain 20–81% of their body weight in the same period. The remote sensing imagery and bioenergetic models suggest that bigheaded carps would not be food limited if they invaded Lake Erie.

  13. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  14. Impact of moderate silver carp biomass gradient on zooplankton communities in a eutrophic reservoir. Consequences for the use of silver carp in biomanipulation.

    PubMed

    Domaizon, I; Dévaux, J

    1999-07-01

    We examined the impacts of moderate gradient silver carp biomass (five levels from 0 to 36 g.m-3, i.e. about 0-792 kg.ha-1) on zooplankton communities of the eutrophic Villerest reservoir (France). During our mesocosm experiment changes in zooplankton assemblages were dependent on silver carp biomass. In the fishless and low fish biomass treatments, zooplankton abundance increased through time, owing to a peak in cladoceran density, but decreased (mainly cladocerans) at highest fish biomass. Copepods and rotifers were less affected at the highest fish biomass and dominated zooplankton communities. We highlighted that the presence of high silver carp biomass could lead to changes in phytoplankton assemblage via the impact on herbivorous zooplankton. Since silver carp efficiently graze on particles > 20 microns, the suppression of herbivorous cladocerans could result in an increase in small size algae (< 20 microns) abundance since these species would be released from grazers as well as competitors (large algae grazed by silver carp) and nutrients levels would be enhanced by fish internal loading. Our results showed that the use of low silver carp biomass (< 200 kg.ha-1) would allow us to minimize these negative effects. PMID:10488436

  15. Genetic variations of body weight and GCRV resistance in a random mating population of grass carp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rong; Sun, Jiaxian; Luo, Qing; He, Libo; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Guo, Fuhua; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an important species in freshwater aquaculture both in China and on a global scale. Variety degeneration and frequent diseases have limited the further development of grass carp aquaculture. Thus, new and improved varieties are required. Here, we identified and assessed the body weight and disease resistance in a random mating population of 19 ♀ × 22 ♂ grass carp, which were derived from different water systems. In both the growth experimental group of 10,245 fish and grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-infected group with 10,000 fish, 78 full-sib families were statistically analyzed for body weight and GCRV resistance. The findings showed that body weight traits had low heritability (0.11 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.03 and 0.12 ± 0.05), GCRV resistance traits had high heritability (0.63 ± 0.11); body weight was higher in 3 families, whereas GCRV resistance was significantly greater in 11 families. Our results confirmed that the natural germplasm resources of wild grass carp were genetically diverse. Breeding of GCRV resistant varieties of grass carp have better genetic basis. This study provides the basis for constructing basal populations for grass carp selective breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. PMID:26439690

  16. Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

  17. Predictive Management of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vondracek, Bruce C.; Carlson, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Prolific non-native organisms pose serious threats to ecosystems and economies worldwide. Nonnative bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), collectively referred to as Asian carps, continue to colonize aquatic ecosystems throughout the central United States. These species are r-selected, exhibiting iteroparous spawning, rapid growth, broad environmental tolerance, high density, and long-distance movement. Hydrological, thermal, and physicochemical conditions are favorable for establishment beyond the current range, rendering containment and control imperative. Ecological approaches to confine Asian carp populations and prevent colonization characterize contemporary management in the United States. Foraging and reproduction of Asian carps govern habitat selection and movement, providing valuable insight for predictive control. Current management approaches are progressive and often anticipatory but deficient in human dimensions. We define predictive management of Asian carps as synthesis of ecology and human dimensions at regional and local scales to develop strategies for containment and control. We illustrate predictive management in the Upper Mississippi River System and suggest resource managers integrate predictive models, containment paradigms, and human dimensions to design effective, socially acceptable management strategies. Through continued research, university-agency collaboration, and public engagement, predictive management of Asian carps is an auspicious paradigm for preventing and alleviating consequences of colonization in the United States.

  18. Carbon dioxide as a tool to deter the movement of invasive bigheaded carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael R. Donaldson; Amberg, Jon; Shivani Adhikari; Cupp, Aaron R.; Jensen, Nathan; Romine, Jason G.; Adam Wright; Gaikowski, Mark; Cory D. Suski

    2016-01-01

    Nonnative bigheaded carps are established in the Mississippi River and there is substantial concern about their potential entry into the interconnected Laurentian Great Lakes. While electrical barriers currently exist as a preventative measure, there is need for additional control mechanisms to promote barrier security through redundancy. We tested the effectiveness of infused carbon dioxide gas (CO2) as a tool to influence the movement and behavior invasive bigheaded carps, namely Bighead CarpHypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix, as well as native Bigmouth BuffaloIctiobus cyprinellus, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Paddlefish Polyodon spathula, and Yellow Perch Perca flavescens in an experimental pond. Individuals were monitored with acoustic telemetry before, during, and after CO2 addition to the pond. We noted distinct changes in fish behavior following CO2 addition. Each species except Paddlefish maintained farther distances from the CO2 infusion manifold relative to controls. Both bigheaded carp species had slower persistence velocities (persistence of a movement in a given direction) following CO2 infusion and Bighead Carp used a smaller area of the pond immediately after CO2 addition. Pond pH progressively decreased up to 1.5 units following CO2 infusion. This work provides evidence that could inform future research to enhance existing control measures used to deter high-risk invasive fishes, such as bigheaded carps.

  19. Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Mark B.

    1993-03-01

    Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

  20. Elements of concern in fillets of bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Sass, Gregory G; Dickinson, Amy; Epifanio, John M

    2014-06-01

    Efforts to control invasive bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) may include harvest for human consumption. We measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in fillets from silver and bighead carp collected from the lower Illinois River, Illinois, USA, to determine whether concentrations were of health concern and differed by species, size, and location. Concentrations of total As were below detection limits in most bighead (92%) and silver (77%) carp fillets, whereas inorganic As was below detection limits in all samples. Mean Hg concentrations were greater in bighead (0.068 mg kg(-1)) than in silver carp (0.035 mg kg(-1)), and were smallest in carp from the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Mercury concentrations in fillets were positively correlated with body mass in both species. Concentrations of Hg were below the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) action level (1 ppm as methyl-Hg); however, concentrations in some bighead (70%) and silver (12%) carp fell within the range that would invoke a recommendation to limit meals in sensitive cohorts. Mean Se concentrations were greater in silver (0.332 mg kg(-1)) than in bighead (0.281 mg kg(-1)) carp fillets, and were below the 1.5 mg kg(-1) limit for an unrestricted number of meals/month. The mean molar ratio of Se:Hg in fillets was lower in bighead (14.0) than in silver (29.1) carp and was negatively correlated with mass in both species Concentrations of Hg in bighead and silver carp fillets should be considered when assessing the risks associated with the use of these species as a protein source. PMID:24300421

  1. A specific CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induces protective antiviral responses against grass carp reovirus in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Yuan, Gailing; Su, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) show strong immune stimulatory activity in vertebrate, however, they possess specific sequence feature among species. In this study, we screened out an optimal CpG ODN sequence for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), 1670A 5'-TCGAACGTTTTAACGTTTTAACGTT-3', from six published sequences and three sequences designed by authors based on grass carp head kidney mononuclear cells and CIK (C. idella kidney) cells proliferation. VP4 mRNA expression was strongly inhibited by CpG ODN 1670A in CIK cells with GCRV infection, showing its strong antiviral activity. The mechanism via toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated signaling pathway was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and TLR21 did not play a role in the immune response to CpG ODN. The late up-regulation of CiRIG-I mRNA expression indicated that RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signaling pathway participated in the immune response to CpG ODN which is the first report on the interaction between CpG and RLRs. We also found that the efficient CpG ODN can activates interferon system. Infected with GCRV, type I interferon expression was reduced and type II interferon was induced by the efficient CpG ODN in CIK cells, especially IFNγ2, suggesting that IFNγ2 played an important role in response to the efficient CpG ODN. These results provide a theoretical basis and new development trend for further research on CpG and the application of CpG vaccine adjuvant in grass carp disease control. PMID:26972738

  2. Age estimation of a large bighead carp from Grand Lake, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Nealis, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    On April 23, 2011, a 1356-mm total length (TL), 39.8 kg bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) was brought to the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation. This specimen is the largest bighead carp recorded from Oklahoma, and it is near the maximum size reported from the United States. This specimen was estimated to be nine years old based on estimates from three different structures (pectoral fin ray, branchiostegal ray, and otolith). The age, together with past Oklahoma records of the species, indicates that there has been multiple introductions or undocumented reproduction of bighead carp in the Grand Lake basin.

  3. Immunomodulation by Zearalenone in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Constanze; Junge, Ranka; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a frequent contaminant of animal feeds, but its effects on fish have not yet been investigated extensively. In order to fill this gap a feeding trial with juvenile carp was conducted. Three groups of fish were fed feeds contaminated with ZEN at three concentrations (low: 332 μg kg−1, medium: 621 μg kg−1, and high: 797 μg kg−1 feed) for four weeks. Possible reversible effects of ZEN were evaluated by feeding additional groups with the ZEN-contaminated feeds for four weeks, followed by the uncontaminated diet for two weeks. Immune function of isolated leukocytes from head kidney and trunk kidney was assessed using the assessment of NO production, the respiratory burst assay, the chemiluminescence assay, and the measurement of arginase activities. These investigations frequently revealed increased immune responses after exposure of fish to low ZEN concentrations and reduced immune responses after exposure to high mycotoxin concentrations. Moreover, the feeding of the uncontaminated diet for further two weeks did not improve the immune responses in most cases. These results indicate that cellular immune functions in ZEN-contaminated carp are influenced which may be relevant for fish health in aquaculture. PMID:26491670

  4. Immunomodulation by Zearalenone in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Constanze; Junge, Ranka; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a frequent contaminant of animal feeds, but its effects on fish have not yet been investigated extensively. In order to fill this gap a feeding trial with juvenile carp was conducted. Three groups of fish were fed feeds contaminated with ZEN at three concentrations (low: 332 μg kg(-1), medium: 621 μg kg(-1), and high: 797 μg kg(-1) feed) for four weeks. Possible reversible effects of ZEN were evaluated by feeding additional groups with the ZEN-contaminated feeds for four weeks, followed by the uncontaminated diet for two weeks. Immune function of isolated leukocytes from head kidney and trunk kidney was assessed using the assessment of NO production, the respiratory burst assay, the chemiluminescence assay, and the measurement of arginase activities. These investigations frequently revealed increased immune responses after exposure of fish to low ZEN concentrations and reduced immune responses after exposure to high mycotoxin concentrations. Moreover, the feeding of the uncontaminated diet for further two weeks did not improve the immune responses in most cases. These results indicate that cellular immune functions in ZEN-contaminated carp are influenced which may be relevant for fish health in aquaculture. PMID:26491670

  5. Transcriptome profiling of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Yu, Hui; Li, Hua; Wang, Anli

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the causative pathogen of intestinal hemorrhage which has caused great economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In order to understand the immunological response of grass carp to infection by A. hydrophila, the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens from infected and non-infected grass carp groups were obtained using HiSeq™ 2500 (Illumina). An average of 63 million clean reads per library was obtained, and approximately 80% of these genes were successfully mapped to the reference genome. A total of 1591 up-regulated and 530 down-regulated genes were identified. Eight immune-related categories involving 105 differently expressed genes were scrutinized. 16 of the differently expressed genes involving immune response were further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide valuable information for further analysis of the mechanisms of grass carp defense against A. hydrophila invasion. PMID:26945937

  6. Antioxidant activity and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg).

    PubMed

    Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-09-01

    Previously, we have reported the composition, molecular mass distribution and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of common carp roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antioxidative activity and functional properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg) protein hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase, were evaluated. The three hydrolysates showed excellent antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner in various in vitro models such as 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6)-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating ability. Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased protein solubility of the hydrolysates to above 62 % over a wide pH range (2-12). Carp roe hydrolysates exhibited good foaming and emulsification properties. The results suggest that bioactive carp roe protein hydrolysates (CRPHs) with good functional properties could be useful in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. PMID:26344996

  7. [Effectiveness and characteristics of treating algae-laden raw water by stocking silver carp].

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen-Qiang; Cui, Fu-Yi; Ma, Hua; He, Wen-Jie; Yin, Pei-Jun

    2008-03-01

    To reduce the negative effect of algae on conventional water treatment, a full-scale research of removing algae from algae-laden raw water by stocking filter-feeding silver carp was processed. After the pretreatment in a presedimentation tank with silver carp, the concentration of phytoplankton, the biomass of cyanobacteria and Microsystis flos-aquae in algae-laden raw water with Microsystis flos-aquae its dominant species decreased 61.8%, 76.1% and 78.2% respectively. This effective decrease of algae load on conventional process created favorable conditions for water treatment. Analysis indicates that food habit of silver carp and algae size are two causes of different removal efficiency between cyanobacteria and green algae. The results show that biomanipulation of silver carp is applicable for treating algae-laden raw water in which colonial cyanobacteria is dominant. PMID:18649519

  8. How could fully scaled carps appear in natural waters in Madagascar?

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jean-Noël; Allal, François; Hervet, Caroline; Ravakarivelo, Monique; Jeney, Zsigmond; Vergnet, Alain; Guyomard, René; Vandeputte, Marc

    2016-08-31

    The capacity of organisms to rapidly evolve in response to environmental changes is a key feature of evolution, and studying mutation compensation is a way to evaluate whether alternative routes of evolution are possible or not. Common carps (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a homozygous loss-of-function mutation for the scale cover gene fgfr1a1, causing the 'mirror' reduced scale cover, were introduced in Madagascar a century ago. Here we show that carps in Malagasy natural waters are now predominantly covered with scales, though they still all carry the homozygous mutation. We also reveal that the number of scales in mutated carps is under strong polygenic genetic control, with a heritability of 0.49. As a whole, our results suggest that carps submitted to natural selection could evolve a wild-type-like scale cover in less than 40 generations from standing polygenic genetic variation, confirming similar findings mainly retrieved from model organisms. PMID:27559059

  9. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) based on microsatellites and SNPs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs). The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project. PMID:20181260

  10. Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 ..mu..g/L) > embryos (240 ..mu..g/L) > adults (540 ..mu..g/L). Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 ..mu..g/L) > adult (120 ..mu..g/L) > embryo (230 ..mu..g/L). The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.; Marking, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

  12. Characterization of two thymosins as immune-related genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhangang; Shen, Jing; Feng, Hong; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yaping; Huang, Rong; Guo, Qionglin

    2015-05-01

    Prothymosin alpha (ProTα) and thymosin beta (Tβ) belong to thymosin family, which consists of a series of highly conserved peptides involved in stimulating immune responses. ProTα b and Tβ are still poorly studied in teleost. Here, the full-length cDNAs of ProTα b and Tβ-like (Tβ-l) were cloned and identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The expressions of carp ProTα b and Tβ-l exhibited rise-fall pattern and then trended to be stable during early development. After spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection, the carp ProTα b and Tβ-l transcripts were significantly up-regulated in some immune-related organs. When transiently over-expressed carp ProTα b and Tβ-l in zebrafish, these two proteins up-regulated the expressions of T lymphocytes-related genes (Rag 1, TCR-γ, CD4 and CD8α). These results suggest that carp ProTα b and Tβ may ultimately enhance the immune response during viral infection and modulate the development of T lymphocytes in teleost. PMID:25596145

  13. Constituents of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Moringa oleifera Lam., Heliotropium indicum L. and Bidens pilosa L. from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunbinu, Akinola O; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier L; Adebayo, Muritala A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2009-04-01

    The essential oils of four plant species from Nigeria have been extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of Cajanus cajan were comprised of sesquiterpenes (92.5%, 81.2% and 94.3% respectively in the leaves, stem and seeds). The major compounds identified were alpha-himachalene (9.0-11.5%), beta-himachalene (8.0-11.0%), gamma-himachalene (6.9-8.1%), alpha-humulene (7.1-8.7%) and alpha-copaene (4.5-5.6%). However, monoterpenoid compounds (81.8%) dominated the oil of Moringa oleifera with an abundance of alpha-phellandrene (25.2%) and p-cymene (24.9%). On the other hand, aldehydes (52.8%) occurred in the highest amount in Heliotropium indicum, represented by phenylacetaldehyde (22.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (8.3%) and (E, Z)-2-nonadienal (6.1%), with a significant quantity of hexahydrofarnesylacetone (8.4%). The leaf and stem oils of Bidens pilosa were dominated by sesquiterpenes (82.3% and 59.3%, respectively). The main compounds in the leaf oil were caryophyllene oxide (37.0%), beta-caryophyllene (10.5%) and humulene oxide (6.0%), while the stem oils had an abundance of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (13.4%), delta-cadinene (12.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.0%). The observed chemical patterns differ considerably from previous investigations. PMID:19476009

  14. Biological and molecular characterisation of Bidens mosaic virus supports its assignment as a member of a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Marcio Martinello; De Marchi, Bruno R; Spadotti, David Marques; Nozaki, Denise Nakada; Pavan, Marcelo A; Krause-Sakate, Renate

    2014-08-01

    The complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of Bidens mosaic virus (BiMV) isolate SP01 was determined and shown to consist of 9,557 nt. Since it shared highest identities in the nt sequence of the whole genome (66-73 %) and in the aa sequence of the polyprotein (60-76 %) with viruses of the potato virus Y subgroup, it was compared with them genetically and biologically. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the closest relative of BiMV is sunflower chlorotic mottle virus, from which it, however, differed significantly in various respects. These results indicate that BiMV should represent a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus. PMID:24634052

  15. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha; Levi, Edi; Rishi, Arun K.; Datta, Nabanita S.

