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Sample records for carrapato anocentor nitens

  1. Evaluation of the efficacy of strains of Steinernema carpocapsae Santa Rosa and ALL (Steinernematidae: Rhabditida) to control engorged female Anocentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Freitas-Ribeiro, G M; Vasconcelos, V O; Furlong, J; Dolinski, C

    2009-04-01

    In view of the need to combat the generalized spread of resistance in ticks to commercial acaricides, the objective of this study was to evaluate the action of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema carpocapsae, strains Santa Rosa and ALL) on engorged female Anocentor nitens. Five ticks per Petri dish were exposed to concentrations of 500, 5,000, or 25,000 infective juveniles of S. carpocapsae for 72 h. After transferring the ticks to clean plates, biological parameters were analyzed. Related to strains Santa Rosa, the period of pre-oviposition (p = 0.0001), oviposition (p = 0.041), and the mass weight of eggs (p = 0.005) showed significant differences between the control group and treated group. When the strain ALL was tested, the control and treated groups differed between the periods of pre-oviposition (p = 0.001), oviposition (p = 0.001), and egg mass weight (p = 0.01). The egg mass conversion was less significant in the groups when exposed to strains Santa Rosa (p = 0.002) and ALL (p = 0.001) relative to the control. The efficacy of both entomopathogenic nematode strains used in this study was comparable to other biological control agents, showing their potential against A. nitens in the laboratory. PMID:19123009

  2. Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on larvae of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) and Anocentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Clemente, Mateus Aparecido; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Scoralik, Márcio Goldner; Gomes, Fernando Teixeira; de Azevedo Prata, Márcia Cristina; Daemon, Erik

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the acaricidal activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on non-engorged larvae of Amblyomma cajennense and Anocentor nitens. In order to carry out the study, six groups were formed, each concentration being a treatment (6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, respectively) and also with the creation of a control group (distilled water) and a positive control (Deltametrine). For each treatment, approximately 100 larvae of these ticks were placed onto filter papers (2 x 2 cm) impregnated with the concentrations used to test. Next, the envelopes were closed bearing inside the filter paper with measurements of 6 x 6 cm. For each group, six repetitions were performed, and after 24 h live and dead larvae were counted. This procedure was carried out for two essential oils on the two species of ticks. For A. cajennense, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 10.8%, 35.3%, 34.5%, and 53.1%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.0%, and 61.1% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. In relation to A. nitens, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 20.1%, 84.5%, 89.2%, and 100.0%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 90.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. The results indicate that the essential oils tested showed a promising acaricidal activity mainly on A. nitens larvae. PMID:20640444

  3. Floral induction in Eucalyptus nitens.

    PubMed

    Moncur, M W; Hasan, O

    1994-11-01

    Eucalyptus nitens (Deane & Maiden) Maiden takes at least five years to initiate flower buds from seed and is an infrequent and light flowerer. Because this behavior constitutes a major impediment to breeding programs, we examined the mechanisms controlling floral induction in E. nitens, with the long-term aim of reducing generation time and increasing seed yield. Application of paclobutrazol reduced the concentration of endogenous gibberellic acid (GA) in apical tissue and enhanced the reproductive activity of grafted trees maintained outside over winter in Canberra, Australia. Grafts maintained in a warm greenhouse over winter did not produce flower buds, despite the paclobutrazol-induced reduction in GA concentration of the apical tissue. Exposing untreated grafts, which had been maintained over winter in a warm greenhouse, to low temperature the following spring reduced growth but did not induce flower bud production. Addition of GA(3) to paclobutrazol-treated grafts reduced the effect of paclobutrazol on reproductive activity. PMID:14967619

  4. [Characterization of growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Eucalyptus nitens seedlings].

    PubMed

    Angulo, Violeta C; Sanfuentes, Eugenio A; Rodríguez, Francisco; Sossa, Katherine E

    2014-01-01

    Rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rizosphere and root tissue of Eucalyptus nitens. The objective of this work was to evaluate their capacity to promote growth in seedlings of the same species under greenhouse conditions. The isolates that improved seedling growth were identified and characterized by their capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphates and increase 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. One hundred and five morphologically different strains were isolated, 15 of which promoted E. nitens seedling growth, significantly increasing the height (50%), root length (45%) as well as the aerial and root dry weight (142% and 135% respectively) of the plants. Bacteria belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, Lysinibacillus, Rahnella and Bacillus. Isolates A. phenanthrenivorans 21 and B. cereus 113 improved 3.15 times the emergence of E. nitens after 12 days, compared to control samples. Among isolated R. aquatilis, 78 showed the highest production of IAA (97.5±2.87 μg/ml) in the presence of tryptophan and the highest solubilizer index (2.4) for phosphorus, while B. amyloliquefaciens 60 isolate was positive for ACC deaminase activity. Our results reveal the potential of the studied rhizobacteria as promoters of emergence and seedling growth of E. nitens, and their possible use as PGPR inoculants, since they have more than one mechanism associated with plant growth promotion. PMID:25576419

  5. [Desiccation tolerance in seeds of Prosopisferox and Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae)].

    PubMed

    Morandini, Marcelo Nahuel; Giamminola, Eugenia Mabel; de Viana, Marta Leonor

    2013-03-01

    The high number of endemisms and species diversity together with the accelerated biodiversity loss by deforestation, especially in North Western Argentina, points out the need to work on species conservation combining ex situ and in situ strategies. The aim of this work was to study the desiccation tolerance in seeds of P ferox and P nitens for long term ex situ conservation at the Germplasm Bank of Native Species (BGEN) of the National University of Salta (Argentina). The fruits were collected from ten individuals in P ferox at the National Park Los Cardones and from two sites (Orán and Rivadavia) for P nitens. Desiccation tolerance was assessed following previous established methodologies. The moisture content (MC) of the seeds was determined by keeping them in oven at 103 degreeC and weighting the samples at different intervals till constant weight. Germination essays were carried out with two treatments (control and scarification), with different seed MC (fresh, 10-12%, 3-5%) and in desiccated seeds (3-5% MC) stored six months at -20 degreeC. The MC in P ferox seeds was 14.2% and 10% in P nitens, for both populations studied. Percentage germination in P ferox was higher in the scarification treatments (<82%). The difference between treatments increased with the reduction in MC and the storage for six months at -20 degreeC. Fresh seeds of P nitens do not need scarification treatment, but it is required with the reduction in MC and storage. Mean germination percentage of desiccated seeds stored six months at -20 degreeC was similar in both populations and greater than 82%.We concluded that both species are probably orthodox because seeds tolerated desiccation to 3-5% and storage for six months at -20 degree C. PMID:23894986

  6. Gonadal Development, Spawning and Plasma Sex Steroid Levels of the Indoor Cultured Grunt, Hapalogenys nitens

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Woong; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Park, Jong Youn; Hong, Chang Gi; Chung, Jae Seung; Chung, Ee-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal development and changes in hormones in plasma level of the indoor cultured grunt (Hapalogenys nitens) were investigated by histological study from August 2011 to October 2012. The GSI showed similar trends with gonad developmental stages during the culture periods. Changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β of female H. nitens reached the highest value before the spawning period, and seasonal changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β were similar in trends of oocyte developments and GSI changes. Testosterone levels of male H. nitens reached the highest value before and after the spent stage. Ovarian developmental stages of H. nitens could be classified into early growing stage, late growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spawning stage, recovery and resting stage. The testicular developmental stages could be divided into growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spent stage, and recovery and resting stage. PMID:25949208

  7. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.)-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; de Freitas Araújo, Marcelo Gonzaga; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2016-01-01

    Herbal-loaded drug delivery nanotechnological systems have been extensively studied recently. The antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants has shown better pharmacological action when such plants are loaded into a drug delivery system than when they are not loaded. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.) belongs to the Eriocaulaceae family and presents antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Syngonanthus nitens (S. nitens) extract that was not loaded (E) or loaded (SE) into a liquid crystal precursor system (S) for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution technique. Additionally, we performed hyphae inhibition and biofilm tests. Finally, experimental candidiasis was evaluated in in vivo models with Wistar female rats. The results showed effective antifungal activity after incorporation into S for all strains tested, with MICs ranging from 31.2 to 62.5 μg/mL. Microscopic observation of SE revealed an absence of filamentous cells 24 h of exposure to a concentration of 31.2 μg/mL. E demonstrated no effective action against biofilms, though SE showed inhibition against biofilms of all strains. In the in vivo experiment, SE was effective in the treatment of infection after only two days of treatment and was more effective than E and amphotericin B. The S. nitens is active against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the antifungal potential is being enhanced after incorporation into liquid crystal precursor systems (LCPS). These findings represent a promising application of SE in the treatment of VVC. PMID:27556451

  8. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.)-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; de Freitas Araújo, Marcelo Gonzaga; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2016-01-01

    Herbal-loaded drug delivery nanotechnological systems have been extensively studied recently. The antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants has shown better pharmacological action when such plants are loaded into a drug delivery system than when they are not loaded. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.) belongs to the Eriocaulaceae family and presents antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Syngonanthus nitens (S. nitens) extract that was not loaded (E) or loaded (SE) into a liquid crystal precursor system (S) for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution technique. Additionally, we performed hyphae inhibition and biofilm tests. Finally, experimental candidiasis was evaluated in in vivo models with Wistar female rats. The results showed effective antifungal activity after incorporation into S for all strains tested, with MICs ranging from 31.2 to 62.5 μg/mL. Microscopic observation of SE revealed an absence of filamentous cells 24 h of exposure to a concentration of 31.2 μg/mL. E demonstrated no effective action against biofilms, though SE showed inhibition against biofilms of all strains. In the in vivo experiment, SE was effective in the treatment of infection after only two days of treatment and was more effective than E and amphotericin B. The S. nitens is active against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the antifungal potential is being enhanced after incorporation into liquid crystal precursor systems (LCPS). These findings represent a promising application of SE in the treatment of VVC. PMID:27556451

  9. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Carreira, Teresa; Nunes, Mónica; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Vidotto, Odilon; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR) between the 5S (rrf) 23S (rrl) rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species showed a fragment of 184 bp, but the sequencing revealed 99.9% homology with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) strain B31. These results showed, for the first time, the presence of spirochete DNA infecting ticks that parasitize horses used for animal traction, in the rural municipality mentioned. In conclusion, this study opens up promising prospects for determining the infection rate of B. burgdorferi s.s. genospecies or other species in the equine population, as well as the impact of the infection rate on Lyme disease in the state of Parana. PMID:24516456

  10. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Carreira, Teresa; Nunes, Mónica; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Vidotto, Odilon; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR) between the 5S (rrf) 23S (rrl) rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species showed a fragment of 184 bp, but the sequencing revealed 99.9% homology with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) strain B31. These results showed, for the first time, the presence of spirochete DNA infecting ticks that parasitize horses used for animal traction, in the rural municipality mentioned. In conclusion, this study opens up promising prospects for determining the infection rate of B. burgdorferi s.s. genospecies or other species in the equine population, as well as the impact of the infection rate on Lyme disease in the state of Parana. PMID:24516456

  11. Transmission of Babesia caballi by Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) Is Restricted to One Generation in the Absense of Alimentary Reinfection on a Susceptible Equine Host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tropical horse tick, Dermacentor nitens, is the natural vector of Babesia caballi in the Americas; the distribution of this tick in the United States is limited to the southernmost parts of Florida and Texas. Babesia caballi, one of the etiologic agents of equine babesiosis, occurs widely throug...

