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Sample records for carpio surface piping

  1. Fracture behavior of short circumferentially surface-cracked pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnaswamy, P.; Scott, P.; Mohan, R.

    1995-11-01

    This topical report summarizes the work performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Comniission`s (NRC) research program entitled ``Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds`` that specifically focuses on pipes with short, circumferential surface cracks. The following details are provided in this report: (i) material property deteminations, (ii) pipe fracture experiments, (iii) development, modification and validation of fracture analysis methods, and (iv) impact of this work on the ASME Section XI Flaw Evaluation Procedures. The material properties developed and used in the analysis of the experiments are included in this report and have been implemented into the NRC`s PIFRAC database. Six full-scale pipe experiments were conducted during this program. The analyses methods reported here fall into three categories (i) limit-load approaches, (ii) design criteria, and (iii) elastic-plastic fracture methods. These methods were evaluated by comparing the analytical predictions with experimental data. The results, using 44 pipe experiments from this and other programs, showed that the SC.TNP1 and DPZP analyses were the most accurate in predicting maximum load. New Z-factors were developed using these methods. These are being considered for updating the ASME Section XI criteria.

  2. Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dussinger, Peter M.; Lindemuth, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The principal objective of this Phase 2 SBIR program was to develop and demonstrate a practically insoluble coating for nickel-based superalloys for Stirling engine heat pipe applications. Specific technical objectives of the program were: (1) Determine the solubility corrosion rates for Nickel 200, Inconel 718, and Udimet 72OLI in a simulated Stirling engine heat pipe environment, (2) Develop coating processes and techniques for capillary groove and screen wick structures, (3) Evaluate the durability and solubility corrosion rates for capillary groove and screen wick structures coated with an insoluble coating in cylindrical heat pipes operating under Stirling engine conditions, and (4) Design and fabricate a coated full-scale, partial segment of the current Stirling engine heat pipe for the Stirling Space Power Convertor program. The work effort successfully demonstrated a two-step nickel aluminide coating process for groove wick structures and interior wall surfaces in contact with liquid metals; demonstrated a one-step nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures; and developed and demonstrated a two-step aluminum-to-nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures. In addition, the full-scale, partial segment was fabricated and the interior surfaces and wick structures were coated. The heat pipe was charged with sodium, processed, and scheduled to be life tested for up to ten years as a Phase 3 effort.

  3. Impervious surfaces and sewer pipe effects on stormwater runoff temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Mahboubi, A. A.; McBean, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    The warming effect of the impervious surfaces in urban catchment areas and the cooling effect of underground storm sewer pipes on stormwater runoff temperature are assessed. Four urban residential catchment areas in the Cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada were evaluated using a combination of runoff monitoring and modelling. The stormwater level and water temperature were monitored at 10 min interval at the inlet of the stormwater management ponds for three summers 2009, 2010 and 2011. The warming effect of the ponds is also studied, however discussed in detail in a separate paper. An artificial neural network (ANN) model for stormwater temperature was trained and validated using monitoring data. Stormwater runoff temperature was most sensitive to event mean temperature of the rainfall (EMTR) with a normalized sensitivity coefficient (Sn) of 1.257. Subsequent levels of sensitivity corresponded to the longest sewer pipe length (LPL), maximum rainfall intensity (MI), percent impervious cover (IMP), rainfall depth (R), initial asphalt temperature (AspT), pipe network density (PND), and rainfall duration (D), respectively. Percent impervious cover of the catchment area (IMP) was the key parameter that represented the warming effect of the paved surfaces; sensitivity analysis showed IMP increase from 20% to 50% resulted in runoff temperature increase by 3 °C. The longest storm sewer pipe length (LPL) and the storm sewer pipe network density (PND) are the two key parameters that control the cooling effect of the underground sewer system; sensitivity analysis showed LPL increase from 345 to 966 m, resulted in runoff temperature drop by 2.5 °C.

  4. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-09-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  5. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  6. Digital holographic inspection for a straight pipe inner surface using multiwavelength illuminations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Masayuki

    2014-12-01

    An inner surface of straight pipe has been investigated using digital holographic technique. Both contour images for surface profile and color reconstructed images are used to the detection of artificial defects made on the inner wall of copper pipe. For the inspection, a cone-shaped mirror glued to one end of a metal rod is inserted into the pipe and illuminated from the other open end of the pipe. The new algorithm in which a deviation of the cone-shaped mirror from the pipe axis can be directly evaluated from the experimental height profile reduces the amount of calculation for correcting the distorted experimental profile. The pipe inspection has been done using the developed images of both the color intensity image and height profile for the inner wall of pipe.

  7. Modulation of cytochrome P450 and induction of DNA damage in Cyprinus carpio exposed in situ to surface water treated with chlorine or alternative disinfectants in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Canistro, Donatella; Melega, Simone; Ranieri, Dario; Sapone, Andrea; Gustavino, Bianca; Monfrinotti, Monica; Rizzoni, Marco; Paolini, Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between consumption of disinfected drinking water and adverse health outcomes. The chemicals used to disinfect water react with occurring organic matter and anthropogenic contaminants in the source water, resulting in the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). The observations that some DBPs are carcinogenic in animal models have raised public concern over the possible adverse health effects for humans. Here, the modulation of liver cytochrome P450-linked monooxygenases (MFO) and the genotoxic effects in erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio fish exposed in situ to surface drinking water in the presence of disinfectants, such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) and peracetic acid (PAA), were investigated in winter and summer. A complex induction/suppression pattern of CYP-associated MFOs in winter was observed for all disinfectants. For example, a 3.4- to 15-fold increase was recorded of the CYP2B1/2-linked dealkylation of penthoxyresorufin with NaClO (10 days) and PAA (20 days). In contrast, ClO(2) generated the most notable inactivation, the CYP2E1-supported hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol being decreased up to 71% after 10 days' treatment. In summer, the degree of modulation was modest, with the exception of CYP3A1/2 and CYP1A1 supported MFOs (62% loss after 20 days PAA). The micronucleus (MN) induction in fish circulating erythrocytes was also analysed as an endpoint of genotoxic potential in the same fish population. Significant increases of MN induction were detected at the latest sampling time on fish exposed to surface water treated with chlorinate-disinfectants, both in winter (NaClO) and summer (NaClO and ClO(2)), while no effect was observed in fish exposed to PAA-treated water. These results show that water disinfection may be responsible for harmful outcomes in terms of MFO perturbation and DNA damage; if extrapolated to humans, they ultimately offer a possible rationale for the

  8. Rotating optical geometry sensor for inner pipe-surface reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Moritz; Frey, Christan W.

    2010-01-01

    The inspection of sewer or fresh water pipes is usually carried out by a remotely controlled inspection vehicle equipped with a high resolution camera and a lightning system. This operator-oriented approach based on offline analysis of the recorded images is highly subjective and prone to errors. Beside the subjective classification of pipe defects through the operator standard closed circuit television (CCTV) technology is not suitable for detecting geometrical deformations resulting from e.g. structural mechanical weakness of the pipe, corrosion of e.g. cast-iron material or sedimentations. At Fraunhofer Institute of Optronics, System Technologies and Image Exploitation (IOSB) in Karlsruhe, Germany, a new Rotating Optical Geometry Sensor (ROGS) for pipe inspection has been developed which is capable of measuring the inner pipe geometry very precisely over the whole pipe length. This paper describes the developed ROGS system and the online adaption strategy for choosing the optimal system parameters. These parameters are the rotation and traveling speed dependent from the pipe diameter. Furthermore, a practicable calibration methodology is presented which guarantees an identification of the several internal sensor parameters. ROGS has been integrated in two different systems: A rod based system for small fresh water pipes and a standard inspection vehicle based system for large sewer Pipes. These systems have been successfully applied to different pipe systems. With this measurement method the geometric information can be used efficiently for an objective repeatable quality evaluation. Results and experiences in the area of fresh water pipe inspection will be presented.

  9. Perturbation of cytochrome P450, generation of oxidative stress and induction of DNA damage in Cyprinus carpio exposed in situ to potable surface water.

    PubMed

    Sapone, Andrea; Gustavino, Bianca; Monfrinotti, Monica; Canistro, Donatella; Broccoli, Massimiliano; Pozzetti, Laura; Affatato, Alessandra; Valgimigli, Luca; Forti, Giorgio Cantelli; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Biagi, Gian Luigi; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z; Paolini, Moreno

    2007-01-10

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between consumption of chlorinated drinking water and various cancers. Chlorination of water rich in organic chemicals produces carcinogenic organochlorine by-products (OBPs) such as trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. Since the discovery of the first OBP in the 1970s, there have been several investigations designed to determine the biological effects of single chemicals or small artificial OBP combinations. However, there is still insufficient information regarding the general biological response to these compounds, and further studies are still needed to evaluate their potential genotoxic effects. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of three drinking water disinfectants on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-linked metabolizing enzymes and on the generation of oxidative stress in the livers of male and female Cyprinus carpio fish (carp). The fish were exposed in situ for up 20 days to surface water obtained from the Trasmene lake in Italy. The water was treated with 1-2 mg/L of either sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) or chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as traditional disinfectants or with a relatively new disinfectant product, peracetic acid (PAA). Micronucleus (MN) frequencies in circulating erythrocytes from the fish were also analysed as a biomarker of genotoxic effect. In the CYP-linked enzyme assays, a significant induction (up to a 57-fold increase in the deethylation of ethoxyresorufin with PAA treatment) and a notable inactivation (up to almost a 90% loss in hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol with all disinfectants, and of testosterone 2beta-hydroxylation with NaClO) was observed in subcellular liver preparations from exposed fish. Using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy radical-probe technique, we also observed that CYP-modulation was associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, we found a significant increase in MN frequency in circulating erythrocytes after 10

  10. Effects of surface condition on the stress corrosion cracking of line pipe steel

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Christman, T.K.; Parkins, R.N.

    1988-04-01

    The relationship between surface properties of line pipe steels and external stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is reviewed. Surface factors discussed include mill scale, surface pitting, decarburization, surface residual stresses, and near-surface stress state. Recent research results have demonstrated that the susceptibility of a line pipe steel to SCC initiation is dependent on complicated interaction among these properties. However, these studies also show that relatively simple surface preparation procedures such as grit blasting can be effective in reducing the susceptibility of pipelines to crack initiation.

  11. Analysis of pipe flow with free surface. Part II. Theoretical analysis and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Amane; Takaki, Ryuji

    1994-05-01

    Flow field near the front of an incompressible viscous fluid pushed into a circular pipe is analyzed theoretically and observed experimentally. In the theory, an approximated stream function for a steady state near the axis of the pipe is obtained by use of the Stokes equation. In the experiment, the shape of the surface was observed by a video camera. The theoretical velocity profile and the surface shape near the axis coincide with those from computation (Part I) and experiment.

  12. Effect of disinfectants on pseudomonads colonized on the interior surface of PVC pipes.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R L; Holland, B W; Carr, J K; Bond, W W; Favero, M S

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the effect of disinfectants on microbial contamination present on the interior surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes filled with 600 ml of water contaminated with Pseudomonas pickettii and P. aeruginosa. After eight weeks, water was removed, and the test pipes exposed to various types of aqueous disinfectants. Disinfectant samples were removed, neutralized, and examined for recovery of microorganisms by membrane filtration. After seven-days exposure, disinfectant solutions were removed and pipes filled with sterile distilled water. Water was examined by membrane filtration at seven-day intervals to determine whether the organisms had survived in the pipes. Colonization of PVC surfaces were examined during each study phase by scanning electron-microscopy (SEM). P. aeruginosa was isolated directly from iodophor disinfectant, phenolic germicide, and iodophor antiseptic solutions. After addition of sterile water, P. aeruginosa was recovered from PVC pipes previously exposed to chlorine, phenolic, quaternary-ammonium, and iodophor disinfectants; P. pickettii was recovered from water in pipes treated with iodophor disinfectant, chlorine, and ethanol. The existence of glycocalyx-like cellular masses on the interior wall of PVC pipes most likely protected embedded organisms from the microbicidal action of some of the disinfectants tested and served as the reservoir for continuous contamination. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:2293797

  13. Evaluation of a universal transitional resistance diagram for pipes with honed surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. J.; Shockling, M. A.; Smits, A. J.

    2005-12-01

    A method for evaluating a universal transitional resistance diagram for pipes that relates the pressure drop in the pipe to Reynolds number, as a function of relative surface roughness, is presented. The method assumes a universal wake function, a logarithmic overlap region and a power fit in the viscous and buffer layer. Estimates can be made of the friction factor-Reynolds number relationship for arbitrary relative roughness, based on a given surface geometry. The method is illustrated for a pipe with a honed surface finish and uses data of Shockling ("Turbulent flow in a rough pipe," MSE dissertation, Princeton University, 2005). Honed roughness demonstrates an inflectional behavior in the transitionally rough regime, much like sand grain roughness [Laws of flow in rough pipes, VDI Forschungsh, 361 (1933), 1292 (NACA TM, 1950)], but the method proposed here can be applied to any given roughness behavior. It is suggested that the critical parameter that determines whether the resistance diagram shows inflectional characteristics is the ratio of roughness height to outer layer scale. Based on analysis of data from previous researchers it is suggested that if the relative surface roughness krms/D <0.0025, where krms is the rms amplitude of the roughness and D is the pipe diameter, inflectional relationships should be observed.

  14. Digital holographic inspection for the straight pipe inner surface using multiwavelength from laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, M.; Koyama, T.; Kawakami, T.

    2013-04-01

    Digital holographic profilometry using multiwavelength from laser diodes is applied to an inspection of inner surface of straight copper pipe and the detection of artificial defects such as a hole, rust and a scratch in its wall. To obtain the inner surface profile, a cone-shaped mirror attached to a rod having two acrylic spacers is inserted into the pipe and illuminated by the collimated laser beam from the other open end of the pipe. The measurement has been performed by shifting the mirror stepwise along the pipe. Distribution of an optical path length in the alignment is calculated and used to compensate for a distortion in the profile due to a positional misalignment of the mirror. The new algorithm to obtain the positional error is adopted for the compensation process and the shape and positions of defects in the inner wall can be investigated.

  15. Digital holographic inspection for the inner surface of a straight pipe using current-induced multiwavelength from two laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Masayuki; Koyama, Teppei; Kawakami, Tomoaki

    2014-10-01

    Digital holographic profilometry using multiwavelength from two laser diodes is applied to the measurement of the inner surface of a straight copper pipe and the detection of artificial defects such as holes, rust, and scratches made on the inner wall. To obtain the inner surface profile, a cone-shaped mirror (CSM) attached to a metal rod having two acrylic spacers is inserted into the pipe and illuminated by the collimated laser beam from the other open end of the pipe. The inspection of the pipe has been performed by shifting the CSM stepwise along the pipe axis. The new algorithm in which a positional misalignment of the CSM can be directly obtained from the experimental height profile can reduce the load for calculation of correcting the distorted experimental height profile. The pipe inspection has been done using the developed images of both the intensity and height profile for the inner wall of the pipe.

  16. Evaluation of surface sampling techniques for collection of Bacillus spores on common drinking water pipe materials.

    PubMed

    Packard, Benjamin H; Kupferle, Margaret J

    2010-01-01

    Drinking water utilities may face biological contamination of the distribution system from a natural incident or deliberate contamination. Determining the extent of contamination or the efficacy of decontamination is a challenge, because it may require sampling of the wetted surfaces of distribution infrastructure. This study evaluated two sampling techniques that utilities might use to sample exhumed pipe sections. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cement-lined ductile iron, and ductile iron pipe coupons (3 cm x 14 cm) cut from new water main piping were conditioned for three months in dechlorinated Cincinnati, Ohio tap water. Coupons were spiked with Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Brushing and scraping were used to recover the inoculated spores from the coupons. Mean recoveries for all materials ranged from 37 +/- 30% to 43 +/- 20% for brushing vs. 24 +/- 10% to 51 +/- 29% for scraping. On cement-lined pipe, brushing yielded a significantly different recovery than scraping. No differences were seen between brushing and scraping the PVC and iron pipe coupons. Mean brushing and scraping recoveries from PVC coupons were more variable than mean recoveries from cement-lined and iron coupons. Spore retention differed between pipe materials and the presence of established biofilms also had an impact. Conditioned PVC coupons (with established biofilms) had significantly lower spore retention (31 +/- 11%) than conditioned cement-lined coupons (61 +/- 14%) and conditioned iron coupons (71 +/- 8%). PMID:20082033

  17. Hybrid Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Surface and High Heat Flux Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ababneh, Mohammed T.; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Alvarez-Hernandez, Angel R.

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid wick heat pipes are developed to operate against gravity on planetary surfaces, operate in space carrying power over long distances and act as thermosyphons on the planetary surface for Lunar and Martian landers and rovers. These hybrid heat pipes will be capable of operating at the higher heat flux requirements expected in NASA's future spacecraft and on the next generation of polar rovers and equatorial landers. In addition, the sintered evaporator wicks mitigate the start-up problems in vertical gravity aided heat pipes because of large number of nucleation sites in wicks which will allow easy boiling initiation. ACT, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center, are working together on the Advanced Passive Thermal experiment (APTx) to test and validate the operation of a hybrid wick VCHP with warm reservoir and HiK"TM" plates in microgravity environment on the ISS.

  18. Characterisation of a grooved heat pipe with an anodised surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, A. Brusly; Ram Kumar, A. M.; Ramachandran, K.; Pillai, B. C.; Senthil Kumar, C.; Sharifpur, Mohsen; Meyer, Josua P.

    2016-06-01

    A grooved heat pipe (GHP) is an important device for managing heat in space applications such as satellites and space stations, as it works efficiently in the absence of gravity. Apart from the above application, axial GHPs are used in many applications, such as electronic cooling units for temperature control and permafrost cooling. Improving the performance of GHPs is essential for better cooling and thermal management. In the present study, the effect of anodization on the heat transfer characteristics of a GHP is studied with R600a as a working fluid. In addition, the effects of fill ratio, inclination angle and heat inputs on the heat transfer performance of a GHP are studied. Furthermore, the effect of heat flux on dimensional numbers, such as the Webber, Bond, Kutateladze and condensation numbers, are studied. The inclination angle, heat input and fill ratio of GHPs are varied in the range of 0°-90°, 25-250 W and 10-70 % respectively. It is found that the above parameters have a significant effect on the performance of a GHP. Due to the anodisation, the maximum enhancement in heat transfer coefficient at the evaporator is 39 % for a 90° inclination at a heat flux of 11 kW/m2. The reported performance enhancement of a GHP may be due to the large numbers of nucleation sites created by the anodisation process and enhancement in the capillary force due to the coating.

  19. Surface Impedance Formalism for a Metallic Beam Pipe with Small Corrugations

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.; Bane, K.L.F.; /SLAC

    2012-08-30

    A metallic pipe with wall corrugations is of special interest in light of recent proposals to use such a pipe for the generation of terahertz radiation and for energy dechirping of electron bunches in free electron lasers. In this paper we calculate the surface impedance of a corrugated metal wall and show that it can be reduced to that of a thin layer with dielectric constant {epsilon} and magnetic permeability {mu}. We develop a technique for the calculation of these constants, given the geometrical parameters of the corrugations. We then calculate, for the specific case of a round metallic pipe with small corrugations, the frequency and strength of the resonant mode excited by a relativistic beam. Our analytical results are compared with numerical simulations, and are shown to agree well.

  20. Panoramic optical annular staring inspection system for evaluating the inner surface of a pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liefeng; Feng, Huajun; Bai, Jian; Jin, Hao

    2008-01-01

    There should be flaws and defects on the inner surface during the producing period of a pipe, as well as contaminations and corrosions during the using period of it. A corresponding panoramic optical annular staring inspection system has been developed. It requires no rotating mechanism to exam the whole circumference of a cross section of the inner pipe surface at once, which results high speed inspection. There are two main subsystems in this inspection system, the panoramic optical annular staring imaging subsystem and driving robot subsystem. The Flat Cylinder Perspective (FCP) is the principle to image a panoramic annular view to a flat imagery, i.e. a cylinder of vision imaged is flat. Our imaging subsystem includes a panoramic annular lens (PAL), which is critical and used to implement the FCP, a series of image rotation lenses, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, and an illuminating light-emitting diode (LED) ring. The CCD camera sending the signal to a personal computer (PC) via VGA signal results a real time inspection. The driving robot subsystem is a fine designed complicated mechanism including a subassembly of stepper motor. It can drive the inspection system forward and backward continuously in the pipe along the axial direction. The experimental system reported in this paper has the following specifications: average detection resolution of 0.5 mm at the circumference direction and 1.0 mm at the axial direction of a pipe, and inspection speed of 15 mm/s.

  1. Surface preparation for non-destructive detection of surface cracks in stainless steel and carbon steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Funderburg, I.M.

    1996-07-01

    Engineers within the chemical process industries are among other things, charged with the task of determining the reliability of piping and equipment. As part of this evaluation, the surfaces of process equipment and piping are often examined for evidence of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) or other tightly closed surface cracks. Presently there is no consensus as to which is the ``best`` technique for preparing and inspecting carbon steel and stainless steel vessels or piping for surface cracks. The specific concern within industry is that Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) might go undetected if the surface preparation closes over such tight cracks. This paper presents results of a study, MTI commissioned to collect additional data, examine the literature, and interview industrial materials engineers, independent inspection specialists, non-destructive examination consultants, and other representatives of industries that have equipment which must be inspected for surface cracks. Discussed are the differing surface preparation techniques used, the use of standards for evaluating the effectiveness of the techniques, and what is felt to be the ``Key Learnings`` from the investigation.

  2. Experimental and analytical assessment of circumferentially surface-cracked pipes under bending

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P.M.; Ahmad, J.

    1987-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the validity of various techniques to predict maximum loads for circumferentially surface-cracked pipes under bending. Experimental data were developed for both carbon steel and stainless steel pipes. Predictions of maximum loads were made using the net-section-collapse method, the IWB-3640 analysis procedures, and a newly developed finite-length surface-cracked pipe J-estimation method. The net-section-collapse method gave good maximum-load predictions for certain types of pipe. However, for pipes with large radius to thickness (R/sub m//t) ratios and/or low toughness this analysis method tended to overpredict the experimental maximum load. A plastic-zone screening criterion was developed to show when this method was valid and when elastic-plastic fracture mechanics should be used. The limit-load procedures embodied in IWB-3640 provide the desired underprediction of the failure stress. The average failure stress for the nine stainless steel base metal experiments was 61% higher than predicted by Table IWB-3641-1 and 23% higher than predicted by the Source Equations. For the three stainless steel flux weld experiments the predicted failure stresses were adjusted by a stress multiplier to account for the lower toughness of the flux welds. The average failure stress for the flux weld experiments was 78% higher than predicted by Table IWB-3641-5 and 39% higher than predicted by the Source Equations. Predictions from two versions of the new finite-length surface-cracked pipe J-estimation method were compared to experimental results. One version is for pipes with large R/sub m//t ratios (SC.TNP) while the other is a more general approach (SC.TKP) where the large R/sub m//t ratio restriction is relaxed. The results show that the SC.TNP method tends to overestimate the maximum loads by 15% on the average whereas the SC.TKP method tends to underpredict the maximum loads, as desired, by 32%.

  3. Signal processing for determining water height in steam pipes with dynamic surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2015-03-01

    An enhanced signal processing method based on the filtered Hilbert envelope of the auto-correlation function of the wave signal has been developed to monitor the height of condensed water through the steel wall of steam pipes with dynamic surface conditions. The developed signal processing algorithm can also be used to estimate the thickness of the pipe to determine the cut-off frequency for the low pass filter frequency of the Hilbert Envelope. Testing and analysis results by using the developed technique for dynamic surface conditions are presented. A multiple array of transducers setup and methodology are proposed for both the pulse-echo and pitch-catch signals to monitor the fluctuation of the water height due to disturbance, water flow, and other anomaly conditions.

  4. A variable conductance heat pipe/radiator for the lunar surface magnetometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Marcus, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    The device was developed to supplement the existing cooling system of the Apollo 16 Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM). Analysis and tests showed that two such devices, inserted by an astronaut into receptacles on opposite sides of the electronics package, would reduce the diurnal temperature variation by about 40% and thereby would considerably increase the reliability of 50,000 welded connections. The LSM design constraints, selection of a variable conductance technique, heat pipe/radiator design features, and thermal performance are discussed.

  5. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dussinger, P.M.

    1993-09-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in).

  6. Surface modification for corrosion protection of steel pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morshed, Ali

    Corrosion of carbon steel oil pipelines in the sweet environments has been a well- known problem in the oil industry all over the world and corrosion inhibitors of the film forming type have been widely used to combat this type of corrosion. In this project numerous effort has been made to devise a similar way of corrosion mitigation by producing an impermeable and protective coating made of precipitated iron carbonate scale. Based on the previous works it was suggested that iron carbonate scale as the corrosion product (of carbon steel and CO2) could to some extent offer protection to its substrate and reduce the corrosion rate effectively. However, precipitating an adherent and protective iron carbonate scale has not been an easy job. Our main objectives during this work have been firstly to define the favourable conditions under which an iron carbonate scale would precipitate in the system and then to investigate how the protective characteristics of the scale could be improved. The effects of several environmental variables like solution pH, solution temperature, additives (scale inhibitors), stirring and solution composition on the scale properties such as adhesion, surface coverage, stability and porosity (scale density) have been investigated. Simultaneously, the adverse effects of certain conditions or variables that tended to reduce the scale protectiveness or prevent its precipitation have been investigated and discussed. Some of the presented results are rather qualitative; nevertheless it is believed that they have contributed in the better understanding of the iron carbonate scale properties and its precipitation process. Based on the results and conclusions of this project few suggestions have been made at the end for the possible continuation of this work.

  7. A Thermosyphon Titanium-Water Heat Pipe Design for a Lunar Surface Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, John; Semenov, Sergey

    2009-03-16

    A long titanium-water thermosyphon heat pipe was designed and tested in support of NASA's lunar surface power system. With a {delta}T of 11.6 C, a prototype has been shown to meet the temperature drop specification of 15 C at 400 W and 400 K. The heat pipe is designed to be embedded in a composite radiator panel to spread waste heat delivered by a circulating pumped loop. The major challenge was managing the fluid inventory to balance the conflicting requirements of power capacity and freeze-thaw tolerance. A unique hybrid wick was designed to achieve the required thermal performance and yet store all the working fluid during idle periods in a freeze-thaw tolerant fashion. A non-condensable gas charge was used to boost power capacity at lower operating temperatures. Eighteen prototypes will be built and tested.

  8. Code System for Fracture Mechanics Analysis of Circumferential Surface Cracks in Pipes.

    SciTech Connect

    BRUST, F.

    1999-07-28

    Version 00 The NRCPIPES software is designed to perform elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis for a circumferential surface cracked pipe, i.e., to establish the fracture-failure condition in terms of sustainable load (or stress) or displacement. The NRCPIPES software also includes several evaluation procedures and acceptance criteria for circumferential surface flaws based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI criteria, the British R6 Revision 3 Option 1 criteria, and the original Net-Section-Collapse (limit-load) analysis.

  9. Code System for Fracture Mechanics Analysis of Circumferential Surface Cracks in Pipes.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-07-28

    Version 00 The NRCPIPES software is designed to perform elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis for a circumferential surface cracked pipe, i.e., to establish the fracture-failure condition in terms of sustainable load (or stress) or displacement. The NRCPIPES software also includes several evaluation procedures and acceptance criteria for circumferential surface flaws based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI criteria, the British R6 Revision 3 Option 1 criteria, and the original Net-Section-Collapsemore » (limit-load) analysis.« less

  10. Analysis of the Impact of Major Influencing Factors on the Waveform of the Surface Eddy Current Probe for Electroconductive Nonmagnetic Pipe Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldshtein, A. E.; Belyankov, V. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The results of computer simulation of interaction between the magnetic field of the surface eddy current probe and a conductive pipe performed in COMSOL Multiphysics were used to determine the dependences of the probe on major influencing factors: pipe wall thickness, the gap between the probe and the pipe surface, material electroconductivity, the pipe wall curvature, areas with a smooth V-shaped change in the thickness and local thinning of a spherical shape, misalignment of the probe axis relative to the pipe surface and transverse displacement of the probe axis.

  11. Fracture Surface Analysis in HDPE Pipe Material Fatigued at Different Temperatures and Loading Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Zafarullah

    2012-07-01

    Effect of temperature and loading frequency on the fatigue fracture process in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe material has been investigated in this study via optical and scanning electron microscopy. Fatigue tests were performed using rectangular coupons obtained by slitting and flattening 50-mm-wide ring sections from 4-inch schedule 80 HDPE pipes. The flattening was carried out in a specially designed compression fixture at a temperature of 105 °C. Fatigue tests were conducted at temperatures of 0, 23, and 40 °C and loading frequencies of 0.1, 1, and 50 Hz. Fracture surface examinations reveal that the fatigue crack-growth process at all the test temperatures and loading frequencies involved mechanisms of shear yielding and crazing. Crack growth via crazing was found to be the dominant mechanism at higher temperature of 40 °C, while at 0 °C, a small amount of initial shear yielding precede the crazing process. Filler material particles contained in the HDPE pipe material play an important role of stress concentrators and help in micro-void nucleation, which promotes crack growth via crazing. The fatigue resistance of HDPE may thus be improved by addressing the stress concentration effect of filler particles.

  12. Surface cooling of scramjet engine inlets using heat pipe, transpiration, and film cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Modlin, J.M.; Colwell, G.T. Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta )

    1992-09-01

    This article reports the results of applying a finite-difference-based computational technique to the problem of predicting the transient thermal behavior of a scramjet engine inlet exposed to a typical hypersonic flight aerodynamic surface heating environment, including type IV shock interference heating. The leading-edge cooling model utilized incorporates liquid metal heat pipe cooling with surface transpiration and film cooling. Results include transient structural temperature distributions, aerodynamic heat inputs, and surface coolant distributions. It seems that these cooling techniques may be used to hold maximum skin temperatures to near acceptable values during the severe aerodynamic and type IV shock interference heating effects expected on the leading edge of a hypersonic aerospace vehicle scramjet engine. 15 refs.

  13. Light as a key driver of freshwater biofouling surface roughness in an experimental hydrocanal pipe rig.

    PubMed

    Ravizza, Matilde; Giosio, Dean; Henderson, Alan; Hovenden, Mark; Hudson, Monica; Salleh, Sazlina; Sargison, Jane; Shaw, Jennifer L; Walker, Jessica; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf

    2016-07-01

    Biofouling in canals and pipelines used for hydroelectric power generation decreases the flow capacity of conduits. A pipeline rig was designed consisting of test sections of varying substrata (PVC, painted steel) and light levels (transparent, frosted, opaque). Stalk-forming diatoms were abundant in both the frosted and transparent PVC pipes but negligible in the painted steel and opaque PVC pipes. Fungi were slightly more abundant in the painted steel pipe but equally present in all the other pipes while bacterial diversity was similar in all pipes. Photosynthetically functional biofouling (mainly diatoms) was able to develop in near darkness. Different biological fouling compositions generated differing friction factors. The highest friction factor was observed in the transparent pipe (densest diatom fouling), the lowest peak friction for the opaque PVC pipe (lowest fouling biomass), and with the painted steel pipe (high fouling biomass, but composed of fungal and bacterial crusts) being intermediate between the opaque and frosted PVC pipes. PMID:27244248

  14. Non-contact inspection for inner surface of small-diameter pipes based on laser-PSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, En-Qi; Ke, Ying-Lin; Li, Jiang-Xiong

    2005-07-01

    A new non-contact inspection technique based on laser-PSD (position sensitive detector) to inspect the inner surface of small-diameter pipe is proposed, and the corresponding sensor has been developed. After being reflected by two mirrors in series, a laser beam is projected onto the inner wall of a pipe as a small light spot and is read by a two-dimensional PSD. Based on the signals from the PSD and the structure parameters of the sensor, the spot position on the wall can be calculated in a local 3D coordinate system. The spot controlled by the micro-motor driven mirrors will scan a closed section ring on the inner wall of the pipe to obtain the relative coordinates of all the sampled points. The data will be then processed through data segmentation and least square fitting, to reconstruct the section curve used for obtaining the radius and the defect description of the section. Driven by a micro-pipe robot, the sensor can inspect a long curved pipe and obtain its 3-D reconstruction. An inspection system based on this technique can detect the mini-diameter pipe with an inner diameter of 9.5 mm≈10.5 mm and a curvature radius larger than 100 mm at a measurement accuracy of the inner surface defect of ±0.1 mm.

  15. String and Sticky Tape Experiments: Light Pipes, Hydrostatics, Surface Tension and a Milk Carton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, R. D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a demonstration of light pipes using low-cost materials, relating it to fiber optics communication. Also provides several experiments in hydrostatics and hydrodynamics using the materials for light pipe. (JM)

  16. INTERIOR SURFACE OF GALVANIZED STEEL PIPE: A POTENTIAL FACTOR IN CORROSION RESISTANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the differences found in zinc coatings of galvanized pipes manufactured in the United States, Korea, and Australia. Zinc thickness and finish varied with the type of pipe. In an ongoing pilot study, these pipes are being exposed to water containing various con...

  17. Energy pumping analysis of skating motion in a half pipe and on a level surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z. C.; Xin, Ming

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an energy pumping mechanism for locomotion is analysed. The pumping is accomplished by exerting forces perpendicular to the direction of motion. The paper attempts to demonstrate an interesting application of the classical mechanics to two sporting events: a person skating in a half pipe and a person travelling on a level surface on a skateboard. The equations of motion based on simplified mechanical models are derived using the Lagrange mechanics. The energy-pumping phenomenon is revealed through numerical simulations with simple pumping actions. The result presented in this paper can be used as an interesting class project in undergraduate mechanics or physics courses. It also motivates potential new applications of energy pumping in many engineering fields.

  18. Visualization of Flow in Pressurizer Spray Line Piping and Estimation of Thermal Stress Fluctuation Caused by Swaying of Water Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumaya, Toru; Nakamura, Akira; Onojima, Daisuke; Takenaka, Nobuyuki

    The pressurizer spray line of PWR plants cools reactor coolant by injecting water into pressurizer. Since the continuous spray flow rate during commercial operation of the plant is considered insufficient to fill the pipe completely, there is a concern that a water surface exists in the pipe and may periodically sway. In order to identify the flow regimes in spray line piping and assess their impact on pipe structure, a flow visualization experiment was conducted. In the experiment, air was used substituted for steam to simulate the gas phase of the pressurizer, and the flow instability causing swaying without condensation was investigated. With a full-scale mock-up made of acrylic, flow under room temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions was visualized, and possible flow regimes were identified based on the results of the experiment. Three representative patterns of swaying of water surface were assumed, and the range of thermal stress fluctuation, when the surface swayed instantaneously, was calculated. With the three patterns of swaying assumed based on the visualization experiment, it was confirmed that the thermal stress amplitude would not exceed the fatigue endurance limit prescribed in the Japanese Design and Construction Code.

  19. Pipe gripper

    DOEpatents

    Moyers, S.M.

    1975-12-16

    A device for gripping the exterior surface of a pipe or rod is described which has a plurality of wedges, each having a concave face which engages the outer surface of the pipe and each having a smooth face opposing the concave face. The wedges are seated on and their grooved concave faces are maintained in circular alignment by tapered axial segments of an opening extending through a wedge-seating member. The wedges are allowed to slide across the tapered axial segments so that such a sliding movement acts to vary the diameter of the circular alignment.

  20. Short cracks in piping and piping welds

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Brust, F.; Francini, R.; Ghadiali, N.; Kilinski, T.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Landow, M.; Marschall, C.W.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. )

    1992-04-01

    This is the second semiannual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds research program. The program began in March 1990 and will extend for 4 years. The intent of this program is to verify and improve fracture analyses for circumferentially cracked large-diameter nuclear piping with crack sizes typically used in leak-before-break analyses or in-service flaw evaluations. Only quasi-static loading rates are evaluated since the NRC's International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program is evaluating the effects of seismic loading rates on cracked piping systems. Progress for through-wall-cracked pipe involved (1) conducting a 28-inch diameter stainless steel SAW and 4-inch diameter French TP316 experiments, (2) conducting a matrix of FEM analyses to determine GE/EPRI functions for short TWC pipe, (3) comparison of uncracked pipe maximum moments to various analyses and FEM solutions, (4) development of a J-estimation scheme that includes the strength of both the weld and base metals. Progress for surface-cracked pipe involved (1) conducting two experiments on 6-inch diameter pipe with d/t = 0.5 and {Theta}/{pi} = 0.25 cracks, (2) comparisons of the pipe experiments to Net-Section-Collapse predictions, and (3) modification of the SC.TNP and SC.TKP J-estimation schemes to include external surface cracks.

  1. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  2. Probabilistic elastic-plastic fracture analysis of circumferentially cracked pipes with finite-length surface flaws

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, S.

    1996-12-01

    A new probabilistic model was developed for predicting elastic-plastic fracture response of circumferentially cracked pipes with finite-length, constant-depth, internal surface flaws subject to remote bending loads. It involves engineering estimation of energy release rate, J-tearing theory for characterizing ductile fracture, and standard methods of structural reliability theory. The underlying J-estimation model is based on deformation theory of plasticity, constitutive law characterized by power law model for stress-strain curve, and an equivalence criterion incorporating reduced thickness analogy for simulating system compliance due to the presence of a crack. New equations were developed to predict J-integral and were evaluated by comparing with available finite-element results from the current literature. Both analytical and simulation methods were formulated to determine the probabilistic characteristics of J. The same methods were used later to predict the probability of crack initiation and net-section collapse as a function of the applied load. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  3. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  4. Effect of repeated structural recrystallization of grade 20 steel on corrosion resistance of pipes of heating surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomazova, A. V.; Panova, T. V.; Gering, G. I.

    2015-04-01

    The necessity to enhance the operating characteristics of boiler steels is related to a continuous increase in corrosion damages of pipes of heating surfaces. Therefore, the actual task remains the development of ways to enhance the corrosion resistance of pipes made of grade 20, which are used as heat-absorbing elements in heat power engineering. The effect of cyclic modes of normalization (repeated structural recrystallization) on microstructural characteristics and the mechanical and corrosion properties of grade 20 steel in accordance with the regulatory requirements for products of this kind is studied. It is established that twofold normalization for grade 20 carbon steel is the optimum heat treatment mode for equalizing the ferrite grain sizes and decreasing the corrosion rate. It is revealed that this heat treatment mode increases the inequigranularity factor by three times in comparison with the original magnitude. Subsequent normalization cycles result in the formation of rejected microstructures and a decrease in mechanical properties of metal. The increased homogeneity of the microstructure at the double normalization decreases the corrosion rate by 38-51% of the original magnitude. The obtained results can be used for prolongation of the operation life by a decrease in the corrosion rate in pipes normalized twice as well as for the calculation of the remaining life of heating surfaces of boilers of heat power plants.