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1

  16. Isolation of innate immune response genes, expression analysis, polymorphism identification and development of genetic marker for linkage analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common carp are economically important foodfish worldwide. Over the past few years, carp aquaculture has suffered from enormous losses to a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). A recent study reported that common carp strains/crossbreds have differential resistance to CyHV-3, suggest...

  17. Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

  18. Effects of gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog and the carp.

    PubMed

    Takagi, S F; Iino, M; Yarita, H

    1978-01-01

    Effects of various gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory spithelia were examined in the olfactory bulb of the bullfrog and the carp. 1. The olfactory epithelia of the two animals responded to the salty, bitter- and acid-tasting substances, but not to the sweet ones. 2. The olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog responded immediately to sodium solutions of high concentrations (the "initial response"), but the response to those of low concentrations showed long latency (the "delayed response"). In the carp, the "initial response" was found, while the "delayed response" was not in most cases. A "negative" delayed response was found only infrequently. 3. Responses only to high alkali or acid solutions were found in the two animals. 4. When 0.05 M NaCl was added to HCl solutions, an enhancing effect was found in the bullfrog, while a reducing effect occurred in the carp. On the contrary, when 0.05 M NaCl was added to NaOH solutions, an enhancing effect occurred in the carp, while no consistent result was founding the bullfrog. 5. Many amino acids were effective stimuli in the bullfrog, but only betaine and 1-aspartic acid were found effective in the carp. 6. Changes in temperatures beyond 35 degrees C or under 10 degrees C elicited responses. Mechanical stimuli were effective in the carp, but not in the bullfrog. 7. The "water response" was found in the bullfrog, but not in the carp. 8. Sensitivities of the olfactory epithelia of the two animals were compared and discussed. PMID:308564

  19. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  20. Influence of sectioning location on age estimates from common carp dorsal spines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Carson J.; Klein, Zachary B.; Terrazas, Marc M.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal spines have been shown to provide precise age estimates for Common CarpCyprinus carpio and are commonly used by management agencies to gain information on Common Carp populations. However, no previous studies have evaluated variation in the precision of age estimates obtained from different sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. We evaluated the precision, relative readability, and distribution of age estimates obtained from various sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. Dorsal spines from 192 Common Carp were sectioned at the base (section 1), immediately distal to the basal section (section 2), and at 25% (section 3), 50% (section 4), and 75% (section 5) of the total length of the dorsal spine. The exact agreement and within-1-year agreement among readers was highest and the coefficient of variation lowest for section 2. In general, age estimates derived from sections 2 and 3 had similar age distributions and displayed the highest concordance in age estimates with section 1. Our results indicate that sections taken at ≤ 25% of the total length of the dorsal spine can be easily interpreted and provide precise estimates of Common Carp age. The greater consistency in age estimates obtained from section 2 indicates that by using a standard sectioning location, fisheries scientists can expect age-based estimates of population metrics to be more comparable and thus more useful for understanding Common Carp population dynamics.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of head kidney in grass carp and discovery of immune-related genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish, but its production is often affected by diseases that cause serious economic losses. To date, no good breeding varieties have been obtained using the oriented cultivation technique. The ability to identify disease resistance genes in grass carp is important to cultivate disease-resistant varieties of grass carp. Results In this study, we constructed a non-normalized cDNA library of head kidney in grass carp, and, after clustering and assembly, we obtained 3,027 high-quality unigenes. Solexa sequencing was used to generate sequence tags from the transcriptomes of the head kidney in grass carp before and after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection. After processing, we obtained 22,144 tags that were differentially expressed by more than 2-fold between the uninfected and infected groups. 679 of the differentially expressed tags (3.1%) mapped to 483 of the unigenes (16.0%). The up-regulated and down-regulated unigenes were annotated using gene ontology terms; 16 were annotated as immune-related and 42 were of unknown function having no matches to any of the sequences in the databases that were used in the similarity searches. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed four unknown unigenes that showed significant responses to the viral infection. Based on domain structure predictions, one of these sequences was found to encode a protein that contained two transmembrane domains and, therefore, may be a transmembrane protein. Here, we proposed that this novel unigene may encode a virus receptor or a protein that mediates the immune signalling pathway at the cell surface. Conclusion This study enriches the molecular basis data of grass carp and further confirms that, based on fish tissue-specific EST databases, transcriptome analysis is an effective route to discover novel functional genes. PMID:22776770

  2. An experimental investigation into electromyography, constitutive relationship and morphology of crucian carp for biomechanical "digital fish"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng; Yin, Xiezhen; Tong, Binggang

    2011-05-01

    Currently, the integrated biomechanical studies on fish locomotion come into focus, so it is urgent to provide reliable and systematic experimental results, and to establish a biomechanical "digital fish" database for some typical fish species. Accordingly, based on the control framework of "Neural Control — Active Contraction of Muscle — Passive Deformation", the electromyography (EMG) signals, the mechanical properties and the constitutive relationship of skin, muscle, and body trunk, as well as morphological parameters of crucian carp, are investigated with experiments, from which a simplified database of biomechanical "digital fish" is established. First, the EMG signals from three lateral superficial red muscles of crucian carp, which was evolving in the C-start movement, were acquired with a self-designing amplifier. The modes of muscle activity were also investigated. Secondly, the Young's modulus and the reduced relaxation function of crucian carp's skin and muscle were determined by failure tests and relaxation tests in uniaxial tensile ways, respectively. Viscoelastic models were adopted to deduce the constitutive relationship. The mechanical properties and the angular stiffness of different sites on the crucian carp's body trunk were obtained with dynamic bending experiments, where a self-designing dynamic bending test machine was employed. The conclusion was drawn regarding the body trunk of crucian carp under dynamic bending deformation as an approximate elastomer. According to the above experimental results, a possible benefit of body effective stiffness increasing with a little energy dissipation was discussed. Thirdly, the distribution of geometric parameters and weight parameters for a single experimental individual and multiple individuals of crucian carp was studied with experiments. Finally, considering all the above results, generic experimental data were obtained by normalization, and a preliminary biomechanical "digital fish" database for

  3. Molecular and functional characterization of an IL-1β receptor antagonist in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Yao, Fuli; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Xinyan; Wei, He; Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Hong

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we discovered a novel IL-1 family member (nIL-1F) from grass carp that possessed the ability to bind with grass carp IL-1β receptor type 1 (gcIL-1R1) and attenuate grass carp IL-1β activity in head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), suggesting that it may function as an IL-1β receptor antagonist. Grass carp nIL-1F transcript was constitutively expressed with the highest levels in some lymphoid organs, including head kidney, spleen and intestine, implying its potential in grass carp immunity. In agreement with this notion, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that nIL-1F mRNA was inductively expressed in grass carp with a rapid kinetics, indicating that it may be an early response gene during immune challenges. In addition, recombinant grass carp IL-1β (rgcIL-1β) induced nIL-1F mRNA expression via NF-κB and MAPK (JNK, p38 and p42/44) signaling pathways in HKLs. Particularly, the orthologs of nIL-1F found in other fish species, including zebrafish, pufferfish and rainbow trout are not homologous to mammalian IL-1β receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), indicating that fish nIL-1F and mammalian IL-1Ra may not share a common evolutionary ancestor. Taken together, our data suggest the existence of a naturally occurring fish nIL-1F, which may function like mammalian IL-1Ra, being beneficial to understand the auto-regulatory mechanism of IL-1β activity in fish immunity. PMID:25475961

  4. Changes in gametophyte physiology of Pteris multifida induced by the leaf leachate treatment of the invasive Bidens pilosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai-Mei; Shen, Yu; Fang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ying

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the response of fern gametophytes to environment has raised much attention. However, studies on the influence of plant invasion to fern gametophytes are scarce. Allelopathy plays an important role in biological invasion. Hence, it is necessary to study the allelopathic effects of invasive plants on fern gametophytes and elucidate the mechanisms by which invasive plants cause phytotoxicity. As one of the main invasive plants in China, Bidens pilosa exhibits allelopathic effects on spermatophyte growth. Field investigation shows that many ferns are threatened by the invasion of B. pilosa. The distribution of Pteris multifida overlaps with that of B. pilosa in China. To examine the potential involvement of allelopathic mechanisms of B. pilosa leaves, changes in the physiology in P. multifida gametophytes are analyzed. We found that cell membrane and antioxidant enzyme activities as well as photosynthesis pigment contents of the gametophytes were affected by B. pilosa leachates. Gametophytes of P. multifida exposed to B. pilosa had increased damages to cell membranes, expressed in thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (membrane permeability), and degree of injury. Enzyme activities, assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) enhanced with the increase in leachate concentration after 2-day exposure. Meanwhile, lower chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), carotenoid (Car), and the total chlorophyll were measured as leachate concentrations increased. At day 10, leaf leachates of B. pilosa exhibited the greatest inhibition. These results suggest that the observed inhibitory or stimulatory effects on the physiology studied can have an adverse effect on P. multifida and that allelopathic interference seems to have involved in this process. PMID:26490937

  5. Genetic and biochemical biomarkers in the macrophyte Bidens laevis L. exposed to a commercial formulation of endosulfan.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Débora J; Lukaszewicz, Germán; Menone, Mirta L; V Amé, María; Camadro, Elsa L

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies in the wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis L have demonstrated that the insecticide endosulfan induces a high frequency of somatic chromosome aberrations in anaphase-telophase (CAAT) but no DNA changes as determined by the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Thus, cytogenetic biomarkers appear to be more sensitive to the toxic effects of the insecticide than the DNA molecule in the studied species. For this reason, the goals of this study were to use cytogenetic biomarkers--CAAT and abnormal metaphase--and defense biomarkers such as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes--guaiacol peroxidases (POD), glutathione reductase, and microsomal and cytosolic (m- and c-) glutathione-S-transferase (GST)--to evaluate in B. laevis effects caused by a commercial formulation of endosulfan. The frequency of CAAT was increased at 5, 10, 50, and 100 μg/L endosulfan with respect to the negative controls by 3.1, 2.5, 2.5, and 3.2-fold, respectively while the frequency of abnormal metaphases was also increased at the same concentrations by 3.5, 2.8, 3.2, and 11.3-fold, respectively. In addition to these aneugenic effects, other abnormalities such as C-mitosis and chromosome clumping were observed at 10 μg/L endosulfan. On the other hand, POD induction at 0.02, 0.5, 5, and 10 μg/L and m-GST inhibition at 0.5, 10, and 50 μg/L in plants exposed during 24 h to endosulfan were observed but all of these responses were highly variable. In conclusion, only cytogenetic biomarkers like CAAT in B. laevis can serve potentially as early warning systems to detect environmentally relevant concentrations of endosulfan in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:23315857

  6. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  7. Validation of eDNA Surveillance Sensitivity for Detection of Asian Carps in Controlled and Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  8. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  9. CARP-1 / CCAR1: A biphasic regulator of cancer cell growth and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Rishi, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapy using small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) has been useful in targeting the tumor cells while sparing the normal cells. Despite clinical success of many targeted therapies, their off-target effects and development of resistance are emerging as significant and challenging problems. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify targets to devise new means to treat cancers and their drug-resistant phenotypes. CARP-1/CCAR1 (Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1), a peri-nuclear phospho-protein, plays a dynamic role in regulating cell growth and apoptosis by serving as a co-activator of steroid/thyroid nuclear receptors, β-catenin, Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase, and tumor suppressor p53. CARP-1/CCAR1 also regulates chemotherapy-dependent apoptosis. CARP-1/CCAR1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel SMIs of CARP-1/CCAR1 interaction with APC/C. CFMs promote apoptosis in a manner independent of p53. CFMs are potent inhibitors of a variety of cancer cells including the drug (Adriamycin or Tamoxifen)-resistant breast cancer cells but not the immortalized breast epithelial cells, while a nano-lipid formulation of the lead compound CFM-4 improves its bioavailability and efficacy in vivo when administered orally. This review focuses on the background and pleiotropic roles of CARP-1/CCAR1 as well as its apoptosis signaling mechanisms in response to chemotherapy in cancer cells. PMID:25894788

  10. Feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting lifespan of grass carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, R.M.; Miranda, L.E.; Kirk, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an herbivorous cyprinid stocked to control undesirable aquatic vegetation. However, stocking grass carp presents several problems including complete eradication of submersed aquatic vegetation, dispersal out of the target area, adverse effects on fish communities, and damage to waterfowl habitat and native vegetation. The purpose of this research was to consider the feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting the lifespan of grass carp. Stainless steel dowel pins were inserted into 49 fish to identify the most appropriate site to implant the capsule. The throat region along the body's longitudinal axis was identified as the most suitable location because it resulted in minimal loss over an 8-month holding period. Rotenone solutions were injected into the ventral surface between the pelvic fins to determine the lethal dosage to 95% of the population (LD 95). The LD95 for grass carp increased curvilin-early with fish weight. Four polymers that merit further evaluation in constructing the capsule are poly[bis(p-carboxyphenoxy) propane anhydride], poly[bis(p- carboxyphenoxy) hexane anhydride], poly-1-lactide, and poly(??-caprolactone) . Implants are commonly used to deliver pharmaceutical products in medical and veterinarian applications, and have been used in fish. Developing a bioerodible capsule could increase the safety and flexibility of stocking grass carp for control of aquatic plants, and may also be applicable for management of other exotic species.

  11. The effect of encapsulated fennel extracts on the quality of silver carp fillets during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Mazandrani, Hoda Alipour; Javadian, SeyedRoholla; Bahram, Somayeh

    2016-03-01

    The effect of fennel extract on the quality of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) fillets, and the possible efficacy of liposomal encapsulation in the improvement of its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity during chilled storage (4 + 1°C) of the fillets were examined over a period of 15 days. Silver carp fillets were treated with pure fennel extract (0.3% and 0.5% w/v) and liposomal encapsulated fennel extract (0.3% and 0.5% w/v), and their quality changes in terms of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), microbial counts, and sensory properties were investigated. Fennel extract could retard the deterioration of silver carp fillets, as reflected in lower TVB-N, PV and TBA value. Moreover, the efficacy of fennel extract was improved when it was encapsulated into liposome. Silver carp fillets treated with the encapsulated fennel extract showed the lowest amount of lipid oxidation and microbial deterioration during the storage period compared with the control and pure extract treatments. Sensory evaluation revealed that shelf life of silver carp fillet was longest for samples treated with encapsulated fennel extract at 0.5% (15 days), as compared to the control (6 days) (P < 0.05). PMID:27004119

  12. Renal accumulation and effects of intraperitoneal injection of extracted microcystins in omnivorous crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Xie, Ping; Lei, Hehua; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2013-08-01

    An acute toxicological experiment was designed to characterize the sequence of renal ultrastructural changes with accumulated MCs in crucian carp injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracted microcystins (mainly MC-RR and -LR) at two doses, 50 and 200 μg MC-LReq. kg⁻¹ body weight. Quantitative and qualitative determinations of MCs in the kidney were conducted by HPLC and LC-MS, respectively. MC-RR content in kidney of crucian carp showed a time dose-dependent increase within 48 h post-injection, followed by a sharp decline afterward, while no MC-LR in kidney was detectable throughout the experiment. Ultrastructural changes in the kidney of crucian carp progressed with increasing accumulated MCs and exposure times within 48 h post-injection, whereas renal ultrastructural recovery of crucian carp in the 50 μg MC-LReq. kg⁻¹ dose group was evident at 168 h post-injection. Our ultrastructural observation suggests that the membranous structure is the main action site of MCs in the kidney, among which mitochondria damage in the tubules is clearly an early, and presumably a critically important effect of MCs. The increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CR) in both dose groups further revealed severe impairment occurred in the kidney of crucian carp. PMID:23608020

  13. Action spectra and adaptation properties of carp photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Witkovsky, P; Nelson, J; Ripps, H

    1973-04-01

    The mass photoreceptor response of the isolated carp retina was studied after immersing the tissue in aspartate-Ringer solution. Two electro-retinogram components were isolated by differential depth recording: a fast cornea-negative wave, arising in the receptor layer, and a slow, cornea-negative wave arising at some level proximal to the photoreceptors. Only the fast component was investigated further. In complete dark adaptation, its action spectrum peaked near 540 nm and indicated input from both porphyropsin-containing rods (lambda(max) approximately 525 nm) and cones with longer wavelength sensitivity. Under photopic conditions a broad action spectrum, lambda(max) approximately 580 nm was seen. In the presence of chromatic backgrounds, the photopic curve could be fractionated into three components whose action spectra agreed reasonably well with the spectral characteristics of blue, green, and red cone pigments of the goldfish. In parallel studies, the carp rod pigment was studied in situ by transmission densitometry. The reduction in optical density after a full bleach averaged 0.28 at its lambda(max) 525 nm. In the isolated retina no regeneration of rod pigment occurred within 2 h after bleaching. The bleaching power of background fields used in adaptation experiments was determined directly. Both rods and cones generated increment threshold functions with slopes of +1 on log-log coordinates over a 3-4 log range of background intensities. Background fields which bleached less than 0.5% rod pigment nevertheless diminished photoreceptor sensitivity. The degree and rate of recovery of receptor sensitivity after exposure to a background field was a function of the total flux (I x t) of the field. Rod saturation, i.e. the abolition of rod voltages, occurred after approximately 12% of rod pigment was bleached. In light-adapted retinas bathed in normal Ringer solution, a small test flash elicited a larger response in the presence of an annular background field than

  14. Immunogenicity of a cell culture-derived inactivated vaccine against a common virulent isolate of grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weiwei; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yingying; Zhao, Changchen; Li, Yingying; Shi, Chunbin; Wu, Shuqin; Song, Xinjian; Huang, Qiwen; Li, Shoujun