  12. Nitensidine A, a guanidine alkaloid from Pterogyne nitens, is a novel substrate for human ABC transporter ABCB1.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Tamura, Ai; Kadioglu, Onat; Satake, Kazuhiro; Mitani, Yuji; Murase, Hayato; Regasini, Luis Octavio; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Fricker, Gert; Efferth, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    The Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae) tree, native to South America, has been found to produce guanidine alkaloids as well as bioactive flavonols such as kaempferol, quercetin, and rutin. In the present study, we examined the possibility of interaction between human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1 and four guanidine alkaloids isolated from P. nitens (i.e., galegine, nitensidine A, pterogynidine, and pterogynine) using human T cell lymphoblast-like leukemia cell line CCRF-CEM and its multi-drug resistant (MDR) counterpart CEM/ADR5000. In XTT assays, CEM/ADR5000 cells were resistant to the four guanidine alkaloids compared to CCRF-CEM cells, although the four guanidine alkaloids exhibited some level of cytotoxicity against both CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 cells. In ATPase assays, three of the four guanidine alkaloids were found to stimulate the ATPase activity of ABCB1. Notably, nitensidine A was clearly found to stimulate the ATPase activity of ABCB1 as strongly as the control drug, verapamil. Furthermore, the cytotoxic effect of nitensidine A on CEM/ADR5000 cells was synergistically enhanced by verapamil. Nitensidine A inhibited the extrusion of calcein by ABCB1. In the present study, the possibility of interaction between ABCB1 and two synthetic nitensidine A analogs (nitensidine AT and AU) were examined to gain insight into the mechanism by which nitensidine A stimulates the ATPase activity of ABCB1. The ABCB1-dependent ATPase activity stimulated by nitensidine A was greatly reduced by substituting sulfur (S) or oxygen (O) for the imino nitrogen atom (N) in nitensidine A. Molecular docking studies on human ABCB1 showed that, guanidine alkaloids from P. nitens dock to the same binding pocket as verapamil. Nitensidine A and its analogs exhibit similar binding energies to verapamil. Taken together, this research clearly indicates that nitensidine A is a novel substrate for ABCB1. The present results also suggest that the number, binding site, and polymerization

  13. Dual RNA-Sequencing of Eucalyptus nitens during Phytophthora cinnamomi Challenge Reveals Pathogen and Host Factors Influencing Compatibility

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Febé E.; Shuey, Louise S.; Naidoo, Sitha; Mamni, Thandekile; Berger, Dave K.; Myburg, Alexander A.; van den Berg, Noëlani; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2016-01-01

    Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers, and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus nitens plants were stem inoculated with P. cinnamomi and tissue was harvested five days post inoculation. Dual RNA-sequencing, a technique which allows the concurrent detection of both pathogen and host transcripts during infection, was performed. Approximately 1% of the reads mapped to the draft genome of P. cinnamomi while 78% of the reads mapped to the Eucalyptus grandis genome. The highest expressed P. cinnamomi gene in planta was a putative crinkler effector (CRN1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated the high similarity of this P. cinnamomi CRN1 to that of Phytophthora infestans. Some CRN effectors are known to target host nuclei to suppress defense. In the host, over 1400 genes were significantly differentially expressed in comparison to mock inoculated trees, including suites of pathogenesis related (PR) genes. In particular, a PR-9 peroxidase gene with a high similarity to a Carica papaya PR-9 ortholog previously shown to be suppressed upon infection by Phytophthora palmivora was down-regulated two-fold. This PR-9 gene may represent a cross-species effector target during P. cinnamomi infection. This study identified pathogenicity factors, potential manipulation targets, and attempted host defense mechanisms activated by E. nitens that contributed to the susceptible outcome of the interaction. PMID:26973660

  14. Dual RNA-Sequencing of Eucalyptus nitens during Phytophthora cinnamomi Challenge Reveals Pathogen and Host Factors Influencing Compatibility.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Febé E; Shuey, Louise S; Naidoo, Sitha; Mamni, Thandekile; Berger, Dave K; Myburg, Alexander A; van den Berg, Noëlani; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2016-01-01

    Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers, and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus nitens plants were stem inoculated with P. cinnamomi and tissue was harvested five days post inoculation. Dual RNA-sequencing, a technique which allows the concurrent detection of both pathogen and host transcripts during infection, was performed. Approximately 1% of the reads mapped to the draft genome of P. cinnamomi while 78% of the reads mapped to the Eucalyptus grandis genome. The highest expressed P. cinnamomi gene in planta was a putative crinkler effector (CRN1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated the high similarity of this P. cinnamomi CRN1 to that of Phytophthora infestans. Some CRN effectors are known to target host nuclei to suppress defense. In the host, over 1400 genes were significantly differentially expressed in comparison to mock inoculated trees, including suites of pathogenesis related (PR) genes. In particular, a PR-9 peroxidase gene with a high similarity to a Carica papaya PR-9 ortholog previously shown to be suppressed upon infection by Phytophthora palmivora was down-regulated two-fold. This PR-9 gene may represent a cross-species effector target during P. cinnamomi infection. This study identified pathogenicity factors, potential manipulation targets, and attempted host defense mechanisms activated by E. nitens that contributed to the susceptible outcome of the interaction. PMID:26973660

  15. Evaluation of the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; de Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Maturano, Ralph; Senra, Tatiane de Oliveira Souza; da Silva Matos, Renata; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; de Carvalho, Mario Geraldo; Daemon, Erik

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum and Dermacentor nitens larvae. The effects resulting from treatments were evaluated by means of the modified larval packet test. In order to determine the LC50, components of essential oils, the monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol and phenylpropanoid (E)-cinnamaldehyde were individually tested at different concentrations. After determining the LC50, each essential oil component was separately evaluated and then combined with another substance at a 1:1 proportion at the LC50 concentration and at 1/2 and 1/4 of the LC50. For A. sculptum, the lowest LC50 value was obtained for (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1.40 mg/ml), followed by thymol (2.04 mg/ml) and carvacrol (3.49 mg/ml). The same order of effectiveness was observed for D. nitens, with values of 1.68, 2.17 and 3.33 mg/ml, respectively. In the evaluation of component associations of essential oils against A. sculptum larvae, only the combinations between carvacrol and thymol (LC50) and carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1/4 LC50) presented a moderate synergetic effect. In turn, for D. nitens larvae, the combinations between thymol and carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50) presented a synergetic effect, while the others presented an additive or antagonistic effect. Therefore, it can be concluded that the combination of thymol and carvacrol (LC50) has a moderate synergetic effect against A. sculptum larvae, while thymol, combined with carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50), has a synergetic effect against D. nitens larvae. PMID:26346899

  16. Sewage sludge stabilisation and fertiliser value in a silvopastoral system developed with Eucalyptus nitens Maiden in Lugo (Spain).

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N; Daboussi, S; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A

    2016-10-01

    Copper (Cu) is one of the heavy metals with highest proportion in sewage sludge. In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using it as a fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process, sewage sludge has different Cu contents, and soil Cu incorporation rates. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of fertilisation with different types of sewage sludge (anaerobic, composted, and pelletised) on the concentration of total and available Cu in the soil, the tree growth, the pasture production, and the concentration of Cu in the pasture when compared with control treatments (i.e. no fertilisation and mineral fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system under Eucalyptus nitens Maiden. The results of this experiment show that an improvement of the soil pH increased the incorporation and the mineralisation of the sewage sludge and litter, and therefore, the release of Cu from the soil. Moreover, the concentration of Cu in the pasture and the levels of Cu extracted by the pasture improved when the soil organic matter decreased because the high levels of organic matter in the soil could have formed Cu complex. The composted sewage sludge (COM) increased a) the soil variables studied (pH, total Cu, and available Cu) and b) the Cu extracted by the pasture, both probably due to the higher inputs of cations made with it. In any case, the levels of Cu found in the soil never exceeded the maximums as set by Spanish regulations and did not cause harmful effects on the plants and animals. Therefore, the use of COM as an organic fertiliser should be promoted in silvopastoral systems established in edaphoclimatic conditions similar to this study because COM enhanced the productivity of the system from a viewpoint of the soil and the pasture, without causing any environmental damage. PMID:27243933

  17. Parentage Reconstruction in Eucalyptus nitens Using SNPs and Microsatellite Markers: A Comparative Analysis of Marker Data Power and Robustness

    PubMed Central

    Telfer, Emily J.; Stovold, Grahame T.; Li, Yongjun; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Grattapaglia, Dario G.; Dungey, Heidi S.

    2015-01-01

    Pedigree reconstruction using molecular markers enables efficient management of inbreeding in open-pollinated breeding strategies, replacing expensive and time-consuming controlled pollination. This is particularly useful in preferentially outcrossed, insect pollinated Eucalypts known to suffer considerable inbreeding depression from related matings. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker panel consisting of 106 markers was selected for pedigree reconstruction from the recently developed high-density Eucalyptus Infinium SNP chip (EuCHIP60K). The performance of this SNP panel for pedigree reconstruction in open-pollinated progenies of two Eucalyptus nitens seed orchards was compared with that of two microsatellite panels with 13 and 16 markers respectively. The SNP marker panel out-performed one of the microsatellite panels in the resolution power to reconstruct pedigrees and out-performed both panels with respect to data quality. Parentage of all but one offspring in each clonal seed orchard was correctly matched to the expected seed parent using the SNP marker panel, whereas parentage assignment to less than a third of the expected seed parents were supported using the 13-microsatellite panel. The 16-microsatellite panel supported all but one of the recorded seed parents, one better than the SNP panel, although there was still a considerable level of missing and inconsistent data. SNP marker data was considerably superior to microsatellite data in accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Although microsatellites and SNPs data provide equivalent resolution for pedigree reconstruction, microsatellite analysis requires more time and experience to deal with the uncertainties of allele calling and faces challenges for data transferability across labs and over time. While microsatellite analysis will continue to be useful for some breeding tasks due to the high information content, existing infrastructure and low operating costs, the multi-species SNP resource

  18. Liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system as a strategy to improve the prophylactic action of Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhland against infection by Candida krusei

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; Calixto, Giovana; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal infections caused by Candida krusei are a problem of extreme complexity due to the intrinsic resistance to azole drugs. The species Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhland is a plant of the Eriocaulaceae family that has demonstrated promising antifungal activity. In phyto-formulation research, liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive systems (LCPM) stand out as drug delivery systems for vaginal administration because they increase the activity and overcome the problems associated with plant-based medicines. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the methanolic extract of scapes of S. nitens (S. nitens extract [SNE]) and an SNE-loaded LCPM against C. krusei as prophylaxis for vulvovaginal candidiasis. LCPM formulation developed consisted of oleic acid as the oil phase (50% w/w), polyoxypropylene (5) polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl alcohol (40% w/w) as the surfactant and a polymeric dispersion containing 2.5% Carbopol® 974P and 2.5% polycarbophil (10% w/w) as the aqueous phase. LCPM formulation developed was characterized using polarized light microscopy, rheological analysis, and in vitro mucoadhesive studies. Different strains of C. krusei, including one standard strain (American Type Culture Collection 6258) and three clinically isolated strains from the vaginal region (CKV1, 2, and 3), were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration, inhibition of biofilms, and time kill. The in vivo prophylaxis assay was performed using the standard strain (American Type Culture Collection 6258). The analyses of F by polarized light microscopy and rheology showed isotropy; however, the addition of 100% artificial vaginal mucus (F100) made it more viscous and anisotropic. Moreover, the mucoadhesive strength was modified, which makes F an excellent formulation for vaginal applications. SNE was active against all strains studied, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 125 to 62.5 µg/mL; after incorporating SNE into F (FE

  19. [Parasites of the Central American tapir Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) in Chiapas, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cruz Aldán, Epigmenio; Lira Torres, Iván; Güiris Andrade, Dario Marcelino; Osorio Sarabia, David; Quintero M, Ma Teresa

    2006-06-01

    We analyzed 19 samples of Baird's tapir feces from La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve, collected between March and July 1999. We also took samples directly from a male tapir captured at the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve. Both reserves are in Chiapas, Mexico. We used five techniques: flotation, MacMaster, micrometric, Ritchie's sedimentation and Ferreira's quantitative. In addition, we collected ectoparasites from animals captured in both reserves and from a captive couple from Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. These nematodes and protozoans were found: Agriostomun sp., Lacandoria sp., Neomurshidia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Strongylus sp., Brachylumus sp, and an unidentified species of ancilostomaide. We also found Eimeria sp. and Balantidium coli, as well as the mites Dermacentor halli, Dermacentor latus, Amblyomma cajannense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma ovale, Anocentor nitens and Ixodes bicornis. PMID:18494314

  20. Report on ticks collected in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, L T; Badra, S J; Pereira, L E; Szabó, M P