  5. Fat-associated lymphoid cluster in Cyprinus carpio: Characterisation and its relation with peritoneal haemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Madera-Sandoval, Ruth L; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba; Dzul-Caamal, Ricardo; Gallegos-Rangel, Esperanza; Domínguez-López, María Lilia; García-Latorre, Ethel; Vega-López, Armando

    2015-06-01

    FALC cells are natural helper cells producing Th2-type cytokines, which express c-kit, Sca-1, IL7R and CD45 in mouse and human. These cells are involved in allergic responses and contribute to the inflammatory reactions of adipose tissue; however, a lack of information prevails about the presence of these cells in other species. The aim of the study was to identify and characterise FALC cells in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using immunohistochemistry and molecular biology techniques as well as to explore their relationships with their microenvironment. Histological description of the FALC was performed using H&E and polyclonal antibodies were used against cell-surface markers such as c-kit, Sca-1 and CD45. Furthermore, gene expression of c-kit, Sca-1 and IL7R was assessed. C. carpio FALC cells express the same surface markers reported in FALC of the mouse at both the pre- and post-transcriptional level. By exposure to the soluble fraction of helminths, FALC cells produce abundant Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-6 and IL-13) but do not synthesise IL-1α. Additionally, FALC cells probably participate in vascular remodelling of the intestine vessels, inducing tumours because a malignant haemangiosarcoma in the peritoneal cavity was found. In this tumour, abundant FALC with their characteristic cell-surface markers were detected. The findings of this study suggest the involvement of some proto-oncogenes such as c-kit and Sca-1, and the deregulation of Src kinases modulated by CD45 present in C. carpio FALC with the ontogeny of peritoneal haemangiosarcoma in this fish species. PMID:25804491

  6. Surface Characterization on Corrosion By-products on Cu in Drinking Water Pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Copper is widely used in house-hold plumbing due to its anti-corrosion property. However, as water travels within the distribution system into corroded copper pipes, copper may be released into consumer’s tap causing major problems. In an attempt to understand the mechanism and...

  7. Stress-intensity factors for circumferential surface cracks in pipes and rods under tension and bending loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present stress-intensity factors for a wide range of nearly semi-elliptical surface cracks in pipes and rods. The configurations were subjected to either remote tension or bending loads. For pipes, the ratio of crack depth to crack length (a/c) ranged from 0.6 to 1; the ratio of crack depth to wall thickness (a/t) ranged from 0.2 to 0.8; and the ratio of internal radius to wall thickness (R/t) ranged from 1 to 10. For rods, the ratio of crack depth to crack length also ranged from 0.6 to 1; and the ratio of crack depth to rod diameter (a/D) ranged from 0.05 to 0.35. These particular crack configurations were chosen to cover the range of crack shapes (a/c) that have been observed in experiments conducted on pipes and rods under tension and bending fatigue loads. The stress-intensity factors were calculated by a three-dimensional finite-element method. The finite-element models employed singularity elements along the crack front and linear-strain elements elsewhere. The models had about 6500 degrees of freedom. The stress-intensity factors were evaluated using a nodal-force method.

  8. Surface analysis and depth profiling of corrosion products formed in lead pipes used to supply low alkalinity drinking water.

    PubMed

    Davidson, C M; Peters, N J; Britton, A; Brady, L; Gardiner, P H E; Lewis, B D

    2004-01-01

    Modern analytical techniques have been applied to investigate the nature of lead pipe corrosion products formed in pH adjusted, orthophosphate-treated, low alkalinity water, under supply conditions. Depth profiling and surface analysis have been carried out on pipe samples obtained from the water distribution system in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. X-ray diffraction spectrometry identified basic lead carbonate, lead oxide and lead phosphate as the principal components. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry revealed the crystalline structure within the corrosion product and also showed spatial correlations existed between calcium, iron, lead, oxygen and phosphorus. Elemental profiling, conducted by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and secondary neutrals mass spectrometry (SNMS) indicated that the corrosion product was not uniform with depth. However, no clear stratification was apparent. Indeed, counts obtained for carbonate, phosphate and oxide were well correlated within the depth range probed by SIMS. SNMS showed relationships existed between carbon, calcium, iron, and phosphorus within the bulk of the scale, as well as at the surface. SIMS imaging confirmed the relationship between calcium and lead and suggested there might also be an association between chloride and phosphorus. PMID:14982163

  9. Heat Pipe Materials Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program to evaluate noncondensable gas generation in ammonia heat pipes was completed. A total of 37 heat pipes made of aluminum, stainless steel and combinations of these materials were processed by various techniques, operated at different temperatures and tested at low temperature to quantitatively determine gas generation rates. In order of increasing stability are aluminum/stainless combination, all aluminum and all stainless heat pipes. One interesting result is the identification of intentionally introduced water in the ammonia during a reflux step as a means of surface passivation to reduce gas generation in stainless-steel/aluminum heat pipes.

  10. Pipe crawler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, Gregory L.; Erickson, Scott A.; Blackmon, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    A pipe crawler apparatus particularly useful for 3-inch and 4-inch diameter pipes is provided. The pipe crawler apparatus uses a gripping apparatus in which a free end of a piston rod is modified with a bearing retaining groove. Bearings, placed within the groove, are directed against a camming surface of three respective pivoting support members. The non-pivoting ends of the support members carry a foot-like gripping member that, upon pivoting of the support member, engages the interior wall of the pipe.

  11. Heat Pipe Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    When volcanism dominates heat transport, a terrestrial body enters a heat-pipe mode, in which hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels. Even at high heat flow, a heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downwards-advecting lithosphere dominated by (ultra-)mafic flows and contractional deformation at the surface. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an episode of heat-pipe cooling early in their histories.

  12. Piping inspection instrument carriage

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1993-09-20

    This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  13. Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Elia, Antonia Concetta; Fanetti, Alessia; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Taticchi, Maria I

    2008-06-01

    Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The concentration of water samples was 3 l/equiv. In order to assess the effects of the water samples on carp liver, total glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glyoxalase I, were measured following this treatment for 6 days at two experimental times (3 and 6 days). Both water plant-treated carp showed a general increase of the enzymatic activities of glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase which might be employed as potential biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by disinfected river water. Plant 1-treated carp showed higher glyoxalase I and glutathione levels and lower glutathione peroxidase activity. A depleted level of total glutathione and of glyoxalase I for specimens of water plant 2 (for both experimental times), without correlation with the distances in the pipeline, suggests that river plant water can also lead to potentially adverse effects on selected biochemical parameters in C. carpio. PMID:18457861

  14. Empowering Women through Photovoice: Women of La Carpio, Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Mary Y.; Vardell, Rosemarie; Lower, Joanna K.; Kinter-Duffy, Ibarra, Laura C.; Victoria L.; Cecil-Dyrkacz, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to allow participants to document, critique, and change their family and community conditions through photographs and stories of their everyday lives. This study used photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, with 7 women from La Carpio, Costa Rica. The women were given cameras and asked to photograph…

  15. Low-wavenumber turbulent boundary layer wall-pressure measurements from vibration data over smooth and rough surfaces in pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Neal D.; Capone, Dean E.; Bonness, William K.

    2013-07-01

    The vibration response of a thin cylindrical shell excited by fully developed turbulent pipe flow is measured and used to extract the fluctuating pressure levels generated by the boundary layer. Parameters used to extract the turbulent fluctuating pressure levels are determined via experimental modal analyses of the water-filled pipe and measured vibration levels from flow through the pipe at 5.8 m/s. Measurements are reported for hydraulically smooth and fully rough surface conditions. Smooth wall-pressure levels are compared to the turbulent boundary layer pressure model of Chase [The character of the turbulent wall pressure at subconvective wavenumbers and a suggested comprehensive model. Journal of Sound and Vibration112 (1) (1987) 125-147] and the measurements of Bonness et al. [Low-wavenumber turbulent boundary layer wall-pressure measurements from vibration data on a cylinder in pipe flow. Journal of Sound and Vibration329 (2010) 4166-4180]. Results for the smooth pipe match the predicted smooth wall-pressure spectrum and correspond to a normalized low wavenumber-white level which is -41 dB below the maximum level at the convective peak. Pressure levels from the fully rough condition display a low-wavenumber-white level which is 28 dB below the convective peak level. This suggests an increase of 13 dB in low-wavenumber wall pressure for the uniformly distributed roughness elements in this study over a hydraulically smooth surface.

  16. Pipe support

    DOEpatents

    Pollono, Louis P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems. A section of the pipe to be supported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe.

  17. Pipe Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of attention to plumbing in college facilities, offering examples from various campuses. Addresses preventive maintenance, technology, and piping materials, including the debate between cast iron and PVC for drain pipes. (EV)

  18. Surface embrittlement of polyethylene pipe grade resin. Final report, 1 Sep 1979 - 31 Oct 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Broutman, L.J.

    1981-11-01

    Techniques were developed to simulate the effect of a brittle surface on the mechanical behavior of polyethylene. Polyethylene films were exposed to ultraviolet radiation so as to degrade them. These films were than heat fused to polyethylene substrates. It was demonstrated that specimens having bonded films on their surface were embrittled. In addition to attempting to simulate naturally embrittled surfaces by bonding of brittle films to the polyethylene substrate, specimens of polyethylene were subjected to U.V. radiation to determine the effect of surface embrittlement. Severe embrittlement was demonstrated by measuring tensile ultimate strain to failure which was much more sensitive to embrittlement than conventional impact strength. Additional experiments were conducted utilizing sharp razor notches of various depths in surface of polyethylene to evaluate their effect on tensile strain to failure. Experiments were conducted as a function of strain rate which has been demonstrated to have a strong influence on thenotch length required to cause embrittlement. It is shown that the notch length required to cause embrittlement is greater than the film thickness required to cause embrittlement. It has also been shown that U.V. exposure of the polyethylene surface increases the degree of crystallinity and hence establishes a residual stress state in the exposed polymer which has been measured by curvature techniques.

  19. Miniature pipe crawler tractor

    DOEpatents

    McKay, Mark D.; Anderson, Matthew O.; Ferrante, Todd A.; Willis, W. David

    2000-01-01

    A pipe crawler tractor may comprise a half tractor assembly having a first base drive wheel, a second base drive wheel, and a top drive wheel. The drive wheels are mounted in spaced-apart relation so that the top drive wheel is positioned between the first and second base drive wheels. The mounting arrangement is also such that the first and second base drive wheels contact the inside surface of the pipe at respective first and second positions and so that the top drive wheel contacts the inside surface of the pipe at a third position, the third position being substantially diametrically opposed to the first and second positions. A control system connected to the half tractor assembly controls the rotation of the first base wheel, the second base wheel, and the top drive wheel to move the half tractor assembly within the pipe.

  20. High-Capacity Heat-Pipe Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Duschatko, R. J.; Voss, F. E.; Sauer, L. W.

    1989-01-01

    Heat pipe with cylindrical heat-input surface has higher contact thermal conductance than one with usual flat surface. Cylindrical heat absorber promotes nearly uniform flow of heat into pipe at all places around periphery of pipe, helps eliminate hotspots on heat source. Lugs in aluminum pipe carry heat from outer surface to liquid oozing from capillaries of wick. Liquid absorbs heat, evaporates, and passes out of evaporator through interlug passages.

  1. Influence of wetting effect at the outer surface of the pipe on increase in leak rate - experimental results and discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Isozaki, Toshikuni; Shibata, Katsuyuki

    1997-04-01

    Experimental and computed results applicable to Leak Before Break analysis are presented. The specific area of investigation is the effect of the temperature distribution changes due to wetting of the test pipe near the crack on the increase in the crack opening area and leak rate. Two 12-inch straight pipes subjected to both internal pressure and thermal load, but not to bending load, are modelled. The leak rate was found to be very susceptible to the metal temperature of the piping. In leak rate tests, therefore, it is recommended that temperature distribution be measured precisely for a wide area.

  2. Confirmatory Survey Report for Portions of the Auxiliary Building Structural Surfaces and Turbine Building Embedded Piping, Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Herald, CA

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Adams

    2007-12-07

    During the period of October 15 and 18, 2007, ORISE performed confirmatory radiological survey activities which included beta and gamma structural surface scans and beta activity direct measurements within the Auxiliary Building, beta or gamma scans within Turbine Building embedded piping, beta activity determinations within Turbine Building Drain 3-1-27, and gamma scans and the collection of a soil sample from the clay soils adjacent to the Lower Mixing Box.

  3. Revised-Confirmatory Survey Report for Portions of the Auxiliary Building Structural Surfaces and Turbine Building Embedded Piping, Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Herald, California

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W C

    2007-12-07

    During the period of October 15 and 18, 2007, ORISE performed confirmatory radiological survey activities which included beta and gamma structural surface scans and beta activity direct measurements within the Auxiliary Building, beta or gamma scans within Turbine Building embedded piping, beta activity determinations within Turbine Building Drain 3-1-27, and gamma scans and the collection of a soil sample from the clay soils adjacent to the Lower Mixing Box.

  4. Erosion in disturbed liquid/particle pipe flow: Effects of flow geometry and particle surface roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Postlethwaite, J.; Nesic, S. . Dept of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    Erosion rates were measured along the length of a tubular flow cell of type 304 (UNS S30400) stainless steel (SS) carrying dilute slurries of silica sand (0.43 mm diam) and smooth glass beads of a similar size. The segmented test cell contained a sudden constriction, a sudden expansion, and a groove to produce disturbed flow conditions. Erosion rates were reduced by changes in the cell wall geometry that resulted from erosion at positions of high local metal loss and from erosion further downstream because of the reduction in turbulence and particle dispersion. Smoothing of the sand particles in the test system halved the erosion rates; however, reduced erosion rates obtained with the sand were 2 orders of magnitude higher than those produced with the glass beads. This difference was attributed to surface microroughness of the particles.

  5. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

  6. Heat Pipe Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The heat pipe was developed to alternately cool and heat without using energy or any moving parts. It enables non-rotating spacecraft to maintain a constant temperature when the surface exposed to the Sun is excessively hot and the non Sun-facing side is very cold. Several organizations, such as Tropic-Kool Engineering Corporation, joined NASA in a subsequent program to refine and commercialize the technology. Heat pipes have been installed in fast food restaurants in areas where humid conditions cause materials to deteriorate quickly. Moisture removal was increased by 30 percent in a Clearwater, FL Burger King after heat pipes were installed. Relative humidity and power consumption were also reduced significantly. Similar results were recorded by Taco Bell, which now specifies heat pipe systems in new restaurants in the Southeast.

  7. Pipe connector

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, Thomas E.; Pardini, John A.

    1978-01-01

    A safety test facility for testing sodium-cooled nuclear reactor components includes a reactor vessel and a heat exchanger submerged in sodium in the tank. The reactor vessel and heat exchanger are connected by an expansion/deflection pipe coupling comprising a pair of coaxially and slidably engaged tubular elements having radially enlarged opposed end portions of which at least a part is of spherical contour adapted to engage conical sockets in the ends of pipes leading out of the reactor vessel and in to the heat exchanger. A spring surrounding the pipe coupling urges the end portions apart and into engagement with the spherical sockets. Since the pipe coupling is submerged in liquid a limited amount of leakage of sodium from the pipe can be tolerated.

  8. Heat-pipe Earth.

    PubMed

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics. PMID:24067709

  9. Composite drill pipe

    DOEpatents

    Leslie, James C.; Leslie, II, James C.; Heard, James; Truong, Liem , Josephson; Marvin , Neubert; Hans

    2008-12-02

    A composite pipe segment is formed to include tapered in wall thickness ends that are each defined by opposed frustoconical surfaces conformed for self centering receipt and intimate bonding contact within an annular space between corresponding surfaces of a coaxially nested set of metal end pieces. The distal peripheries of the nested end pieces are then welded to each other and the sandwiched and bonded portions are radially pinned. The composite segment may include imbedded conductive leads and the axial end portions of the end pieces are shaped to form a threaded joint with the next pipe assembly that includes a contact ring in one pipe assembly pierced by a pointed contact in the other to connect the corresponding leads across the joint.

  10. Piping Flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  11. Piping Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell provide architectural and engineering services in planning, design and construction of a wide range of projects all over the world. In design analysis, company regularly uses COSMIC computer programs. In computer testing piping design of a power plant, company uses Pipe Flexibility Analysis Program (MEL-21) to analyze stresses due to weight, temperature, and pressure found in proposed piping systems. Individual flow rates are put into the computer, then computer calculates the pressure drop existing across each component; if needed, design corrections or adjustments can be made and rechecked.

  12. Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

    1999-03-30

    The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached to

  13. Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium -- Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanzi, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium - water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 K and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

  14. Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium-Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanzi, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium-water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

  15. An estimation method for echo signal energy of pipe inner surface longitudinal crack detection by 2-D energy coefficients integration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Shiyuan Sun, Haoyu Xu, Chunguang Cao, Xiandong Cui, Liming Xiao, Dingguo

    2015-03-31

    The echo signal energy is directly affected by the incident sound beam eccentricity or angle for thick-walled pipes inner longitudinal cracks detection. A method for analyzing the relationship between echo signal energy between the values of incident eccentricity is brought forward, which can be used to estimate echo signal energy when testing inside wall longitudinal crack of pipe, using mode-transformed compression wave adaptation of shear wave with water-immersion method, by making a two-dimension integration of “energy coefficient” in both circumferential and axial directions. The calculation model is founded for cylinder sound beam case, in which the refraction and reflection energy coefficients of different rays in the whole sound beam are considered different. The echo signal energy is calculated for a particular cylinder sound beam testing different pipes: a beam with a diameter of 0.5 inch (12.7mm) testing a φ279.4mm pipe and a φ79.4mm one. As a comparison, both the results of two-dimension integration and one-dimension (circumferential direction) integration are listed, and only the former agrees well with experimental results. The estimation method proves to be valid and shows that the usual method of simplifying the sound beam as a single ray for estimating echo signal energy and choosing optimal incident eccentricity is not so appropriate.

  16. An estimation method for echo signal energy of pipe inner surface longitudinal crack detection by 2-D energy coefficients integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiyuan; Sun, Haoyu; Xu, Chunguang; Cao, Xiandong; Cui, Liming; Xiao, Dingguo

    2015-03-01

    The echo signal energy is directly affected by the incident sound beam eccentricity or angle for thick-walled pipes inner longitudinal cracks detection. A method for analyzing the relationship between echo signal energy between the values of incident eccentricity is brought forward, which can be used to estimate echo signal energy when testing inside wall longitudinal crack of pipe, using mode-transformed compression wave adaptation of shear wave with water-immersion method, by making a two-dimension integration of "energy coefficient" in both circumferential and axial directions. The calculation model is founded for cylinder sound beam case, in which the refraction and reflection energy coefficients of different rays in the whole sound beam are considered different. The echo signal energy is calculated for a particular cylinder sound beam testing different pipes: a beam with a diameter of 0.5 inch (12.7mm) testing a φ279.4mm pipe and a φ79.4mm one. As a comparison, both the results of two-dimension integration and one-dimension (circumferential direction) integration are listed, and only the former agrees well with experimental results. The estimation method proves to be valid and shows that the usual method of simplifying the sound beam as a single ray for estimating echo signal energy and choosing optimal incident eccentricity is not so appropriate.

  17. Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Klobucar, Göran I V; Stambuk, Anamaria; Pavlica, Mirjana; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Kutuzović Hackenberger, Branimir; Hylland, Ketil

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with genotoxicity assessment of freshwaters using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were transplanted from a fish-farm to three differently polluted sites in eastern Croatia. Two polluted sites were situated in the river Drava, downstream from the cities of Belisće and Osijek, while the reference site was in the Nature Park Kopacki rit, a preserved wetland area with limited anthropogenic influence. Exposure lasted for 3 weeks and was repeated for 3 years (2002-2004). DNA damage was assessed in erythrocytes of the exposed animals by the Comet assay and micronucleus test (MNT). In order to evaluate possible differences in stress responses to polluted water in situ and in aquaria a laboratory exposure was performed with water from the studied location in the second year of the study. Carp from the sites with high anthropogenic influence (Belisće and Osijek) had higher average DNA damage as expressed in both the MNT and Comet assay. Of the two, the Comet assay appeared to be more sensitive following both caging and aquaria exposures. The results from this study suggest that 3 weeks caging exposure of C. carpio may be a useful strategy to monitor for genotoxic agents in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:19626438

  18. Physics of heat pipe rewetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    This is the final report which summarizes the research accomplishments under the project entitled 'Physics of Heat Pipe Rewetting' under NASA Grant No. NAG 9-525, Basic, during the period of April 1, 1991 to January 31, 1994. The objective of the research project was to investigate both analytically and experimentally the rewetting characteristics of the heated, grooved plate. The grooved plate is to simulate the inner surface of the vapor channel in monogroove heat pipes for space station design. In such designs, the inner surface of the vapor channel is threaded with monogrooves. When the heat pipe is thermally overloaded, dryout of the monogroove surface occurs. Such a dryout surface should be promptly rewetted to prevent the failure of the heat pipe operation in the thermal radiator of the space station.

  19. Physics of heat pipe rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S. H.

    This is the final report which summarizes the research accomplishments under the project entitled 'Physics of Heat Pipe Rewetting' under NASA Grant No. NAG 9-525, Basic, during the period of April 1, 1991 to January 31, 1994. The objective of the research project was to investigate both analytically and experimentally the rewetting characteristics of the heated, grooved plate. The grooved plate is to simulate the inner surface of the vapor channel in monogroove heat pipes for space station design. In such designs, the inner surface of the vapor channel is threaded with monogrooves. When the heat pipe is thermally overloaded, dryout of the monogroove surface occurs. Such a dryout surface should be promptly rewetted to prevent the failure of the heat pipe operation in the thermal radiator of the space station.

  20. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

    1995-03-21

    An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

  1. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W. Thor; Appel, D. Keith; Park, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

  2. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  3. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Charles F.; Howard, Boyd D.

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  4. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

  5. Piping Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A complex of high pressure piping at Stennis Space Center carries rocket propellants and other fluids/gases through the Center's Component Test Facility. Conventional clamped connectors tend to leak when propellant lines are chilled to extremely low temperatures. Reflange, Inc. customized an existing piping connector to include a secondary seal more tolerant of severe thermal gradients for Stennis. The T-Con connector solved the problem, and the company is now marketing a commercial version that permits testing, monitoring or collecting any emissions that may escape the primary seal during severe thermal transition.

  6. Pipe crawler with stabilizing midsection

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1993-09-20

    This invention is comprised of a pipe crawler having a midsection that provides the stability and flexibility to allow the pipe crawler to negotiate curved and uneven segments of piping while traveling through piping systems. The pipe crawler comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a midsection with a gimbal at each end for connecting the midsection to the front and rear leg assemblies in a flexible manner, and an air cylinder for changing the distance between the front and rear leg assemblies. The pipe crawler moves in ``inch worm`` fashion with the front and rear leg assemblies alternating between an extended and a retracted position as the air cylinder moves the retracted leg assembly forward. The midsection has a plurality of legs extending radially for holding the midsection within a maximum displacement from the piping axis so that the gimbals are not pivoted to extreme angles where they might lock up or seize. When the midsection is displaced sufficiently, its legs with wheels on each end engage the interior surface of the piping and prevent further displacement. Using two gimbals divides the angle between the planes defined by the front and rear leg assemblies which also helps to prevent excessive gimbal pivoting.

  7. Pipe crawler with stabilizing midsection

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.; Treanor, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    A pipe crawler having a midsection that provides the stability and flexibty to allow the pipe crawler to negotiate curved and uneven segments of piping while traveling through piping systems. The pipe crawler comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a midsection with a gimbal at each end for connecting the midsection to the front and rear leg assemblies in a flexible manner, and an air cylinder for changing the distance between the front and rear leg assemblies. The pipe crawler moves in "inch worm" fashion with the front and rear leg assemblies alternating between an extended and a retracted position as the air cylinder moves the retracted leg assembly forward. The midsection has a plurality of legs extending radially for holding the midsection within a maximum displacement from the piping axis so that the gimbals are not pivoted to extreme angles where they might lock up or seize. When the midsection is displaced sufficiently, its legs with wheels on each end engage the interior surface of the piping and prevent further displacement. Using two gimbals divides the angle between the planes defined by the front and rear leg assemblies which also helps to prevent excessive gimbal pivoting.

  8. Pipe crawler with stabilizing midsection

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1994-12-27

    A pipe crawler is described having a midsection that provides the stability and flexibility to allow the pipe crawler to negotiate curved and uneven segments of piping while traveling through piping systems. The pipe crawler comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a midsection with a gimbal at each end for connecting the midsection to the front and rear leg assemblies in a flexible manner, and an air cylinder for changing the distance between the front and rear leg assemblies. The pipe crawler moves in ''inch worm'' fashion with the front and rear leg assemblies alternating between an extended and a retracted position as the air cylinder moves the retracted leg assembly forward. The midsection has a plurality of legs extending radially for holding the midsection within a maximum displacement from the piping axis so that the gimbals are not pivoted to extreme angles where they might lock up or seize. When the midsection is displaced sufficiently, its legs with wheels on each end engage the interior surface of the piping and prevent further displacement. Using two gimbals divides the angle between the planes defined by the front and rear leg assemblies which also helps to prevent excessive gimbal pivoting. 5 figures.

  9. Tissue-specific bioconcentration of the synthetic steroid hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Steele, W Baylor; Garcia, Santos N; Huggett, Duane B; Venables, Barney J; Barnes, Sid Edwin; La Point, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    The steroid hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), commonly used in oral and injectable contraceptives, has been detected in surface and wastewaters near urban and agricultural areas in several rivers of the world. The objectives of this study were to examine the accumulative potential and tissue distribution of MPA in fish. A freshwater species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), was exposed to 100 μg/L of MPA for a 7-day period followed by a depuration phase in which fish were maintained in dechlorinated tap water for an additional 7 days. Tissues (muscle, brain, plasma, and liver) were sampled during the uptake (days 1, 3, and 7) and depuration (day 14) phases of the experiment. Tissue-specific bioconcentration factors (BCF) ranged from 4.3 to 37.8 and uptake was greatest in the liver>brain>plasma and lowest in the muscle. From a regulatory standpoint, MPA shows little tendency to bioaccumulate in fish. PMID:24161818

  10. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  11. Flow conditions of fresh mortar and concrete in different pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, Stefan; Haugan, Lars; Hammer, Tor Arne; Kalogiannidis, Evangelos

    2009-11-15

    The variation in fresh concrete flow rate over the pipe cross section was investigated on differently coloured and highly flowable concrete mixes flowing through pipes of different materials (rubber, steel, acryl). First, uncoloured (gray) concrete was poured through the pipe and the pipe blocked. Similar but coloured (black) concrete was then poured into the pipe filled with gray concrete, flowing after the gray concrete for a while before being blocked and hardened. The advance of the colouring along the pipe wall (showing boundary flow rate) was observed on the moulded concrete surface appearing after removing the pipe from the hardened concrete. The shapes of the interfaces between uncoloured and coloured concrete (showing variation of flow rate over the pipe cross section) were observed on sawn surfaces of concrete half cylinders cut along the length axes of the concrete-filled pipe. Flow profiles over the pipe cross section were clearly seen with maximum flow rates near the centre of the pipe and low flow rate at the pipe wall (typically rubber pipe with reference concrete without silica fume and/or stabilizers). More plug-shaped profiles, with long slip layers and less variation of flow rate over the cross section, were also seen (typically in smooth acrylic pipes). Flow rate, amount of concrete sticking to the wall after flow and SEM-images of pipe surface roughness were observed, illustrating the problem of testing full scale pumping.

  12. Flat plate electrohydrodynamic heat pipe experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehrke, R. I.; Sebits, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Performance capabilities of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flat heat pipes were investigated using Freon 113 and Freon 11 as working fluids. All of the pipes employed straight rod electrodes to form axial liquid flow channels and tranverse grooves for capillary surface wetting. Results show: (1) the EHD pipe will prime under load, (2) voltage controlled conductance can be achieved by varying the active area of the evaporator, and (3) the average evaporator conductances measured in these experiments were consistent with those obtained in other experiments with heat pipes of similar surface geometry using the same or similar working fluids.

  13. Heat pipe technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A bibliography of heat pipe technology to provide a summary of research projects conducted on heat pipes is presented. The subjects duscussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design and fabrication, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  14. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.

    1995-10-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  15. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  16. Dispersion of the invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio in southern South America: changes and expectations, westward and southward.

    PubMed

    Crichigno, S; Cordero, P; Blasetti, G; Cussac, V

    2016-07-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio possess multiple traits that contribute to their success as an invasive species. They have been introduced across the globe, and abundant populations can have numerous negative effects. Although ecological niche-based modelling techniques have been used to predict the potential range of C. carpio invasion in U.S.A., occurrence and abundance patterns have not yet been considered on a regional scale. In the present review new locations are documented, the status of the southernmost population has been studied and the probability of new lakes and reservoirs being colonized by C. carpio has been obtained and related to environmental conditions. The new localities for C. carpio have expanded its distribution westward, into the Andean Region, and present results from the South American southernmost population have shown a well-established population. Analysis of presence data provided two principal results: (1) the probability of a site being with C. carpio can be inferred using environmental variables and (2) the probability of a site being with C. carpio is a useful tool for the prediction of future invasions. Selective fishing on the Negro basin could constitute a potential mitigation measure, decreasing the abundance of the species and thus reducing the species' potential for southward expansion. These results reinforce the idea that artisanal fisheries, food production and conservation interests should be taken into account by local government management agencies in any discussion regarding the southern distribution of C. carpio in the near future. PMID:27095064

  17. Guidable pipe plug

    DOEpatents

    Glassell, Richard L.; Babcock, Scott M.; Lewis, Benjamin E.

    2001-01-01

    A plugging device for closing an opening defined by an end of a pipe with sealant comprises a cap, an extension, an inner seal, a guide, and at least one stop. The cap has an inner surface which defines a chamber adapted for retaining the sealant. The chamber is dimensioned slightly larger than the end so as to receive the end. The chamber and end define a gap therebetween. The extension has a distal end and is attached to the inner surface opposite the distal end. The inner seal is attached to the extension and sized larger than the opening. The guide is positioned forward of the inner seal and attached to the distal end. The guide is also dimensioned to be inserted into the opening. The stop is attached to the extender, and when the stop is disposed in the pipe, the stop is movable with respect to the conduit in one direction and also prevents misalignment of the cap with the pipe. A handle can also be included to allow the cap to be positioned robotically.

  18. Heat Pipes For Alyeska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The heat pipes job is to keep the arctic ground frozen. The permafrost soil alternately freezes and thaws with seasonal temperature changes causing surface dislocations and problems for the builders. In winter, a phenomenon called frost-heaving uplifts the soil. It is something like the creation of highway potholes by the freezing of rainwater below the roadbed, but frost-heaving exerts a far greater force. Thawing of the frost in the summer causes the soil to settle unevenly. Therefore it is necessary to keep the soil in a continually frozen state so the pipeline won't rupture. To solve this problem, McDonnell Douglas Corp. applied heat pipe principles in the design of the vertical supports that hold up the pipeline.

  19. System for Testing Thermal Insulation of Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D.; Nagy, Zoltan F.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and method have been developed for measuring the rates of leakage of heat into pipes carrying liquids, the purpose of the measurements being to quantify the thermal performance of the insulation system. The apparatus is designed primarily for testing pipes used to carry cryogenic liquids, but can also be used for measuring the thermal performance of other insulated pipes or piping systems. The basic measurement principle is straightforward: The outer surface of the pipe insulation is maintained at a fixed warmer temperature. The interior of the pipe is maintained in a narrow fixed lower-temperature range by means of a regular liquid (e.g., water) that is pumped through the pipe at a known flow rate or a cryogenic liquid (e.g., nitrogen) that is saturated at atmospheric pressure and replenished until steady-state conditions are achieved. In the case of water or another liquid pumped through, the inlet and outlet temperatures are measured and heat-leak power is calculated as the mass flow rate of the liquid multiplied by the specific heat of the liquid multiplied by the inlet-to-outlet temperature rise of the liquid. In the case of liquid nitrogen or another low-temperature boiling liquid, the heat-leak power is calculated as the rate of boil-off multiplied by the latent heat of vaporization of the liquid. Then the thermal-insulation performance of the pipe system can be calculated as a function of the measured heat-leak power, the inner and outer boundary temperatures, and the dimensions of the pipe. The apparatus can test as many as three pipes simultaneously. The pipes can have inner diameters up to .15 cm and outer diameters up to .20 cm. The lengths of the pipes may vary; typical lengths are of the order of 18 m. Two thermal guard boxes . one for each end of the pipe(s) under test . are used to make the inlet and outlet fluid connections to the pipe(s) (see figure). The connections include bellows that accommodate thermal expansion and contraction

  20. Roles of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) in Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Suanyuk, Naraid; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio (koi) is one of the most popular ornamental fish. A major problem for C. carpio farming is bacterial infections especially by Aeromonas hydrophila. Previously studies had shown that the Phagocytosis Activating Protein (PAP) gene was involved in the innate immune response of animals. Therefore, we attempted to identify a role for the PAP gene in the immunology of C. carpio. The expression of the PAP was found in C. carpio whole blood and increased when the fish were stimulated by inactivated A. hydrophila. In addition, PAP-phMGFP DNA was injected as an immunostimulant. The survival rate and the phagocytic index were significantly increased in the A. hydrophila infected fish that received the PAP-phMGFP DNA immunostimulant. A chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle was then developed and feeded into fish which infected with A. hydrophila. These fish had a significantly lower mortality rate than the control. Therefore, this research confirmed a key role for PAP in protection fish from bacterial infection and the chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle could be a good prototype for fish immunostimulant in the future. PMID:26748248

  1. An Alluvial Surface Chronology Based on Cosmogenic 36Cl Dating, Ajo Mountains (Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument), Southern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Beiling; Phillips, Fred M.; Pohl, Molly M.; Sharma, Pankaj

    1996-01-01

    A chronology of alluvial surfaces on piedmont slopes below the western Ajo Mountains, southern Arizona, has been obtained using cosmogenic 36Cl accumulation and AMS radiocarbon dating. The apparent 36Cl ages of individual boulders range from 520,000 to 13,000 yr, and the 14C ages of organic material in the two young terraces are 2750-2350 and 17,800 cal yr B.P. The sequence of 36Cl ages is consistent with the apparent stratigraphic order, but groupings of similar ages for different surfaces appear to result from repeated reworking of older surfaces associated with the deposition of younger ones. The youngest surface gave a distribution of 36Cl ages about 30,000 yr older than the 14C and soil ages; however, this distribution had 36Cl ages that overlapped with 36Cl ages from active channels and hillslopes. We attribute the older-than-expected exposure ages of sampled boulders to inheritance of 36Cl while residing near the surface during very slow erosion on the mountain front. Our results show that although cosmogenic nuclide accumulation can help establish chronologies for surfaces in piedmont settings, care must be used in evaluating the effects of complex exposure histories.

  2. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOEpatents

    McConnell, Robert D.; Vansant, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  3. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.; Vansant, J.H.

    1984-10-02

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  4. Piping inspection carriage having axially displaceable sensor

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.; Treanor, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    A pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has a y-arm mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and a mounting block, a linear actuator and axial movement arm for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has a rotation motor and gear assembly for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  5. Piping inspection carriage having axially displaceable sensor

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1994-12-06

    A pipe inspection instrument carriage is described for use with a pipe crawler for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has a Y-arm mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and a mounting block, a linear actuator and axial movement arm for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has a rotation motor and gear assembly for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure. 4 figures.

  6. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, D.R.; Shen, D.S.; Tuck, M.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Grafe, V.G.

    1998-06-23

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas. 7 figs.

  7. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas Ray; Shen, David S.; Tuck, Melanie R.; Palmer, David W.; Grafe, V. Gerald

    1998-01-01

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

  8. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas Ray; Shen, David S.; Tuck, Melanie R.; Palmer, David W.; Grafe, V. Gerald

    1999-01-01

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

  9. Acute exposure to the biopesticide azadirachtin affects parameters in the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara D; Leitemperger, Jossiele W; Flores-Lopes, Fábio; Menezes, Charlene C; Loebens, Luisa; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Rizzetti, Tiele M; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania L

    2016-02-01

    The biopesticide, azadirachtin (Aza) is less hazardous to the environment, but may cause several toxic effects in aquatic organisms. The Cyprinus carpio (n=12, for all concentrations) after 10days of acclimation under controlled conditions, were exposed at 20, 40, and 60μL/L of Aza during 96h. After this period, fish were anesthetized and euthanized then mucus layer and gills collected. In this study, the effects of exposure to different Aza concentrations were analysed through a set of biomarkers: Na(+)/K(+-)ATPase, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) and histological parameters and, yet, protein and glucose concentration in the surface area of mucous layer. Na(+)K(+-)ATPase was inhibited at 40 and 60μL/L compared to control. TBARS decreased at 40μL/L compared to control. PC, SOD and GST increased at 60μL/L in comparison to control. CAT increased at 20 and 60μL/L, and GPx increased in all Aza concentrations compared to control. NPSH decreased and AsA increased in all concentrations in comparison to control. Histological analyses demonstrated an increase in the intensity of the damage with increasing Aza concentration. Alterations in histological examination were elevation and hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the secondary filament, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous and chlorate cells and lamellar aneurism. Glucose and protein concentrations in mucus layer increased at 60μL/L compared to control. In general, we suggest that 60μL/L Aza concentration affected several parameters causing disruptions carp metabolism. PMID:26689640

  10. Risk-taking behaviour may explain high predation mortality of GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Duan, M; Zhang, T; Hu, W; Xie, S; Sundström, L F; Li, Z; Zhu, Z

    2013-11-01

    The competitive ability and habitat selection of juvenile all-fish GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics, in the absence and presence of predation risk, under different food distributions, were compared. Unequal-competitor ideal-free-distribution analysis showed that a larger proportion of transgenic C. carpio fed within the system, although they were not overrepresented at a higher-quantity food source. Moreover, the analysis showed that transgenic C. carpio maintained a faster growth rate, and were more willing to risk exposure to a predator when foraging, thereby supporting the hypothesis that predation selects against maximal growth rates by removing individuals that display increased foraging effort. Without compensatory behaviours that could mitigate the effects of predation risk, the escaped or released transgenic C. carpio with high-gain and high-risk performance would grow well but probably suffer high predation mortality in nature. PMID:24580661

  11. Ultrasonic pipe assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Graham H.; Morrow, Valerie L.; Levie, Harold; Kane, Ronald J.; Brown, Albert E.