    2016-07-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV), is emerging as a serious problem in grass carp aquaculture. There is no available antiviral therapy and vaccination is the primary method of disease control. In the present study, the immunological effects and protective efficacy of an inactivated HuNan1307 vaccine in grass carp were evaluated. The GCRV isolate HuNan1307 was produced by replication onto the grass carp PSF cell line, and inactivated with 1% β-propiolactone for 60 h at 4 °C. Grass carp were injected with inactivated GCRV vaccine, followed by challenge with the isolate HuNan1307. The results showed that the minimum dosage of the inactivated vaccine was 10(5.5) TCID50/0.2 mL to induce immune protection. All grass carp immunized with the inactivated vaccine produced a high titer of serum antibodies and GCRV-specific neutralizing antibody. Moreover, the inactivated vaccine injection increased the expression of 6 immune-related genes in the spleen and head kidney, which indicated that a immune response was induced by the HuNan1307 vaccine. In addition, grass carp immunized with the inactivated vaccine showed a survival rate above 80% after the viral challenge, equal to that of grass carp immunized with a commercial attenuated vaccine, and the protection lasted at least for one year. The data in this study suggested that the inactivated HuNan1307 vaccine may represent an efficient method to induce immunity against GCRV infection and the induced disease in grass carp. PMID:27142935

  15. Une forme exceptionnelle de la luxation perilunaire du carpe

    PubMed Central

    Elouakili, Issam; Ouchrif, Younes; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Ouakrim, Redouane; Lamrani, Omar; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Ismael, Farid; Lahlou, Abdo; Elouadghiri, Mohammed; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaccoubi, Mouradh

    2014-01-01

    Les luxations périlunaires (LPL) du carpe sont des lésions extrêmement rares, qui peuvent passer inaperçue en raison d'un tableau clinique souvent trompeur, des radiographies en profil non strict ou d'interprétation difficile. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une luxation périlunaire stade III selon la classification de Witvoët et Allieu chez un patient de 32 ans, il s'agit d'une forme encore plus rare voire exceptionnelle et qui peut induire de sérieux problèmes en raison de la sévérité des dommages ligamentaires et du risque de nécrose du semilunaire plus important dans ce type de lésions. Le traitement est toujours chirurgical et doit être réalisé dans les plus brefs délais afin d’éviter les complications. PMID:25404968

  16. Intrachain diffusion in a protein loop fragment from carp parvalbumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Florian; Fierz, Beat; Axthelm, Fabian; Joder, Karin; Meyer, Dominique; Kiefhaber, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    During protein folding a polypeptide chain has to form specific intrachain interactions starting from an ensemble of unfolded conformation. Thus, intrachain diffusion in unfolded polypeptide chains can be regarded as an elementary step in protein folding, which should determine the dynamics of the early stages in the folding process. We have previously applied exothermic triplet-triplet energy transfer from xanthone to naphthalene to determine rate constants for intrachain end-to-end contact formation in unstructured homo-polypeptide chains. Here we show that the method can be applied to determine absolute rate constants for intrachain diffusion in natural loop sequences, if they are free of methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine. We measured the rate of loop formation in an 18 amino acid polypeptide chain corresponding to a natural loop sequence from carp muscle β-parvalbumin (residues 85-102). Contact formation shows single exponential kinetics with a time constant ( τ=1/ k) of 53 ± 3 ns at 22.5 °C in water. Comparison with the results on homo-polypeptide chains shows that this value agrees well with rates obtained earlier for a polyserine chain of the same length.

  17. Extra Microchromosomes Play Male Determination Role in Polyploid Gibel Carp.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Yin; Zhang, Qi-Ya; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Li; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Da; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2016-07-01

    Sex is generally determined by sex chromosomes in vertebrates, and sex chromosomes exhibit the most rapidly-evolving traits. Sex chromosome evolution has been revealed previously in numerous cases, but the association between sex chromosome origin and the reproduction mode transition from unisexual to sexual reproduction remains unclear. Here, we have isolated a male-specific sequence via analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism from polyploid gibel carp (Carassius gibelio), a species that not only has the ability to reproduce unisexually but also contains males in wild populations. Subsequently, we have found through FISH analysis that males have several extra microchromosomes with repetitive sequences and transposable elements when compared to females. Moreover, we produced sex-reversed physiological females with a male-specific marker by using estradiol hormone treatment, and two gynogenetic families were established from them. In addition, the male incidence rates of two gynogenetic families were revealed to be closely associated with the extra microchromosome number of the sex-reversed physiological females. These results suggest that the extra microchromosomes in males might resemble a common feature of sex chromosomes and might play a significant role in male determination during the evolutionary trajectory of the reproduction mode transition from unisexual to sexual reproduction in the polyploid fish. PMID:27017622

  18. First evidence of grass carp recruitment in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Davis, J. Jeremiah; Jenkins, Jill A.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Miner, Jeffrey G.; Farver, John; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    We use aging techniques, ploidy analysis, and otolith microchemistry to assess whether four grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella captured from the Sandusky River, Ohio were the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin. All four fish were of age 1 +. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that these fish were not aquaculture-reared and that they were most likely the result of successful reproduction in the Sandusky River. First, at least two of the fish were diploid; diploid grass carp cannot legally be released in the Great Lakes Basin. Second, strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios were elevated in all four grass carp from the Sandusky River, with elevated Sr:Ca ratios throughout the otolith transect, compared to grass carp from Missouri and Arkansas ponds. This reflects the high Sr:Ca ratio of the Sandusky River, and indicates that these fish lived in a high-strontium environment throughout their entire lives. Third, Sandusky River fish were higher in Sr:Ca ratio variability than fish from ponds, reflecting the high but spatially and temporally variable strontium concentrations of southwestern Lake Erie tributaries, and not the stable environment of pond aquaculture. Fourth, Sr:Ca ratios in the grass carp from the Sandusky River were lower in their 2011 growth increment (a high water year) than the 2012 growth increment (a low water year), reflecting the observed inverse relationship between discharge and strontium concentration in these rivers. We conclude that these four grass carp captured from the Sandusky River are most likely the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin.

  19. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  20. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression of fibroblast growth genes in common carp.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Likun; Zhang, Songhao; Dong, Chuanju; Chen, Baohua; Feng, Jingyan; Peng, Wenzhu; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng

    2016-03-10

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a large family of polypeptide growth factors, which are found in organisms ranging from nematodes to humans. In vertebrates, a number of FGFs have been shown to play important roles in developing embryos and adult organisms. Among the vertebrate species, FGFs are highly conserved in both gene structure and amino-acid sequence. However, studies on teleost FGFs are mainly limited to model species, hence we investigated FGFs in the common carp genome. We identified 35 FGFs in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the FGFs are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. By examining the copy number of FGFs in several vertebrate genomes, we found that eight FGFs in common carp have undergone gene duplications, including FGF6a, FGF6b, FGF7, FGF8b, FGF10a, FGF11b, FGF13a, and FGF18b. The expression patterns of all FGFs were examined in various tissues, including the blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, showing that most of the FGFs were ubiquitously expressed, indicating their critical role in common carp. To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis verified the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. Gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp FGF gene family provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, physiological, and phylogenetic studies on FGFs in teleosts. PMID:26691502

  1. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) inhibits final oocyte maturation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Suravi; Das, Sumana; Moulik, Sujata Roy; Mallick, Buddhadev; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2015-01-15

    GPR-30, now named as GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) was first identified as an orphan receptor and subsequently shown to be required for estrogen-mediated signaling in certain cancer cells. Later studies demonstrated that GPER has the characteristics of a high affinity estrogen membrane receptor on Atlantic croaker and zebra fish oocytes and mediates estrogen inhibition of oocyte maturation in these two distantly related teleost. To determine the broad application of these findings to other teleost, expression of GPER mRNA and its involvement in 17β-estradiol mediated inhibition of oocyte maturation in other cyprinid, Cyprinus carpio was investigated. Carp oocytes at pre-vitellogenic, late-vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages of development contained GPER mRNA and its transcribed protein with a maximum at late-vitellogenic oocytes. Ovarian follicular cells did not express GPER mRNA. Carp oocytes GPER mRNA was essentially identical to that found in other perciformes and cyprinid fish oocytes. Both spontaneous and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P)-induced oocyte maturation in carp was significantly decreased when they were incubated with either E2, or GPER agonist G-1. On the other hand spontaneous oocyte maturation was significantly increased when carp ovarian follicles were incubated with an aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, GPER antagonist, G-15 and enzymatic removal of the ovarian follicle cell layers. This increase in oocyte maturation was partially reversed by co-treatment with E2. Consistent with previous findings with human and fish GPR30, E2 treatment in carp oocytes caused increase in cAMP production and simultaneously decrease in oocyte maturation, which was inhibited by the addition of 17,20β-P. The results suggest that E2 and GPER play a critical role in regulating re-entry in to meiotic cell cycle in carp oocytes. PMID:25485460

  2. Improving efficiency and reliability of environmental DNA analysis for silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Monroe, Emy; Lance, Richard; Baerwaldt, Kelly; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource agencies have established surveillance programs which use environmental DNA (eDNA) for the early detection of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix before they establish populations within the Great Lakes. This molecular monitoring technique must be highly accurate and precise for confident interpretation and also efficient, both in detection threshold and cost. Therefore, we compared two DNA extraction techniques and compared a new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay with the conventional PCR (cPCR) assay used by monitoring programs. Both the qPCR and cPCR assays were able to amplify the DNA of silver carp present in environmental samples taken from locations where mixed populations of bigheaded carps existed. However, the qPCR assay had substantially fewer PCR positive samples which were subsequently determined not to contain DNA of bigheaded carps than the cPCR assay. Additionally, the qPCR assay was able to amplify the DNA of bigheaded carps even in the presence of inhibitors that blocked amplification with cPCR. Also, the selection of an appropriate DNA extraction method can significantly alter the efficiency of eDNA surveillance programs by lowering detection limits and by decreasing costs associated with sample processing. The results reported herein are presently being incorporated into eDNA surveillance programs to decrease the costs, increase DNA yield and increase the confidence that assays are amplifying the target DNA. These results are critical to enhancing our ability to accurately and confidently interpret the results reported from monitoring programs using eDNA for early detection of invasive species.

  3. High-pressure treatment with silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) protein and its allergic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Xue, Wentong

    2010-09-01

    The allergenicity and structural changes of silver carp allergens influenced by high-pressure treatment were studied. We treated the allergens at 100, 200 and 300 MPa for 10, 30 and 60 min at 20° C, used SDS-PAGE to separate the proteins and recognized the allergens by western blotting. Circular dichroism analysis was performed to characterize the structural change. From our study, we can determine that high-pressure treatment did not change the subunit composition, molecular weight or the allergenicity of silver carp allergens, but it did change the structure of the allergens.

  4. Occurrence of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda, Bothriocephallidea) in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the Changjiang River drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Bingwen; Wang, Guitang; Xie, Jun

    2011-05-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is a potentially serious pathogen in wild or cultured fish in worldwide distribution. We examined 58-farmed grass carp from Nanchang in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage, from which 20.7% were found to harbor the parasite with an infection intensity of 36.9±54.7. The parasites were identified based on morphology and rDNA ITS sequence analysis. The present report represents the first record of the parasite in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the river drainage.

  5. Acute and subchronic toxic effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Immunotoxicity assessments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ziwei; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-08-01

    Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are widely used pesticides in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. The spleen and head kidney in the bony fish are the major hematopoietic organs, and play a crucial part in immune responses. This study evaluated the subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 in the immune organs of common carp and compared the acute and subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the swimming speed (SS) of common carp. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h-LC50 of ATR and CPF for common carp was determined to be 2.142 and 0.582 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, acute and subacute toxicity of ATR and CPF in common carp resulted in hypoactivity. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 genes were induced in the spleen and head kidney of common carp exposed to ATR and CPF in the subchronic toxicity test. Our results indicate that ATR and CPF are highly toxic to common carp, and hypoactivity in common carp by acute and subchronic toxicity of ATR and CPF may provide a useful tool for assessing the toxicity of triazine herbicide and organophosphorous pesticides to aquatic organisms. In addition, the results from the subchronic toxicity test exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that ATR and CPF exposure cause immunotoxicity to common carp. PMID:25917970

  6. Draining and liming of ponds as an effective measure for containment of CyHV-3 in carp farms.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Agnes; Fabian, Marc; Runge, Martin; Böttcher, Kerstin; Bräuer, Grit; Füllner, Gert; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    Infections of common carp Cyprinus carpio and koi, its coloured morphotypes, with the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can induce severe clinical signs and increased mortality in affected stocks. This may significantly challenge the economic basis of carp farming in Central Europe. To limit virus spread in carp farms, effective disinfection measures for ponds stocked with infected populations are required. In the traditional European pond aquaculture of carp, draining and liming of ponds with quicklime (CaO) up to pH 12 is a well-established disinfection measure against various pathogens. The present field study investigated whether these measures are sufficient for the inactivation of CyHV-3 infectivity in carp ponds. After draining and liming, the ponds were stocked with carp fry from a CyHV-3-negative stock, and 2 ponds were examined for the presence of CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences during the growth period of the carp and in the harvested stock. Wild fish (from the ponds, and feeder and drainage canals) and water samples (from the ponds) were also examined for CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences; and naïve carp were cohabited with wild fish, or exposed to the pondwater samples, to test for the presence of infectious virus. All examined samples remained negative for CyHV-3 throughout the study. This indicates that draining and liming with quicklime can be a suitable disinfection measure for ponds after a CyHV-3 outbreak in carp aquaculture. PMID:27503923

  7. Sequestration of RNA by grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella TIA1 is associated with its positive role in facilitating grass carp reovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Song, Lang; Wang, Hao; Wang, Tu; Lu, Liqun

    2015-10-01

    Previous report demonstrated that grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection resulted in unlinking cellular stress granule formation from aggregation of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella TIA1 (CiTIA1). Here, we provided evidence to show that CiTIA1 bound to synthesized ssRNA and dsRNA in vitro. Both GST-pull down assay and RNA immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the association between GCRV-specific RNA and GST-tagged CiTIA1 in C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. Furthermore, CiTIA1 was shown to protect dsRNA of virus-origin from degradation in CIK cells through Northern blot analysis. Finally, transient overexpression of CiTIA1 enhanced the replication efficiency of GCRV in CIK cells. Taken together, our results suggested that cellular CiTIA1 might facilitate GCRV replication through sequestrating and protecting viral RNA from degradation. PMID:26208752

  8. Effects of cytochrome P450 1A substrate (difloxacin) on enzyme gene expression and pharmacokinetics in crucian carp (hybridized Prussian carp).

    PubMed

    Fu, Gui Hong; Yang, Xian Le; Zhang, Hai Xin; Yu, Wen Juan; Hu, Kun

    2011-03-01

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play a prominent role in drug metabolism and biotransformation which are distributed in liver of aquatic animals. However, limited information is available about CYP genes involved in drug metabolism in fish. In the present study, we explore CYP1A characterization for DIF metabolism. Firstly, we cloned and characterized the full-length cDNA sequence of a CYP1A gene from crucian carp (hybridized Prussian carp), the predicted protein sequence for CYP1A comprise 496 amino acids. The heme-binding region of the CYP1A, encompassing the amino acid sequence GLGKRRCIG, which is identical to the same region of other homologues. Secondly, we studied the difloxacin (DIF) kinetics and the effects of DIF on their corresponding CYP1A mRNA levels in liver of crucian carp. CYP1A1 mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR, and DIF concentration was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Results showed that the concentration of DIF in liver reached its peak (67.70 mg kg(-1)) at 0.5h, while the CYP1A1 gene expression was at the lowest point. CYP1A mRNA was down-regulated by 6.5 mg ml(-1) DIF in the liver of crucian carp. Thus, our work confirmed that DIF is both the substrate and inhibitor of CYP1A. The information provided a model for the potential utility of gene expression analysis and drug metabolization in fish. PMID:21787699

  9. Cyclic nucleotide-activated channels in carp olfactory receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikov, S S; Kosolapov, A V

    1993-07-25

    When applied from the cytoplasmic side, cyclic 3',5'-adenosine and guanosine monophosphates reversibly increased the ion permeability of inside-out patches of carp olfactory neuron plasma membrane. The cAMP (cGMP)-induced permeability via cAMP (cGMP) concentration was fitted by Hill's equation with the exponents of 1.07 +/- 0.15 (1.12 +/- 0.05) and EC50 = 1.3 +/- 0.6 microM (0.9 +/- 0.3 microM). Substitution of NaCl in the bathing solution by chlorides of other alkali metals resulted in a slight shift of reversal potential of the cyclic nucleotide-dependent (CN) current, which indicates a weak selectivity of the channels. Permeability coefficients calculated by Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz's equation corresponded to the following relation: PNa/PK/PLi/PRb/PCs = 1:0.98:0.94:0.70:0.61. Ca2+ and Mg2+ in physiological concentrations blocked the channels activated by cyclic nucleotides (CN-channels). In the absence of divalent cations the conductance of single CN-channels was equal to 51 +/- 9 pS in 100 mM NaCl solution. Channel density did not exceed 1 micron-2. The maximal open state probability of the channel (Po) tended towards 1.0 at a high concentration of cAMP or cGMP. Dichlorobenzamil decreased Po without changing the single CN-channel' conductance. CN-channels exhibited burst activity. Mean open and closed times as well as the burst duration depended on agonist concentration. A kinetic model with four states (an inactivated, a closed and two open ones) is suggested to explain the regularities of CN-channel gating and dose-response relations. PMID:8334139

  10. Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

  11. The relationship between trace elements in fish otoliths of wild carp and hydrochemical conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yonghua; Feng, Qingling; Ren, Dongni; Qiao, Li; Li, Shengrong

    2010-03-01

    The trace element composition of the fish otolith is an indicator of biomineralization. In contrast to other skeletal tissue, the otolith retains its entire original structure and does not absorb any elements after the fish dies. Because otoliths in carp degrade very slowly in the dead body, the information it provides on the environment is retained, even in fossil form. Here, we report our analysis of the trace elements in otoliths of carp and of the water in Donghu Lake and Longhupao Lake, Heilongjiang province, China, where the fish lived. The results revealed that the trace elements found in the carp otoliths were clearly correlated with those found in these water bodies. There were high concentrations of Au, Ba, K, Sr and Zn in both the water and otoliths; in contrast there were high levels of As, Na and Se in water, but low concentrations in otoliths. These results indicate that an analysis of the otoliths of carps provides an accurate procedure for studying the surrounding hydrochemistry conditions. The interaction of the elements during deposition was also studied. The correlation coefficients of 13 trace elements identified in the otoliths in both lakes were calculated. PMID:19093220

  12. Effects of gas supersaturation on lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang)*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiang; Li, Ke-feng; Du, Jun; Li, Ran

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation on acute lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang). The juvenile rock carp were exposed to water with different levels of supersaturation (105%, 115%, 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145%) and depth of 0.20 m at 25 °C for 60 h. Median lethal time (LT50) was used to assess the lethal responses corresponding to different levels of gas supersaturation. The results show that half of the juvenile rock carp died at the 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145% levels of supersaturation, and the LT50 corresponding to different levels of supersaturation was 18.7, 15.4, 8.2, 6.6, 3.5, and 1.7 h. When the level of supersaturated water is below 115%, the mortality is negligible. Avoidance responses were observed 5 min after the fish were put into equilibrated water (99%, 0.08 m deep) and water with different supersaturated levels (105%, 115%, 125%, 135%, and 145%, 0.08 m deep) at 25 °C. The fish exhibited strong avoidance responses in supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was above 135%. However, they exhibited an obvious preference to supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was below 115%. Thus, the juvenile rock carp can likely survive in water with a supersaturated level of 115%. PMID:20872989

  13. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  14. SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...