    1999-01-01

    Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivirus was isolated from Amblyomma cajennense specimens collected from a sick capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). Amblyomma cajennense is the main transmitter of Rickettsia rickettsii (=R. rickettsi), the causative agent of spotted fever in Brazil. Wild mammals, mainly capybaras and deer, infested by ticks and living in close contact with cattle, horses and dogs, offer the risk of transmission of wild zoonosis to these domestic animals and to man. PMID:10881097

  1. Surveys for ectoparasites on wildlife associated with Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae)-infested livestock in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Corn, Joseph L; Berger, Patrick; Mertins, James W

    2009-11-01

    Surveys in 2001, 2005, and 2006 attempted to determine the role of wildlife in maintenance and dissemination of the tropical bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum (F.) (Acari: Ixodidae), in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Small mammals; birds; white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann); and feral cattle, Bos taurus L., were examined at nine premises, in mountainous rain forest, and in surrounding areas in western St. Croix, an area including and central to all known bont tick-infested premises on the island. Small Asian mongooses, Herpestes javanicus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire), yielded 1,566 ectoparasite specimens, representing five species, and including larvae of a soft tick, Carios puertoricensis (Fox); the tropical horse tick, Anocentor nitens (Neumann); and the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). Black rats, Rattus rattus L., yielded 144 specimens, representing six ectoparasite species, including C. puertoricensis. Of 25 bird species examined, seven yielded 116 ectoparasite specimens representing at least 14 different species of lice and mites, but no ticks. White-tailed deer and feral cattle yielded only various stages of A. nitens and R. microplus ticks. A. variegatum was not encountered on any potential wildlife host sampled, reflecting its low occurrence in St. Croix during the survey period. One collection of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from a spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia (L.), and collections of feather mites (Acari: Astigmata: Trouessartiidae) from both bananaquits, Coereba flaveola (L.), and black-faced grassquits, Tiaris bicolor (L.), may represent new, undescribed species. PMID:19960701

  2. Bacteria associated with Amblyomma cajennense tick eggs.

    PubMed

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Piesman, Joseph; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Ticks represent a large group of pathogen vectors that blood feed on a diversity of hosts. In the Americas, the Ixodidae ticks Amblyomma cajennense are responsible for severe impact on livestock and public health. In the present work, we present the isolation and molecular identification of a group of culturable bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs from females sampled in distinct geographical sites in southeastern Brazil. Additional comparative analysis of the culturable bacteria from Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes scapularis tick eggs were also performed. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified 17 different bacterial types identified as Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter spp., Micrococcus luteus, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus spp., distributed in 12 phylogroups. Staphylococcus spp., especially S. sciuri, was the most prevalent bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs, occurring in 65% of the samples and also frequently observed infecting A. nitens eggs. S. maltophilia, S. marcescens and B. cereus occurred infecting eggs derived from specific sampling sites, but in all cases rising almost as pure cultures from infected A. cajennense eggs. The potential role of these bacterial associations is discussed and they possibly represent new targets for biological control strategies of ticks and tick borne diseases. PMID:26537602

  3. Bacteria associated with Amblyomma cajennense tick eggs

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Piesman, Joseph; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ticks represent a large group of pathogen vectors that blood feed on a diversity of hosts. In the Americas, the Ixodidae ticks Amblyomma cajennense are responsible for severe impact on livestock and public health. In the present work, we present the isolation and molecular identification of a group of culturable bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs from females sampled in distinct geographical sites in southeastern Brazil. Additional comparative analysis of the culturable bacteria from Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes scapularis tick eggs were also performed. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified 17 different bacterial types identified as Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter spp., Micrococcus luteus, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus spp., distributed in 12 phylogroups. Staphylococcus spp., especially S. sciuri, was the most prevalent bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs, occurring in 65% of the samples and also frequently observed infecting A. nitens eggs. S. maltophilia, S. marcescens and B. cereus occurred infecting eggs derived from specific sampling sites, but in all cases rising almost as pure cultures from infected A. cajennense eggs. The potential role of these bacterial associations is discussed and they possibly represent new targets for biological control strategies of ticks and tick borne diseases. PMID:26537602

  4. Detection of Rickettsia parkeri from within Piura, Peru, and the First Reported Presence of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in the Tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Florin, David; Felices, Vidal; Pozo, Edwar J.; Graf, Paul C.F.; Richards, Allen L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Domestic farm animals (n=145) were sampled for the presence of ectoparasites in northwestern Peru during March, 2008. Ninety domestic animals (62%) were positive for the presence of an ectoparasite(s) and produced a total collection of the following: 728 ticks [Amblyomma maculatum, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Otobius megnini], 12 lice (Haematopinus suis), and 3 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). A Rickettsia genus-specific qPCR assay was performed on nucleic acid preparations of the collected ectoparasites that resulted in 5% (37/743, 35 ticks and 2 fleas) of the ectoparasites positive for the presence of Rickettsia. DNA from the positive individual ticks was tested with 2 other qPCR assays for the presence of the ompB gene in Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae or Rickettsia parkeri. Candidatus R. andeanae was found in 25 A. maculatum ticks and in two Rh. sanguineus ticks, whereas R. parkeri was detected in 6 A. maculatum ticks. Two A. maculatum were co-infected with both Candidatus R. andeanae and R. parkeri. Rickettsia felis was detected in 2 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, by multilocus sequence typing of the 17-kD antigen and ompA genes. These findings expand the geographic range of R. parkeri to include Peru as well as expand the natural arthropod vector of Candidatus R. andeanae to include Rhipicephalus sanguineus. PMID:23488453

  5. Detection of Rickettsia parkeri from within Piura, Peru, and the first reported presence of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Florin, David; Felices, Vidal; Pozo, Edwar J; Graf, Paul C F; Burrus, Roxanne G; Richards, Allen L

    2013-07-01

    Domestic farm animals (n=145) were sampled for the presence of ectoparasites in northwestern Peru during March, 2008. Ninety domestic animals (62%) were positive for the presence of an ectoparasite(s) and produced a total collection of the following: 728 ticks [Amblyomma maculatum, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Otobius megnini], 12 lice (Haematopinus suis), and 3 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). A Rickettsia genus-specific qPCR assay was performed on nucleic acid preparations of the collected ectoparasites that resulted in 5% (37/743, 35 ticks and 2 fleas) of the ectoparasites positive for the presence of Rickettsia. DNA from the positive individual ticks was tested with 2 other qPCR assays for the presence of the ompB gene in Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae or Rickettsia parkeri. Candidatus R. andeanae was found in 25 A. maculatum ticks and in two Rh. sanguineus ticks, whereas R. parkeri was detected in 6 A. maculatum ticks. Two A. maculatum were co-infected with both Candidatus R. andeanae and R. parkeri. Rickettsia felis was detected in 2 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, by multilocus sequence typing of the 17-kD antigen and ompA genes. These findings expand the geographic range of R. parkeri to include Peru as well as expand the natural arthropod vector of Candidatus R. andeanae to include Rhipicephalus sanguineus. PMID:23488453

  6. [Elaboration and evaluation of a candidate to the DNA vaccine using synthetic genes derived from the peptídeo SBm7462 against the carrapato Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Carla L; Mendonça, Bianca G; Tavares, Larissa C; Girão, Flávia A; Sossai, Sidimar; Peconick, Ana P; Carvalho, Gabriel D; Patarroyo, Joaquín H

    2008-09-01

    Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most important arthropods in veterinary medicine due economic losses and health problems caused in cattle production. The vaccination represents optimum method evaluated with effective cost to prevent economic losses and to increase the duration and quality of life of the production animals. A synthetic peptide, SBm 7462, derived from Bm86, has been shown great results in control of ticks. The construction and synthesis of one nucleotide sequence based on this peptide might be useful for design a DNA vaccine that has many advances than peptide vaccine. A gene, called seq1, was constructed with a three repetition of nucleotide sequence of SBm 7462. It was cloned into a pCIneo vector expression in mammals and injected in BALB/c mouse. When mice were inoculated with the expression cassette they did not response in ELISA. They elevated antibody titles only when vaccinated with the synthetic peptide SBm7462®. And, the best titles of immunoglobulins were seen when the SBm7462® was administered subcutaneously. PMID:20059811

  7. Tick fauna from two locations in the Brazilian savannah.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Olegário, Maria Marlene Martins; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto

    2007-01-01

    The Cerrado is Brazil's tropical savannah, which is arguably under greater threat than the Amazon rainforest. The Cerrado Biome of tropical South America covers about 2 million km(2) and is considered a biodiversity hot spot which means that it is especially rich in endemic species and particularly threatened by human activities. The Cerrado is increasingly exposed to agricultural activities which enhance the likelihood of mixing parasites from rural, urban and wildlife areas. Information about ticks from the Cerrado biome is scarce. In this report tick species free-living, on domestic animals and on a few wild animals in two farms in the Cerrado biome (Nova Crixás and Araguapaz municipalities, Goiás State, Brazil) are described. Amblyomma cajennense was the first and Amblyomma parvum the second host-seeking tick species found. Only two other tick species were found free-living: one Amblyomma nodosum and three Amblyomma naponense nymphs. Cattle were infested with Boophilus microplus and A. cajennense. Buffalos were infested with B. microplus and A. parvum. Dogs were infested with A. cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, A. parvum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Anocentor nitens, B. microplus, A. cajennense, and A. parvum were found on horses. Amblyomma auricularium were found attached to nine-banded armadillos and Amblyomma rotundatum to red-footed tortoise, cururu toads and a rattlesnake. The latter was also infested with an adult A. cajennense. No tick was found on a goat, a tropical rat snake and a yellow armadillo. Among the observations the infestation of several domestic animals with A. parvum seems be the main feature. It suggests that this species might become a pest. However, the life cycle of A. parvum in nature, as well as its disease vectoring capacity, are largely unknown. It would be important to determine if it is a species expanding its geographic range by adaptation to new hosts or if it has been maintained in high numbers at definite locations by

  8. Dry mass allocation, water use efficiency and delta(13)C in clones of Eucalyptus grandis, E. grandis x camaldulensis and E. grandis x nitens grown under two irrigation regimes.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, D; Stock, W D; Bond, W J; Maphanga, D

    1996-05-01

    Clonal variation in water use efficiency (WUE), dry mass accumulation and allocation, and stable carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) of crude leaf fiber extracts was determined in six clones of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. grown for 16 months in field lysimeters in two soil water regimes. The relationships between delta(13)C and WUE calculated on the basis of leaf, harvestable stem, shoot and whole-plant dry mass accumulation were investigated. There was no clonal variation in dry mass accumulation but clonal allocation to roots, harvestable stems, branches and leaves varied. Water use efficiencies (mass of plant or plant part/water used over 16 months) differed significantly between clones. The clonal ranking of WUE varied depending on the units of dry mass accumulation used. Significant relationships between delta(13)C values and instantaneous water use efficiencies and ratios of internal leaf to ambient CO(2) concentrations were found only in the high soil water treatment. There were no relationships between delta(13)C values and whole-plant, shoot and harvestable stem water use efficiencies and soil water availability. Values of delta(13)C were negatively correlated with dry mass accumulation in the low soil water treatment. At the whole-plant level, WUE was positively correlated with dry mass accumulation in the high soil water treatment. We found significant differences in delta(13)C values between clones and the clonal rankings in delta(13)C and WUE were maintained in both soil water treatments. PMID:14871719

  9. Food Abundance Determines Distribution and Density of A Frugivorous Bird Across Seasons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although food abundance is a principal determinant of distribution and abundance of many animals, most previous studies have not quantitatively assessed its importance relative to other factors that can determine species distributions. We estimated frugivorous phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens) occupa...