    2003-12-23

    An ultrasonic pipe or other structure assessment system includes an ultrasonic transducer positioned proximate the pipe or other structure. A fluid connection between the ultrasonic transducer and the pipe or other structure is produced. The ultrasonic transducer is moved relative to the pipe or other structure.

  12. Shield For Flexible Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Williford, Clifford B.; Lagen, Nicholas T.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical shield designed to fit around flexible pipe to protect nearby workers from injury and equipment from damage if pipe ruptures. Designed as pressure-relief device. Absorbs impact of debris ejected radially from broken flexible pipe. Also redirects flow of pressurized fluid escaping from broken pipe onto flow path allowing for relief of pressure while minimizing potential for harm.

  13. 46 CFR 56.50-85 - Tank-vent piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the tanks to vent pipes. (2) Tanks having a comparatively small surface, such as fuel oil settling... closure device shall be situated so as not to damage these screens. (10) The diameter of each vent pipe... for water ballast tanks, and 21/2 inches nominal pipe size for fuel oil tanks, except that...

  14. Organ pipe resonance induced vibration in piping system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.

    1996-12-01

    Acoustic-induced vibration is a fluid-structure interaction phenomenon. The feedback mechanism between the acoustic pressure pulsation and the structure movements determines the excited acoustic modes which, in turn, amplify the structure response when confidence frequency and mode shape matching occurs. The acoustic modes are not determined from the acoustic boundary conditions alone, structure feedback is as responsible for determining the acoustic modes and shaping the resulting forcing functions. Acoustic-induced piping vibration, when excited, does not attenuate much with distance. Pressure pulsation can be transmitted throughout the piping system and its branch connections. It is this property that makes vibration monitoring difficult, because vibration can surface at locations far away from the acoustic source when resonance occurs. For a large piping system with interconnected branches, the monitoring task can be formidable, particularly when there is no indication what the real source is. In organ pipe resonance induced vibration, the initiating acoustic source may be inconspicuous or unavoidable during operation. In these situations, the forcing function approach can offer an optimal tool for vibration assessment. The forcing function approach was used in the evaluation of a standby steam piping vibration problem. Monitoring locations and instrument specifications were determined from the acoustic eigenfunction profiles. Measured data confirmed the presence of coherent vibrations in the large bore piping. The developed forcing function permits design evaluation of the piping system, which leads to remedial actions and enables fatigue life determination, thus providing confidence to system operation. The forcing function approach is shown to be useful in finding potential vibration area and verifying the integrity of weak structure links. Application is to steam lines at BWR plants.

  15. Effects of phorbol esters in carp (Cyprinus carpio L).

    PubMed

    Becker, K; Makkar, H P

    1998-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio L) were fed diets containing phorbol esters at concentrations of 0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, 31, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 micrograms/g feed. Phorbol esters were from Jatropha curcas nuts. Jatropha curcas toxicity has been reported in humans, rodents and livestock, and phorbol esters have been identified as the main toxic agent. The adverse effects observed in carp at phorbol esters concentrations of 31 micrograms/g or higher were lower average metabolic growth rate, fecal mucus production and rejection of feed. Average metabolic growth rates (g/kg 0.8/d) in a 7-d experimental period during which diets containing phorbol esters were fed to carp (values with different letters being significantly different) were 15.4a, 14.4a, 12.5ab, 12.4ab, 10.9b, 3.4c, 0.2c, -3.8d, -4.9d and -5.6d, respectively, at the above mentioned concentrations. The values for the recovery phase of 9-d during which phorbol esters were not included in the diet were 16.0a, 15.6a, 14.9a, 15.6a, 5.3b, 1.6b, 4.6bc, 6.3bc, 7.8c and 8.2c, respectively. The adverse effects of phorbol esters were reversible since withdrawal of the esters from the diets led to gain in body mass. None of the fish died at any of the concentrations studied. Incorporation of vitamin C, an antioxidant, at levels of 0.4 and 2% in the feed did not prevent occurrence of the adverse effects of the phorbol esters. The threshold level at which phorbol esters appeared to cause adverse effects in carp was 15 micrograms/g feed or 15 ppm in the diet. Carp were highly sensitive to phorbol esters, thus making them a useful species for bioassay of these compounds. This bioassay together with other analytic procedures could be of immense use in the development of detoxification processes for agro-industrial products containing phorbol esters, such as jatropha meal or jatropha oil, and as a quality control method to monitor successive stages in industrial detoxification processes. PMID:9554059

  16. Assessment of the effects of surface preparation and coatings on the susceptibility of line pipe to stress-corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A. )

    1992-02-24

    Objectives were to evaluate susceptibility of pipeline steel to SCC when coated with coal-tar enamel, fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE), and polyethylene tape coatings. The tests included standard cathodic disbondment tests, potential gradients beneath disbonded coatings, electrochemical measurements, and SCC tests. It was concluded that factors affecting relative SCC susceptibility of pipelines with different coatings are the disbonding resistance of the coating and the ability of the coating to pass cathodic protection (CP) current. FBE coated pipelines would be expected to exhibit good SCC resistance, since the FBE coating had high cathodic disbonding resistance and could pass CP current. Grit blasting at levels used at coating mills may be beneficial or detrimental to SCC susceptibility. Excellent correlation was found between th Almen strip deflection and change in SCC threshold stress. It appears to be beneficial to remove as much mill scale as possible, and a white surface finish probably should also be specified. 50 figs, 10 tabs.

  17. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    DOEpatents

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  18. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1998-06-23

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprises a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present. 7 figs.

  19. Reusable pipe flange covers

    DOEpatents

    Holden, James Elliott; Perez, Julieta

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  20. Entrainment in electrohydrodynamic heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.; Perry, M. P.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical analysis for predicting the onset of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is reported. The model for the analysis is described, and the derived stability criterion are given. It is concluded that surface tension plays a role in the entrainment limit of electro hydrodynamic heat pipes. The surface of the liquid in an EHD flow structure is open, with no restriction placed on the wavenumbers of perturbations.

  1. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{sup trademark} system

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Difficulty, or inability of measuring threshold surface contamination values, worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of this approach. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane.

  2. The effect of extenders, cryoprotectants and cryopreservation methods on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm.

    PubMed

    Irawan, Henky; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong; Nimrat, Subuntith

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various extenders, cryoprotectants and cryopreservation methods on post-thaw sperm motility and duration of sperm motility in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We focused on freezing of common carp sperm utilizing a practical and inexpensive protocol for aquaculture. Sperm were diluted 1:1 in one of six extenders (common carp sperm extenders; CCSE 1-CCSE 6) containing three types of cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO, methanol; MET and propylene glycol; PG) at a final concentration of 10%, and frozen at a rate of 10°C/min from an initial temperature 25 to -40°C before storage in liquid nitrogen. The results demonstrated that sperm diluted with CCSE 2 and DMSO had the best post-thaw motility (94.5 ± 3.3%), similar to that of the control (98.6 ± 0.7%; P>0.05). Duration of sperm motility from a treatment with CCSE 2 and DMSO (97 ± 20.8s) was not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of the control (73.3 ± 12.9s). A second experiment studied the effects of various cryopreservation methods on post-thaw sperm motility and duration of sperm motility, based on using CCSE 2 and DMSO in all treatments. Sperm were frozen using different cryopreservation methods: direct immersion into liquid nitrogen, controlled-rate programmable freezer, or exposure to liquid nitrogen vapor at different heights and time. Sperm frozen at a height of 2 cm above liquid nirogen surface for 10 min gave the highest post-thaw sperm motility (91.7 ± 7.8%) and longest duration of post-thaw sperm motility (105.7 ± 23.1s). Sperm frozen 2 cm above liquid nitrogen surface for 10 min produced the highest fertilization and hatching rate of about 73.6 ± 6.5% and 62.8 ± 5.9%, respectively, not significant different (P>0.05) from those of fresh sperm (75.6 ± 7.5% and 66.5 ± 4.8%, respectively). This study reports superior performance of the combination of CCSE 2 and DMSO for freezing common carp sperm that resulted in high

  3. Heat pipe cooling for scramjet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1986-12-01

    Liquid metal heat pipe cooling systems have been investigated for the combustor liner and engine inlet leading edges of scramjet engines for a missile application. The combustor liner is cooled by a lithium-TZM molybdenum annular heat pipe, which incorporates a separate lithium reservoir. Heat is initially absorbed by the sensible thermal capacity of the heat pipe and liner, and subsequently by the vaporization and discharge of lithium to the atmosphere. The combustor liner temperature is maintained at 3400 F or less during steady-state cruise. The engine inlet leading edge is fabricated as a sodium-superalloy heat pipe. Cooling is accomplished by radiation of heat from the aft surface of the leading edge to the atmosphere. The leading edge temperature is limited to 1700 F or less. It is concluded that heat pipe cooling is a viable method for limiting scramjet combustor liner and engine inlet temperatures to levels at which structural integrity is greatly enhanced.

  4. Heat pipe cooling for scramjet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1986-01-01

    Liquid metal heat pipe cooling systems have been investigated for the combustor liner and engine inlet leading edges of scramjet engines for a missile application. The combustor liner is cooled by a lithium-TZM molybdenum annular heat pipe, which incorporates a separate lithium reservoir. Heat is initially absorbed by the sensible thermal capacity of the heat pipe and liner, and subsequently by the vaporization and discharge of lithium to the atmosphere. The combustor liner temperature is maintained at 3400 F or less during steady-state cruise. The engine inlet leading edge is fabricated as a sodium-superalloy heat pipe. Cooling is accomplished by radiation of heat from the aft surface of the leading edge to the atmosphere. The leading edge temperature is limited to 1700 F or less. It is concluded that heat pipe cooling is a viable method for limiting scramjet combustor liner and engine inlet temperatures to levels at which structural integrity is greatly enhanced.

  5. Surface and interface analysis of a Roman lead pipe ``fistula'': microchemistry of the soldering at the join, as seen by scanning Auger microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparazzo, Ernesto

    1994-01-01

    Scanning Auger microscopy (SAM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used to study the surface and interface chemical composition of a Roman lead pipe (fistula). Experimental evidence is provided that the Romans used tin for soldering the join, and the chemical nature of the single elements, e.g. whether in metallic or combined form, is identified. SAM discloses the segregation of the chemical elements with a sub-micron spatial resolution, and large deviations in the quantitative results are found relative to the large-area averaged XPS results. Elemental depth profiles are obtained from all over the body of the pipe: we find that the lead is less oxidized at the join, and this region contains many more hydrocarbon species, which we interpret as deriving from the use of oil for anti-oxidizing purposes. Our experimental findings are consistent with Plinius' report on the lead-tin soldering techniques used in the Roman world.

  6. Heat pipe flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, S.

    1973-01-01

    OAO 3 heat pipe flight experiments to check out weightlessness behavior are reported. Tested were a hollow channel screen system with helical grooves, a heat pipe with a wicking system of horizontal grooves, and a spiral artery pipe with multichannel fluid return to the evaporator. Flight experiment data proved that all heat pipe geometries containing wicking systems provided uninterrupted fluid return to the condensators during weightlessness and sufficient cooling for isothermalizing optical instruments onboard OAO.

  7. Thermion: Verification of a thermionic heat pipe in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is conducting intensive research in the design and development of a small excore heat-pipe-thermionic space nuclear reactor power system (SEHPTR). The SEHPTR spacecraft will be able to supply 40 kW of power in any given orbit. The key components in this reactor are the thermionic heat pipes. The heat pipes have two major functions: (1) to convert heat energy into electrical energy, and (2) to radiate the excess heat to space. Thermionic power conversion is the process of converting heat energy into electrical energy with no moving parts. Heat is applied to the cathode surface. This heat will boil off electrons that will jump across the gap to the cooler surface of the anode, which will cause a potential difference between the two plates and induce a current through the load. Thermionic power conversion is incorporated as part of the heat pipe. The heat pipe, which is being developed by Thermacore Inc., is actually two heat pipes. It uses a radial heat pipe, called the emitter, and an axial heat pipe collector. The emitter heat pipe will pass the heat from the nuclear core to the cathode surface. The collector heat pipe keeps the anode surface cooler by transferring the heat from the anode surface and radiating it to space.

  8. Heat pipes. [technology utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development and use of heat pipes are described, including space requirements and contributions. Controllable heat pipes, and designs for automatically maintaining a selected constant temperature, are discussed which would add to the versatility and usefulness of heat pipes in industrial processing, manufacture of integrated circuits, and in temperature stabilization of electronics.

  9. Singing Corrugated Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1974-01-01

    Presents theoretical and experimental observations made with a musical toy called Hummer consisting of a corrugated flexible plastic tube about three-feet long and one-inch diam open at both ends. Included are descriptions of three new instruments: the Water Pipe, the Gas-Pipe Corrugahorn Bugle, and the Gas-Pipe Blues Corrugahorn. (CC)

  10. Environmental Degradation in a Eutrophic Shallow Lake is not Simply Due to Abundance of Non-native Cyprinus carpio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Herrejón, Juan P.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Balart, Eduardo F.; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo; Mar-Silva, Valentín; Caraveo-Patiño, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Non-native species are often major drivers of the deterioration of natural ecosystems. The common carp Cyprinus carpio are known to cause major changes in lentic systems, but may not be solely responsible for large scale changes in these ecosystems. We used data from extensive collection efforts to gain insight into the importance of carp as drivers of ecosystem change in Lake Patzcuaro, Mexico. We compared the structure (fish density, biomass, diversity, and evenness) of fish assemblages from six Lake Patzcuaro sites with different habitat characteristics. Intersite comparisons were carried out for both wet and dry seasons. We explored the relationships between non-carp species and carp; and studied multivariate interactions between fish abundance and habitat characteristics. From a biomass perspective, carp was dominant in only four of six sites. In terms of density, carp was not a dominant species in all sites. Further, carp density and biomass were not negatively related to native species density and biomass, even when carp density and biomass were positively correlated to water turbidity levels. Carp dominated fish assemblages in the shallowest sites with the highest water turbidity, plant detritus at the bottom, and floating macrophytes covering the lake surface. These results suggest that the effect of carp on fish assemblages may be highly dependent on habitat characteristics in Lake Patzcuaro. Watershed degradation, pollution, water level loss, and other sources of anthropogenic influence may be more important drivers of Lake Patzcuaro degradation than the abundance of carp.

  11. Ultrasonic Welding of Plastic Pipes Using Torsional Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Hori, Kiichi; Ide, Masao

    1998-05-01

    In recent years, the application of ultrasonic welding to plastics has become common. In this paper a method for ultrasonic welding of plastic pipes using torsional vibrations is reported. In this method torsional vibrations are applied to the welding pipe from the circumferential direction with horns placed near the welding surface. Static pressure is independently applied from the vibrations to the welding surface. It was observed that acrylic resin pipes could be effectively welded by the proposed method.

  12. Comparison of methods to improve induction of spermiation in wild-caught carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), a threatened species from the Caspian Sea basin.

    PubMed

    Vazirzadeh, Arya; Farhadi, Ahmad; Naseri, Mahmood; Jeffs, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Wild carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) forms the basis of an important fishery in the Southern Caspian Sea Basin which is increasingly underpinned by the release of cultured juveniles. A significant bottleneck to hatchery-rearing of juveniles is the spermiation of male broodstock. Therefore, four approaches to improving spermiation were investigated. The effectiveness of two delivery methods for the sustained release of salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (sGnRHa; i.e., via intramuscular cholesterol pellet vs emulsion injection) on the spermiation success and duration, sperm quality and quantity over 14days in wild-caught carp were compared to single injection of sGnRHa with Pimozide(®) (Linpe method) or carp pituitary extract (CPE). The consequence of the spermiation treatments on resulting embryonic quality was evaluated for subsequent fertilization and hatching success from wild male carp (mean weight±S.D. 1021±112g). All hormonal treatments, except for Linpe method, led to 100% spermiation of treated fish compared to only 25% in the control with no hormone intervention. The duration of spermiation, as well as the various quantitative variables of the sperm and the mean total sperm production were all generally improved with the sustained hormone delivery compared with the acute treatments. The GnRHa-FIA was the most effective method for improving spermiation. PMID:27133180

  13. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for body weight in Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) compared with mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ying; Lu, Cuiyun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Yu, Juhua; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-05-01

    We report the genetic linkage map of Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). An F1 population comprising 94 Jian carp individuals was mapped using 254 microsatellite markers. The genetic map spanned 1 381.592 cM and comprised 44 linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 6.58 cM. We identified eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body weight (BW) in seven linkage groups, explaining 12.6% to 17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Comparative mapping was performed between Jian carp and mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), which both have 50 chromosomes. One hundred and ninety-eight Jian carp marker loci were found in common with the mirror carp map, with 186 (93.94%) showing synteny. All 44 Jian carp linkage groups could be one-to-one aligned to the 44 mirror carp linkage groups, mostly sharing two or more common loci. Three QTLs for BW in Jian carp were conserved in mirror carp. QTL comparison suggested that the QTL confidence interval in mirror carp was more precise than the homologous interval in Jian carp, which was contained within the QTL interval in Jian carp. The syntenic relationship and consensus QTLs between the two varieties provide a foundation for genomic research and genetic breeding in common carp.

  14. Heat pipe fatigue test specimen: Metallurgical evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walak, Steven E.; Cronin, Michael J.; Grobstein, Toni

    1992-01-01

    An innovative creep/fatigue test was run to simulate the temperature, mechanical load, and sodium corrosion conditions expected in a heat pipe designed to supply thermal energy to a Stirling cycle power converter. A sodium-charged Inconel 718 heat pipe with a Nickel 200 screen wick was operated for 1090 hr at temperatures between 950 K (1250 F) and 1050 K (1430 F) while being subjected to creep and fatigue loads in a servo-hydraulic testing machine. After testing, the heat pipe was sectioned and examined using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis with wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The analysis concentrated on evaluating topographic, microstructural, and chemical changes in the sodium exposed surfaces of the heat pipe wall and wick. Surface changes in the evaporator, condenser, and adiabatic sections of the heat pipe were examined in an effort to correlate the changes with the expected sodium environment in the heat pipe. This report describes the setup, operating conditions, and analytical results of the sodium heat pipe fatigue test.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF PIPES USING ELECTRET ION CHAMBERS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The decontamination and characterization of large-bore pipe is difficult because of the various geometries and diameters of pipe and its different material types. A robust decontamination system must be capable of adapting to different pipe diameters (p-eject scope is 6 inches to 24 inches), cleaning surfaces with various surface conditions and material types (i.e., painted, rusted, carbon steel, or stainless steel) and be cost-effective to operate and maintain. The characterization system must be capable of handling the different pipe parameters and detecting contamination on the inside and outside surfaces. It must also operate in a cost-effective manner. Current technology options do not provide a robust system to meet these objectives. The purpose of this project is to verify the need for this technology through determining quantities of pipe available for decontamination (completed FY97), perform a technology screening process to select technologies for decontamination (completed FY97) and characterization (completed FY98), perform treatability studies to collect required performance data (completed FY97), and design and fabricate a prototype system to decontaminate and characterize the internal and external surfaces of large-bore pipe. A field-mobile system capable of performing decontamination and characterization operations will be the main deliverable for this project. A summary of activities completed during FY97 is provided to understand the project development and implementation process.

  16. The influence of the tangential velocity of inner rotating wall on axial velocity profile of flow through vertical annular pipe with rotating inner surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharf, Abdusalam M.; Jawan, Hosen A.; Almabsout, Fthi A.

    2014-03-01

    In the oil and gas industries, understanding the behaviour of a flow through an annulus gap in a vertical position, whose outer wall is stationary whilst the inner wall rotates, is a significantly important issue in drilling wells. The main emphasis is placed on experimental (using an available rig) and computational (employing CFD software) investigations into the effects of the rotation speed of the inner pipe on the axial velocity profiles. The measured axial velocity profiles, in the cases of low axial flow, show that the axial velocity is influenced by the rotation speed of the inner pipe in the region of almost 33% of the annulus near the inner pipe, and influenced inversely in the rest of the annulus. The position of the maximum axial velocity is shifted from the centre to be nearer the inner pipe, by increasing the rotation speed. However, in the case of higher flow, as the rotation speed increases, the axial velocity is reduced and the position of the maximum axial velocity is skewed towards the centre of the annulus. There is a reduction of the swirl velocity corresponding to the rise of the volumetric flow rate.

  17. Heat pipe systems using new working fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, David F. (Inventor); Zhang, Nengli (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The performance of a heat pipe system is greatly improved by the use of a dilute aqueous solution of about 0.0005 and about 0.005 moles per liter of a long chain alcohol as the working fluid. The surface tension-temperature gradient of the long-chain alcohol solutions turns positive as the temperature exceeds a certain value, for example about 40.degree. C. for n-heptanol solutions. Consequently, the Marangoni effect does not impede, but rather aids in bubble departure from the heating surface. Thus, the bubble size at departure is substantially reduced at higher frequencies and, therefore, increases the boiling limit of heat pipes. This feature is useful in microgravity conditions. In addition to microgravity applications, the heat pipe system may be used for commercial, residential and vehicular air conditioning systems, micro heat pipes for electronic devices, refrigeration and heat exchangers, and chemistry and cryogenics.

  18. Short cracks in piping and piping welds. Semiannual report, October 1990--March 1991: Volume 1, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Brust, F.; Francini, R.; Ghadiali, N.; Kilinski, T.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Landow, M.; Marschall, C.W.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1992-04-01

    This is the second semiannual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds research program. The program began in March 1990 and will extend for 4 years. The intent of this program is to verify and improve fracture analyses for circumferentially cracked large-diameter nuclear piping with crack sizes typically used in leak-before-break analyses or in-service flaw evaluations. Only quasi-static loading rates are evaluated since the NRC`s International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program is evaluating the effects of seismic loading rates on cracked piping systems. Progress for through-wall-cracked pipe involved (1) conducting a 28-inch diameter stainless steel SAW and 4-inch diameter French TP316 experiments, (2) conducting a matrix of FEM analyses to determine GE/EPRI functions for short TWC pipe, (3) comparison of uncracked pipe maximum moments to various analyses and FEM solutions, (4) development of a J-estimation scheme that includes the strength of both the weld and base metals. Progress for surface-cracked pipe involved (1) conducting two experiments on 6-inch diameter pipe with d/t = 0.5 and {Theta}/{pi} = 0.25 cracks, (2) comparisons of the pipe experiments to Net-Section-Collapse predictions, and (3) modification of the SC.TNP and SC.TKP J-estimation schemes to include external surface cracks.

  19. Detecting Conductive Liquid Leaking from Nonconductive Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    A method that can be implemented with relatively simple electronic circuitry provides a capability for detecting leakage of an electrically conductive liquid from an electrically nonconductive underground pipe. Alternatively or in addition, the method can be applied to locate the pipe, whether or not there is a leak. Although the method is subject to limitations (some of which are described below), it is still attractive as an additional option for detecting leaks and locating pipes without need for extensive digging. The method is based on capacitive coupling of an alternating electrical signal from the liquid to a portable electronic unit that resembles a metal detector. A signal voltage is applied to the liquid at some convenient point along the pipe: for example, the signal could be coupled into the liquid via an aboveground metal pipe fitting, the interior surface of which is in contact with the liquid. The signal is conducted through the liquid in the pipe; in the case of diffusive leak of liquid into the surrounding ground, the signal is conducted through the leak, into the portion of the adjacent ground that has become soaked with the liquid. (A drip leak cannot be detected by this method because there is no conductive path between the liquid inside and the liquid outside the pipe.) The portable unit includes an electrically conductive plate connected to the input terminal of an amplifier. When the plate is brought near the pipe or the leaked liquid, a small portion of the signal power is coupled capacitively from the liquid to the plate. The user scans the plate near the ground surface to find the locus of maximum signal strength. The leak can be identified as a relatively wide area, contiguous with the location of the pipe, over which the signal is detectable.

  20. Fracture of Pipes Due to Freezing of Water Enclosed Inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiwake, Shigeyoshi; Inaba, Hideo; Saito, Hakaru; Tokura, Ikuo

    Pressure rise due to freezing of water enclosed in metal pipes has been simulated for the case of various ambient temperatures, -10 to -30°C and heat transfer conditions, taking drop in freezing temperature due to the pressure rise and the change in volume caused by freezing into account. For three kinds of different materials, the pressure change occurring in pipes have been analyzed under the relation of the tangential stresses on the inner surface of the pipes. The dimensionless parameters have been proposed to correlate the calculated results and it has found that the criterion for the fracture of pipes can be expressed as a function mainly of the modified Fourier and Biot numbers and the ratio of the wall thickness and the inner diameter of the pipes. It has also shown that the fracture Fourier number can be increased and the dimensionless maximum pressures in pipes can be reduced by introducing voids inside pipes.

  1. 65. FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPES BEHIND FLAME BUCKET. PIPES TO UMBILICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPES BEHIND FLAME BUCKET. PIPES TO UMBILICAL MAST IN LOWER LEFT CORNER; PIPES TO LAUNCHER IN UPPER LEFT CORNER; PIPES TO FLAME BUCKET IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTOGRAPH. POTABLE WATER PIPING IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. New portable pipe wall thickness measuring technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascente, Joseph E.

    1998-03-01

    One of the biggest inspection challenges facing many of the process industries; namely the petrochemical, refining, fossil power, and pulp and paper industries is: How to effectively examine their insulated piping? While there are a number of failure mechanisms involved in various process piping systems, piping degradation through corrosion and erosion are by far the most prevalent. This degradation can be in the form of external corrosion under insulation, internal corrosion through a variety of mechanisms, and internal erosion caused by the flow of the product through the pipe. Refineries, chemical plants and electrical power plants have MANY thousands of miles of pipe that are insulated to prevent heat loss or heat absorption. This insulation is often made up of several materials, with calcium based material being the most dense. The insulating material is usually wrapped with an aluminum or stainless steel outer wrap. Verification of wall thickness of these pipes can be accomplished by removing the insulation and doing an ultrasound inspection or by taking x- rays at a tangent to the edge of the pipe through the insulation. Both of these processes are slow and expensive. The time required to obtain data is measured in hours per meter. The ultrasound method requires that the insulation be plugged after the inspection. The surface needs to be cleaned or the resulting data will not be accurate. The tangent x-ray only shows two thicknesses and requires that the area be roped off because of radiation safety.

  3. Miniature Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  4. Deployable Heat Pipe Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1975-01-01

    A 1.2- by 1.8-m variable conductance heat pipe radiator was designed, built, and tested. The radiator has deployment capability and can passively control Freon-21 fluid loop temperatures under varying loads and environments. It consists of six grooved variable conductance heat pipes attached to a 0.032-in. aluminum panel. Heat is supplied to the radiator via a fluid header or a single-fluid flexible heat pipe header. The heat pipe header is an artery design that has a flexible section capable of bending up to 90 degrees. Radiator loads as high as 850 watts were successfully tested. Over a load variation of 200 watts, the outlet temperature of the Freon-21 fluid varied by 7 F. An alternate control system was also investigated which used a variable conductance heat pipe header attached to the heat pipe radiator panel.

  5. Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Oxygen Production of Lunar Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartenstine, John R.; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara L.; Ellis, Michael C.

    2009-03-01

    A heat pipe solar receiver operating in the 1050° C range is proposed for use in the hydrogen reduction process for the extraction of oxygen from the lunar soil. The heat pipe solar receiver is designed to accept, isothermalize and transfer solar thermal energy to reactors for oxygen production. This increases the available area for heat transfer, and increases throughput and efficiency. The heat pipe uses sodium as the working fluid, and Haynes 230 as the heat pipe envelope material. Initial design requirements have been established for the heat pipe solar receiver design based on information from the NASA In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) program. Multiple heat pipe solar receiver designs were evaluated based on thermal performance, temperature uniformity, and integration with the solar concentrator and the regolith reactor(s). Two designs were selected based on these criteria: an annular heat pipe contained within the regolith reactor and an annular heat pipe with a remote location for the reactor. Additional design concepts have been developed that would use a single concentrator with a single solar receiver to supply and regulate power to multiple reactors. These designs use variable conductance or pressure controlled heat pipes for passive power distribution management between reactors. Following the design study, a demonstration heat pipe solar receiver was fabricated and tested. Test results demonstrated near uniform temperature on the outer surface of the pipe, which will ultimately be in contact with the regolith reactor.

  6. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Donald M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  7. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  8. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  9. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  10. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bast, Richard M.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Henning, Carl D.; Lennon, Joseph P.; Pastrnak, John W.; Smith, Joseph A.

    1994-01-01

    An attachment mechanism for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection.

  11. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bast, R.M.; Chesnut, D.A.; Henning, C.D.; Lennon, J.P.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Smith, J.A.

    1994-12-13

    An attachment mechanism is described for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection. 6 figures.

  12. Underground radial pipe network

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.

    1984-04-24

    The network, useful in conducting fluids to underground sites, is an assembly of flexible pipes or tubes, suspended from and connected to a drill pipe. The flexible pipes, assembled in a bundle, are spring biased to flare outwardly in an arcuate manner when a releasable cap on the distal end of the bundle is removed. The assembled bundle is inserted into and lowered down a bore hole. When the cap is released, the pipes flare radially and outwardly. Fluid, pumped into and through the assembly, can be directed into the underground formation for various purposes.

  13. Heat pipe investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The OAO-C spacecraft has three circular heat pipes, each of a different internal design, located in the space between the spacecraft structural tube and the experiment tube, which are designed to isothermalize the structure. Two of the pipes are used to transport high heat loads, and the third is for low heat loads. The test problems deal with the charging of the pipes, modifications, the mobile tilt table, the position indicator, and the heat input mechanisms. The final results showed that the techniques used were adequate for thermal-vacuum testing of heat pipes.

  14. Effect of Geopolymer filler in Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) Pipe for Piping Application: Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus Abu Hashim, Mohammad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Che; Hussin, Kamarudin; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The present work is aimed to carry out the effect of geopolymer material which is fly ash as filler in the glass reinforced epoxy pipe on the micro structure of fly ash geopolymer, compression properties, and bulk density using the filament winding method. Conventional glass reinforced epoxy pipes has its own disadvantages such as high corrosion resistance at acidic environment and low strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymer is a type of amorphous alumino-silicate and can be synthesized by geopolymerization process. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentage geopolymer filler which is fly ash with 4 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of the raw material fly ash and fly ash based-geopolymer surface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the additions of fly ash at the beginning with 10 wt% are showing higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without fly ash geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these series of samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. It was found that compressive strength for samples fly ash based-geopolymer filler are higher as compared to glass reinforced epoxy pipe without geopolymer filler. However, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with fly ash geopolymer filler continues to decline when added to 20 wt% - 40 wt% of geopolymer filler loading. The results showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be obtained in this study.

  15. Molecular characterisation of a disseminated Cryptosporidium infection in a Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Dorrestein, Gerry M; Ryan, Una

    2016-08-15

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of hosts, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in fish. Here we report a disseminated Cryptosporidium infection in a male Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio), with parasite stages identified deep within the epithelium of the intestine, kidneys, spleen, liver and gills causing severe granulomatous inflammatory lesions. Molecular characterization at two loci; 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and actin, revealed this to be a novel Cryptosporidium genotype, most closely related to Cryptosporidium molnari. PMID:27514884

  16. Turbulent flow in smooth and rough pipes.

    PubMed

    Allen, J J; Shockling, M A; Kunkel, G J; Smits, A J

    2007-03-15

    Recent experiments at Princeton University have revealed aspects of smooth pipe flow behaviour that suggest a more complex scaling than previously noted. In particular, the pressure gradient results yield a new friction factor relationship for smooth pipes, and the velocity profiles indicate the presence of a power-law region near the wall and, for Reynolds numbers greater than about 400x103 (R+>9x103), a logarithmic region further out. New experiments on a rough pipe with a honed surface finish with krms/D=19.4x10-6, over a Reynolds number range of 57x103-21x106, show that in the transitionally rough regime this surface follows an inflectional friction factor relationship rather than the monotonic relationship given in the Moody diagram. Outer-layer scaling of the mean velocity data and streamwise turbulence intensities for the rough pipe show excellent collapse and provide strong support for Townsend's outer-layer similarity hypothesis for rough-walled flows. The streamwise rough-wall spectra also agree well with the corresponding smooth-wall data. The pipe exhibited smooth behaviour for ks+ < or =3.5, which supports the suggestion that the original smooth pipe was indeed hydraulically smooth for ReD< or =24x106. The relationship between the velocity shift, DeltaU/utau, and the roughness Reynolds number, ks+, has been used to generalize the form of the transition from smooth to fully rough flow for an arbitrary relative roughness krms/D. These predictions apply for honed pipes when the separation of pipe diameter to roughness height is large, and they differ significantly from the traditional Moody curves. PMID:17244585

  17. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas R.; Rawlinson, K. Scott

    1994-01-01

    An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.

  18. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1994-01-04

    An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

  19. These Pipes Are "Happening"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The author is blessed with having the water pipes for the school system in her office. In this article, the author describes how the breaking of the pipes had led to a very worthwhile art experience for her students. They practiced contour and shaded drawing techniques, reviewed patterns and color theory, and used their reasoning skills--all while…

  20. Heat pipe methanator

    DOEpatents

    Ranken, William A.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1976-07-27

    A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.

  1. CORRELATIONS OF NONYLPHENOL-ETHOXYLATES AND NONYLPHENOL WITH BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) FROM THE CUYAHOGA RIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various chemical and biological measures were determined in carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled from seven sites along the Cuyahoga River, Ohio; from the relatively pristine headwaters to the lower portion heavily polluted from various industrial, urban and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Levels of n...

  2. RESPONSES OF MOLECULAR INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE IN MESOCOSMS: COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDES ALACHLOR AND ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...

  3. SNP discovery and development of genetic markers for mapping immune response genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers for susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). With the aim to de...

  4. [Effects of nano-selenium on antioxidant capacity and histopathology of Cyprinus carpio liver under fluoride stress].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Jie; Cao, Jin-Ling; Luo, Yong-Ju; Li, Ju-Yin

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the protection effect of nano-selenium (NSe) on the antioxidant capacity and histopathology of Cyprinus carpio liver under fluoride stress, a total of 750 C. carpio individuals were randomly divided into five groups, i. e., no fluoride stress and NSe addition (CK), fluoride (100 mg F- x L(-1))-stressed (FS), and fluoride-stressed plus NSe added with a dosage of 0.1 mg Se x L(-1) (NSe L), 0.5 mg Se x L(-1) (NSe M), and 1.0 mg Se x kg(-1)(NSe H). The NSe was mixed with fish foods, and the fishes of FS and NSe groups were exposed to the fluoride stress for 30 days. As compared with CK, fluoride stress decreased the SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities and increased the MDA content of C. carpio liver, and induced a definite damage on the histopathology of the liver. Compared with FS, NSe increased the liver SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities, decreased the liver MDA content, and mitigated the damage of fluoride stress on the histopathology of the liver. The results demonstrated that in some extent, the addition of NSe into fish foods could alleviate the decline of the antioxidant capacity of C. carpio liver and the damage on the liver histopathology caused by fluoride stress. PMID:24483095

  5. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, Mark

    1991-01-01

    A pipe crawler having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by "inchworm"-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward.

  6. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, M.

    1991-05-28

    A pipe crawler is described having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by inchworm'-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward. 5 figures.

  7. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane. Advantages of this approach include the capability of deploying through constrictions in the pipe, around 90{degrees} bends, vertically up and down, and in slippery conditions. Because the detector is transported inside the membrane (which is inexpensive and disposable), it is protected from contamination, which eliminates cross-contamination. Characterization sensors that have been demonstrated with the system thus far include: gamma detectors, beta detectors, video cameras, and pipe locators. Alpha measurement capability is currently under development. A remotely operable Pipe Explorer{trademark} system has been developed and demonstrated for use in DOE facilities in the decommissioning stage. The system is capable of deployment in pipes as small as 2-inch-diameter and up to 250 feet long. This paper describes the technology and presents measurement results of a field demonstration conducted with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system at a DOE site. These measurements identify surface activity levels of U-238 contamination as a function of location in drain lines. Cost savings to the DOE of approximately $1.5 million dollars were realized from this one demonstration.

  8. NSAID-manufacturing plant effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Islas-Flores, Hariz; González-González, Edgar David; Cardoso-Vera, Jesús Daniel; Jiménez-Vargas, Juan Manuel

    2015-10-15

    The pharmaceutical industry generates wastewater discharges of varying characteristics and contaminant concentrations depending on the nature of the production process. The main chemicals present in these effluents are solvents, detergents, disinfectants - such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) - and pharmaceutical products, all of which are potentially ecotoxic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the geno- and cytotoxicity induced in the common carp Cyprinus carpio by the effluent emanating from a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-manufacturing plant. Carp were exposed to the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 0.1173%) for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and biomarkers of genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test) and cytotoxicity (caspase-3 activity and TUNEL assay) were evaluated. A significant increase with respect to the control group (p<0.05) occurred with all biomarkers from 24h on. Significant positive correlations were found between NSAID concentrations and biomarkers of geno- and cytotoxicity, as well as among geno- and cytotoxicity biomarkers. In conclusion, exposure to this industrial effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in blood of C. carpio. PMID:26026403

  9. Toxicity profile of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for fungi and Cyprinus carpio fish.

    PubMed

    Juneidi, Ibrahim; Hayyan, Maan; Mohd Ali, Ozair

    2016-04-01

    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds. PMID:26743645

  10. Electrostatic hazards with underground plastic pipes at petrol stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, H. L.

    2011-06-01

    The paper analyses some ignition incidents that have been reported with insulating, (non-conductive) underground plastic pipes in retail petrol stations. The occurrence of the incidents is compared with voltage measurements, observations of the typical spread of streaming currents recorded in gasoline handling and theoretical estimates of the voltages on the pipes. The comparisons suggest that neither incendive sparks from unbonded conductors nor incendive brush discharges from insulating pipe surfaces can be ruled out although both are expected to be rare. The hazards can be prevented by using pipes with earthed conductive or dissipative inner linings.