  15. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  16. Experiential Online Development for Educators: The Example of the Carpe Diem MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Gilly; Gregory, Janet; Lokuge Dona, Kulari; Ross, Bella

    2015-01-01

    We report on educators' experiences of a massive open online course (MOOC) focused on the Carpe Diem learning design process. The MOOC was developed in-house using Blackboard CourseSites by a university innovation and development unit, Learning Transformations, at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. We report on a study of…

  17. Seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of common carp in Clear Lake, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penne, C.R.; Pierce, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and subadult common carp in Clear Lake during 2005-2006 in an effort to guide future control strategies. Over a 22-month period, we recorded 1,951 locations of 54 adults and 60 subadults implanted with radio transmitters. Adults demonstrated a clear tendency to aggregate in an offshore area during the late fall and winter and in shallow, vegetated areas before and during spring spawning. Late-fall and winter aggregations were estimated to include a larger percentage of the tracked adults than spring aggregations. Subadults aggregated in shallow, vegetated areas during the spring and early summer. Our study, when considered in combination with previous research, suggests repeatable patterns of distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection that should facilitate common carp reduction programs in Clear Lake and similar systems. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  18. Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Harwanto, Dicky; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of 0.5 mg/10 μL/g body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [105±18 s (P<0.05); 52% longer than day 0] and forelimb grip strength [1.18±0.05 Newton (P<0.01); 17% greater than day 0]. The extract increased muscle mass, but had little effect on body weight. Following the swimming exercise, blood glucose, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase levels in extract-fed mice were significantly higher (145%, 131%, and 106%, respectively) than in the saline control group. Blood levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly increased (128%) in mice given the extract compared to the controls. These results suggest that leather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts. PMID:26770911

  19. Candidate gene markers for selective breeding of CyHV-3-resistant common carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common carp and koi producers around the world have suffered financial losses for a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) also known as koi herpes virus (KHV). This disease is highly contagious and causes massive mortality to infected fish. Efforts to identify genetic resistance to the ...

  20. COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

  1. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by Paired-End RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Beide; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is among the most intensively pond-cultured fish species and is used in the wild to counteract water bloom in China. However, little genomic information is available for this species, especially regarding its ability to grow rapidly in water, even water contaminated with high concentrations of poisonous microcystin. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of the 17.10 million short-read sequences produced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Using an improved multiple k-mer contig assembly method coupled with further scaffolding, 85 759 sequences were obtained. There were 23 044 sequences annotated with 3423 gene ontology terms for 104 196 term occurrences and the three corresponding organizing principles. A total of 38 200 assembled sequences were involved in 218 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathways. We also recovered 41 of 44 genes involved in the biosynthesis of glutathione. Of these, five genes were identified as experienced positive selection between silver carp and zebrafish, as determined by the likelihood ratio test. This report is the first annotated review of the silver carp transcriptome. These data will be of interest to researchers investigating the evolution and biological processes of the silver carp. This work also provides an archive for future studies of recent speciation and evolution of Cyprinidae fishes and can be used in comparative studies of other fishes. PMID:22279088

  3. Toxicity of crude oil to the metabolism of freshwater minor carp, Puntius sophore

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, M.S.

    1987-08-01

    The effects of crude oil on the rate of metabolism in freshwater fishes have been little investigated. In the present investigation, the respiration rate in vitro and overall QO/sub 2/ in vivo of a freshwater minor carp Puntius sophore has been measured after exposing the fish to the lethal and sublethal doses of crude oil extracts for varying periods.

  4. Separation and identification of phenolic compounds in Bidens pilosa L. by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xianrui; Xu, Qiao

    2016-05-01

    A validated method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was established to separate and identify phenolic compounds in Bidens pilosa L. Mass spectrometry experiments were performed both in positive and negative ion modes. A total of 35 compounds were detected, and 26 phenolic compounds were unequivocally identified or tentatively assigned based on retention time, maximum UV absorption, molecular formula, and fragments. The ultra high performance liquid chromatography method was validated and showed good linearity (R(2) ≧ 0.9996) over the test range. The limits of detection and quantification were above 0.072 and 0.162 μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations of intraday and interday precision were below 0.3 and 1.6%, respectively. PMID:27004754

  5. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  6. A laboratory investigation of the suspension, transport, and settling of silver carp eggs using synthetic surrogates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  7. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Garcia, Marcelo H

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  8. Analysis of the Skin Transcriptome in Two Oujiang Color Varieties of Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenghui; Wachholtz, Michael; Wang, Jun; Liao, Xiaolin; Lu, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    Background Body color and coloration patterns are important phenotypic traits to maintain survival and reproduction activities. The Oujiang color varieties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color), with a narrow distribution in Zhejiang Province of China and a history of aquaculture for over 1,200 years, consistently exhibit a variety of body color patterns. The molecular mechanism underlying diverse color patterns in these variants is unknown. To the practical end, it is essential to develop molecular markers that can distinguish different phenotypes and assist selective breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings In this exploratory study, we conducted Roche 454 transcriptome sequencing of two pooled skin tissue samples of Oujiang common carp, which correspond to distinct color patterns, red with big black spots (RB) and whole white (WW), and a total of 737,525 sequence reads were generated. The reads obtained in this study were co-assembled jointly with common carp Roche 454 sequencing reads downloaded from NCBI SRA database, resulting in 43,923 isotigs and 546,676 singletons. Over 31 thousand (31,445; 71.6%) isotigs were found with significant BLAST matches (E<1e-10) to the nr protein database, which corresponds to 12,597 annotated zebrafish genes. A total of 70,947 isotigs and singletons (transcripts) were annotated with Gene Ontology, and 60,221 transcripts were found with corresponding EC numbers. Out of 145 zebrafish pigmentation genes, orthologs for 117 were recovered in Oujiang color carp transcriptome, including 18 found only among singletons. Our transcriptome analysis revealed over 52,902 SNPs in Oujiang common carp, and identified 63 SNP markers that are putatively unique either for RB or WW. Conclusions The transcriptome of Oujiang color varieties of common carp obtained through this study, along with the pigmentation genes recovered and the color pattern-specific molecular markers developed, will facilitate future research on the molecular mechanism

  9. Dietary lipid requirement on non-specific immune responses in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Tian, Li-xia; Zeng, Shuai-lin; Xie, Shi-wei; Yang, Hui-jun; Liang, Gui-ying; Liu, Yong-jian

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the dietary lipid requirement and its effects on liver oxidative status and non-specific immune responses of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Purified diets with five dietary lipid levels (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, fish oil/corn oil = 1:1) were each fed to triplicate groups of grass carp (mean initial weight: 6.57 ± 0.01 g) in a recirculating rearing system maintained at 27.5 ± 0.5 °C for 10 weeks. Percent weight gain was highest (P < 0.05) with 5% lipid and lowest in fish fed the lipid free control diet. Feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in fish followed the same pattern of percent weight gain. Fish fed with lipid containing diets had better non-specific immune response indexes (e.g. phagocytic activity, plasma peroxidase and lysozyme activity) and low-level of liver oxidation status than fish fed with the control diet. But excess dietary lipid supplement would bring over metabolic burden to liver. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish fed control diet obtained significantly (P < 0.05) lower survival rate. The survival rate was highest with 7.5% lipid. The results of this study indicated that proper dietary lipid supplementation enhanced the immune response of grass carp and improved the survival rate in the bacterial challenge, but excess dietary lipid may elevate liver oxidation rates of grass carp. Analysis by second-order regression of percent weight gain indicated that the optimal dietary lipid level in juvenile grass carp (6.6-35.5 g) is about 6.5%. PMID:23416225

  10. Genome Wide Identification, Phylogeny and Expression of Zinc Transporter Genes in Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shuaisheng; Sun, Jinsheng; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc is an essential trace element in organisms, which serves as a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes that are involved in many pivotal biological processes including growth, development, reproduction and immunity. Therefore, the homeostasis of zinc in the cell is fundamental. The zinc transporter gene family is a large gene family that encodes proteins which regulate the movement of zinc across cellular and intracellular membranes. However, studies on teleost zinc transporters are mainly limited to model species. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified a set of 37 zinc transporters in common carp genome, including 17 from SLC30 family (ZnT), and 20 from SLC39 family (ZIP). Phylogenetic and syntenic analysis revealed that most of the zinc transporters are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. Through examining the copy number of zinc transporter genes across several vertebrate genomes, thirteen zinc transporters in common carp are found to have undergone the gene duplications, including SLC30A1, SLC30A2, SLC30A5, SLC30A7, SLC30A9, SLC30A10, SLC39A1, SLC39A3, SLC39A4, SLC39A5, SLC39A6, SLC39A7 and SLC39A9. The expression patterns of all zinc transporters were established in various tissues, including blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, and showed that most of the zinc transporters were ubiquitously expressed, indicating the critical role of zinc transporters in common carp. Conclusions To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis could verify the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. The gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp zinc transporters provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of zinc in teleost. PMID

  11. Intraspecific Scaling of the Resting and Maximum Metabolic Rates of the Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qingda; Zhang, Yurong; Liu, Shuting; Wang, Wen; Luo, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    The question of how the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass (M) is achieved in animals is unresolved. Here, we tested the cell metabolism hypothesis and the organ size hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), erythrocyte size, and the masses of metabolically active organs in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The M of the crucian carp ranged from 4.5 to 323.9 g, representing an approximately 72-fold difference. The RMR and MMR increased with M according to the allometric equations RMR = 0.212M0.776 and MMR = 0.753M0.785. The scaling exponents for RMR (br) and MMR (bm) obtained in crucian carp were close to each other. Thus, the factorial aerobic scope remained almost constant with increasing M. Although erythrocyte size was negatively correlated with both mass-specific RMR and absolute RMR adjusted to M, it and all other hematological parameters showed no significant relationship with M. These data demonstrate that the cell metabolism hypothesis does not describe metabolic scaling in the crucian carp, suggesting that erythrocyte size may not represent the general size of other cell types in this fish and the metabolic activity of cells may decrease as fish grows. The mass scaling exponents of active organs was lower than 1 while that of inactive organs was greater than 1, which suggests that the mass scaling of the RMR can be partly due to variance in the proportion of active/inactive organs in crucian carp. Furthermore, our results provide additional evidence supporting the correlation between locomotor capacity and metabolic scaling. PMID:24376588

  12. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    PubMed

    Eichmiller, Jessica J; Bajer, Przemyslaw G; Sorensen, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp'), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart. PMID:25383965

  13. Effect of different river flow rates on biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Lončarić, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5-120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured - activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that different flow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels - the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary

  14. Spatial and temporal influences on the physiological condition of invasive silver carp

    PubMed Central

    Liss, Stephanie A.; Sass, Greg G.; Suski, Cory D.

    2013-01-01

    We quantified nutritional and stress parameters (alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, protein, triglycerides, cortisol, and glucose) in invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) inhabiting four large rivers throughout three distinct time periods in the Midwestern USA. Examining the basic biology and ecology of an invasive species is crucial to gain an understanding of the interaction between an organism and its environment. Analysis of the physiological condition of wild-caught silver carp across broad spatial and temporal scales is essential because stress and nutritional parameters can link individuals to their habitats and vary among populations across environments. During each time period, we collected blood samples from individual silver carp in the Illinois River and portions of the Mississippi, Ohio, and Wabash rivers in Illinois. We tested for relationships between silver carp nutrition and stress across rivers, reaches within rivers, and time periods. Principal component analyses separated physiological parameters into a stress component (cortisol and glucose) and two nutritional components representative of short-term feeding (alkaline phosphatase, protein, and triglycerides) and body energy reserves (cholesterol and protein). Akaike's information criterion suggested that time period had the greatest influence on stress. Stress levels were consistent in all four rivers, and declined across time periods. Akaike's information criterion also suggested that interactions of time period and river had the greatest influence on short-term feeding and body energy reserves. There was no specific pattern across time periods within each river, nor was there a pattern across rivers. Our results provide a better understanding of nutritional and stress conditions in invasive silver carp across a broad landscape and temporal scale, with implications for managing and predicting the spread of this species. PMID:27293601

  15. The primary culture of mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues and the isolation of Koi herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingxiang; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xia; Li, Xingwei; Lv, Wenliang; Zhang, Dongming

    2013-10-01

    The explosive Koi herpesvirus (KHV) epidemic has caused the deaths of a large number of carp and carp variants and has produced serious economic losses. The mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) exhibits strong environmental adaptability and its primary cells can be used to isolate KHV. This study utilized the tissue explant method to systematically investigate primary cell culture conditions for mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues. We demonstrated that cells from these two tissue types had strong adaptability, and when cultured in Medium 199 (M199) containing 20% serum at 26 to 30°C, the cells from the snout and caudal fin tissues exhibited the fastest egress and proliferation. Inoculation of these two cell types with KHV-infected fish kidney tissues produced typical cytopathic effects; additionally, identification by electron microscopy, and PCR indicated that KHV could be isolated from both cell types. PMID:23893087

  16. Ontogeny and kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in hepatopancreas and skeletal muscle of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Luo, Zhi; Mai, Kang-Sen; Liu, Cai-Xia; Zheng, Jia-Lang

    2015-12-01

    The ontogeny and kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) were investigated in hepatopancreas and muscle throughout four developmental stages (newly hatched larvae, 1-month-old juvenile, 3-month-old, and 6-month-old, respectively) of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. In hepatopancreas, the maximal velocity (Vmax) significantly increased from hatching to 1-month-old grass carp and then gradually declined at 6-month-old grass carp. In muscle, CPT I activity was the highest at 1-month-old grass carp, nearly twofold higher than that at hatching (P < 0.05). The Michaelis constant (Km) value was also the highest for 1-month-old in both tested tissues. Carnitine concentrations (FC, AC and TC) were the lowest for 3-month-old grass carp and remained relatively constant in both tissues from fish under the other developmental stages. The FC concentration in hepatopancreas and muscle at four developmental stages were less than the respective Km, indicating that grass carp required supplemental carnitine in their food to ensure that CPT I activity was not constrained by carnitine availability. PMID:26170093

  17. The draft genome of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) provides insights into its evolution and vegetarian adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaping; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Yong; Ning, Zemin; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qiang; Lu, Hengyun; Huang, Rong; Xia, Xiaoqin; Feng, Qi; Liang, Xufang; Liu, Kunyan; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Tingting; Huang, Tao; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Lu, Yiqi; Li, Wenjun; Wen, Ziruo; Zhou, Congcong; Tian, Qilin; Kang, Xiaojun; Shi, Mijuan; Zhang, Wanting; Jang, Songhun; Du, Fukuan; He, Shan; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Gui, Bin; He, Huihui; Ning, Zhen; Yang, Cheng; He, Libo; Luo, Lifei; Yang, Rui; Luo, Qiong; Liu, Xiaochun; Li, Shuisheng; Huang, Wen; Xiao, Ling; Lin, Haoran; Han, Bin; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2015-06-01

    The grass carp is an important farmed fish, accounting for ∼16% of global freshwater aquaculture, and has a vegetarian diet. Here we report a 0.9-Gb draft genome of a gynogenetic female adult and a 1.07-Gb genome of a wild male adult. Genome annotation identified 27,263 protein-coding gene models in the female genome. A total of 114 scaffolds consisting of 573 Mb are anchored on 24 linkage groups. Divergence between grass carp and zebrafish is estimated to have occurred 49-54 million years ago. We identify a chromosome fusion in grass carp relative to zebrafish and report frequent crossovers between the grass carp X and Y chromosomes. We find that transcriptional activation of the mevalonate pathway and steroid biosynthesis in liver is associated with the grass carp's adaptation from a carnivorous to an herbivorous diet. We believe that the grass carp genome could serve as an initial platform for breeding better-quality fish using a genomic approach. PMID:25938946