  10. Taxonomic revision of the species group rubripes of Corinna Koch, 1842 (Araneae; Corinnidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Bruno V B; Bonaldo, Alexandre B

    2014-01-01

    The species of the group rubripes, which harbors the type species of the genus Corinna C. L. Koch, 1842, are revised, including 20 Neotropical species. Three previously known species are re-diagnosed: Corinna rubripes C. L. Koch, 1842, Corinna nitens (Keyserling, 1891) and Corinna mourai Bonaldo, 2000. New records of Corinna nitens are provided, including the first ones from Peru and Bolivia. Seventeen new species, all from Brazil, were described: C. aechmea n. sp., C. balacobaco n. sp., C. caatinga n. sp., C. demersa n. sp., C. escalvada n. sp., C. hyalina n. sp., C. jecatatu n. sp., C. kuryi n. sp., C. loiolai n. sp., C. maracas n. sp., C. regii n. sp., C. telecoteco n. sp., C. tranquilla n. sp., C. vesperata n. sp., C. vilanovae n. sp., C. zecarioca n. sp. and C. ziriguidum n. sp. A key for all twenty species of the group is presented. PMID:24943629

  11. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma marginale in ticks naturally feeding on buffaloes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-10-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen transmitted by ticks in cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. However, the tick species involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes in Brazil have not been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of A. marginale in ticks parasitizing water buffaloes. A total of 200 samples of Rhipicephalus microplus, Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, and Amblyomma maculatum were collected and tested by conventional and quantitative PCR for the presence of the msp1a and msp5 genes. In the present study, 35 ticks (17.5%) were positive for A. marginale DNA by qPCR analysis. The positive ticks belonged to four different species: R. microplus (22.2%), A. cajennense (13.8%), A. maculatum (16.0%), and D. nitens (10.0%). Individuals of the three developmental stages (larvae, nymphs, and adults) of R. microplus and A. cajennense were found to be positive for A. marginale, only nymphs and adults of A. maculatum were found to be positive, and finally, only adults of D. nitens were positive for A. marginale. Our results suggest that R. microplus, A. cajennense, A. maculatum, and D. nitens ticks may be involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes. However, while A. marginale PCR positive ticks were recorded, this does not indicate vector competence; only that the ticks may contain a blood meal from an infected host. Additionally, the results show that the strains of A. marginale from buffaloes and cattle are phylogenetically related. PMID:26209411

  12. Preliminary investigations of toxicity in the Georges Bay catchment, Tasmania, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bleaney, Alison; Hickey, Christopher W.; Stewart, Michael; Scammell, Marcus; Senjen, Rye

    2015-01-01

    North-eastern Tasmania, Australia has been an area of major production for Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) for over 25 years. Since the mid-1990s, increased oyster mortality has been observed. The purpose of the present study was to identify the agent causing aquatic toxicity and to investigate whether there is a chemical and/or toxicological link between river foam and monoculture timber plantation forests of exotic eucalypts (Eucalyptus nitens) present in the catchment area. Foam samples from the George River catchment demonstrated high toxicity to a freshwater cladoceran and larvae of a marine blue mussel species. After filtration to remove most particulates, foam samples also demonstrated a marked reduction in toxicity to blue mussels, which suggested that the toxicity is particle associated. Foam and leaf extracts of E. nitens were then fractionated using HPLC and size exclusion chromatography and the resulting fractions were screened for cladoceran and blue mussel toxicity. Toxicity was detected in fractions common to both the foam and the leaf extracts. This study suggests that there may be a chemical and toxicological relationship between foam and E. nitens leaf components. PMID:25745193

  13. Energy potential of waste from 10 forest species in the North of Spain (Cantabria).

    PubMed

    Pérez, S; Renedo, C J; Ortiz, A; Mañana, M

    2008-09-01

    In this work, the waste from 10 forest species of Cantabria have been characterized from the point of view of energy. The studied species were the waste of: Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus nitens, the hybrid E. globulusxE. nitens, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus smithii, Eucalyptus regnans, Eucalyptus gunni, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Pinus radiata. The leaves were the tree part with the greatest NCV (net calorific value) in all the species. The best results were obtained for the leaves of E. smithii (24.5 MJ/kg), F. sylvatica (22.8 MJ/kg) and E. nitens (22.5 MJ/kg), at minimum moisture. Values around 65,000 MJ per hectare and year were obtained for the Eucalyptus spp., and 47,000 MJ per hectare and year for the P. radiata. The economic-environmental analysis revealed that the use of the forest waste for energy production would mean an approximate annual income of 8 Meuro and would fix the annual CO(2) emitted by the Cantabrian industries at 78%. PMID:18215515

  14. Plasmolysis effects and osmotic potential of two phylogenetically distinct alpine strains of Klebsormidium (Streptophyta).

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Franziska; Lewis, Louise A; Wastian, Johann; Holzinger, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The osmotic potential and effects of plasmolysis were investigated in two different Klebsormidium strains from alpine habitats by incubation in 300-2,000 (3,000) mM sorbitol. Several members of this genus were previously found to tolerate desiccation in the vegetative state yet information was lacking on the osmotic potentials of these algae. The strains were morphologically determined as Klebsormidium crenulatum and Klebsormidium nitens. These species belong to distinct clades, as verified by phylogenetic analysis of the rbcL gene. K. crenulatum is part of to the K. crenulatum/mucosum ('F' clade) and K. nitens of the 'E2' clade. Plasmolysis occurred in K. crenulatum at 800 mM sorbitol (961 mOsmol kg(-1), Ψ = -2.09 MPa) and in K. nitens at 600 mM sorbitol (720 mOsmol kg(-1), Ψ = -1.67 MPa). These are extraordinarily high osmotic values (very negative osmotic potentials) compared with values reported for other green algae. In K. crenulatum, the maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmax) in the light-saturated range was 116 μmol O(2) h(-1) mg(-1) chl a. Incubation in 1,000 mM sorbitol decreased Pmax to 74.1% of the initial value, whereas 2,000 mM sorbitol (Ψ = -5.87 MPa) lead to an almost complete loss of oxygen production. In K. nitens, Pmax was 91 μmol O(2) h(-1) mg(-1) chl a under control conditions and incubation in 800 mM sorbitol did not decrease Pmax, 2,000 mM sorbitol decreased Pmax only to about 62.6% of the initial value whereas 3,000 mM sorbitol stopped oxygen evolution. This indicated a broader amplitude for photosynthesis in the examined strain of K. nitens. Control samples and samples plasmolysed for 3 h in 800 mM sorbitol (K. nitens), 1,000 mM sorbitol (K. crenulatum), or 2,000 mM sorbitol were investigated by transmission electron microscopy after chemical or high-pressure freeze fixation. In cells undergoing plasmolysis the protoplasts were retracted from the cell wall, the cytoplasm appeared dense, vacuoles were small

  15. Biodiversity of Klebsormidium (streptophyta) from alpine biological soil crusts (alps, tyrol, Austria, and Italy).

    PubMed

    Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Glaser, Karin; Holzinger, Andreas; Karsten, Ulf

    2015-08-01

    Forty Klebsormidium strains isolated from soil crusts of mountain regions (Alps, 600–3,000 m elevation) were analyzed. The molecular phylogeny (internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences) showed that these strains belong to clades B/C, D, E, and F. Seven main (K. flaccidum, K. elegans, K. crenulatum, K. dissectum, K. nitens, K. subtile, and K. fluitans) and four transitional morphotypes (K. cf. flaccidum, K. cf. nitens, K. cf. subtile, and K. cf. fluitans) were identified. Most strains belong to clade E, which includes isolates that prefer humid conditions. One representative of the xerophytic lineage (clade F) as well as few isolates characteristic of temperate conditions (clades B/C, D) were found. Most strains of clade E were isolated from low/middle elevations (<1,800 m above sea level; a.s.l.) in the pine-forest zone. Strains of clades B/C, D, and F occurred sporadically at higher elevations (1,548–2,843 m a.s.l.), mostly under xerophytic conditions of alpine meadows. Comparison of the alpine Klebsormidium assemblage with data from other biogeographic regions indicated similarity with soil crusts/biofilms from terrestrial habitats in mixed forest in Western Europe, North America, and Asia, as well as walls of buildings in Western European cities. The alpine assemblage differed substantially from crusts from granite outcrops and sand dunes in Eastern Europe (Ukraine), and fundamentally from soil crusts in South African drylands. Epitypification of the known species K. flaccidum, K. crenulatum, K. subtile, K. nitens, K. dissectum, K. fluitans, K. mucosum, and K. elegans is proposed to establish taxonomic names and type material as an aid for practical studies on these algae, as well as for unambiguous identification of alpine strains. New combination Klebsormidium subtile (Kützing) Mikhailyuk, Glaser, Holzinger et Karsten comb. nov. is made. PMID:26504252

  16. Metagenomic signatures of a tropical mining-impacted stream reveal complex microbial and metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Reis, Mariana P; Dias, Marcela F; Costa, Patrícia S; Ávila, Marcelo P; Leite, Laura R; de Araújo, Flávio M G; Salim, Anna C M; Bucciarelli-Rodriguez, Mônica; Oliveira, Guilherme; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa M A

    2016-10-01

    Bacteria from aquatic ecosystems significantly contribute to biogeochemical cycles, but details of their community structure in tropical mining-impacted environments remain unexplored. In this study, we analyzed a bacterial community from circumneutral-pH tropical stream sediment by 16S rRNA and shotgun deep sequencing. Carrapatos stream sediment, which has been exposed to metal stress due to gold and iron mining (21 [g Fe]/kg), revealed a diverse community, with predominance of Proteobacteria (39.4%), Bacteroidetes (12.2%), and Parcubacteria (11.4%). Among Proteobacteria, the most abundant reads were assigned to neutrophilic iron-oxidizing taxa, such as Gallionella, Sideroxydans, and Mariprofundus, which are involved in Fe cycling and harbor several metal resistance genes. Functional analysis revealed a large number of genes participating in nitrogen and methane metabolic pathways despite the low concentrations of inorganic nitrogen in the Carrapatos stream. Our findings provide important insights into bacterial community interactions in a mining-impacted environment. PMID:27441985

  17. Stomatal and non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis in trees of a tropical seasonally flooded forest.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Ana; Tezara, Wilmer; Marín, Oranys; Rengifo, Elizabeth

    2008-09-01

    Trees in the flooded forest of the Mapire River in Venezuela suffer a decrease in photosynthetic rate (A) when flood begins, which is reverted at maximum flood. Changes in A are accompanied by similar changes in stomatal conductance (g(s)), and the possibility of changes in photosynthetic capacity is not ruled out. In order to understand how relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis are affected by flooding, we studied the seasonal changes in A and its response to intercellular CO(2) concentration in trees of Campsiandra laurifolia, Symmeria paniculata, Acosmium nitens and Eschweilera tenuifolia. Flooding caused in trees of C. laurifolia and S. paniculata a reduction in A, g(s), carboxylation efficiency and total soluble protein (TSP), whereas gas exchange in A. nitens and E. tenuifolia was more sensitive to drought. Under flooding, relative stomatal limitation (L(s)) was on average half the highest, and relative non-stomatal limitation (L(ns)) increased from the dry season to flooding. Under full flood, A, g(s) and TSP regained high values. A was positively correlated to light-saturated electron transport rate, suggesting that part of the decrease in A under flooding was due to impairment of photosynthetic capacity. Under flooding, not only stomatal closure but also increased L(ns) causes a reduction in photosynthesis of all four species, and a process of acclimation as flooding progresses allows gas exchange and related variables to regain high values. PMID:18444960

  18. Assessing the "two water worlds hypothesis", and water sources for native and exotic evergreen species in south-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé Fernández, Pedro; Oyarzún, Carlos; Huyghens, Dries; Verhoest, Niko; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies using water stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) have described an ecohydrological separation of water between streams and trees indicated as the "two water world hypothesis". In this study, we monitored water compartments at two catchments near Valdivia (Chile) covered by old growth native evergreen forest (NF) and a Eucalyptus nitens stand covered catchment (or EP), throughout approximately 1.5 years. Our results showed that precipitation, stream and suction lysimeter water plots approximately along the δ2H/δ18O slope of local precipitation inputs (LMWL). However, bulk soil and xylem water plots below the LMWL, supporting the "two water worlds hypothesis". This suggests that trees are using water that is not contributing to stream water. However, we also found evidence of connectivity between the two water worlds, potentially caused by heavy rainfall events, for a brief period (autumn and winter) especially in EP. Our results also suggests that precipitation falling during autumn-winter period is the main water supply for streamflow and bulk soil water, which share a similar precipitation source as Aetoxicon punctatum (in NF) and 4 years old Eucalyptus nitens stand (in EP). We conclude that the "two water worlds hypothesis" applies under certain environmental conditions.