  11. Glass-heat-pipe evacuated-tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.; VanSant, J.H.

    1981-08-06

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  12. Analysis and comparison between rough channel and pipe flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassun, David; Flores, Oscar; Orlandi, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel and pipe flows are presented to highlight the effect of roughness at low Reynolds number (Reτ = 180 ‑ 360). Several surfaces are reproduced with the immersed boundaries method, allowing a one-to-one comparison of the two canonical flows. In general, all rough surfaces produce the same effect on the flow in pipes and channels, with small differences in the roughness function, RMS velocities and spectral energy density of pipes and channels. The only exception is for the rough surfaces made of longitudinal bars. In particular, the triangular bars (riblets) show drag reduction in the channel and drag increase in the pipe. This behaviour is linked to the development of spanwise rollers and wide u-structures near the plane of the crest of the pipe.

  13. Drainage Pipe Detection and Assessment Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research conducted to date clearly shows that ground penetrating radar (GPR) is feasible for use locating buried drainage pipes in both farm and golf course settings. Within farm settings, GPR seems to work quite well locating drainage pipes buried within one meter of the surface, and the succes...

  14. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    SciTech Connect

    V. Munne

    2006-07-19

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP).

  15. Key results for the NRC`s Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Brust, F.

    1995-04-01

    The overall objective of the Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Program is to verify and improve engineering analyses to predict the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe under quasi-static loading with particular attention to crack lengths typically used in LBB or flaw evaluation criteria. The USNCRC program at Battelle was initiated in March 1990 and is scheduled to be completed in December 1994. This paper discusses key results from the overall program with particular emphasis on the efforts since the last WRSIM meeting. The program consists of eight technical tasks as listed below: task 1 short through-wall-cracked (TWC) pipe evaluations; task 2 short surface-cracked (SC) pipe evaluations; task 3 bi-metallic weld crack evaluations; task 4 dynamic strain aging and crack instabilities; task 5 fracture evaluations of anisotropic pipe; task 6 crack-opening-area evaluations; task 7 NRCPIPE code improvements; task 8 additional efforts. Task 8 is a collection of new efforts initiated during the coarse of the program. A list of the full-scale pipe experiments in this program is given in Table 1. All of the experiments have been completed. The most recent accomplishments in each of the tasks listed above are discussed below. The details of all the results in the eight tasks are published in the semiannual reports as well as topical reports from the program.

  16. Piping stress handbook. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Helguero, V.

    1986-01-01

    This abridged volume contains the following: Coefficients of thermal expansion. Allowable stress range for ANSI/ASME Power Piping Code B31.1. Stress intensification and flexibility factors. Pressure and stress ratios. Design criteria for allowable loads, moment, and stresses. Properties of pipe. Weight and dimensions of pipe and components. Pipe support selection and design. Fundamentals of expansion joints. Index.

  17. Experimenting with a "Pipe" Whistle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Olga

    2012-01-01

    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here…

  18. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    A heat pipe of new design, using an electrode structure to orient and guide the dielectric liquid phase flow, is proposed. Analysis indicates that the operation of the electrohydrodynamic heat pipe is in direct analogy to capillary devices, with the polarization force acting in place of capillarity. Advantages of these new heat pipes include greatly reduced liquid friction, electrohydrodynamically enhanced evaporation and condensation heat transfer, and a possible voltage-controlled on/off feature. Preliminary calculations indicate that relatively high performance devices are possible.

  19. Electrohydrodynamic heat pipes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe of radical design is proposed which substitutes polarization electrohydrodynamic force effects for capillarity in collecting, guiding, and pumping a condensate liquid phase. The discussed device is restricted to the use of dielectric liquids as working fluids. Because of the relatively poor thermal transport properties of these liquids, capillary heat pipes using these liquids have not been high performance devices. The employment of the electrohydrodynamic concept should enhance this performance and help fill the performance gap that exists in the temperature range from 250 F to 750 F for 'conventional' capillary heat pipes.

  20. Gas pipe explorer robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

  1. Morphological traits of damage to steam pipes in aggressive media

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, I.I.; Khodykina, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    In steam pipes handling steam 540-560{degrees}C hot there were repeated cases of damage to curved parts of the pipes (bends). In the bends cracks form both on the outer surface of tensioned zones and on the inner surface of neutral zones. Statistical processing of the cases of destruction of steam pipe bends showed that damage to bends was found on the inner surface of the neutral zones only in power stations which used returned condensate from petrochemical production. The proportion of damaged bends in the neutral zones is about 30% of the total number. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  2. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, Barbara E.

    1993-07-02

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straight pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.

  3. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-07-02

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straightmore » pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.« less

  4. Turbulent Heat Transfer in Ribbed Pipe Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo

    2012-11-01

    From the view point of heat transfer control, surface roughness is one of the popular ways adopted for enhancing heat transfer in turbulent pipe flow. Such a surface roughness is often modeled with a rib. In the current investigation, Large Eddy Simulation has been performed for turbulent flow in a pipe with periodically-mounted ribs at Reτ=700, Pr=0.71, and p / k =2, 4, and 8. Here, p and k represent the pitch and rib height, respectively. The rib height is fixed as one tenth of the pipe radius. The profiles of mean velocity components, mean temperature, root-mean-squares (rms) of temperature fluctuation are presented at the selected streamwise locations. In comparison with the smooth-pipe case at the same Re and Pr, the effects of the ribs are clearly identified, leading to overall enhancement of turbulent heat transfer in terms of Nu. The budget of temperature variance is presented in the form of contours. The results of an Octant analysis are also given to elucidate the dominant events. Our LES results shed light on a complete understanding of the heat-transfer mechanisms in turbulent ribbed-pipe flow which has numerous applications in engineering. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2012013019).

  5. Insertion assembly for a pipe completion plug

    SciTech Connect

    Jiles, S.L.

    1991-08-13

    This patent describes an insertion assembly for installing a completion plug in a branching saddle having an internally-threaded pipe stub and a peripheral beveled seating surface in the pipe stub. It comprises a tube; a shaft extending through the tube; a spring-loaded socket extending partially into one end of the tube, resiliently biased against further movement into the tube and mounted on one end of the shaft so as to turn with it; a completion plug having an elastomeric disk with a beveled peripheral edge and a circular metal plate attached to the disk; a camming groove at the end of the tube and a camming pin extending from the hub to releasably retain the plate at the end of the tube, the groove having a radially-extending portion terminating in a pair of axially-extending recesses for receiving the pin and an axially-extending inlet slot between the recesses, whereby the completion plug may be lowered into place in the branching saddle by means of the tube and engaged so that its beveled edge seats against the beveled seating surface of the pipe stub by screwing the plate into the threaded pipe stub as the shaft is turned within the tube while the pin is seated in one of the recesses and may be left in place in the pipe stub by releasing the camming pin from the camming groove through the inlet slot.

  6. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Dielectric liquid for transfer of heat provides liquid flow from the condenser section to the evaporator section in conventional heat pipes. Working fluid is guided or pumped by an array of wire electrodes connected to a high-voltage source.

  7. Heat pipe manufacturing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

  8. Heat pipe development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienart, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate analytically and experimentally the performance of heat pipes with composite wicks--specifically, those having pedestal arteries and screwthread circumferential grooves. An analytical model was developed to describe the effects of screwthreads and screen secondary wicks on the transport capability of the artery. The model describes the hydrodynamics of the circumferential flow in triangular grooves with azimuthally varying capillary menisci and liquid cross-sections. Normalized results were obtained which give the influence of evaporator heat flux on the axial heat transport capability of the arterial wick. In order to evaluate the priming behavior of composite wicks under actual load conditions, an 'inverted' glass heat pipe was designed and constructed. The results obtained from the analysis and from the tests with the glass heat pipe were applied to the OAO-C Level 5 heat pipe, and an improved correlation between predicted and measured evaporator and transport performance were obtained.

  9. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better

  10. Freezable heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Donald M.; Sanzi, James L.

    1981-02-03

    A heat pipe whose fluid can be repeatedly frozen and thawed without damage to the casing. An additional part is added to a conventional heat pipe. This addition is a simple porous structure, such as a cylinder, self-supporting and free standing, which is dimensioned with its diameter not spanning the inside transverse dimension of the casing, and with its length surpassing the depth of maximum liquid.

  11. Neurophysiology of pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkley, Dwight

    2014-11-01

    This work explores the connection between the transition to turbulence in pipe flow and the dynamics of excitable media, as exemplified by nerve cells. The primary goal is to leverage years of extensive analysis of neural systems to understand the dynamics of transitional turbulence. To demonstrate the predictive nature of the approach, model simulations will be presented for puffs in pipe flow for cases not previously studied experimentally.

  12. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  13. An investigation of electrohydrodynamic heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehrke, R. I.

    1977-01-01

    The principles of electrohydrodynamic heat pip operation are first discussed. Evaporator conductance experiments are then described. A heat pipe was designed in which grooved and ungrooved evaporator surfaces could be interchanged to evaluate the necessity of capillary grooves. Optimum electrode spacing was also studied. Finally, heat convection in evaporating thin films is considered.

  14. Heat pipe with hot gas reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipe can reverse itself with gas reservoir acting as evaporator, leading to rapid recovery from liquid in reservoir. Single layer of fine-mesh screen is included inside reservoir to assure uniform liquid distribution over hottest parts of internal surface until liquid is completely removed.

  15. "Colgate-Plus"--An Imperfect Light Pipe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouseph, P. J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the effects when a clear toothbrush is used as total internally reflecting light pipe when attached to a laser. Several explanations are given describing the nonuniformity of the transmitted light resulting from surface and internal irregularities found in the toothbrush. (MVL)

  16. Portable tool cleans pipes and tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headley, C. A.; Headley, R.; Jones, D. D.

    1965-01-01

    Portable tool cleans and polishes the external surfaces of tubes and pipes without contaminating the interior areas with loose particles. The tool is driven by an electric drill and is connected to a vacuum source that removes debris resulting from the cleaning and polishing action.

  17. Short cracks in piping and piping welds. Seventh program report, March 1993-December 1994. Volume 4, Number 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Ghadiali, N.; Rudland, D.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1995-04-01

    This is the seventh progress report of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s research program entitled {open_quotes}Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds{close_quotes}. The program objective is to verify and improve fracture analyses for circumferentially cracked large-diameter nuclear piping with crack sizes typically used in leak-before-break (LBB) analyses and in-service flaw evaluations. All work in the eight technical tasks have been completed. Ten topical reports are scheduled to be published. Progress only during the reporting period, March 1993 - December 1994, not covered in the topical reports is presented in this report. Details about the following efforts are covered in this report: (1) Improvements to the two computer programs NRCPIPE and NRCPIPES to assess the failure behavior of circumferential through-wall and surface-cracked pipe, respectively; (2) Pipe material property database PIFRAC; (3) Circumferentially cracked pipe database CIRCUMCK.WKI; (4) An assessment of the proposed ASME Section III design stress rule changes on pipe flaw tolerance; and (5) A pipe fracture experiment on a section of pipe removed from service degraded by microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) which contained a girth weld crack. Progress in the other tasks is not repeated here as it has been covered in great detail in the topical reports.

  18. Oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by ketorolac on the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Galar-Martínez, M; García-Medina, S; Gómez-Olivan, L M; Pérez-Coyotl, I; Mendoza-Monroy, D J; Arrazola-Morgain, R E

    2016-09-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketorolac is extensively used in the treatment of acute postoperative pain. This pharmaceutical has been found at concentrations of 0.2-60 µg/L in diverse water bodies around the world; however, its effects on aquatic organisms remain unknown. The present study, evaluated the oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by sublethal concentrations of ketorolac (1 and 60 µg/L) on liver, brain, and blood of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. This toxicant induced oxidative damage (increased lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxide content, and protein carbonyl content) as well as changes in antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activity) in liver and brain of carp. In blood, ketorolac increased the frequency of micronuclei and is therefore genotoxic for the test species. The effects observed were time and concentration dependent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1035-1043, 2016. PMID:25899151

  19. Antioxidant activity and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg).

    PubMed

    Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-09-01

    Previously, we have reported the composition, molecular mass distribution and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of common carp roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antioxidative activity and functional properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg) protein hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase, were evaluated. The three hydrolysates showed excellent antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner in various in vitro models such as 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6)-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating ability. Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased protein solubility of the hydrolysates to above 62 % over a wide pH range (2-12). Carp roe hydrolysates exhibited good foaming and emulsification properties. The results suggest that bioactive carp roe protein hydrolysates (CRPHs) with good functional properties could be useful in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. PMID:26344996

  20. Uptake and biological effects of synthetic glucocorticoids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kei; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Naomi; Hashizume, Naoki; Murakami, Hidekazu; Ishibashi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Hirofumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Go

    2014-08-30

    Uptake and biological effects of synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) were analyzed using common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were exposed to clobetasol propionate (CP) or clobetasone butyrate (CB) individually or in mixture at 1 μg L(-1) for 21 days. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of CB was calculated as 100, and BCF of CP was less than 16. No effects were found in fish erythrocyte and leukocyte numbers and serum glucose levels after exposure to the selected GCs. On the other hand, serum concentrations of free amino acids significantly increased in GC-exposed groups. Thus, exposures to synthetic GCs at relatively low concentrations seemed to cause enhancement of protein degradation and subsequent increase of serum free amino acids without a corresponding increase in serum glucose levels, an effect which might be related to partial induction of gluconeogenesis by GC. PMID:24492153

  1. Integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Keddy, E.; Sena, J.T.; Merrigan, M.

    1987-01-01

    Performance verification tests of an integrated heat pipe-thermal energy storage system have been conducted. This system is being developed as a part of an Organic Rankine Cycle-Solar Dynamic Power System (ORC-SDPS) receiver for future space stations. The integrated system consists of potassium heat pipe elements that incorporate thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space along with an organic fluid (toluene) heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the surface of the heat pipe elements of the ORC-SDPS receiver and is internally transferred by the potassium vapor for use and storage. Part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was fabricated that employs axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the wicked TES units and the heater to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to verify the heat pipe operation and to evaluate the heat pipe/TES units/heater tube operation by interfacing the heater unit to a heat exchanger.

  2. Effect of dietary astaxanthin against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Jagruthi, Chandrasekar; Yogeshwari, Govintharaj; Anbazahan, Sannasi Muthu; Mari, Lourthu Samy Shanthi; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Mariappan, Pitchaimuthu; Sudhakar, Gunamoni Rajam Learnal; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2014-12-01

    The effect of astaxanthin at 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) incorporated in basal feed on immune response and disease resistance in Cyprinus carpio against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. When fed with 25 mg kg(-1) diet, the cumulative mortality was 35% whereas it was 10% and 20% with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets. With all enriched diets the growth rate increased significantly from week 1 to 4 when compared with control. However, the specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not vary significantly from that of the control except with 50 mg kg(-1) diet. When fed with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets the red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values significantly increased. However, the serum total protein, albumin, and globulin contents significantly increased only when fed with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets. The phagocytic ratio also significantly raised with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets on week 2 and 4 whereas the phagocytic index significantly increased with all groups only on fourth week. The respiratory burst activity significantly increased in 25 mg kg(-1) diet group on first week whereas in 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diet groups the activity increased on weeks 2 and 4; a similar trend was observed in the anti-protease activity only on weeks 2 and 4. The serum lysozyme activity and bactericidal activity registered a significant increase with all enriched diets. This study suggests that supplementation of astaxanthin at 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet significantly promotes the growth restores hematology and modulates the immune system in C. carpio against A. hydrophila. PMID:25462460

  3. Description of an as yet unclassified DNA virus from diseased Cyprinus carpio species.

    PubMed

    Hutoran, Marina; Ronen, Ariel; Perelberg, Ayana; Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Bejerano, Izhak; Chen, Nissim; Kotler, Moshe

    2005-02-01

    Numerous deaths of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were observed on many farms throughout Israel, resulting in severe financial losses. The lethal viral disease observed is highly contagious and extremely virulent, but morbidity and mortality are restricted to koi and common carp populations. Diseased fish exhibit fatigue and gasping movements in shallow water. Infected fish had interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis as well as petechial hemorrhages in the liver and other symptoms that were not consistent with viral disease, suggesting a secondary infection. Here we report the isolation of carp nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV), which is the etiologic agent of this disease. The virus propagates and induces severe cytopathic effects by 5 days postinfection in fresh koi or carp fin cell cultures (KFC and CFC, respectively), but not in epithelioma papillosum cyprini cells. The virus harvested from KFC cultures induced the same clinical signs, with a mortality of 75 to 95%, upon inoculation into naive koi and common carp. Using PCR, we provide final proof that the isolated virus is indeed the etiologic agent of food and ornamental carp mortalities in fish husbandry. Electron microscopy revealed viral cores with icosahedral morphology of 100 to 110 nm that resembled herpesviruses. Electron micrographs of purified pelleted CNGV sections, together with viral sensitivities to ether and Triton X-100, suggested that it is an enveloped virus. However, the genome of the isolated virus is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule of 270 to 290 kbp, which is larger than known herpesviruses. The viral DNA seems highly divergent and bears only small fragments (16 to 45 bp) that are similar to the genomes of several DNA viruses. Nevertheless, amino acid sequences encoded by CNGV DNA fragments bear similarities primarily to members of the Poxviridae and Herpesviridae and to other large dsDNA viruses. We suggest, therefore, that the etiologic agent of this disease may

  4. Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaschnitz, E.

    2012-07-01

    A numerical simulation model for the horizontal centrifugal pipe casting process was developed with the commercial simulation package Flow3D. It considers - additionally to mass, energy and momentum conservation equations and free surface tracking - the fast radial and slower horizontal movement of the mold. The iron inflow is not steady state but time dependent. Of special importance is the friction between the liquid and the mold in connection with the viscosity and turbulence of the iron. Experiments with the mold at controlled revolution speeds were carried out using a high-speed camera. From these experiments friction coefficients for the description of the interaction between mold and melt were obtained. With the simulation model, the influence of typical process parameters (e.g. melts inflow, mold movement, melt temperature, cooling media) on the wall thickness of the pipes can be studied. The comparison to results of pipes from production shows a good agreement between simulation and reality.

  5. Grade-tonnage and other models for diamond kimberlite pipes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Grade-tonnage and other quantitative models help give reasonable answers to questions about diamond kimberlite pipes. Diamond kimberlite pipes are those diamondiferous kimberlite pipes that either have been worked or are expected to be worked for diamonds. These models are not applicable to kimberlite dikes and sills or to lamproite pipes. Diamond kimberlite pipes contain a median 26 million metric tons (mt); the median diamond grade is 0.25 carat/metric ton (ct/mt). Deposit-specific models suggest that the median of the average diamond size is 0.07 ct and the median percentage of diamonds that are industrial quality is 67 percent. The percentage of diamonds that are industrial quality can be predicted from deposit grade using a regression model (log[industrial diamonds (percent)]=1.9+0.2 log[grade (ct/mt)]). The largest diamond in a diamond kimberlite pipe can be predicted from deposit tonnage using a regression model (log[largest diamond (ct)]=-1.5+0.54 log[size (mt]). The median outcrop area of diamond pipes is 12 hectares (ha). Because the pipes have similar forms, the tonnage of the deposits can be predicted by the outcrop area (log[size (mt)]=6.5+1.0 log[outcrop area (ha)]). Once a kimberlite pipe is identified, the probability is approximately .005 that it can be worked for diamonds. If a newly discovered pipe is a member of a cluster that contains a known diamond kimberlite pipe, the probability that the new discovery can be mined for diamonds is 56 times that for a newly discovered kimberlite pipe in a cluster without a diamond kimberlite pipe. About 30 percent of pipes with worked residual caps at the surface will be worked at depth. Based on the number of discovered deposits and the area of stable craton rocks thought to be well explored in South Africa, about 10-5 diamond kimberlite pipes are present per square kilometer. If this density is applicable to the South American Precambrian Shield, more than 70 undiscovered kimberlite pipes are predicted to

  6. Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds. Semiannual report, October 1991--March 1992: Volume 2, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Brust, F.; Francini, R.; Ghadiali, N.; Kilinski, T.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Landow, M.; Marschall, C.W.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1993-05-01

    This is the fourth semiannual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds research program. This 4-Year program began in March 1990. The overall objective of this program is to verify and improve fracture analyses for circumferentially cracked large-diameter nuclear piping with crack sizes typically used in leak-before-break analyses or inservice flaw evaluations. Progress during this reporting period involved: (1) completing two through-wall-cracked pipe experiments and supplementary material property data, (2) an internal circumferential surface-cracked pipe experiment was completed which showed that the R/t effects on the Net-Section-Collapse Predicted loads for surface-cracked pipe to be independent of crack size, (3) the anisotropy investigation showed that pipe dimensions may be as important in determining the out-of-plane crack growth angle as the anisotropy of the toughness, (4) we initiated a probabilistic analysis of LBB to assess the potential changes in the leakage detection criteria in NRC Reg Guide 1.45, and (5) other efforts involved a sensitivity study on the effect of thermal aging of cast stainless steel on the moment-carrying capacity of the pipe as a function of time.

  7. In situ gamma spectrometry of piping in a CANDU heat transport system -- Application during decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, A.; Breckenridge, C.E.; Storey, D.

    1995-02-01

    An in situ pipe gamma spectrometry technique was applied to determine the activity within piping during various stages of CANDU reactor decontaminations. Measurements were performed in general radiation fields up to {approximately}500 mR/h and required both the detector and the pipe being scanned to be appropriately shielded from other neighboring piping. Measured counts were interpreted using a pipe source efficiency calibration with due regard to its distance dependence. Cobalt-60 was the dominant radionuclide on the piping before the decontamination. Deposition of {sup 124}Sb occurred on out-core piping surfaces during the decontamination. The spectrometry measurements were supplemented with contact radiation field measurements, which were performed using survey detectors housed within specially designed pipe shields. Radiation fields estimated from measured radionuclide activities were compared with the measured radiation fields. On average, the ratio of measured to estimated fields was {approximately}72%. Reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  8. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtseva, Olga

    2007-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler. Reduction of pipe diameter after dynamic loading and explosive welding was ˜2%.

  9. Wedgethread pipe connection

    DOEpatents

    Watts, John D.

    2003-06-17

    Several embodiments of a wedgethread pipe connection are disclosed that have improved makeup, sealing, and non-loosening characteristics. In one embodiment, an open wedgethread is disclosed that has an included angle measured in the gap between the stab flank and the load flank to be not less than zero, so as to prevent premature wedging between mating flanks before the position of full makeup is reached, as does occur between trapped wedgethreads wherein the included angle is less than zero. The invention may be used for pipe threads large or small, as a flush joint, with collars, screwed into plates or it may even be used to reversibly connect such as solid posts to base members where a wide makeup torque range is desired. This Open wedgethread, as opposed to trapped wedgethreads, provides a threaded pipe connection that: is more cost-effective; can seal high pressure gas; can provide selectively a connection strength as high as the pipe strength; assures easy makeup to the desired position of full makeup within a wide torque range; may have a torque strength as high as the pipe torque strength; is easier to manufacture; is easier to gage; and is less subject to handling damage.

  10. Remotely operated pipe connector

    DOEpatents

    Josefiak, Leonard J.; Cramer, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely assembling and disassembling a Graylock type coctor between a pipe and a closure for the pipe includes a base and a receptacle on the base for the closure. The pipe is moved into position vertically above the closure by a suitable positioning device such that the flange on the pipe is immediately adjacent and concentric with the flange on the closure. A moving device then moves two semicircular collars from a position free of the closure to a position such that the interior cam groove of each collar contacts the two flanges. Finally, a tensioning device automatically allows remote tightening and loosening of a nut and bolt assembly on each side of the collar to cause a seal ring located between the flanges to be compressed and to seal the closure. Release of the pipe and the connector is accomplished in the reverse order. Preferably, the nut and bolt assembly includes an elongate shaft portion on which a removable sleeve is located.

  11. Dietary microbial levan enhances cellular non-specific immunity and survival of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Rairakhwada, Dina; Pal, A K; Bhathena, Z P; Sahu, N P; Jha, A; Mukherjee, S C

    2007-05-01

    A preliminary study with a 75days feeding trial was conducted to study the immunomodulatory effect of microbial levan on Cyprinus carpio juveniles. Five purified isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets with graded levels of levan, namely (T(1)) 0.1% levan, (T(2)) 0.2% levan, (T(3)) 0.5% levan, (T(4)) 1.0% levan, and a control group without levan were fed to five groups of fishes in triplicate. The total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content was significantly (p<0.05) enhanced in the T(3) group, though the total leucocyte counts, total protein and A/G ratio did not show any significant difference (p>0.05) when compared with the control group. The respiratory burst activity (NBT) of blood phagocytes and lysozyme activity was also highest in T(3) group. The relative survival percentage after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila was highest (100%) in the T(3) group followed by 83.33% and 66.67% in the T(2) and T(4) groups, respectively. This suggests that microbial levan at 0.5% can be used as a dietary immunostimulant for C. carpio juveniles. This is the first report on microbial levan having an immunomodulatory effect on C. carpio. PMID:17158064

  12. Characterization and immune response expression of the Rig-I-like receptor mda5 in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y Y; Xing, W X; Shan, S J; Zhang, S Q; Li, Y Q; Li, T; An, L; Yang, G W

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the full-length complementary (c)DNA of common carp Cyprinus carpio melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (mda5) was cloned. The complete open reading frame of C. carpio mda5 contained 2982 bp and encodes 993 amino acids. The deduced amino acids contained six functional domains: two caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARD), a conserved restriction domain of bacterial type III restriction enzyme (ResIII), a DExD/H box-containing domain (DEXDc), a helicase super family C-terminal domain (HELICc) and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). The mda5 gene was expressed in all tested tissues, with high levels in the gills and spleen, while lower expressed in gonad and blood. The copy numbers of mda5 were increased in the liver, spleen, head kidney and the mucosal-associated immune tissues such as the foregut, hindgut, gills and skin after stimulation with polyinosinic polycytidylic [poly(I:C)] and Aeromonas hydrophila. The myxovirus resistance gene (mx) messenger (m)RNA levels in the spleen, head kidney, foregut and gills were significantly up-regulated after poly(I:C) injection. When injected with poly(I:C), mda5 and mx transcripts were also significantly induced in vitro. These results implied that mda5 might be involved in both antiviral and antibacterial innate immune processes in C. carpio. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. PMID:27108774

  13. Inheritance of the complete mitochondrial genomes Cyprinus capio furong(♀) × Cyprinus carpio var.singguonensis(♂).

    PubMed

    Peng, Huizhen; Liu, Qiaolin; Xiao, Tiaoyi

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 15 sets of primers were used to amplify contiguous, overlapping segments of the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of C. capio furong(♀) × C. carpio var.singguonensis(♂) in order to characterize and compare their mitochondrial genomes. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,581 bp and deposited in the GenBank with the accession number KP210473. The organization of the mitochondrial genomes contained 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNAs) and a major non-coding control region which was similar to those reported mitochondrial genomes. Most genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for the ND6 and 8 tRNA genes, encoding on the L-strand. The nucleotide skewness for the coding strands of C. capio furong(♀) × C. carpio var.singguonensis(♂) (AT-skew = 0.12, GC-skew = -0.27) were biased toward T and G. The complete mitogenome may provide important date for the study of genetic mechanism of C. capio furong(♀) × C. carpio var.singguonensis(♂). PMID:25648921

  14. Heat Pipe Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The heat pipe, a sealed chamber whose walls are lined with a "wick," a thin capillary network containing a working fluid in liquid form was developed for a heat distribution system for non-rotating satellites. Use of the heat pipe provides a continuous heat transfer mechanism. "Heat tubes" that improve temperature control in plastics manufacturing equipment incorporated the heat pipe technology. James M. Stewart, an independent consultant, patented the heat tubes he developed and granted a license to Kona Corporation. The Kona Nozzle for heaterless injection molding gets heat for its operation from an external source and has no internal heating bands, reducing machine maintenance and also eliminating electrical hazards associated with heater bands. The nozzles are used by Eastman Kodak, Bic Pen Corporation, Polaroid, Tupperware, Ford Motor Company, RCA, and Western Electric in the molding of their products.

  15. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  16. Apparatus for moving a pipe inspection probe through piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Appel, D. Keith; Lewis, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controllably moving devices for cleaning or inspection through piping systems, including piping systems with numerous piping bends therein, by using hydrostatic pressure of a working fluid introduced into the piping system. The apparatus comprises a reservoir or other source for supplying the working fluid to the piping system, a launch tube for admitting the device into the launcher and a reversible, positive displacement pump for controlling the direction and flow rate of the working fluid. The device introduced into the piping system moves with the flow of the working fluid through the piping system. The launcher attaches to the valved ends of a piping system so that fluids in the piping system can recirculate in a closed loop. The method comprises attaching the launcher to the piping system, supplying the launcher with working fluid, admitting the device into the launcher, pumping the working fluid in the direction and at the rate desired so that the device moves through the piping system for pipe cleaning or inspection, removing the device from the launcher, and collecting the working fluid contained in the launcher.

  17. Apparatus for moving a pipe inspection probe through piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Lewis, G.W.

    1995-07-18

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for controllably moving devices for cleaning or inspection through piping systems, including piping systems with numerous piping bends therein, by using hydrostatic pressure of a working fluid introduced into the piping system. The apparatus comprises a reservoir or other source for supplying the working fluid to the piping system, a launch tube for admitting the device into the launcher and a reversible, positive displacement pump for controlling the direction and flow rate of the working fluid. The device introduced into the piping system moves with the flow of the working fluid through the piping system. The launcher attaches to the valved ends of a piping system so that fluids in the piping system can recirculate in a closed loop. The method comprises attaching the launcher to the piping system, supplying the launcher with working fluid, admitting the device into the launcher, pumping the working fluid in the direction and at the rate desired so that the device moves through the piping system for pipe cleaning or inspection, removing the device from the launcher, and collecting the working fluid contained in the launcher. 8 figs.

  18. Micro heat pipe panels and method for producing same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Peterson, George P. (Inventor); Rummler, Donald R. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Flat or curved micro heat pipe panels are fabricated by arranging essentially parallel filaments in the shape of the desired panel. The configuration of the filaments corresponds to the desired configuration of the tubes that will constitute the heat pipes. A thermally conductive material is then deposited on and around the filaments to fill in the desired shape of the panel. The filaments are then removed, leaving tubular passageways of the desired configuration and surface texture in the material. The tubes are then filled with a working fluid and sealed. Composite micro heat pipe laminates are formed by layering individual micro heat pipe panels and bonding them to each other to form a single structure. The layering sequence of the micro heat pipe panels can be tailored to transport heat preferentially in specific directions as desired for a particular application.

  19. Long titanium heat pipes for high-temperature space radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girrens, S. P.; Ernst, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Titanium heat pipes are being developed to provide light weight, reliable heat rejection devices as an alternate radiator design for the Space Reactor Power System (SP-100). The radiator design includes 360 heat pipes, each of which is 5.2 m long and dissipates 3 kW of power at 775 K. The radiator heat pipes use potassium as the working fluid, have two screen arteries for fluid return, a roughened surface distributive wicking system, and a D shaped cross section container configuration. A prototype titanium heat pipe, 5.5 m long, was fabricated and tested in space simulating conditions. Results from startup and isothermal operation tests are presented. These results are also compared to theoretical performance predictions that were used to design the heat pipe initially.

  20. Long titanium heat pipes for high-temperature space radiators

    SciTech Connect

    Girrens, S.P.; Ernst, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Titanium heat pipes are being developed to provide light weight, reliable heat rejection devices as an alternate radiator design for the Space Reactor Power System (SP-100). The radiator design includes 360 heat pipes, each of which is 5.2 m long and dissipates 3 kW of power at 775 K. The radiator heat pipes use potassium as the working fluid, have two screen arteries for fluid return, a roughened surface distributive wicking system, and a D-shaped cross-section container configuration. A prototype titanium heat pipe, 5.5-m long, has been fabricated and tested in space-simulating conditions. Results from startup and isothermal operation tests are presented. These results are also compared to theoretical performance predictions that were used to design the heat pipe initially.

  1. Heat pipe cooling for scramjet engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, C.C.

    1986-12-01

    Liquid metal heat pipe cooling systems have been investigated for the combustor liner and engine inlet leading edges of scramjet engines for a missile application. The combustor liner is cooled by a lithium-TZM molybdenum annular heat pipe, which incorporates a separate lithium reservoir. Heat is initially absorbed by the sensible thermal capacity of the heat pipe and liner, and subsequently by the vaporization and discharge of lithium to the atmosphere. The combustor liner temperature is maintained at 3400 F or less during steady-state cruise. The engine inlet leading edge is fabricated as a sodium-superalloy heat pipe. Cooling is accomplished by radiation of heat from the aft surface of the leading edge to the atmosphere. The leading edge temperature is limited to 1700 F or less. It is concluded that heat pipe cooling is a viable method for limiting scramjet combustor liner and engine inlet temperatures to levels at which structural integrity is greatly enhanced.

  2. Thermo-Physical Properties of Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Duane E. (Technical Monitor); Devarakonda, Angirasa; Anderson, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. The paper reports further evaluation of potential heat pipe fluids in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to 700 K in continuation of two recent reports. More thermo-physical property data are examined. Organic, inorganic, and elemental substances are considered. The evaluation of surface tension and other fluid properties are examined. Halides are evaluated as potential heat pipe fluids. Reliable data are not available for all fluids and further database development is necessary. Many of the fluids considered are promising candidates as heat pipe fluids. Water is promising as a heat pipe fluid up to 500 to 550 K. Life test data for thermo-chemical compatibility are almost non-existent.

  3. Working Fluids for Increasing Capacities of Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, David F.; Zhang, Nengli

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation has shown that the capacities of heat pipes can be increased through suitable reformulation of their working fluids. The surface tensions of all of the working fluids heretofore used in heat pipes decrease with temperature. As explained in more detail below, the limits on the performance of a heat pipe are associated with the decrease in the surface tension of the working fluid with temperature, and so one can enhance performance by reformulating the working fluid so that its surface tension increases with temperature. This improvement is applicable to almost any kind of heat pipe in almost any environment. The heat-transfer capacity of a heat pipe in its normal operating-temperature range is subject to a capillary limit and a boiling limit. Both of these limits are associated with the temperature dependence of surface tension of the working fluid. In the case of a traditional working fluid, the decrease in surface tension with temperature causes a body of the liquid phase of the working fluid to move toward a region of lower temperature, thus preventing the desired spreading of the liquid in the heated portion of the heat pipe. As a result, the available capillary-pressure pumping head decreases as the temperature of the evaporator end of the heat pipe increases, and operation becomes unstable. Water has widely been used as a working fluid in heat pipes. Because the surface tension of water decreases with increasing temperature, the heat loads and other aspects of performance of heat pipes that contain water are limited. Dilute aqueous solutions of long-chain alcohols have shown promise as substitutes for water that can offer improved performance, because these solutions exhibit unusual surface-tension characteristics: Experiments have shown that in the cases of an aqueous solution of an alcohol, the molecules of which contain chains of more than four carbon atoms, the surface tension increases with temperature when the

  4. Superfluid Helium Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, P.

    This paper reports on the development and the thermal tests of three superfluid helium heat pipes. Two of them are designed to provide a large transport capacity (4 mW at 1.7 K). They feature a copper braid located inside a 6 mm outer diameter stainless tube fitted with copper ends for mechanical anchoring. The other heat pipe has no copper braid and is designed to get much smaller heat transport capacity (0.5 mW) and to explore lower temperature (0.7 - 1 K). The copper braid and the tube wall is the support of the Rollin superfluid helium film in which the heat is transferred. The low filling pressure makes the technology very simple with the possibility to easily bend the tube. We present the design and discuss the thermal performance of the heat pipes tested in the 0.7 to 2.0 K temperature range. The long heat pipe (1.2 m with copper braid) and the short one (0.25 m with copper braid) have similar thermal performance in the range 0.7 - 2.0 K. At 1.7 K the long heat pipe, 120 g in weight, reaches a heat transfer capacity of 6.2 mW and a thermal conductance of 600 mW/K for 4 mW transferred power. Due to the pressure drop of the vapor flow and Kapitza thermal resistance, the conductance of the third heat pipe dramatically decreases when the temperature decreases. A 3.8 mW/K is obtained at 0.7 K for 0.5 mW transferred power.

  5. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  6. Composite drill pipe and method for forming same

    DOEpatents

    Leslie, James C; Leslie, II, James C; Heard, James; Truong, Liem V; Josephson, Marvin

    2012-10-16

    A lightweight and durable drill pipe string capable of short radius drilling formed using a composite pipe segment formed to include tapered wall thickness ends that are each defined by opposed frustoconical surfaces conformed for self-aligning receipt and intimate bonding contact within an annular space between corresponding surfaces of a coaxially nested set of metal end pieces and a set of nonconductive sleeves. The distal peripheries of the nested end pieces and sleeves are then welded to each other and the sandwiched and bonded portions are radially pinned. The composite segment may include imbedded conductive leads and the axial end portions of the end pieces are shaped to form a threaded joint with the next pipe assembly that includes contact rings in the opposed surfaces of the pipe joint for contact together.

  7. Heat transfer in pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbach, T.

    1985-01-01

    The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

  8. Heat pipe cooled probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J. (Inventor); Couch, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    The basic heat pipe principle is employed to provide a self-contained passively cooled probe that may be placed into a high temperature environment. The probe consists of an evaporator region of a heat pipe and a sensing instrument. Heat is absorbed as the working fluid evaporates in the probe. The vapor is transported to the vapor space of the condenser region. Heat is dissipated from the condenser region and fins causing condensation of the working fluid, which returns to the probe by gravity and the capillary action of the wick. Working fluid, wick and condenser configurations and structure materials can be selected to maintain the probe within an acceptable temperature range.

  9. Pipe Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithson, Buddy

    This teacher's guide contains nine units of instruction for a course on computer-assisted pipe drafting. The course covers the following topics: introduction to pipe drafting with CAD (computer-assisted design); flow diagrams; pipe and pipe components; valves; piping plans and elevations; isometrics; equipment fabrication drawings; piping design…

  10. Assessment of circumferentially complex-cracked pipe subjected to bending

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.; Papaspyropoulos, V.