  18. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu

    2009-11-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) increases in MDA levels were found in liver, muscle, brain and spleen tissues when comparing the 0- and 24-h groups. But there was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in MDA levels in muscle, spleen and heart tissues when comparing the 24- and 48-h groups. In the group examined at 24 h, it was observed that there were statistically significant differences from the 0 h group values (P < 0.05) for catalase (CAT) activity in muscle, brain, spleen and heart tissues. The decreases in CAT activity in liver and spleen tissues were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) between the group examined at 24 h compared with the group examined at 48 h. Carp maintained good quality during the selling conditions up to 24 h. This experiment deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of

  19. Toll-like receptors and interferon associated immune factors responses to spring viraemia of carp virus infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinxian; Li, Xiao Zheng; Zheng, Xiaocong; Jia, Peng; Wang, Jinjin; Yang, Xianle; Yu, Li; Shi, Xiujie; Tong, Guixiang; Liu, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) toll-like receptors (TLRs), antiviral agent interferon (IFN) and the effector IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) play a fundamental role in the innate immune response against viruses among all vertebrate classes. Common carp is a host for spring viraemia of carp virus (Rhabdovirus carpio, SVCV), which belong to Rhabdoviridae family. The present in-vivo experiment was conducted to investigate the expression of these innate immune factors in early phase as well as during recovery of SVCV infection by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A less lethal SVCV infection was generated in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and was sampled at 3, 6, 12 h post infection (hpi), 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post infection (dpi). At 3 hpi, the SVCV N gene was detected in all three fish and all three fish showed a relative fold increase of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR7, IFNa1, ISG15 and Vig1. Viral copies rapidly increased at 12 hpi then remained high until 5 dpi. When viral copy numbers were high, a higher expression of immune genes TLR2, TLR3, TLR7, IFNa1, IFNa2, IFNa1S, IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), IRF7, interleukin 1β (IL1β), IL6, IL10, ADAR, ISG15, Mx1, PKR and Vig1 were observed. Viral copies were gradually reduced in 5 to 10 dpi fish, and also the immune response was considerably reduced but remained elevated. A high degree of correlation was observed between immune genes and viral copy number in each of the sampled fish at 12 hpi. The quick and prolonged elevated expression of the immune genes indicates their crucial role in survival of host against SVCV. PMID:27263115

  20. Chemotaxis towards, adhesion to, and growth in carp gut mucus of two Aeromonas hydrophila strains with different pathogenicity for common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    van der Marel, M; Schroers, V; Neuhaus, H; Steinhagen, D

    2008-05-01

    Characteristics that promote bacterial colonization of the intestinal mucosal surface were examined in two strains of the common fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila, with different pathogenicity. The characteristics examined were chemotactic activity towards mucus, bacterial adherence to mucus and growth in mucus. Intestinal gut mucus of healthy common carp was used. The results indicate that chemotaxis is not necessary for a bacterium to become pathogenic, but it may be a necessary parameter for a bacterium to be an obligate pathogen. Adhesion also seems to be a factor influencing pathogenicity. The results suggest that higher adhesion to mucus and subsequent growth is associated with differences in pathogenicity. PMID:18355183

  1. Magnetic Alignment in Carps: Evidence from the Czech Christmas Fish Market

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Vlastimil; Kušta, Tomáš; Němec, Pavel; Bláhová, Veronika; Ježek, Miloš; Nováková, Petra; Begall, Sabine; Červený, Jaroslav; Hanzal, Vladimír; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Štípek, Kamil; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek

    2012-01-01

    While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio) at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential. PMID:23227241

  2. Oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by ketorolac on the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Galar-Martínez, M; García-Medina, S; Gómez-Olivan, L M; Pérez-Coyotl, I; Mendoza-Monroy, D J; Arrazola-Morgain, R E

    2016-09-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketorolac is extensively used in the treatment of acute postoperative pain. This pharmaceutical has been found at concentrations of 0.2-60 µg/L in diverse water bodies around the world; however, its effects on aquatic organisms remain unknown. The present study, evaluated the oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by sublethal concentrations of ketorolac (1 and 60 µg/L) on liver, brain, and blood of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. This toxicant induced oxidative damage (increased lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxide content, and protein carbonyl content) as well as changes in antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activity) in liver and brain of carp. In blood, ketorolac increased the frequency of micronuclei and is therefore genotoxic for the test species. The effects observed were time and concentration dependent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1035-1043, 2016. PMID:25899151

  3. Effects of sediment burial on grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes,1844), eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Hayer, Cari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) eggs must remain suspended in the water column in order to hatch successfully. Using sand, the effects of varying sediment levels on grass carp eggs were tested at different developmental states and temperatures. Survival was high (15–35%, depending on temperature and trial) in the unburied treatment where eggs rested on a sand bed but were not covered by sediment. Survival was lower in the partial burial (5–10%) and very low (0–4%) in the full burial treatment. In all treatments, delayed hatching (organisms remaining in membranes past the stage of hatching competence) was noted. Deformities such as missing heads and pericardial edema occurred at high rates in the partial and full burials. Eggs that come in contact with the benthos and are resuspended in the water column should be considered in embryonic drift models.

  4. MLP and CARP are linked to chronic PKCα signalling in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Lange, Stephan; Gehmlich, Katja; Lun, Alexander S; Blondelle, Jordan; Hooper, Charlotte; Dalton, Nancy D; Alvarez, Erika A; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Bang, Marie-Louise; Abassi, Yama A; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G; Peterson, Kirk L; Chen, Ju; Ehler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    MLP (muscle LIM protein)-deficient mice count among the first mouse models for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet the exact role of MLP in cardiac signalling processes is still enigmatic. Elevated PKCα signalling activity is known to be an important contributor to heart failure. Here we show that MLP directly inhibits the activity of PKCα. In end-stage DCM, PKCα is concentrated at the intercalated disc of cardiomyocytes, where it is sequestered by the adaptor protein CARP in a multiprotein complex together with PLCβ1. In mice deficient for both MLP and CARP the chronic PKCα signalling chain at the intercalated disc is broken and they remain healthy. Our results suggest that the main role of MLP in heart lies in the direct inhibition of PKCα and that chronic uninhibited PKCα activity at the intercalated disc in the absence of functional MLP leads to heart failure. PMID:27353086

  5. MLP and CARP are linked to chronic PKCα signalling in dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Stephan; Gehmlich, Katja; Lun, Alexander S.; Blondelle, Jordan; Hooper, Charlotte; Dalton, Nancy D.; Alvarez, Erika A.; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Bang, Marie-Louise; Abassi, Yama A.; dos Remedios, Cristobal G.; Peterson, Kirk L.; Chen, Ju; Ehler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    MLP (muscle LIM protein)-deficient mice count among the first mouse models for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet the exact role of MLP in cardiac signalling processes is still enigmatic. Elevated PKCα signalling activity is known to be an important contributor to heart failure. Here we show that MLP directly inhibits the activity of PKCα. In end-stage DCM, PKCα is concentrated at the intercalated disc of cardiomyocytes, where it is sequestered by the adaptor protein CARP in a multiprotein complex together with PLCβ1. In mice deficient for both MLP and CARP the chronic PKCα signalling chain at the intercalated disc is broken and they remain healthy. Our results suggest that the main role of MLP in heart lies in the direct inhibition of PKCα and that chronic uninhibited PKCα activity at the intercalated disc in the absence of functional MLP leads to heart failure. PMID:27353086

  6. Nutritional lipid liver disease of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idullus (C. et V.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ding; Mao, Yongqing; Cai, Fasheng

    1990-12-01

    The inadequate nutrient content of pellet feeds widely used in recent years in China for grass carp farming led to lipid liver degeneration in the fish. The present studies show that the pathological features of lipid liver disease are anaemia and hepatic ceroidosis. Other clinical features are; the ratio of liver to body weight exceeds 3% and lipid content exceeds 5%. Extreme infiltration of hepaiocytes by lipid results in the following deteriorative effects: swelling of the liver cells, increase of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and dislocation of the nucleus, loss of cytoplasm staining affinity, and increased activities of GOT and GPT in serum. Lipid liver degeneration of grass carp can be divided into three stages: 1) deposition of liver lipid; 2) lipid infiltration of hepatic parenchyma; 3) atrophy of liver nucleus. The causes of lipid liver degeneration are complicated, but the main cause is assumed to be an imbalance of nutrients in daily feed and the lock of some lipotropic substances.

  7. Detecting the movement and spawning activity of bigheaded carps with environmental DNA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Richard A.; Rees, Christopher B.; Coulter, Alison A.; Merkes, Christopher; McCalla, Sunnie; Touzinsky, Katherine F; Walleser, Liza R.; Goforth, Reuben R.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Bigheaded carps are invasive fishes threatening to invade the Great Lakes basin and establish spawning populations, and have been monitored using environmental DNA (eDNA). Not only does eDNA hold potential for detecting the presence of species, but may also allow for quantitative comparisons like relative abundance of species across time or space. We examined the relationships among bigheaded carp movement, hydrography, spawning and eDNA on the Wabash River, IN, USA. We found positive relationships between eDNA and movement and eDNA and hydrography. We did not find a relationship between eDNA and spawning activity in the form of drifting eggs. Our first finding demonstrates how eDNA may be used to monitor species abundance, whereas our second finding illustrates the need for additional research into eDNA methodologies. Current applications of eDNA are widespread, but the relatively new technology requires further refinement.

  8. Detecting the movement and spawning activity of bigheaded carps with environmental DNA.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Richard A; Rees, Christopher B; Coulter, Alison A; Merkes, Christopher M; McCalla, Sunnie G; Touzinsky, Katherine F; Walleser, Liza; Goforth, Reuben R; Amberg, Jon J

    2016-07-01

    Bigheaded carps are invasive fishes threatening to invade the Great Lakes basin and establish spawning populations, and have been monitored using environmental DNA (eDNA). Not only does eDNA hold potential for detecting the presence of species, but may also allow for quantitative comparisons like relative abundance of species across time or space. We examined the relationships among bigheaded carp movement, hydrography, spawning and eDNA on the Wabash River, IN, USA. We found positive relationships between eDNA and movement and eDNA and hydrography. We did not find a relationship between eDNA and spawning activity in the form of drifting eggs. Our first finding demonstrates how eDNA may be used to monitor species abundance, whereas our second finding illustrates the need for additional research into eDNA methodologies. Current applications of eDNA are widespread, but the relatively new technology requires further refinement. PMID:27087387

  9. Baculovirus-mediated GCRV vp7 and vp6 genes expression in silkworm and grass carp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Gong, Yongchang; Li, Zhen; Hu, Xiaolong; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang

    2016-06-01

    Grass carp hemorrhagic disease is a common fish disease and often results in significant economic losses in grass carp aquaculture in China. This study was aimed to develop a novel oral vaccine against grass carp reovirus (GCRV). GCRV vp6 and vp7 genes with β-actin promoter of Megalobrama amblycephala and polyhedrin promoter (Ph10) of baculovirus, respectively, were cloned into plasmid pFast™-Dual to construct a vector pFast-PHVP7-AVP6, which was used to generate a recombinant baculovirus BacFish-vp6/vp7 via Bac-to-Bac system. The VP7 expression was analyzed from freeze-dried powder of the BacFish-vp6/vp7-infected silkworm pupae by western blotting, and VP6 expression was analyzed from orally vaccinated fish with the freeze-dried powder by RT-PCR. The VP6 expression was also analyzed from both CIK cells transduced with BacFish-vp6/vp7 and tissues of vaccinated fish by immunofluorescence analysis. Recombinant VP7 could be detected from the BacFish-vp6/vp7-infected silkworm pupae. Pathological changes were not observed in CIK cells transduced with BacFish-vp6/vp7, and VP6 expression was found in CIK cells. When the grass carps were orally administrated with the freeze-dried powder, vp6 gene transcription was found in blood of the vaccinated fishes and VP6 protein was observed in liver and kidney of the vaccinated fish by immunofluorescence analysis. These results indicated that vp7 gene was expressed in the BacFish-vp6/vp7-infected silkworm and vp6 gene was expressed in orally vaccinated fish with freeze-dried powder of the BacFish-vp6/vp7-infected silkworm pupae, suggesting the possibility to use the powder as an orally administrated vaccine. PMID:27085857

  10. Stimulation of Spermiation by Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Carp Pituitary Extract in Grass Puffer, Takifugu niphobles

    PubMed Central

    Goo, In Bon; Park, In-Seok; Gil, Hyun Woo; Im, Jae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Spermiation was stimulated in the mature grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, with an injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or carp pituitary extract (CPE). Spermatocrit and sperm density were reduced, but milt production was increased in both the HCG and CPE treatment groups relative to those in the control group (P <0.05). These results should be useful for increasing the fertilization efficiency in grass puffer breeding programs. PMID:26973977

  11. Characterization, expression and antibacterial properties of apolipoproteins A from carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Mariola A; Adamek, Mikołaj; Bilińska, Barbara; Hejmej, Anna; Steinhagen, Dieter; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Apolipoproteins A are multifunctional proteins that, in addition to contributing to lipid metabolism and transport, are associated with the innate immune system in fish. Using a three step isolation procedure consisting of affinity chromatography on Blue-Sepharose, delipidation and reverse phase HPLC we isolated apolipoproteins from carp seminal plasma and identified them as ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa. Moreover, we provided the full-length cDNA sequence of ApoA-I encoding 257 amino acids including a 18 amino acid signal peptide and a 4 amino acid propeptide. Apolipoproteins corresponded to the most abundant proteins in carp seminal plasma. Both ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa were represented by several proteoforms that differ both in molecular mass and isoelectric point. The proteoforms of ApoA-I characteristic for seminal plasma were distinguished from those of blood. Carp seminal plasma ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa showed a high immunologic similarity to their counterparts in carp blood and seminal plasma of other Cyprinid species. The mRNA expression analysis and immunohistochemical study suggest synthesis and secretion of ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa in the fish reproductive tract and suggest a role in spermatogenesis and the stabilization of sperm membrane. Moreover, ApoA-I displayed bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriostatic activity against Aeromonas hydrophila which suggests that ApoA-I is associated with innate immune system of the fish reproductive tract. PMID:25251775

  12. Quality Changes and Biogenic Amines Accumulation of Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) Fillets Stored at Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hongbing; Liu, Xiaochang; Hong, Hui; Shen, Song; Xu, Qian; Feng, Ligeng; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-04-01

    Postmortem quality changes of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) fillets stored at 20, 4, and 0°C (in ice) were determined in terms of pH value, K value, total volatile basic nitrogen, free amino acids, biogenic amines, drip loss, electrical conductivity (EC), sensory score, and microbial growth. The results showed that black carp fillets could maintain a good quality for 2, 9, and 12 days when stored at 20, 4, and 0°C, respectively. Pseudomonads, Aeromonas, and Enterobacteriaceae were the main spoilage bacteria in black carp. Tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine increased significantly (P < 0.05) during storage at the three temperatures, but not spermidine and spermine, among which tyramine and putrescine were the main biogenic amines in black carp fillets. A significantly higher concentration of histamine (132.05 mg/kg on the third day) was detected in the samples stored at 20°C (P < 0.01) than at 4 and 0°C (0.62 to 3.28 mg/kg) throughout storage, indicating storage of samples at 20°C favored the formation of histamine. The accumulations of tyramine, cadaverine, and histamine were highly correlated with the productions of tyrosine, lysine, and histidine, respectively. Correlations between EC and sensory, physical, chemical, and microbial parameters at the three storage temperatures showed that EC could be used as a better quality indicator to assess the overall quality of fish stored at 4 and 0°C (low temperature) than at 20°C. PMID:27052869

  13. Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

  14. Genomic organization and expression of insulin receptors in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenjing; Liang, Xu-Fang; Yuan, Xiaochen; Li, Aixuan; He, Yuhui; He, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Insulin receptors have been demonstrated to be involved in embryogenesis, food intake regulation and glucose metabolism in several fish, while more researchis needed for further understanding. In this study, the complete coding sequence (CDS) of insulin receptor a (insra) gene and insulin receptor b (insrb) gene in grass carp were obtained, the CDS were 4068 bp and 4514 bp in length, encoding 1355 aa protein and 1351 aa protein. Both of insra and insrb in grass carp showed high amino acid identities with other fish. Insra and insrb genes were widely expressed in all tested tissues with an overlapping but distinct expressions. The high levels of insra mRNA were distributed in hindgut and heart tissues. The insrb gene showed the highest expression levels in liver and hindgut. We also proved that two forms of grass carp insulin receptors participate in the regulation of blood glucose and might act differently. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that different isoforms of fish insulin receptors are derived from two distinct genes, which was inconsistent with the generation of mammalian insulin receptors. Synteny analyses of insulin receptor genes showed that genes surrounding the insulin receptor genes were conserved in fish. Arhgef18, PEX11G, humanC19orf45 genes were highly conserved among mammal species. However, no conserved synteny was observed among fish, mammals, avians and amphibians. PMID:26772721

  15. Identification and characterization of alpha-I-proteinase inhibitor from common carp sarcoplasmic proteins.

    PubMed

    Siriangkanakun, Siriphon; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Yongsawadigul, Jirawat

    2016-02-01

    Purification of proteinase inhibitor from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sarcoplasmic proteins resulted in 2.8% yield with purification fold of 111. Two inhibitors, namely inhibitor I and II, exhibited molecular mass of 47 and 52 kDa, respectively, based on non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both inhibitors I and II were identified to be alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) based on LC-MS/MS. They were glycoproteins and molecular mass after peptide-N-glycosidase F treatment was 38 and 45 kDa, respectively. The N-glycosylation sites of both inhibitors were determined to be at N214 and N226. The inhibitors specifically inhibited trypsin. The common carp α1-PI showed high thermal stability with denaturation temperatures of 65.43 and 73.31 °C, which were slightly less than those of ovomucoid. High stability toward NaCl was also evident up to 3M. The common carp α1-PI effectively reduced autolytic degradation of bigeye snapper surimi at the concentration as low as 0.025%. PMID:26304452

  16. Strategies to control a common carp population by pulsed commercial harvest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvin, Michael E.; Pierce, Clay; Stewart, Timothy W.; Grummer, Scott E.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial fisheries are commonly used to manage nuisance fishes in freshwater systems, but such efforts are often unsuccessful. Strategies for successfully controlling a nuisance population of common carp Cyprinus carpio by pulsed commercial harvest were evaluated with a combination of (1) field sampling, (2) population estimation and CPUE indexing, and (3) simulation using an exponential semidiscrete biomass dynamics model (SDBDM). The range of annual fishing mortalities (F) that resulted in successful control (F = 0.244–0.265) was narrow. Common carp biomass dynamics were sensitive to unintentional underharvest due to high rates of surplus production and a biomass doubling time of 2.7 years. Simulations indicated that biomanipulation never achieved successful control unless supplemental fishing mortality was imposed. Harvest of a majority of annual production was required to achieve successful control, as indicated by the ecotrophic coefficient (EC). Readily available biomass data and tools such as SDBDMs and ECs can be used in an adaptive management framework to successfully control common carp and other nuisance fishes by pulsed commercial fishing.