  19. Comparative ecotoxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lavtižar, Vesna; Berggren, Kristina; Trebše, Polonca; Kraak, Michiel H S; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-09-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is gaining importance in agricultural practice, but data on its possible negative effects on non-target organisms is severely deficient. This study therefore determined CAP toxicity to non-target soil invertebrates playing a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, including springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus) and oribatid mites (Oppia nitens). In sublethal toxicity tests in Lufa 2.2 soil, chronic exposure to CAP concentrations up to 1000 mg/kgdw did not affect the survival and reproduction of E. crypticus and O. nitens nor the survival, body weight and consumption of P. scaber. In contrast, the survival and reproduction of F. candida was severely affected, with an EC50 for effects on reproduction of 0.14 mg CAP/kgdw. The toxicity of CAP to the reproduction of F. candida was tested in four different soils following OECD guideline 232, and additionally in an avoidance test according to ISO guideline 17512-2. A significantly lower toxicity in soils rich in organic matter was observed, compared to low organic soils. Observations in the avoidance test with F. candida suggest that CAP acted in a prompt way, by affecting collembolan locomotor abilities thus preventing them from escaping contaminated soil. This study shows that CAP may especially pose a risk to non-target soil arthropods closely related to insects, while other soil invertebrates seem rather insensitive. PMID:27337437

  20. An evaluation of the impacts of energy tree plantations on water resources in the United Kingdom under present and future UKCIP02 climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Ian R.; Nisbet, Tom; Harrison, Jennifer A.

    2009-07-01

    The Hydrological Land Use Change model was used to assess the range of water resource impacts associated with four potential energy tree species (Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus gunnii, Nothofagus sp., and Fraxinus excelsior) at eight United Kingdom locations under present and future, Environment Agency Rainfall and Weather Impacts Generator, climate scenarios generated using UK Climate Impacts Programme 2002 (UKCIP02). Parameter values were derived using expert opinion and interpolation because of limited data. For Fraxinus excelsior, there are questions concerning the unusual, in a world context, published findings that evaporation from a tree crop is less than that from grass. Model predictions indicated that under the present climate all tree species, excepting Fraxinus excelsior, at all sites have greater mean annual evaporation, (8 to 84%) and reduced water yields (-6 to -97%) compared with grass. The predicted increase in tree evaporation arises from parameter values reflecting both increased rainfall interception and higher transpiration due to deeper rooting depths. Under future climate scenarios, (1) "potential annual yield" (difference between actual rainfall and potential evaporation) will decrease, becoming negative at all studied sites in England and Wales by 2080; (2) at drier sites and for species with highest evaporation rates, E. nitens and Nothofagus, evaporation rates will decrease; (3) at wetter sites and for all species, evaporation rates will increase; (4) at all sites and for all species, water yields will decrease; (5) differences between species remain the same, with evaporation rates increasing and water yield decreasing in the order Fraxinus excelsior, grass, E. gunnii, Nothofagus, and E. Nitens; and (6) there is an overall trend through time toward convergence in water yields from trees and grass. If higher water yield predictions for Fraxinus excelsior are proved correct, this would represent an attractive land use option for water and

  1. Estrogenic and chemopreventive activities of xanthones and flavones of Syngonanthus (Eriocaulaceae).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ana Paula Siqueira; de Sousa, Juliana Ferreira; da Silva, Marcelo Aparecido; Hilário, Felipe; Resende, Flávia Aparecida; de Camargo, Mariana Santoro; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida

    2013-11-01

    The possible benefits of some bioactive flavones and xanthones present in plants of the genus Syngonanthus prompted us to screen them for estrogenic activity. However, scientific research has shown that such substances may have undesirable properties, such as mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and toxicity, which restrict their use as therapeutic agents. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the estrogenicity and mutagenic and antimutagenic properties. We used recombinant yeast assay (RYA), with the strain BY4741 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Ames test, with strains TA100, TA98, TA97a and TA102 of Salmonella typhimirium, to evaluate estrogenicity, mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of methanolic extracts of Syngonanthus dealbatus (S.d.), Syngonanthus macrolepsis (S.m.), Syngonanthus nitens (S.n.) and Syngonanthus suberosus (S.s.), and of 9 compounds isolated from them (1=luteolin, 2=mix of A-1,3,6-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone and B-1,3,6-trihydroxy-2,5-dimethoxyxanthone, 3=1,5,7-trihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxyxanthone, 4=1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxy-2,5-dimethoxyxanthone, 5=1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxy-5-methoxyxanthone, 6=7-methoxyluteolin-8-C-β-glucopyranoside, 7=7-methoxyluteolin-6-C-β-glucopyranoside, 8=7,3'-dimethoxyluteolin-6-C-β-glucopyranoside and 9=6-hydroxyluteolin). The results indicated the estrogenic potential of the S. nitens methanol extract and four of its isolated xanthones, which exhibited, respectively, 14.74±1.63 nM; 19.54±6.61; 7.20±0.37; 6.71±1.02 e 10.01±4.26 nM of estradiol-equivalents (EEQ). None of the extracts or isolated compounds showed mutagenicity in any of the test strains and all of them showed antimutagenic potential, in particular preventing mutations caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The results show that the xanthones, only isolated from the methanol extract of S. nitens capitula, probably were the responsible for its estrogenic activity and could be useful as phytoestrogens, providing a new opportunity to develop

  2. Moisture Content Assessment in the Hudson Bay Lowlands Through Remote Sensing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, T.; Cheng, Q.; Bello, R. L.; Hu, B.

    2009-05-01

    Assessing moisture contents of lichens and mosses using ground-based high spectral resolution spectrometers (400-2500 nm) offers immense opportunities for a comprehensive monitoring of northern peatland moisture status by satellite/airborne imagery. This study investigates the impact of various moisture conditions of the lichens Cladina stellaris and Cladina rangiferina, and the mosses Dicranum elongatum and Tomenthypnum nitens upon the spectral signatures obtained. Reflectance and moisture content measurements (using weighing lysimeters) of the above species were made in a laboratory setting, while maintaining the natural moisture conditions of the samples; once the moisture and spectral measurements were complete, the samples were returned to the field and placed in their natural setting, continuously receiving moisture from precipitation and groundwater and losing water through evaporation and drainage. The spectral indices MSI (Moisture Stress Index), Simple ratio, WBI (Water Band Index), NDII (Normalized Difference Infrared Index), and NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index), were correlated with the moisture contents of the above species. The NDII was most successful in detecting moisture contents for all species, with R2 between 0.44 and 0.67. This study developed species specific indices to improve the detection of the above lichens and mosses moisture conditions. These species specific indices use normalized ratios between the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR). The improvement of these indices versus the spectral index NDII is significant (10-70%). The relationship between the plants' moisture content and the water table position was examined as well. It was found that the lichens are not responsive to variations in the water table position, while the mosses, specifically D. elongatum, are quite sensitive to changes in the water table position (with R2 0.78, and 0.38 for D. elongatum, and T. nitens, respectively). Thus, the use of the

  3. Changes in soil algal communities in spruce phytocenoses under the influence of aerotechnogenic pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakovskaya, I. V.; Patova, E. N.

    2007-05-01

    The regularities of the development of algal communities in podzolic soils under coniferous forests were studied in areas differing in their technogenic pollution intensity. In the unpolluted soils under spruce forests, 80 alga species of 6 divisions were found; in the soils under the coniferous forests located in the zone exposed to the technogenic pollution, 59 alga species of 5 divisions were found. The algal groups in the soils of the spruce forests included 14 48 taxa. Chlamydomonas gloeogama, C. reinhardtii, Chlorella vulgaris, Klebsormidium nitens, and Stichococcus bacillaris were resistant to different anthropogenic impacts. The results obtained may be used for monitoring of the state of the soil biota in the soils under the boreal forests of protected areas and also in spruce forests exposed to intense aerial technogenic pollution.

  4. Rapid determination of vitellogenin in fish plasma by anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography using postcolumn fluorescence derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cuiqin; Yuan, Dongxing; Liu, Baomin

    2006-12-01

    An analytical method involving anion exchange high performance liquid chromatographic determination of vitellogenin (Vtg) in fish plasma after postcolumn fluorescence derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) was developed. The retention time of Vtg was about 11 min. The reagent variables for derivatization were optimized. The fluorophore was excited at 335 nm and detected at 435 nm. A calibration curve was established ranging from 0.13 to 11.28 microg. The determination limit of Vtg was found to be as low as 0.13 microg. The spiked recovery was 93.6% and interassay variability was less than 4%. The method developed was used to determine Vtg in fish plasma obtained from red sea bream (Pagrosomus major), black porgy (Sparus macrocephalus) and skew band grunt (Hapalogenys nitens), without complicated sample pretreatment. The results confirmed that the method showed advantages of being simple, rapid, reproducible and sensitive. PMID:17159322

  5. A review of metal (Pb and Zn) sensitive and pH tolerant bioassay organisms for risk screening of metal-contaminated acidic soils.

    PubMed

    Chapman, E Emily V; Dave, Göran; Murimboh, John D

    2013-08-01

    To improve risk estimates at the screening stage of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA), short duration bioassays tailored to undisturbed soil cores from the contaminated site could be useful. However, existing standardized bioassays use disturbed soil samples and often pH sensitive organisms. This is a problem as naturally acidic soils are widespread. Changing soil properties to suit the test organism may change metal bioavailability, leading to erroneous risk estimates. For bioassays in undisturbed soil cores to be effective, species able to withstand natural soil properties must be identified. This review presents a critical examination of bioassay species' tolerance of acidic soils and sensitivity to metal contaminants such as Pb and Zn. Promising organisms include; Dendrobaena octaedra, Folsomia candida, Caenorhabditis elegans, Oppia nitens, Brassica rapa, Trifolium pratense, Allium cepa, Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum. The MetSTICK test and the Bait lamina test were also identified as suitable microorganism tests. PMID:23688951

  6. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of two Tetragnatha Spiders (Araneae: Tetragnathidae): Severe Truncation of tRNAs and Novel Gene Rearrangements in Araneae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Liang; Li, Chao; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Mitogenomes can provide information for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. The Araneae is one of the largest orders of Arachnida with great economic importance. In order to develop mitogenome data for this significant group, we determined the complete mitogenomes of two long jawed spiders Tetragnatha maxillosa and T. nitens and performed the comparative analysis with previously published spider mitogenomes. The circular mitogenomes are 14578 bp long with A+T content of 74.5% in T. maxillosa and 14639 bp long with A+T content of 74.3% in T. nitens, respectively. Both the mitogenomes contain a standard set of 37 genes and an A+T-rich region with the same gene orientation as the other spider mitogenomes, with the exception of the different gene order by the rearrangement of two tRNAs (trnW and trnG). Most of the tRNAs lose TΨC arm stems and have unpaired amino acid acceptor arms. As interesting features, both trnS(AGN) and trnS(UCN) lack the dihydrouracil (DHU) arm and long tandem repeat units are presented in the A+T-rich region of both the spider mitogenomes. The phylogenetic relationships of 23 spider mitogenomes based on the concatenated nucleotides sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicated that the mitogenome sequences could be useful in resolving higher-level relationship of Araneae. The molecular information acquired from the results of this study should be very useful for future researches on mitogenomic evolution and genetic diversities in spiders. PMID:26722222

  7. The Evolutionary Origins of the Southern Ocean Philobryid Bivalves: Hidden Biodiversity, Ancient Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jennifer A.; Linse, Katrin; Whittle, Rowan; Griffiths, Huw J.