    1986-10-01

    In this study the validity of various analyses to predict crack initiation, maximum load, and the corresponding displacements for 6.625-inch (168-mm) diameter circumferentially complex-cracked pipe under pure bending was assessed. The results of six pipe fracture experiments on three materials (SA-376 TP304 stainless steel, Inconel 600, and A106 Grade B carbon steel) were used to verify the accuracy of these analytical predictions. Three different sets of analyses were conducted. First, the experimental pipe fracture data were compared with net-section-collapse predicted loads. These comparisons showed that some of the complex-cracked pipes failed at loads 23 to 33% below net-section-collapse predicted loads. Second, J-resistance (J-R) curves were calculated from each pipe experiment using the eta-factor method. These results revealed that the J-R curves from the complex-cracked pipe experiments were significantly less than J-R curves from 0.5T compact (tension) specimens. Furthermore, the pipe J-R curves decreased systematically with increasing ratios of surface crack depth to pipe wall thickness. Third, predictions of loads and displacements in each experiment were made using four different J-estimation schemes. Good agreement was obtained between the predictions and the experimental data up to maximum load. Once past maximum load, however, the J-estimation schemes overpredicted loads and displacements.

  11. Deployable heat-pipe radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1978-01-01

    Loop temperatures are controlled effectively under varying load conditions. Radiator has four separate pieces of hardware: heat-pipe panel, flexible heat-pipe leader, heat exchanger, fluid header. Single-fluid transport capacities of about 850 watts, corresponding to 51,000 watt-inches, have been achieved in 90 degree bend orientation of heat-pipe header.

  12. Reusable high-temperature heat pipes and heat pipe panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A reusable, durable heat pipe which is capable of operating at temperatures up to about 3000 F in an oxidizing environment and at temperatures above 3000 F in an inert or vacuum environment is produced by embedding a refractory metal pipe within a carbon-carbon composite structure. A reusable, durable heat pipe panel is made from an array of refractory-metal pipes spaced from each other. The reusable, durable, heat-pipe is employed to fabricate a hypersonic vehicle leading edge and nose cap.

  13. Application of induced circumferential current for cracks inspection on pipe string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xin'an; Li, Wei; Yin, Xiaokang; Chen, Guoming; Ge, Jiuhao

    2016-02-01

    Pipe strings (such as drill pipe, tube, pipeline, riser) are critical facilities in oil & gas industry, which are highly susceptible to cracks caused by stress corrosion and fatigue damage. The most common defects are longitudinal and transverse surface cracks on pipe strings in oil & gas industry. Conventional nondestructive testing (NDT) methods are inadequate for these surface cracks on pipe strings. In this paper, a full 360° circumferential current induced by a coaxial excitation coil is present for inspection of longitudinal and transverse surface cracks on pipe strings. The finite element method (FEM) is employed to obtain characteristics signals by analyzing the distorted electromagnetic field above the cracks. The induced circumferential current test system is set up and crack inspection experiments are carried out. The results show that both longitudinal and transverse surface cracks can be detected effectively at one pass scanning on pipe string using the induced circumferential current.

  14. Defect characterization in pipe-to-pipe welds in large diameter stainless steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, D.E. Jr.; West, S.L.; Wheeler, D.A.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Metallurgical evaluation of pipe-to-pipe welds in large-diameter, Type 304 stainless steel piping used to construct the moderator/coolant water systems for Savannah River Site reactors has demonstrated that small weld defects found in this 1950-vintage system do not compromise the integrity of the system. The weld defects were too small for detection by the pre-service standard radiographic inspection, but were found through systematic ultrasonic testing (UT) and penetrant testing (PT) evaluations of piping that had been removed during upgrades to the piping system. The defects include lack of weld penetration, slag inclusions, and other weld metal discontinuities. These discontinuities typically did not propagate during more than 35 years of service. The defects examined were too small and isolated to degrade the mechanical properties of the pipe-to-pipe weldments and therefore did not compromise the integrity of the piping system. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  15. 46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping and piping system components: Protection from..., Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.503 Piping and piping system components... cause stresses that exceed the design stresses, the piping and piping system components and cargo...

  16. 46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping and piping system components: Protection from..., Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.503 Piping and piping system components... cause stresses that exceed the design stresses, the piping and piping system components and cargo...

  17. 46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping and piping system components: Protection from..., Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.503 Piping and piping system components... cause stresses that exceed the design stresses, the piping and piping system components and cargo...

  18. 46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping and piping system components: Protection from..., Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.503 Piping and piping system components... cause stresses that exceed the design stresses, the piping and piping system components and cargo...

  19. Flexible Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.; Wolf, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Narrow Tube carries 10 watts or more to moving parts. Heat pipe 12 inches long and diameter of 0.312 inch (7.92mm). Bent to minimum radius of 2.5 blocks. Flexible section made of 321 stainless steel tubing (Cajon Flexible Tubing or equivalent). Evaporator and condenser made of oxygen free copper. Working fluid methanol.

  20. Heat pipe investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Techniques associated with thermal-vacuum and bench testing, along with flight testing of the OAO-C spacecraft heat pipes are outlined, to show that the processes used in heat transfer design and testing are adequate for good performance evaluations.

  1. Aeronautical tubes and pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauclair, N.

    1984-12-01

    The main and subcomponent French suppliers of aircraft tubes and pipes are discussed, and the state of the industry is analyzed. Quality control is essential for tubes with regard to their i.d. and metallurgical compositions. French regulations do not allow welded seam tubes in hydraulic circuits unless no other form is available, and then rustproofed steel must be installed. The actual low level of orders for any run of tubes dictates that the product is only one of several among the manufacturers' line. Automation, both in NDT and quality control, assures that the tubes meet specifications. A total of 10 French companies participate in the industry, serving both civil and military needs, with some companies specializing only in titanium, steel, or aluminum materials. Concerns wishing to enter the market must upgrade their equipment to meet the higher aeronautical specifications and be prepared to furnish tubes and pipes that serve both functional and structural purposes simultaneously. Additionally, pipe-bending machines must also perform to tight specifications. Pipes can range from 0.2 mm exterior diameter to 40 mm, with wall thicknesses from 0.02 mm to 3 mm. A chart containing a list of manufacturers and their respective specifications and characteristics is presented, and a downtrend in production with reduction of personnel is noted.

  2. Heat Pipes Cool Power Magnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, I.; Chester, M.; Luedke, E.

    1983-01-01

    Configurations originally developed for space use are effective in any orientation. Heat pipes integrated into high-power, high-frequency, highvoltage spaceflight magnetics reduce weight and improve reliability by lowering internal tempertures. Two heat pipes integrated in design of power transformer cool unit in any orientation. Electrostatic shield conducts heat from windings to heat pipe evaporator. Technology allows dramatic reductions in size and weight, while significantly improving reliability. In addition, all attitude design of heat pipes allows operation of heat pipes independent of local gravity forces.

  3. Pipe Penetrating Radar: a New Tool for the Assessment of Critical Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekes, C.; Neducz, B.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the development of Pipe Penetrating Radar (PPR), the underground in-pipe application of GPR, a non-destructive testing method that can detect defects and cavities within and outside mainline diameter (>18 in / 450mm) non-metallic (concrete, PVC, HDPE, etc.) underground pipes. The method uses two or more high frequency GPR antennae carried by a robot into underground pipes. The radar data is transmitted to the surface via fibre optic cable and is recorded together with the output from CCTV (and optionally sonar and laser). Proprietary software analyzes the data and pinpoints defects or cavities within and outside the pipe. Thus the testing can identify existing pipe and pipe bedding symptoms that can be addressed to prevent catastrophic failure due to sinkhole development and can provide useful information about the remaining service life of the pipe. The key innovative aspect is the unique ability to map pipe wall thickness and deterioration including cracks and voids outside the pipe, enabling accurate predictability of needed intervention or the timing of replacement. This reliable non-destructive testing method significantly impacts subsurface infrastructure condition based asset management by supplying previously unattainable measurable conditions. Keywords: pipe penetrating radar (PPR), ground penetrating radar (GPR), pipe inspection, concrete deterioration, municipal engineering

  4. Heat pipe gas combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrle, P.

    1990-12-01

    Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion (HPGC) system suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator, and a film-cooled gas combustor. The principal component is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. Given here are the test results of the endurance tests run on a Gas Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE).

  5. Flow Rate Measurements Using Flow-Induced Pipe Vibration

    SciTech Connect

    R. P. Evans; Jonathan D. Blotter; Alan G. Stephens

    2004-03-01

    This paper focuses on the possibility of a non-intrusive, low cost, flow rate measurement technique. The technique is based on signal noise from an accelerometer attached to the surface of the pipe. The signal noise is defined as the standard deviation of the frequency averaged time series signal. Experimental results are presented that indicate a nearly quadratic relationship between the signal noise and mass flow rate in the pipe. It is also shown that the signal noise - flow rate relationship is dependant on the pipe material and diameter.

  6. Benzo(a)pyrene-induced cytochrome p4501A expression of four freshwater fishes (Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Yoon, Hong-Gil; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2015-05-01

    Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus are useful indicator species for CYP1A biomarker studies; however, comparative studies have not been performed. To compare susceptibility, dose- and time-dependent CYP1A induction at the mRNA and protein levels in response to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) exposure was analyzed. At the mRNA level, a statistically significant difference was found among the four species; however, such was not observed at the protein level. C. carpio showed the highest CYP1A induction level and the steepest slope in the dose-response curve. To assess susceptibility, the difference in CYP1A mRNA induction among species must be considered, and C. carpio was the most sensitive species of the four evaluated in terms of CYP1A expression. PMID:25863331

  7. Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Cold-Responsive Genes in Amur Carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus)

    PubMed Central

    He, XuLing

    2015-01-01

    The adaptation of fish to low temperatures is the result of long-term evolution. Amur carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) survives low temperatures (0-4°C) for six months per year. Therefore, we chose this fish as a model organism to study the mechanisms of cold-adaptive responses using high-throughput sequencing technology. This system provided an excellent model for exploring the relationship between evolutionary genomic changes and environmental adaptations. The Amur carp transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina platform and was assembled into 163,121 cDNA contigs, with an average read length of 594 bp and an N50 length of 913 bp. A total of 162,339 coding sequences (CDSs) were identified and of 32,730 unique CDSs were annotated. Gene Ontology (GO), EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to classify all CDSs into different functional categories. A large number of cold-responsive genes were detected in different tissues at different temperatures. A total of 9,427 microsatellites were identified and classified, with 1952 identifying in cold-responsive genes. Based on GO enrichment analysis of the cold-induced genes, “protein localization” and “protein transport” were the most highly represented biological processes. “Circadian rhythm,” “protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum,” “endocytosis,” “insulin signaling pathway,” and “lysosome” were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes induced by cold stress. Our data greatly contribute to the common carp (C. carpio) transcriptome resource, and the identification of cold-responsive genes in different tissues at different temperatures will aid in deciphering the genetic basis of ecological and environmental adaptations in this species. Based on our results, the Amur carp has evolved special strategies to survive low temperatures, and these strategies include the system-wide or tissue-specific induction

  8. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    PubMed

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2016-04-01

    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource. PMID:27007291

  9. Finned Carbon-Carbon Heat Pipe with Potassium Working Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    This elemental space radiator heat pipe is designed to operate in the 700 to 875 K temperature range. It consists of a C-C (carbon-carbon) shell made from poly-acrylonitride fibers that are woven in an angle interlock pattern and densified with pitch at high process temperature with integrally woven fins. The fins are 2.5 cm long and 1 mm thick, and provide an extended radiating surface at the colder condenser section of the heat pipe. The weave pattern features a continuous fiber bath from the inner tube surface to the outside edges of the fins to maximize the thermal conductance, and to thus minimize the temperature drop at the condenser end. The heat pipe and radiator element together are less than one-third the mass of conventional heat pipes of the same heat rejection surface area. To prevent the molten potassium working fluid from eroding the C C heat pipe wall, the shell is lined with a thin-walled, metallic tube liner (Nb-1 wt.% Zr), which is an integral part of a hermetic metal subassembly which is furnace-brazed to the inner surface of the C-C tube. The hermetic metal liner subassembly includes end caps and fill tubes fabricated from the same Nb-1Zr alloy. A combination of laser and electron beam methods is used to weld the end caps and fill tubes. A tungsten/inert gas weld seals the fill tubes after cleaning and charging the heat pipes with potassium. The external section of this liner, which was formed by a "Uniscan" rolling process, transitions to a larger wall thickness. This section, which protrudes beyond the C-C shell, constitutes the "evaporator" part of the heat pipe, while the section inside the shell constitutes the condenser of the heat pipe (see figure).

  10. SATURATED-SUBCOOLED STRATIFIED FLOW IN HORIZONTAL PIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schultz

    2010-08-01

    Advanced light water reactor systems are designed to use passive emergency core cooling systems with horizontal pipes that provide highly subcooled water from water storage tanks or passive heat exchangers to the reactor vessel core under accident conditions. Because passive systems are driven by density gradients, the horizontal pipes often do not flow full and thus have a free surface that is exposed to saturated steam and stratified flow is present.

  11. Multimode tapered optical light pipe for illumination systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romańczuk, Patryk; Pietrzycki, Marcin; Źmojda, Jacek; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Dorosz, Dominik

    2015-09-01

    In the article the multimode tapered optical light pipe for illumination systems was investigated. Based on tree light emitting diodes at the wavelength of 460 nm (blue), 528 nm (green) and 631 nm (red) possibility of white light emission on the output surface of the tapered light pipe was submitted. Influence of optical power of LEDs on the colour coordinates (CIE-1931) has been investigated.

  12. 46 CFR 52.01-105 - Piping, valves and fittings (modifies PG-58 and PG-59).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 52.01-1) except as noted otherwise in this section. Piping outside the... discharged into a boiler against surfaces exposed to hot gases or radiant heat of the fire. (2) Feed water... surface blowoff connection. (2) Where blowoff pipes are exposed to radiant heat of the fire, they must...

  13. 46 CFR 52.01-105 - Piping, valves and fittings (modifies PG-58 and PG-59).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 52.01-1) except as noted otherwise in this section. Piping outside the... discharged into a boiler against surfaces exposed to hot gases or radiant heat of the fire. (2) Feed water... surface blowoff connection. (2) Where blowoff pipes are exposed to radiant heat of the fire, they must...

  14. Closed Form Equations for the Preliminary Design of a Heat-Pipe-Cooled Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.

    1998-01-01

    A set of closed form equations for the preliminary evaluation and design of a heat-pipe-cooled leading edge is presented. The set of equations can provide a leading-edge designer with a quick evaluation of the feasibility of using heat-pipe cooling. The heat pipes can be embedded in a metallic or composite structure. The maximum heat flux, total integrated heat load, and thermal properties of the structure and heat-pipe container are required input. The heat-pipe operating temperature, maximum surface temperature, heat-pipe length, and heat pipe-spacing can be estimated. Results using the design equations compared well with those from a 3-D finite element analysis for both a large and small radius leading edge.

  15. Drill pipe protector development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R.; Wemple, R.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

  16. Explosive welding of pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennov, O.; Burtseva, O.; Kitin, A.

    2006-08-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler.

  17. Heat Pipe Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Solar Fundamentals, Inc.'s hot water system employs space-derived heat pipe technology. It is used by a meat packing plant to heat water for cleaning processing machinery. Unit is complete system with water heater, hot water storage, electrical controls and auxiliary components. Other than fans and a circulating pump, there are no moving parts. System's unique design eliminates problems of balancing, leaking, corroding, and freezing.

  18. Electrohydrodynamic heat pipe research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.; Perry, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical applications to electrohydrodynamic heat pipe (EHDHP) research are presented. Two problems in the research which are discussed are the prediction of the effective thermal conductance of an EHDHP with threaded grooves for fluid distribution to the evaporator of an EHDHP. Hydrodynamic equations are included along with a discussion of boundary conditions and burn-out conditions. A discussion of the theoretical and experimental results is presented.

  19. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: a lakewide survey.

    PubMed

    Stong, Todd; Alvarado Osuna, Claudia; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; Díaz Torres, José de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River. PMID:24007438

  20. Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, NatarajaPillai

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations. PMID:25405077

  1. Effects of cylindrospermopsin on the phagocytic cells of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Sieroslawska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna; Adaszek, Łukasz

    2015-11-01

    Cylindrospermopsin is a cyanotoxin with cytotoxic activity. It is released into water during and after cyanobacterial water blooms and thus poses a threat to the health of fish. There is very little information available concerning the effects of the toxin on fish immune cells. In this study, we assessed the potential impact of cylindrospermopsin on the basic functions of phagocytic cells from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), including phagocytosis, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production, and the structure of microfilaments and selected cytokine expression. Phagocytic cells, isolated from fish head kidneys, were exposed to the toxin at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 or 1 µg ml(-1), for up to 24 h. Cytotoxicity, detected by lactate dehydrogenase release, was observed at the highest studied concentration. A decrease in phagocytic activity and changes in actin cytoskeletal structures were observed after the cell exposure to the toxin at 0.5 and 1 µg ml(-1). Moreover, at all tested concentrations, cylindrospermopsin increased the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. It also evidently influenced the expression of genes of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α and, to a minor extent, anti-inflammatory transforming growth factor-β, but had no effects on interleukin-10. The results indicated that the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin is able to modify basic features of carp phagocytic cells, which might result in adverse consequences for fish health. PMID:25639895

  2. Antioxidant effect of propolis against exposure to chromium in Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Yonar, M Enis; Yonar, Serpil Mişe; Çoban, M Zülfü; Eroğlu, Mücahit

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ameliorative properties of propolis against the toxic effects of chromium (VI) by examining oxidative damage markers such as lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defence system components in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of chromium. Propolis was simultaneously administered to chromium-exposed fish. Treatment was continued for 28 days, and at the end of this period, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, spleen, and gill) samples were collected. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in blood and tissues for measurement of oxidant-antioxidant status. The levels of MDA, as an index of lipid peroxidation, increased in blood and tissues. Antioxidant enzyme activities in blood and tissues were modified in chromium groups compared to controls. Simultaneous administration of propolis ameliorated these parameters. The present results suggest that administration of propolis might alleviate chromium-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22052654

  3. In vivo effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) on innate immune responses of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Constanze; Michel, Christian; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most important members of Fusarium toxins since it often can be found in relevant concentrations in animal feeds. The effects of this group of toxins on fish are mostly unknown. The present study shows results from a feeding trial with carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using three different concentrations of DON (352μgkg(-1), 619μgkg(-1), and 953μgkg(-1) final feed, respectively) which are comparable to levels found in commercial fish feeds. Effects on growth and mass of fish were not observed during this 6weeks lasting experiment. Only marginal DON concentrations were found in muscle and plasma samples. Blood parameters were not influenced although smaller erythrocytes occurred in fish treated with 352μgkg(-1) DON. Analysis of antioxidative enzymes in erythrocytes showed increased superoxid dismutase and catalase activities in fish fed the low-dose feed. Immunosuppressive effects of DON were confirmed whereby cytotoxic effects on immune cells only partly explained the impairment of innate immune responses. Exact polarization of the immune system into pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses due to DON exposure should be clarified in further experiments, especially since the current results raise concern about impaired immune function in fish raised in aquaculture. PMID:24650758

  4. Physiological and molecular responses in brain of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following exposure to tributyltin.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2016-03-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), as antifouling paints, is widely present in aquatic environment, but little is known regarding the toxicity of TBT on fish brain. In this study, the effects of exposure to TBT on the antioxidant defense system, Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase activity, neurological enzymes activity and Hsp 70 protein level in brain of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (5, 10 and 20 μg/L) for 7 days. Based on the results, with increasing concentrations of TBT, oxidative stress was apparent as reflected by the significant higher levels of oxidative indices, as well as the significant inhibition of all antioxidant enzymes activities. Besides, the activities of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Monoamine oxidases (MAO) and Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase were significantly inhibited after exposure to TBT with higher concentrations. In addition, the levels of Hsp 70 protein were evaluated under TBT stress with dose-depended manner. These results suggest that selected physiological responses in fish brain could be used as potential biomarkers for monitoring residual organotin compounds present in aquatic environment. PMID:25761124

  5. Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoungcheun; Duong, Cuong Ngoc; Cho, Jaegu; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Kyungtae; Seo, Youngrok; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Yoon, Junheon

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT). Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain) were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100 nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200 μg/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200 μg/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50 μg/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms. PMID:23093839

  6. Identification and characterization of a LTR retrotransposon from the genome of Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liping; Yin, Guojun; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Ding, Weidong

    2016-06-01

    A Ty3/gypsy-retrotransposon-type transposon was found in the genome of the Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in a previous study (unpublished), and was designated a JRE retrotransposon (Jian retrotransposon). The full-length JRE retrotransposon is 5126 bp, which includes two long terminal repeats of 470 bp at the 5' end and 453 bp at the 3' end, and two open reading frames between them: 4203 bp encoding the group-specific antigen (GAG) and polyprotein (POL). The pol gene has a typical Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon structure, and the gene order is protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase (PR-RT-RH-IN). A phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene showed that it has similarities of 40.7, 40, and 32.8 %, to retrotransposons of Azumapecten farreri, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, and Xiphophorus maculatus, respectively. Therefore, JRE might belong to the JULE retrotransposon family. The copy number of the JRE transposon in the genome of the Jian carp is 124, determined with real-time quantitative PCR. The mRNA of the JRE retrotransposon is expressed in five Jian carp tissues, the liver, kidney, blood, muscle, and gonad, and slightly higher in the kidney and liver than in the other tissues. PMID:27178280

  7. Molecular characterization of Shewanella and Aeromonas isolates associated with spoilage of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Agüeria, Daniela; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Yeannes, Maria I; Figueras, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Storage in ice is a common way of preserving commercial fish species but some microorganisms can still contaminate and participate in the spoilage of the product; therefore, identification of potential harmful microbes is important. Thirteen colonies were isolated from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that had been stored in ice, whose phenotypic identification revealed that they belonged to the genera Aeromonas (n = 5) and Shewanella (n = 8). Molecular genotyping with ERIC-PCR showed clonality only among two of the five Aeromonas isolates and for two groups (n = 3; n = 2) of the eight Shewanella isolates. Sequencing the rpoD gene showed that four Aeromonas isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas salmonicida and one to A. sobria. Of the eight Shewanella, seven isolates cluster with Shewanella putrefaciens and one with Shewanella profunda in the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree. However, analysis of the gyrB gene showed that these eight isolates could constitute a new species closely related to S. baltica. The Shewanella and A. salmonicida isolates produce off-odours and reduce trimethylamine oxide, indicating that they might contribute to the spoilage of the fish. PMID:25790506

  8. Detection of micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio exposed to metallic mercury.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno, J C; Ferrari, I; Spanó, M A; Centeno, A J

    1997-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio fish (carp), exposed to elemental or metallic mercury (Hg0) at concentrations of 2.0, 20.0, and 200.0 mg per liter of water, were kept in concrete tanks for 159 days. Ten fish were used for each concentration level. Thirteen samples of peripheral blood were collected from each animal through gill puncture, 12 during the first 90 days of the experiment, and the last one at the end of the experiment. The micronucleus test (MNT) was designed to study dose and time yield effects of mercury after indirect exposure in vivo. The results indicated that for a concentration of 2.0 mg Hg0/l, there was no significant increase in frequency of micronuclei (MN), but at higher concentrations (20.0 and 200.0 mg Hg0/l) there was a significant increase in MN frequencies. This effect was higher after 31 days of exposure, followed by slight stabilization and gradual decrease. PMID:9366907

  9. Dexamethasone action on caudal fin regeneration of carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Ochandio, B S; Bechara, I J; Parise-Maltempi, P P

    2015-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the prolonged use of corticoids can delay the healing process, affecting re-epithelialization, neovascularization and collagen synthesis. As the fins of teleost fish contain a large amount of collagen, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dexamethasone (anti-inflammatory and glucocorticoid steroid widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases) during the regeneration process in the caudal fin of specimens of carp (Cyprinus carpio). For such, two glass aquaria were used - one for a group of fish treated with dexamethasone (Henrifarma) in a 20 mg/L concentration and the other for the control group. The caudal fins were amputated transversally and fish remained in their respective aquaria until regeneration occurred. Samples of regenerating fins were collected on days 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 after amputation. The fins in the control group regenerated normally and grew within the expected in time course. The fins in the group treated with dexamethasone were significantly smaller in comparison to the control group at every evaluation time. Thus, it was possible to verify that, at this concentration of dexamethasone, the regeneration of the caudal fins was delayed, but not completely inhibited. The results show that the caudal fin is a good model for histological studies on regeneration and the action of drug toxicity, but it's also of great importance the interaction with further studies for a better knowledge and understanding of all the changes in all the phases. PMID:26132030

  10. Association study between single nucleotide polymorphisms in leptin and growth traits in Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Li, H; Li, J; Yu, F; Yu, J

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone that affects the regulation of body weight, energy expenditure, fat metabolism, food intake, and appetite. In this study, we cloned the jlLEP-A1 and jlLEP-A2 genes in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) and performed an association analysis between identified polymorphisms and growth traits. Three polymorphisms in exons of jlLEP-A1 (A1-T113C) and jlLEP-A2 (A2-G415A and A2-G427A) were identified, and genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 263 female and 294 male Jian carp. All three SNPs were missense mutations. Association analysis revealed that the three SNPs were significantly associated with growth traits in male Jian carp. Only SNP A1-T113C was significantly associated with growth traits in female Jian carp. Analysis of diplotypes derived from jlLEP-A2 SNPs revealed an association with growth traits in male but not female Jian carp. These results demonstrate that polymorphisms in the leptin gene are associated with growth traits and may be used for marker-assisted selection programs in Jian carp breeding and production. PMID:27525905

  11. Assessment of the toxicity of waste water from a textile industry to Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Roopadevi, H; Somashekar, R K

    2012-03-01

    Static, short-term, acute toxicity tests were performed over a period of 96 hrs using different concentrations of influent and effluent of textile industry waste water with the objective of evaluating their acute toxicity on fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio (common carp). The LC50 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr of influent and effluent were 25.9, 21.10, 15.66, 11.11% (v/v) and 63.18, 54.89, 48.62, 36.04% (v/v), respectively. The acute toxic unit TUa values for 24, 48, 72, 96 hr for influent and effluent are 3.85, 4.73, 6.38, 8.99 and 1.58, 1.82, 2.05, 2.77, respectively. Correspondingly, the TF was found to be 1, 1.22, 1.65 and 2.33 for influent, and for effluent 1, 1.15, 1.29 and 1.75. Total efficiency of the treatment was 69.16% and the safe concentration of effluent is set to be 3.60%. These data are highly useful in establishing limits of acceptability by the aquatic animals. The need to introduce toxicity evaluation assay for confirming the quality of effluent from the point view of effective environmental safe limits and to ensure integrity of aquatic environment, is stressed. PMID:23033675

  12. Characterization of two thymosins as immune-related genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhangang; Shen, Jing; Feng, Hong; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yaping; Huang, Rong; Guo, Qionglin

    2015-05-01

    Prothymosin alpha (ProTα) and thymosin beta (Tβ) belong to thymosin family, which consists of a series of highly conserved peptides involved in stimulating immune responses. ProTα b and Tβ are still poorly studied in teleost. Here, the full-length cDNAs of ProTα b and Tβ-like (Tβ-l) were cloned and identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The expressions of carp ProTα b and Tβ-l exhibited rise-fall pattern and then trended to be stable during early development. After spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection, the carp ProTα b and Tβ-l transcripts were significantly up-regulated in some immune-related organs. When transiently over-expressed carp ProTα b and Tβ-l in zebrafish, these two proteins up-regulated the expressions of T lymphocytes-related genes (Rag 1, TCR-γ, CD4 and CD8α). These results suggest that carp ProTα b and Tβ may ultimately enhance the immune response during viral infection and modulate the development of T lymphocytes in teleost. PMID:25596145

  13. Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 ..mu..g/L) > embryos (240 ..mu..g/L) > adults (540 ..mu..g/L). Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 ..mu..g/L) > adult (120 ..mu..g/L) > embryo (230 ..mu..g/L). The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Light microscopic characterization of glycoconjugates in secretory cells of the carp (Cyprinus carpio) gill epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, J; Velasco, A; Sánchez Aguayo, I; Amores, P

    1987-01-01

    Secretory products of granular and mucous cells in the gill epithelium of the carp, Cyprinus carpio, were distinguished by their cytochemical reactions with peroxidase-labelled lectins and with the galactose oxidase (GO)-Schiff reagents. Secretory products of granular cells reacted with lectins from Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Glycine max (SAB), and Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA). They also reacted with GO-Schiff reagents. After sialic acid cleavage with HCl, new binding sites for DBA and SBA appeared, suggesting the terminal sequence sialic acid-N-acetylgalactosamine (SA-GalNAc) for the secretion of this cell type. In mucous cells, binding sites for WGA, DBA, and SBA and, after acid hydrolysis, binding sites for PNA and a positive GO-Schiff reaction were detected. The terminal trisaccharide sialic acid-galactose (beta 1-3)-N-acetylgalactosamine (SA-Gal-GalNAc) is proposed for the secretion of mucous cells. These cytochemical differences are discussed in light of the involvement of both cell types in fish mucus elaboration. PMID:2449406

  15. Temperature effects on the fracture resistance of scales from Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Sandra; McConville, Mikaela; Li, Guihua; Ossa, Alex; Arola, D

    2015-03-01

    In this investigation the fracture resistance of scales from Cyprinus carpio was evaluated as a function of environmental temperature. Tear specimens were prepared from scales obtained from three characteristic regions (i.e. head, mid-length and tail) of multiple fish. The fracture resistance was characterized in Mode III loading and over temperatures ranging from -150°C to 21°C. Results showed that there was a significant reduction in tear resistance with decreasing temperature and the lowest resistance to fracture was obtained at -150°C. There was a significant difference in the relative tear toughness between scales from the three locations at ambient conditions (21°C), but not below freezing. Scales obtained near the head exhibited the largest resistance to fracture (energy ≈ 150 ± 25 kJm(-2)) overall. The fracture resistance was found to be primarily dependent on the thickness of the external mineralized layer and the number of external elasmodine plies, indicating that both the anatomical position and the corresponding microstructure are important to the mechanical behavior of elasmoid fish scales. These variables may be exploited in the design of bioinspired armors and should be considered in future studies concerning the mechanical behavior of these interesting natural materials. PMID:25481741

  16. Mass mortality in ornamental fish, Cyprinus carpio koi caused by a bacterial pathogen, Proteus hauseri.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Swaminathan, T Raja; Kumar, Rahul G; Dharmaratnam, Arathi; Basheer, V S; Jena, J K

    2015-09-01

    Moribund koi carp, Cyprinus carpio koi, from a farm with 50% cumulative mortality were sampled with the aim of isolating and detecting the causative agent. Three bacterial species viz., Citrobacter freundii (NSCF-1), Klebsiella pneumoniae (NSKP-1) and Proteus hauseri [genomospecies 3 of Proteus vulgaris Bio group 3] (NSPH-1) were isolated, identified and characterized on the basis of biochemical tests and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene using universal bacterial primers. Challenge experiments with these isolates using healthy koi carp showed that P. hauseri induced identical clinical and pathological states within 3 d of intramuscular injection. The results suggest P. hauseri (NSPH-1) was the causative agent. In phylogenetic analysis, strain NSPH-1 formed a distinct cluster with other P. hauseri reference strains with ≥99% sequence similarity. P. hauseri isolates were found sensitive to Ampicillin, Cefalexin, Ciprofloxacin and Cefixime and resistant to Gentamycin, Oxytetracycline, Chloramphenicol, and Kanamycin. The affected fish recovered from the infection after ciprofloxacin treatment. PMID:26028178

  17. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Constanze; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Junge, Ranka

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp. PMID:26343724

  18. Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Harwanto, Dicky; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of 0.5 mg/10 μL/g body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [105±18 s (P<0.05); 52% longer than day 0] and forelimb grip strength [1.18±0.05 Newton (P<0.01); 17% greater than day 0]. The extract increased muscle mass, but had little effect on body weight. Following the swimming exercise, blood glucose, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase levels in extract-fed mice were significantly higher (145%, 131%, and 106%, respectively) than in the saline control group. Blood levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly increased (128%) in mice given the extract compared to the controls. These results suggest that leather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts. PMID:26770911

  19. Monitoring the effects of water pollution on Cyprinus carpio in Karakaya Dam Lake, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Kucukbay, F Zehra; Güler, R Elif

    2006-03-01

    Karakaya Dam Lake (KDL) is one of the most important water sources, both for irrigation and fishery, located in eastern part of Turkey. This study is concerned with the pollution of the lake contributed by urban, industrial and agricultural activities. The parameters selected for this aim were the enzymes commonly used as biomarkers of environmental pollution. The activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase (CE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) has been determined in liver tissue samples of Cyprinus carpio, a representative species of KDL. Furthermore, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity which is mainly affected by pesticides such as organophosphates, has been assayed. Chemical analysis results showed that KDL was polluted by various heavy metals as it was apparent from water, sediment and gill tissue. The activity of brain AChE was significantly lower in all localities than Tecimli area (St-5) where there is no agricultural and industrial activities in the immediate periphery. Thus, this change of AChE activity may relate to agricultural pollution in KDL. On the other hand, no significant differences were found for selected enzyme biomarkers, but condition factor (CF) or hepatosomatic index were significantly different from the St-5 samples, a result that may be attributed to water pollution in KDL by various contaminants. PMID:16374666

  20. Light Pipe Thermophotovoltaics (LTPV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    2007-02-01

    In a conventional thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy converter the radiation from the emitter to the photovoltaic (PV) array is transmitted in a vacuum or air where the index of refraction, n = 1. The intensity of the radiation is proportional to n2. Therefore, the incident intensity on the PV array could be greatly increase if the medium between the emitter and the PV array had n > 1. This light pipe TPV (LTPV) concept was introduced by The Quantum Group at the Third National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) TPV Conference in 1997. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the LTPV concept. The solution of the one-dimensional energy equation that includes both thermal conduction and radiation yields the temperature distribution through the light pipe. Applying the analysis to a zinc selenide (ZnSe) light pipe yielded the following result. For an emitter temperature of 1000K the convertible radiation(photon energy >PV bandgap energy) that reaches the photovoltaic(PV) cell is 1 W/cm2. At the same emitter temperature, a conventional TPV converter would have 1/8 W/cm2 of convertible radiation. Thus, the LTPV concept makes possible lower temperature operation than current TPV converters.

  1. Precipitation dendrites in turbulent pipe flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angheluta, Luiza; Hawkins, Christopher; Hammer, Øyvind; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2013-04-01

    Surface precipitation in pipelines, as well as freezing in water pipes is of great concern in many industrial applications where scaling phenomena becomes a control problem of pipe-clogging or an efficiency reduction in transport. Flow blockage often occurs even when only a small fraction is deposited non-uniformly on the walls in the form of dendrites. Dendritic patterns are commonly encountered in surface precipitation from supersaturated solutions, e.g. calcite dendrites, as well as in solidification from undercooled liquids, e.g. freezing of water into ice dendrites. We explore the mathematical similarities between precipitation and freezing processes and, in particular, investigate the effect of fluid flow on the precipitation dendrites on pipe walls. We use a phase field approach to model surface growth coupled with a lattice Boltzmann method that simulates a channel flow at varying Reynolds number. The dendrites orientation and shape depend non-trivially on the ratio between advection and diffusion, i.e. the Peclet number, as well as the Reynolds number. Roughness induced vortices near growing dendrites at high flow rates further affect the branch splitting of dendrites. We show how the transport rate in a pipeline may depend on the different dendritic morphologies, and provide estimates for the flow conditions that correspond to most efficient transport regimes.

  2. Transient Approximation of SAFE-100 Heat Pipe Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Reid, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    Engineers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have designed several heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, ranging in power from 15 kWt to 800 kWt, for both surface power systems and nuclear electric propulsion systems. The Safe, Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) is now being developed in a collaborative effort between LANL and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC). NASA is responsible for fabrication and testing of non-nuclear, electrically heated modules in the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) at MSFC. In-core heat pipes must be properly thawed as the reactor power starts. Computational models have been developed to assess the expected operation of a specific heat pipe design during start-up, steady state operation, and shutdown. While computationally intensive codes provide complete, detailed analyses of heat pipe thaw, a relatively simple. concise routine can also be applied to approximate the response of a heat pipe to changes in the evaporator heat transfer rate during start-up and power transients (e.g., modification of reactor power level) with reasonably accurate results. This paper describes a simplified model of heat pipe start-up that extends previous work and compares the results to experimental measurements for a SAFE-100 type heat pipe design.

  3. Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The annual supplement on heat pipe technology for 1971 is presented. The document contains 101 references with abstracts and 47 patents. The subjects discussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design, development, and fabrication of heat pipes, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  4. Experimenting with a ``Pipe'' Whistle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Olga

    2012-04-01

    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here allows students in a physics of music or introductory physics course to study an example of an "edge tone" device that produces discrete sound frequencies. From their textbooks, students likely know about standing waves produced by pipes or strings, as well as the resonant frequencies for open and closed pipes. To go a bit further, they can also learn how the frequency of the sound wave depends on the orifice-to-edge distance of the wind instrument.