  17. Antioxidant properties of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Justyna; Darewicz, Małgorzata; Vegarud, Gerd E; Minkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The presence of specific peptides with antioxidant properties released during carp protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysis by human/porcine digestive enzymes, respectively, was examined. Based on the results of the in silico data analysis, antioxidant peptides were selected for subsequent identification in the digests/hydrolysates. Carp proteins were more resistant to hydrolysis by porcine enzymes than by human digestive juices. The sarcoplasmic proteins were hydrolyzed faster than the myofibrillar ones by both human/porcine enzymes. The in vitro myofibrillar protein hydrolysate showed the highest ABTS(+) scavenging activity (∼232.3 TEAC, μM Trolox/g), whereas the ex vivo hydrolysate of sarcoplasmic proteins showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity (∼88μM/g) and reducing power. Five antioxidant peptides were identified in carp protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysates: FIKK, HL, IY, PW, VY. The peptide HL from myofibrillar proteins was identified only in the ex vivo hydrolysate, whereas the peptide PW from sarcoplasmic proteins was identified only in the in vitro hydrolysate. PMID:26471617

  18. Comparative hepatic cytochrome P450 activities and contaminant concentrations in caged carp and juvenile ducks

    SciTech Connect

    O`Keefe, P.; Gierthy, J.; Connor, S.; Bush, B.; Hong, C.S.; Wood, L.; Clayton, W.; Storm, R.

    1995-12-31

    Juvenile carp (Cyprinius carpio) weighing approx. 60 g were placed in cages located on the surface of sediments near an aluminum plant and an automobile parts plant in the Massena area of the St. Lawrence River. Fish were removed at weekly intervals over a 35 day exposure period and composited samples of liver tissue, cranial lipid, and fillet tissue were prepared for analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Liver tissue was also stored at {minus}80 C for determination of microsomal Cytochrome P450 activity using the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) assay. A control exposure was carried out upstream at an uncontaminated site. Juvenile pre-flight ducks (mallards, gadwalls, wood ducks and common mergansers) were collected in the contaminated areas on the St. Lawrence and on the Hudson River two to three months after hatching. Control pre-flight mallards, wood ducks and common mergansers were collected from remote lakes in the Addirondack State Park. Samples of subcutaneous fat and liver tissue were removed for analysis as described above for the carp. There was a three fold increase in AHH activity in the carp liver tissue at the end of the 35 day exposure period and there was a similar increase it activity for the mallards, common mergansers and wood ducks compared to controls. For each species the enzyme activity increases will be compared to the contaminant concentrations.

  19. Quality and biochemical properties of artificially hibernated crucian carp for waterless preservation.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hongbo; Qian, Chunlu; Mao, Linchun

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the artificial hibernation of crucian carp for waterless preservation and to characterize the quality and biochemical properties during and after the hibernation. Anesthetized crucian carp using eugenol were stored at 8 °C with 90 % oxygen and 95-100 % relative humidity for 38 h and then transferred to fresh water to recover. Liquid loss and cooking loss had no significant changes (p > 0.05). The total volatile basic nitrogen content and 2-thiobarbituric acid value in hibernated fish were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than fresh and recovered groups. Serum cortisol, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities significantly increased (p < 0.05) during hibernation, while glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) had no significant change (p > 0.05). Both ACP and AKP activities decreased upon the fish recovered, but only the ACP activity returned to normal. However, there were increased serum glucose concentration, GOT and GPT activities in recovered fish. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that the artificially hibernated life of crucian carp was 38 h by the combination of anaesthetizing and low temperature. The muscle quality would not be influenced, and most of the stress responses would disappear after hibernated fish recovered. PMID:22688451

  20. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: a lakewide survey.

    PubMed

    Stong, Todd; Alvarado Osuna, Claudia; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; Díaz Torres, José de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River. PMID:24007438

  1. Aluminum-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in grass carp (Cyprinidae--Ctenopharingodon idella).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Dávila, María Lourdes; Razo-Estrada, Amparo Celene; García-Medina, Sandra; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Piñón-López, Manuel Jesús; Ibarra, Rocio Guzmán; Galar-Martínez, Marcela

    2012-02-01

    Aluminum is used in a large number of anthropogenic processes, leading to aquatic ecosystems pollution. Diverse studies show that in mammals this metal may produce oxidative stress, is neurotoxic, and is involved in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzhaimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Nevertheless, there are only few studies with respect to Al-induced neurotoxicity on aquatic fauna, particularly on fishes of economical interest, such as the grass carp (Ctenopharingodon idella). This study evaluates Al-induced toxicity on the grass carp C. idella. Specimens were exposed to the maximum concentration allowed in order to protect aquatic life (0.1 mg L⁻¹), for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. After the exposure time, lipid peroxidation degree, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, as well as dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were evaluated. Al concentration in organisms and water was also measured, in order to determine the bioconcentration factor. Results show that Al bioconcentrates in grass carp inducing oxidative stress (increment of 300 and 455 percent on lipid peroxidation degree and SOD activity, and decrement of 49 percent on CAT activity) and neurotoxicity (increment of 55 and 155 percent on dopamine and adrenaline levels and decrement of 93 percent on noradrenaline level). PMID:21993346

  2. Metatranscriptomic discovery of plant biomass-degrading capacity from grass carp intestinal microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangong; Ren, Yi; Peng, Chun; Hao, Yaotong; Xiong, Fan; Wang, Guitang; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong; Angert, Esther R

    2015-10-01

    Despite the economic importance of fish, the ecology and metabolic capacity of fish microbiomes are largely unknown. Here, we sequenced the metatranscriptome of the intestinal microbiota of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, a freshwater herbivorous fish species. Our results confirmed previous work describing the bacterial composition of the microbiota at the phylum level as being dominated by Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. Comparative transcriptomes of the microbiomes of fish fed with different experimental diets indicated that the bacterial transcriptomes are influenced by host diet. Although hydrolases and cellulosome-based systems predicted to be involved in degradation of the main chain of cellulose, xylan, mannan and pectin were identified, transcripts with glycoside hydrolase modules targeting the side chains of noncellulosic polysaccharides were more abundant. Predominant 'COG' (Clusters of Orthologous Group) categories in the intestinal microbiome included those for energy production and conversion, as well as carbohydrate and amino acid transport and metabolism. These results suggest that the grass carp intestinal microbiome functions in carbohydrate turnover and fermentation, which likely provides energy for both host and microbiota. Grass carp intestinal microbiome thus reflects its evolutionary adaption for harvesting nutrients for an herbivore with a high-throughput nutritional strategy that is not dominated by cellulose digestion but rather the degradation of intracellular polysaccharides. PMID:26362922

  3. Biomarker Benchmarks: Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass and Common Carp from United States Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a national database and report on endocrine and reproductive condition in two species of fish collected in U.S. streams and rivers. This information provides scientists with a national basis for comparing results of endocrine measurements in fish from individual sites throughout the country, so that scientists can better ascertain normal levels of biomarkers. The database includes information on several measures of reproductive and endocrine condition for common carp and largemouth bass. Data summaries are provided by reproductive season and geographic region. A national-scale reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 by the USGS that utilized a suite of biological assays (biomarkers) as indicators of reproductive health, and potentially, endocrine disruption in two widely distributed species of teleost (bony) fish, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyrinus carpio). The suite of assays included plasma sex-steroid hormones, stage of gonadal development, and plasma vitellogenin, an egg protein that indicates exposure to estrogenic compounds when found in male fish. More than 2,200 common carp and 650 largemouth bass were collected at 119 rivers and streams (fig. 1).

  4. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Constanze; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Junge, Ranka

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp. PMID:26343724

  5. Production, characterization and applications of mouse anti-grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yiu-Kwong Leung, Michael; Kwok-Keung Ho, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Mouse anti-grass carp growth hormone (gcGH) monoclonal antibody (MAb) secretors were produced by PEG-mediated fusion of NS-1 myeloma cells and splenic B-lymphocytes of gcGH hyper-immunized mice. Positive secretors were screened by direct ELISA and cloned by limiting dilution. Three positive secretors, 21D3, 22G5 and 23B3, were obtained in a single fusion trial. Anti-gcGH MAbs were produced by growing hybridomas in the peritoneal cavity of pristane-primed mouse. The three MAbs were isotyped to be IgG2a, IgG2b and IgM, respectively. IgG MAbs were purified from ascitic fluid by Hitrap protein G column and IgM MAb was purified by gel filtration chromatography. The purified MAbs were highly specific and had moderate binding affinity. The MAbs were successfully used for the purification of native gcGH from mature grass carp pituitary extract by one-step immunoaffinity chromatography, for the quantification of gcGH by competitive sandwich ELISA, and for the probing of somatotropes in grass carp pituitary by immunohistochemistry. PMID:16352451

  6. Responses of invasive silver and bighead carp to a carbon dioxide barrier in outdoor ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cupp, Aaron R.; Erickson, Richard A.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Swyers, Nicholas M.; Hatton, Tyson; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Resource managers need for effective methods to prevent the movement of silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) from the Mississippi River basin into the Laurentian Great Lakes. In this study, we evaluated dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) as a barrier and deterrent to silver (278 ± 30.5 mm) and bighead (212 ± 7.7 mm) carp movement in continuous-flow outdoor ponds. As a barrier, CO2 significantly reduced upstream movement but was not 100% effective at blocking fish passage. As a deterrent, we observed a significant shift away from areas of high CO2 relative to normal movement before and after injection. Carbon dioxide concentrations varied across the pond during injection and reached maximum concentrations of 74.5±1.9 mg/L CO2; 29 532 – 41 393 µatm at the site of injection during three independent trials. We conclude that CO2 altered silver and bighead carp movement in outdoor ponds and recommend further research to determine barrier effectiveness during field applications.

  7. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivappa, R.B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  9. Effect of Ultrastructure on Changes of Textural Characteristics between Crisp Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus C.Et V) and Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus) Inducing Heating Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Ling; Yang, Xian-Qing; Li, Lai-Hao; Hao, Shu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Xu; Huang, Hui; Wei, Ya; Wu, Yan-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The research studies the ultrastructure effect on texture of crisp grass carp (CGC) and grass carp (GC) fillets inducing heating for 15, 25, and 40 min with boiling water. After heating, the hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC were higher than that of raw CGC, whereas the all textural characteristics of heating GC were lower obviously than that of raw GC. The hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC for heating 15 min were higher by 6.3%, 9.0%, 27.0%, 71.8%, 9.4%, and 23.9%, respectively, than that of raw CGC (RCGC). The hardness increasing of CGC flesh with the extension of heating time related closely to more coagulating connective tissue in interstitial spaces, especially relating to smaller muscle fiber diameter and denser muscle fiber density. The more and larger spaces between fiber and fiber with the extension of heating time results in the decrease of cohesiveness and resilience of CGC flesh. For chewiness, the stronger chewiness of cooked CGC associated with more detachment of myofiber-myocommata and fiber-fiber. Overall, the results show that the changes of texture characteristics of CGC fillet with extension of heating time correlates positively with the ultrastructure. PMID:26757426

  10. Final environmental assessment: Demonstration of use of grass carp in management of aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) plans to introduce triploid (sterile) grass carp into Guntersville Reservoir to test their usefulness in managing aquatic vegetation in a reservoir system. This demonstration is compatible with the long-range management plan for Guntersville Reservoir being developed jointly by TVA and the US Army Corps of Engineers at the request of several members of Congress. TVA is not at this time proposing to include grass carp as a routine component if its ongoing aquatic plant management program for Guntersville Reservoir or the TVA reservoir system. TVA's present program consists of water level fluctuations supplemented by herbicides. This environmental assessment evaluates several alternatives to use of grass carp, including use of water level fluctuations (drawdowns), herbicides, and mechanical harvesters. The overall target for this demonstration is to reduce aquatic vegetation in Guntersville Reservoir to about 7,000 acres. The results of this initial stocking will be closely monitored. The proposed monitoring will serve to evaluate the effectiveness of the grass carp demonstration. Because only triploid grass carp will be stocked and phased stocking will be done, any undesirable effects that monitoring might reveal should be reversible within a few years following termination of stocking. 88 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Development and characterization of new single nucleotide polymorphism markers from expressed sequence tags in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuankun; Cheng, Lei; Tong, Jingou; Yu, Xiaomu

    2012-01-01

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an important aquaculture fish worldwide but only limited single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are characterized from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in this species. In this study, 1487 putative SNPs were bioinformatically mined from 14,066 online ESTs mainly from the European common carp, with the occurrence rate of about one SNP every 173 bp. One hundred and twenty-one of these SNPs were selected for validation using PCR fragment sequencing, and 48 out of 81 primers could amplify the expected fragments in the Chinese common carp genome. Only 26 (21.5%) putative SNPs were validated, however, 508 new SNPs and 68 indels were identified. The ratios of transitions to transversions were 1.77 for exon SNPs and 1.05 for intron SNPs. All the 23 SNPs selected for population tests were polymorphic, with the observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranging from 0.053 to 0.526 (mean 0.262), polymorphism information content (PIC) from 0.095 to 0.357 (mean 0.246), and 21 SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These results suggest that different common carp populations with geographic isolation have significant genetic variation at the SNP level, and these new EST-SNP markers are readily available for genetics and breeding studies in common carp. PMID:22837697

  12. Upgrading food wastes by means of bromelain and papain to enhance growth and immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    The fast growing of global aquaculture industry accompanied with increasing pressure on the supply and price of traditional feed materials (e.g., fish meal and soy bean meal). This circumstance has urged the need to search alternative sources of feed stuff. Food waste was used as feed stuff in rearing fish which possess substantial protein and lipid. Grass carp are major species reared in Hong Kong with lower nutritional requirements; it is also an ideal species for investigating the feasibility of using food waste as fish feeds for local aquaculture industry. The growth and immunity, reflected by total protein, total immunologlobulin (IgI), and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity of grass carp blood, were depressed when feeding with food waste feeds without enzymes. However, the supplementation of bromelain and papain in fish feed enhanced the efficient use of food waste by grass carp, which in turn improved the fish immunity. The present results indicated that the addition of those enzymes could enhance the feed utilization by fish and hematological parameters of grass carp, and the improvement on growth and immunity superior to the control (commercial feed) was observed with the addition of bromelain and papain supplement. Addition of 1 and 2 % mixture of bromelain and papain could significantly enhance the lipid utilization in grass carp. PMID:26092357

  13. Significant genetic differentiation between native and introduced silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) inferred from mtDNA analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Cyprinidae) is native to China and has been introduced to over 80 countries. The extent of genetic diversity in introduced silver carp and the genetic divergence between introduced and native populations remain largely unknown. In this study, 241 silver carp sampled from three major native rivers and two non-native rivers (Mississippi River and Danube River) were analyzed using nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial COI gene and D-loop region. A total of 73 haplotypes were observed, with no haplotype found common to all the five populations and eight haplotypes shared by two to four populations. As compared with introduced populations, all native populations possess both higher haplotype diversity and higher nucleotide diversity, presumably a result of the founder effect. Significant genetic differentiation was revealed between native and introduced populations as well as among five sampled populations, suggesting strong selection pressures might have occurred in introduced populations. Collectively, this study not only provides baseline information for sustainable use of silver carp in their native country (i.e., China), but also offers first-hand genetic data for the control of silver carp in countries (e.g., the United States) where they are considered invasive.