    2015-01-01

    Philobryids (Bivalvia: Arcoida) are one of the most speciose marine bivalve families in the Southern Ocean and are common throughout the Southern Hemisphere. Considering this diversity and their brooding reproductive mode (limiting long-distance dispersal), this family may have been present in the Southern Ocean since its inception. However Philobrya and Adacnarca appear only in the Quaternary fossil record of the Antarctic, suggesting a much more recent incursion. Molecular dating provides an independent means of measuring the time of origin and radiation of this poorly known group. Here we present the first combined molecular and morphological investigation of the Philobryidae in the Southern Ocean. Two nuclear loci (18S and 28S) were amplified from 35 Southern Ocean Adacnarca and Philobrya specimens, with a combined sequence length of 2,282 base pairs (bp). Adacnarca specimens (A. nitens and A. limopsoides) were resolved as a strongly supported monophyletic group. Genus Philobrya fell into two strongly supported groups (‘sublaevis’ and ‘magellanica/wandelensis’), paraphyletic with Adacnarca. The A. nitens species complex is identified as at least seven morpho-species through morphological and genetic analysis of taxon clustering. Phylogenetic analyses resolve Philobryidae as a strongly supported monophyletic clade and sister taxon to the Limopsidae, as anticipated by their classification into the superfamily Limopsoidea. Bayesian relaxed clock analyses of divergence times suggest that genus Adacnarca radiated in the Southern Ocean from the Early Paleogene, while P. sublaevis and P. wandelensis clades radiated in the late Miocene, following the formation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. PMID:25853413

  8. Evolutionary History and Novel Biotic Interactions Determine Plant Responses to Elevated CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Wooliver, Rachel; Senior, John K.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M.; Langley, J. Adam; Chapman, Samantha K.; Bailey, Joseph K.

    2014-01-01

    A major frontier in global change research is predicting how multiple agents of global change will alter plant productivity, a critical component of the carbon cycle. Recent research has shown that plant responses to climate change are phylogenetically conserved such that species within some lineages are more productive than those within other lineages in changing environments. However, it remains unclear how phylogenetic patterns in plant responses to changing abiotic conditions may be altered by another agent of global change, the introduction of non-native species. Using a system of 28 native Tasmanian Eucalyptus species belonging to two subgenera, Symphyomyrtus and Eucalyptus, we hypothesized that productivity responses to abiotic agents of global change (elevated CO2 and increased soil N) are unique to lineages, but that novel interactions with a non-native species mediate these responses. We tested this hypothesis by examining productivity of 1) native species monocultures and 2) mixtures of native species with an introduced hardwood plantation species, Eucalyptus nitens, to experimentally manipulated soil N and atmospheric CO2. Consistent with past research, we found that N limits productivity overall, especially in elevated CO2 conditions. However, monocultures of species within the Symphyomyrtus subgenus showed the strongest response to N (gained 127% more total biomass) in elevated CO2 conditions, whereas those within the Eucalyptus subgenus did not respond to N. Root:shoot ratio (an indicator of resource use) was on average greater in species pairs containing Symphyomyrtus species, suggesting that functional traits important for resource uptake are phylogenetically conserved and explaining the phylogenetic pattern in plant response to changing environmental conditions. Yet, native species mixtures with E. nitens exhibited responses to CO2 and N that differed from those of monocultures, supporting our hypothesis and highlighting that both plant

  9. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of two Tetragnatha Spiders (Araneae: Tetragnathidae): Severe Truncation of tRNAs and Novel Gene Rearrangements in Araneae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng-Liang; Li, Chao; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Mitogenomes can provide information for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. The Araneae is one of the largest orders of Arachnida with great economic importance. In order to develop mitogenome data for this significant group, we determined the complete mitogenomes of two long jawed spiders Tetragnatha maxillosa and T. nitens and performed the comparative analysis with previously published spider mitogenomes. The circular mitogenomes are 14578 bp long with A+T content of 74.5% in T. maxillosa and 14639 bp long with A+T content of 74.3% in T. nitens, respectively. Both the mitogenomes contain a standard set of 37 genes and an A+T-rich region with the same gene orientation as the other spider mitogenomes, with the exception of the different gene order by the rearrangement of two tRNAs (trnW and trnG). Most of the tRNAs lose TΨC arm stems and have unpaired amino acid acceptor arms. As interesting features, both trnSAGN and trnSUCN lack the dihydrouracil (DHU) arm and long tandem repeat units are presented in the A+T-rich region of both the spider mitogenomes. The phylogenetic relationships of 23 spider mitogenomes based on the concatenated nucleotides sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicated that the mitogenome sequences could be useful in resolving higher-level relationship of Araneae. The molecular information acquired from the results of this study should be very useful for future researches on mitogenomic evolution and genetic diversities in spiders. PMID:26722222

  10. Evolutionary history and novel biotic interactions determine plant responses to elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Wooliver, Rachel; Senior, John K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Langley, J Adam; Chapman, Samantha K; Bailey, Joseph K

    2014-01-01

    A major frontier in global change research is predicting how multiple agents of global change will alter plant productivity, a critical component of the carbon cycle. Recent research has shown that plant responses to climate change are phylogenetically conserved such that species within some lineages are more productive than those within other lineages in changing environments. However, it remains unclear how phylogenetic patterns in plant responses to changing abiotic conditions may be altered by another agent of global change, the introduction of non-native species. Using a system of 28 native Tasmanian Eucalyptus species belonging to two subgenera, Symphyomyrtus and Eucalyptus, we hypothesized that productivity responses to abiotic agents of global change (elevated CO2 and increased soil N) are unique to lineages, but that novel interactions with a non-native species mediate these responses. We tested this hypothesis by examining productivity of 1) native species monocultures and 2) mixtures of native species with an introduced hardwood plantation species, Eucalyptus nitens, to experimentally manipulated soil N and atmospheric CO2. Consistent with past research, we found that N limits productivity overall, especially in elevated CO2 conditions. However, monocultures of species within the Symphyomyrtus subgenus showed the strongest response to N (gained 127% more total biomass) in elevated CO2 conditions, whereas those within the Eucalyptus subgenus did not respond to N. Root:shoot ratio (an indicator of resource use) was on average greater in species pairs containing Symphyomyrtus species, suggesting that functional traits important for resource uptake are phylogenetically conserved and explaining the phylogenetic pattern in plant response to changing environmental conditions. Yet, native species mixtures with E. nitens exhibited responses to CO2 and N that differed from those of monocultures, supporting our hypothesis and highlighting that both plant

  11. Decomposition dynamics of mixed litter in a seasonally flooded forest near the Orinoco river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianoni, Alessia; Chacón, Noemí; Méndez, Carlos L.; Flores, Saúl

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the decomposition of a litter mixture in the seasonally flooded forest of a tributary of the Orinoco river. This mixture was prepared using three litter species, based on the litter fall rate observed over a complete hydro-period (2012-2013). The mixture loading ratio was 0.46 of Pouteria orinocoensis (Sapotaceae), 0.38 of Alibertia latifolia (Rubiaceae) and 0.16 of Acosmium nitens (Fabaceae). The initial chemical composition of each single litter species was also determined. Litterbags (20 × 20 cm, 2 mm opening) containing either each single species or the mixture, were deployed on the flooded forest soil and sampled after 30, 240, 270, 300 and 330 days. There were differences in initial total N and P concentrations, with A. nitens (AN) showing the highest nutrient concentrations (%NAN = 1.86 ± 0.19; %PAN = 0.058 ± 0.008) and P. orinocoensis (PO) and A. latifolia (AL) the lowest (%NPO = 0.92 ± 0.06; %NAL = 1.04 ± 0.04; %PPO = 0.029 ± 0.005; %PAL = 0.032 ± 0.001). Litter from AN showed the greatest mass loss (55%) and fastest decomposition rate (k = 0.00185 ± 0.00028) while litter from AL and the mixture showed the smallest mass loss (24% and 27% respectively) and the slowest decomposition rate (kAL = 0.00078 ± 0.00012 and kMIX = 0.00077 ± 0.00006). Decomposition rates were significantly and positively correlated with initial N (r = 0.556, p < 0.05) and P concentrations (r = 0.482, p < 0.05). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences between the expected decomposition rate and the observed decomposition rate of the mixture (additive response). To test the nature of the additivity, an enhancement factor (f) on decomposition rates for each single species was calculated. The species with the highest and smallest value of f were AN and AL, respectively. The fact that two out of the three species had values significantly different from 1, suggests that the additivity detected in our mixture was a consequence of the counterbalancing of

  12. Seasonal changes in photosynthesis of trees in the flooded forest of the Mapire River.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M. D.; Pieters, A.; Donoso, C.; Herrera, C.; Tezara, W.; Rengifo, E.; Herrera, A.

    1999-02-01

    We studied the flood tolerance of five tree species growing in the flooded forest adjacent to the Mapire river, in SW Venezuela. Mean photosynthetic rate and leaf conductance were 11 &mgr;mol m(-2) s(-1) and 700 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Xylem water potential ranged from -0.08 to -1.15 MPa. Based on leaf gas exchange as a criterion of tolerance to flooding, two response patterns were identified: (1) decreasing photosynthetic rate with increasing flooding and leaf conductance (Psidium ovatifolium Berg. ex Desc., Campsiandra laurifolia Benth., Symmeria paniculata Benth. and Acosmium nitens (Vog.) Benth); and (2) independence of photosynthesis and leaf conductance from flooding (Eschweilera tenuifolia (Berg.) Miers.). In the first response pattern, declining photosynthetic rate with flooding may be interpreted as a sign of reduced flood tolerance, whereas the second response pattern may indicate increased flood tolerance. An increase in xylem water potential with depth of water column was found for all species (with the possible exception of P. ovatifolium), indicating that flooding does not cause water stress in these trees. Submerged leaves that had been under water for between four days and four months generally had photosynthetic rates and leaf conductances similar to those of aerial leaves, indicating maintenance of photosynthetic capacity under water. Daily positive oscillations in glucan content in submerged leaves of P. ovatifolium and C. laurifolia suggest that submerged leaves do not represent a sink for photosynthates produced by aerial leaves. PMID:12651586

  13. Genomic patterns of species diversity and divergence in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S; Myburg, Alexander A; Potts, Brad M; Vaillancourt, René E

    2015-06-01

    We examined genome-wide patterns of DNA sequence diversity and divergence among six species of the important tree genus Eucalyptus and investigated their relationship with genomic architecture. Using c. 90 range-wide individuals of each Eucalyptus species (E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. globulus, E. nitens, E. dunnii and E. camaldulensis), genetic diversity and divergence were estimated from 2840 polymorphic diversity arrays technology markers covering the 11 chromosomes. Species differentiating markers (SDMs) identified in each of 15 pairwise species comparisons, along with species diversity (HHW ) and divergence (FST ), were projected onto the E. grandis reference genome. Across all species comparisons, SDMs totalled 1.1-5.3% of markers and were widely distributed throughout the genome. Marker divergence (FST and SDMs) and diversity differed among and within chromosomes. Patterns of diversity and divergence were broadly conserved across species and significantly associated with genomic features, including the proximity of markers to genes, the relative number of clusters of tandem duplications, and gene density within or among chromosomes. These results suggest that genomic architecture influences patterns of species diversity and divergence in the genus. This influence is evident across the six species, encompassing diverse phylogenetic lineages, geography and ecology. PMID:25678438

  14. Application of process-based models to forest management: experience with PROMOD, a simple plantation productivity model.

    PubMed

    Sands, P. J.; Battaglia, M.; Mummery, D.

    2000-03-01

    Process-based growth models are rarely used as a basis for decisions in forest management. Reasons for this are discussed and the development and application of PROMOD, a simple process-based plantation productivity model designed to meet the needs of managers, is described. In particular,PROMOD is intended for screening prospective plantation sites on the basis of readily available input data, including site latitude, soil characteristics, and long-term climate data. Originally developed for use with Eucalyptus globulus Labill., PROMOD has since been parameterized also for Eucalyptus nitens (Deane & Maiden) Maiden and Pinus radiata D. Don. We discuss the adaptation of PROMOD to new environmental conditions and species; the sensitivity of the model's predictions to changes in model structure, the values of its physiological parameters and the accuracy and resolution of site survey information; and the use of the model both in assessing the profitability of plantation irrigation in semi-arid regions, and for generating broad-area productivity maps. PMID:12651453

  15. Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of livestock in Nicaragua, with notes about distribution.