  5. Short and long-term exposure to diclofenac alter oxidative stress status in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Vence, Karinne; Dublán-García, Octavio; López-Martínez, Leticia Xochitl; Morachis-Valdes, Gabriela; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) has been detected in significant amounts in municipal treated wastewater effluent. Diverse studies report that trace concentrations of DCF may induce toxic effects on different aquatic organisms as well as developmental, reproductive and renal damage. This study aimed to determine whether short and long-term exposure to DCF alter the oxidative stress (OS) status in blood, muscle, gills, brain and liver of common carp Cyprinus carpio. The median lethal concentration of DCF at 96 h (96-h LC50) and subsequently the lowest observed adverse effect level were determined. Carp were exposed (short and long-term) to the latter value for different exposure times (4 and 24 days) and the following biomarkers were evaluated in gill, brain, liver and blood: hydroperoxides content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Also, the DCF was determined by LC-MS/MS. Significant increases in HPC, LPX and PCC were observed respect to control (P < 0.05) particularly in blood, muscle, gill, brain and liver. SOD, CAT and GPx activity also increased in these organs, with respect to controls (P < 0.05). DCF concentrations decreased and increased in water system and carp, respectively. Cyprinus carpio exposed to DCF was affected in OS status during the initial days of the study (at 4 days), exhibiting an increased response at 24 days in blood and liver. In contrast, a decrease was observed in muscle, gills and brain at 24 days with respect to 4 days. In conclusion, DCF induces OS on blood, muscle, gills, brain and liver in the carp C. carpio in short and long-term exposure. The biomarkers employed in this study are useful in the assessment of the environmental impact of this agent on aquatic species. PMID:25512029

  6. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

    1988-01-01

    An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

  7. Fracture toughness evaluations of TP304 stainless steel pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.L.; Brust, F.W.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1997-02-01

    In the IPIRG-1 program, the J-R curve calculated for a 16-inch nominal diameter, Schedule 100 TP304 stainless steel (DP2-A8) surface-cracked pipe experiment (Experiment 1.3-3) was considerably lower than the quasi-static, monotonic J-R curve calculated from a C(T) specimen (A8-12a). The results from several related investigations conducted to determine the cause of the observed toughness difference are: (1) chemical analyses on sections of Pipe DP2-A8 from several surface-cracked pipe and material property specimen fracture surfaces indicate that there are two distinct heats of material within Pipe DP2-A8 that differ in chemical composition; (2) SEN(T) specimen experimental results indicate that the toughness of a surface-cracked specimen is highly dependent on the depth of the initial crack, in addition, the J-R curves from the SEN(T) specimens closely match the J-R curve from the surface-cracked pipe experiment; (3) C(T) experimental results suggest that there is a large difference in the quasi-static, monotonic toughness between the two heats of DP2-A8, as well as a toughness degradation in the lower toughness heat of material (DP2-A8II) when loaded with a dynamic, cyclic (R = {minus}0.3) loading history.

  8. Insulating Cryogenic Pipes With Frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, J. G.; Bova, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Crystallized water vapor fills voids in pipe insulation. Small, carefully controlled amount of water vapor introduced into dry nitrogen gas before it enters aft fuselage. Vapor freezes on pipes, filling cracks in insulation. Ice prevents gaseous nitrogen from condensing on pipes and dripping on structure, in addition to helping to insulate all parts. Industrial applications include large refrigeration plants or facilities that use cryogenic liquids.

  9. The Effects of an Unexpected Ceramic Coating Phase at the Head of a Pipe on Joining and Postprocessing of a Ceramic-Lined Composite Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodian, R.; Rahbari, R. G.; Hamdi, M.; Hassan, M. A.; Sparham, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Produced ceramic-lined steel pipe using the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method has found uses in many applications. A SHS-centrifugal machine was designed to produce a ceramic-lined steel pipe from ferric oxide and aluminum powder (thermite mixture) under high centrifugal acceleration. The obtained products are expected to be Al2O3 ceramic in the innermost layer and a Fe layer in a region between the outer steel pipes. In the present work, specific regions of a pipe was particularly observed to investigate the stuck (dead) spaces at the pipe head because of its importance in further processes (joining, welding, etc.) which may affect the quality of the next operations. In this article, the product's composition, phase separation, microhardness, and surface finish were studied on three zones of the pipe.

  10. Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment (CRYOHP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Roy

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the CRYOHP experiment is to conduct a shuttle experiment that demonstrates the reliable operation of two oxygen heat pipes in microgravity. The experiment will perform the following tasks: (1) demonstrate startup of the pipes from the supercritical state; (2) measure the heat transport capacity of the pipes; (3) measure evaporator and condenser film coefficients; and (4) work shuttle safety issues. The approach for the experiment is as follows: (1) fly two axially grooved oxygen heat pipes attached to mechanical stirling cycle tactical coolers; (2) integrate experiment in hitch-hiker canister; and (3) fly on shuttle and control from ground.

  11. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeples, M. E.; Reeder, J. C.; Sontag, K. E.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of integrating heat pipes in high temperature structure to reduce local hot spot temperature was evaluated for a variety of hypersonic aerospace vehicles. From an initial list of twenty-two potential applications, the single stage to orbit wing leading edge showed the greatest promise and was selected for preliminary design of an integrated heat pipe thermostructural system. The design consisted of a Hastelloy X assembly with sodium heat pipe passages aligned normal to the wing leading edge. A d-shaped heat pipe cross section was determined to be optimum from the standpoint of structural weight.

  12. Laminar-transitional micropipe flows: energy and exergy mechanisms based on Reynolds number, pipe diameter, surface roughness and wall heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozalp, A. Alper

    2012-01-01

    Energy and exergy mechanisms of laminar-transitional micropipe flows are computationally investigated by solving the variable fluid property continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations. Analyses are carried for wide ranges of Reynolds number ( Re = 10-2,000), micropipe diameter (d = 0.50-1.00 mm), non-dimensional surface roughness (ɛ* = 0.001-0.01) and wall heat flux ( {{q}}^' ' } = 1,000-2,000 W/m2) conditions. Computations revealed that friction coefficient (Cf) elevates with higher ɛ* and Re and with lower d, where the rise of ɛ* from 0.001 to 0.01 induced the Cf to increase by 0.7 → 0.9% (d = 1.00 → 0.50 mm), 3.4 → 4.2%, 6.6 → 8.1%, 9.6 → 11.9% and 12.4 → 15.2% for Re = 100, 500, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000, respectively. Earlier transition exposed with stronger micro-structure and surface roughness at the descriptive transitional Reynolds numbers of Re tra = 1,656 → 769 (ɛ* = 0.001 → 0.01), 1,491 → 699 and 1,272 → 611 at d = 1.00, 0.75 and 0.50 mm; the corresponding shape factor (H) and intermittency (γ) data appear in the narrow ranges of H = 3.135-3.142 and γ = 0.132-0.135. At higher Re and lower d, ɛ* is determined to become more influential on the heat transfer rates, such that the Nuɛ*=0.01/Nuɛ*=0.001 ratio attains the values of 1.002 → 1.023 (d = 1.00 → 0.50 mm), 1.012 → 1.039, 1.025 → 1.056 and 1.046 → 1.082 at Re = 100, 500, 1,000 and 2,000. As ɛ* comes out to cause minor variations in the cross-sectional thermal entropy generation rates ( {{{S}}_{{Updelta {{T}}}}^' } } ) , {{q}}^' ' } is confirmed to augment {{S}}_{{Updelta {{T}}}}^' } , where the impact becomes more pronounced at higher Re and d. Frictional entropy generation values ( {{{S}}_{{Updelta {{P}}}}^' } } ) are found to be motivated by lower d, higher Re and ɛ*, such that the {{S}}_{{Updelta {{P}}_{{{{d}} = 0.50{{mm}}}} }}^' } /{{S}}_{{Updelta {{P}}_{{{{d}} = 1.00{{mm}}}} }}^' } ratio is computed as 4.0011 → 4.0014 (ɛ* = 0.001 → 0.01), 4.002 → 4

  13. Marangoni heat pipe: An experiment on board MIOsat Italian microsatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savino, Raffaele; Cecere, Anselmo; Di Paola, Roberto; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Castagnolo, Dario; Fortezza, Raimondo

    2009-12-01

    This article summarizes the activities in preparation of a microgravity experiment to be carried out by using a small technological payload onboard a microsatellite developed by the Italian Space Agency. A dedicated hardware will be developed to investigate innovative heat pipes filled with self-rewetting fluids, i.e. dilute aqueous alcoholic solutions with unique surface tension properties. After a general introduction of the scientific background, the paper is focused on the main activities in preparation of the flight experiment, on the design of the flight hardware and on the experimental planned procedure. The laboratory results achieved on ground in preparation of a flight experiment are also presented, including measurements of fluids physical properties and preliminary heat pipes performances characterization test. From the engineering point of view, the activities dealing with heat pipes filling and sealing are included. The activities for heat pipe characterization conclude the paper.

  14. An investigation of corrosion in liquid-metal heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.; Andraka, C.E.; Showalter, S.K.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.; Cordiero, P.G.

    1998-08-01

    Research is underway to develop a 75-kW heat pipe to transfer solar energy from the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator to the heater tubes of a Stirling engine. The high flux levels and high total power level encountered in this application have made it necessary to use a high-performance wick structure with fibers on the order of 4 to 8 microns in diameter. This fine wick structure is highly susceptible to corrosion damage and plugging, as dissolved contaminants plate out on the evaporator surface. Normal operation of the heat pipe also tends to concentrate contaminants in localized areas of the evaporator surface where heat fluxes are the highest. Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a systematic study to identify procedures that reduce corrosion and contamination problems in liquid-metal heat pipes. A series of heat pipes are being tested to explore different options for cleaning heat-pipe systems. Models are being developed to help understand the overall importance of operating parameters on the life of heat-pipe systems. In this paper, the authors present their efforts to reduce corrosion damage.

  15. RF transmission line and drill/pipe string switching technology for down-hole telemetry

    DOEpatents

    Clark, David D.; Coates, Don M.

    2007-08-14

    A modulated reflectance well telemetry apparatus having an electrically conductive pipe extending from above a surface to a point below the surface inside a casing. An electrical conductor is located at a position a distance from the electrically conductive pipe and extending from above the surface to a point below the surface. Modulated reflectance apparatus is located below the surface for modulating well data into a RF carrier transmitted from the surface and reflecting the modulated carrier back to the surface. A RF transceiver is located at the surface and is connected between the electrically conductive pipe and the electrical conductor for transmitting a RF signal that is confined between the electrically conductive well pipe and the electrical conductor to the modulated reflectance apparatus, and for receiving reflected data on the well from the modulated reflectance apparatus.

  16. Molecular Characterization and Histopathology of Myxobolus koi Infecting the Gills of A koi Cyprinus carpio, with an Amended Morphologic Description of the Agent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Myxobolus sp., morphologically resembling M. toyamai, M. longisporus, and M. koi, was isolated from the gills of a koi, Cyprinus carpio that died in an ornamental pond. Large plasmodia were localized within lamellae, causing severe disruption of the normal branchial architecture, sufficient to com...

  17. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  18. Authors's reply to `Generation of surface degraded layer on austenitic stainless steel piping exposed to flowing sodium in a loop: inter comparison of long term exposure data', by S. Rajendran Pillai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Vaidehi; Ganesan, V.; Borgstedt, H. U.

    2004-09-01

    This is an elaborate author's reply to a comment `Generation of surface degraded layer on austenitic steel piping exposed to flowing sodium in a loop: inter comparison of long term exposure data' by S. Rajendran Pillai appearing in this proceedings. The basic misunderstanding as seen in the above comment about the mass loss due to sodium exposure, which is reflected throughout the above comment, has been explained in detail in this reply for better understanding of the phenomenon. It is precisely mentioned and understood that Thorley and Tyzack model deals with complete mass loss and not mere degradation. The total mass loss corresponds to mass loss due to wall thinning and that due to degraded layer formation. Though Thorley and Tyzack model is the most pioneering model in the field of sodium corrosion, the inadequacies of this model for materials without molybdenum such as SS 304 with very long exposure in sodium is clearly brought out in this paper. This model has been successfully applied to calculate life of clad tubes, which have relatively short stay in reactor core. Yoshida models are highlighted and compared with our experimental results. Yoshida models are not valid below certain durations owing to the empirical nature of such expressions. Thorley and Tyzack model can be used for SS 316 LN as this alloy contains molybdenum and nitrogen both of which imparts corrosion resistance in sodium. What is required is that one needs to establish the extent to which this model can be applied for materials exposed to high temperatures and very long durations. The details are discussed in this reply.

  19. Sulfide stress corrosion cracking of line pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Kimuro, M.; Totsuka, N.; Kurisu, T.; Amano, K.; Matsuyama, J.; Nakai, Y. )

    1989-04-01

    This paper reports the sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSC) behavior of line pipe steel investigated using the SSC test method in NACE Standard TMO177-77, Testing of Metals for Resistance to Sulfide Stress Cracking at Ambient Temperatures. SSC of base metal can be classified into two types, depending on microstructures. In ferrite-perlite steel, the first crack initiates parallel to the pipe surface and propagates perpendicularly to the axis of stress. In ferrite-bainite steel or low C-bainite steel, the crack initiates at the interface between the bainite particle and the ferrite. With decreasing carbon content, the threshold stress of SSC ({sigma}{sub th}) increases, but in low-carbon steel, the {sigma}{sub th} value of weld seam is lower than that of base metal. SSC of weld seams occurs at the softening zone in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) about 2 to 4 mm away from the fusion line.

  20. Ceramic heat pipe wick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidenberg, Benjamin (Inventor); Swanson, Theodore (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A wick for use in a capillary loop pump heat pipe is disclosed. The wick material is an essentially uniformly porous, permeable, open-cell, silicon dioxide/aluminum oxide inorganic ceramic foam having a silica fiber ratio, by weight, of about 78 to 22, respectively, a density of 6 lbs/cu ft, and an average pore size of less than 5 microns. A representative material having these characteristics is Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Inc.'s HTP 6-22. This material is fully compatible with the freons and anhydrous ammonia and allows for the use of these very efficient working fluids, and others, in capillary loops.

  1. Polymeric heat pipe wick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidenberg, Benjamin

    1988-01-01

    A wick for use in a capillary loop pump heat pipe is described. The wick material is an essentially uniformly porous, permeable, open-cell, polyethylene thermoplastic foam having an ultrahigh average molecular weight of from approximately 1 to 5 million, and an average pore size of about 10 to 12 microns. A representative material having these characteristics is POREX UF, which has an average molecular weight of about 3 million. This material is fully compatible with the FREONs and anhydrous ammonia and allows for the use of these very efficient working fluids in capillary loops.

  2. Heat pipes - Thermal diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aptekar, B. F.; Baum, J. M.; Ivanovskii, M. N.; Kolgotin, F. F.; Serbin, V. I.

    The performance concept and peculiarities of the new type of thermal diode with the trap and with the wick breakage are dealt with in the report. The experimental data were obtained and analysed for the working fluid mass and the volume of the liquid in the wick on the forward-mode limiting heat transfer. The flow rate pulsation of the working fluid in the wick was observed visually on the setup with the transparent wall. The quantitative difference on the data on the investigated thermal diode and on the identical heat pipes without the wick breakage is found experimentally concerning the forward-mode limiting heat transfer.

  3. Modeling MIC copper release from drinking water pipes.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Gonzalo E; Vargas, Ignacio T; Pastén, Pablo A; Calle, Gustavo R

    2014-06-01

    Copper is used for household drinking water distribution systems given its physical and chemical properties that make it resistant to corrosion. However, there is evidence that, under certain conditions, it can corrode and release unsafe concentrations of copper to the water. Research on drinking water copper pipes has developed conceptual models that include several physical-chemical mechanisms. Nevertheless, there is still a necessity for the development of mathematical models of this phenomenon, which consider the interaction among physical-chemical processes at different spatial scales. We developed a conceptual and a mathematical model that reproduces the main processes in copper release from copper pipes subject to stagnation and flow cycles, and corrosion is associated with biofilm growth on the surface of the pipes. We discuss the influence of the reactive surface and the copper release curves observed. The modeling and experimental observations indicated that after 10h stagnation, the main concentration of copper is located close to the surface of the pipe. This copper is associated with the reactive surface, which acts as a reservoir of labile copper. Thus, for pipes with the presence of biofilm the complexation of copper with the biomass and the hydrodynamics are the main mechanisms for copper release. PMID:24398414

  4. Removal of Pipe Fouling Inside Pipes Using Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Noritoshi; Fujihara, Masaya; Wu, Chaoqun; Satonobu, Jun

    Since fouling generated inside pipes of chemistry plant equipment, shortens “its life”, periodical maintenance such as cleaning or replacement is needed. Therefore, the development of a safe and sanitary method of preventing a corrosion and blockage inside pipes is desired. In this study, a vibration system, composed of a bolt-clamped Langevin transducer and a pipe, was employed to experimentally study the possibility of fouling removal. In the experiment, a flexural vibration was excited in a pipe containing fouling using ultrasonic waves. When the pipe was made to vibrate, with calcium carbonate or starch used as the fouling, it was shown that the fouling was diffused into the air, and except at the node of the flexural vibration, the fouling was removed completely. Also, the result showed that a higher input voltage to the transducer was more effective in removing the fouling.

  5. Fatigue testing of drill pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, G.Y.; Kulak, G.L.

    1994-06-01

    Twenty-nine tests in air and 27 tests in a 3.5% NaCl solution were conducted to test the fatigue strength of Grade E 4.5-in.-OD, 16.6-lbm/ft (114-mm-OD, 24.7-kg/m) drillpipe. The effects of stress range, mean stress, corrosion, and upset geometry were tested on the drillpipe body alone and on specimens that included the tool joint, upset, and drillpipe body. Stress range and mean stress effects were significant in noncorrosive and corrosive environments. The effect of upset geometry was minimal on an external upset compared with that on an internal/external upset. Among the specimens that failed, grinding marks on the drillpipe surface, which occurred during inspection at the mill, caused failure of about 60% of the specimens. Grinding created a notch effect and induced a detrimental residual-stress pattern on the pipe surface, which decreased drillpipe fatigue life. API guidelines for cumulative fatigue of Range 2 drillpipe were evaluated in light of these experimental test results and were found to be unsafe for drilling in noncorrosive conditions and possibly too conservative for corrosive conditions.

  6. Cold Start of a Radiator Equipped with Titanium-Water Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Siamidis, John

    2008-01-01

    Radiator panels utilizing titanium-water heat pipes are being considered for lunar applications. A traditional sandwich structure is envisioned where heat pipes are embedded between two high thermal conductivity face sheets. The heat pipe evaporators are to be thermally connected to the heat source through one or more manifolds containing coolant. Initial radiator operation on the lunar surface would likely follow a cold soak where the water in the heat pipes is purposely frozen. To achieve heat pipe operation, it will be necessary to thaw the heat pipes. One option is to allow the sunlight impinging on the surface at sunrise to achieve this goal. Testing was conducted in a thermal vacuum chamber to simulate the lunar sunrise and additional modeling was conducted to identify steady-state and transient response. It was found that sunlight impinging on the radiator surface at sunrise was insufficient to solely achieve the goal of thawing the water in the heat pipes. However, starting from a frozen condition was accomplished successfully by applying power to the evaporators. Start up in this fashion was demonstrated without evaporator dryout. Concern is raised over thawing thermosyphons, vertical heat pipes operating in a gravity field, with no wick in the condenser section. This paper presents the results of the simulated cold start study and identifies future work to support radiator panels equipped with titanium-water heat pipes.

  7. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2016-06-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of diff erent dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no diff erences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with diff erent protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly aff ected by the diff erent diets (P<0.05). Weight gain, specific growth rate, and the feed conversion ratio were not diff erent in fish fed the diff erent dietary treatments. Protein efficiency ratio increased significantly as corn starch level increased (P<0.05). Whole-body crude lipid composition increased with increasing dietary corn starch level (P<0.05). Glucokinase (GK), hexokinase, and pyruvate kinase (PK) activities increased significantly with increasing dietary corn starch level (P<0.05), whereas glucose-6-phosphate (G6Pase) activity decreased with increasing dietary corn starch level (P<0.05). GK gene expression was significantly higher in fish fed the high-corn starch diet than those fed the low-corn starch diet (P<0.05). G6pase gene expression tended to decrease with increasing starch level (P>0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  8. Common carp Cyprinus carpio responses to sub-chronic exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Giari, Luisa; Vincenzi, Fabio; Badini, Simone; Guerranti, Cristiana; Dezfuli, Bahram S; Fano, Elisa A; Castaldelli, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an important and diffuse perfluorinated alkylated substance, but knowledge of the toxicological effects of this endocrine disrupter in fish is limited. Adult common carp Cyprinus carpio, L. were exposed to 200 ng/l (a concentration reported in impacted aquatic ecosystems) and 2 mg/l PFOA solutions in a flow-through system for 56 days to determine tissue accumulation and histological alterations of the primary target organs. PFOA was extracted from blood, gill, liver, muscle, kidney, gonad, and brain by an ion-pairing liquid extraction procedure and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.4 ng/g wet weight (ww). PFOA was not detectable in unexposed fish or in fish exposed to 200 ng/l, but was >LOD in most samples of carp exposed to 2 mg/l. Mean PFOA concentration ranged from 0.5 to 65 ng/g ww, depending on the tissue, with highest levels in the blood and liver. There were no significant differences in condition factor, hepato-somatic index, or gonado-somatic index among the fish of the three groups. Histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical staining was performed on sections of liver and gonad. Occurrence of atretic oocytes and a paucity of spermatozoa were documented in carp treated with 2 mg/l PFOA. Exposed fish did not show gross hepatic anomalies, but there was enhancement of hepatocytes in proliferation (positive to anti-PCNA antibody) compared to controls. PMID:27107988

  9. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) inhibits final oocyte maturation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Suravi; Das, Sumana; Moulik, Sujata Roy; Mallick, Buddhadev; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2015-01-15

    GPR-30, now named as GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) was first identified as an orphan receptor and subsequently shown to be required for estrogen-mediated signaling in certain cancer cells. Later studies demonstrated that GPER has the characteristics of a high affinity estrogen membrane receptor on Atlantic croaker and zebra fish oocytes and mediates estrogen inhibition of oocyte maturation in these two distantly related teleost. To determine the broad application of these findings to other teleost, expression of GPER mRNA and its involvement in 17β-estradiol mediated inhibition of oocyte maturation in other cyprinid, Cyprinus carpio was investigated. Carp oocytes at pre-vitellogenic, late-vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages of development contained GPER mRNA and its transcribed protein with a maximum at late-vitellogenic oocytes. Ovarian follicular cells did not express GPER mRNA. Carp oocytes GPER mRNA was essentially identical to that found in other perciformes and cyprinid fish oocytes. Both spontaneous and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P)-induced oocyte maturation in carp was significantly decreased when they were incubated with either E2, or GPER agonist G-1. On the other hand spontaneous oocyte maturation was significantly increased when carp ovarian follicles were incubated with an aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, GPER antagonist, G-15 and enzymatic removal of the ovarian follicle cell layers. This increase in oocyte maturation was partially reversed by co-treatment with E2. Consistent with previous findings with human and fish GPR30, E2 treatment in carp oocytes caused increase in cAMP production and simultaneously decrease in oocyte maturation, which was inhibited by the addition of 17,20β-P. The results suggest that E2 and GPER play a critical role in regulating re-entry in to meiotic cell cycle in carp oocytes. PMID:25485460

  10. Microsatellite DNA marker analysis of genetic diversity in wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Dayu; Kang, Dahai; Yin, Qianqian; Sun, Xiaowen; Liang, Liqun

    2007-11-01

    Thirty microsatellite loci were used for analyzing six wild populations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Observed (H(o)) and expected (H(e)) heterozygosity values, polymorphic information content (PIC), and number of effective alleles (A(e)) were all detected. Genetic similarity index and genetic distance were computed based on the allele frequency. The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was checked according to the test of chi2. Genetic differentiation and hierarchical partition of genetic diversity were evaluated by F(ST) and N(m). A clustering dendrogram was made based on the results of UPGMA methods using the PHYLIP software package (version 3.63). There were totally 8,136 fragments ranging from 125 bp to 414 bp in length. Three to thirteen alleles were amplified in 30 loci and 210 alleles in all six populations. The average number of alleles in each locus was seven. The result showed that 1) the level of genetic variability was moderate in the six populations. Polymorphic information contents of the six wild common carp populations were 0.44, 0.52, 0.53, 0.57, 0.63, and 0.64 respectively. Effective alleles were from 1.04 to 4.72, the average numbers in each population were 2.19, 2.60, 2.42, 2.43, 2.45, and 2.33. The average expected heterozygosity values were 0.50, 0.59, 0.56, 0.56, 0.57, and 0.54 respectively; 2) the highest genetic similarity index that came from the populations of BR and ZL was 0.8511 and the lowest index was 0.6688, and it came from the populations of BR and HN. There was a correlation between the clustering result and the geographical distribution. PMID:18037135

  11. Effect of different river flow rates on biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Lončarić, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5-120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured - activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that different flow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels - the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary

  12. Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

  13. Alternate high capacity heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, F. E.

    1986-01-01

    The performance predictions for a fifty foot heat pipe (4 foot evaporator - 46 foot condensor) are discussed. These performance predictions are supported by experimental data for a four foot heat pipe. Both heat pipes have evaporators with axial groove wick structures and condensers with powder metal external artery wick structures. The predicted performance of a rectangular axial groove/external artery heat pipe operating in space is given. Heat transport versus groove width is plotted for 100, 200 and 300 grooves in the evaporator. The curves show that maximum power is achieved for groove widths from 0.040 to 0.053 as the number of grooves varies from 300 to 100. The corresponding range of maximum power is 3150 to 2400 watts. The relationships between groove width and heat pipe evaporate diameter for 100, 200 and 300 grooves in the evaporator are given. A four foot heat pipe having a three foot condenser and one foot evaporator was built and tested. The evaporator wick structure used axial grooves with rectangular cross sections, and the condenser wick structure used powder metal with an external artery configuration. Fabrication drawings are enclosed. The predicted and measured performance for this heat pipe is shown. The agreement between predicted and measured performance is good and therefore substantiates the predicted performance for a fifty foot heat pipe.

  14. Building a Copper Pipe "Xylophone."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to use the equation for frequency of vibration of a transversely oscillating bar or pipe with both ends free to vibrate to build a simple and inexpensive xylophone from a 3-meter section of copper pipe. The instrument produces a full major scale and can be used to investigate various musical intervals. (Author/NB)

  15. Differential responses to environmental challenge by common carp Cyprinus carpio highlight the importance of coping style in integrative physiology.

    PubMed

    Rey, S; Ribas, L; Morera Capdevila, D; Callol, A; Huntingford, F A; Pilarczyk, M; Kadri, S; MacKenzie, S

    2016-03-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio displaying proactive or reactive stress coping styles were acclimated to two environmental regimes (low oxygen and low temperature), and selected groups were tested for response to an inflammatory challenge (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Plasma glucose and lactate levels were measured, as were selected C. carpio-specific messenger (m)RNA transcript abundance, including cortisol receptor (CR), enolase (ENO), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and interleukin-1-beta (IL1β) was measured in individual whole brain samples. Basal levels (in sham injected fish held in normoxic conditions at 25° C) of plasma lactate and glucose differed between coping styles, being significantly lower in proactive individuals. Both variables increased in response to LPS challenge, with the exception of plasma glucose in reactive fish held in hypoxia. Baseline levels of gene expression under control conditions were significantly different for GAPDH between behavioural phenotypes. The responses to experimental challenge were sometimes diametrically opposed between stress-coping styles in a transcript-specific manner. For CR and GAPDH, for example, the response to LPS injection in hypoxia were opposite between proactive and reactive animals. Proactive fish showed decreased CR and increased GAPDH, whereas reactive showed the opposite response. These results further highlight that screening for stress-coping styles prior to experiments in adaptive physiology can significantly affect the interpretation of data obtained. Further, this leads to a more finely tuned analytical output providing an improved understanding of variation in individual responses to both environmental and inflammatory challenge. PMID:26762295

  16. Effect of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on the growth and proximate composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Kour, Sandeep; Masud, Sahar; Khan, Asma

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of chicken manure and inorganic fertilizer (single super phosphate and urea) on growth performance viz. increase in wet body weight, length, specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF), survival rate and proximate composition of Cyprinus carpio. Experimental water in tubs was treated in duplicates with low (PT) @8000 kgha , medium (PT2) @10,000 kgha(-1) and high (PT) @12,000 kg/ha doses of chicken manure and also with low, medium and high dose of inorganic fertilizer(urea + SSP) @ 104 kgha(-1) + 155 kgha(-1) (IT(1)), @218 kgha(-1) + 310 kg/ha (IT2) and 322 kgha(-1) +470 kgha(-1)(IT3) respectively, along with control. At the end of the experiment, C. carpio showed maximum growth in PT, with significant higher SGR and CF. Survival rate ranged beween 93.3 to 100 % in all the treatments. Level of crude protein and total fat were a2so highest in PT, Moisture and carbohydrate showed no significant changes while ash content changed significantly in all the treatments and control. These observations indicate that chicken manure alone was effective to stimulate productivity and growth of fish without affecting proximate composition of fish meat. PMID:26930873

  17. Identification and expression of the laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 gene in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cao, X L; Chen, J J; Cao, Y; Nie, G X; Wan, Q Y; Wang, L F; Su, J G

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 gene (lgp2) from common carp Cyprinus carpio was isolated and characterized. The full-length complementary (c)DNA of lgp2 was 3061 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 680 amino acids, with an estimated molecular mass of 77 341·2 Da and a predicted isoelectric point of 6·53. The predicted protein included four main overlapping structural domains: a conserved restriction domain of bacterial type III restriction enzyme, a DEAD-DEAH box helicase domain, a helicase super family C-terminal domain and a regulatory domain. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed widespread expression of lgp2, mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (mavs) and interferon transcription factor 3 (irf3) in tissues of nine organs. lgp2, mavs and irf3 expression levels were significantly induced in all examined organs by infection with koi herpesvirus (KHV). lgp2, mavs and irf3 messenger (m)RNA levels were significantly up-regulated in vivo after KHV infection, and lgp2 transcripts were also significantly enhanced in vitro after stimulation with synthetic, double-stranded RNA polyinosinic polycytidylic [poly(I:C)]. These findings suggest that lgp2 is an inducible protein involved in the innate immune defence against KHV in C. carpio. These results provide the basis for further research into the role and mechanisms of lgp2 in fishes. PMID:25359511

  18. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  19. Establishment and characterization of fin-derived cell line from ornamental carp, Cyprinus carpio koi, for virus isolation in India.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, T Raja; Basheer, V S; Kumar, Raj; Kathirvelpandian, A; Sood, Neeraj; Jena, J K

    2015-08-01

    Cyprinus carpio koi fin (CCKF) cell line was established and characterized from the caudal fin tissue of ornamental common carp, C. carpio koi. This cell line has been maintained in L-15 medium supplemented with 15% foetal bovine serum (FBS) and subcultured more than 52 times over a period of 24 mo. The CCKF cell line consisted of epithelial cells and was able to grow at temperatures between 22 and 35°C with an optimum temperature of 28°C. The growth rate of these cells increased as the proportion of FBS increased from 2 to 20% with optimum growth at the concentrations of 15% FBS. Karyotype analysis revealed that the modal chromosome number of CCKF cells was 2n = 100. Partial amplification and sequencing of fragments of two mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA and COI confirmed that CCKF cell line originated from ornamental common carp. The CCKF cells showed strong reaction to the cytokeratin marker, indicating that it was epithelial in nature. The extracellular products of Vibrio cholerae MTCC 3904 and Aeromonas hydrophila were toxic to the CCKF cells and not susceptible to viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV). These CCKF cells were confirmed for the absence of Mycoplasma sp. by polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, 90% of viable cells could be effectively revived 4 mo after cryopreservation from CCKF cell population suggesting the possibility of long-term storage of the cells. PMID:25990269

  20. Genotoxicological response of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to spring water in Tlaxcala, México.

    PubMed

    García-Nieto, Edelmira; Juárez-Santacruz, Libertad; García-Gallegos, Elizabeth; Tlalmis-Zempoalteca, Joselin; Romo-Gómez, Claudia; Torres-Dosal, Arturo

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the genotoxic impact of anthropic activities in Huactzinco Spring, using Cyprinus carpio as a biomonitor. In situ and in vivo experimental designs were compared by means of simultaneous 2-week exposures. The water from the spring generated mean micronuclei frequency values (108.6 ± 32 MN/1,000) and DNA fragmentation values (143.4 ± 35 au) which were statistically higher than those for the negative control (10.9 ± 6 MN/1,000 and 67.6 ± 23 au). The in situ and in vivo experiments supported one another. The comet assay proved to be the most sensitive test, with an EC50 value (11.4 % ± 3.4 %) being less than that determined for the micronuclei test (54.8 % ± 3.2 %). The results of this study confirm the usefulness of C. carpio as an environmental contamination biomonitor, and suggest that Huactzinco Spring water constitutes a latent risk to human health and the environment. PMID:24950945

  1. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, G. M.; McRae, T. G.

    1983-06-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote IR gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote IR sensor which measures the gas composition.

  2. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  3. Distinct kimberlite pipe classes with contrasting eruption processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, E. M. W.; Marsh, J. S.

    2004-09-01

    Field and Scott Smith [Field, M., Scott Smith, B.H., 1999. Contrasting geology and near-surface emplacement of kimberlite pipes in southern Africa and Canada. Proc. 7th Int. Kimb. Conf. (Eds. Gurney et al.) 1, 214-237.] propose that kimberlite pipes can be grouped into three types or classes. Classical or Class 1 pipes are the only class with characteristic low temperature, diatreme-facies kimberlite in addition to hypabyssal- and crater-facies kimberlite. Class 2 and 3 pipes are characterized only by hypabyssal-and crater-facies kimberlite. In an increasing number of Class 1 pipes a new kimberlite facies, transitional-facies kimberlite, is being found. In most cases this facies forms a zone several metres wide at the interface between the hypabyssal- and diatreme-facies. The transitional-facies exhibits textural and mineralogical features, which are continuously gradational between the hypabyssal and the diatreme types. The textural gradations are from a coherent magmatic texture to one where the rock becomes increasingly magmaclastic and this is accompanied by concomitant mineralogical gradations involving the decline and eventual elimination of primary calcite at the expense of microlitic diopside. Both transitional- and diatreme-facies kimberlites are considered to have formed in situ from intruding hypabyssal kimberlite magma as a consequence of exsolution of initially CO 2-rich volatiles from the volatile-rich kimberlite magma. The transitional-facies is initiated by volatile exsolution at depths of about 3 km below the original surface. With subsequent cracking through to the surface and resultant rapid decompression, the further catastrophic exsolution of volatiles and their expansion leads to the formation of the diatreme facies. Thus diatreme-facies kimberlite and Class 1 pipes are emplaced by essentially magmatic processes rather than by phreatomagmatism. Distinctly different petrographic features characterize crater-facies kimberlite in each of the

  4. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-30

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  5. Vibration analysis methods for piping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibert, R. J.

    1981-09-01

    Attention is given to flow vibrations in pipe flow induced by singularity points in the piping system. The types of pressure fluctuations induced by flow singularities are examined, including the intense wideband fluctuations immediately downstream of the singularity and the acoustic fluctuations encountered in the remainder of the circuit, and a theory of noise generation by unsteady flow in internal acoustics is developed. The response of the piping systems to the pressure fluctuations thus generated is considered, and the calculation of the modal characteristics of piping containing a dense fluid in order to obtain the system transfer function is discussed. The TEDEL program, which calculates the vibratory response of a structure composed of straight and curved pipes with variable mechanical characteristics forming a three-dimensional network by a finite element method, is then presented, and calculations of fluid-structural coupling in tubular networks are illustrated.

  6. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  7. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  8. Geothermal district piping - A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1989-11-01

    Transmission and distribution piping constitutes approximately 40 -60% of the capital costs of typical geothermal district heating systems. Selections of economical piping suitable for the fluid chemistry is critical. Presently, most piping (56%) in geothermal systems is of asbestos cement construction. Some fiberglass (19%) and steel (19%) is also in use. Identification of an economical material to replace asbestos cement is important to future project development. By providing information on relative costs, purchase considerations, existing material performance and new products, this report seeks to provide a background of information to the potential pipe purchaser. A brief discussion of the use of uninsulated piping in geothermal district heating systems is also provided. 5 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Technology for concrete pipe manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Dan; Lin, Renzhi

    2009-12-01

    The pipe manipulator is a developing mechatronic system to enhance productivity and protects workers from cave-ins in the trench while excavating and laying pipe. The pipe manipulator is for installing concrete pipe into the trench. It is an optical-electro-mechanical system. The mechanism is make up of two parts, the upside and underside. The upside is for lifting the equipment by backhoe and rotating the underside mechanism. It includes rigidity lift beams, holding pad, four-bar linkages, hydraulic cylinder, rotating support, and rotating mechanism. Holding pad will press the bucket back to keep the bucket hooking the pipe man safely and stably. The underside mechanism is for lifting, holding and adjusting the pipe section's stance. The underside mechanism includes support trolley, and lift fork. The support trolley is driven by hydraulic cylinder for moving the fork forward or backward while laying a pipe into trench. The fork is with a self-lock mechanism for preventing the pipe from slide out of the prongs. A new photoelectric locating system is developed for auto-measuring the installing pipe section's stance within the work area. The laser target has been developed as a key part in the photoelectric locating systems. The photoelectric target is a rotating polar coordinate. Photodiodes are used for making the polar radius. There is an angular displacement sensor sitting on the heart-axis of the target for measuring angle of the target rotating. The pipe manipulator can be located by the system, and the locating methods have been presented at last of the paper.

  10. Technology for concrete pipe manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Dan; Lin, Renzhi

    2010-01-01

    The pipe manipulator is a developing mechatronic system to enhance productivity and protects workers from cave-ins in the trench while excavating and laying pipe. The pipe manipulator is for installing concrete pipe into the trench. It is an optical-electro-mechanical system. The mechanism is make up of two parts, the upside and underside. The upside is for lifting the equipment by backhoe and rotating the underside mechanism. It includes rigidity lift beams, holding pad, four-bar linkages, hydraulic cylinder, rotating support, and rotating mechanism. Holding pad will press the bucket back to keep the bucket hooking the pipe man safely and stably. The underside mechanism is for lifting, holding and adjusting the pipe section's stance. The underside mechanism includes support trolley, and lift fork. The support trolley is driven by hydraulic cylinder for moving the fork forward or backward while laying a pipe into trench. The fork is with a self-lock mechanism for preventing the pipe from slide out of the prongs. A new photoelectric locating system is developed for auto-measuring the installing pipe section's stance within the work area. The laser target has been developed as a key part in the photoelectric locating systems. The photoelectric target is a rotating polar coordinate. Photodiodes are used for making the polar radius. There is an angular displacement sensor sitting on the heart-axis of the target for measuring angle of the target rotating. The pipe manipulator can be located by the system, and the locating methods have been presented at last of the paper.

  11. Rare corrosion failure of a 90/10 copper nickel firewater pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, D.P.

    1995-10-01

    Failure of a copper nickel firewater pipe occurred due to external exposure to a seawater and sodium hypochlorite solution over an extended period. Sodium hypochlorite was injected into an offshore firewater system to enhance internal corrosion resistance and inhibit marine growth. A flange leak released the protected seawater solution onto the exterior surface on the firewater pipe. This exposure caused a chemical corrosion phenomenon to occur, which weaken the pipe. During an annual fire pump flow test for the subject platform, the firewater pipe ruptured due to the corrosion effects.