  14. Molecular characterization and expression pattern of a germ cell marker gene dnd in gibel carp (Carassius gibelio).

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Zhu; Liu, Wei; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Li; Yi, Mei-Sheng; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2016-10-10

    As a germ cell marker gene, Dead end (dnd) has been identified and characterized in many vertebrates. Recently, we created a complete germ cell-depleted gonad model by the dnd-specific morpholino-mediated knockdown approach, and revealed sex-biased gene expression alteration through utilizing unisexual gynogenetic superiority in polyploid gibel carp. However, dnd and its expression pattern are still unclear in the gibel carp. In this study, we further analyzed molecular characterization of gibel carp dnd and its dynamic expression pattern during gametogenesis and embryogenesis. Similar to other homologs in vertebrates, gibel carp dnd contains a conserved RRM motif and five other motifs, and is highly evolutionary conserved in genomic organization and neighborhood gene synteny. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed its gonad-specific expression intensively in testis and ovary. Section in situ hybridization (SISH) and immunofluorescence localization revealed its dynamic expression pattern specific to oogenic cells and spermatogenetic cells during oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Moreover, its temporal and spatial distribution specific to PGCs were also demonstrated by RT-PCR and whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) during embryogenesis. Therefore, gibel carp Dnd is a conserved germ cell marker during gametogenesis, and its maternal transcript is also a useful marker for tracing PGC specification and migration. PMID:27418526

  15. The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus) Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics. PMID:24871367

  16. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 μmol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 μmol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE-inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

  17. Embryonic and larval development and early behavior in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: implications for recruitment in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm", and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi's (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers.

  18. Tissue expression of glandular kallikrein and its response to 17 beta-estradiol in the acclimatized carp.

    PubMed

    Haussmann, Denise; Vidal, Rene; Figueroa, Jaime

    2006-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio skeletal muscle kallikrein was isolated to apparent homogeneity, and a polyclonal antiserum against the purified protein was generated. Glandular kallikrein expression and tissue distribution were assessed using both Western blots and immunohistochemistry. A 39-kDa protein was detected in skeletal muscle, the gill, kidney, and pituitary gland, where an additional 72-kDa immunoreactive band was observed. Immunohistochemistry revealed immunoreactive kallikrein in the intermuscle tissue, epithelial gill cells, apical portion of distal and proximal tubular cells in the kidney, mucus and epithelial cells of the skin, intestinal tube, and prolactin-producing cells of the pituitary gland. In addition, the effect of 17beta-estradiol on kallikrein expression was analyzed in three different tissues of winter- and summer-acclimatized male carps. A 2.5-fold (p<0.05) increase in kallikrein immunoreactivity due to estrogen treatment was observed in winter-acclimatized carp muscle, but not in summer-acclimatized fish. In contrast, the gill responded differently, since a 2-fold (p<0.05) increase was found only in summer-acclimatized carps. Kallikrein immunoreactivity in the kidney increased both in summer- (2.5 fold) and in winter-acclimatized carps (1.5 fold). The signals obtained demonstrate the existence of tissue-specific variable responses to estrogen treatment in vivo, between winter and summer-acclimatized carp. PMID:16849838

  19. Embryonic and Larval Development and Early Behavior in Grass Carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: Implications for Recruitment in Rivers

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”, and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi’s (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers. PMID:25822837

  20. Molecular cloning of type I collagen cDNA and nutritional regulation of type I collagen mRNA expression in grass carp.

    PubMed

    Yu, E M; Liu, B H; Wang, G J; Yu, D G; Xie, J; Xia, Y; Gong, W B; Wang, H H; Li, Z F; Wei, N

    2014-08-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) are important Chinese freshwater fish, and in China, the faba bean has been used as the sole food source for grass carp to transform them into crisp grass carp. Because of this, crisp grass carp has become an economically important fish because of its increased muscle hardness. To study the nutritional regulation of type I collagen in faba bean-fed grass carp, we isolated type I collagen alpha 2 (COL1A2) on the basis of our isolation of COL1A1. The COL1A2 cDNA was found to be 4899 bp in length and included a 4059-bp coding sequence (CDS) and encoded a polypeptide of 1352 AA. The protein peptide molecular weight was 127.39 kD, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 9.37. The COL1A2 protein possessed five α-helixes, eight β-sheets, 16 regions of triple helical repeats, 21 low-complexity regions, 10 function domains and two zinc-binding sites; however, no calcium-binding sites were observed. The mRNA expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was assessed in eight tissues (muscle, hepatopancreas, intestine, gills, skin, fin, kidney and spleen) from grass carp and crisp grass carp by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of COL1A1 in the muscle, intestines and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp, and expression of COL1A2 in the muscle, gills, fin and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp. In the muscle of crisp grass carp, expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was higher than that in grass carp, which was further confirmed by real-time PCR, and collagen content also was enhanced. These results demonstrated that type I collagen was closely related to the increased muscle hardness of faba bean-fed grass carp. PMID:24127725

  1. Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of

  2. Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality

  3. Antiageing Mechanisms of a Standardized Supercritical CO2 Preparation of Black Jack (Bidens pilosa L.) in Human Fibroblasts and Skin Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Dieamant, Gustavo; Pereda, Maria Del Carmen V.; Nogueira, Cecília; Eberlin, Samara; Facchini, Gustavo; Checon, Juliana Tibério; Cesar, Camila Kappke; Mussi, Lilian; Polezel, Márcio Antonio; Martins-Oliveira, Divino; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The use of topical retinoids to treat skin disorders and ageing can induce local reactions, while oral retinoids are potent teratogens and produce several unwanted effects. This way, efforts to explore complementary care resources should be supported. Based on this, we evaluate the antiageing effects of a supercritical CO2 extract from Bidens pilosa L. (BPE-CO2A) containing a standardized multicomponent mixture of phytol, linolenic, palmitic, linoleic, and oleic acids. BPE-CO2A was assessed for its effects on human dermal fibroblasts (TGF-β1 and FGF levels using ELISA; collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by colorimetric assays, and mRNA expression of RXR, RAR, and EGFr by qRT-PCR) and human skin fragments (RAR, RXR, collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by immunohistochemical analysis). Levels of extracellular matrix elements, TGF-β1 and FGF, and EGFr gene expression were significantly increased by BPE-CO2A. The modulation of RXR and RAR was positively demonstrated after the treatment with BPE-CO2A or phytol, a component of BPE-CO2A. The effects produced by BPE-CO2A were similar to or better than those produced by retinol and retinoic acid. The ability to stimulate extracellular matrix elements, increase growth factors, and modulate retinoid and rexinoid receptors provides a basis for the development of preparation containing BPE-CO2A as an antiageing/skin-repair agent. PMID:25883669

  4. In vitro SCREENING ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Bidens pilosa LINNÉ AND Annona crassiflora MART. AGAINST OXACILLIN RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) FROM THE AERIAL ENVIRONMENT AT THE DENTAL CLINIC

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jeferson; Cerdeira, Cláudio Daniel; Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Cintra, Ana Beatriz Pugina; da Silva, Carla Brigagão Pacheco; de Mendonça, Andreia Natan; Ishikawa, Tati; Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber

    2014-01-01

    Currently multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus is one common cause of infections with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which directs scientific endeavors in search for novel antimicrobials. In this study, nine extracts from Bidens pilosa (root, stem, flower and leaves) and Annona crassiflora (rind fruit, stem, leaves, seed and pulp) were obtained with ethanol: water (7:3, v/v) and their in vitro antibacterial activity evaluated through both the agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods against 60 Oxacillin Resistant S. aureus (ORSA) strains and against S. aureus ATCC6538. The extracts from B. pilosa and A. crassiflora inhibited the growth of the ORSA isolates in both methods. Leaves of B. pilosa presented mean of the inhibition zone diameters significantly higher than chlorexidine 0.12% against ORSA, and the extracts were more active against S. aureus ATCC (p < 0.05). Parallel, toxicity testing by using MTT method and phytochemical screening were assessed, and three extracts (B. pilosa, root and leaf, and A. crassiflora, seed) did not evidence toxicity. On the other hand, the cytotoxic concentrations (CC50 and CC90) for other extracts ranged from 2.06 to 10.77 mg/mL. The presence of variable alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins was observed, even though there was a total absence of anthraquinones. Thus, the extracts from the leaves of B. pilosa revealed good anti-ORSA activity and did not exhibit toxicity. PMID:25076435

  5. Bidens pilosa and its active compound inhibit adipogenesis and lipid accumulation via down-modulation of the C/EBP and PPARγ pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yu-Chuan; Yang, Meng-Ting; Lin, Chuan-Ju; Chang, Cicero Lee-Tian; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its complications are a major global health problem. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of an edible plant, Bidens pilosa, and its active constituent. We first assessed the long-term effect of B. pilosa on body composition, body weight, blood parameters in ICR mice. We observed that it significantly decreased fat content and increased protein content in ICR mice. Next, we verified the anti-obesity effect of B. pilosa in ob/ob mice. It effectively and dose-dependently reduced fat content, adipocyte size and/or body weight in mice. Moreover, mechanistic studies showed that B. pilosa inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) and Egr2 in adipose tissue. Finally, we examined the effect of 2-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne (GHT) on adipogenesis in adipocytes. We found that B. pilosa significantly decreased the adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. This decrease was associated with the down-regulation of expression of Egr2, C/EBPs, PPARγ, adipocyte Protein 2 (aP2) and adiponectin. In summary, this work demonstrated that B. pilosa and GHT suppressed adipogenesis and lipid content in adipocytes and/or animals via the down-regulation of the Egr2, C/EBPs and PPARγ pathways, suggesting a novel application of B. pilosa and GHT against obesity. PMID:27063434

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Helicobacter Activities of Eryngium foetidum (Apiaceae), Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), and Galinsoga ciliata (Asteraceae) against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Eyoum Bille, Bertrand; Nguepi, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of extracts of Bidens pilosa, Galinsoga ciliata, and Eryngium foetidum against 6 clinical strains of Helicobacter pylori in vitro and in vivo. Broth microdilution method was used in vitro. In vivo, Swiss mice were inoculated with H. pylori and divided into 5 groups; the control group received the vehicle and the four others received 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum and ciprofloxacin (500 mg/kg) for 7 days, respectively. Helicobacter pylori colonization and number of colonies in gastric biopsies culture were assessed on days 1 and 7 after treatment. The lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) and the best spectrum of bactericidal effect (MBC/MIC = 1) were obtained with the methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum. The number of H. pylori infected animals was 17% (plant-extract) and 0% (ciprofloxacin) compared to 100% for the infected untreated group. Plant-extract (381.9 ± 239.5 CFU) and ciprofloxacin (248 ± 153.2 CFU) significantly reduced bacterial load in gastric mucosa compared to untreated, inoculated mice (14350 ± 690 CFU). Conclusion. The present data provided evidence that methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum could be a rich source of metabolites with antimicrobial activity to fight Helicobacter pylori infections.

  7. Phytochemical investigation of Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. and Sheriff.--a nutrient-rich leafy vegetable from Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Pradeesh; Nair, Archana G; Chinmayee, Devi M; Mini, I; Sukumaran, Swapna T

    2012-07-01

    Bidens biternata, belonging to the family Asteraceae, is an erect annual herb, up to 1 cm in height, and a widespread weed of cultivated areas. This plant is common, particularly in the Western Ghats regions of Kerala state in India. It is used as a leafy vegetable by the Paniya and Kattunaayika tribes of Waynadu Districts in Kerala and also to cure hepatitis, cold, cough, dysentery, etc. The multiplication and utilization of this leafy vegetable will help to overcome the nutritional deficiency problem and also to maintain the biodiversity. For effective biochemical analysis, plant extract was taken using different solvents. Various phytochemicals like reducing sugar, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, coumarins, saponins, anthraquinones, phlobatannins and iridoids were estimated. Different nutritional factors like total carbohydrates, total proteins, total reducing sugar, different amino acids, free fatty acids, crude fibre, lipids, total moisture content, vitamins, etc. were tested by standard estimation methods. Anti-nutritional factors like phytic acid, total phenol, tannic acid, etc., were also estimated. Micronutrients and different pigments were quantified. The present studies revealed that this wild leafy plant has numerous nutritional factors with a low level of anti-nutritional factors. Therefore, this nutritive herb with diverse health-promoting compounds can be effectively utilized to overcome the nutritional deficiency problem around the globe. PMID:22538981

  8. Auxin effects on Pb phytoextraction from polluted soils by Tegetes minuta L. and Bidens pilosa L.: Extractive power of their root exudates.

    PubMed

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Cid, Carolina Vergara; Pignata, María Luisa

    2016-07-01

    The principal impediment for Pb uptake by plants is the Casparian strip in roots. It prevents metals reaching the xylem, thereby hampering translocation to the aerial organs. In the root apices, young root cells have thin cell walls and the Casparian strip is not completely developed, which could facilitate Pb uptake by roots at these vulnerable points. However, as the phytotoxic effects of Pb reduce root growth and enhance suberization, entry of Pb into the plant is avoided. We propose that the application of root growth promotors could be an important complement in the phytoextraction of Pb from polluted soils, due to their effects on produced biomass, Pb toxicity, and root exudate production. A greenhouse experiment was carried on to evaluate the auxin application effect on the Pb uptake of Bidens pilosa and Tagetes minuta. These species were sensitive to auxins, but the phytotoxic effect of Pb was not reversed by this treatment. Root exudates capable of extracting Pb were produced only when the species were grown in highly polluted soils, indicating a behavioral response to Pb exposure which is desirable for phytoremediation. PMID:26954477

  9. Post-column sodiation to enhance the detection of polyacetylene glycosides in LC-DAD-MS analyses: an example from Bidens gardneri (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Denise Brentan; Rodrigues, Edilene Delphino; da Silva, Gil Valdo José; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Oliveira, Dionéia Camilo Rodrigues

    2015-04-01

    The use of liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) in dereplication studies of medicinal plants is a common strategy, but the analyses of polyacetylenes by LC-ESI-MS are little explored and require huge efforts, especially if there are low concentrations in the extracts. A post-column sodiation strategy was successfully applied to enhance the detection of polyacetylene glycosides. Their molecular formulae were proposed by HRESI, whereas the polyacetylene chromophores were determined by UV data. The use of acetic acid in the mobile phase was essential to obtain satisfactory chromatographic resolution, and only the addition of sodium chloride solution allowed good mass spectra, internal calibration and undoubtedly the molar mass determination of polyacetylenes. This new approach has allowed the identification of polyacetylene glycosides from Bidens gardneri extract, guiding the isolation procedures, and two new compounds were obtained. The structures of the isolated polyacetylenes have been confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS. PMID:25640130

  10. Antiageing Mechanisms of a Standardized Supercritical CO 2 Preparation of Black Jack (Bidens pilosa L.) in Human Fibroblasts and Skin Fragments.

    PubMed

    Dieamant, Gustavo; Pereda, Maria Del Carmen V; Nogueira, Cecília; Eberlin, Samara; Facchini, Gustavo; Checon, Juliana Tibério; Cesar, Camila Kappke; Mussi, Lilian; Polezel, Márcio Antonio; Martins-Oliveira, Divino; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The use of topical retinoids to treat skin disorders and ageing can induce local reactions, while oral retinoids are potent teratogens and produce several unwanted effects. This way, efforts to explore complementary care resources should be supported. Based on this, we evaluate the antiageing effects of a supercritical CO2 extract from Bidens pilosa L. (BPE-CO2A) containing a standardized multicomponent mixture of phytol, linolenic, palmitic, linoleic, and oleic acids. BPE-CO2A was assessed for its effects on human dermal fibroblasts (TGF-β1 and FGF levels using ELISA; collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by colorimetric assays, and mRNA expression of RXR, RAR, and EGFr by qRT-PCR) and human skin fragments (RAR, RXR, collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by immunohistochemical analysis). Levels of extracellular matrix elements, TGF-β1 and FGF, and EGFr gene expression were significantly increased by BPE-CO2A. The modulation of RXR and RAR was positively demonstrated after the treatment with BPE-CO2A or phytol, a component of BPE-CO2A. The effects produced by BPE-CO2A were similar to or better than those produced by retinol and retinoic acid. The ability to stimulate extracellular matrix elements, increase growth factors, and modulate retinoid and rexinoid receptors provides a basis for the development of preparation containing BPE-CO2A as an antiageing/skin-repair agent. PMID:25883669

  11. Assessment of the root system of Brassica juncea (L.) czern. and Bidens pilosa L. exposed to lead polluted soils using rhizobox systems.

    PubMed

    Graziani, Natalia Soledad; Salazar, María Julieta; Pignata, María Luisa; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the behavior of the root system of one of the most frequently cited species in phytoremediation Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] and a representative perennial herb (Bidens pilosa L.) native of Argentina, for different concentrations of lead in soils through chemical and visualization techniques of the rhizosphere. Lead polluted soils from the vicinity of a lead recycling plant in the locality of Bouwer, were used in juxtaposed rhizobox systems planted with seedlings of B. juncea and B. pilosa with homogeneous and heterogeneous soil treatments. Root development, pH changes in the rhizosphere, dry weight biomass, lead content of root and aerial parts and potential extraction of lead by rhizosphere exudates were determined. In both species lead was mainly accumulated in roots. However, although B. juncea accumulated more lead than B. pilosa at elevated concentrations in soils, the latter achieved greater root and aerial development. No changes in the pH of the rhizosphere associated to lead were observed, despite different extractive potentials of lead in the exudates of the species analyzed. Our results indicated that Indian mustard did not behave as a hyperaccumulator in the conditions of the present study. PMID:26292209

  12. Bidens pilosa and its active compound inhibit adipogenesis and lipid accumulation via down-modulation of the C/EBP and PPARγ pathways.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu-Chuan; Yang, Meng-Ting; Lin, Chuan-Ju; Chang, Cicero Lee-Tian; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its complications are a major global health problem. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of an edible plant, Bidens pilosa, and its active constituent. We first assessed the long-term effect of B. pilosa on body composition, body weight, blood parameters in ICR mice. We observed that it significantly decreased fat content and increased protein content in ICR mice. Next, we verified the anti-obesity effect of B. pilosa in ob/ob mice. It effectively and dose-dependently reduced fat content, adipocyte size and/or body weight in mice. Moreover, mechanistic studies showed that B. pilosa inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) and Egr2 in adipose tissue. Finally, we examined the effect of 2-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne (GHT) on adipogenesis in adipocytes. We found that B. pilosa significantly decreased the adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. This decrease was associated with the down-regulation of expression of Egr2, C/EBPs, PPARγ, adipocyte Protein 2 (aP2) and adiponectin. In summary, this work demonstrated that B. pilosa and GHT suppressed adipogenesis and lipid content in adipocytes and/or animals via the down-regulation of the Egr2, C/EBPs and PPARγ pathways, suggesting a novel application of B. pilosa and GHT against obesity. PMID:27063434

  13. Studies on bioactivity and secondary metabolites of crude extracts of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae): A medicinal plant used in the Transkei region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Njume, Collise; Gqaza, Bomkazi M; Rozani, Carina; Goduka, Nomalungelo I

    2016-05-01

    Whole plant-parts of Bidens pilosa were powdered and extracted in concentrated hexane, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (25922), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051), Enterococcus faecalis (51299) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC127853), using standard microbiological techniques. Active crude extracts were macerated in concentrated methanol and tested for secondary metabolites including tannins, saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, steroids and flavonoids using standard phytochemical procedures. Hexane and methanol extracts demonstrated similar activity producing 8-17 mm and 11-18 mm inhibition zone-diameter ranges respectively. Further analysis for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC(50)) recorded 1.25-20mg/mL and 2.5-20mg/mL for hexane and methanol extracts respectively. The highest zones of inhibition diameters (22-36mm) and lowest MIC(50) values (0.0002-0.0006mg/mL) were recorded for Gentamicin, the positive control. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranges were between 10-80mg/mL and 0.001-0.005mg/mL for extracts and control antibiotic respectively. With the exception of anthraquinones, the plant crude extracts tested positive for all secondary metabolites analyzed. These results provide scientific basis for the use of B. pilosa in South African traditional medicine. The antibacterial activity reported herein may be attributed to one or more of the 6 secondary metabolites detected in the plant crude extracts. PMID:27166532

  14. Effects of co-cropping Bidens pilosa (L.) and Tagetes minuta (L.) on bioaccumulation of Pb in Lactuca sativa (L.) growing in polluted agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Cid, Carolina Vergara; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Salazar, María Julieta; Blanco, Andrés; Pignata, María Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Polluted agricultural soils are a serious problem for food safety, with phytoremediation being the most favorable alternative from the environmental perspective. However, this methodology is generally time-consuming and requires the cessation of agriculture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate two potential phytoextractor plants (the native species Bidens pilosa and Tagetes minuta) co-cropped with lettuce growing on agricultural lead-polluted soils. The concentrations of Pb, as well as of other metals, were investigated in the phytoextractors, crop species, and in soils, with the potential risk to the health of consumers being estimated. The soil parameters pH, EC, organic matter percentage and bioavailable lead showed a direct relationship with the accumulation of Pb in roots. In addition, the concentration of Pb in roots of native species was closely related to Fe (B. pilosa, r = 0.81; T. minuta r = 0.75), Cu (T. minuta, r = 0.93), Mn (B. pilosa, r = 0.89) and Zn (B. pilosa, r = 0.91; T. minuta, r = 0.91). Our results indicate that the interaction between rhizospheres increased the phytoextraction of lead, which was accompanied by an increase in the biomass of the phytoextractor species. However, the consumption of lettuce still revealed a toxicological risk from Pb in all treatments. PMID:26940382

  15. Comparison of the nutritive value and biological activities of the acetone, methanol and water extracts of the leaves of Bidens pilosa and Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Adedapo, Adeolu; Jimoh, Florence; Afolayan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    A resurgence of interest has developed in wild vegetables for their possible medicinal values in diets. Wild plant species provide minerals, fibre, vitamins and essential fatty acids and enhance taste and color in diets. For this reason, the nutritional, phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the acetone, methanol and water extracts of the leaves of Bidens pilosa and Chenopodium album were investigated. The proximate analysis showed that the leaves of the plants contained appreciable percentage of moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate. Elemental analysis in mg/100 g dry weight (d.w.) indicated that the leaves contained sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and nitrogen. The chemical composition in mg/100 g d.w. showed the presence of alkaloid, saponins, and phytate. The extracts also caused DPPH radical scavenging activities which were comparable to those of ascorbic acid. This was also the same for BHT scavenging activity. With respect to the polyphenols, the extracts of these two plants also contained appreciable levels of these phytochemicals. The extracts of these plants also caused varied inhibition of the bacterial strains used in this study. PMID:21485705

  16. Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Il10 Inhibits Inflammatory Activities of Carp Macrophages and Promotes Proliferation of Igm+ B Cells and Memory T Cells in a Manner Similar to Carp Il10.

    PubMed

    Piazzon, M Carla; Wentzel, Annelieke S; Tijhaar, Edwin J; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Forlenza, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the causative agent of a lethal disease of carp and encodes for an Il10 homolog (ORF134). Our previous studies with a recombinant ORF134-deleted strain and the derived revertant strain suggested that cyprinid herpesvirus 3 Il10 (CyHV-3 Il10 [cyhv3Il10]) is not essential for viral replication in vitro, or virulence in vivo. In apparent contrast, cyhv3Il10 is one of the most abundant proteins of the CyHV-3 secretome and is structurally very similar to carp Il10 and also human IL10. To date, studies addressing the biological activity of cyhv3Il10 on cells of its natural host have not been performed. To address the apparent contradiction between the presence of a structurally conserved Il10 homolog in the genome of CyHV-3 and the lack of a clear phenotype in vivo using recombinant cyhv3Il10-deleted viruses, we used an in vitro approach to investigate in detail whether cyhv3Il10 exerts any biological activity on carp cells. In this study, we provide direct evidence that cyhv3Il10 is biologically active and, similarly to carp Il10, signals via a conserved Stat3 pathway modulating immune cells of its natural host, carp. In vitro, cyhv3Il10 deactivates phagocytes with a prominent effect on macrophages, while also promoting proliferation of Igm(+) B cells and memory T cells. Collectively, this study demonstrates a clear biological activity of cyhv3Il10 on cells of its natural host and indicates that cyhv3Il10 is a true viral ortholog of carp Il10. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first report on biological activities of a nonmammalian viral Il10 homolog. PMID:26371255

  17. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xuxia; Fu, Linglin

    2013-01-01

    Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. PMID:24204137

  18. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xuxia; Fu, Linglin

    2013-01-01

    Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. PMID:24204137

  19. Effect of water hardness and dissolved-solid concentration on hatching success and egg size in bighead carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is an Asian species that has been introduced to the United States and is regarded as a highly undesirable invader. Soft water has been said to cause the bursting of Asian carp eggs and thus has been suggested as a factor that would limit the spread of this species. To evaluate this, we subjected fertilized eggs of bighead carp to waters with a wide range of hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations. Hatching rate and egg size were not significantly affected by the different water qualities. These results, combined with the low hardness (28–84 mg/L) of the Yangtze River (the primary natal habitat of Hypophthalmichthys spp.), suggest that managers and those performing risk assessments for the establishment of Hypophthalmichthys spp. should be cautious about treating low hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations as limiting factors.

  20. Changes in physiochemical properties of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) during heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaifeng; Shen, Huixing; Li, Bo; Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang

    2014-07-01

    In order to understand physicochemical properties of water-soluble proteins obtained from crucian carp, turbidity, total sulfhydryl content, hydrophobicity and SDS-PAGE of crucian carp water-soluble proteins during heat treatment were investigated. Turbidity remained unchanged up to 44°C and considerably increased from 46°C to 54°C, one peak of increase rate was found at 50°C; total SH content decreased rapidly when heated from 50°C to 55°C; hydrophobicity increased sharply when heated up to 45°C, indicating the conformation of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp began to unfold and expose the buried nonpolar amino acids at temperatures above 45°C; analysis of SDS-PAGE indicating the formation of disulfide linkage of creatine kinase and glyceraldehy-3-phosphate dehydrogenase when the temperature reached 65°C and 80°C, respectively. PMID:24966436

  1. Postmortem changes in actomyosin dissociation, myofibril fragmentation and endogenous enzyme activities of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Deng, Shaoying; Xu, Weimin; Liu, Yuan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Liu, Fang

    2016-04-15

    The changes of actomyosin, proteolytic activities and myofibril fragmentation during the postmortem aging of grass carp were studied. The study revealed dramatically increased actomyosin dissociation within 6 h of storage postmortem in grass carp, and it was associated with the drop of pH from 6.9 to 6.7, while liberated actin remained almost unchanged after 6 h postmortem. The myofibril fragmentation also increased significantly with the storage time in 6 h, and a highly positive correlation (P<0.01) existed between MFI and cathepsin B, D, H activities. The study indicated both actomyosin dissociation and cathepsin B, D, H played a role in postmortem tenderization and textural changes in grass carp. PMID:26616958

  2. The induction of nitric oxide response of carp macrophages by transferrin is influenced by the allelic diversity of the molecule.

    PubMed

    Jurecka, Patrycja; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Stafford, James L; Ruszczyk, Aleksandra; Taverne, Nico; Belosevic, Miodrag; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2009-04-01

    The central role of transferrin (Tf) as an iron transporting protein has been extended by observations that modified versions of Tf also participate in the regulation of innate immunity. We report on the isolation of two carp Tf proteins (alleles D and G) to purity using rivanol precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography, and describe the activation of head kidney-derived carp macrophages by cleaved Tf. We demonstrate the superiority of the D-type over the G-type Tf in inducing nitric oxide (NO) and confirm previous observations that full-length Tf cannot induce NO in fish macrophages. We believe that cleaved Tf fragments should be considered to be "alarmins". We discuss the possibility that parasites such as Trypanoplasma borreli cleave Tf and use Tf fragments to their advantage by modulating the NO induction in carp macrophages. PMID:18996204

  3. Changes of haematological indices of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella exposed to monogenean parasites, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    PubMed

    Restiannasab, Abulhasan; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein; Saljoghi, Zoheir Shokouh

    2016-09-01

    The present was carried out to investigate the effects of monogenean infection on haematological indices of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some haematological indices were measured in two adult groups of grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) decreased significantly in infected fishes (P < 0.05). In contrast, the white blood cells (WBCs) values increased significantly in infected fishes (P < 0.05). In contrast, the WBC values increased significantly in infected fishes. In conclusion, our results showed that monogenean infection by Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. can affects health condition of grass carp through alternation of haematology. PMID:27605756

  4. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/) and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection. PMID:27092486

  5. Profiling kidney microRNAs from juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) after 56days of oral exposure to decabromodiphenyl ethane.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lian; Xiong, Yuanyan; Dong, Fang; Yu, Yunjiang; Zhang, Lijuan; Shunmei, E; Zhou, Liliu; Li, Xiaoxia; Hu, Guocheng

    2016-06-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most important species in China. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) is a brominated flame retardant that has been used widely in industry, and has been observed to accumulate in the tissues of fish from South China. Evidence has shown that DBDPE is toxic to aquatic animals, but the molecular response has been unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding and negative regulatory RNAs that are 20-24 nucleotides in length, which are involved in a wide range of biological processes. We took advantage of deep-sequencing techniques to accurately and comprehensively profile the kidney miRNA expression of grass carp after 8weeks of oral exposure to DBDPE. After mapping sequencing data to the genome and Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) of grass carp, we identified 493 miRNAs in the sequenced grass carp samples, which included 51 new miRNAs. The results indicated that 5 miRNAs were significantly down-regulated and 36 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated (FDR<0.001, 1.5-fold change) after DBDPE exposure. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed on 4 miRNAs from the two samples, and the sequencing and RT-qPCR data were consistent. This study provides the first comprehensive identification of grass carp miRNAs, and the first expression analysis of grass carp miRNAs following DBDPE exposure. The results indicated that miRNAs have potential for use as biomarkers. PMID:27266303

  6. 26S Proteasome regulation of Ankrd1/CARP in adult rat ventricular myocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Samaras, Susan E.; Chen, Billy; Koch, Stephen R.; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Lim, Chee Chew; Davidson, Jeffrey M.

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 26S proteasome regulates Ankrd1 levels in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankrd1 protein degrades 60-fold faster in endothelial cells than cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential degradation appears related to nuclear vs. sarcolemmal localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cell density shows uncoupling of Ankrd1 mRNA and protein levels. -- Abstract: Ankyrin repeat domain 1 protein (Ankrd1), also known as cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), increases dramatically after tissue injury, and its overexpression improves aspects of wound healing. Reports that Ankrd1/CARP protein stability may affect cardiovascular organization, together with our findings that the protein is crucial to stability of the cardiomyocyte sarcomere and increased in wound healing, led us to compare the contribution of Ankrd1/CARP stability to its abundance. We found that the 26S proteasome is the dominant regulator of Ankrd1/CARP degradation, and that Ankrd1/CARP half-life is significantly longer in cardiomyocytes (h) than endothelial cells (min). In addition, higher endothelial cell density decreased the abundance of the protein without affecting steady state mRNA levels. Taken together, our data and that of others indicate that Ankrd1/CARP is highly regulated at multiple levels of its expression. The striking difference in protein half-life between a muscle and a non-muscle cell type suggests that post-translational proteolysis is correlated with the predominantly structural versus regulatory role of the protein in the two cell types.

  7. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Infected with Flavobacterium columnare.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/) and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection. PMID:27092486

  8. Bioinformatics analysis of organizational and expressional characterizations of the IFNs, IRFs and CRFBs in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhiwei; Wan, Quanyuan; Su, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Interferons (IFNs) play crucial roles in the immune response of defense against viral infection and bacteria invasion. In the present study, we systematically identified and characterized the IFNs, their regulatory factors (Interferon Regulatory Factors, IRFs) and receptors (Cytokine Receptor Family B, CRFBs) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Grass carp IFNs can be classified into type I IFN (IFN-I) and type II IFN (IFN-II) like other teleosts. IFN-I consist of two groups with two (group I) or four (group II) cysteines in the mature peptide and can be further divided into three subgroups (IFN-a, -c and -d), containing four members: IFN1, IFN2, IFN3, IFN4 in grass carp. IFN-II contain two members, IFNγ2 with the similarity to mammalian IFNγ and a cyprinid specific IFNγ1 (IFNγ-rel) molecule. mRNA expression analyses of IFNs discovered that IFN1 and IFN-II were sustainably expressed in many tissues, while other IFN members were transiently expressed in specific tissues and time points. In the immune response, IFN transcriptions are primarily regulated through multiple IRFs after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) challenge. IRF family possess thirteen members in grass carp, which can be further divided into four subfamilies (IRF-1, -3, -4 and -5 subfamily), each of them plays different roles in the innate and adaptive immunity via various signaling pathways to interact with IFNs (mainly IFN-I). IFNs have to bind receptors (CRFBs) to perform their functions. CRFBs as IFN receptors contain six members in grass carp. The structure and expression characterizations of IFNs, IRFs and CRFBs were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. These results might provide basic data for the further functional research of IFN system, and deeply understand fish immune mechanisms against virus infection. PMID:27012995

  9. Protective immunity of grass carp immunized with DNA vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila by using carbon nanotubes as a carrier molecule.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2016-08-01

    To reduce the economic losses caused by diseases in aquaculture industry, more efficient and economic prophylactic measures should be urgently investigated. In this research, the effects of a novel functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) applied as a delivery vehicle for DNA vaccine administration in juvenile grass carp against Aeromonas hydrophila were studied. Our results showed that SWCNTs loaded with DNA vaccine induced a better protection to juvenile grass carp against A. hydrophila. Moreover, SWCNTs conjugated with DNA vaccine provided significantly protective immunity compared with free DNA vaccine. Thereby, SWCNTs may be considered as a potential efficient DNA vaccine carrier to enhance the immunological activity. PMID:27343373

  10. Impact of the Gezhouba and Three Gorges Dams on habitat suitability of carps in the Yangtze River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yujun; Wang, Zhaoyin; Yang, Zhifeng

    2010-06-01

    SummaryThe Gezhouba Dam and Three Gorges Project are the two largest hydraulic projects in the middle reach of the Yangtze River. Although these projects have yielded benefits to local communities by providing flood control, water supply, and safe navigation, they also have changed the physical habitat of the Yangtze River. As a consequence, aquatic organisms, including rare species and fishes with economic value, have been affected. The Yangtze River's four major carp species (YFMCS)—black carp ( Mylopharyngodon piceus), grass carp ( Ctenop haryngodon idellus), silver carp ( Hypoph thal michthys molitrix), and big-head carp ( Aristichyths nobilis)—have significant importance to the fresh water fishery in China. According to field surveys, the percentage of the YFMCS in the total catch of fish from Tongting Lake has gradually reduced. The percentages were 22%, 14.1%, 11.84%, and 8.5% in 1963, 1980-1982, 1997, and 2002, respectively. These reductions in species population are mainly attributed to the loss of spawning ground caused by dam construction. Considering the spawning characteristics of the YFMCS, a habitat suitability index model (HSI) has been established. A one-dimensional (1-D) mathematical model was also developed to simulate and predict aspects of the physical habitat situation for the YFMCS. By coupling the habitat suitability curves and the 1-D mathematical model, a HSI model for the YFMCS was established. The HSI model was validated by comparing measured data with predictions from the model. These comparisons show that the computed results agree well with the measured results. The HSI model for the YFMCS is used to suggest a minimum instream flow and suitable daily discharge increase during the reproduction season for the carp species. The minimum discharge needed for the YFMCS in the middle reach of the Yangtze River is 3000 m 3/s. Different daily discharge increases are required for different initial discharges, too small or too large of an