    PubMed

    Düttmann, Christiane; Flores, Byron; Kadoch Z, Nathaniel; Bermúdez C, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    We document the species of ticks that parasitize livestock in Nicaragua. The study was based on tick collection on cattle and horses from 437 farms in nine departments. Of 4841 animals examined (4481 cows and 360 horses), 3299 were parasitized, which represent 68 % of the bovines and 67 % of the equines in study: 59 cows and 25 horses were parasitized by more than one species. In addition, 280 specimens of the entomological museum in León were examined. The ticks found on cattle were Rhipicephalus microplus (75.2 % of the ticks collected), Amblyomma mixtum (20.8 %), A. parvum (2.6 %), A. tenellum (0.7 %), A. maculatum (0.7 %). While the ticks collected from the horses were: Dermacentor nitens (41.5 %), A. mixtum (31.7 %), R. microplus (13.8 %), A. parvum (6.5 %), A. tenellum (3.3 %), D. dissimilis (2.4 %) and A. maculatum (0.8 %). PMID:27392740

  16. Carbon accumulation rate of peatland in the High Arctic, Svalbard: Implications for carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsubo, Takayuki; Uchida, Masaki; Sasaki, Akiko; Kondo, Miyuki; Yoshitake, Shinpei; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    Moss tundra that accumulates a thick peat layer is one of the most important ecosystems in the High Arctic, Svalbard. The importance of this ecosystem for carbon sequestration was estimated from the apparent rates of carbon accumulation based on the 14C age and amount of peat in the active layer. The study site at Stuphallet, Brøgger Peninsula, northwestern Svalbard was covered with a thick peat layer dominated by moss species such as Calliergon richardsonii, Paludella squarrosa, Tomenthypnum nitens, and Warnstorfia exannulata. The average thickness of the active layer (brown moss and peat) was approximately 28 cm in 1 August 2011. The calibrated (cal) age of peat from the bottom of the active layer (20-30 cm below the peatland surface) ranged from 81 to 701 cal yr BP (median value of 2σ range). Based on the total carbon (4.5-9.2 kg C m-2), the apparent rate of carbon accumulation in the active layer was 9.0-19.2 (g C m-2 yr-1), which is similar to or greater than the net ecosystem production or net primary production reported for other vegetation types in this area. Our data suggest that moss tundra plays an important role in carbon sequestration in this area.

  17. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of the essential oils from 16 species of Eucalyptus against Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults.

    PubMed

    Juan, Laura W; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martin; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-06-01

    Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker, Eucalyptus elata Dehnh, Eucalyptus fraxinoides Deane & Maiden, E. obliqua L'Hér) were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Essential oils were mainly composed of 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, and p-cymene. Vapors from these essential oils and their major components were found to be toxic to Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) adults. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber, and the number of knocked down flies was recorded as a function of time. Knockdown time 50% was then calculated. Results showed that essential oil of E. polybractea had the highest knockdown activity of 3.44 min. A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect. PMID:21735933

  18. Floral structure of Emmotum (Icacinaceae sensu stricto or Emmotaceae), a phylogenetically isolated genus of lamiids with a unique pseudotrimerous gynoecium, bitegmic ovules and monosporangiate thecae

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Peter K.; Rapini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Icacinaceae sensu stricto consist of a group of early branching lineages of lamiids whose relationships are not yet resolved and whose detailed floral morphology is poorly known. The most bizarre flowers occur in Emmotum: the gynoecium has three locules on one side and none on the other. It has been interpreted as consisting of three fertile and two sterile carpels or of one fertile carpel with two longitudinal septa and two sterile carpels. This study focused primarily on the outer and inner morphology of the gynoecium to resolve its disputed structure, and ovule structure was also studied. In addition, the perianth and androecium were investigated. Methods Flowers and floral buds of two Emmotum species, E. harleyi and E. nitens, were collected and fixed in the field, and then studied by scanning electron microscopy. Microtome section series were used to reconstruct their morphology. Key Results The gynoecium in Emmotum was confirmed as pentamerous, consisting of three fertile and two sterile carpels. Each of the three locules behaves as the single locule in other Icacinaceae, with the placenta of the two ovules being identical, which shows that three fertile carpels are present. In addition, it was found that the ovules are bitegmic, which is almost unique in lamiids, and that the stamens have monosporangiate thecae, which also occurs in the closely related family Oncothecaceae, but is not known from any other Icacinaceae sensu lato so far. Conclusions The flowers of Emmotum have unique characters at different evolutionary levels: the pseudotrimerous gynoecium at angiosperm level, the bitegmic ovules at lamiid level and the monosporangiate thecae at family or family group level. However, in general, the floral morphology of Emmotum fits well in Icacinaceae. More comparative research on flower structure is necessary in Icacinaceae and other early branching lineages of lamiids to better understand the initial evolution of this large lineage of

  19. Tick cell culture isolation and growth of Rickettsia raoultii from Dutch Dermacentor reticulatus ticks

    PubMed Central

    Alberdi, M. Pilar; Nijhof, Ard M.; Jongejan, Frans; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    Tick cell lines play an important role in research on ticks and tick-borne pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms. In an attempt to derive continuous Dermacentor reticulatus cell lines, embryo-derived primary cell cultures were set up from eggs laid by field ticks originally collected as unfed adults in The Netherlands and maintained for up to 16 months. After several months, it became evident that cells in the primary cultures were infected with a Rickettsia-like intracellular organism. Supernatant medium containing some D. reticulatus cells was inoculated into cultures of 2 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus cell lines, BME/CTVM2 and BME/CTVM23, where abundant growth of the bacteria occurred intracellularly on transfer to both cell lines. Bacterial growth was monitored by light (live, inverted microscope, Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears) and transmission electron microscopy revealing heavy infection with typical intracytoplasmic Rickettsia-like bacteria, not present in uninfected cultures. DNA was extracted from bacteria-infected and uninfected control cultures, and primers specific for Rickettsia 16S rRNA, ompB, and sca4 genes were used to generate PCR products that were subsequently sequenced. D. reticulatus primary cultures and both infected tick cell lines were positive for all 3 Rickettsia genes. Sequencing of PCR products revealed 99–100% identity with published Rickettsia raoultii sequences. The R. raoultii also grew abundantly in the D. nitens cell line ANE58, poorly in the D. albipictus cell line DALBE3, and not at all in the D. andersoni cell line DAE15. In conclusion, primary tick cell cultures and cell lines are useful systems for isolation and propagation of fastidious tick-borne microorganisms. In vitro isolation of R. raoultii from Dutch D. reticulatus confirms previous PCR-based detection in field ticks, and presence of the bacteria in the tick eggs used to initiate the primary cultures confirms that transovarial transmission of this

  20. A simple mechanism for the establishment of C₂-specific gene expression in Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Adwy, Waly; Laxa, Miriam; Peterhansel, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    The transition of C3 , via C2 towards C4 photosynthesis is an important example of stepwise evolution of a complex genetic trait. A common feature that was gradually emphasized during this trajectory is the evolution of a CO2 concentration mechanism around Rubisco. In C2 plants, this mechanism is based on tissue-specific accumulation of glycine decarboxylase (GDC) in bundle sheath (BS) cells, relative to global expression in the cells of C3 leaves. This limits photorespiratory CO2 release to BS cells. Because BS cells are surrounded by photosynthetically active mesophyll cells, this arrangement enhances the probability of re-fixation of CO2 . The restriction of GDC to BS cells was mainly achieved by confinement of its P-subunit (GLDP). Here, we provide a mechanism for the establishment of C2 -type gene expression by studying the upstream sequences of C3 Gldp genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Deletion of 59 bp in the upstream region of AtGldp1 restricted expression of a reporter gene to BS cells and the vasculature without affecting diurnal variation. This region was named the 'M box'. Similar results were obtained for the AtGldp2 gene. Fusion of the M box to endogenous or exogenous promoters supported mesophyll expression. Nucleosome densities at the M box were low, suggesting an open chromatin structure facilitating transcription factor binding. In silico analysis defined a possible consensus for the element that was conserved across the Brassicaceae, but not in Moricandia nitens, a C2 plant. Collective results provide evidence that a simple mutation is sufficient for establishment of C2 -specific gene expression in a C3 plant. PMID:26603271

  1. Molecular phylogenetics of the Anolis onca series: a case history in retrograde evolution revisited.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Kirsten E; Mijares-Urrutia, Abraham; Larson, Allan

    2006-09-15

    Anoles of the Anolis onca series represent a dramatic case of retrograde evolution, exhibiting great reduction (A. annectens) and loss (A. onca) of the subdigital pads considered a key innovation for the evolutionary radiation of anoles in arboreal environments. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of these anoles and their closest known relatives (A. auratus, A. lineatus, A. meridionalis, and A. nitens) using new mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the ND2 gene, five tRNA genes (tRNA(Trp), tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Asn), tRNA(Cys), tRNA(Tyr)), the origin of light-strand replication, and a portion of the CO1 gene (1,446 aligned base positions, 612 parsimony informative). Our results confirm monophyly of the A. onca series and suggest an evolutionary separation of approximately 10 million years between A. annectens and A. onca. Evolution of subdigital structure in this series illustrates ectopic expression of developmental programs that replace flexible subdigital lamellae of the toepad with rigid, keeled scales resembling dorsal digital scales. Our phylogenetic results indicate that narrowing of the toepad in A. auratus evolved separately from toepad reduction in the A. onca series. Expansion of the subdigital lamellae along the phalanges in A. auratus appears to compensate constriction of lamellae by digital narrowing, maintaining greater climbing capability in this species. Toepad evolution in the lineage ancestral to A. auratus features changes of the same developmental modules as the A. onca series but in the opposite direction. Large molecular distances between geographic populations of A. auratus indicate that its derived toepad structure is at least 9 million years old. PMID:16506231

  2. Revision of Poliaspis (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Diaspididae), with descriptions of 8 new species from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Nate; Henderson, Rosa C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Eight new Australian species of Poliaspis are described and illustrated: Poliaspis alluvia sp. n., Poliaspis araucariae sp. n., Poliaspis ceraflora sp. n., Poliaspis naamba sp. n., Poliaspis nalbo sp. n., Poliaspis narungga sp. n., Poliaspis ozothamnae sp. n., and Poliaspis waibenensis sp. n. Two described species are transferred into Poliaspis and are redescribed and illustrated: Lineaspis callitris (Laing) originally described by Laing as a species of Poliaspis, is transferred back into Poliaspis as Poliaspis callitris Laing, comb. rev., and Leonardaspis wilga (Leonardi) is transferred to Poliaspis as Poliaspis wilga (Leonardi), comb. n. Descriptions and illustrations are also provided for six of the fourteen previously-named Poliaspis species, including five from Australia: Poliaspis attenuata Brimblecombe, Poliaspis elongata Brimblecombe, Poliaspis exocarpi Maskell, Poliaspis nitens Fuller, and Poliaspis syringae Laing. Both Poliaspis cycadis Comstock and Poliaspis gaultheriae Green become junior synonyms of Poliaspis media Maskell. The species not treated here are Poliaspis intermedia Fuller (the location of the types is unknown and Fuller’s description is inadequate), Poliaspis casuarinicola Lindinger (missing types), Poliaspis incisa Takagi and de Faveri (recently, and well described in Takagi and de Faveri 2011), and the six New Zealand species recently revised by Henderson (2011). In addition, Laingaspis lanigera (Laing), the adult female of which has 8 clusters of perivulvar pores – as in Poliaspis species – is redescribed and illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Laingaspis lanigera, Poliaspis callitris, Poliaspis exocarpi, Poliaspis media, and Poliaspis wilga. A key is provided to the species of Poliaspis, excluding Poliaspis casuarinicola and Poliaspis intermedia butincluding Poliaspis incisa and the New Zealand species: Poliaspis chathamica Henderson, Poliaspis floccosa Henderson, Poliaspis lactea (Maskell), Poliaspis media Maskell

  3. Commercial tree species discrimination using airborne AISA Eagle hyperspectral imagery and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peerbhay, Kabir Yunus; Mutanga, Onisimo; Ismail, Riyad

    2013-05-01

    Discriminating commercial tree species using hyperspectral remote sensing techniques is critical in monitoring the spatial distributions and compositions of commercial forests. However, issues related to data dimensionality and multicollinearity limit the successful application of the technology. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) technique in accurately classifying six exotic commercial forest species (Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus smithii, Pinus patula, Pinus elliotii and Acacia mearnsii) using airborne AISA Eagle hyperspectral imagery (393-900 nm). Additionally, the variable importance in the projection (VIP) method was used to identify subsets of bands that could successfully discriminate the forest species. Results indicated that the PLS-DA model that used all the AISA Eagle bands (n = 230) produced an overall accuracy of 80.61% and a kappa value of 0.77, with user's and producer's accuracies ranging from 50% to 100%. In comparison, incorporating the optimal subset of VIP selected wavebands (n = 78) in the PLS-DA model resulted in an improved overall accuracy of 88.78% and a kappa value of 0.87, with user's and producer's accuracies ranging from 70% to 100%. Bands located predominantly within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum (393-723 nm) showed the most capability in terms of discriminating between the six commercial forest species. Overall, the research has demonstrated the potential of using PLS-DA for reducing the dimensionality of hyperspectral datasets as well as determining the optimal subset of bands to produce the highest classification accuracies.