  12. An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage design for a solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddy, E.; Sena, J. T.; Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.

    Light-weight heat pipe wall elements that incorporate a thermal storage subassembly within the vapor space are being developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System (ORC-SDPS) receiver for the Space Station application. The operating temperature of the heat pipe elements is in the 770 to 810 K range with a design power throughput of 4.8 kW per pipe. The total heat pipe length is 1.9 M. The Rankine cycle boiler heat transfer surfaces are positioned within the heat pipe vapor space, providing a relatively constant temperature input to the vaporizer. The heat pipe design employs axial arteries and distribution wicked thermal storage units with potassium as the working fluid. Performance predictions for this configuration have been conducted and the design characterized as a function of artery geometry, distribution wick thickness, porosity, pore size, and permeability.

  13. Mitigating Climate Change with Ocean Pipes: Influencing Land Temperature and Hydrology and Termination Overshoot Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, L.; Caldeira, K.; Ricke, K.

    2014-12-01

    With increasing risk of dangerous climate change geoengineering solutions to Earth's climate problems have attracted much attention. One proposed geoengineering approach considers the use of ocean pipes as a means to increase ocean carbon uptake and the storage of thermal energy in the deep ocean. We use a latest generation Earth System Model (ESM) to perform simulations of idealised extreme implementations of ocean pipes. In our simulations, downward transport of thermal energy by ocean pipes strongly cools the near surface atmosphere - by up to 11°C on a global mean. The ocean pipes cause net thermal energy to be transported from the terrestrial environment to the deep ocean while increasing the global net transport of water to land. By cooling the ocean surface more than the land, ocean pipes tend to promote a monsoonal-type circulation, resulting in increased water vapour transport to land. Throughout their implementation, ocean pipes prevent energy from escaping to space, increasing the amount of energy stored in Earth's climate system despite reductions in surface temperature. As a consequence, our results indicate that an abrupt termination of ocean pipes could cause dramatic increases in surface temperatures beyond that which would have been obtained had ocean pipes not been implemented.

  14. 40 CFR 761.247 - Sample site selection for pipe segment removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipe segment... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.247 Sample site selection for pipe segment removal. (a) General. (1) Select the...

  15. 40 CFR 761.247 - Sample site selection for pipe segment removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipe segment... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.247 Sample site selection for pipe segment removal. (a) General. (1) Select the...

  16. 40 CFR 761.247 - Sample site selection for pipe segment removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipe segment... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.247 Sample site selection for pipe segment removal. (a) General. (1) Select the...

  17. 40 CFR 761.247 - Sample site selection for pipe segment removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipe segment... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.247 Sample site selection for pipe segment removal. (a) General. (1) Select the...

  18. 40 CFR 761.247 - Sample site selection for pipe segment removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipe segment... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.247 Sample site selection for pipe segment removal. (a) General. (1) Select the...

  19. Superconducting pipes and levitating magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Yan; Rizzato, Felipe B.

    2006-12-01

    Motivated by a beautiful demonstration of the Faraday and the Lenz laws in which a small neodymium magnet falls slowly through a conducting nonferromagnetic tube, we consider the dynamics of a magnet falling coaxially through a superconducting pipe. Unlike the case of normal conducting pipes, in which the magnet quickly reaches the terminal velocity, inside a superconducting tube the magnet falls freely. On the other hand, to enter the pipe the magnet must overcome a large electromagnetic energy barrier. For sufficiently strong magnets, the barrier is so large that the magnet will not be able to penetrate it and will be levitated over the mouth of the pipe. We calculate the work that must done to force the magnet to enter a superconducting tube. The calculations show that superconducting pipes are very efficient at screening magnetic fields. For example, the magnetic field of a dipole at the center of a short pipe of radius a and length L≳a decays, in the axial direction, with a characteristic length ξ≈0.26a . The efficient screening of the magnetic field might be useful for shielding highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference devices. Finally, the motion of the magnet through a superconducting pipe is compared and contrasted to the flow of ions through a trans-membrane channel.

  20. Superconducting pipes and levitating magnets.

    PubMed

    Levin, Yan; Rizzato, Felipe B

    2006-12-01

    Motivated by a beautiful demonstration of the Faraday and the Lenz laws in which a small neodymium magnet falls slowly through a conducting nonferromagnetic tube, we consider the dynamics of a magnet falling coaxially through a superconducting pipe. Unlike the case of normal conducting pipes, in which the magnet quickly reaches the terminal velocity, inside a superconducting tube the magnet falls freely. On the other hand, to enter the pipe the magnet must overcome a large electromagnetic energy barrier. For sufficiently strong magnets, the barrier is so large that the magnet will not be able to penetrate it and will be levitated over the mouth of the pipe. We calculate the work that must done to force the magnet to enter a superconducting tube. The calculations show that superconducting pipes are very efficient at screening magnetic fields. For example, the magnetic field of a dipole at the center of a short pipe of radius a and length L approximately > a decays, in the axial direction, with a characteristic length xi approximately 0.26a. The efficient screening of the magnetic field might be useful for shielding highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference devices. Finally, the motion of the magnet through a superconducting pipe is compared and contrasted to the flow of ions through a trans-membrane channel. PMID:17280160

  1. Short cracks in piping and piping wells. Volume 3, No. 2: Semiannual report, October 1992--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Brust, F.; Francini, R.

    1994-03-01

    This is the sixth semiannual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s 4-year research program ``Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds`` which began in March 1990. The objective is to verify and improve fracture analyses for circumferentially cracked nuclear piping with cracks sizes typically found during in-service flaw evaluations. Progress is the through-wall-cracked pipe efforts involved (1) verification of deformation plasticity under nonproportional loading, (2) evaluation of the effect of weld metal strength on various J-estimation schemes, and (3) development of new GE/EPRI functions. Surface-cracked pipe evaluations involved (1) material characterization of B&W C-Mn-Mo submerged arc weld metal, and (2) 3D finite-element mesh refinement study. The toughness of the bimetallic weld fusion line was evaluated and showed unusual fracture behavior based on the results of the Charpy tests. The dynamic strain aging J-R tests confirmed the screening criterion developed earlier in the program. The results from this program to date necessitated several additional efforts. These were initiated and have been reported here. Presentation of the results from this program to the ASME Section XI Pipe Flaw Evaluation Working Group is also summarized here.

  2. Lifetest investigations with stainless steel/water heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenzel, W. D.; Kraehling, H.

    Life tests were conducted on water heat pipes, made from four different alloys of stainless steel, at operation temperatures of 120, 160, 220, and 320 C in a reflux boiler mode for more than 20,000 hr. Other parameters varied during the tests included capillary structure, pretreatment and cleaning of the components, additional oxidation of the inner surface, filling procedures, amoung of liquid change, the number of ventings, and the duration of the reaction runs. The best results were obtained with pipes containing stainless steels with molybdenum alloy additions and with carbon contents of greater than 0.03%; with components which formed a protective surface layer; with the use of double-distilled water that had been ultrasonically degassed; with repeated ventings during the initial reaction run of 500 hr minimum duration; and with the addition of gaseous oxygen into the heat pipe during the reaction run with subsequent venting.

  3. Heat pipe technology: A biblography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A bibliography of heat pipe research and development projects conducted during April through June 1972, is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) general information, (2) heat pipe applications, (3) heat pipe theory, (4) design and fabrication, (5) test and operation, (6) subject and author index, and (7) heat pipe related patents.

  4. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  5. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  6. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  7. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  8. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  9. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  10. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  11. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  12. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  13. Leachate storage transport tanker loadout piping

    SciTech Connect

    Whitlock, R.W.

    1994-11-18

    This report shows the modifications to the W-025 Trench No. 31 leachate loadout discharge piping, and also the steps involved in installing the discharge piping, including dimensions and welding information. The installation of the discharge pipe should be done in accordance to current pipe installation standards. Trench No. 31 is a radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility.

  14. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings...

  15. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings...

  16. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings...

  17. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings...

  18. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings...

  19. Decontaminating Aluminum/Ammonia Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Internal gas slugs reduced or eliminated. Manufacturing method increases efficiency of aluminum heat pipes in which ammonia is working fluid by insuring pipe filled with nearly pure charge of ammonia. In new process heat pipe initially closed with stainless-steel valve instead of weld so pipe put through several cycles of filling, purging, and accelerated aging.

  20. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads...

  1. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint...

  2. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint...

  3. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint...

  4. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  5. Heat pipe experiment on SPAS 01

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kock, H.; Kreeb, H.; Savage, C.

    1986-08-01

    The second flight of Challenger carried a heat pipe experiment, designed to measure the performance of constant conductance heat pipe diodes over a period of 16 hr. The experiment platform and the flight results on variable conductance heat pipe housekeeping radiators, including the temperature distribution at these heat pipe versus experiment time are presented. All equipment is shown to be space qualified.

  6. 46 CFR 76.25-30 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping. 76.25-30 Section 76.25-30 Shipping COAST GUARD... System, Details § 76.25-30 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings of ferrous materials shall be... piping, valves, fittings, and sprinkler heads shall be securely supported, and, where...

  7. 46 CFR 108.475 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping. 108.475 Section 108.475 Shipping COAST GUARD... Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.475 Piping. (a) Each pipe, valve, and fitting in a foam... to remove liquid from the system. (e) Piping in a foam extinguishing system must be used only...

  8. 46 CFR 108.475 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 108.475 Section 108.475 Shipping COAST GUARD... Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.475 Piping. (a) Each pipe, valve, and fitting in a foam... to remove liquid from the system. (e) Piping in a foam extinguishing system must be used only...

  9. 46 CFR 76.25-30 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.25-30 Section 76.25-30 Shipping COAST GUARD... System, Details § 76.25-30 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings of ferrous materials shall be... piping, valves, fittings, and sprinkler heads shall be securely supported, and, where...

  10. 49 CFR 195.114 - Used pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Used pipe. 195.114 Section 195.114 Transportation... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.114 Used pipe. Any used pipe installed in a pipeline system must comply with § 195.112 (a) and (b) and the following: (a) The pipe must be of a known specification and...

  11. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe welding. 154.660 Section 154.660 Shipping COAST... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt welds... butt welds must meet the following: (1) Butt welds of pipes made from carbon, carbon manganese, or...

  12. 49 CFR 195.112 - New pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New pipe. 195.112 Section 195.112 Transportation... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.112 New pipe. Any new pipe installed in a pipeline system must comply with the following: (a) The pipe must be made of steel of the carbon, low alloy-high strength, or...

  13. 46 CFR 108.475 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.475 Piping. (a) Each pipe, valve, and fitting in a foam... pipe, valve, and fitting must have support and protection from damage. (d) Each foam extinguishing... to remove liquid from the system. (e) Piping in a foam extinguishing system must be used only...

  14. 46 CFR 108.475 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.475 Piping. (a) Each pipe, valve, and fitting in a foam... pipe, valve, and fitting must have support and protection from damage. (d) Each foam extinguishing... to remove liquid from the system. (e) Piping in a foam extinguishing system must be used only...

  15. 46 CFR 108.475 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.475 Piping. (a) Each pipe, valve, and fitting in a foam... pipe, valve, and fitting must have support and protection from damage. (d) Each foam extinguishing... to remove liquid from the system. (e) Piping in a foam extinguishing system must be used only...

  16. Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A cumulative bibliography on heat pipe research and development projects is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) general information, (2) heat pipe applications, (3) heat pipe theory, (4) design and fabrication, (5) testing and operation, (6) subject and author index, and (7) heat pipe related patents.

  17. Determination of Secondary Encasement Pipe Design Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-10-26

    This document published results of iterative calculations for maximum tank farm transfer secondary pipe (encasement) pressure upon failure of the primary pipe. The maximum pressure was calculated from a primary pipe guillotine break. Results show encasement pipeline design or testing pressures can be significantly lower than primary pipe pressure criteria.

  18. Abrasion protection in process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Accetta, J.

    1996-07-01

    Process piping often is subjected to failure from abrasion or a combination of abrasion and corrosion. Abrasion is a complex phenomenon, with many factors involved to varying degrees. Hard, mineral based alumina ceramic and basalt materials are used to provide protection against abrasion in many piping systems. Successful life extension examples are presented from many different industries. Lined piping components require special attention with regard to operating conditions as well as design and engineering considerations. Economic justification involves direct cost comparisons and avoided costs.

  19. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2016-01-01

    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.

  20. Heat pipe transient response approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Robert S.

    2002-01-01

    A simple and concise routine that approximates the response of an alkali metal heat pipe to changes in evaporator heat transfer rate is described. This analytically based routine is compared with data from a cylindrical heat pipe with a crescent-annular wick that undergoes gradual (quasi-steady) transitions through the viscous and condenser boundary heat transfer limits. The sonic heat transfer limit can also be incorporated into this routine for heat pipes with more closely coupled condensers. The advantages and obvious limitations of this approach are discussed. For reference, a source code listing for the approximation appears at the end of this paper. .

  1. Variable conductance heat pipe technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, B. D.; Edwards, D. K.; Anderson, W. T.

    1973-01-01

    Research and development programs in variable conductance heat pipe technology were conducted. The treatment has been comprehensive, involving theoretical and/or experimental studies in hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, heat transfer into and out of the pipe, fluid selection, and materials compatibility, in addition to the principal subject of variable conductance control techniques. Efforts were not limited to analytical work and laboratory experimentation, but extended to the development, fabrication and test of spacecraft hardware, culminating in the successful flight of the Ames Heat Pipe Experiment on the OAO-C spacecraft.

  2. APEX. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, B.E.

    1992-07-01

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straight pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.

  3. Thermal laminarization of a stratified pipe flow

    SciTech Connect

    Oras, J.J.; Kasza, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    The present work constitutes a new program that grew out of a scoping assessment by ANL to determine the propensity for pipe stratification to occur in the reactor outlet nozzles and hot-leg piping of a generic LMFBR during events producing reverse pipe flow. This paper focuses on the role that thermal buoyancy plays relative to being able to laminarize a turbulent stratified shear zone in a horizontal pipe. The preceeding can influence the behavior of a pipe stratified-backflow-recirculation zone (cold plenum water down into the hot pipe flow) which developes as the result of a temperature difference between the pipe flow and the plenum.

  4. Heat pipe life and processing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniuk, D.; Luedke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    The merit of adding water to the reflux charge in chemically and solvent cleaned aluminum/slab wick/ammonia heat pipes was evaluated. The effect of gas in the performance of three heat pipe thermal control systems was found significant in simple heat pipes, less significant in a modified simple heat pipe model with a short wickless pipe section. Use of gas data for the worst and best heat pipes of the matrix in a variable conductance heat pipe model showed a 3 C increase in the source temperature at full on condition after 20 and 246 years, respectively.

  5. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu

    2009-11-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) increases in MDA levels were found in liver, muscle, brain and spleen tissues when comparing the 0- and 24-h groups. But there was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in MDA levels in muscle, spleen and heart tissues when comparing the 24- and 48-h groups. In the group examined at 24 h, it was observed that there were statistically significant differences from the 0 h group values (P < 0.05) for catalase (CAT) activity in muscle, brain, spleen and heart tissues. The decreases in CAT activity in liver and spleen tissues were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) between the group examined at 24 h compared with the group examined at 48 h. Carp maintained good quality during the selling conditions up to 24 h. This experiment deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of

  6. Alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kate M; Minter, Larry J; Lewbart, Gregory A; Harms, Craig A; Griffith, Emily H; Posner, Lysa P

    2014-12-01

    Fish are commonly anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate), a sodium-channel-blocker used as an immersion anesthetic, but its mechanism of action as a general anesthetic is uncertain. Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid that acts at the GABA(A) receptors. Alfaxalone has been evaluated and was deemed successful as an immersion agent in koi carp. Alfaxalone is an effective intramuscular anesthetic in multiple species. A reliable intramuscular anesthetic in fish would be useful in multiple settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic agent in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). Eight koi carp were utilized in a crossover design. In each trial, six fish received 1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, or 10mg/kg of alfaxalone intramuscularly. They were assessed every 15 min for opercular rate and sedation score. The sedation score was based on a visual scale from 0 to 5, 0 indicating no response and 5 indicating absent righting reflex and anesthesia. Anesthetized koi were placed on a fish anesthesia delivery system (FADS). Time to anesthesia/recovery was recorded and heart rate was recorded every 15 min. Anesthesia was achieved in 0/6, 1/6, and 5/6 fish at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Duration of anesthesia for one fish at 5 mg/kg was 2 hr. At 10 mg/kg, median anesthesia duration was 6.5 (3-10) hr. At 10 mg/kg, prolonged apnea (2-3 hr) was observed in 3/6 fish, 2/3 died under anesthesia, and 1/3 recovered 10 hr post-injection. Median peak sedation scores were 1.5, 2.5, and 5, at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. A dosage of 10 mg/kg alfaxalone resulted in 33% mortality. The duration of anesthesia and opercular rate were unpredictable. Due to variation in response despite consistent conditions, as well as risk of mortality, intramuscular alfaxalone cannot be recommended for anesthesia in koi carp. PMID:25632673

  7. Acclimation temperature alters the relationship between growth and swimming performance among juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Pang, Xu; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-09-01

    Individual variation in growth, metabolism and swimming performance, their possible interrelationships, and the effects of temperature were investigated in 30 juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two acclimation temperatures (15 and 25°C). We measured body mass, critical swimming speed (Ucrit), resting metabolic rate (RMR), active metabolic rate (AMR) and metabolic scope (MS) twice (28days apart) in both temperature groups. Fish acclimated to 25°C showed a 204% higher specific growth rate (SGR) than those acclimated to 15°C due to a 97% higher feeding rate (FR) and a 46% higher feed efficiency (FE). Among individuals, SGR was positively correlated with the FR and FE at both low and high temperatures. All measured variables (Ucrit, RMR and AMR) related to swimming except MS showed a high repeatability after adjusting for body mass (mass-independent). Fish acclimated to 25°C had a 40% higher Ucrit compared with 15°C acclimated fish, which was at least partially due to an improved metabolic capacity. AMR showed a 97% increase, and MS showed a 104% parallel increase with the higher acclimation temperature. Residual (mass-independent) Ucrit was positively correlated with residual RMR, AMR and MS, except for the residual RMR at high temperature. When acclimated to the lower temperature, both the residual and absolute Ucrit were negatively correlated with FR and FE and, hence, with SGR, suggesting a functional trade-off between growth and locomotion in fish acclimated to low temperatures. However, when acclimated to the higher temperature, this trade-off no longer existed; absolute Ucrit was positively correlated with SGR because individuals with rapid growth exhibited greatly increased body mass. The higher metabolic capacity at 25°C showed a positive effect on both swimming performance and growth rate (because of improved digestive efficiency) under the high-temperature condition, which we did not anticipate. Overall, these results indicate that temperature

  8. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  9. Heat-Transfer Coupling For Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesmith, Bill J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed welded heat-transfer coupling joins set of heat pipes to thermoelectric converter. Design avoids difficult brazing operation. Includes pair of mating flanged cups. Upper cup integral part of housing of thermoelectric converter, while lower cup integral part of plate supporting filled heat pipes. Heat pipes prefilled. Heat of welding applied around periphery of coupling, far enough from heat pipes so it would not degrade working fluid or create excessive vapor pressure in the pipes.

  10. Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Da-Xi; Beach, Duane E.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range. Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

  11. Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Daxi; Beach, Duane E.

    2004-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test Data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range.Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

  12. Method for casting polyethylene pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, R. M., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Short lengths of 7-cm ID polyethylene pipe are cast in a mold which has a core made of room-temperature-vulcanizable (RTV) silicone. Core expands during casting and shrinks on cooling to allow for contraction of the polyethylene.

  13. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2014-01-01

    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The start-up transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe start-up behaviors. Topics include the four start-up scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the start-up scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power start-up, and methods to enhance the start-up success. Also addressed are the thermodynamic constraint between the evaporator and reservoir in the loop heat pipe operation, the superheat requirement for nucleate boiling, pressure spike and pressure surge during the start-up transient, and repeated cycles of loop start-up andshutdown under certain conditions.

  14. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, Ray A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe within an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough.

  15. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, R.A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe with an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough. 4 figs.

  16. Light pipes for LED measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, S. R.; Thomas, E. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Light pipe directly couples LED optical output to single detector. Small area detector measures total optical output of diode. Technique eliminates thermal measurement problems and channels optical output to remote detector.

  17. Mapping Temperatures On Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunnerson, Fred S.; Thorncroft, Glen E.

    1993-01-01

    Paints containing thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC's) used to map temperatures on heat pipes and thermosyphons. Color of thermally sensitive TLC coat changes reversibly upon heating or cooling. Each distinct color indicates particular temperature. Transient and steady-state isotherms become visible as colored bands. Positions and movements of bands yield information about startup transients, steady-state operation, cooler regions containing noncondensible gas, and other phenomena relevant to performance of heat pipe.

  18. Heat Pipe Thermal Conditioning Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The technology involved in designing and fabricating a heat pipe thermal conditioning panel to satisfy a broad range of thermal control system requirements on NASA spacecraft is discussed. The design specifications were developed for a 30 by 30 inch heat pipe panel. The fundamental constraint was a maximum of 15 gradient from source to sink at 300 watts input and a flux density of 2 watts per square inch. The results of the performance tests conducted on the panel are analyzed.

  19. Multi-terminal pipe routing by Steiner minimal tree and particle swarm optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang; Wang, Chengen

    2012-08-01

    Computer-aided design of pipe routing is of fundamental importance for complex equipments' developments. In this article, non-rectilinear branch pipe routing with multiple terminals that can be formulated as a Euclidean Steiner Minimal Tree with Obstacles (ESMTO) problem is studied in the context of an aeroengine-integrated design engineering. Unlike the traditional methods that connect pipe terminals sequentially, this article presents a new branch pipe routing algorithm based on the Steiner tree theory. The article begins with a new algorithm for solving the ESMTO problem by using particle swarm optimisation (PSO), and then extends the method to the surface cases by using geodesics to meet the requirements of routing non-rectilinear pipes on the surfaces of aeroengines. Subsequently, the adaptive region strategy and the basic visibility graph method are adopted to increase the computation efficiency. Numeral computations show that the proposed routing algorithm can find satisfactory routing layouts while running in polynomial time.

  20. Dry Flowing Abrasive Decontamination Technique for Pipe Systems with Swirling Air Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kameo, Yutaka; Nakashima, Mikio; Hirabayashi, Takakuni

    2003-10-15

    A dry abrasive decontamination method was developed for removing radioactive corrosion products from surfaces of coolant pipe systems in decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Erosion behavior of inside surfaces of stainless and carbon steel pipes by a swirling air flow containing alumina or cast-iron grit abrasive was studied. Erosion depths of the test pipes were approximately proportional to an abrasive concentration in air and an exponent of flow rate of airstream. The experimental results indicated that the present method could keep satisfactory erosion ability of abrasives even for a large-size pipe. The present method was successfully applied to {sup 60}Co-contaminated specimens sampled from a pipe of the water cleanup system of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor.

  1. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A.

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  2. Pipe weld crown removal device

    SciTech Connect

    Sword, C.K.; Sette, P.J.

    1992-11-24

    A device is provided for grinding down the crown of a pipe weld joining aligned pipe sections so that the weld is substantially flush with the pipe sections joined by the weld. The device includes a cage assembly comprising a pair of spaced cage rings adapted to be mounted for rotation on the respective pipe sections on opposite sides of the weld, a plurality of grinding wheels, supported by the cage assembly for grinding down the crown of the weld, and a plurality of support shafts, each extending longitudinally along the joined pipe sections, parallel thereto, for individually mounting respective grinding wheels. Each end of the support shafts is mounted for rotation in a bearing assembly housed within a radially directed opening in a corresponding one of the cage rings so as to provide radial movement of the associated shaft, and thus of the associated grinding wheel, towards and away from the weld. A first drive sprocket provides rotation of the cage assembly around the pipe sections while a second drive unit, driven by a common motor, provides rotation of the grinding wheels. 2 figs.

  3. Pipe weld crown removal device

    SciTech Connect

    Sword, C.K.; Sette, P.J.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a device that provides for grinding down the crown of a pipe weld joining aligned pipe sections so that the weld is substantially flush with the pipe sections joined by the weld. The device includes a cage assembly comprising a pair of spaced cage rings adapted to be mounted for rotation on the respective pipe sections on opposite sides of the weld, a plurality of grinding wheels, supported by the cage assembly for grinding down the crown of the weld, and a plurality of support shafts, each extending longitudinally along the joined pipe sections, parallel thereto, for individually mounting respective grinding wheels. Each end of the support shafts is mounted for rotation in a bearing assembly housed within a radially directed opening in a corresponding one of the cage rings so as to provide radial movement of the associated shaft, and thus of the associated grinding wheel, towards and away from the weld. A first drive sprocket provides rotation of the cage assembly around the pipe sections while a second drive unit, driven by a common motor, provides rotation of the grinding wheels.

  4. Heat pipe cooled power magnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chester, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    A high frequency, high power, low specific weight (0.57 kg/kW) transformer developed for space use was redesigned with heat pipe cooling allowing both a reduction in weight and a lower internal temperature rise. The specific weight of the heat pipe cooled transformer was reduced to 0.4 kg/kW and the highest winding temperature rise was reduced from 40 C to 20 C in spite of 10 watts additional loss. The design loss/weight tradeoff was 18 W/kg. Additionally, allowing the same 40 C winding temperature rise as in the original design, the KVA rating is increased to 4.2 KVA, demonstrating a specific weight of 0.28 kg/kW with the internal loss increased by 50W. This space environment tested heat pipe cooled design performed as well electrically as the original conventional design, thus demonstrating the advantages of heat pipes integrated into a high power, high voltage magnetic. Another heat pipe cooled magnetic, a 3.7 kW, 20A input filter inductor was designed, developed, built, tested, and described. The heat pipe cooled magnetics are designed to be Earth operated in any orientation.

  5. Automated internal pipe cutting device

    DOEpatents

    Godlewski, William J.; Haffke, Gary S.; Purvis, Dale; Bashar, Ronald W.; Jones, Stewart D.; Moretti, Jr., Henry; Pimentel, James

    2003-01-21

    The invention is a remotely controlled internal pipe cutting device primarily used for cutting pipes where the outside of the pipe is inaccessible at the line where the cut is to be made. The device includes an axial ram within a rotational cylinder which is enclosed in a housing. The housing is adapted for attachment to an open end of the pipe and for supporting the ram and cylinder in cantilever fashion within the pipe. A radially movable cutter, preferably a plasma arc torch, is attached to the distal end of the ram. A drive mechanism, containing motors and mechanical hardware for operating the ram and cylinder, is attached to the proximal end of the housing. The ram and cylinder provide for moving the cutter axially and circumferentially, and a cable assembly attached to a remote motor provide for the movement of the cutter radially, within the pipe. The control system can be adjusted and operated remotely to control the position and movement of the cutter to obtain the desired cut. The control system can also provide automatic standoff control for a plasma arc torch.

  6. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A.

    1995-12-31

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and a uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  7. Light Pipe Energy Savings Calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Erin; Behringer, Ernest R.

    2009-04-01

    Dependence on fossil fuels is unsustainable and therefore a shift to renewable energy sources such as sunlight is required. Light pipes provide a way to utilize sunlight for interior lighting, and can reduce the need for fossil fuel-generated electrical energy. Because consumers considering light pipe installation may be more strongly motivated by cost considerations than by sustainability arguments, an easy means to examine the corresponding costs and benefits is needed to facilitate informed decision-making. The purpose of this American Physical Society Physics and Society Fellowship project is to create a Web-based calculator to allow users to quantify the possible cost savings for their specific light pipe application. Initial calculations show that the illumination provided by light pipes can replace electric light use during the day, and in many cases can supply greater illumination levels than those typically given by electric lighting. While the installation cost of a light pipe is significantly greater than the avoided cost of electricity over the lifetime of the light pipe at current prices, savings may be realized if electricity prices increase.

  8. Pipe weld crown removal device

    DOEpatents

    Sword, Charles K.; Sette, Primo J.

    1992-01-01

    A device is provided for grinding down the crown of a pipe weld joining aligned pipe sections so that the weld is substantially flush with the pipe sections joined by the weld. The device includes a cage assembly comprising a pair of spaced cage rings adapted to be mounted for rotation on the respective pipe sections on opposite sides of the weld, a plurality of grinding wheels, supported by the cage assembly for grinding down the crown of the weld, and a plurality of support shafts, each extending longitudinally along the joined pipe sections, parallel thereto, for individually mounting respective grinding wheels. Each end of the support shafts is mounted for rotation in a bearing assembly housed within a radially directed opening in a corresponding one of the cage rings so as to provide radial movement of the associated shaft, and thus of the associated grinding wheel, towards and away from the weld. A first drive sprocket provides rotation of the cage assembly around the pipe sections while a second drive unit, driven by a common motor, provides rotation of the grinding wheels.

  9. Kimberlite Wall Rock Fragmentation: Venetia K08 Pipe Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, W.; Kurszlaukis, S.; Tait, M.; Dirks, P.

    2009-05-01

    volatile-fluid phases, which have encountered a local hydrologically active fault. The explosions were inadequate in mechanical energy release (72% of a mine production blast) to eject material from the pipe, and the pipe may not have breached surface. The next stage of fragmentation is interpreted to have been an upward-moving collapse of the pre-conditioned hanging wall of a subterranean volcanic excavation. This would explain the mega-scale layering across the width of the breccia pipe. It must be questioned whether the preserved K08 architecture represents early pipe development in general, or is a special case of a late pipe geometry modification process. Previous literature describes sidewall and hanging wall caving processes elsewhere in the Venetia cluster and other kimberlites world wide. A requirement for emplacement models that include upward pipe growth processes is the availability of space (mass deficit at depth) into which the caving and/or dilating breccia can expand. It is possible that K08 might be connected to adjacent K02 at a depth somewhere below 400m, which would explain the presence of volcaniclastic kimberlite at depth within the K08 pipe. K08 is likely an incomplete ancillary sideward development to K02. The latest stage of brecciation is quantified through an observed evolution in the fractal dimension of the PSD. It is interpreted to be due to complex adjustments in volume in the pipe causing shearing and re-fragmentation of the breccia.

  10. 30 CFR 56.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressor discharge pipes. 56.13017 Section 56.13017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13017 Compressor...

  11. 30 CFR 56.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressor discharge pipes. 56.13017 Section 56.13017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13017 Compressor...

  12. Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) from United States Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    A nationwide reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 to develop and evaluate a suite of reproductive and endocrine biomarkers for their potential to assess reproductive health and status in teleost (bony) fish. Fish collections were made at 119 sites, representing many regions of the country and land- and water-use settings. Collectively, this report will provide a national and regional benchmark and a basis for evaluating biomarkers of endocrine and reproductive function. Approximately 2,200 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and 650 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were collected from 1994 through 1997. The suite of biomarkers used for these studies included: the plasma sex-steroid hormones, 17?-estradiol (E2) and 11 ketotestosterone (11KT); the ratio of E2 to 11KT (E2:11KT); plasma vitellogenin (VTG); and stage of gonadal development. This data report provides fish size, stage and reproductive biomarker data for individual fish and for site and regional summaries of these variables.

  13. The in vitro effect of temperature on motility and antioxidant response of common carp Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Dadras, Hadiseh; Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Cosson, Jacky; Golpour, Amin; Dzyuba, Borys

    2016-07-01

    The effect of temperature on Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa in vitro was investigated with spermatozoa activated at 4, 14, and 24°C. At 30s post-activation, motility rate was significantly higher at 4°C compared to 14 and 24°C, whereas highest swimming velocity was observed at 14°C. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) content was significantly higher at 14°C and 24°C than at 4°C in motile spermatozoa. No significant differences in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity relative to temperature were observed. This study provides new information regarding effect of temperature on lipid peroxidation intensity and spermatozoon motility parameters in carp. The elevation of TBARS seen at higher temperatures could be due to inadequate capacity of antioxidant enzymes to protect the cell against the detrimental effects of oxidative stress induced by higher temperatures. PMID:27264890

  14. Substrate specificity of proteolytic activity in the testes fluid and seminal plasma of the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cejko, B I; Słowińska, M; Judycka, S; Kowalski, R K

    2016-05-01

    Substrate specificity in the seminal plasma and testes fluids of the common carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using gelatin, casein, albumin and haemoglobin. Proteolytic profiles of the testes and seminal plasma were compared. Different ranges of pH (5·5-9·5) and temperature (4-37° C) were used during incubations of seminal plasma proteinases. Differences in proteolytic activity between testes and seminal plasma may reflect specific functions of the testes and sperm ducts in semen production. Seminal plasma metalloproteinases were characterized by higher substrate specificity than were serine proteinases. Zymography optimization for seminal plasma indicated that pH 7·5 and 22° C were the optimal conditions for gel incubations. PMID:27001550

  15. Degraded piping program: Phase II: Sixth program report, October 1986--September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Ahmad, J.; Barnes, C.R.; Brust, F.; Ghadiali, N.; Guerrieri, D.; Kramer, G.; Landow, M.; Marschall, C.W.; Nakagaki, M.; Olson, R.; Papaspyropoulos, V.; Rosenfeld, M.; Scott, P.

    1988-04-01

    Presented herein is an Annual Report of the US NRC's Degraded Piping Program---Phase II. This is the sixth program report on this program. Prior reports were semiannual reports. The intent of this program is to experimentally validate and enhance available analytical methods for evaluating the mechanical behavior of nuclear power plant piping containing circumferentially oriented defects. Fifty-seven pipe experiments have been conducted to date. These and approximately fifty additional pipe experiments from other programs have been analyzed. In the analytical effort, a screening criterion has been developed to show when the net-section-collapse analysis is valid. This shows that even though materials such as stainless steel can fail at less than net-section-collapse loads if the pipe diameter is sufficiently large. Numerous predictive J-estimation schemes have been evaluated and modified. A finite length surface-cracked pipe estimation scheme has also been developed and incorporated into a computer code called NRCPIPE. This code provides a convenient way of analyzing cracked pipe with a number of currently accepted analytical methods. Supporting research efforts involve investigating geometry effects on J-R curves, as well as characterizing the material properties for each pipe tested. The significance of all of the efforts to date relative to pipe fracture analyses and flaw assessment criteria are discussed.

  16. Automatic recognition of piping system from laser scanned point clouds using normal-based region growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, K.; Kanai, S.; Date, H.

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, renovations of plant equipment have been more frequent, and constructing 3D as-built models of existing plants from large-scale laser scanned data is expected to make rebuilding processes more efficient. However, laser scanned data consists of enormous number of points, captures tangled objects and includes a high noise level, so that the manual reconstruction of a 3D model is very time-consuming. Among plant equipment, piping systems especially account for the greatest proportion. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to propose an algorithm which can automatically recognize a piping system from large-scale laser scanned data of plants. The straight portion of pipes, connecting parts and connection relationship of the piping system can be automatically recognized. Normal-based region growing enables the extraction of points on the piping system. Eigen analysis of the normal tensor and cylinder surface fitting allows the algorithm to recognize portions of straight pipes. Tracing the axes of the piping system and interpolation of the axes can derive connecting parts and connection relationships between elements of the piping system. The algorithm was applied to large-scale scanned data of an oil rig and a chemical plant. The recognition rate of straight pipes, elbows, junctions achieved 93%, 88% and 87% respectively.

  17. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. Bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs with the pipe in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, minimize excavation, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct safe repair operations on live mains.

  18. Testing of Stirling engine solar reflux heat-pipe receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Rawlinson, S.; Cordeiro, P.; Dudley, V.; Moss, T.

    1993-07-01

    Alkali metal heat-pipe receivers have been identified as a desirable interface to couple a Stirling-cycle engine with a parabolic dish solar concentrator. The reflux receiver provides power nearly isothermally to the engine heater heads while de-coupling the heater head design from the solar absorber surface design. The independent design of the receiver and engine heater head leads to high system efficiency. Heat pipe reflux receivers have been demonstrated at approximately 30 kW{sub t} power throughput by others. This size is suitable fm engine output powers up to 10 kW{sub e}. Several 25-kW{sub e}, Stirling-cycle engines exist, as well as designs for 75-kW{sub t} parabolic dish solar concentrators. The extension of heat pipe technology from 30 kW{sub t} to 75 kW{sub t} is not trivial. Heat pipe designs are pushed to their limits, and it is critical to understand the flux profiles expected from the dish, and the local performance of the wick structure. Sandia has developed instrumentation to monitor and control the operation of heat pipe reflux receivers to test their throughput limits, and analytical models to evaluate receiver designs. In the past 1.5 years, several heat pipe receivers have been tested on Sandia`s test bed concentrators (TBC`s) and 60-kW{sub t} solar furnace. A screen-wick heat pipe developed by Dynatherm was tested to 27.5 kW{sub t} throughput. A Cummins Power Generation (CPG)/Thermacore 30-kW{sub t} heat pipe was pushed to a throughput of 41 kW{sub t} to verify design models. A Sandia-design screen-wick and artery 75-kW{sub t} heat pipe and a CPG/Thermacore 75-kW{sub t} sintered-wick heat pipe were also limit tested on the TBC. This report reviews the design of these receivers, and compares test results with model predictions.

  19. Drill pipe turning device

    SciTech Connect

    Soutsos, M.D.

    1986-08-12

    This patent describes a tool conformed to clamp onto segments of pipe and to advance in rotation the segments, including a frame, two opposed jaw-like arms each of the arms at a first end thereof attached to the frame by a pivotal mount and each arm including rolling means at a free second end thereof, a chain loop, a motor attached to the frame for advancing the chain loop, the motor including a drive sprocket thereon. The chain loop extends around and in engagement with the drive sprocket, the pivotal mounts, and the rolling means; the arms each including levers radially extending from the pivoted mounts and projecting over the frame; a pair of shuttles slidably mounted on the frame and having camming means to abut against the levers to pivotally articulate the arms around the pivotal mounts in the course of the translation of the shuttles; a pair of shuttle idles supported for rotation on the shuttles and aligned to engage the exterior of the chain loop; and actuating means operatively connected for translating the shuttles.

  20. Well pipe joint

    SciTech Connect

    Ortloff, D.J.; Landriault, L.S.