  4. The potentiation of zinc toxicity by soil moisture in a boreal forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Owojori, Olugbenga J; Siciliano, Steven D

    2015-03-01

    Northern boreal forests often experience forest dieback as a result of metal ore mining and smelting. The common solution is to lime the soil, which increases pH, reducing metal toxicity and encouraging recovery. In certain situations, however, such as in Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada, liming has yielded only moderate benefits, with some locations responding well to liming and other locations not at all. In an effort to increase the effectiveness of the ecorestoration strategy, the authors investigated if these differences in liming responsiveness were linked to differences in toxicity. Toxicity of metal-impacted Flin Flon soils on the oribatid mite Oppia nitens and the collembolan Folsomia candida was assessed, with a view toward identifying the metal of concern in the area. The effects of moisture content on metal sorption, uptake, and toxicity to the invertebrates were also investigated. Toxicity tests with the invertebrates were conducted using either Flin Flon soils or artificial soils with moisture content adjusted to 30%, 45%, 60%, or 75% of the maximum water-holding capacity of the soil samples. The Relative to Cd Toxicity Model identified Zn as the metal of concern in the area, and this was confirmed using validation tests with field contaminated soils. Furthermore, increasing the moisture content in soils increased the amount of mobile Zn available for uptake with the ion exchange resin. Survival and reproduction of both invertebrates were reduced under Zn exposure as moisture level increased. Thus, moisture-collecting landforms, which are often also associated with high Zn concentrations at Flin Flon, have, as a result, higher Zn toxicity to the soil ecosystem because of increases in soil moisture. PMID:25502519

  5. Chemical basis of unwettability in Liacaridae (Acari, Oribatida): specific variations of a cuticular acid/ester-based system.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Adrian; Stabentheiner, Edith; Leis, Hans-Jörg; Raspotnig, Günther

    2015-07-01

    Oribatid mites of the family Liacaridae comprise a large number of species with smooth and shiny body surfaces that display extraordinary anti-wetting properties. The principle of liacarid unwettability is not related to micro-structured surfaces as present in many Oribatida ("Lotus effect") but the formation of raincoat-like lipid layers covering the epicuticle. We here conducted a comparative study on the chemistry of cuticular lipid layers in a selection of Liacaridae, including representatives of all major Central European genera, Liacarus, Dorycranosus, Adoristes, and Xenillus. Cuticular lipids of unwettable individuals were removed from mite bodies by hexane extraction, and were analyzed by GC-MS. Basically, two chemically distinguishable systems were found. Type I: cuticular lipids of Liacarus subterraneus, L. coracinus, L. nitens, Dorycranosus curtipilis, and Xenillus tegeocranus contained different carboxylic acids (C8-, C10-, C10:1-, C10:2-acids) and their corresponding di-glycerides in species-specific combinations. Type II: Adoristes ovatus exhibited a system of cuticular lipids composed of esters of pentanoic- and heptanoic acids with C14-, C15-, C16- and C17-alcohols. Interestingly, the chemistry of surface lipids did not reflect the morphology of the cuticle in the species investigated. Smooth and shiny cuticles, though exhibiting a specific pattern of round or slit-like pores, were found in representatives of Liacarus, Dorycranosus (all of which exhibiting cuticular chemistry of type I) and Adoristes (exhibiting cuticular chemistry of type II). Xenillus, possessing a rough, cerotegumental cement layer-covered surface, showed type I-chemistry. The acid-esters systems herein investigated are considered characteristic for the cuticular chemistry of Liacaridae or a lineage of these, and provide first insights into the comparative chemistry of the inner (=lipid) layer of the oribatid cerotegument. PMID:25913033

  6. Rickettsial Infection in Animals, Humans and Ticks in Paulicéia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, I; Martins, T F; Olegário, M M; Peterka, C; Guedes, E; Ferreira, F; Labruna, M B

    2015-11-01

    A previous study in Paulicéia Municipality, south-eastern Brazil, reported 9.7% of the Amblyomma triste ticks to be infected by Rickettsia parkeri, a bacterial pathogen that causes spotted fever in humans. These A. triste ticks were shown to be associated with marsh areas, where the marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus is a primary host for this tick species. During 2008-2009, blood serum samples were collected from 140 horses, 41 dogs, 5 opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and 26 humans in farms from Pauliceia Municipality. Ticks were collected from these animals, from vegetation and from additional wildlife in these farms. Overall, 25% (35/140) of the horses, 7.3% (3/41) of the dogs, 3.8% (1/26) of the humans and 100% (5/5) of the opossums were seroreactive (titre ≥64) to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that horses that were allowed to forage in the marsh were 4.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp than horses that did not forage in the marsh. In addition, horses that had been living in the farm for more than 8.5 years were 2.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to SFG Rickettsia spp than horses that were living for ≤8.5 years. Ticks collected from domestic animals or from vegetation included Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Dermacentor nitens and Rhipicephalus microplus. By PCR analyses, only one pool of A. coelebs ticks from the vegetation was shown to be infected by rickettsiae, for which DNA sequencing revealed to be Rickettsia amblyommii. Ticks (not tested by PCR) collected from wildlife encompassed A. cajennense and Amblyomma rotundatum on lizards (Tupinambis sp), and A. cajennense and A. triste on the bird Laterallus viridis. Our results indicate that the marsh area of Paulicéia offers risks of infection by SFG rickettsiae. PMID:25643912

  7. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  8. Validation of models to estimate the fumigant and larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Juan, Laura W; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marcó, Martín; Masuh, Hector M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work is to validate the pre-existing models that relate the larvicidal and adulticidal activities of the Eucalyptus essential oils on Aedes aegypti. Previous works at our laboratory described that the larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils can be estimated from the relative concentration of two main components (p-cymene and 1,8-cineole) and that the adulticidal effectiveness can be explained, to a great extent, by the presence of large amounts of the component 1,8-cineole in it. In general, the results show that the higher adulticidal effect of essential oils the lower their larvicidal activity. Fresh leaves was harvested and distilled. Once the essential oil was obtained, the chemical composition was analysed, evaluating the biological activity of 15 species of the genus Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev and Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis × nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii var Benthamii Maiden and Cambage, Eucalyptus benthamii var dorrigoensis Maiden and Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane and Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson and K.D.Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus robusta Smith, Eucalyptus rubida Deane and Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker). Essential oils of these plant species were used for the validation of equations from preexistent models, in which observed and estimated values of the biological activity were compared. The regression analysis showed a strong validation of the models, re-stating the trends previously observed. The models were expressed as follows: A, fumigant activity [KT(50(min)) = 10.65-0.076 × 1,8-cineole (%)](p < 0.01; F, 397; R (2), 0.79); B, larval mortality (%)((40 ppm)) = 103.85 + 0.482 × p-cymene (%) - 0.363 × α-pinene (%) - 1.07 × 1,8-cineole (%) (p < 0.01; F, 300; R (2), 0.90). These results confirmed the

  9. Modeling Halophytic Plants in APEX for Sustainable Water and Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRuyter, T.; Saito, L.; Nowak, B.; Rossi, C.; Toderich, K.

    2013-12-01

    A major problem for irrigated agricultural production is soil salinization, which can occur naturally or can be human-induced. Human-induced, or secondary salinization, is particularly a problem in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in irrigated areas. Irrigated land has more than twice the production of rainfed land, and accounts for about one third of the world's food, but nearly 20% of irrigated lands are salt-affected. Many farmers worldwide currently seasonally leach their land to reduce the soil salt content. These practices, however, create further problems such as a raised groundwater table, and salt, fertilizer, and pesticide pollution of nearby lakes and groundwater. In Uzbekistan, a combination of these management practices and a propensity to cultivate 'thirsty' crops such as cotton has also contributed to the Aral Sea shrinking nearly 90% by volume since the 1950s. Most common agricultural crops are glycophytes that have reduced yields when subjected to salt-stress. Some plants, however, are known as halophytic or 'salt-loving' plants and are capable of completing their life-cycle in higher saline soil or water environments. Halophytes may be useful for human consumption, livestock fodder, or biofuel, and may also be able to reduce or maintain salt levels in soil and water. To assess the potential for these halophytes to assist with salinity management, we are developing a model that is capable of tracking salinity under different management practices in agricultural environments. This model is interdisciplinary as it combines fields such as plant ecology, hydrology, and soil science. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) model, Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX), is being augmented with a salinity module that tracks salinity as separate ions across the soil-plant-water interface. The halophytes Atriplex nitens, Climacoptera lanata, and Salicornia europaea are being parameterized and added into the APEX model database. Field sites

  10. Plantation Forestry and Peak Flow Responses in Experimental Catchments and Large River Basins in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iroume, A.; Huber, A.

    2007-05-01

    replaced by an Eucalyptus nitens plantation) show that in average peak flows increased by 32% after forest removal. Analyzing pre and post-harvesting peak flows from different sizes of rainfall events (rainfall "small" events from 5 to 10 mm, "medium" events from 10 to 50 mm, and "large" events greater than 50 mm), the median of the peak flows increased by 67% for the small events and 32% for the large events. Besides, comparing the pre-harvesting condition with each of the years of the post-harvesting period (years 2000 to 2005), the analysis showed that in all cases post-harvesting peak flows were still significantly higher than before forest clearing. Decreases in annual runoff were noticed in the large river basins where forested area almost doubled between the beginnings of the 1970 up to present. These decreases in annual runoff are well explained by the increases in evapotranspiration capacity of the new planted forests, calculated using the Zhang model and through direct measurements done in experimental plots by the authors. However, the increases in planted area within these large river basins seem not to affect peak flows, as peak flows from the "pre plantation development period" were not statistically different from those of the "post plantation development" one. This research is allowing the generation of evidence based management proposals to support forest certification processes of Chilean companies.

  11. Late-Holocene environmental and climatic changes in central part of the Western Sayan Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenaderova, Anna; Sharafutdinov, Ruslan

    2016-04-01

    with most stable hydrological conditions. During this period, the flood waters have supplied the least amount of allochthonous contaminants on the surface of the swamp. On the peatlands, sedge and sedge-moss plant communities were developed. Main plant species which grows in the peatlands are Carex altaica (Gorodk.) V.Krecz, Carex limosa L. Tomentypnum nitens Hedw., Aulacomnium palustre (Hedw.) Schwaegr., Warnstorfia exannulata (B.S.G.) Loeske., Thelypteris palustris Schott, Baeothryon caespitosum (L.) A.Dietr. During the last 500 years an increase of allochthonous contaminants inputs to marsh sediments is observed. In our opinion, the main causes of the increase were reduction the forest area, sharper contrast of summer and winter temperatures and more rapid melting of snow in early summer. The last cause lead to increased levels of floods. Eutrophic-mesotrophic sphagnum communities (Sphagnum warnstorfii Russ., Sph.subsecundum Nees,, Sphagnum angustifolium Jensen., Sph. fuscum (Schimp.) Klinggr.), which are growing at the moment, begin to develop in the peatlands since 500 years ago.