    1987-08-25

    For use in forming a pipe joint, a threaded tubular member adapted for connecting to another threaded member to form a threaded connection between the two members is described comprising a tubular body, a projecting helical rib on the body forming screw threads having load flanks shaped to have clearance between the flanks of the thread and the load flanks of the threads of the threaded member to which the member is adapted to be connected and a torque shoulder on the body to engage a torque shoulder on the other threaded member as the connection is being made up to limit the distance one of the members can enter the other for a given make-up torque. The threads are formed on the body so that selected threads away from the torque shoulder will have less clearance between them and the mating threads on the other member than do the threads on the member adjacent the torque shoulder and the mating threads on the other member when the torque shoulders engage so that the selected threads will engage the mating threads on the other member before the other threads adjacent the torque shoulder and the mating threads on the other member engage to cause the selected threads to be loaded initially to provide the initial force between the torque shoulders and to more uniformly load all of the threads when the connection is made-up and additional external loads are applied.

  1. Leaks in pipe networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pudar, Ranko S.; Liggett, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Leak detection in water-distribution systems can be accomplished by solving an inverse problem using measurements of pressure and/or flow. The problem is formulated with equivalent orifice areas of possible leaks as the unknowns. Minimization of the difference between measured and calculated heads produces a solution for the areas. The quality of the result depends on number and location of the measurements. A sensitivity matrix is key to deciding where to make measurements. Both location and magnitude of leaks are sensitive to the quantity and quality of pressure measurements and to how well the pipe friction parameters are known. The overdetermined problem (more measurements than suspected leaks) gives the best results, but some information can be derived from the underdetermined problem. The variance of leak areas, based on the quality of system characteristics and pressure data, indicates the likely accuracy of the results. The method will not substitute for more traditional leak surveys but can serve as a guide and supplement.

  2. Piping inspection round robin

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R.

    1996-04-01

    The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths.

  3. Dimethoate Induced Behavioural Changes in Juveniles of Cyprinus carpio var. communis under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Qayoom, Imtiyaz; Shah, Feroz A; Mukhtar, Malik; Balkhi, Masood H; Bhat, Farooz A; Bhat, Bilal A

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate acute toxicity of dimethoate on juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. communis. Fishes weighing 10 ± 2 gms were selected and mortality data was statistically evaluated by Finney's Probit Method. The 96-hour LC50 value for Cyprinus carpio was found as 1.1 ppm in static bioassay system. Mean values of physicochemical parameters of aquarium waters determined during bioassay depicted slight variation indicating that the mortality in aquarium fishes occurred due to pesticide exposure and not suffocation. Lab. temperature ranged from 12 to 13°C; water temperature ranged from 11 to 12°C; dissolved oxygen ranged from 3.90 to 4.56 mg/L; pH ranged from 6.90 to 7.05; total dissolved solids ranged from 2.66 to 3.0 × 10(3) mg/L, while CO2 remained at a constant value of 2.0 mg/L. The fishes elicited various behavioural responses such as uncoordinated movements, convulsions, excessive mucus secretion, and imbalanced swimming which ended in a collapse to the bottom of the aquarium. Prior to death, the clinical signs like scale erosion, pale body colour, and hemorrhagic patches over the body were noticed which became more vivid up to the termination of experiments. Results of the study indicate potential toxicity of dimethoate in fingerlings of common carp for which the natural waterbodies must be continuously monitored to reduce its impact across food chains. PMID:27563689

  4. Dimethoate Induced Behavioural Changes in Juveniles of Cyprinus carpio var. communis under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Feroz A.; Mukhtar, Malik; Balkhi, Masood H.; Bhat, Farooz A.; Bhat, Bilal A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate acute toxicity of dimethoate on juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. communis. Fishes weighing 10 ± 2 gms were selected and mortality data was statistically evaluated by Finney's Probit Method. The 96-hour LC50 value for Cyprinus carpio was found as 1.1 ppm in static bioassay system. Mean values of physicochemical parameters of aquarium waters determined during bioassay depicted slight variation indicating that the mortality in aquarium fishes occurred due to pesticide exposure and not suffocation. Lab. temperature ranged from 12 to 13°C; water temperature ranged from 11 to 12°C; dissolved oxygen ranged from 3.90 to 4.56 mg/L; pH ranged from 6.90 to 7.05; total dissolved solids ranged from 2.66 to 3.0 × 103 mg/L, while CO2 remained at a constant value of 2.0 mg/L. The fishes elicited various behavioural responses such as uncoordinated movements, convulsions, excessive mucus secretion, and imbalanced swimming which ended in a collapse to the bottom of the aquarium. Prior to death, the clinical signs like scale erosion, pale body colour, and hemorrhagic patches over the body were noticed which became more vivid up to the termination of experiments. Results of the study indicate potential toxicity of dimethoate in fingerlings of common carp for which the natural waterbodies must be continuously monitored to reduce its impact across food chains. PMID:27563689

  5. Identification and expression analysis of the sting gene, a sensor of viral DNA, in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cao, X L; Chen, J J; Cao, Y; Nie, G X; Su, J G

    2016-05-01

    Stimulator of interferon gene (sting) was identified and characterized from common carp Cyprinus carpio. The sting messenger (m)RNA encoded a polypeptide of 402 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46·184 kDa and an isoelectronic point of 6·08. The deduced protein of sting contained a signal peptide, three transmembrane motifs in the N-terminal region and four putative motifs (RXR) found in resident endoplasmic reticulum proteins. mRNA expression of sting was present in twelve investigated tissues, and was up-regulated by koi herpesvirus (KHV) in vivo and in vitro. The transcription of sting was altered by poly(I:C) and poly(dT:dA) stimulation in vitro. The findings suggested that sting is an inducible gene involved in innate immunity against DNA- and RNA-derived pathogens. To investigate defence mechanisms in C. carpio development, sting level in embryos, larvae and juvenile fish was monitored following KHV challenge. The sting message was negligible in embryos prior to hatching, but observed at higher transcriptional levels throughout larval and juvenile stages. Investigation showed the mRNA expression profiles of genes encoding for proteins promoting various functions in the interferon pathway, from pattern recognition receptors to antiviral genes, to be significantly induced in all examined organs by in vivo infection with KHV. Following KHV infection, the ifn message was significantly downregulated in spleen, head kidney, brain and hepatopancreas but notably up-regulated in gill, intestine and skin, suggesting that ifn induction might be related to the mucosal immune system and virus anti-ifn mechanisms. These results provided the basis for further research into the role and mechanisms of sting in fishes. PMID:27001661

  6. Challenges and Capabilities for Inspection of Cast Stainless Steel Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-12-31

    Studies conducted at the Pacific N¬orthwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on developing and evaluating the reliability of nondestructive examination (NDE) approaches for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) on the utility, effec¬tiveness and limitations of NDE techniques as related to the inservice inspec¬tion of primary system piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper describes results from recent assessments built upon early work with low frequency ultrasonic testing (UT) coupled with synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) signal processing, and has subsequently evolved into an approach using low frequency phased array technology as applied from the outer diameter surface of the piping. In addition, eddy current examination as performed from the inner diameter surface of these piping welds is also reported. Cast stainless steel (CSS) pipe specimens were examined that contain thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located close to the weld roots and have inside/outside surface geometrical conditions that simulate several PWR primary piping weldments and configurations. In addition, segments of vintage centrifugally cast piping were also examined to understand inherent acoustic noise and scattering due to grain structures and determine consistency of UT responses from different locations. The advanced UT methods were applied from the outside surface of these specimens using automated scanning devices and water coupling. The phased array approach was implemented with a modified instrument operating at low frequencies and composite volumetric images of the samples were generated with 500 kHz, 750 kHz, and 1.0 MHz arrays. Eddy current studies were conducted on the inner diameter surface of these piping welds using a commercially available instrument and a

  7. Ultrasonic isolation of buried pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Cawley, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Long-range guided wave testing (GWT) is used routinely for the monitoring and detection of corrosion defects in above ground pipelines. The GWT test range in buried, coated pipelines is greatly reduced compared to above ground configurations due to energy leakage into the embedding soil. In this paper, the effect of pipe coatings on the guided wave attenuation is investigated with the aim of increasing test ranges for buried pipelines. The attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes is measured using a full-scale experimental apparatus in a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated 8 in. pipe, buried in loose and compacted sand. Tests are performed over a frequency range typically used in GWT of 10-35 kHz and compared with model predictions. It is shown that the application of a low impedance coating between the FBE layer and the sand effectively decouples the influence of the sand on the ultrasound leakage from the buried pipe. Ultrasonic isolation of a buried pipe is demonstrated by coating the pipe with a Polyethylene (PE)-foam layer that has a smaller impedance than both the pipe and sand, and has the ability to withstand the overburden load from the sand. The measured attenuation in the buried PE-foam-FBE-coated pipe is found to be substantially reduced, in the range of 0.3-1.2 dB m-1 for loose and compacted sand conditions, compared to measured attenuation of 1.7-4.7 dB m-1 in the buried FBE-coated pipe without the PE-foam. The acoustic properties of the PE-foam are measured independently using ultrasonic interferometry and incorporated into model predictions of guided wave propagation in buried coated pipe. Good agreement is found between the experimental measurements and model predictions. The attenuation exhibits periodic peaks in the frequency domain corresponding to the through-thickness resonance frequencies of the coating layer. The large reduction in guided wave attenuation for PE-coated pipes would lead to greatly increased GWT test ranges; such

  8. Meteoroid Protection Methods for Spacecraft Radiators Using Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of achieving a low mass heat pipe radiator for the nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft were studied. Specific emphasis was placed on a concept applicable to a closed Brayton cycle power sub-system. Three aspects of inter-related problems were examined: (1) the armor for meteoroid protection, (2) emissivity of the radiator surface, and (3) the heat pipe itself. The study revealed several alternatives for the achievement of the stated goal, but a final recommendation for the best design requires further investigation.

  9. [Investigations of ectoparasite fauna of some fish species (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758; Cobitis simplicispinna Hanko, 1924) from Lake Akşehir (Konya)].

    PubMed

    Kartal, Kürşat; Oztürk, Mehmet Oğuz

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the presence of metazoan ectoparasites on 7 Cyprinus carpio and 90 Cobitis simplicispinna from Lake Aksehir, Turkey were investigated between July 2004 and June 2005. Three parasite species were identified on the host fishes: Gyrodactylus elegans Nordmann, 1832 (42.9%, 293.6+/-482.0 parasite/fish) and Dactylogyrus extensus Mueller and Van Cleave, 1932 (85.7%, 9.8+/-6.8), were found on gills of C. carpio, and Gyrodactylus cobitis Bychowsky, 1933 (68.9%, 15.6+/-18.5) on gills and fins of C. simplicispinna. Of these species, G. cobitis is a new record for parasite fauna of Turkey. In addition, minimum-maximum and mean intensity of parasites and infection prevalence were determined using seasonal data and size distribution of the host fish. PMID:19367558

  10. Study of the quasi-static motion of a droplet expelled from a pipe in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guang-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Qian; Huang, Yi-Yong; Chen, Yong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a theoretical and numerical study of the quasi-static motion of a large droplet pushed out of a pipe in microgravity environment was presented. For the existence of surface force, an external force is needed to push the droplet out of the pipe. Methods to calculate the external force, the surface force, and the pressure drops were established in theoretical model and numerical simulation, respectively. The changes of the free energy, the surface force, as well as the pressure drops during a droplet being pushed out of a pipe were discussed in this work. The surface force reaches its maximal value, when the radii of upside contact line equals to the radius of the pipe. At last, a comparison of the two methods was made based on the results.

  11. Visualization and Modal Analysis of Guided Waves from a Defect in a Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor Salim, Muhammad; Hayashi, Takahiro; Murase, Morimasa; Kamiya, Shoji

    2009-07-01

    Many commercial guided wave pipe inspection techniques use an axisymmetric torsional mode T(0,1) as well as a longitudinally vibrating L(0,2) mode as incident waves since the torsional mode has prominent characteristics of low attenuation and nondispersion. However, reflected waves from defects in a pipe contain many modes other than the incident torsional mode, and the complex reflected wave propagation sometimes prevents us from locating defects in the field. Therefore, we carried out a visualization of guided wave propagations around the full circumference of pipes to explain the behavior of reflected waves from defects that occur in pipe inspections. In this study, a large number of RF signal measurements at many locations on the curved surfaces of pipes were performed using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) and a 6-axis robot arm that scanned over the curved surfaces of two pipes with circumferential and oblique defects. The visualizations of guided wave propagations from defects are shown for both in- and out-of-plane vibrations to analyze the mode conversions that occur in pipes around these defects when using the axisymmetric torsional mode T(0,1) as an incident wave in pipe inspections.

  12. Sub-volcanic development of kimberlite pipes: Evidence from the Lace and Voorspoed (Group II) kimberlites, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Skinner, E. Michael W.

    2013-12-01

    The Lace and Voorspoed kimberlites occur on the Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa), and form part of the Kroonstad Group II kimberlite (orangeite) cluster. The Lace kimberlite is composed of a main pipe and a satellite blind pipe, the latter of which does not reach the current land surface (~ 30 m below the current land surface), and is not observed connecting with the main pipe at depth. The main pipe increases in size from ~ 100 m to ~ 250 m in diameter at depth. The Voorspoed kimberlite pipe is the largest of the cluster and is dominantly infilled with massive layers (up to 200 m thick) of resedimented volcaniclastic kimberlite (RVK). Coherent kimberlite (CK), identified at all three pipes, is described here in order to constrain their formation.

  13. Bulk temperature measurement in thermally striped pipe flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lemure, N.; Olvera, J.R.; Ruggles, A.E.

    1995-12-01

    The hot leg flows in some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs have a temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section. This condition is often referred to as a thermally striped flow. Here, the bulk temperature measurement of pipe flows with thermal striping is explored. An experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the external surface of the pipe to estimate the bulk temperature of the flow. Simple mixing models are used to characterize the development of the temperature profile in the flow. Simple averaging techniques and Backward Propagating Neural Net are used to predict bulk temperature from the external temperature measurements. Accurate bulk temperatures can be predicted. However, some temperature distributions in the flow effectively mask the bulk temperature from the wall and cause significant error in the bulk temperature predicted using this technique.

  14. Heat pipe radiation cooling of advanced hypersonic propulsion system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. A.; Keddy, M.; Merrigan, M. A.; Silverstein, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    Heat transfer, heat pipe, and system studies were performed to assess the newly proposed heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) concept. With an HPRC system, heat is removed from the ramburner and nozzle of a hypersonic aircraft engine by a surrounding, high-temperature, heat pipe nacelle structure, transported to nearby external surfaces, and rejected to the environment by thermal radiation. With HPRC, the Mach number range available for using hydrocarbon fuels for aircraft operation extends into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 range, up from the current limit of about Mach 4. Heat transfer studies using a newly developed HPRC computer code determine cooling system and ramburner and nozzle temperatures, heat loads, and weights for a representative combined-cycle engine cruising at Mach 5 at 80,000 ft altitude. Heat pipe heat transport calculations, using the Los Alamos code HTPIPE, reveal that adequate heat trasport capability is available using molybdenum-lithium heat pipe technology. Results show that the HPRC system radiator area is limited in size to the ramburner-nozzle region of the engine nacelle; reasonable system weights are expected; hot section temperatures are consistent with advanced structural materials development goals; and system impact on engine performance is minimal.

  15. BWR pipe crack remedies evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.E.

    1986-10-01

    This paper presents results on: (a) the influence of simulated BWR environments on the stress-corrosion-craking (SCC) susceptibility of Types 304, 316NG, and 347 stainless (SS); (b) fracture-mechanics crack-growth-rate measurements on these materials and weld overlay specimens in different environments; and (c) residual stress measurements and metallographic evaluations of conventional pipe weldments treated by a mechanical-stress-improvement process (MSIP) as well as those produced by a narrow-gap welding procedure. Crack initiation studies on Types 304 and 316NG SS under crevice and non-crevice conditions in 289/sup 0/C water containing 0.25 ppM dissolved oxygen with low sulfate concentrations indicate that SCC initiates at very low strains (<3%) in the nuclear grade material. Crack growth measurements on fracture-mechanics-type specimens, under low-frequency cyclic loading, show that the Type 316NG steel cracks at a somewhat lower rate (approx.40%) than sensitized Type 304 SS in an impurity environment with 0.25 ppM dissolved-oxygen; however, the latter material stops cracking when sulfate is removed from the water. Crack growth in both materials ceases under simulated hydrogen-water chemistry conditions (<5 ppB oxygen) even with 100 ppB sulfate present in the water. An unexpected result was obtained in the test on a weld overlay specimen in the impurity environment, viz., the crack grew to the overlay interface at a nominal rate, branched at 90/sup 0/ in both directions, and then grew at high rate (parallel to the nominal applied load). Residual stress measurements on MSIP-treated weldments and those produced by a narrow-gap welding procedure indicate that these techniques produce compressive stresses over most of the inner surface near the weld and heat-affected zones.

  16. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.; Prenger, F.C. Jr.

    1985-10-25

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  17. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.; Prenger, Jr., F. Coyne

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe of pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  18. Turbine-Driven Pipe-Cleaning Brush

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werlink, Rudy J.; Rowell, David E.

    1994-01-01

    Simple pipe-cleaning device includes small turbine wheel axially connected, by standoff, to circular brush. Turbine wheel turns on hub bearing attached to end of upstream cable. Turbine-and-brush assembly inserted in pipe with cable trailing upstream and brush facing downstream. Water or cleaning solution pumped through pipe. Cable held at upstream end, so it holds turbine and brush in pipe at location to be cleaned. Flow in pipe turns turbine, which turns wheel, producing desired cleaning action. In addition to brushing action, device provides even mixing of cleaning solution in pipe.

  19. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.

  20. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  1. Centrally activated pipe snubbing system

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.

    1985-01-01

    An electromechanical pipe snubbing system and an electromechanical pipe snubber. In the system, each pipe snubber, in a set of pipe snubbers, has an electromechanical mechanism to lock and unlock the snubber. A sensor, such as a seismometer, measures a quantity related to making a snubber locking or unlocking decision. A control device makes an electrical connection between a power supply and each snubber's electromechanical mechanism to simultaneously lock each snubber when the sensor measurement indicates a snubber locking condition. The control device breaks the connection to simultaneously unlock each snubber when the sensor measurement indicates a snubber unlocking condition. In the snubber, one end of the shaft slides within a bore in one end of a housing. The other end of the shaft is rotatably attached to a pipe; the other end of the housing is rotatively attached to a wall. The snubber's electromechanical mechanism locks the slidable end of the shaft to the housing and unlocks that end from the housing. The electromechanical mechanism permits remote testing and lockup status indication for each snubber.

  2. Repair of filament wound composite pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amali, Ramin; Arnall, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Filament wound pipes are used in a wide variety of industries, due to the advantages composites have over metal pipes, such as a high strength to weight ratio, and resistance against frost, corrosion and heat. Composite pipes require minimal maintenance to ensure they are safe. Any damage occurring in composite pipes could lead to failure; therefore all damage should be assessed through NDT. If it is decided that the damage makes the pipe unsafe then a decision needs to be made whether to repair or replace the pipe. Repairing a composite pipe can be quicker, easier and cheaper than replacing it and can restore the strength of the pipe effectively. This investigation looks at the repair process and the parameters involved in determining the strength of the pipe following repair through the use of over 150 models in FEA software, Abaqus. Parameters considered include the pipe diameter and thickness, damage removal size and wrap width and thickness. It was found that if the pipe is thin-walled then it can be assumed that the pipe's thickness has no effect on the FOS following repair. Formulas were created to predict the FOS following repair for varying pipe diameters, damage sizes and wrap thickness. Formulas were also created to determine the wrap width required for varying wrap thicknesses and damage sizes.

  3. Stokes flow in a pipe with distributed regions of slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauga, Eric; Stone, Howard A.

    2002-11-01

    Steady pressure-driven Stokes flow in a circular pipe is investigated analytically in the case where the pipe surface contains periodically distributed transverse regions of zero surface shear stress. One physical motivation for this problem is the recent experimental observation of nanobubbles on smooth hydrophobic surfaces (Ishida et al. (2000) Langmuir vol. 16, Tyrrell and Attard (2001) Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 87) while a second motivation is the possible presence of bubbles trapped on rough surfaces. The bubbles may provide a zero shear stress boundary condition for the flow and modify considerably the friction generated by the solid boundary. In the spirit of experimental studies probing apparent slip at solid surfaces, the effective slip length of the resulting macroscopic flow is evaluated numerically and asymptotically as a function of the relative width of the no-slip and no-shear stress regions and their distribution along the pipe. Comparison of the model with experimental studies of pressure-driven flow in capillaries and microchannels is made and a possible interpretation of the results is offered which is consistent with a large number of nano-size and micron-size bubbles coating the solid surface. Finally, an explanation for the seemingly paradoxical behavior of the measured slip length increasing with system size reported by Watanabe et al. (1999) (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 381) is proposed and the possibility of a shear-dependent effective slip length is suggested.

  4. Heat-pipe development for the SPAR space-power system. [100 kW(e)

    SciTech Connect

    Ranken, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The SPAR space power system design is based on a high temperature fast spectrum nuclear reactor that furnishes heat to a thermoelectric conversion system to generate an electrical power output of 100 kW/sub (e)/. An important feature of this design is the use of alkali metal heat pipes to provide redundant, reliable, and low-loss heat transfer at high temperature. Three sets of heat pipes are used in the system. These include sodium/molybdenum heat pipes to transfer heat from the reactor core to the conversion system, potassium/niobium heat pipes to couple the conversion system to the radiator in a redundant manner, and potassium/titanium heat pipes to distribute rejected heat throughout the radiator surface. The designs of these units are discussed and fabrication methods and testing results are described. 12 figures.

  5. Modeling of residual stress mitigation in austenitic stainless steel pipe girth weldment

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Atteridge, D.G.; Anderson, W.E.; West, S.L.

    1994-03-01

    This study provides numerical procedures to model 40-cm-diameter, schedule 40, Type 304L stainless steel pipe girth welding and a newly proposed post-weld treatment. The treatment can be used to accomplish the goal of imparting compressive residual stresses at the inner surface of a pipe girth weldment to prevent/retard the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of the piping system in nuclear reactors. This new post-weld treatment for mitigating residual stresses is cooling stress improvement (CSI). The concept of CSI is to establish and maintain a certain temperature gradient across the pipe wall thickness to change the final stress state. Thus, this process involves sub-zero low temperature cooling of the inner pipe surface of a completed girth weldment, while simultaneously keeping the outer pipe surface at a slightly elevated temperature with the help of a certain heating method. Analyses to obtain quantitative results on pipe girth welding and CSI by using a thermo-elastic-plastic finite element model are described in this paper. Results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of CSI for introducing compressive residual stresses to prevent/retard IGSCC. Because of the symmetric nature of CSI, it shows great potential for industrial application.

  6. Laboratory exercises on oscillation modes of pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeberli, Willy

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes an improved lab setup to study the vibrations of air columns in pipes. Features of the setup include transparent pipes which reveal the position of a movable microphone inside the pipe; excitation of pipe modes with a miniature microphone placed to allow access to the microphone stem for open, closed, or conical pipes; and sound insulation to avoid interference between different setups in a student lab. The suggested experiments on the modes of open, closed, and conical pipes, the transient response of a pipe, and the effect of pipe diameter are suitable for introductory physics laboratories, including laboratories for nonscience majors and music students, and for more advanced undergraduate laboratories. For honors students or for advanced laboratory exercises, the quantitative relation between the resonance width and damping time constant is of interest.

  7. 49 CFR 195.112 - New pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... made, the specified minimum yield strength or grade, and the pipe size. The marking must be applied in... with the following: (a) The pipe must be made of steel of the carbon, low alloy-high strength, or...

  8. 49 CFR 195.112 - New pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... made, the specified minimum yield strength or grade, and the pipe size. The marking must be applied in... with the following: (a) The pipe must be made of steel of the carbon, low alloy-high strength, or...

  9. 49 CFR 195.112 - New pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... made, the specified minimum yield strength or grade, and the pipe size. The marking must be applied in... with the following: (a) The pipe must be made of steel of the carbon, low alloy-high strength, or...

  10. 49 CFR 195.112 - New pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... made, the specified minimum yield strength or grade, and the pipe size. The marking must be applied in... with the following: (a) The pipe must be made of steel of the carbon, low alloy-high strength, or...

  11. Flat heat pipe design, construction, and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Voegler, G.; Boughey, B.; Cerza, M.; Lindler, K.W.

    1999-08-02

    This paper details the design, construction and partial analysis of a low temperature flat heat pipe in order to determine the feasibility of implementing flat heat pipes into thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems.

  12. Heat pipe design handbook, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrabek, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of heat pipes are examined. The subjects discussed are: (1) principles of operation, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) pressure gradient effects, (4) variable conductance, (5) design procedure, and (6) performance limit evaluation.

  13. Heat pipe thermal conditioning panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Loose, J. D.; Mccoy, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal control of electronic hardware and experiments on future space vehicles is critical to proper functioning and long life. Thermal conditioning panels (cold plates) are a baseline control technique in current conceptual studies. Heat generating components mounted on the panels are typically cooled by fluid flowing through integral channels within the panel. However, replacing the pumped fluid coolant loop within the panel with heat pipes offers attractive advantages in weight, reliability, and installation. This report describes the development and fabrication of two large 0.76 x 0.76 m heat pipe thermal conditioning panels to verify performance and establish the design concept.

  14. Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. This course will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of a loop heat pipe. Topics include: 1) pressure profiles in the loop; 2) loop operating temperature; 3) operating temperature control; 4) loop startup; 4) loop shutdown; 5) loop transient behaviors; 6) sizing of loop components and determination of fluid inventory; 7) analytical modeling; 8) examples of flight applications; and 9) recent LHP developments.

  15. Cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J.

    1979-01-01

    The development of spiral artery cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes was continued. Ethane was the working fluid and stainless steel the heat pipe material in all cases. The major tasks included: (1) building a liquid blockage (blocking orifice) thermal diode suitable for the HEPP space flight experiment; (2) building a liquid trap thermal diode engineering model; (3) retesting the original liquid blockage engineering model, and (4) investigating the startup dynamics of artery cryogenic thermal diodes. An experimental investigation was also conducted into the wetting characteristics of ethane/stainless steel systems using a specially constructed chamber that permitted in situ observations.

  16. High performance flexible heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, R. M.; Gernert, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Phase I SBIR NASA program for developing and demonstrating high-performance flexible heat pipes for use in the thermal management of spacecraft is examined. The program combines several technologies such as flexible screen arteries and high-performance circumferential distribution wicks within an envelope which is flexible in the adiabatic heat transport zone. The first six months of work during which the Phase I contract goal were met, are described. Consideration is given to the heat-pipe performance requirements. A preliminary evaluation shows that the power requirement for Phase II of the program is 30.5 kilowatt meters at an operating temperature from 0 to 100 C.

  17. 46 CFR 154.520 - Piping calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping calculations. 154.520 Section 154.520 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.520 Piping calculations. A piping system must be designed to meet the allowable stress values under § 56.07-10 of this chapter and, if the design temperature is −110 °C (−166...

  18. 46 CFR 154.520 - Piping calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping calculations. 154.520 Section 154.520 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.520 Piping calculations. A piping system must be designed to meet the allowable stress values under § 56.07-10 of this chapter and, if the design temperature is −110 °C (−166...

  19. Repair welding on nitrided carbon steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, K.L.

    1994-12-31

    A carbon steel pipe containing primarily ammonia at 750--850 F developed a nitrided case 15--20 mils (0.4--0.5mm) deep. This did not affect the performance of the pipe during operation, however, repair welding was not possible because of cracking. A laboratory procedure was developed wherein nitrided pipe could be successfully welded. The technique consisted of stress relieving the pipe before welding. No post weld stress relief was necessary to effect a sound weld.

  20. 46 CFR 169.652 - Bilge piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge piping. 169.652 Section 169.652 Shipping COAST... Electrical Bilge Systems § 169.652 Bilge piping. (a) All vessels of 26 feet in length and over must be... than 120 feet in length the bilge pipe must be not less than one and one-half inches. Piping on...

  1. 46 CFR 169.652 - Bilge piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge piping. 169.652 Section 169.652 Shipping COAST... Electrical Bilge Systems § 169.652 Bilge piping. (a) All vessels of 26 feet in length and over must be... than 120 feet in length the bilge pipe must be not less than one and one-half inches. Piping on...

  2. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main...

  3. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main...

  4. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main...

  5. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main...

  6. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main...

  7. Random walk approach for dispersive transport in pipe networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sämann, Robert; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: particle transport, random walk, pipe, network, HYSTEM-EXTAN, OpenGeoSys After heavy pluvial events in urban areas the available drainage system may be undersized at peak flows (Fuchs, 2013). Consequently, rainwater in the pipe network is likely to spill out through manholes. The presence of hazardous contaminants in the pipe drainage system represents a potential risk to humans especially when the contaminated drainage water reaches the land surface. Real-time forecasting of contaminants in the drainage system needs a quick calculation. Numerical models to predict the fate of contaminants are usually based on finite volume methods. Those are not applicable here because of their volume averaging elements. Thus, a more efficient method is preferable, which is independent from spatial discretization. In the present study, a particle-based method is chosen to calculate transport paths and spatial distribution of contaminants within a pipe network. A random walk method for particles in turbulent flow in partially filled pipes has been developed. Different approaches for in-pipe-mixing and node-mixing with respect to the geometry in a drainage network are shown. A comparison of dispersive behavior and calculation time is given to find the fastest model. The HYSTEM-EXTRAN (itwh, 2002) model is used to provide hydrodynamic conditions in the pipe network according to surface runoff scenarios in order to real-time predict contaminant transport in an urban pipe network system. The newly developed particle-based model will later be coupled to the subsurface flow model OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al., 2012). References: Fuchs, L. (2013). Gefährdungsanalyse zur Überflutungsvorsorge kommunaler Entwässerungssysteme. Sanierung und Anpassung von Entwässerungssystemen-Alternde Infrastruktur und Klimawandel, Österreichischer Wasser-und Abfallwirtschaftsverband, Wien, ISBN, 978-3. itwh (2002). Modellbeschreibung, Institut für technisch-wissenschaftliche Hydrologie Gmb

  8. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie

    2008-12-31

    fields up to 74 kilohertz (KHz), a removable section of copper wire can be placed inside the composite pipe to short the tool joints electrically allowing electromagnetic signals inside the collar to induce and measure the same within the rock formation. By embedding a pair of wires in the composite section and using standard drill pipe box and pin ends equipped with a specially developed direct contact joint electrical interface, power can be supplied to measurement-while-drilling (MWD) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) bottom hole assemblies. Instantaneous high-speed data communications between near drill bit and the surface are obtainable utilizing this 'smart' drilling technology. The composite drill pipe developed by ACPT has been field tested successfully in several wells nationally and internationally. These tests were primarily for short radius and ultra short radius directional drilling. The CDP in most cases performed flawlessly with little or no appreciable wear. ACPT is currently marketing a complete line of composite drill collars, subs, isolators, casing, and drill pipe to meet the drilling industry's needs and tailored to replace metal for specific application requirements.

  9. Heat Pipe-Assisted Thermoelectric Power Generation Technology for Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Ju-Chan; Chi, Ri-Guang; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock; Hwang, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Ji-Su; Lee, Wook-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Currently, large amounts of thermal energy dissipated from automobiles are emitted through hot exhaust pipes. This has resulted in the need for a new efficient recycling method to recover energy from waste hot exhaust gas. The present experimental study investigated how to improve the power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system assisted by a wickless loop heat pipe (loop thermosyphon) under the limited space of the exhaust gas pipeline. The present study shows a novel loop-type heat pipe-assisted TEG concept to be applied to hybrid vehicles. The operating temperature of a TEG's hot side surface should be as high as possible to maximize the Seebeck effect. The present study shows a novel TEG concept of transferring heat from the source to the sink. This technology can transfer waste heat to any local place with a loop-type heat pipe. The present TEG system with a heat pipe can transfer heat and generate an electromotive force power of around 1.3 V in the case of 170°C hot exhaust gas. Two thermoelectric modules (TEMs) for a conductive block model and four Bi2Te3 TEMs with a heat pipe-assisted model were installed in the condenser section. Heat flows to the condenser section from the evaporator section connected to the exhaust pipe. This novel TEG system with a heat pipe can be placed in any location on an automobile.

  10. Transient analysis of heat-pipe radiators for space station applications

    SciTech Connect

    Boo, Joonhong.

    1989-01-01

    A space application of concern in this study is the use of heat pipes as candidate thermal control devices in high-power, long-life space station where heat pipes have received considerable attention owing to their high heat transport capability, reliability, light weight, ease of fabrication and durability. The objective of this research is to develop and to solve numerically a mathematical model for the transient behavior of a heat pipe radiator in a zero-gravity space environment. The modeling is focused on a typical radiator panel having a long heat pipe at the center and two extended surfaces attached to opposing sides of the heat pipe shell in the condenser section, whose length may be up to 50 ft. A finite difference formulation has been developed and the transient model can be used to predict normal transient behavior of heat pipe radiators in response to changing thermal loads, environmental conditions, and geometrical parameters. Finally, this research provides better understanding of transient characteristics of heat pipe radiators for space applications. The simulation procedure can be incorporated into large thermal management programs for applications such as the space station. Furthermore, the methodology developed in this research can be utilized in a wide variety of heat pipe designs and their applications.

  11. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-07-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

  12. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

  13. On the last explosions of carbonatite pipe G3b, Gross Brukkaros, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Volker; Kurszlaukis, Stephan

    Pipe G3b is part of the Upper Cretaceous carbonatitic Gross Brukkaros Volcanic Field in southern Namibia. The pipe represents the root zone of a diatreme and is located 2800m west of the rim of Gross Brukkaros, a downsag caldera. The pipe is exposed approximately 550m below the original Upper Cretaceous land surface. It cuts down into its own feeder dyke, 0.3m thick. The pipe coalesced from two small pipes and in plan view is 19m long and 12m wide. It consists of fragmented Cambrian Nama quartzites and shales of the Fish River subgroup. Despite intensive brecciation, the stratigraphic sequence of the country rocks is almost preserved in the pipe. In addition, the feeder dyke became fragmented too and can be traced in a 2- to 3-m-wide zone full of carbonatite blocks along the southern margin of the pipe. The void space of the breccia is 30-50% in volume. Finally, after the disruption of country rocks and feeder dyke, a little carbonatite magma intruded some of the void space. The breccia of pipe G3b is considered to represent a root zone at the transition from the feeder dyke into a diatreme above. Formation of the breccia required a shock wave thought to have been associated with a last explosion of the diatreme immediately above the present level of exposure. The explosion can be shown to have been phreatomagmatic in origin.

  14. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure piping. 197.336 Section 197.336 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.336 Pressure piping. Piping systems...

  15. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure piping. 197.336 Section 197.336 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.336 Pressure piping. Piping systems...

  16. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure piping. 197.336 Section 197.336 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.336 Pressure piping. Piping systems that are not an integral part of the vessel or facility, carrying fluids under pressures exceeding 15...

  17. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure piping. 197.336 Section 197.336 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.336 Pressure piping. Piping systems that are not an integral part of the vessel or facility, carrying fluids under pressures exceeding 15...

  18. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure piping. 197.336 Section 197.336 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.336 Pressure piping. Piping systems that are not an integral part of the vessel or facility, carrying fluids under pressures exceeding 15...

  19. 46 CFR 119.455 - Fuel piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel piping. 119.455 Section 119.455 Shipping COAST... Machinery Requirements § 119.455 Fuel piping. (a) Materials and workmanship. The materials and construction of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply with the requirements of this...

  20. 46 CFR 119.455 - Fuel piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fuel piping. 119.455 Section 119.455 Shipping COAST... Machinery Requirements § 119.455 Fuel piping. (a) Materials and workmanship. The materials and construction of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply with the requirements of this...

  1. 46 CFR 119.455 - Fuel piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel piping. 119.455 Section 119.455 Shipping COAST... Machinery Requirements § 119.455 Fuel piping. (a) Materials and workmanship. The materials and construction of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply with the requirements of this...

  2. 46 CFR 119.455 - Fuel piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel piping. 119.455 Section 119.455 Shipping COAST... Machinery Requirements § 119.455 Fuel piping. (a) Materials and workmanship. The materials and construction of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply with the requirements of this...

  3. 46 CFR 119.455 - Fuel piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel piping. 119.455 Section 119.455 Shipping COAST... Machinery Requirements § 119.455 Fuel piping. (a) Materials and workmanship. The materials and construction of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply with the requirements of this...

  4. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion..., see § 192.7). (3) The joint may not be heated to accelerate the setting of the cement. (c) Heat-fusion joints. Each heat-fusion joint on plastic pipe must comply with the following: (1) A butt...

  5. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion..., see § 192.7). (3) The joint may not be heated to accelerate the setting of the cement. (c) Heat-fusion joints. Each heat-fusion joint on plastic pipe must comply with the following: (1) A butt...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 25.1123 Section 25.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant and auxiliary power unit installations, the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust... by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration...

  8. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipe welding. 154.660 Section 154.660 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt...

  9. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipe welding. 154.660 Section 154.660 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt...

  10. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipe welding. 154.660 Section 154.660 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt...

  11. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipe welding. 154.660 Section 154.660 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt...

  12. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  13. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  14. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  15. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  16. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  17. Heat pipes and their use in technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilyev, L.

    1977-01-01

    Heat pipes may be employed as temperature regulators, heat diodes, transformers, storage batteries, or utilized for transforming thermal energy into mechanical, electric, or other forms of energy. General concepts were established for the analysis of the transfer process in heat pipes. A system of equations was developed to describe the thermodynamics of steam passage through a cross section of a heat pipe.

  18. Bag Test Measures Leakage From Insulated Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Kent D.; Easter, Barry P.

    1994-01-01

    Test quantifies leakage of gas from pipe even though pipe covered with insulation. Involves use of helium analyzer to measure concentration of helium in impermeable bag around pipe. Test administered after standard soap-solution bubble test indicates presence and general class of leakage.

  19. 49 CFR 195.128 - Station piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station piping. 195.128 Section 195.128 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.128 Station piping. Any pipe to be installed in a station that...

  20. 46 CFR 76.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.10-15 Section 76.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements...